These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Apoptosis- and differentiation-inducing activities of jacaric acid, a conjugated linolenic acid isomer, on human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells.  


Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNAs) are a group of naturally occurring positional and geometrical isomers of the C18 polyunsaturated essential fatty acid, linolenic acid (LNA), with three conjugated double bonds (C18:3). Although previous research has demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effects of CLNA on a wide variety of cancer cell lines in vitro, their action mechanisms and therapeutic potential on human myeloid leukemia cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found that jacaric acid (8Z,10E,12Z-octadecatrienoic acid), a CLNA isomer which is present in jacaranda seed oil, inhibited the in vitro growth of human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that jacaric acid triggered cell cycle arrest of EoL-1 cells at the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis of the EoL-1 cells, as measured by the Cell Death Detection ELISAPLUS kit, Annexin V assay and JC-1 dye staining. Notably, the jacaric acid-treated EoL-1 cells also underwent differentiation as revealed by morphological and phenotypic analysis. Collectively, our results demonstrated the capability of jacaric acid to inhibit the growth of EoL-1 cells in vitro through triggering cell cycle arrest and by inducing apoptosis and differentiation of the leukemia cells. Therefore, jacaric acid might be developed as a potential candidate for the treatment of certain forms of myeloid leukemia with minimal toxicity and few side effects. PMID:25174702

Liu, Wai-Nam; Leung, Kwok-Nam



Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia  


... vera, essential thrombocythemia, or primary myelofibrosis. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a disease in which ... other problems related to essential thrombocythemia. Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia Chronic neutrophilic leukemia is a disease in which ...


Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia  


... PubMed Recent literature Conditions > PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... February 2013 What is PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia? PDGFRB -associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a type ...


[Mastocytosis and eosinophilic leukemia: diagnostics and classification].  


Mastocytosis and myeloid eosinophilic neoplasms are rare diseases of the bone marrow and are often a diagnostic challenge for hematopathologists. In mastocytosis, compact mast cell infiltrates represent the main diagnostic criterion and for myeloid eosinophilic neoplasms, eosinophilic granulocytes dominate the histological picture. Both disease groups include phenotypically and prognostically very different entities which are each defined by WHO criteria. For systemic mastocytosis (SM), a differentiation between indolent and aggressive or even leukemic forms is of prognostic importance. In indolent variants of SM, a local and/or systemic, usually reactive increase in eosinophilic granulocytes (SM-eo) is often observed. In contrast, an increase in neoplastic eosinophils is often observed in advanced SM, predominantly in diseases designated SM with associated non-mastocytic hematological neoplasms (SM-AHNMD), e.g. in SM with chronic eosinophilic leukemia (SM-CEL). Apart from mastocytoses, immunophenotypically aberrant tissue mast cells are only observed in certain rare forms of myeloid neoplasms with eosinophilia, in particular in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN-eo) with cytogenic anomalies in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of eosinophilic leukemias, however, fulfils the morphological and clinical requirements in a limited way only and needs an update. PMID:23085697

Sotlar, K; Valent, P; Horny, H-P



Chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat: cytochemical and immunophenotypical features.  


A 3-year-old, male, domestic shorthaired cat was presented with a 3-day history of anorexia and depression. The cat was moderately dehydrated, had pale, slightly icteric, mucous membranes, oral ulcerations, and mild hepatosplenomegaly. A feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen test was positive. CBC results obtained at initial presentation included severe normocytic, normochromic, nonregenerative anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis (>100,000/microL) with 77% eosinophils. After 15 days of treatment with prednisone and doxycycline, the cat had persistent severe nonregenerative anemia (HCT 3.4%), thrombocytopenia (28,000/microL), and extreme eosinophilia (total eosinophils, 123.1 x 10(3)/microL; segmented 103.0 x 10(3)/microL; immature 20.1 X 10(3)/microL). Cytologic examination of aspirates from bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, and spleen revealed a predominance of mature and immature eosinophils, many with dysplastic changes. The M:E ratio was 96.4. On histopathologic examination, multiple organs were infiltrated by eosinophilic granulocytes. Neoplastic cells in blood and bone marrow stained positive for alkaline phosphatase and were negative for myeloperoxidase, chloroacetate esterase, and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase. On flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood, the neoplastic cells were positive for CD11b and CD14. These findings were consistent with chronic eosinophilic leukemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat associated with naturally acquired FeLV infection, in which flow cytometry was used to characterize the neoplastic cells. PMID:17123254

Gelain, Maria Elena; Antoniazzi, Elisa; Bertazzolo, Walter; Zaccolo, Maurizia; Comazzi, Stefano



Myeloprolipherative disorder type chronic myeloid leukemia--eosinophilic form.  


Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a very rare form of leucemia in the western world. Adequate response is seldomly achieved after treatment with corticosteroids, interferon-alfa (INF-alfa) and medications containing hydroxi-urea (Litalir). The study presents a patient with CEL with no initial therapeutic response to the use of corticosteroids, INF-alfa and hydroxy-urea, and with neither clinical nor hematological response. After setting a diagnosis of CEL, patient was ordinated Imatinib (Glivec tabbletes) in a daily dose of 200 mg. Two days afterwards there was an evident withdrawal of subjective and clinical symptoms of disease, and the complete blood count showed significant amendment. PMID:21776882

Arnautovic-Custovic, Aida; Hasic, Samira; Kopic, Emina; Jahic, Azra; Jovic, Svetlana



Murine models of eosinophilic leukemia: a model of FIP1L1-PDGFR? initiated chronic eosinophilic leukemia/systemic mastocytosis.  


Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) was distinguished from hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) in the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Subsequently, the FIP1L1-PDGFR? (F/P) fusion tyrosine kinase was identified in patients with HES and found to be the most common clonal defect in CEL and the second most frequent mutation in systemic mastocytosis (SM). Introduction of F/P into bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors has been used to establish murine models of F/P-myeloproliferative neoplasm and F/P-CEL. IL-5 overexpression and introduction of F/P is required to develop murine CEL. This F/P-CEL model is thought to be an accurate model of the clinical disease. Here we describe the method of F/P-CEL/SM model development and assessment. PMID:24986627

Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Cancelas, Jose A; Rothenberg, Marc E



Case of chronic eosinophilic leukemia with deletion of chromosome 16 and hepatitis C.  

PubMed Central

Chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a rare entity, characterized by eosinophilia of >1.5 x 10(9)/L, persisting for >6 months after exclusion of other reactive and neoplastic causes of eosinophilia, and occurring in association with a clonal cytogenetic abnormality. Various chromosomal abnormalities have been associated with chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 16 is a cytogenetic abnormality first reported 20 years ago in patients with acute myeloid leukemia associated with bone marrow eosinophilia (AML-M4Eo). We report a case of a 45-year-old African-American male with hepatitis C and sustained peripheral blood eosinophilia who presented with gross hematuria, dyspnea on exertion, chills, decreased appetite and weight loss of 40 pounds associated with hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsy showed clonal cytogenetic abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm of chromosome 16 (16q22). Philadelphia chromosome t (9;22) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for C-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) mutations were negative. The patient was treated with imatinib at 400 mg/d with improvement of symptoms, reduction of lymphadenopathy and normalization of the eosinophil count. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of isolated del (16) (q22), a cytogenetic abnormality associated with AML-M4Eo, occurring in chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Whether this cytogenetic abnormality might represent a prodromal phase of AML-M4Eo is not known. In addition, the role of hepatitis C in inducing clonal proliferation of eosinophils is unclear. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16916138

Kamineni, Padma; Baptiste, Ayanna; Hassan, Mukhtar; Dawkins, Fitzroy W.; Zaidi, Syed; Tefferi, Ayalew; Lindsey, Mercedes; Taddesse-Heath, Lekidelu



Controversies and open questions in the definitions and classification of the hypereosinophilic syndromes and eosinophilic leukemias.  


Eosinophilia is frequently detectable in certain myeloid neoplasms and various reactive conditions, but it may also occur in the absence of an apparent underlying disease, or, rarely, as a paraneoplastic feature with solid tumors. In myeloid neoplasms, eosinophils are considered to belong to the malignant clone in most cases, whereas in all other conditions, eosinophilia is a reactive process triggered by eosinopoietic cytokines. Excessive accumulation of eosinophils, also termed hypereosinophilia (HE), is typically seen in eosinophilic leukemias, but it may also occur in other neoplasms and reactive disorders. HE-related end organ damage may develop in patients with reactive HE but also in those with hematologic malignancies. During the past few years, our knowledge about HE and HE-related organ damage in hematologic and nonhematologic disorders has improved considerably. Moreover, proposals for the definition and classification of eosinophil disorders have been generated by various expert groups and by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, several questions related to eosinophils and HE remain open, and many aspects of the definition and classification of eosinophil disorders and related pathologies remain controversial. In the current article, these open issues are discussed with special reference to the 2008 WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms and other classifications proposed by immunologists and various expert panels, as well as definitions and criteria recently proposed in a multidisciplinary consensus proposal. PMID:22449627

Valent, Peter; Horny, Hans-Peter; Bochner, Bruce S; Haferlach, Torsten; Reiter, Andreas



Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia  


... forming the genetic blueprints for making proteins (messenger RNA or mRNA). The PDGFRA gene provides instructions for ... inflammation ; inherited ; leukemia ; ligand ; lymphoma ; mast cells ; messenger RNA ; mRNA ; mutation ; myeloid ; nervous system ; neutrophils ; population ; prevalence ; ...


Periodic oscillation of blood leukocytes, platelets, and hemoglobin in a patient with chronic eosinophilic leukemia.  


Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a rare myeloproliferative disease in which autonomous, clonal proliferation of eosinophilic precursors results in persistent increase of eosinophils in the blood and bone marrow. A case of CEL spontaneous oscillation of white blood cell (WBC) count is presented. The cycle of WBC variation comprised about 60 days. Similar cyclic variations were noted in his platelet count, hemoglobin level and bone marrow cellularity, as well as in the spleen size, which was directly correlated with the WBC count. The numbers of bone marrow erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E), granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) and the serum level of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) were also regularly changed during the oscillation of WBC. Bone marrow hyperplasia was accompanied with the increase in peripheral WBC count, suggesting that the variation of cell production caused the cyclic oscillation. PMID:12479858

Xiao, Zhijian; Hao, Yushu; Qin, Tiejun; Han, Zhongchao



Identification of Ponatinib as a potent inhibitor of growth, migration, and activation of neoplastic eosinophils carrying FIP1L1-PDGFRA.  


In chronic eosinophilic leukemia, the transforming oncoprotein FIP1L1-PDGFRA is a major target of therapy. In most patients, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib induces complete remission. For patients who are intolerant or resistant, novel TKIs have been proposed. We examined the in vitro effects of 14 kinase blockers on growth and function of EOL-1 cells, a FIP1L1-PDGFRA(+) eosinophil cell line. Major growth-inhibitory effects were seen with all PDGFR-blocking agents, with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range: ponatinib, 0.1-0.2 nmol/L; sorafenib, 0.1-0.2 nmol/L; masitinib, 0.2-0.5 nmol/L; nilotinib, 0.2-1.0 nmol/L; dasatinib, 0.5-2.0 nmol/L; sunitinib, 1-2 nmol/L; midostaurin, 5-10 nmol/L. These drugs were also found to block activation of PDGFR-downstream signaling molecules, including Akt, S6, and STAT5 in EOL-1 cells. All effective TKIs produced apoptosis in EOL-1 cells as determined by microscopy, Annexin-V/PI, and caspase-3 staining. In addition, PDGFR-targeting TKIs were found to inhibit cytokine-induced migration of EOL-1 cells. In all bioassays used, ponatinib was found to be the most potent compound in EOL-1 cells. In addition, ponatinib was found to downregulate expression of the activation-linked surface antigen CD63 on EOL-1 cells and to suppress the growth of primary neoplastic eosinophils. We also examined drug effects on Ba/F3 cells expressing two clinically relevant, imatinib-resistant, mutant forms of FIP1L1-PDGFRA, namely T674I and D842V. Strong inhibitory effects on both mutants were seen only with ponatinib. In summary, novel PDGFR-targeting TKIs may be alternative agents for the treatment of patients with imatinib-resistant chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Although several different PDGFR-targeting agents are effective, the most potent drug appears to be ponatinib. PMID:24407160

Sadovnik, Irina; Lierman, Els; Peter, Barbara; Herrmann, Harald; Suppan, Verena; Stefanzl, Gabriele; Haas, Oskar; Lion, Thomas; Pickl, Winfried; Cools, Jan; Vandenberghe, Peter; Valent, Peter




Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is characterized by distinct patterns of inflammation, mucous gland hyperplasia, and remodeling\\u000a that result in various clinical subtypes. CRS with nasal polyps (NP) is characterized by increased populations of eosinophils,\\u000a Th2-like lymphocytes, fibroblasts, goblet cells, and mast cells. The pathology of CRS with NP is similar to asthma and is\\u000a frequently diagnosed in association with asthma. This

Adrienne Tiñana; Larry Borish; John W. Steinke


Ponatinib efficiently kills imatinib-resistant chronic eosinophilic leukemia cells harboring gatekeeper mutant T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR?: roles of Mcl-1 and ?-catenin  

PubMed Central

Background T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR? in a subset of chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a gatekeeper mutation that is resistant to many tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) (e.g., imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib), similar to T315I Bcr-Abl. Therefore, novel TKIs effective against T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR? are needed. Ponatinib (AP24534) is a novel orally bioavailable TKI against T315I Bcr-Abl, but it is not clear whether ponatinib is effective against T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR?. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ponatinib on T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR?. Methods Molecular docking analysis in silico was performed. The effects of ponatinib on PDGFR? signaling pathways, apoptosis and cell cycling were examined in EOL-1, BaF3 cells expressing either wild type (WT) or T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR?. The in vivo antitumor activity of ponatinib was evaluated with xenografted BaF3-T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR? cells in nude mice models. Results Molecular docking analysis revealed that ponatinib could bind to the DFG (Asp-Phe-Gly)-out state of T674I PDGFR?. Ponatinib potently inhibited the phosphorylation of WT and T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR? and their downstream signaling molecules (e.g., Stat3, Stat5). Ponatinib strikingly inhibited the growth of both WT and T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR?-carrying CEL cells (IC50: 0.004–2.5 nM). It induced apoptosis in CEL cells with caspase-3-dependent cleavage of Mcl-1, and inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of ?-catenin to decrease its stability and pro-survival functions. In vivo, ponatinib abrogated the growth of xenografted BaF3-T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR? cells in nude mice. Conclusions Ponatinib is a pan-FIP1L1-PDGFR? inhibitor, and clinical trials are warranted to investigate its efficacy in imatinib-resistant CEL. PMID:24472312



Biological characteristics of chronic eosinophilic leukemia cells with a t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation.  


We studied the biological features of eosinophils in a patient with chronic eosinophilic leukemia and a unique t(2:5)(p23;q35) translocation. Microscopic and cytochemical studies revealed no particular abnormalities, although more than 90% of the peripheral eosinophils had a density lighter than 1.080 g/ml. Clonogenic assay disclosed that myeloid progenitor cells possessed the translocation, although in vitro eosinophilopoiesis seemed normal, and there were also hematopoietic cells with a normal karyotype. In a surface marker study, EG1 was positive on 34.0% of the eosinophils, while EG2 positivity was only 0.5%. Eosinophilopoietic growth factors and adhesion molecules were virtually absent with the exception of GM-CSF and CD11b. Functional studies showed that chemotaxis for C5a was normal, although that for IL-2 or FMLP was attenuated. In addition, leukotriene C4 production was decreased while O2- production was intact. These findings indicated that our patient's eosinophils were not in an activated state despite their extreme hypodensity, and suggested that the leukemic eosinophils had slight defects of cellular function. These characteristics may have saved the patient from the multiple organ damage which occurs in typical hypereosinophilic syndrome. PMID:8590853

Sato, H; Saito, H; Ikebuchi, K; Danbara, M; Yagisawa, M; Yuo, A



FIP1L1-PDGFRA in chronic eosinophilic leukemia and BCR-ABL1 in chronic myeloid leukemia affect different leukemic cells.  


We investigated genetically affected leukemic cells in FIP1L1-PDGFRA+ chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) and in BCR-ABL1+ chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), two myeloproliferative disorders responsive to imatinib. Fluorescence in situ hybridization specific for BCR-ABL1 and for FIP1L1-PDGFRA was combined with cytomorphology or with lineage-restricted monoclonal antibodies and applied in CML and CEL, respectively. In CEL the amount of FIP1L1-PDGFRA+ cells among CD34+ and CD133+ cells, B and T lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes were within normal ranges. Positivity was found in eosinophils, granulo-monocytes and varying percentages of erythrocytes. In vitro assays with imatinib showed reduced survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells but no reduction in colony-forming unit growth medium (CFU-GM) growth. In CML the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene was detected in CD34+/CD133+ cells, granulo-monocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes, megakaryocytes and B-lymphocytes. Growth of both peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CFU-GM was inhibited by imatinib. This study provided evidence for marked differences in the leukemic masses which are targeted by imatinib in CEL or CML, as harboring FIP1L1-PDGFRA or BCR-ABL1. PMID:17215855

Crescenzi, B; Chase, A; Starza, R La; Beacci, D; Rosti, V; Gallì, A; Specchia, G; Martelli, M F; Vandenberghe, P; Cools, J; Jones, A V; Cross, N C P; Marynen, P; Mecucci, C



[Sustained hematologic response in chronic eosinophilic leukemia with low dose imatinib. Report of one case].  


We report a 58 year-old-man without comorbid conditions, with a history of two months of weight loss, malaise and headache. His initial laboratory analysis showed leukocytosis of 16,100/mL with 65% eosinophils and an absolute eosinophil count of 10,465/mL. Both bone marrow biopsy and aspirate showed infiltration by mature appearing eosinophils. Treatment was started with hydroxyurea, associated with prednisone without satisfactory decrease in the eosinophil count. Polymerase chain reaction showed the presence of the gene fusion product FIP1L1/PDGFRA. Imatinib therapy was initiated, resulting in a rapid and progressive reduction in the absolute eosinophil count, with normalization at the second week of treatment. The incidence of the myeloproliferative variant causing hypereosinophilic syndrome is rare. However, the dramatic response to imatinib emphasizes the need to study the presence of the fusion product FIP1L1/PDGFRA in all patients with eosinophilia of unknown etiology. PMID:25117044

Torres C, Demetrio; Chandía, Mauricio



Rumex L. species induce apoptosis in 1301, EOL-1 and H-9 cell lines.  


The Rumex L. (dock) species for many centuries have been used in medical treatment, through their adstringent, spasmolitic or cholagogic action. In the present study, the in vitro screening of cytotoxic activities of ethanol extract from roots, leaves and fruits of six Rumex species: R. acetosa L., R. acetosella L., R. confertus Willd., R. crispus L., R. hydrolapathum Huds. and R. obtusifolius L. were performed. We found remarkable cytotoxic activities on leukemic 1301 and EOL-1 cell lines and T cell line at concentration dependent manners. Cytotoxic activity was determined in two ways: trypan blue test and annexin-V FITC and propidium iodide assay. Received IC50 values of investigated extracts on 1301, EOL-1 and H-9 cell lines ranged from 0.22, 0.17 and 0.04 to 2.56, 1.91 and 1.83 mg/mL, respectively. Analysis of morphological changes demonstrated that the extract exerted cell-death via apoptosis. The overall activities of Rumex species support the traditional use of the extract from the fruits of R. confertus, R. crispus, R. hydrolapathum and R. obtusifolius in the treatment of cancer. PMID:22594263

Wegiera, Magdalena; Smolarz, Helena D; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna



WT1 transcript amount discriminates secondary or reactive eosinophilia from idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome or chronic eosinophilic leukemia.  


Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) comprise a spectrum of indolent to aggressive diseases characterized by persistent hypereosinophilia. Hypereosinophilia can result from the presence of a defect in the hematopoietic stem cell giving rise to eosinophilia, it can be present in many myeloproliferative disorders or alternatively it may be a reactive form, secondary to many clinical conditions. The hybrid gene FIP1L1-PDGRFalpha was identified in a subset of patients presenting with HES or chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL). In spite of this, the majority of HES patients do not present detectable molecular lesions and for many of them the diagnosis is based on exclusion criteria and sometimes it remains doubt. In this study we explored the possibility to distinguish between HES/CEL and reactive hypereosinophilia based on WT1 transcript amount. For this purpose, 312 patients with hypereosinophilia were characterized at the molecular and cytogenetic level and analyzed for WT1 expression at diagnosis and during follow-up. This study clearly demonstrates that WT1 quantitative assessment allows to discriminate between HES/CEL and reactive eosinophilia and represents a useful tool for disease monitoring especially in the patients lacking a marker of clonality. PMID:17508006

Cilloni, D; Messa, F; Martinelli, G; Gottardi, E; Arruga, F; Defilippi, I; Carturan, S; Messa, E; Fava, M; Giugliano, E; Rosso, V; Catalano, R; Merante, S; Nicoli, P; Rondoni, M; Ottaviani, E; Soverini, S; Tiribelli, M; Pane, F; Baccarani, M; Saglio, G



Novel Association between Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide and CRTH2 Receptor in Recruiting Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

We explored the relation between vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), CRTH2, and eosinophil recruitment. It is shown that CRTH2 expression by eosinophils from allergic rhinitis (AR) patients and eosinophil cell line (Eol-1 cells) was up-regulated by VIP treatment. This was functional and resulted in exaggerated migratory response of cells against PGD2. Nasal challenge of AR patients resulted in a significant increase of VIP contents in nasal secretion (ELISA), and the immunohistochemical studies of allergic nasal tissues showed significant expression of VIP in association with intense eosinophil recruitment. Biochemical assays showed that VIP-induced eosinophil chemotaxis from AR patients and Eol-1 cells was mediated through the CRTH2 receptor. Cell migration against VIP was sensitive to protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition but not to tyrosine kinase or p38 MAPK inhibition or calcium chelation. Western blot demonstrated a novel CRTH2-mediated cytosol-to-membrane translocation of PKC-?, PKC-?, and PKA-?, -?, and -II?reg in Eol-1 cells upon stimulation with VIP. Confocal images and FACS demonstrated a strong association and co-localization between VIP peptide and CRTH2 molecules. Further, VIP induced PGD2 secretion from eosinophils. Our results demonstrate the first evidence of association between VIP and CRTH2 in recruiting eosinophils. PMID:23168411

El-Shazly, Amr E.; Begon, Dominique Y.; Kustermans, Gaelle; Arafa, Mohammad; Dortu, Estelle; Henket, Monique; Lefebvre, Philippe P.; Louis, Renaud; Delvenne, Philippe



Eosinophilic fasciitis  


Eosinophilic fasciitis is a very rate syndrome in which muscle tissue under the skin, called fascia, becomes swollen and ... The cause of eosinophilic fasciitis is unknown. In people with this ... eosinophils, build up in the muscles and tissues. Eosinophils ...


Identification of JAK2 as a mediator of FIP1L1-PDGFRA-induced eosinophil growth and function in CEL.  


The Fip1-like1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha fusion gene (F/P) arising in the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC),causes 14% to 60% of patients with hypereosinophilia syndrome (HES). These patients, classified as having F/P (+) chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), present with clonal eosinophilia and display a more aggressive disease phenotype than patients with F/P (-) HES patients. The mechanisms underlying predominant eosinophil lineage targeting and the cytotoxicity of eosinophils in this leukemia remain unclear. Given that the Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) signaling pathway is key to cytokine receptor-mediated eosinophil development and activated Stat3 and Stat5 regulate the expression of genes involved in F/P malignant transformation, we investigated whether and how JAK proteins were involved in the pathogenesis of F/P-induced CEL. F/P activation of JAK2, Stat3 and Stat5, were confirmed in all the 11 F/P (+) CEL patients examined. In vitro inhibition of JAK2 in EOL-1, primary F/P(+) CEL cells (PC) and T674I F/P Imatinib resistant cells(IR) by either JAK2-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) or the tryphostin derivative AG490(AG490), significantly reduced cellular proliferation and induced cellular apoptosis. The F/P can enhance the IL-5-induced JAK2 activation, and further results indicated that JAK2 inhibition blocked IL-5-induced cellular migration and activation of the EOL-1 and PC cells in vitro. F/P-stimulation of the JAK2 suppressed cells led to a significantly reduction in Stat3 activation, but relatively normal induction of Stat5 activation. Interestingly, JAK2 inhibition also reduced PI3K, Akt and NF-?B activity in a dose-dependent manner, and suppressed expression levels of c-Myc and Survivin. These results strongly suggest that JAK2 is activated by F/P and is required for F/P stimulation of cellular proliferation and infiltration, possibly through induction of c-Myc and Survivin expression via activation of multiple signaling pathways, including NF-?B, Stat3, and PI3K/Akt. PMID:22523564

Li, Bin; Zhang, Guangsen; Li, Cui; He, Dan; Li, Xinying; Zhang, Chunfang; Tang, Faqing; Deng, Xiyun; Lu, Jingchen; Tang, Youhong; Li, Ruijuan; Chen, Zhuchu; Duan, Chaojun





... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Leukemia What Is Leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. ... diagnosed with leukemia are over 50 years old. Leukemia Starts in Bone Marrow Click for more information ...


Chronic eosinophilic leukemia-not otherwise specified has a poor prognosis with unresponsiveness to conventional treatment and high risk of acute transformation.  


Chronic eosinophilic leukemia-not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS) is a rare disorder with hypereosinophilia and an increased number of blood or marrow blast (<20%) or an evidence of eosinophil clonality.We evaluated the clinical outcome of 10 patients with CEL-NOS. Seven males and three females at a median age of 62 years (range, 23–73) were included. The median leukocyte count at diagnosis was 33.4 3109/l (range, 9.3–175.0) with a median eosinophil count of 15.6 3 109/l (range, 1.5–136.0). Median hemoglobin and platelets were 11.0 g/dl (range, 8.3–13.3) and 158 3 109/l (range, 31.0–891.0), respectively. Clinical manifestations included splenomegaly (n 5 7), hepatomegaly (n 56), cardiac failure (n 5 2), and lung infiltrations (n 5 1). Median survival from diagnosis to death for entire cohort was 22.2 months (range,2.2–186.2). Five of the 10 studied patients developed acute transformation(AT) after median of 20 months from diagnosis (range, 1.6–41.9).None of patients with AT is alive at the time of last follow-up. Median time from AT to death was 2 months (range, 1.0–6.1). Among five patients who did not develop AT, three died in active disease. Two patients are alive in complete remission; first underwent allogeneic stem-cell transplantation preceding by intensive induction chemotherapy;the second remains on imatinib with hydroxyurea. Except the latter patient, imatinib was ineffective in our study population. CEL-NOS is a rare and aggressive disease with high rate of AT and resistance to conventional treatment. PMID:22473587

Helbig, Grzegorz; Soja, Anna; Bartkowska-Chrobok, Aleksandra; Kyrcz-Krzemie?, S?awomira



Relapse following discontinuation of imatinib mesylate therapy for FIP1L1/PDGFRA-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia: implications for optimal dosing  

PubMed Central

Although imatinib is clearly the treatment of choice for FIP1L1/PDGFRA-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), little is known about optimal dosing, duration of treatment, and the possibility of cure in this disorder. To address these questions, 5 patients with FIP1L1/PDGFRA-positive CEL with documented clinical, hematologic, and molecular remission on imatinib (400 mg daily) and without evidence of cardiac involvement were enrolled in a dose de-escalation trial. The imatinib dose was tapered slowly with close follow-up for evidence of clinical, hematologic, and molecular relapse. Two patients with endomyocardial fibrosis were maintained on imatinib 300 to 400 mg daily and served as controls. All 5 patients who underwent dose de-escalation, but neither of the control patients, experienced molecular relapse (P < .05). None developed recurrent symptoms, and eosinophil counts, serum B12, and tryptase levels remained suppressed. Reinitiation of therapy at the prior effective dose led to molecular remission in all 5 patients, although 2 patients subsequently required increased dosing to maintain remission. These data are consistent with suppression rather than elimination of the clonal population in FIP1L1/PDGFRA-positive CEL and suggest that molecular monitoring may be the most useful method in determining optimal dosing without the risk of disease exacerbation. This trial was registered at as no. NCT00044304. PMID:17709602

Robyn, Jamie; Maric, Irina; Fu, Weiming; Schmid, Laura; Lemery, Steven; Noel, Pierre; Law, Melissa A.; Hartsell, Marilyn; Talar-Williams, Cheryl; Fay, Michael P.; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Nutman, Thomas B.



The FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene cooperates with IL-5 to induce murine hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES)/chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL)-like disease.  


Dysregulated tyrosine kinase activity by the Fip1-like1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) (F/P) fusion gene has been identified as a cause of clonal hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), called F/P-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) in humans. However, transplantation of F/P-transduced hematopoietic stem cells/progenitors (F/P(+) HSCs/Ps) into mice results in a chronic myelogenous leukemia-like disease, which does not resemble HES. Because a subgroup of patients with HES show T-cell-dependent interleukin-5 (IL-5) overexpression, we determined if expression of the F/P fusion gene in the presence of transgenic T-cell IL-5 overexpression in mice induces HES-like disease. Mice that received a transplant of CD2-IL-5-transgenic F/P(+) HSC/Ps (IL-5Tg-F/P) developed intense leukocytosis, strikingly high eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of nonhematopoietic as well as hematopoietic tissues, a phenotype resembling human HES. The disease phenotype was transferable to secondary transplant recipients of a high cell dose, suggesting involvement of a short-term repopulating stem cell or an early myeloid progenitor. Induction of significant eosinophilia was specific for F/P since expression of another fusion oncogene, p210-BCR/ABL, in the presence of IL-5 overexpression was characterized by a significantly lower eosinophilia than IL-5Tg-F/P recipients. These results suggest that F/P is not sufficient to induce a HES/CEL-like disease but requires a second event associated with IL-5 overexpression. PMID:16418325

Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Rothenberg, Marc E; Lee, Andrew W; Akei, Hiroko Saito; Brandt, Eric B; Williams, David A; Cancelas, Jose A



Identification of kitM541L somatic mutation in chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified and its implication in low-dose imatinib response  

PubMed Central

Activating mutations of KIT receptor tyrosine kinase have been reported in different neoplasms. The M541L KIT substitution (KITM541L) has been described to be associated with pediatric mastocytosis, to enhance growth rate of the affected cells and to confer higher sensitivity to imatinib therapy. We investigated the presence of KITM541L in five males with chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified (CEL, NOS), all negative for Platelet-derived growth factor-alpha (PDGFR) or PDGFRbeta abnormalities, which responded to imatinib therapy. To assess whether the mutation was constitutive or somatic in nature, we evaluated its presence analyzing either the neoplastic or normal cell population (epidermal cells or CD3-positive T lymphocytes). KITM541L substitution was found in 4 out of 5 patients and in all it was somatic in nature. All patients were treated with low dose imatinib (100 mg daily orally), achieving complete and persistent clinical and hematological remission (median follow-up 74 months). One patient relapsed after 50 months. Our study strongly suggests to search for the KITM541L in patients with CEL, NOS, negative for PDGFRalpha and PDGFRbeta abnormalities, to identify a subgroup of cases who may benefit from low dose imatinib therapy. PMID:25015329

Iurlo, Alessandra; Gianelli, Umberto; Beghini, Alessandro; Spinelli, Orietta; Orofino, Nicola; Lazzaroni, Francesca; Cambiaghi, Stefano; Intermesoli, Tamara; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Cortelezzi, Agostino



Eosinophilic Pneumonias  

PubMed Central

Summary: This review starts with discussions of several infectious causes of eosinophilic pneumonia, which are almost exclusively parasitic in nature. Pulmonary infections due specifically to Ascaris, hookworms, Strongyloides, Paragonimus, filariasis, and Toxocara are considered in detail. The discussion then moves to noninfectious causes of eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration, including allergic sensitization to Aspergillus, acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonias, Churg-Strauss syndrome, hypereosinophilic syndromes, and pulmonary eosinophilia due to exposure to specific medications or toxins. PMID:23034324

Akuthota, Praveen





... embed/Ya8IzYwguVM?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Leukemia Expand All Collapse All Statistics at a Glance ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Leukemia? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...




Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...


FIP1L1/PDGFRalpha synergizes with SCF to induce systemic mastocytosis in a murine model of chronic eosinophilic leukemia/hypereosinophilic syndrome.  


Expression of the fusion gene FIP1-like 1/platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (FIP1L1/PDGFRalpha, F/P) and dysregulated c-kit tyrosine kinase activity are associated with systemic mastocytosis (SM) and chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL)/hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). We analyzed SM development and pathogenesis in a murine CEL model induced by F/P in hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors (HSCs/Ps) and T-cell overexpression of IL-5 (F/P-positive CEL mice). These mice had more mast cell (MC) infiltration in the bone marrow (BM), spleen, skin, and small intestine than control mice that received a transplant of IL-5 transgenic HSCs/Ps. Moreover, intestinal MC infiltration induced by F/P expression was severely diminished, but not abolished, in mice injected with neutralizing anti-c-kit antibody, suggesting that endogenous stem cell factor (SCF)/c-kit interaction synergizes with F/P expression to induce SM. F/P-expressing BM HSCs/Ps showed proliferation and MC differentiation in vitro in the absence of cytokines. SCF stimulated greater migration of F/P-expressing MCs than mock vector-transduced MCs. F/P-expressing bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) survived longer than mock vector control BMMCs in cytokine-deprived conditions. The increased proliferation and survival correlated with increased SCF-induced Akt activation. In summary, F/P synergistically promotes MC development, activation, and survival in vivo and in vitro in response to SCF. PMID:18539901

Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Sanchez-Aguilera, Abel; Brandt, Eric B; McBride, Melissa; Al-Moamen, Nabeel J H; Finkelman, Fred D; Williams, David A; Cancelas, Jose A; Rothenberg, Marc E



Eosinophilic Fasciitis  


... In This Topic Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue Eosinophilic Fasciitis Symptoms Diagnosis Prognosis ... Tumors Osteonecrosis Bone and Joint Infections Joint Disorders Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue Vasculitic Disorders Gout and Pseudogout ...


Eosinophilic Asthma  


... that eosinophils play a pivotal role in immune development and asthma. Asthma and allergic disease occur when the immune system improperly responds to harmless environmental substances such as pollen or mold. Common allergic reactions include eczema, hives, ...


Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal\\u000a mucosa. The pathogenesis is incompletely understood and food allergies and aeroallergens have been implicated. The most common\\u000a clinical presentation in adults is dysphagia to solids. Its associated endoscopic findings are distinct and include concentric\\u000a rings and longitudinal furrows, although endoscopy may be unremarkable in a

Fouad J. Moawad; Ganesh R. Veerappan; Roy K. Wong



Eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an atopic condition of the esophagus that has become increasingly recognized over the last decade. Diagnosis of the disorder is dependent on the patient’s clinical manifestations and histologic findings on esophageal mucosal biopsies. Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis should be referred to both an allergist and gastroenterologist for optimal management, which may include dietary modifications, pharmacologic agents such as corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers and biologics as well as mechanical dilatation of the esophagus. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of EoE are discussed in this review. PMID:22165816




MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 27,000 adults and more than 2,000 children in the United States are diagnosed with leukemia ... effects of radiotherapy may be long lasting. Young children who receive radiation to the brain may develop ...


Eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated condition where infiltration of eosinophils into the esophageal mucosa leads to symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. It has rapidly emerged as an important cause of upper GI morbidity in patients of all ages and is encountered in a substantial proportion of patients undergoing diagnostic upper endoscopy. This review discusses the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EoE and presents the most recent guidelines for diagnosis of EoE. It describes selected diagnostic dilemmas including distinguishing EoE from gastroesophageal reflux disease and addressing the newly recognized clinical entity of proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia. It also highlights evidence to support both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments, including topical corticosteroids, dietary elimination therapy, and endoscopic dilation. PMID:23452635

Dellon, Evan S.



Effect of emedastine difumarate on CC chemokine-elicited eosinophil migration.  


Emedastine difumarate (emedastine) is an antiallergic drug found among the derivatives which has a series of benzimidazole frames. It has been reported that emedastine can significantly inhibit the migration of eosinophils elicited by classical chemoattractants, including LTB4 or PAF. However, the effect of emedastine on the selective migration of eosinophils that have been stimulated with CC chemokines has not been examined. Emedastine at concentrations of 10 nM or higher strongly inhibited the eosinophil migration elicited by CC chemokines, including eotaxin, RANTES and MCP-3. Preincubation of the eosinophils with emedastine did not alter the expression of the CCR3 receptor, although a decrease in the concentration of intracellular calcium ions was observed after stimulation with 100 ng/ml of eotaxin. Herbimycin A, genistein, staurosporin and emedastine were all able to inhibit the eotaxin-elicited migration. Tyrosine kinase activity in the cytosol supernatant of eosinophils obtained after stimulation with eotaxin significantly decreased when the eosinophils were preincubated with emedastine. In addition, protein kinase A and protein kinase C activities in eotaxin-stimulated EoL-1 cell supernatants decreased significantly with emedastine pretreatment. These findings suggest that emedastine inhibits CC chemokine-elicited eosinophil migration by decreasing the activities of tyrosine kinase or protein kinases but does not alter CCR3 expression. PMID:11408768

Saito, H; Yamamoto, N; Tomita, S; Taniguchi, M; Hasegawa, M; Akiyama, K; Kawaguchi, H; Takahashi, K



Decitabine, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia



3-AP and Fludarabine in Treating Patients With Myeloproliferative Disorders, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Accelerated Phase or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Polycythemia Vera; Primary Myelofibrosis; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia



Eosinophil chemotaxis.  


Chemotaxis assays have a number of applications in the study of leukocyte biology and immune/inflammatory pathology. Multiwell "blind chamber"-type assays allow a large number of parallel measurements within a single assay. The development of fluorescence assays using microplate-based chemotaxis chambers has permitted a degree of automation to be applied to these assays. Here, a method is described for the quantitative measurement of eosinophil migration using a 96-well assay with numbers of cells that may realistically be obtained from blood samples. PMID:24986611

Dent, Gordon



Eosinophil function in eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are characterized by a rich eosinophilic inflammation of the gastrointestinal\\u000a tract in the absence of known causes for eosinophilia or other gastrointestinal disorders. These disorders include eosinophilic\\u000a esophagitis, eosinophilic gastritis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, and eosinophilic colitis, and are\\u000a being recognized with increasing frequency. Clinical studies suggest that eosinophils have a pathogenic role in EGID; however,

Simon P. Hogan; Marc E. Rothenberg



Eosinophils Promote Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Bronchial Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was assessed in mice that received intra-tracheal instillation of mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils and in human bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with eosinophils freshly purified from healthy individuals or with eosinophilic leukemia cell lines. Intra-tracheal instillation of eosinophils was associated with enhanced bronchial inflammation and fibrosis and increased lung concentration of growth factors. Mice instilled with eosinophils pre-treated with transforming growth factor(TGF)-?1 siRNA had decreased bronchial wall fibrosis compared to controls. EMT was induced in bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with human eosinophils and it was associated with increased expression of TGF-?1 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the bronchial epithelial cells. Treatment with anti-TGF-?1 antibody blocked EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Eosinophils induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of airway remodelling. PMID:23700468

Toda, Masaaki; Miyake, Yasushi; Matsushima, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Boveda-Ruiz, Daniel; Gil-Bernabe, Paloma; Nagao, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Mayumi; Hiraguchi, Yukiko; Tokuda, Reiko; Naito, Masahiro; Takagi, Takehiro; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N.; Suga, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Fujisawa, Takao; Taguchi, Osamu; Gabazza, Esteban C.



Bortezomib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia



Lenalidomide in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia



Isolation of Human Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Highly purified eosinophils can be isolated from peripheral blood by negative selection using an antibody-based magnetic negative selection protocol. The basic protocol describes a sequential fractionation of peripheral blood in which CD16+ granulocytes are enriched first from whole blood, followed by isolation of eosinophils. This technique is easy to use, fast, and highly reproducible. Support protocols describe a staining methods that can be used to evaluate the purity of eosinophils and differentiation from other leukocyte populations. PMID:22855360

Akuthota, Praveen; Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F.



Eosinophilic lung disease: immunological studies of blood and alveolar eosinophils.  

PubMed Central

Five patients with eosinophilic lung diseases and blood hypereosinophilia (PIE syndrome) were investigated clinically and by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Comparative studies on blood and alveolar eosinophils were carried out after purification and selection of eosinophil subpopulations according to their density. A predominant 'hypodense' alveolar eosinophil population was found in BAL fluids of active chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP). In addition, supernatants of alveolar macrophages obtained from CEP are able to enhance spontaneously the generation of eosinophil oxygen metabolites. Such eosinophil stimulation emphasizes a probable tissue cell cooperation. In addition, BAL permitted the study of membrane immunological markers on eosinophilic inflammatory cells endowed with migratory properties. An increase in eosinophils carrying surface IgE was demonstrated in alveolar cells from PIE Syndrome particularly with hypodense eosinophils from CEP patients. Although no specific stimulus is known at the present time, this work underlines the potential implication of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity processes in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic lung diseases. PMID:3955885

Prin, L; Capron, M; Gosset, P; Wallaert, B; Kusnierz, J P; Bletry, O; Tonnel, A B; Capron, A



Eosinophil count - absolute  


... on the spot to stop bleeding. In the lab, the blood is placed on a microscope slide. A stain is added to the sample. This causes eosinophils to show up as orange-red granules. The technician then counts how many eosinophils are present per ...


Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Down Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies



Eltrombopag Olamine in Improving Platelet Recovery in Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Chemotherapy

Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia



Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: an update.  


Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is characterized by dense eosinophilic inflammation of one or several digestive tract sections. The symptoms include abdominal pain, weight loss, vomiting and diarrhea. Biopsy samples taken during endoscopic examination allows the diagnosis of the disease. An infiltration of >30 eosinophils per high-power field in at least five high-power fields, exhibiting signs of eosinophilic degranulation and extending to the muscularis mucosa or submucosa are all histological indications of EGE. EGE is traditionally classified into three forms depending on the depth of inflammation in the wall (mucosal, muscular or serosal). This, together with the digestive tract segments involved, determines the clinical presentation. The natural history of EGE includes three different evolutionary patterns, since patients may suffer a single outbreak, a recurrent course or even chronic disease. Corticosteroids are the most frequently used therapy for EGE; dietary treatments should be also considered. Surgery has been limited to solving obstruction and small bowel perforation. PMID:23061710

Lucendo, Alfredo J; Arias, Angel



Eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis.  


Eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis is an unfamiliar cause of acute myocardial ischemia. Most commonly, it presents as a left-sided chest pain or sudden death in middle-aged women with no traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease. Because the abrupt onset leaves almost no time for intervention, the symptoms readily lead to death, and most cases are diagnosed at necropsy. Dissection of the coronary artery wall with resultant occlusion of the lumen, which commonly affects the left anterior descending artery, is a consistent gross finding. An inflammatory infiltrate, which is predominantly composed of eosinophils in the tunica adventitia and tunica media and is often accompanied by a hematoma in between these 2 layers, is observed histologically. The etiology remains unclear, but an increase in the activity of eosinophils because of hormonal interactions during pregnancy has been suggested. Interplay of hormones is thought to culminate in the release of histolytic agents by the eosinophils, which initiate the dissection process. Currently, there is no specific treatment for eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis, but cyclophosphamide and prednisone have shown positive results in the treatment of spontaneous coronary artery dissection with unspecified periadventitial inflammation. Percutaneous coronary procedures have also resulted in favorable outcomes in a subset of patients. Because of the high, sudden death rate in eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis, deciphering the underlying pathophysiology of this almost invariably fatal disease remains both a challenge and a key to developing screening methods that will allow timely detection and thus treatment. PMID:24978927

Carreon, Chrystalle Katte; Esposito, Michael J



Eltrombopag Olamine in Treating Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia



Eosinophilic airway disorders.  


Diseases of the airway are common and make up a significant proportion of the respiratory physician's workload. The major contributors to this situation, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and chronic cough, all result from airway inflammation and often have an overlapping clinical picture, which in some instances makes accurate clinical diagnosis difficult. Asthma is a condition characterized by variable airflow obstruction, airway hyper-responsiveness, and airway inflammation, which is usually eosinophilic. However, the relationship between eosinophilic inflammation and asthma is complex, with only a weak correlation between the severity of airway inflammation and the markers of the severity of asthma, such as Pc20 and FEV1. Eosinophilic bronchitis is characterized by a chronic cough and sputum eosinophilia without airway hyper-responsiveness or variable airflow obstruction. The asthma phenotype is characterized by microlocalization of mast cells in the airway smooth muscle, emphasizing the importance of airway smooth muscle dysfunction in asthma. COPD has generally been considered to be a neutrophilic disease, in contrast to asthma. However, there is increasing evidence that a significant subgroup exists consisting of patients with stable COPD who have chronic airway eosinophilia with a more steroid-responsive disease. This article covers the role of eosinophils in the airway disorders asthma, COPD, and eosinophilic bronchitis. PMID:16612763

Scott, Karen A; Wardlaw, Andrew J



Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.  

PubMed Central

We described three cases of eosinophilic pneumonia of unknown aetiology investigated clinically and by lung biopsy. The illnesses lasted between six and 20 weeks and consisted of cough, dyspnoea, malaise, and in two cases prolonged pyrexia. All had blood eosinophilia and chest radiographs showing widespread bilateral shadowing; in two cases this had a characteristic peripheral distribution. One patient recovered spontaneously and the other two responded to steroids, with disappearance of pyrexia within 12 hours and radiological clearing within 14 days. Lung function tests during the acute illness showed volume restriction or gas transfer defects or both in two cases. After remission all three showed abnormalities if small airways function. Lung biopsies performed during the acute illness were examined histologically and by transmission electron microscopy, and in two cases by immunofluorescence. There was both intra-alveolar and interstitial eosinophilic pneumonia with bronchiolitis obliterans, microgranulomata, and a vasculitis. Electron microscopy showed numerous eosinophils, many degranulated, and macrophages with phagocytosed eosinophilic granules and intracytoplasmic inclusions. In one case IgM, IgG, and IgA were demonstrated in the bronchial walls and interstitium. No IgE or complement was present. We believe that eosinophil granules are responsible for the tissue damage and fever and suggest mechanisms for this and for the response to steroid therapy. Images PMID:7003796

Fox, B; Seed, W A



Morphology and density features of eosinophil leukocytes in eosinophilic pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We compared the morphological characteristics and density properties of eosinophil leukocytes obtained from the blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a 29-year-old patient with chronic eosinophil pneumonia during exacerbation. The lavage eosinophils were significantly increased in size when compared with blood cells (surface area: 208 ± 12 m2 versus 161 ± 13 m2). Moreover, eosinophils contained slightly more granules (23.4

C. Kroegel; H. Matthys; U. Costabel



Eosinophilic granuloma of the ileum  

PubMed Central

A case of eosinophilic granuloma of the ileum is described in association with a high (50%) eosinophil count. A review of published suggested classifications, aetiology and therapy is made. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:1114154

Myers, A.; Humphreys, Daphne M.; Williamson, R. C. N.



Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis.  


Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare disease of the sinonasal tract, with histologic characteristic features like thick collagen bundles whirling around vessels in a fibrotic stroma with inflammatory cells rich in eosinophils. The Authors present a case of a 31-year-old man with bilateral nasal obstruction with no history of allergies or other systemic disease. The patient underwent a septoplasty with symptoms relieving. An EAF diagnosis was made. Differential diagnosis must rule out other lesions that may mimic EAF such as granuloma faciale, Kimura disease, Wegener granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome. PMID:16877941

Clauser, Luigi; Mandrioli, Stefano; Polito, Jessica; Marchetti, Elisabetta



Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes



Eosinophilic fasciitis as a paraneoplastic syndrome, a case report and review of the literature.  


Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare disease with characteristic clinical and histological features, previously reported to be associated with various hematological and solid malignancies. We report a typical case of eosinophilic fasciitis in a 67-year-old man in association with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and subsequently bladder cancer. On the two occasions, the eosinophilic fasciitis completely resolved upon successful treatment of the concomitant malignancy. The diagnosis of EF should trigger further evaluation for any associated hematological disorder, which, if adequately treated, can result in the resolution of EF. PMID:24525268

Haddad, Housam; Sundaram, Suchitra; Magro, Cynthia; Gergis, Usama



Vorinostat, Cytarabine, and Etoposide in Treating Patients With Relapsed and/or Refractory Acute Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Myeloproliferative Disorders

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes



Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP) is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms,\\u000a alveolar and\\/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most\\u000a cases, usually in excess of 1000\\/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage\\u000a eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated

Eric Marchand; Jean-François Cordier



Practical management of eosinophilic esophagitis.  


CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 1. Determine the clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic esophagitis in children. 2. Discuss the three major treatment strategies for eosinophilic esophagitis. 3. Provide key strategies for practical identification and management of eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adolescents. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently discovered disease that affects patients worldwide. The conceptual definition of EoE is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. As a chronic, antigen-mediated disease causing eosinophilic inflammation in the esophagus, EoE symptoms are similar to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and it results in significant morbidity. PMID:23805960

Davis, Carla M



Eosinophil Purification from Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are granulocytes integral to allergic inflammation and parasitic responses and comprise 1–4% of the circulating leukocytes in human beings under normal conditions. Isolation of human eosinophils allows for ex vivo and in vitro experimentation, providing a valuable tool for the study of allergic mechanisms. Here, we describe a technique for the isolation of human eosinophils by negative selection from whole blood obtained by venipuncture. PMID:24986603

Akuthota, Praveen; Capron, Kelsey; Weller, Peter F.



Eosinophilic Cystitis with Eosinophilic Cholecystitis: A Rare Association  

PubMed Central

We describe a rare case of eosinophilic cystitis associated with eosinophilic cholecystitis in a 30-year-old patient who underwent bladder biopsy for irritative voiding symptoms and routine elective cholecystectomy for gallstones. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. The rarity of this condition prompted us to report this entity in which no specific cause could be found. PMID:24195001

Mallat, F.; Hmida, W.; Mestiri, S.; Ziadi, S.; Sriha, B.; Mokni, M.; Mosbah, F.



Childhood Autism and Eosinophilic Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The significance of the association between many gastrointestinal pathologies and autism is yet to be discovered. The aim of this report is to highlight an association between autism and microscopic eosinophilic colitis in 2 children. The possible mechanisms that may connect these two conditions are discussed. Methods and Results: A rare association between autism and microscopic eosinophilic colitis in

Breanna Chen; Safwat Girgis; Wael El-Matary



MK2206 in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors or Leukemia

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Aggressive NK-cell Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myeloid/NK-cell Acute Leukemia; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Primary Central Nervous System Hodgkin Lymphoma; Primary Central Nervous System Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia



Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma. PMID:23616768

Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A.; Prado, Carla M.; Martins, Milton A.; Tiberio, Iolanda F. L. C.



Predominant Implication of IL5 in Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Comparison with Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare disease with unknown etiology. To examine pathophysiology of AEP we measured the cell number of eosinophils and eosinophil active cytokines in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of AEP patients and compared the levels with those measured in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) patients. Methods: Cell number of eosinophils in peripheral

Yoshio Okubo; Shiro Horie; Tsutomu Hachiya; Tomoyasu Momose; Akihiro Tsukadaira; Shuuji Takashi; Jun-ichi Suzuki; Mitsuaki Isobe; Morie Sekiguchi



Segregation of eosinophil proteins in alveolar macrophage compartments in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective was to characterise the process and consequences of eosinophil activation and lysis in patients with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and to compare them with those in patients with eosinophil pulmonary infiltrates from other causes. METHODS: Cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of four patients with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and four patients with eosinophilic infiltrates associated with Sjögren's syndrome, drug

A Janin; G Torpier; P Courtin; M Capron; L Prin; A B Tonnel; P Y Hatron; B Gosselin



Regulation of Chemokine Receptor Expression in Eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signals via chemokine receptors play an important role in the accumulation of eosinophils at allergic inflammatory sites. Eosinophils constitutively express CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and, to a lesser extent, CCR1. CCR3 is mainly responsible for migration of resting eosinophils, and its specific ligand, eotaxin, represents the most potent chemoattractant for eosinophils. Some reports also suggest the expression of CXC

Hiroyuki Nagase; Misato Miyamasu; Masao Yamaguchi; Takao Fujisawa; Hiroshi Kawasaki; Ken Ohta; Kazuhiko Yamamoto; Yutaka Morita; Koichi Hirai



Eosinophilic pneumonia due to duloxetine.  


A 32-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of worsening fever, chills, and cough despite therapy with oral antibiotics. Chest radiographs demonstrated migrating, peripheral upper lobe infiltrates. A CBC count demonstrated significant eosinophilia. At bronchoscopy, eosinophil-rich mucus was seen impacted throughout his bronchi. A transbronchial biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia. Symptoms, eosinophilia, and radiographic abnormalities were reversed with cessation of duloxetine. This case report briefly reviews the diagnosis of drug-induced pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia (PIEs) and eosinophilic pneumonia. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PIEs due to duloxetine. PMID:17356112

Espeleta, Vidal J; Moore, William H; Kane, Philip B; Baram, Daniel



An Overview of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease affecting both children and adults. The condition is characterized by an eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. Symptoms of esophageal dysfunction include dysphagia, food impaction and symptoms mimicking gastroesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic examination typically reveals mucosal fragility, ring or corrugated mucosa, longitudinal furrows, whitish plaques or a small caliber esophagus. Histologic findings of >15 eosinophils per high-power field is the diagnostic hallmark of EoE. An elimination diet, topical corticosteroids or endoscopic dilation for fibrostenotic disease serve as effective therapeutic option. PMID:25368745

Park, Hyojin



[A case of eosinophilic bronchiolitis complicated with eosinophilic sinusitis].  


A 42-year-old man was admitted to our hospital, complaining of dyspnea and cough for six months. Chest CT demonstrated thickening of the bronchial walls and some centrilobular nodules. From the laboratory data and the clinical course, he was first suspected to have bronchial asthma. However, it was necessary to rule out bronchiolitis due to other causes, because he had no previous asthma history and also because of the CT findings. We performed surgical lung biopsy to make a definite diagnosis. The pathological findings revealed eosinophilic bronchiolitis. While dyspnea and the eosinophilic nasal polyp improved by treatment with oral steroid therapy, the eosionophilic sinusitis and bronchiolitis relapsed after steroid tapering. Improvement and relapse of nasal and lower airway symptoms were synchronously observed. Eosinophilic bronchiolitis and eosionophilic sinusitis in this case may be considered to be a category of airway eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:17233398

Morimoto, Kozo; Oota, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Tetsu; Kamiya, Hiroyuki; Ando, Tsunehiro; Ikushima, Souichiro; Oritsu, Masaru; Takemura, Tamiko



Pathogenesis, classification, and therapy of eosinophilia and eosinophil disorders.  


Eosinophilia is a recurrent feature and diagnostic clue in several hematologic malignancies. In stem cell- and myelopoietic neoplasms, eosinophils are derived from the malignant clone, whereas in lymphoid neoplasms and reactive states, eosinophilia is usually triggered by eosinopoietic cytokines. Myeloid neoplasms typically presenting with eosinophilia include chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), other myeloproliferative neoplasms, some acute leukemias, advanced mast cell disorders, and rare forms of myelodysplastic syndromes. Diagnostic evaluations in unexplained eosinophilia have to take these diagnoses into account. In such patients, a thorough hematologic work-up including bone marrow histology and immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, molecular markers, and a complete staging of potentially affected organ systems has to be initiated. Endomyocardial fibrosis, the most dangerous cardiovascular complication of the hypereosinophilic state, is frequently detected in PDGFR-mutated neoplasms, specifically in FIP1L1/PDGFRA+ CEL, but is usually not seen in other myeloid neoplasms or reactive eosinophilia, even if eosinophilia is recorded for many years. Treatment of hypereosinophilic patients depends on the variant of disease, presence of end organ damage, molecular targets, and the overall situation in each case. In a group of patients, oncogenic tyrosine kinases (TK) such as FIP1L1/PDGFRA, can be employed as therapeutic targets by using imatinib or other TK-blocking agents. PMID:19246139

Valent, Peter



Segregation of eosinophil proteins in alveolar macrophage compartments in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The objective was to characterise the process and consequences of eosinophil activation and lysis in patients with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and to compare them with those in patients with eosinophil pulmonary infiltrates from other causes. METHODS: Cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of four patients with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and four patients with eosinophilic infiltrates associated with Sjögren's syndrome, drug hypersensitivity pneumonia, postradiotherapy fibrosis, and pulmonary disease associated with graft versus host disease were studied ultrastructurally and with immunogold labelled antibodies directed against eosinophil proteins: major basic protein, eosinophil cationic protein, and Charcot-Leyden crystal protein. The concentration of eosinophil cationic protein was also measured in bronchoalveolar fluid. RESULTS: In the four patients with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, ultrastructural studies demonstrated numerous lysed eosinophils. Further, three released eosinophil proteins were detected in distinct cytoplasmic structures in alveolar macrophages. These features were not found in the four patients with eosinophilic pulmonary infiltrates from other causes. CONCLUSION: Eosinophils in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia show signs of activation with release of eosinophil proteins. The appearance of three of these eosinophil proteins in different macrophage compartments suggests that macrophage uptake, with or without intracellular transport of released eosinophil proteins, involves separate mechanisms. This interaction does not lead to macrophage lysis, however, and one or more of these eosinophil proteins might directly affect macrophage function. Images PMID:8434356

Janin, A; Torpier, G; Courtin, P; Capron, M; Prin, L; Tonnel, A B; Hatron, P Y; Gosselin, B



Biomarkers of eosinophilic inflammation in asthma.  


Eosinophils are mediators of allergic inflammation and are implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous conditions including asthma, parasitic infections, neoplasms, hyper-eosinophilic syndromes, vasculitic disorders, and organ-specific conditions. Assessing eosinophilic inflammation is therefore important in establishing a diagnosis, in monitoring and assessing response to treatment, and in testing novel therapeutics. Clinical markers of atopy and eosinophilic inflammation include indirect tests such as lung function, exhaled breath condensate analysis, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, serum immunoglobulin E levels and serum periostin. Direct measures, which quantify but do not anatomically localise inflammation include blood eosinophil counts, serum or plasma eosinophil cationic protein and sputum eosinophil levels. Cytology from bronchoalveolar lavage and histology from endobronchial and transbronchial biopsies are better at localising inflammation but are more invasive. Novel approaches using radiolabelled eosinophils with single-photon emission computed tomography, offer the prospect of non-invasive methods to localise eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24460178

Loutsios, Chrystalla; Farahi, Neda; Porter, Linsey; Lok, Laurence S C; Peters, A Michael; Condliffe, Alison M; Chilvers, Edwin R



Eosinophilic esophagitis and allergy.  


Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been associated with allergic diseases of the airways and skin. Here, we review the current literature on the sensitization pattern of adult EoE patients and critically discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic tools available. Most EoE patients have elevated total IgE levels in serum and are sensitized to aero- and food allergens as assessed by measuring specific IgE levels and/or the skin prick test. Whereas in children with EoE sensitization to food allergens predominate, in adults EoE symptoms do not correlate with IgE sensitization to specific food allergens. However, in two thirds of adult EoE patients, sensitization to cross-reactive plant allergen components have been be detected, mainly to profilins and PR10 proteins. So far, food triggering EoE can only be identified by an elimination diet and following reintroduction controlled by endoscopy and histology. Further research is required to elucidate the role of allergens in the pathogenesis of EoE and develop appropriate tools for diagnostic and specific treatment. PMID:24603377

Simon, Dagmar; Straumann, Alex; Simon, Hans-Uwe



Circulating and tissue eosinophils in ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a controlled clinical trial of various diets in ulcerative colitis the levels of circulating eosinophils in the peripheral blood and infiltration of rectal biopsy specimens with eosinophils were studied.

Ralph Wright; Sidney C. Truelove



Eosinophils in Infection and Intestinal Immunity  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs; e.g. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) are thought to be a consequence of an uncontrolled inflammatory response against luminal antigens, including commensal bacteria. The observed link between eosinophil levels and severity and remission rates in IBD has led to speculation that eosinophils may contribute to the antimicrobial inflammatory response in IBD. Recent Findings Eosinophils express the necessary cellular machinery (innate immune receptors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, antibacterial proteins and DNA traps) to mount an efficient antibacterial response; however, the rapid decline in eosinophil numbers following acute systemic bacterial infection suggests a very limited role for eosinophils in bacterial responses. Summary We describe the clinical evidence of eosinophil involvement in IBD; summarize the in vitro and in vivo evidence of eosinophil anti-bacterial activity and the biology of eosinophils focusing on eosinophil-mediated bactericidal mechanisms and the involvement of eosinophil-derived granule proteins in this response; and conceptualize the contribution of eosinophils to an anti-commensal bacterial response in IBD. PMID:23132211

Hogan, Simon P.; Waddell, Amanda; Fulkerson, Patricia C.



Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: ultrastructural evidence for a selective release of eosinophil major basic protein.  

PubMed Central

Ultrastructural study of mucosal eosinophils in a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis involving stomach, duodenum and ileum showed an altered structure in ulcerated duodenal areas. The electron core density of eosinophil granules was inverted or disappeared and tubulovesicular structures occurred. Using immunogold staining with specific antibodies, major basic protein was detected diffusely in the matrix of eosinophil granules and out of the granules in tight association with extragranular membrane formations. In contrast, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil peroxidase were normally distributed in the granule matrix. When compared with the eosinophils in macroscopically normal duodenal mucosa in the same patient, these changes support a role for major basic protein in tissue damage in eosinophilic gastroenteritis. The diffusion of one granule protein from the granules to the exterior of the cells favours the view of a selective release of eosinophil mediators. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3233790

Torpier, G; Colombel, J F; Mathieu-Chandelier, C; Capron, M; Dessaint, J P; Cortot, A; Paris, J C; Capron, A



Eosinophilic phenotypes of airway disease.  


Our understanding of the clinical implications of eosinophilic airway inflammation has increased significantly over the last 20 years, aided by the development of noninvasive means to assess it. This pattern of airway inflammation can occur in a diverse range of airway diseases. It is associated with a positive response to corticosteroids and a high risk of preventable exacerbations. Our new understanding of the role of eosinophilic airway inflammation has paved the way for the clinical development of a number of more specific inhibitors that may become new treatment options. Different definitions, ideas of disease, and adoption of biomarkers that are not well known are necessary to fully realize the potential of these treatments. PMID:24313765

Pavord, Ian D



Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)  


CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...


Childhood Leukemia  


Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...


Eosinophil Secretion of Granule-Derived Cytokines  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration, and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here, we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines. PMID:25386174

Spencer, Lisa A.; Bonjour, Kennedy; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Weller, Peter F.



Differential control of eosinophil survival by glucocorticoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoids are effective drugs for eosinophil-related disorders, such as asthma and allergy. Previous studies have demonstrated that glucocorticoids increase eosinophil apoptosis and block the survival effect of submaximal concentrations of interleukin-5 (IL-5). We investigated the effect of glucocorticoids on eosinophil survival in the presence of a higher concentration of IL-5 (1 ng\\/ml), comparable to IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage and

J. W. Bloom; J. Chacko; I. C. Lohman; M. Halonen; F. D. Martinez; R. L. Miesfeld



Eosinophilic gastritis: histopathological characterization and quantification of the normal gastric eosinophil content.  


There is limited information about normal eosinophil counts in the gastric mucosa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histopathology of 60 patients whose biopsies showed increased eosinophils in the gastric mucosa. We also investigated the eosinophil content in gastric biopsies from normal controls (matched for age, sex, and zip code), from patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis, and patients with Crohn's disease. Eosinophils were counted in five random high-power fields (HPFs) and reported in eosinophils/mm(2). Involvement of the muscularis mucosae or submucosa, sheets of eosinophils, and infiltration of the gastric epithelium were also evaluated. The median eosinophil count in the study patients was 539 eosinophils/mm(2); mean±SD=653±418 eosinophils/mm(2); range 127-2108. Sheets of eosinophils were seen in 38 patients, 27 showed involvement of the muscularis mucosae or submucosa. There were 7 patients without epithelial infiltration by eosinophils, whereas 34 were tallied as rare and 19 were scored as abundant. No study patient had no evidence of H. pylori. The mean eosinophil count for the 135 normal controls was 15.5±16.8 SD eosinophils/mm(2) (range 0-110); in the 93 controls with H. pylori gastritis the mean eosinophil count was 25±32.6 SD eosinophils/mm(2) (range 0-219); and for the 53 controls with Crohn's disease it was 31.4±44.4 SD eosinophils/mm(2) (range 0-203). There were no significant differences between the counts in biopsies from the antrum and corpus, and no significant variations by age, geographic location, or season. This study confirms that, in the United States population, the normal gastric eosinophilic counts are usually <38 eosinophils/mm(2). We recommend 'histological eosinophilic gastritis' for the diagnosis of gastric biopsies that show an average density ?127 eosinophils/mm(2) (or ?30 eosinophils per HPF) in at least five HPFs in the absence of known associated causes of eosinophilia. PMID:21169993

Lwin, Thida; Melton, Shelby D; Genta, Robert M



Congenital leukemia.  


Congenital leukemia is a rare but a well-documented disease in which leukemic process is detected at birth or very shortly thereafter (Philip McCoy and Roy Overton, Commun Clin Cytom 22:85-88, 1995). These leukemias represent approximately 0.8 % of all childhood leukemias. We present a case of congenital acute myeloid leukemia manifesting from the very first day of birth. Diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia was suspected by the presence of blasts in the peripheral blood smear and was confirmed on bone marrow by flowcytometry. Karyotyping revealed Trisomy 21. PMID:25332567

Raj, Aishwarya; Talukdar, Sewali; Das, Smita; Gogoi, Pabitra Kumar; Das, Damodar; Bhattacharya, Jina



Prevalence of oesophageal eosinophils and eosinophilic oesophagitis in adults: the population-based Kalixanda study  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic oesophagitis may be increasing but the prevalence in the general population remains unknown. Our aim was to assess this and the presence of eosinophils in the distal oesophageal epithelium in the community. Methods Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in a random sample (n?=?1000) of the adult Swedish population (mean age 54 years, 49% men). Oesophageal biopsy samples were obtained from 2?cm above, and at, the Z?line. Any eosinophil infiltration of the epithelium was defined as “eosinophils present”. Definite eosinophilic oesophagitis was defined as ?20, probable as 15–19, and possible as 5–14 eosinophils/high?power field (HPF, at magnification ×40) in oesophageal biopsy specimens. Results Eosinophils were present in 48 subjects (4.8%, 95% CI 3.5 to 6.1%, mean age 54 years, 63% men), in 54% without troublesome reflux symptoms. Definite eosinophilic oesophagitis was present in four subjects (0.4%, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.8%, mean age 51 years, 75% men) and probable eosinophilic oesophagitis in seven subjects (0.7%, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.2%, mean age 58 years, 43% men). Erosive oesophagitis (OR?=?2.99, 95% CI 1.58 to 5.66) and absence of dyspepsia (OR?=?0.23, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.75) and Helicobacter pylori infection (OR?=?0.41, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.92) were independent predictors for “eosinophils present”. Definite eosinophilic oesophagitis was associated with dysphagia (2/66 vs 2/926, p?=?0.025), and probable eosinophilic oesophagitis with narrowing of the oesophageal lumen (2/15 vs 5/978, p?=?0.005). Conclusions Oesophageal eosinophils were present in nearly 5% of the general population; approximately 1% had definite or probable eosinophilic oesophagitis. Oesophageal eosinophils may be a manifestation of reflux disease in adults, but the condition is as likely to be asymptomatic and go unrecognised. PMID:17135307

Ronkainen, Jukka; Talley, Nicholas J; Aro, Pertti; Storskrubb, Tom; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Lind, Tore; Bolling-Sternevald, Elisabeth; Vieth, Michael; Stolte, Manfred; Walker, Marjorie M; Agreus, Lars



Eosinophilic oesophagitis: from physiopathology to treatment.  


Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the oesophageal mucosa. Food and aero-allergens are involved in its pathogenesis. Dysphagia and food impaction are the dominant symptoms in adult with eosinophilic oesophagitis. However, a wide range of symptoms has been noticed such as chest pain or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms. Upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy and oesophageal biopsies are crucial for the diagnosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis. Endoscopy might be normal or reveal typical patterns such as rings, furrows, exudates, oedema, and stricture. Two to four biopsies should be performed both in the distal and in the proximal oesophagus, and 15 eosinophils per high power field within the oesophageal epithelium are the minimal threshold to diagnose eosinophilic oesophagitis. Allergy testing is recommended, although its impact to orient treatment remains to be demonstrated. Eosinophilic oesophagitis treatment includes medical treatment, diet and endoscopic dilation. Proton pump inhibitors are the first-line therapy as some eosinophilic oesophagitis phenotypes respond well to proton pump inhibitors. Topical viscous corticosteroids or diet elimination are the treatment of choice. There is no clear evidence in the literature to prefer one to the other. Finally endoscopic dilation should be considered in case of persistent symptomatic stenosis despite medical therapy. PMID:23545170

Roman, Sabine; Savarino, Edoardo; Savarino, Vincenzo; Mion, François



Eosinophilic infiltrates of the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed Central

There are two lesions which are often confused despite their quite distinct clinical and pathological differences: the inflammatory fibroid polyp and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Other eosinophilic lesions likely to be encountered in the gut also pose problems of differential diagnosis. Images PMID:2869055

Blackshaw, A J; Levison, D A



Leukemia Ecology: Ecological Prophylaxis of Leukemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Etiopathogenesis of leukemia; Ecological leukemogenic factors; Epidemiology of leukemias; Geochemical environment in relationship to health and disease; Leukemia risk factor bank; Perspectives of leukemia prophylaxis by ecological and dietary me...

J. Aleksandrowica, A. B. Skotnicki



What Is Childhood Leukemia?  


... key statistics for childhood leukemia? What is childhood leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts in early ... germs by surrounding and digesting them. Types of leukemia in children Leukemia is often described as being ...


Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia with endobronchial involvement.  


We report here a case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia with significant endobronchial involvement. A 59-year-old man was admitted complaining of fever, productive cough, wheezing, and dyspnea. There were ground-glass opacities in bilateral upper fields and tram track shadows in the left lower lung field on chest x-ray, and ground-glass opacities in bilateral upper lobes, thickening of the bronchial walls, and centrilobular nodules on computed tomographic scan of the chest. There was marked eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and was diagnosed as chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Bronchoscopy also revealed white nodules at the orifice of the right S and the left S bronchi. The histologic examination of these nodules revealed eosinophilic inflammation into the bronchial wall. This is a rare case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia with endobronchial eosinophilic involvement. PMID:23208577

Hara, Johsuke; Nishi, Kouichi; Demura, Yoshiki; Kurokawa, Kohji; Kurumaya, Hiroshi; Katayanagi, Kazuyoshi; Kasahara, Kazuo; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakao, Shinji



Eosinophils in innate immunity: an evolving story  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are innate immune leukocytes found in relatively low numbers within the blood. Terminal effector functions of eosinophils, deriving from their capacity to release their content of tissue-destructive cationic proteins, have historically been considered primary effector mechanisms against specific parasites, and are likewise implicated in tissue damage accompanying allergic responses such as asthma. However, the past decade has seen dramatic advancements in the field of eosinophil immunobiology, revealing eosinophils to also be key participants in many other facets of innate immunity, from bridging innate and adaptive immune responses to orchestrating tissue remodeling events. Here, we review the multifaceted functions of eosinophils in innate immunity that are currently known, and discuss new avenues in this evolving story. PMID:21042920

Shamri, Revital; Xenakis, Jason J.; Spencer, Lisa A.



Eosinophilic gastroenteritis--a diagnostic enigma.  


Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a heterogeneous and curable disease of the gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis is rare, with an approximate incidence of 1/100,000. The pathophysiology is based on infiltration of the eosinophils involving various parts of gastrointestinal system, but also different layers of the wall. The authors present a case of the eosinophilic gastroenteritis, which is characterised by the predominant subserosal type associated with asthma, ascites and bilateral pleural effusion. In patients with asthma and abdominal symptomatology, eosinophilic gastroenteritis should be considered as a possible diagnosis. These two atopic conditions may occur more frequently than generally expected, especially in the presence of protein-losing gastroenteropathy. ? Consider a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in patients with atopy and gastrointestinal symptoms. ? Histological demonstration of the gastrointestinal tract and/or ascites. ? Exclude other causes of eosinophilia such as parasites, Churg-Strauss syndrome, hypereosinophilic syndrome. PMID:22891016

Simoniuk, Urszula; McManus, Chris; Kiire, Clement



Eosinophil Apoptosis and Clearance in Asthma  

PubMed Central

Asthma is an increasingly common respiratory condition characterized by reversible airway obstruction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation with a clear unmet need for more effective therapy. Eosinophilic asthma is a phenotype of the condition that features increased blood or sputum eosinophils whose numbers correlate with disease severity. Several lines of evidence are now emerging, which implicate increased persistence of eosinophils in the lungs of patients with asthma as a consequence of inhibition of and defects in the apoptotic process, together with impaired apoptotic cell removal mechanisms. This article will update our knowledge of the mechanisms controlling eosinophil apoptosis and clearance, together with evidence implicating defects in apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cell removal in asthma. Recent developments in novel therapies for asthma that target eosinophil apoptotic and/or clearance pathways will also be discussed.

Walsh, Garry M



Mature human eosinophils express functional Notch ligands mediating eosinophil autocrine regulation  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil chemotaxis and survival within tissues are key components in the development of tissue eosinophilia and subsequent effector responses. In this study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism of eosinophil autoregulation affecting migration and survival mediated through Notch signaling. We show for the first time that human blood eosinophils express Notch receptors and Notch ligands, expressions of which are influenced by the presence of eosinophil-activating granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Evidence of Notch receptor activation and subsequent transcription of the Notch-responsive gene HES1 were observed in GM-CSF–stimulated eosinophils, confirming functionality of eosinophil-expressed Notch-signaling components. Moreover, by inhibiting Notch signaling with ?-secretase inhibitors or Notch receptor–specific neutralizing antibodies, we demonstrate that autocrine Notch signaling enhances stimulus-mediated actin rearrangement and eosinophil chemokinesis, and impairs eosinophil viability. Taken together, these data suggest autocrine Notch signaling, enhanced in response to tissue- or inflammatory-derived signals, influences eosinophil activity and longevity, which may ultimately contribute to the development of tissue eosinophilia and exacerbation or remediation of eosinophil effector functions. PMID:19171875

Radke, Amy L.; Reynolds, Lauren E.; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Dvorak, Ann M.; Weller, Peter F.



Vancomycin-related eosinophilic peritonitis.  


Eosinophilic peritonitis (EP) is a well-described complication of peritoneal dialysis and is often associated with either a reaction to a constituent of the dialysis system (tubing, sterilant, or solution) or an underlying bacterial or fungal reaction. EP has also been described in the setting of icodextrin use. We report a case of EP associated with intraperitoneal vancomycin used in the treatment of peritonitis secondary to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Causation was based upon temporal association, negative cultures, concomitant peripheral eosinophilia, and resolution with cessation of vancomycin. Vancomycin allergy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of EP in the right clinical context. Negative bacterial and fungal cultures are essential to exclude other etiologies. PMID:21148058

Rosner, Mitchell H; Chhatkuli, Bed



Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases: review and update.  


Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are a progressively more frequent diverse group of intestinal diseases. The intention of this paper is to present the newest developments in the care of patients with EGIDs and to sum up a rising literature defining the clinical features and mechanistic elements of eosinophils and their intricate associations with the gastrointestinal tract. Clinicians ought to stay sensitive to EGIDs as a diagnostic likelihood for patients with general gastrointestinal symptoms. Further research is warranted to establish various methods leading to dysfunction coupled with eosinophilic gastrointestinal inflammation. PMID:22792476

Jawairia, Mahreema; Shahzad, Ghulamullah; Mustacchia, Paul



Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia presenting with acute onset.  


A 44-year-old woman was hospitalized with a 2-day history of cough, sputum, and fever. There was no history of atopic dermatitis or asthma. On admission, the chest X-ray revealed scattered infiltration in the left upper lung fields. Further examination revealed peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophilia. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed eosinophilic pneumonia, with eosinophil infiltration of the alveoli, destroyed basal lumina, and connecting intraluminal fibrosis of the alveolar walls. Based on the findings, we made the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Treatment with prednisolone at 60 mg/day resulted in dramatic improvement of both the symptoms and the radiologic abnormalities. PMID:23393913

Kumasawa, Fumio; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noda, Akihiro; Shintani, Yoshitaka; Koyama, Daisuke; Oki, Takashi; Mizumura, Kenji; Nishinarita, Susumu; Sawada, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Shu



Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.  


Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with an obscure etiology, although associations with allergy, the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, and connective tissue disease have been reported. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman with a history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who presented with refractory nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Imaging studies were significant for bowel wall thickening and ascites, while laboratory studies revealed a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA), a positive anti-double stranded (DS) DNA antibody, low complement, and proteinuria. Exploratory laparotomy with gastric and small bowel biopsies established the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. In addition, the patient met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Previous studies have described eosinophilic gastroenteritis in patients with scleroderma, polymyositis, or dermatomyositis. This is the first report to our knowledge of an individual with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:15492606

Barbie, David A; Mangi, Abeel A; Lauwers, Gregory Y



Manifestation peculiarities of idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare interstitial lung disorder, which causes diagnostic difficulties. Often the disease\\u000a is diagnosed correctly after several weeks or months following initial presentation. The aim of the study was to prospectively\\u000a evaluate peculiarities of manifestation of idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP), which may allow to improving\\u000a early diagnosis. Twenty patients with ICEP were involved in this

Edvardas Danila; Jolita Nork?nien?; Remigijus Narg?la; Edvardas Žurauskas; Bronislovas Šatkauskas; Regina Aleksonien?



Protein Radical Formation Resulting from Eosinophil Peroxidase-catalyzed Oxidation of Sulfite*  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is an abundant heme protein in eosinophils that catalyzes the formation of cytotoxic oxidants implicated in asthma, allergic inflammatory disorders, and cancer. It is known that some proteins with peroxidase activity (horseradish peroxidase and prostaglandin hydroperoxidase) can catalyze oxidation of bisulfite (hydrated sulfur dioxide), leading to the formation of sulfur trioxide anion radical (·SO3?). This free radical further reacts with oxygen to form peroxymonosulfate anion radical (?O3SOO·) and the very reactive sulfate anion radical (SO4??), which is nearly as strong an oxidant as the hydroxyl radical. However, the ability of EPO to generate reactive sulfur radicals has not yet been reported. Here we demonstrate that eosinophil peroxidase/H2O2 is able to oxidize bisulfite, ultimately forming the sulfate anion radical (SO4??), and that these reactive intermediates can oxidize target proteins to protein radicals, thereby initiating protein oxidation. We used immuno-spin trapping and confocal microscopy to study protein oxidation by EPO/H2O2 in the presence of bisulfite in a pure enzymatic system and in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 clone 15 cells, maturated to eosinophils. Polyclonal antiserum raised against the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) detected the presence of DMPO covalently attached to the proteins resulting from the DMPO trapping of protein free radicals. We found that sulfite oxidation mediated by EPO/H2O2 induced the formation of radical-derived DMPO spin-trapped human serum albumin and, to a lesser extent, of DMPO-EPO. These studies suggest that EPO-dependent oxidative damage may play a role in tissue injury in bisulfite-exacerbated eosinophilic inflammatory disorders. PMID:20501663

Ranguelova, Kalina; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Ramirez, Dario C.; Summers, Fiona A.; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Mason, Ronald P.



Chronic leukemia.  


The chronic leukemias include chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). CML is a clonal myeloproliferative hematopoietic stem-cell disorder, and CLL is a monoclonal B-cell disorder. CML is Philadelphia chromosome positive. There are 3 phases of CML: the chronic phase, the accelerated phase, and the blast phase. The primary treatment of CML consists of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. CLL can present as indolent or fulminant disease. Early disease is managed with observation. Fulminant disease is currently treated with alkylating agents, purine analogues, and monoclonal antibodies, but new biotarged therapies are being developed. PMID:24267282

Greenberg, Edythe M Lyn; Probst, Alexandra



Prevalence of oesophageal eosinophils and eosinophilic oesophagitis in adults: the population-based Kalixanda study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophilic oesophagitis may be increasing but the prevalence in the general population remains unknown. Our aim was to assess this and the presence of eosinophils in the distal oesophageal epithelium in the community.Methods: Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in a random sample (n = 1000) of the adult Swedish population (mean age 54 years, 49% men). Oesophageal biopsy samples were obtained

Jukka Ronkainen; Nicholas J Talley; Pertti Aro; Tom Storskrubb; Sven-Erik Johansson; Tore Lind; Elisabeth Bolling-Sternevald; Manfred Stolte; Marjorie M Walker; Lars Agre?us



Diagnostic approach to eosinophilic renal neoplasms.  


Context .- Eosinophilic renal neoplasms include a spectrum of solid and papillary tumors ranging from indolent benign oncocytoma to highly aggressive malignancies. Recognition of the correct nature of the tumor, especially in biopsy specimens, is paramount for patient management. Objective .- To review the diagnostic approach to eosinophilic renal neoplasms with light microscopy and ancillary techniques. Data Sources .- Review of the published literature and personal experience. Conclusions .- The following tumors are in the differential diagnosis of oncocytic renal cell neoplasm: oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hybrid tumor, tubulocystic carcinoma, papillary RCC, clear cell RCC with predominant eosinophilic cell morphology, follicular thyroid-like RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis-associated RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, rhabdoid RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor translocation RCC, epithelioid angiomyolipoma, and unclassified RCC. In low-grade nonpapillary eosinophilic neoplasms, distinction between oncocytoma and low-grade RCC mostly rests on histomorphology; however, cytokeratin 7 immunostain may be helpful. In high-grade nonpapillary lesions, there is more of a role for ancillary techniques, including immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 7, CA9, CD10, racemase, HMB45, and Melan-A. In papillary eosinophilic neoplasms, it is important to distinguish sporadic type 2 papillary RCC from microphthalmia transcription factor translocation and hereditary leiomyomatosis-associated RCC. Histologic and cytologic features along with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization tests for TFE3 (Xp11.2) and TFEB [t(6;11)] are reliable confirmatory tests. Eosinophilic epithelial neoplasms with architecture, cytology, and/or immunoprofile not qualifying for either of the established types of RCC should be classified as unclassified eosinophilic RCC and arbitrarily assigned a grade (low or high). PMID:25357116

Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Jorda, Merce; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I



Eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome with markedly elevated eosinophil cationic protein.  


A 67-year-old woman with asthma visited our hospital with increasing dyspnea and new-onset paresthesia and purpura in her legs. Physical examination showed a wheeze, pretibial edema, and surrounding purpura. Chest X-rays showed cardiac decompensation and an electrocardiogram revealed a new ST-T change. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia (10,450/?L), troponin T(+), elevated BNP, and markedly elevated eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) (> 150 ng/mL). Echocardiography revealed diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis (ejection fraction 30%) with increased wall thickness. Coronary angiography was normal. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging implied diffuse myocardial edema and subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement. Skin biopsy of purpura showed superfi cial perivascular dermatitis with remarkable eosinophilic infiltrations. No evidence of drug allergies, parasitic infection, or myeloproliferative disorder was detected. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome was considered. She was administered prednisolone at a dose of 1 mg/kg, cyclophosphamide, and diuretics. Several markers of eosinophilic myocarditis and heart failure gradually improved, including ECP. She was discharged 30 days later with no cardiac event. Eosinophilic myocarditis is characterized by predominantly eosinophilic infi ltration. Eosinophilic granule proteins, such as ECP and major basic protein, play important roles in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic myocarditis. We experienced a rare case of eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome. Markedly elevated ECP played an important role in the early diagnosis and subsequent reduction in ECP served as a marker of monitoring. In an asthmatic patient with dyspnea, hypereosinophilia, and vasculitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome with eosinophilic myocarditis should be considered. PMID:23428926

Hara, Tomoya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Iwase, Takashi; Kadota, Muneyuki; Bando, Mika; Ogasawara, Kozue; Bando, Sachiko; Ise, Takayuki; Niki, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Yuka; Tomita, Noriko; Taketani, Yoshio; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Sata, Masataka



[Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].  


The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

Vasilescu, Raluca



Studies on blood eosinophils. I. Patients with a transient eosinophilia.  

PubMed Central

Studies were done on blood eosinophils from six patients with a transient eosinophilia, to see whether blood eosinophils were structurally or functionally different from blood eosinophils in eleven normal individuals. It was found that many of the patients' eosinophils were vacuolated, and some contained less specific granules than normal. These eosinophils also possessed Fc receptors for rabbit IgG. When the eosinophil counts returned to normal these abnormalities were no longer found. The nature of these alterations are discussed in relation to the properties of eosinophils in tissues and other types of phagocytic cells responding to stimulae. Suggestions are made about the mechanisms by which they could have come about. It was concluded that blood eosinophils in patients with an eosinophilia may be functionally mature or altered in response to unknown stimulae while they are in the blood. Images FIG. 1 PMID:939048

Tai, P C; Spry, C J



Roles and regulation of gastrointestinal eosinophils in immunity and disease.  


Eosinophils have historically been considered to be destructive end-stage effector cells that have a role in parasitic infections and allergic reactions by the release of their granule-derived cytotoxic proteins. However, an increasing number of experimental observations indicate that eosinophils also are multifunctional leukocytes involved in diverse inflammatory and physiologic immune responses. Under homeostatic conditions, eosinophils are particularly abundant in the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract, where their involvement in various biological processes within the gastrointestinal tract has been posited. In this review, we summarize the molecular steps involved in eosinophil development and describe eosinophil trafficking to the gastrointestinal tract. We synthesize the current findings on the phenotypic and functional properties of gastrointestinal eosinophils and the accumulating evidence that they have a contributory role in gastrointestinal disorders, with a focus on primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Finally, we discuss the potential role of eosinophils as modulators of the intestinal immune system. PMID:25049430

Jung, YunJae; Rothenberg, Marc E



Periodic oscillation of blood leukocytes, platelets, and reticulocytes in a patient with chronic myelocytic leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with chronic myelocytic leukemia had a cyclic oscillation of blood neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, platelets, normoblasts, and reticulocytes but not of lymphocytes. The cycle interval was 53-69 days. Except for reticulocytes all other cells cycled with neutrophils. Plasma colony-stimulating factor (CSF) oscillated out of phase with neutrophils, suggesting that granulocytopoiesis is regulated through CSF by a feedback mechanism.

G. Chikkappa; G. Borner; H. Burlington; A. D. Chanana; E. P. Cronkite; S. Ohl; M. Pavelec; J. S. Robertson



Infantile cortical measles inclusion body encephalitis during combined treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of cortical measles inclusion body encephalitis occuring in a boy aged 6 years 7 months, 4 months after uncomplicated measles is reported. The child was undergoing combined treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. He was in primary remission for 2 years. The neuropathological findings are characterized by necrosis, eosinophilic nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the neuronal and glial

G. Spalke; C. Eschenbach



Acute eosinophilic pneumonia with fine nodular shadows.  


A 19-year-old woman presented with acute onset of cough and dyspnea. She started smoking two weeks before the appearance of symptoms. On admission, arterial blood gas analysis on room air breathing revealed PaO2 55 Torr. Chest roentgenogram and high resolution computed tomograms showed localized fine nodular shadows at the right lower lung field. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed a high eosinophil count. Eosinophil infiltration was also observed in transbronchial lung biopsy specimens. The final diagnosis was acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP). Although few reports have demonstrated diffuse fine nodular shadows in AEP, localized fine nodular shadows on chest roentgenogram and CT may sometimes be the sign of AEP especially in the early phase of the clinical course. PMID:12583626

Abe, Koh; Yanagi, Shigehisa; Imadsu, Yoshifumi; Sano, Arisa; Iiboshi, Hirotoshi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Matsukura, Shigeru



Substrates and products of eosinophil peroxidase.  


Eosinophil peroxidase has been implicated in promoting oxidative tissue damage in a variety of inflammatory conditions, including asthma. It uses H(2)O(2) to oxidize chloride, bromide and thiocyanate to their respective hypohalous acids. The aim of this study was to establish which oxidants eosinophil peroxidase produces under physiological conditions. By measuring rates of H(2)O(2) utilization by the enzyme at neutral pH, we determined the catalytic rate constants for bromide and thiocyanate as 248 and 223 s(-1) and the Michaelis constants as 0.5 and 0.15 mM respectively. On the basis of these values thiocyanate is preferred 2.8-fold over bromide as a substrate for eosinophil peroxidase. Eosinophil peroxidase catalysed substantive oxidation of chloride only below pH 6.5. We found that when eosinophil peroxidase or myeloperoxidase oxidized thiocyanate, another product besides hypothiocyanite was formed; it also converted methionine into methionine sulphoxide. During the oxidation of thiocyanate, the peroxidases were present as their compound II forms. Compound II did not form when GSH was included to scavenge hypothiocyanite. We propose that the unidentified oxidant was derived from a radical species produced by the one-electron oxidation of hypothiocyanite. We conclude that at plasma concentrations of bromide (20-120 microM) and thiocyanate (20-100 microM), hypobromous acid and oxidation products of thiocyanate are produced by eosinophil peroxidase. Hypochlorous acid is likely to be produced only when substrates preferred over chloride are depleted. Thiocyanate should be considered to augment peroxidase-mediated toxicity because these enzymes can convert relatively benign hypothiocyanite into a stronger oxidant. PMID:11485572

van Dalen, C J; Kettle, A J



Giant eosinophil colonies from cultures of bone marrow cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To date, the small size and slow growth of eosinophil colonies in vitro has hampered study of cloned eosinophils. We found\\u000a enhanced eosinophil colony size and numbers in methylcellulose cultures of bone marrow cells utilizing defined supplemented\\u000a bovine calf serum (DSBCS) in combination with EL4 conditioned medium (EL4-CM). At days 9, 16 and 23 significantly more eosinophil\\u000a colonies and more

J. H. Butterfield; D. Weiler



Antiallergic and antiasthmatic effects of a novel enhydrazinone ester (CEE-1): inhibition of activation of both mast cells and eosinophils.  


Activation of mast cells and eosinophils is a fundamental process in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. We have previously reported that the novel enhydrazinone ester CEE-1 (ethyl 4-phenylhydrazinocyclohex-3-en-2-oxo-6-phenyl-1-oate) possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity. We have now tested whether the compound also possesses antiallergic and antiasthmatic effects in vitro and in vivo. The compound significantly inhibited degranulation and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) release from activated human eosinophils, as well as IgE-dependent degranulation and LTC4 release from passively sensitized rat basophilic leukemia cells and bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells. In human eosinophils, the drug was more potent in inhibiting degranulation than LTC4 release {IC50 = 0.4 ?M [confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.9] versus 3.8 ?M (CI: 0.9-8.3)}, whereas in mast cells the reverse was essentially the case. The drug did not affect stimulus-induced calcium transients in eosinophils but significantly inhibited early phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). In vivo, topical application of 4.5-15 mg/kg of the compound significantly inhibited allergen-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. Similarly, in the mouse asthma model, the intranasal administration of 6.5-12.5 mg/kg of the compound significantly inhibited bronchial inflammation and eosinophil accumulation in bronchial lavage fluid, as well as abolishing airway hyper-responsiveness to methacholine. These results show that CEE-1 inhibits the activation of both mast cells and eosinophils in vitro, probably by blocking MAPK-activation pathways, and that these effects are translated into antiallergic and antiasthmatic effects in vivo. The compound, therefore, has potential application in the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases. PMID:24917545

Ezeamuzie, Charles I; El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Renno, Waleed M; Edafiogho, Ivan O




PubMed Central

Summary Eosinophils are leukocytes resident in mucosal tissues. During Th2-type inflammation, eosinophils are recruited from bone marrow and blood to the sites of immune response. While eosinophils have been considered end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasite infection and immunopathology in hypersensitivity disease, recent studies changed this perspective. Eosinophils are now considered multifunctional leukocytes involved in tissue homeostasis, modulation of adaptive immune responses, and innate immunity to certain microbes. Eosinophils are capable of producing immunoregulatory cytokines and are actively involved in regulation of Th2-type immune responses. However, such new information does not preclude earlier observations showing that eosinophils, in particular human eosinophils, are also effector cells with pro-inflammatory and destructive capabilities. Eosinophils with activation phenotypes are observed in biological specimens from patients with disease, and deposition of eosinophil products is readily seen in the affected tissues from these patients. Therefore, it would be reasonable to consider the eosinophil a multifaceted leukocyte that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. This review summarizes the emerging concept of the multifaceted immunobiology of eosinophils and discusses the roles of eosinophils in health and disease and the challenges and perspectives in the field. PMID:21682744

Kita, Hirohito



RESEARCH Open Access Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia in children  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia in children: the French experience Lisa® Group Abstract Background: Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia is extremely rare in children and adults) and acute (IAEP) eosinophilic pneumonia in children. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed all cases of ICEP


Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders in Infants: A Japanese Case Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are disorders characterized by primary eosinophil inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. There are a small number of reports of eosinophil infiltration in gastrointestinal tracts presenting as EGIDs in infants. In this study, we present Japanese cases of EGIDs in infants. Methods: Five patients diagnosed with or strongly suspected to have EGIDs in our hospital from

Yoshiyuki Yamada; Akira Nishi; Yoshifumi Ebara; Masahiko Kato; Hideki Yamamoto; Hideaki Morita; Ichiro Nomura; Kenji Matsumoto; Junko Hirato; Shin-itsu Hatakeyama; Norio Suzuki; Yasuhide Hayashi



Mechanism of nitrite oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase: implications for oxidant production and nitration by eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil peroxidase is a haem enzyme of eosinophils that is implicated in oxidative tissue injury in asthma. It uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize thiocyanate and bromide to their respective hypohalous acids. Nitrite is also a substrate for eosinophil peroxidase. We have investigated the mechanisms by which the enzyme oxidizes nitrite. Nitrite was very effective at inhibiting hypothiocyanous acid (‘cyanosulphenic acid’) and hypobromous acid production. Spectral studies showed that nitrite reduced the enzyme to its compound II form, which is a redox intermediate containing FeIV in the haem active site. Compound II does not oxidize thiocyanate or bromide. These results demonstrate that nitrite is readily oxidized by compound I, which contains FeV at the active site. However, it reacts more slowly with compound II. The observed rate constant for reduction of compound II by nitrite was determined to be 5.6×103 M?1·s?1. Eosinophils were at least 4-fold more effective at promoting nitration of a heptapeptide than neutrophils. This result is explained by our finding that nitrite reacts 10-fold faster with compound II of eosinophil peroxidase than with the analogous redox intermediate of myeloperoxidase. Nitration by eosinophils was increased 3-fold by superoxide dismutase, which indicates that superoxide interferes with nitration. We propose that at sites of eosinophilic inflammation, low concentrations of nitrite will retard oxidant production by eosinophil peroxidase, whereas at higher concentrations nitrogen dioxide will be a major oxidant formed by these cells. The efficiency of protein nitration will be decreased by the diffusion-controlled reaction of superoxide with nitrogen dioxide. PMID:16336215

van Dalen, Christine J.; Winterbourn, Christine C.; Kettle, Anthony J.



Oral eosinophilic granuloma in Siberian husky dogs.  


Oral eosinophilic granuloma in 6 young Siberian Husky dogs was characterized by involvement of lateral and ventral surfaces of the tongue. Histologically, the major change was degenerated (necrobiotic) collagen. Although the cause of the disease is unknown, hereditary and immunologic factors are implicated in the pathogenesis. PMID:7440364

Madewell, B R; Stannard, A A; Pulley, L T; Nelson, V G



Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently recognized allergic disorder, characterized by eosophageal dysfunction, accumulation of ?15 eosinophils/high-powered field, eosinophil microabssess, basal cell hyperplasia, extracellular eosinophilic granules in the esophageal epithelial mucosal biopsy and a lack of response to a 8-week proton pump inhibitor treatment. Despite the increased incidences and considerable progress made in understanding EoE pathogenesis, there are limited diagnostic and therapeutic options available for EoE. Currently, the only criterion for diagnosing EoE is repetitive esophageal endoscopic biopsies and histopathological evaluation. Antigen elimination or corticosteroid therapies are effective therapies for EoE but are expensive and have limitations, if continued in the long term. Hence, there is a great necessity for novel noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers that can easily diagnose EoE and assess effectiveness of therapy. Herein, we have provided an update on key molecules involved in the disease initiation, and progression and proposed novel noninvasive diagnostic molecules and strategies for EoE therapy.

Zaidi, Asifa K; Mussarat, Ahad; Mishra, Anil



Constipation--another manifestation of eosinophilic gastroenteritis.  


Eosinophilic gastroenteris (EG) is a unique disease in which eosinophils penetrate into the layers of the GI tract. It is classified by the depth of the eosinophilic penetration, that can either be mucosal, muscularis or serosal. Symptoms vary with the bowel site involved as well as the depth of the eosinophilic penetration. Symptoms of the mucosal form of EG usually include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain while constipation is extremely rare. We present a case of mucosal EG presenting as constipation and abdominal pain in a 43 year old female. Constipation is not a typical symptom associated with EG and while muscularis EG can cause decreased colonic motility and obstruction, constipation with mucosal EG has not been previously reported. We are presenting the first case report of constipation associated with mucosal EG. Thus EG should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with constipation and abdominal pain and can easily be diagnosed with mucosal biopsies and treated with steroid therapy. PMID:22803505

Khan, Fahad; Chaudhry, Muhammad A; Nusrat, Salman; Qureshi, Noorulain; Ali, Tauseef



Acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with antidepressant agents.  


Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a severe syndrome characterized by fever, lung infiltrates, blood eosinophilia and respiratory failure. We describe a case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with clomipramine and sertraline. A 40-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with 37.9 degrees C and respiratory rate of 35 respirations per minute. Blood analysis showed PaO2 = 57.6 mm Hg and HCO3- = 21.7 mmol/l and 12.2% eosinophils. Chest X-ray showed infiltrates in both lower lobes. She was taking clomipramine 25 mg bid for the last 4 weeks and sertraline 50 mg/day for the last week. Other causes of acute eosinophilic pneumonia such as parasitic and fungal infections or collagen diseases were discarded. Both antidepressant were stopped and the patient became afebrile and asymptomatic. A week later the patient was discharged from hospital. Physicians should be aware of this adverse antidepresant reaction which may result in severe pulmonary symptoms. PMID:10550851

Barnés, M T; Bascuñana, J; García, B; Alvarez-Sala, J L



Remodeling and fibrosis in chronic eosinophil inflammation.  


Chronic eosinophilic inflammation has been associated with tissue remodeling in a number of disease states including the hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), asthma, and, more recently, eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Remodeling occurs in the epithelial and subepithelial esophageal tissue, and includes basal zone hyperplasia, epithelial mesenchymal transition, fibrosis, angiogenesis, and smooth muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia. Previously, research on the clinical impacts of tissue remodeling has been limited by a paucity of human tissue. However, in EoE, recurrent biopsies are required for diagnosis and management. As such, investigators are able to study the associations between tissue changes and clinical disease features. A number of profibrotic and proangiogenic factors are elevated in EoE, including TGF-?1, CCL-18, FGF-9, VEGF, and VCAM-1. Both eosinophils and mast cells produce a number of these factors. TGF-?1 appears to be a master regulator of end-organ dysfunction in EoE and can cause esophageal epithelial mesenchymal transition, fibrosis, and smooth muscle contraction. The requirement for eosinophils, the eosinophilopoietic interleukin, IL-5, and the canonical TGF-?1 signaling pathway for EoE-associated fibrosis, has been invoked using gene-deficient mice. The clinical consequences of eosinophil-associated tissue fibrosis can be devastating, such as endomyocardial fibrosis and heart failure in HES. In EoE, tissue remodeling appears to be the mechanism for multiple cardinal disease complications including esophageal rigidity, strictures, narrowing, and food impactions, as well as the clinical hallmark of dysphagia. Therapies that may be able to reduce or reverse EoE-associated remodeling include topical corticosteroids, anti-IL-5, and food antigen avoidance. PMID:24603375

Aceves, Seema S



Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, defined as an eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplotype of the IL-10 promoter gene are the most studied genetic determinants. Among the acquired pathogenetic factors, the exposure to different allergens, infections, vaccinations, drugs, and silica exposure have been involved. Eosinophils are the most characteristic cells in EGPA and different studies have demonstrated their role as effector and immunoregulatory cells. EGPA is considered as a disease with a prevalent activation of the Th-2 cellular-mediated inflammatory response and also humoral immunity plays an important role. A link between B and T inflammatory responses may explain different disease features. EGPA typically develops into three sequential phases: the allergic phase, distinguished by the occurrence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis, the eosinophilic phase, in which the main pathological finding is the eosinophilic organ infiltrations (e.g., lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal system), and the vasculitic phase, characterized by purpura, peripheral neuropathy, and constitutional symptoms. ANCA (especially pANCA anti-myeloperoxidase) are present in 40–60% of the patients. An elevation of IgG4 is frequently found. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide are classically used for remission induction, while azathioprine and methotrexate are the therapeutic options for remission maintenance. B-cell depletion with rituximab has shown promising results for remission induction.

Gioffredi, Andrea; Maritati, Federica; Oliva, Elena; Buzio, Carlo



Mitochondria in the Center of Human Eosinophil Apoptosis and Survival  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are abundantly present in most phenotypes of asthma and they contribute to the maintenance and exacerbations of the disease. Regulators of eosinophil longevity play critical roles in determining whether eosinophils accumulate into the airways of asthmatics. Several cytokines enhance eosinophil survival promoting eosinophilic airway inflammation while for example glucocorticoids, the most important anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat asthma, promote the intrinsic pathway of eosinophil apoptosis and by this mechanism contribute to the resolution of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Mitochondria seem to play central roles in both intrinsic mitochondrion-centered and extrinsic receptor-mediated pathways of apoptosis in eosinophils. Mitochondria may also be important for survival signalling. In addition to glucocorticoids, another important agent that regulates human eosinophil longevity via mitochondrial route is nitric oxide, which is present in increased amounts in the airways of asthmatics. Nitric oxide seems to be able to trigger both survival and apoptosis in eosinophils. This review discusses the current evidence of the mechanisms of induced eosinophil apoptosis and survival focusing on the role of mitochondria and clinically relevant stimulants, such as glucocorticoids and nitric oxide. PMID:24603536

Ilmarinen, Pinja; Moilanen, Eeva; Kankaanranta, Hannu



What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?  


... for chronic lymphocytic leukemia? What is chronic lymphocytic leukemia? Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of ... in the body from functioning normally. Types of leukemia Not all leukemias are the same. There are ...


How Is Childhood Leukemia Classified?  


... childhood leukemia (ALL or AML) How is childhood leukemia classified? Classification of the leukemia plays a major ... of the early diagnostic testing. Acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemia (ALL) Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a fast- ...


What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?  


... get acute myeloid leukemia? What is acute myeloid leukemia? Leukemia is a type of cancer that starts ... person to bleed or bruise easily. Acute myeloid leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) goes by many names, ...


Eosinophil extracellular DNA trap cell death mediates lytic release of free secretion-competent eosinophil granules in humans  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils release their granule proteins extracellularly through exocytosis, piecemeal degranulation, or cytolytic degranulation. Findings in diverse human eosinophilic diseases of intact extracellular eosinophil granules, either free or clustered, indicate that eosinophil cytolysis occurs in vivo, but the mechanisms and consequences of lytic eosinophil degranulation are poorly understood. We demonstrate that activated human eosinophils can undergo extracellular DNA trap cell death (ETosis) that cytolytically releases free eosinophil granules. Eosinophil ETosis (EETosis), in response to immobilized immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA), cytokines with platelet activating factor, calcium ionophore, or phorbol myristate acetate, develops within 120 minutes in a reduced NADP (NADPH) oxidase-dependent manner. Initially, nuclear lobular formation is lost and some granules are released by budding off from the cell as plasma membrane–enveloped clusters. Following nuclear chromatolysis, plasma membrane lysis liberates DNA that forms weblike extracellular DNA nets and releases free intact granules. EETosis-released eosinophil granules, still retaining eosinophil cationic granule proteins, can be activated to secrete when stimulated with CC chemokine ligand 11 (eotaxin-1). Our results indicate that an active NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism of cytolytic, nonapoptotic eosinophil death initiates nuclear chromatolysis that eventuates in the release of intact secretion-competent granules and the formation of extracellular DNA nets. PMID:23303825

Ueki, Shigeharu; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Ghiran, Ionita; Spencer, Lisa A.; Dvorak, Ann M.; Weller, Peter F.



Understanding Leukemias  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid medical students at all levels understand the laboratory diagnosis of leukemias. It includes introductory material on the basic laboratory tests specific to diagnoses, their general application and pitfalls in interpretation. The introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating the major categories of leukemia. This tutorial focuses on diagnosis and relative little on treatment is included. QuickTime movie player, Flash player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: and . Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun; falseDisease diagnosis: neoplastic

Braun, Mark



IL-33 exacerbates eosinophil-mediated airway inflammation.  


IL-33 has emerged as an important mediator in the immunopathogenesis of allergy and asthma. However, the role of IL-33 in eosinophil-mediated inflammation has not been fully explored. In this article, we report that IL-33 directly stimulates eosinophil differentiation from CD117(+) progenitors in an IL-5-dependent manner. Although resting eosinophils expressed moderate levels of the IL-33R alpha-chain (ST2L), eosinophils that accumulated in the airways of mice with OVA-induced asthma expressed increased amounts of ST2L. In vitro, IL-33 and GM-CSF are potent inducers of ST2L expression on eosinophils, and IL-33 induced the production of IL-13, CCL17, and TGF-beta by eosinophils. In adoptive-transfer experiments, IL-33 exacerbated eosinophil-mediated airway inflammation by increasing the levels of eosinophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, IL-13, TGF-beta, CCL3, CCL17, and CCL24 in the lungs. IL-33 also enhanced the eosinophil-mediated differentiation of airway macrophages toward the alternatively activated macrophage phenotype in an IL-13-dependent manner. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the IL-33/ST2 signaling pathway activates airway eosinophils that exacerbate airway inflammation in an autocrine and paracrine manner. PMID:20693421

Stolarski, Bartosz; Kurowska-Stolarska, Mariola; Kewin, Peter; Xu, Damo; Liew, Foo Y



Primary lysis of eosinophils in severe desquamative asthma.  


Primary lysis of eosinophils liberates free eosinophil granules (FEGs) releasing toxic proteins in association with bronchial epithelial injury repair. Eosinophil lysis may be significantly pathogenic. Bronchial mucosal FEGs are associated with uncontrolled asthma, severe asthma, aspirin-sensitive asthma, and lethal asthma. FEGs in the bronchial wall may characterize severe asthma without sputum eosinophilia. Excessive numbers of sputum FEGs occur in severe exacerbations of asthma and are reduced along with clinical improvement. Occurrence of FEGs affects interpretation of other sputum biomarkers including numbers of eosinophils, ECP, and eosinophil-stained macrophages. Thus, eosinophil lysis produces FEGs as bronchial biomarkers of severe asthma. Blood eosinophils in severe asthma seem primed exhibiting a propensity to lyse that is greater the more severe the asthma. Proclivity of blood eosinophils to lyse also distinguished three levels of severity among children with exacerbations of asthma. Numerous FEGs releasing toxic proteins occur in association with grave derangement and shedding of epithelium in severe asthma. Subepithelial FEGs correlate negatively with intact bronchial epithelium in clinically uncontrolled asthma. Significant correlations between sputum ECP, Creola bodies, and severity of asthma exacerbations have also been demonstrated. Hence, eosinophil lysis apparently causes epithelial desquamation in severe asthma. Exaggerated epithelial repair in turn would contribute to inflammatory and remodelling features of severe asthma. Perseverance of FEGs together with maintained disease activity, despite treatment with 'eosinophil-depleting' steroids and anti-IL5 biologicals, agrees with the possibility that eosinophil lysis is worthy target for novel anti-asthma drugs. Priming and lysis of eosinophils, and protein release from FEGs, are regulated and can be targeted. Eosinophil lysis and FEGs belong to the disease picture of severe asthma and need consideration in asthma studies concerned with phenotypes, biomarkers, roles of epithelial injury/repair, and targeting novel drugs. PMID:24330324

Persson, C



Eyelid eosinophilic granuloma in a Siberian husky.  


Canine eosinophilic granuloma (CEG) is a rare skin disease of unknown origin. It has been reported in Siberian huskies, Cavalier King Charles spaniels and occasionally in other breeds. The lesions comprise nodules or plaques, mostly localised in the oral cavity. A case of a single cutaneous nodular lesion of CEG on the eyelid of a Siberian husky is described. Complete remission was achieved with oral glucocorticoid treatment. PMID:15682738

Vercelli, A; Cornegliani, L; Portigliotti, L



Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: An unusual type of gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall with various gastrointestinal manifestations. Till date only 280 cases have been described in the literature. A high index of suspicion, by excluding other causes of peripheral eosinophilia, is a pre requisite for accurate diagnosis. EGE is an uncommon gastrointestinal disease affecting both children and adults. It was first described by Kaijser in 1937. Presentation may vary depending on location as well as depth and extent of bowel wall involvement and usually runs a chronic relapsing course. This condition can respond to low dose steroid therapy, thereby preventing grave complications like ascites and intestinal obstruction that might need surgical intervention. The natural history of EGE has not been well documented. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a chronic, waxing and waning condition. Mild and sporadic symptoms can be managed with reassurance and observation, whereas disabling gastrointestinal (GI) symptom flare-ups can often be controlled with oral corticosteroids. When the disease manifests in infancy and specific food sensitization can be identified, the likelihood of disease remission by late childhood is high. GI obstruction is the most common complication. Fatal outcomes are rare. PMID:23964139

Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge (Ingle), Chitra R



Eosinophils are necessary for pulmonary arterial remodeling in a mouse model of eosinophilic inflammation-induced pulmonary hypertension.  


There is increasing evidence that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of some forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH). We recently demonstrated that deficiency of adiponectin (APN) in a mouse model of PH induced by eosinophilic inflammation increases pulmonary arterial remodeling, pulmonary pressures, and the accumulation of eosinophils in the lung. Based on these data, we hypothesized that APN deficiency exacerbates PH indirectly by increasing eosinophil recruitment. Herein, we examined the role of eosinophils in the development of inflammation-induced PH. Elimination of eosinophils in APN-deficient mice by treatment with anti-interleukin-5 antibody attenuated pulmonary arterial muscularization and PH. In addition, we observed that transgenic mice that are devoid of eosinophils also do not develop pulmonary arterial muscularization in eosinophilic inflammation-induced PH. To investigate the mechanism by which APN deficiency increased eosinophil accumulation in response to an allergic inflammatory stimulus, we measured expression levels of the eosinophil-specific chemokines in alveolar macrophages isolated from the lungs of mice with eosinophilic inflammation-induced PH. In these experiments, the levels of CCL11 and CCL24 were higher in macrophages isolated from APN-deficient mice than in macrophages from wild-type mice. Finally, we demonstrate that the extracts of eosinophil granules promoted the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells in vitro. These data suggest that APN deficiency may exacerbate PH, in part, by increasing eosinophil recruitment into the lung and that eosinophils could play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced PH. These results may have implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of PH caused by vascular inflammation. PMID:21908591

Weng, M; Baron, D M; Bloch, K D; Luster, A D; Lee, J J; Medoff, B D



Eosinophilic airway disorders associated with chronic cough.  


Chronic cough is a major clinical problem. The causes of chronic cough can be categorized into eosinophilic and noneosinophilic disorders, the former being comprised of asthma, cough variant asthma (CVA), atopic cough (AC) and non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB). Cough is one of the major symptoms of asthma. Cough in asthma can be classified into three categories; 1) CVA: asthma presenting solely with coughing, 2) cough-predominant asthma: asthma predominantly presenting with coughing but also with dyspnea and/or wheezing, and 3) cough remaining after treatment with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and beta2-agonists in patients with classical asthma, despite control of other symptoms. There may be two subtypes in the last category; one is cough responsive to anti-mediator drugs such as leukotriene receptor antagonists and histamine H1 receptor antagonists, and the other is cough due to co-morbid conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux. CVA is one of the commonest causes of chronic isolated cough. It shares a number of pathophysiological features with classical asthma with wheezing such as atopy, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic airway inflammation and various features of airway remodeling. One third of adult patients may develop wheezing and progress to classical asthma. As established in classical asthma, ICS is considered the first-line treatment, which improves cough and may also reduce the risk of progression to classical asthma. AC proposed by Fujimura et al. presents with bronchodilator-resistant dry cough associated with an atopic constitution. It involves eosinophilic tracheobronchitis and cough hypersensitivity and responds to ICS treatment, while lacking in AHR and variable airflow obstruction. These features are shared by non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB). However, atopic cough does not involve bronchoalveolar eosinophilia, has no evidence of airway remodeling, and rarely progresses to classical asthma, unlike CVA and NAEB. Histamine H1 antagonists are effective in atopic cough, but their efficacy in NAEB is unknown. AHR of NAEB may improve with ICS within the normal range. Taken together, NAEB significantly overlaps with atopic cough, but might also include milder cases of CVA with very modest AHR. The similarity and difference of these related entities presenting with chronic cough and characterized by airway eosinophilia will be discussed. PMID:19121405

Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Mishima, Michiaki



Cytokine-secreting activity of blood eosinophils in pulmonary tuberculosis.  


Modern immunological studies showed that eosinophilic granulocytes producing the key mediators of cellular and humoral immune response contribute to the common cytokine imbalance developing in tuberculous infection. A significant increase in BCG-induced secretion of IL-2, IL-5, and TNF-? by eosinophils in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis indicated high reserve reactivity of eosinophilic cells realizing their functional potential in regulation of the specific resistance reactions of the microorganism under conditions of M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:22866301

Kolobovnikova, U V; Urazova, O I; Novitsky, V V; Voronkova, O V; Naslednikova, I O; Mikheeva, K O; Ignatov, M V



Schistosoma mansoni infection in eosinophil lineage-ablated mice.  


We explore the controversial issue of the role of eosinophils in host defense against helminthic parasites using the established Schistosoma mansoni infection model in 2 novel mouse models of eosinophil lineage ablation (DeltadblGATA and TgPHIL). No eosinophils were detected in bone marrow of infected DeltadblGATA or TgPHIL mice, despite the fact that serum IL-5 levels in these infected mice exceeded those in infected wild type by approximately 4-fold. Liver granulomata from infected DeltadblGATA and TgPHIL mice were likewise depleted of eosinophils compared with those from their respective wild types. No eosinophil-dependent differences in granuloma number, size, or fibrosis were detected at weeks 8 or 12 of infection, and differential accumulation of mast cells was observed among the DeltadblGATA mice only at week 12. Likewise, serum levels of liver transaminases, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased in all mice in response to S mansoni infection, with no eosinophil-dependent differences in hepatocellular damage observed. Finally, eosinophil ablation had no effect on worm burden or on egg deposition. Overall, our data indicate that eosinophil ablation has no impact on traditional measures of disease in the S mansoni infection model in mice. However, eosinophils may have unexplored immunomodulatory contributions to this disease process. PMID:16772607

Swartz, Jonathan M; Dyer, Kimberly D; Cheever, Allen W; Ramalingam, Thirumalai; Pesnicak, Lesley; Domachowske, Joseph B; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A; Foster, Paul S; Wynn, Thomas A; Rosenberg, Helene F



MiR-223 deficiency increases eosinophil progenitor proliferation  

PubMed Central

Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be involved in hematopoietic cell development but their role in eosinophilopoeisis has not yet been described. Here we show that miR-223 is up-regulated during eosinophil differentiation in an ex vivo bone marrow derived eosinophil culture system. Targeted ablation of miR-223 leads to an increased proliferation of eosinophil progenitors. We found up-regulation of a miR-223 target gene – IGF1R in the eosinophil progenitor cultures derived from miR-223-/- mice compared to miR-223+/+ littermate controls. The increased proliferation of miR-223-/- eosinophil progenitors was reversed by treatment with the IGF1R inhibitor (picropodophyllin). Whole genome microarray analysis of differentially regulated genes between miR-223+/+ and miR-223-/- eosinophil progenitor cultures identified a specific enrichment in genes that regulate hematologic cell development. Indeed, miR-223-/- eosinophil progenitors had a delay in differentiation. Our results demonstrate that miRNAs regulate the development of eosinophils by influencing eosinophil progenitor growth and differentiation and identify a contributory role for miR-223 in this process. PMID:23325891

Lu, Thomas X.; Lim, Eun-Jin; Besse, John A.; Itskovich, Svetlana; Plassard, Andrew J.; Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Rothenberg, Marc E.



The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects  

SciTech Connect

Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

Linet, M.S.



Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML) and Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)  


... and Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)/2 Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML) CMML is a clonal disorder, which means ... progresses to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) JMML is an uncommon blood cancer. It ...


Homologous recombination into the eosinophil peroxidase locus generates a strain of mice expressing Cre recombinase exclusively in eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are generally linked to innate host defense against helminths, as well as the pathologies associated with allergic diseases, such as asthma. Nonetheless, the activities of eosinophils remain poorly understood, which in turn, has prevented detailed definitions of their role(s) in health and disease. Homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells was used to insert a mammalianized Cre recombinase in the ORF encoding Epx. This knock-in strategy overcame previous inefficiencies associated with eosinophil-specific transgenic approaches and led to the development of a knock-in strain of mice (eoCRE), capable of mediating recombination of “floxed” reporter cassettes in >95% of peripheral blood eosinophils. We also showed that this Cre expression was limited exclusively to eosinophil-lineage committed cells with no evidence of Cre-mediated toxicity. The efficiency and specificity of Cre expression in eoCRE mice were demonstrated further in a cross with a knock-in mouse containing a “(flox-stop-flox)” DTA cassette at the ROSA26 locus, generating yet another novel, eosinophil-less strain of mice. The development of eoCRE mice represents a milestone in studies of eosinophil biology, permitting eosinophil-specific gene targeting and overexpression in the mouse as part of next-generation studies attempting to define eosinophil effector functions. PMID:23630390

Doyle, Alfred D.; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Ochkur, Sergei I.; Willetts, Lian; Shim, Kelly; Neely, Joseph; Kloeber, Jake; LeSuer, Will E.; Pero, Ralph S.; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A.; Lee, James J.



What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?  


... about chronic myeloid leukemia? What is chronic myeloid leukemia? Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), also known as chronic ... and start making antibodies to fight them. How leukemia starts Any blood-forming or lymphoid cells can ...


Childhood Cancer: Leukemia (For Parents)  


About Leukemia The term leukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells (also called leukocytes or WBCs). When ... the disease without it coming back. Types of Leukemia In general, leukemias are classified into acute (rapidly ...


Emerging Therapeutic Options for Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that often occurs in atopic persons. Management strategies include pharmacotherapy, dietary modification, and endoscopic therapy, although patients will often have a relapsing and remitting course. Currently, the primary pharmacotherapy for EoE consists of corticosteroids. Immuno-modulators, leukotriene antagonists, biologies, and monoclonal antibodies are currently under study for treatment of EoE. The role of immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reactions has been well documented and may provide insight into the etiology and effective therapy of EoE. PMID:24803874

Dougherty, Timothy; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.



[Pathogenesis and clinical features of nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis].  


The introduction of induced sputum, as the diagnostic and research tool allowed to define nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis characterized as a chronic cough in patients with no symptoms or objective evidence of variable airflow obstruction, with normal airway hyperresponsiveness and sputum eosinophilia. Eosinophilic bronchitis is an important cause of chronic cough. Studies in which the assessment of airway inflammation has been undertaken in chronic cough patients have shown that nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis accounts for 10 to 30% of cases referred for specialist investigation. Eosinophilic bronchitis, like asthma, is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation, but unlike asthma, there is no airway hyperresponsiveness or bronchoconstriction. The airway immunopathology of asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis are almost identical. An obvious question is why an apparently similar pattern of airway inflammation is associated with different functional abnormalities in patients with nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma. The differences in functional association may be related to differences in the localization of mast cells within the airway wall, with airway smooth muscle infiltration occurring in patients with asthma, and epithelial infiltration in patients with nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. PMID:18080990

Dor-Wojnarowska, Anna; Panaszek, Bernard



Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia and pregnancy: report of a case.  


A case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and pregnancy is reported. In 1989, a 24-year-old woman with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia became pregnant. We decided not to stop steroid therapy. Except for premature preterm rupture of the membrane she had a uneventful pregnancy and a male infant with no distress syndrome. PMID:7819748

Tosoni, C; Faden, D; Cattaneo, R; Lojacono, A; Tanzi, P; Franzini, M; Rizzini, F L



Dissection of the Hyperadhesive Phenotype of Airway Eosinophils in Asthma  

E-print Network

Dissection of the Hyperadhesive Phenotype of Airway Eosinophils in Asthma Steven R. Barthel, Nizar, and Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin­Madison, Madison, Wisconsin Asthma is characterized. Keywords: adhesion molecules; cell trafficking; eosinophils; human Asthma is an inflammatory syndrome

Mosher, Deane F.


Eosinophilic Pneumonia-like Areas in Idiopathic Usual Interstitial Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usual interstitial pneumonia is the most common idiopathic chronic interstitial pneumonia, characterized by a temporally heterogenous pattern of interstitial injury with interstitial mononuclear infiltrates, septal fibromyxoid nodules, and parenchymal scarring. This report details the presence of focal eosinophilic pneumonia in six cases of usual interstitial pneumonia in the absence of known causes of this reaction. The relationship of eosinophilic infiltrates

Samuel A. Yousem



Eosinophilic Pleural Effusion: A Rare Manifestation of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Several causes of eosinophilic pleural effusions have been described with malignancy being the commonest cause. Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare disease and very few cases have been reported of HES presenting as eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE). We report a case of a 26-year-old male who presented with shortness of breath. He had bilateral pleural effusions, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and leukocytosis with marked peripheral blood eosinophilia. The pleural fluid was exudative, with 25%–30% eosinophilis, and absence of neoplastic cells. Hypereosinophilic syndrome was diagnosed after other causes of eosinophilia were excluded. He continued to be dyspneic with persistent accumulation of eosinophilic pleural fluid, even after his peripheral eosinophil count had normalized in response to treatment. This patient represents a very unusual presentation of HES with dyspnea and pleural effusions and demonstrates that treatment based on response of peripheral eosinophil counts, as is currently recommended, may not always be clinically adequate. PMID:20111739

Okafor, Ndubuisi C.; Oso, Ayodeji A.; Oranu, Amanke C.; Wolff, Steven M.; Murray, John J.



Leukemia - B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia and Hairy Cell Leukemia  


... Net Patient Education Video : View a short video led by an ASCO expert in leukemia that provides basic information and areas of research. To continue reading this guide, use the menu on the side of your screen to select another section. ‹ Leukemia - B-cell Prolymphocytic ...


Eosinophil Cytokines, Chemokines, and Growth Factors: Emerging Roles in Immunity  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils derive from the bone marrow and circulate at low levels in the blood in healthy individuals. These granulated cells preferentially leave the circulation and marginate to tissues, where they are implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In diseases such as allergic inflammation, eosinophil numbers escalate markedly in the blood and tissues where inflammatory foci are located. Eosinophils possess a range of immunomodulatory factors that are released upon cell activation, including over 35 cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Unlike T and B cells, eosinophils can rapidly release cytokines within minutes in response to stimulation. While some cytokines are stored as pre-formed mediators in crystalloid granules and secretory vesicles, eosinophils are also capable of undergoing de novo synthesis and secretion of these immunological factors. Some of the molecular mechanisms that coordinate the final steps of cytokine secretion are hypothesized to involve binding of membrane fusion complexes comprised of soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs). These intracellular receptors regulate the release of granules and vesicles containing a range of secreted proteins, among which are cytokines and chemokines. Emerging evidence from both human and animal model-based research has suggested an active participation of eosinophils in several physiological/pathological processes such as immunomodulation and tissue remodeling. The observed eosinophil effector functions in health and disease implicate eosinophil cytokine secretion as a fundamental immunoregulatory process. The focus of this review is to describe the cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines that are elaborated by eosinophils, and to illustrate some of the intracellular events leading to the release of eosinophil-derived cytokines.

Davoine, Francis; Lacy, Paige



Activation of the Fas receptor on lung eosinophils leads to apoptosis and the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation of the airways.  

PubMed Central

While considerable progress has been made in understanding the events by which eosinophils accumulate in various pathophysiological conditions, the mechanisms controlling the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation are poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that lung eosinophils obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after aerosol allergen provocation of immunized mice expressed the Fas receptor. Stimulation of purified eosinophils in vitro with a monoclonal anti-Fas mAb (1 ng-1 microg/ml) induced a dose/time dependent loss of cell viability from 24-72 h. Measurement of DNA fragmentation with propidium iodide confirmed that anti-Fas induced eosinophil death by apoptosis. While incubation with IL-3, IL-5, or GM-CSF prevented spontaneous apoptosis, these factors failed to prevent anti-Fas induced apoptosis. Administration of anti-Fas mAb to the lungs after the induction of a lung eosinophilia increased the number of peroxidase positive macrophages in BAL fluid 4-12 h later which was followed by a marked reduction in the number of eosinophils in the airways. Importantly, Fas-mediated resolution of eosinophilic inflammation occurred in the absence of any overt secondary inflammatory changes in the lungs. We speculate that defects in this pathway may at least in part explain the chronic eosinophilic inflammation often observed in the lungs of asthmatic individuals. Images PMID:8675664

Tsuyuki, S; Bertrand, C; Erard, F; Trifilieff, A; Tsuyuki, J; Wesp, M; Anderson, G P; Coyle, A J



IL-5 Triggers a Cooperative Cytokine Network That Promotes Eosinophil Precursor Maturation.  


Eosinophils originate in the bone marrow from an eosinophil lineage-committed, IL-5R?-positive, hematopoietic progenitor (eosinophil progenitor). Indeed, IL-5 is recognized as a critical regulator of eosinophilia and has effects on eosinophil progenitors, eosinophil precursors, and mature eosinophils. However, substantial levels of eosinophils remain after IL-5 neutralization or genetic deletion, suggesting that there are alternative pathways for promoting eosinophilia. In this study, we investigated the contributory role of IL-5 accessory cytokines on the final stages of eosinophil differentiation. IL-5 stimulation of low-density bone marrow cells resulted in expression of a panel of cytokines and cytokine receptors, including several ligand-receptor pairs. Notably, IL-4 and IL-4R? were expressed by eosinophil precursors and mature eosinophils. Signaling through IL-4R? promoted eosinophil maturation when IL-5 was present, but IL-4 stimulation in the absence of IL-5 resulted in impaired eosinophil survival, suggesting that IL-4 cooperates with IL-5 to promote eosinophil differentiation. In contrast, CCL3, an eosinophil precursor-produced chemokine that signals through CCR1, promotes terminal differentiation of CCR1-positive eosinophil precursors in the absence of IL-5, highlighting an autocrine loop capable of sustaining eosinophil differentiation. These findings suggest that brief exposure to IL-5 is sufficient to initiate a cytokine cooperative network that promotes eosinophil differentiation of low-density bone marrow cells independent of further IL-5 stimulation. PMID:25230753

Fulkerson, Patricia C; Schollaert, Kaila L; Bouffi, Carine; Rothenberg, Marc E



Snapshot of Leukemia  


... for Leukemia Research The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) investment 2 in leukemia research increased from $216.4 ... Report , in 2010 dollars. 2 The estimated NCI investment is based on funding associated with a broad ...


Acute Myeloid Leukemia  


Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood ...


Leukemia Trial Results  


... Trials Reporting Program Coordinating Center for Clinical Trials Leukemia Trial Results Ibrutinib Improves Survival Compared with Ofatumumab in Patients with Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (Posted: 06/27/2014) - In an international randomized ...


Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia  


Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood ...


Chronic Myeloid Leukemia  


Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...


Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  


Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...


Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. An acute leukemia can become worse quickly if it is not treated and can result in death within months. AML is the most common type of acute leukemia in American adults and the average age of a patient with AML is 67.


Eosinophils, bronchitis and asthma: pathogenesis of cough and airflow obstruction.  


Eosinophilic airway inflammation is commonly observed in chronic cough in patients with asthma and non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. Indeed asthma and non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis are amongst the commonest causes of chronic cough accounting for about 25 and 10% of cases respectively. In most cases the trigger that causes the cough is uncertain; however removal of potential triggers is important to consider in particular with respect to occupational exposure to known sensitizers. In both conditions the cough improves subjectively and objectively following treatment with corticosteroids. This improvement is associated with the presence of an airway eosinophilia, but whether eosinophilic inflammation is the cause of cough or an epiphenomenon is uncertain. The success of anti-IL5 to reduce eosinophilic inflammation and asthma exacerbations contrasts with the lack of efficacy to modify cough in asthma and therefore challenges a causal association. Both asthma and non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis can lead onto airway remodeling and result in persistent airflow obstruction. However, response to corticosteroid therapy in both conditions is generally very good and the limited long term data available suggests that both usually have a benign course. Interestingly, improvement in airway remodeling in response to anti-IL5 observed using CT imaging and analysis of sub-epithelial matrix deposition does suggest that the eosinophil may play a causal role in airway remodeling. PMID:21074631

Brightling, C E



Nutritional management of Eosinophilic Gastroenteropathies: Case series from the community  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic colitis, have classically been treated with swallowed inhaled corticosteroids or oral corticosteroids. More recent studies have found elimination and elemental diets to be effective treatment alternatives to steroids. In this case series we describe the treatment of three children using nutritional management in a community setting. Elimination diets and elemental diets based on patch testing and skin prick tests reduced the eosinophil counts to normal levels in all three children. Food items which tested positive were then reintroduced while symptoms and eosinophil counts were monitored. Nutritional management of eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic colitis was found to be effective in reducing symptoms. However, obstacles facing patients who choose this type of therapy include limitations due to the cost of repeated endoscopies, palatability of elimination/elemental diets and the availability of subspecialists trained in management (e.g. Allergy, Gastroenterology, and Pathology). It may be a worthwhile endeavour to overcome these obstacles as nutritional management minimizes the potential long-term effects of chronic steroid therapy. PMID:21619708



Therapeutic Targeting of Eosinophil Adhesion and Accumulation in Allergic Conjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

Considerable evidence indicates that eosinophils are important effectors of ocular allergy. Increased worldwide prevalence of allergic eye pathologies has stimulated the identification of novel drug targets, including eosinophils and adhesion molecules. Accumulation of eosinophils in the eye is a key event in the onset and maintenance of allergic inflammation and is mediated by different adhesion molecules. Antihistamines with multiple mechanisms of action can be effective during the early and late phases of allergic conjunctivitis by blocking the interaction between ?1 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Small molecule antagonists that target key elements in the process of eosinophil recruitment have been identified and reinforce the validity of ?4?1 integrin as a therapeutic target. Glucocorticoids are among the most effective drugs for ocular allergy, but their use is limited by adverse effects. Novel dissociated glucocorticoids can prevent eosinophil accumulation and induce apoptosis of eosinophils, making them promising candidates for ophthalmic drugs. This article reviews recent understanding of the role of adhesion molecules in eosinophil recruitment in the inflamed conjunctiva along with effective treatments for allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:23271999

Baiula, Monica; Bedini, Andrea; Carbonari, Gioia; Dattoli, Samantha Deianira; Spampinato, Santi



Eosinophilic myocarditis: two case reports and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic myocarditis is a rare and often under-diagnosed subtype of myocarditis with only around 30 cases published in the medical literature. In this article we present two patients with eosinophilic myocarditis with the aim to demonstrate the often elusive nature of the disease and present the current scientific literature on this topic. Case presentation A 76 years old Caucasian gentleman and a 36 years old Aboriginal gentleman both presenting with heart failure symptoms were eventually diagnosed with eosinophilic myocarditis after extensive evaluation. Their presentation, assessment, and medical management is explored in this article. Conclusions Eosinophilic myocarditis remains a rare and likely under-diagnosed subtype of myocarditis. The key features of this disease include myocardial injury in the setting of non-contributory coronary artery disease. Endomyocardial biopsy remains the definitive gold standard for diagnosis of noninfectious eosinophilic myocarditis. Non-invasive cardiac imaging in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia can be strongly suggestive of eosinophilic myocarditis with potential for earlier diagnosis. Failure to diagnose eosinophilic myocarditis and the delay of therapy may lead to irreversible myocardial injury. Therapies for this disease have yet to be validated in large prospective studies. PMID:24344829



Pathways for eosinophil lipid body induction: differing signal transduction in cells from normal and hypereosinophilic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although lipid bodies, inducible cyto- plasmic inclusions active in arachidonic acid me- tabolism, are abundant in activated leukocytes, including eosinophils, mechanisms for eosinophil lipid body formation are not certain. Eosinophils from hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) donors contained about twice (D18\\/cell) as many lipid bodies as eosinophils from normal donors (D10\\/ cell). By immunocytochemistry both 5- and 15- lipoxygenases were localized at

Patricia T. Bozza; Wengui Yu; Jessica Cassara; Peter F. Weller


Eosinophil Deficiency Compromises Lung Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Exposure to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus may result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive aspergillosis (IA), depending on the host's immune status. Neutrophil deficiency is the predominant risk factor for the development of IA, the most life-threatening condition associated with A. fumigatus exposure. Here we demonstrate that in addition to neutrophils, eosinophils are an important contributor to the clearance of A. fumigatus from the lung. Acute A. fumigatus challenge in normal mice induced the recruitment of CD11b+ Siglec F+ Ly-6Glo Ly-6Cneg CCR3+ eosinophils to the lungs, which was accompanied by an increase in lung Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) mRNA levels. Mice deficient in the transcription factor dblGATA1, which exhibit a selective deficiency in eosinophils, demonstrated impaired A. fumigatus clearance and evidence of germinating organisms in the lung. Higher burden correlated with lower mRNA expression of Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) and Prg2 (major basic protein) as well as lower interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-17A, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and CXCL1 levels. However, examination of lung inflammatory cell populations failed to demonstrate defects in monocyte/macrophage, dendritic cell, or neutrophil recruitment in dblGATA1-deficient mice, suggesting that the absence of eosinophils in dlbGATA1-deficient mice was the sole cause of impaired lung clearance. We show that eosinophils generated from bone marrow have potent killing activity against A. fumigtaus in vitro, which does not require cell contact and can be recapitulated by eosinophil whole-cell lysates. Collectively, our data support a role for eosinophils in the lung response after A. fumigatus exposure. PMID:24379296

Lilly, Lauren M.; Scopel, Michaella; Nelson, Michael P.; Burg, Ashley R.; Dunaway, Chad W.



Successful treatment of eosinophilic pleural effusions following congenital heart surgery.  


We report two children, age 7 months and 5 years, who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease and developed persistent pleural effusions with elevated eosinophil counts. Given the elevation of eosinophil counts in both blood and pleural fluid of these patients, it was considered that an allergic response might have caused the persistent effusion. In both cases, the effusion resolved within 48 hours after treatment with corticosteroids was begun. It is possible that postoperative eosinophilic pleural effusion may represent a subgroup of effusions that are more likely to respond to treatment with corticosteroids. PMID:16391983

Perens, G S; Shannon, K M; Levi, D S; Drant, S



[The infant with leukemia].  


Infant leukemia is rare and especially in newborn leukemoid reactions should be excluded by careful cytogenetic analysis before starting cytotoxic therapy. Infants have either acute lymphoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia or acute undifferentiated leukemia. At present they have a bad outlook due to many coinciding unfavorable initial disease characteristics: high leukocyte count, liver and spleen enlargement, meningeal involvement, no expression of common ALL antigen, and a high frequency of pseudodiploid cells, that is with a translocation 4;II. The immaturity of organs and systems makes it difficult to treat these infants, and requires optimal supportive care. Therapeutic protocols for prospective clinical trials for leukemia in this age group are urgently needed. PMID:3287687

Kamps, W A; Sjamsoedin-Visser, E J; van Wering, E R



Diagnosis and management of eosinophilic asthma: a US perspective  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic asthma is now recognized as an important subphenotype of asthma based on the pattern of inflammatory cellular infiltrate in the airway. Eosinophilic asthma can be associated with increased asthma severity, atopy, late-onset disease, and steroid refractoriness. Induced sputum cell count is the gold standard for identifying eosinophilic inflammation in asthma although several noninvasive biomarkers, including fractional exhaled nitric oxide and periostin, are emerging as potential surrogates. As novel therapies and biologic agents become increasingly available, there is an increased need for specific phenotype-directed treatment strategies. Greater recognition and understanding of the unique immunopathology of this asthma phenotype has important implications for management of the disease and the potential to improve patient outcomes. The present review provides a summary of the clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of eosinophilic asthma. PMID:24748808

Walford, Hannah H; Doherty, Taylor A




EPA Science Inventory

Proliferative lesions comprised of eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs) extended throughout the gastrointestinal tract of several mature, spawning coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum). istological examination of the tumour showed extensive proliferation and infiltration of EGC...


Methotrexate-induced pleuropericarditis and eosinophilic pleural effusion.  


A 41-year-old man developed widespread skin rash involving his knees, elbows, and gluteal region. He received methotrexate for approximately 1 month and later developed dyspnea and a left-sided eosinophilic pleural effusion. He was transiently placed on oral steroids. Subsequent skin biopsy showed psoriatric arthritis. Methotrexate was restarted and 8 weeks into the treatment, he developed dyspnea, a hemorrhagic pericardial effusion, and a right-sided eosinophilic pleural effusion. Methotrexate was discontinued, but patient developed dyspnea with a recurrent right eosinophilic pleural effusion, 2 weeks later. Pleural biopsies were obtained through medical pleuroscopy that revealed mild chronic inflammation with prominent eosinophils and no evidence for malignancy. Oral steroids were restarted with significant improvement in his symptoms. PMID:24419196

Cudzilo, Corey; Aragaki, Alejandro; Guitron, Julian; Benzaquen, Sadia



Chronic Periaortitis (Retroperitoneal Fibrosis) Concurrent with Recurrent Cutaneous Eosinophilic Vasculitis  

PubMed Central

Chronic periaortitis (CP) is usually accompanied by at least mild manifestations of systemic autoimmunity; however, skin manifestations are rare. Here, we report an 82-year-old woman presenting with a pruritic annular eosinophilic dermatosis that led to the diagnosis of recurrent cutaneous eosinophilic vasculitis (RCEV) coexisting with a latent CP. The present paper is reminder that a CP should be included as a potential differential diagnosis in the elaboration of patients with cutaneous vasculitis that is suspicious of underlying autoimmunity. PMID:23198176

Kiorpelidou, Despoina; Gaitanis, Georgios; Zioga, Aikaterini; Tsili, Athina C.; Bassukas, Ioannis D.



Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Patients with Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Eosinophilic esophagitis is among the causes of refractory reflux disease. Biopsy of esophagus is the gold standard for diagnosis.\\u000a In this study we determined the frequency of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) in refractory reflux cases referred to Motility\\u000a Department of Shahid Beheshti Research Center of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 68 cases with refractory

Mojgan Foroutan; Alireza Norouzi; Mahsa Molaei; Seyed Amir Mirbagheri; Shahrokh Irvani; Amir Sadeghi; Faramarz Derakhshan; Samaneh Tavassoli; Sima Besharat; Mohammadreza Zali



Tumor necrosis factor enhances eosinophil toxicity to Schistosoma mansoni larvae.  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a monocyte product that kills or inhibits the growth of certain tumor cells. Its cell source and physical characteristics suggest that it is similar to a monokine, eosinophil-cytotoxicity-enhancing factor (M-ECEF), that activates human eosinophil toxicity to Schistosoma mansoni larvae. The availability of recombinant human TNF allowed us to test this possibility. The data show that TNF has no direct effect on the parasites but enhances eosinophil toxicity to the parasites in a dose-dependent fashion. This effect is specific for eosinophils and not neutrophils. TNF and the eosinophil-specific activity of TNF are coeluted with M-ECEF in reversed-phase HPLC. Further, M-ECEF activity in HPLC fractions is reduced by treatment with rabbit anti-TNF antibody and protein A-Sepharose. This demonstrates physical similarity and at least partial immunological identity of TNF and a fraction of M-ECEF. Thus, TNF can enhance eosinophil function and may constitute an important immunological regulatory mechanism. This effect should be considered when TNF is applied clinically. Images PMID:3456562

Silberstein, D S; David, J R



CCR3 Blockade Attenuates Eosinophilic Ileitis and Associated Remodeling.  


Intestinal remodeling and stricture formation is a complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that often requires surgical intervention. Although eosinophils are associated with mucosal remodeling in other organs and are increased in IBD tissues, their role in IBD-associated remodeling is unclear. Histological and molecular features of ileitis and remodeling were assessed using immunohistochemical, histomorphometric, flow cytometric, and molecular analysis (real-time RT-PCR) techniques in a murine model of chronic eosinophilic ileitis. Collagen protein was assessed by Sircol assay. Using a spontaneous eosinophilic Crohn's-like mouse model SAMP1/SkuSlc, we demonstrate an association between ileitis progression and remodeling over the course of 40 weeks. Mucosal and submucosal eosinophilia increased over the time course and correlated with increased histological inflammatory indices. Ileitis and remodeling increased over the 40 weeks, as did expression of fibronectin. CCR3-specific antibody-mediated reduction of eosinophils resulted in significant decrease in goblet cell hyperplasia, muscularis propria hypertrophy, villus blunting, and expression of inflammatory and remodeling genes, including fibronectin. Cellularity of local mesenteric lymph nodes, including T- and B-lymphocytes, was also significantly reduced. Thus, eosinophils participate in intestinal remodeling, supporting eosinophils as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:21945903

Masterson, Joanne C; McNamee, Eóin N; Jedlicka, Paul; Fillon, Sophie; Ruybal, Joseph; Hosford, Lindsay; Rivera-Nieves, Jesús; Lee, James J; Furuta, Glenn T



Update on clinical and immunological features of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) are an increasingly common heterogeneous group of intestinal diseases. The purpose of this review is to present the latest developments in the care of patients with EGIDs and to summarize a growing literature defining the clinical features and mechanistic elements of eosinophils and their complex relationships with the gastrointestinal tract. Recent findings Recent studies continue to define what constitutes ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ numbers of eosinophils in the different sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptom complexes of EGIDs appear to be related primarily to the mucosal, as opposed to the muscular or serosal, forms of EGIDs. Dissection of the mucosal microenvironment is uncovering a complex array of cells, other than eosinophils, that likely contribute to the inflammatory response associated with EGIDs. Mechanistic studies have identified genetic perturbations (eotaxin-3, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-13, and filaggrin) that may also contribute to the development of the most often encountered and well studied EGID, eosinophilic esophagitis. Summary Clinicians should remain aware of EGIDs as a diagnostic possibility for patients with common gastrointestinal symptoms. Additional research is needed to determine mechanistic processes leading to dysfunction associated with eosinophilic gastrointestinal inflammation. PMID:21897226

Masterson, Joanne C.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Lee, James J.



Eosinophil-derived IL-10 supports chronic nematode infection.  


Eosinophilia is a feature of the host immune response that distinguishes parasitic worms from other pathogens, yet a discrete function for eosinophils in worm infection has been elusive. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying the striking and unexpected observation that eosinophils protect intracellular, muscle-stage Trichinella spiralis larvae against NO-mediated killing. Our findings indicate that eosinophils are specifically recruited to sites of infection at the earliest stage of muscle infection, consistent with a local response to injury. Early recruitment is essential for larval survival. By producing IL-10 at the initiation of infection, eosinophils expand IL-10(+) myeloid dendritic cells and CD4(+) IL-10(+) T lymphocytes that inhibit inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and protect intracellular larvae. The results document a novel immunoregulatory function of eosinophils in helminth infection, in which eosinophil-derived IL-10 drives immune responses that eventually limit local NO production. In this way, the parasite co-opts an immune response in a way that enhances its own survival. PMID:25210122

Huang, Lu; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A



Eosinophilic bronchiolitis indicating eosinophilic airway disease with overexpression of carcinoembryonic antigen in sinus and bronchiole: case report.  


The present case showed eosinophilic bronchiolitis and sinusitis with an overexpression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in lung and sinus and an elevation of serum CEA level, both of which were improved by oral steroid therapy. A 54-year-old asthmatic woman had developed a shortness of breath on exertion, and the chest X-ray revealed diffuse centrilobular shadows. Her serum CEA level had increased gradually. Eosinophil infiltration and overexpression of CEA were demonstrated in both the lung and sinus by immunohistochemistry. Both the lung and sinus lesions, and the serum CEA level were improved by oral steroid therapy. No evidence of tumor was found by extensive examination. From this case, eosinophilic bronchiolitis was considered to be an airway disease like "eosinophilic sinobronchiolitis" through the common pathophysiology of CEA, and serum CEA level was a good marker of disease condition. PMID:20385076

Yanagitani, N; Shimizu, Y; Kazama, T; Dobashi, K; Ishizuka, T; Mori, M



What Is Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia?  


... about chronic myelomonocytic leukemia? What is chronic myelomonocytic leukemia? Chronic myelomonocytic (MY-eh-loh-MAH-noh-SIH- ... can bleed and bruise a lot. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia CMML patients have a high number of monocytes ...


Eosinophilic Fasciitis Associated with Mycoplasma arginini Infection  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) with generalized sclerodermiform skin lesions developed over a 19-month period in a previously healthy 23-year-old man. Although we confirmed EF by skin histology and laboratory tests, the recurrent fevers and the clinical observation of sclerotic prepuce with urethritis indicated further bacteriological analysis by conventional microbiological and DNA-based tests. Urethra cultures were positive for an arginine-hydrolyzing mycoplasma and Ureaplasma urealyticum. The patient also had serum IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based qualitative detection. Mycoplasma arginini was isolated from two independent venous blood serum samples and was identified by conventional microbiological tests and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes (GenBank sequence accession numbers HM179555 and HM179556, respectively). M. arginini genomic DNA also was detected by species-specific PCR in the skin lesion biopsy sample. Treatment with corticosteroids and long-term courses of selected antibiotics led to remission of skin symptoms and normalization of laboratory values. This report provides the first evidence of EF associated with mycoplasma infection and the second report of human infection with M. arginini and therefore suggests that this mycoplasma infection might have contributed to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:22189109

Silló, Pálma; Pintér, Dóra; Ostorházi, Eszter; Mazán, Mercedes; Wikonkál, Norbert; Pónyai, Katinka; Volokhov, Dmitriy V.; Chizhikov, Vladimir E.; Szathmary, Susan; Stipkovits, Laszlo



Eosinophils and mast cells in leishmaniasis.  


Leishmania spp. are parasitic protozoa endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a collection of syndromes whose clinical manifestations vary according to host and pathogen factors. Leishmania spp. are inoculated into the mammalian host by the bite of an infected sand fly, whereupon they are taken up by phagocytosis, convert into the replicative amastigote stage within macrophages, reproduce, spread to new macrophages and cause disease manifestations. A curative response against leishmaniasis depends in the classical activation of macrophages and the IL-12-dependent onset of an adaptive type 1 response characterized by the production of IFN-?. Emerging evidence suggests that neutrophils, dendritic cells and other immune cells can serve as either temporary or stable hosts for Leishmania spp. Furthermore, it is becoming apparent that the initial interactions of the parasite with resident or early recruited immune cells can shape both the macrophage response and the type of adaptive immune response being induced. In this review, we compile a growing number of studies demonstrating how the earliest interactions of Leishmania spp. with eosinophils and mast cells influence the macrophage response to infection and the development of the adaptive immune response, hence, determining the ultimate outcome of infection. PMID:24838146

Rodríguez, Nilda E; Wilson, Mary E



Diagnosis and classification of eosinophilic fasciitis.  


Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare scleroderma-like syndrome with an unknown etiology and pathogenesis that should be considered an immune-allergic disorder. Painful swelling with progressive induration and thickening of the skin and soft tissues of the limbs and trunk are the clinical hallmarks of the disease. Peripheral blood eosinophilia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate are the main laboratory findings. Full-thickness wedge biopsy of the clinically affected skin showing inflammation and thickening of deep fascia is essential to establish the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis includes systemic sclerosis and other scleroderma subsets such as morphea, and epidemic fasciitis syndromes caused by toxic agents such as the myalgia-eosinophilia syndrome and toxic oil syndrome. Peripheral T cell lymphomas should also be ruled out. The diagnosis of EF can be established by clinical, laboratory and histological findings, but universally accepted international diagnostic criteria are lacking. Corticosteroids are efficacious and remain the standard therapy for EF, although some patients may improve spontaneously. PMID:24424187

Pinal-Fernandez, I; Selva-O' Callaghan, A; Grau, J M



Eosinophil cationic protein in tears in allergic conjunctivitis.  

PubMed Central

AIMS/BACKGROUND--Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a quantifiable product secreted by activated eosinophils. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of eosinophil activity in different clinical stages of various forms of allergic conjunctivitis. METHODS--Tears were collected in glass capillary tubes from 14 subjects with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), 23 subjects with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 16 subjects with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), 10 subjects with giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC), and 16 healthy control subjects. The samples were analysed in duplicate with a radio-immunoassay for ECP. RESULTS--Statistically significant differences were evident between healthy controls and allergic subjects (p < 0.001). Subjects with AKC and VKC had significantly higher tear ECP values than subjects with GPC and SAC. In addition, there was a significant correlation between ECP values and disease severity in all disorders. CONCLUSION--The data suggest a particular pathogenic role of the eosinophil in VKC and AKC, and a less pronounced but still important eosinophil involvement in the disease processes of GPC and SAC. PMID:8759270

Montan, P. G.; van Hage-Hamsten, M.



Eosinophil cationic protein in tears in allergic conjunctivitis.  


AIMS/BACKGROUND--Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a quantifiable product secreted by activated eosinophils. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of eosinophil activity in different clinical stages of various forms of allergic conjunctivitis. METHODS--Tears were collected in glass capillary tubes from 14 subjects with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), 23 subjects with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 16 subjects with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), 10 subjects with giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC), and 16 healthy control subjects. The samples were analysed in duplicate with a radio-immunoassay for ECP. RESULTS--Statistically significant differences were evident between healthy controls and allergic subjects (p < 0.001). Subjects with AKC and VKC had significantly higher tear ECP values than subjects with GPC and SAC. In addition, there was a significant correlation between ECP values and disease severity in all disorders. CONCLUSION--The data suggest a particular pathogenic role of the eosinophil in VKC and AKC, and a less pronounced but still important eosinophil involvement in the disease processes of GPC and SAC. PMID:8759270

Montan, P G; van Hage-Hamsten, M



EP4 receptor stimulation down-regulates human eosinophil function.  


Accumulation of eosinophils in tissue is a hallmark of allergic inflammation. Here we observed that a selective agonist of the PGE(2) receptor EP4, ONO AE1-329, potently attenuated the chemotaxis of human peripheral blood eosinophils, upregulation of the adhesion molecule CD11b and the production of reactive oxygen species. These effects were accompanied by the inhibition of cytoskeletal rearrangement and Ca(2+) mobilization. The involvement of the EP4 receptor was substantiated by a selective EP4 antagonist, which reversed the inhibitory effects of PGE(2) and the EP4 agonist. Selective kinase inhibitors revealed that the inhibitory effect of EP4 stimulation on eosinophil migration depended upon activation of PI 3-kinase and PKC, but not cAMP. Finally, we found that EP4 receptors are expressed by human eosinophils, and are also present on infiltrating leukocytes in inflamed human nasal mucosa. These data indicate that EP4 agonists might be a novel therapeutic option in eosinophilic diseases. PMID:21365278

Luschnig-Schratl, Petra; Sturm, Eva M; Konya, Viktoria; Philipose, Sonia; Marsche, Gunther; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Samberger, Claudia; Lang-Loidolt, Doris; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Lippe, Irmgard Th; Peskar, Bernhard A; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos



Unusual presentations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis: two case reports.  


Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease that is characterized by eosinophil infiltration in one or multiple segments of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology of this condition remains unknown. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis has heterogeneous clinical manifestations that depend upon the location and depth of infiltration in the gastrointestinal tract, and eosinophilia may or may not be present. This article reports two cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. The first is that of a 49-year-old woman with abdominal pain, ascites, eosinophilia, and a history of asthma. The second case is that of a 69-year-old male with a history of loss of appetite, belching, postprandial fullness, heartburn, and a 5-kilogram weight loss over a period of 9 months; ultimately, the patient was diagnosed with a gastric outlet obstruction due to pyloric stenosis. The rare character of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and its varied clinical presentations often lead to delayed diagnoses and complications. Case reports may help to disseminate knowledge about the disease, thereby increasing the likelihood of early diagnosis and intervention to prevent complications. PMID:25141324

Leal, Regina; Fayad, Leonardo; Vieira, Daniella; Figueiredo, Teresa; Lopes, Aldemae; Carvalho, Roberta; Dantas-Corrêa, Esther; Schiavon, Leonardo; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína



Eosinophils in Fungus-Associated Allergic Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease. PMID:23378838

Ghosh, Sumit; Hoselton, Scott A.; Dorsam, Glenn P.; Schuh, Jane M.



Nilotinib and Imatinib Mesylate After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia



Leukemia Steering Committee Roster

Leukemia Steering Committee Roster Co-chairs Jerry Radich, M.D.Fred Hutchinson Cancer CenterSeattle, WA Wendy Stock, M.D.University of ChicagoChicago, IL Members Fred Appelbaum, M.D.Fred Hutchinson Cancer CenterSeattle, WA Deborah Banker, Ph.D.Leukemia


Leukemia CTPM November 2011

The Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Working Group of the Leukemia Steering Committee held an in- person meeting on November 2nd, 2011 in Rockville, MD to discuss ALL treatment strategies, consider trials for disease subtypes, and obtain a general consensus on the next clinical trial(s).


Hairy cell leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 24 patients with hairy cell leukemia, histological and fine structural findings from biopsies of the bone marrow are reported and their validity is compared with other diagnostic procedures available. Diagnosis by light microscopy of anterior iliac crest biopsies obtained by the method of myelotomy is possible with a high degree of accuracy. The differentiation of hairy cell leukemia from

K. F. Vykoupil; J. Thiele; A. Georgii



The Family Leukemia Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

Pollitt, Eleanor



Eosinophilic granuloma of the femur in an HIV-1-positive patient.  


A case of eosinophilic granuloma in the right femur of an HIV-1-infected patient is described, and the possible pathogenetic role of HIV infection in eosinophilic granuloma formation is discussed. PMID:11945205

Panayiotakopoulos, G D; Sipsas, N V; Kontos, A; Patsouris, E; Korkolopoulou, P; Revenas, K; Dounis, E; Kordossis, T



Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo.  


Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4(+/+) or il4(-/-) eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103(+) dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activation in vitro and in vivo led to degranulation of eosinophil peroxidase, a granule protein whose enzymatic activity promoted DC activation in mice and humans in vitro, and intestinal and extraintestinal mouse DC activation and mobilization to lymph nodes in vivo. Further, eosinophil peroxidase enhanced responses to ovalbumin seen after immunization. Thus, eosinophils can be critical contributors to the intestinal immune system, and granule-mediated shaping of DC responses can promote both intestinal and extraintestinal adaptive immunity. PMID:25071163

Chu, Derek K; Jimenez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Verschoor, Christopher P; Walker, Tina D; Goncharova, Susanna; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Shen, Pamela; Gordon, Melissa E; Barra, Nicole G; Bassett, Jennifer D; Kong, Joshua; Fattouh, Ramzi; McCoy, Kathy D; Bowdish, Dawn M; Erjefält, Jonas S; Pabst, Oliver; Humbles, Alison A; Kolbeck, Roland; Waserman, Susan; Jordana, Manel



Immunotoxins for leukemia.  


Unconjugated monoclonal antibodies that target hematopoietic differentiation antigens have been developed to treat hematologic malignancies. Although some of these have activity against chronic lymphocytic leukemia and hairy cell leukemia, in general, monoclonal antibodies have limited efficacy as single agents in the treatment of leukemia. To increase their potency, the binding domains of monoclonal antibodies can be attached to protein toxins. Such compounds, termed immunotoxins, are delivered to the interior of leukemia cells based on antibody specificity for cell surface target antigens. Recombinant immunotoxins have been shown to be highly cytotoxic to leukemic blasts in vitro, in xenograft model systems, and in early-phase clinical trials in humans. These agents will likely play an increasing role in the treatment of leukemia. PMID:24578503

Wayne, Alan S; Fitzgerald, David J; Kreitman, Robert J; Pastan, Ira



Emerging Roles of Eosinophils and Eosinophil-Derived Lipid Mediators in the Resolution of Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Acute inflammation and its resolution are essential processes for tissue protection and homeostasis. Once thought to be a passive process, the resolution of inflammation is now shown to involve active biochemical programs that enable inflamed tissues to return to homeostasis. The mechanisms by which acute inflammation is resolved are of interest, and research in recent years has uncovered new endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators (i.e., lipoxins, resolvins, protectin, and maresin) generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This review presents new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of inflammatory resolution, especially the roles of eosinophils, and a series of omega-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that they generate. PMID:22973272

Isobe, Yosuke; Kato, Taiga; Arita, Makoto



Clinicopathological and ultrasonographic features of cats with eosinophilic enteritis.  


Eosinophilic enteritis (EE) in cats is poorly characterized. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologic evidence of eosinophilic inflammation on gastrointestinal biopsy. Twenty-five cats with tissue eosinophilia on surgical (10) or endoscopic (15) biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract, having an abdominal ultrasound performed within 48 h of biopsy acquisition, were enrolled. History, clinical presentation, clinical pathology and abdominal ultrasound findings were reviewed. Intestinal biopsies were evaluated by a single pathologist and separated into two groups based on the degree of eosinophilic infiltrate: mild (<10 eosinophils/high-power field [HPF], 11/25 cats), or moderate/marked (>10 eosinophils/HPF, 14/25 cats). The former were considered primary lymphoplasmacytic or lymphocytic inflammatory bowel disease (LPE) with subtle eosinophilic infiltrates, and the latter to have EE. Signalment, history and clinical signs were similar in all cats. Only cats with EE (6/14) had palpably thickened intestines. The only distinguishing clinicopathological feature of cats with EE was the presence of peripheral eosinophilia (6/14). On ultrasound, when compared with cats with LPE, cats with EE had a greater mean jejunal wall thickness (3.34 mm ± 0.72 mm vs 4.07 mm ± 0.58 mm, respectively) and an increased incidence of thickening of the muscularis layer (1/11 and 11/14, respectively). In conclusion, ultrasonographic evidence of a prominent intestinal muscularis layer, palpably thickened intestines and peripheral eosinophilia can serve as biomarkers for the presence of EE in cats with chronic intestinal signs. PMID:24591305

Tucker, Samuel; Penninck, Dominique G; Keating, John H; Webster, Cynthia Rl



General Information about Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  


Search Español Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®) Last Modified: 06/06/2014 General Information About Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a ...


Regulation of Eosinophil Adhesion by Lysophosphatidylcholine via a Non-Store-Operated Ca2 Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the mechanism by which lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) regulates 2-integrin-mediated adhesion of eosiniophils. Eosinophils were isolated from blood of mildly atopic volunteers by negative immunomagnetic selection. 2-integrin-dependent ad- hesion of eosinophils to plated bovine serum albumin (BSA) was measured by residual eosinophil peroxidase activity. LPC caused maximal adhesion of eosinophils to plated BSA at 4 M. Lysophos- phatidylinositol, which has

Xiangdong Zhu; Jonathan Learoyd; Sanober Butt; Lilly Zhu; Peter V. Usatyuk; Viswanathan Natarajan; Nilda M. Munoz; Alan R. Leff



CD44 expression on blood eosinophils is a novel marker of bronchial asthma.  


Bronchial asthma is characterized by infiltration of the respiratory tracts by eosinophils. A wide variety of adhesion molecules expressed by eosinophils have been proposed to be involved in binding of eosinophils to the vascular endothelium and subsequent transmigration from the circulation to the airways, while little is known about CD44 expression on eosinophils. We introduced a novel staining combination with which surface markers on eosinophils could be analyzed without purification prior to staining, and examined the expression of CD44 on eosinophils. Staining of eosinophils with anti-CD 16 and anti-VLA-4 mAbs enabled us to delineate eosinophils as VLA-4high CD 16- cells from any other leukocyte populations in the whole blood. CD44 was found to be constitutively expressed on resting eosinophils, and expression increased upon cytokine-mediated activation. In all bronchial asthma patients examined, CD44high eosinophils were enriched in sputum relative to peripheral blood, indicating that eosinophils in sputum were more activated than those in blood. By comparing the extent of CD44 expression on blood eosinophils from poorly controlled and well-controlled asthma patients, we unexpectedly found that the density of CD44 expression is higher on blood eosinophils from the well-controlled group. Thus, the extent of CD44 expression on blood eosinophils is a novel marker indicative of the mangement of bronchial asthma. Deterioration of the asthma management with a concomitant decrease in CD44 expression on peripheral eosinophils implies that CD44 may play an important role in facilitating the transmigration of activated, CD44high eosinophils from the circulation to the respiratory tracts. PMID:9363930

Sano, K; Yamauchi, K; Hoshi, H; Honma, M; Tamura, G; Shirato, K



Eosinophils in Chronic Urticaria: Supporting or Leading Actors?  

PubMed Central

Although their number may be increased in skin lesions, eosinophils have been rather neglected as possible participants to the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria because of the absence of peripheral eosinophilia in patients with this disease. However, recent data suggest a potentially relevant role played by activated eosinophils both in triggering the tissue factor pathway of coagulation cascade and as a source of vascular endothelial growth factor. Such phenomena seem more pronounced in patients showing a more severe disease. The present study will rediscuss the potential role of this cell line in chronic urticaria in the light of these recent observations. PMID:23283151



IgE, Mast Cells, Basophils, and Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

IgE, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils are essential components of allergic inflammation. Antigen-specific IgE production, with subsequent fixation of IgE to Fc?RI receptors on mast cells and basophils, is central to the initiation and propagation of immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils are central effector cells in allergic inflammation, as well as in innate and adaptive immunity. This review highlights what is known about these components and their roles in disease pathogenesis. PMID:20176269

Stone, Kelly D.; Prussin, Calman; Metcalfe, Dean D.



Recurrent eosinophilic cystitis in a child with chronic granulomatous disease.  


Eosinophilic cystitis is an uncommon disease in children, and its association with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) has been previously reported in only five patients. In all those patients the disease showed either a self-limited benign course or a rapid response to corticosteroid treatment. The authors describe a child with X-linked CGD who developed eosinophilic cystitis with a recurrent course and difficult therapeutic management. The authors also discuss the pathogenesis of granuloma formation in CGD and review the literature for current therapies for these complications. PMID:15125617

Barese, Cecilia N; Podestá, Miguel; Litvak, Edith; Villa, Mariana; Rivas, Eva María



Isolation and functional assessment of eosinophil crystalloid granules.  


Cell-free granules, upon extrusion from human eosinophils, remain fully competent to secrete granule-derived proteins in receptor-mediated processes in response to different stimuli. However, in order to avoid the shrinkage and damage of granules, as well as preserve their structure, properties, and functionality, the use of an optimized process of subcellular fractionation using an isoosmotic density gradient is needed. Here, we describe a detailed protocol of subcellular fractionation of nitrogen-cavitated eosinophils on an isoosmotic iodinated density gradient (iodixanol) and the isolation of well-preserved and functional membrane-bound specific granules. PMID:24986610

Baptista-Dos-Reis, Renata; Muniz, Valdirene S; Neves, Josiane S



A Case Report of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Accompanying Hypereosinophilic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of eosinophils in the bone marrow with persistent peripheral eosinophilia, associated with organ damage by the release of eosinophilic mediators. Although HES can involve multiple organ systems, GI tract involvement is very rare. Few cases of HES presenting with gastritis or enteritis have been reported worldwide. To date, HES presenting with esophagus involvement has only been reported once. Here, we present a 39-year-old Hispanic female patient with history of HES presenting with complaints of dysphagia and generalized pruritus. PMID:22900215

Jawairia, Mahreema; Shahzad, Ghulamullah; Singh, Jaspreet; Rizvon, Kaleem; Mustacchia, Paul



Eosinophils in the zebrafish: prospective isolation, characterization, and eosinophilia induction by helminth determinants  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are granulocytic leukocytes implicated in numerous aspects of immunity and disease. The precise functions of eosinophils, however, remain enigmatic. Alternative models to study eosinophil biology may thus yield novel insights into their function. Eosinophilic cells have been observed in zebrafish but have not been thoroughly characterized. We used a gata2:eGFP transgenic animal to enable prospective isolation and characterization of zebrafish eosinophils, and demonstrate that all gata2hi cells in adult hematopoietic tissues are eosinophils. Although eosinophils are rare in most organs, they are readily isolated from whole kidney marrow and abundant within the peritoneal cavity. Molecular analyses demonstrate that zebrafish eosinophils express genes important for the activities of mammalian eosinophils. In addition, gata2hi cells degranulate in response to helminth extract. Chronic exposure to helminth- related allergens resulted in profound eosinophilia, demonstrating that eosinophil responses to allergens have been conserved over evolution. Importantly, infection of adult zebrafish with Pseudocapillaria tomentosa, a natural nematode pathogen of teleosts, caused marked increases in eosinophil number within the intestine. Together, these observations support a conserved role for eosinophils in the response to helminth antigens or infection and provide a new model to better understand how parasitic worms activate, co-opt, or evade the vertebrate immune response. PMID:20713961

Balla, Keir M.; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Stachura, David L.; Hu, Yan; Bañuelos, Karina; Romo-Fewell, Octavio; Aroian, Raffi V.



In vitro assessment of chemokine receptor-ligand interactions mediating mouse eosinophil migration  

E-print Network

In vitro assessment of chemokine receptor-ligand interactions mediating mouse eosinophil migration University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Eosinophil migration from, CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, CCR8, CXCR2, and CXCR4, but not CCR4. Mouse eosinophils also migrated in response

DeSalle, Rob


NADPH:O2 oxidoreductase of human eosinophils in the cell-free system.  


The NADPH oxidase of human eosinophils, measured in the cell-free system, shows the same characteristics as the enzyme from human neutrophils. All proteins required for activity of the enzyme are expressed in eosinophils at a higher level than in neutrophils. Eosinophils isolated from patients with chronic granulomatous disease show the same molecular defects as the neutrophils from these patients. PMID:2384165

Bolscher, B G; Koenderman, L; Tool, A T; Stokman, P M; Roos, D



Th2 cytokines and asthma — The role of interleukin-5 in allergic eosinophilic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-5 is produced by a number of cell types, and is responsible for the maturation and release of eosinophils in the bone marrow. In humans, interleukin-5 is a very selective cytokine as a result of the restricted expression of the interleukin-5 receptor on eosinophils and basophils. Eosinophils are a prominent feature in the pulmonary inflammation that is associated with allergic

Scott Greenfeder; Shelby P Umland; Francis M Cuss; Richard W Chapman; Robert W Egan



Bromide-dependent toxicity of eosinophil peroxidase for endothelium and isolated working rat hearts: a model for eosinophilic endocarditis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic endocarditis is a potentially lethal complication of chronic peripheral blood hypereosinophilia. We hypothesized that eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), an abundant eosinophil (EO) cationic granule protein, promotes eosinophilic endocarditis by binding to negatively charged endocardium, and there generating cytotoxic oxidants. Using an immunocytochemical technique, we demonstrated endocardial deposition of EPO in the heart of a patient with hypereosinophilic heart disease. Because EPO preferentially oxidizes Br- to hypobromous acid (HOBr) rather than Cl- to hypochlorous acid (HOCl) at physiologic halide concentrations, we characterized the Br(-)- dependent toxicity of both activated EOs and purified human EPO towards several types of endothelial cells and isolated working rat hearts. In RPMI supplemented with 100 microM Br-, phorbol myristate acetate- activated EOs, but not polymorphonuclear leukocytes, caused 1.8-3.6 times as much 51Cr release from four types of endothelial cell monolayers as in RPMI alone. H2O2 and purified human EPO, especially when bound to cell surfaces, mediated extraordinarily potent, completely Br(-)-dependent cytolysis of endothelial cells that was reversed by peroxidase inhibitors, HOBr scavengers, and competitive substrates. We further modeled eosinophilic endocarditis by instilling EPO into the left ventricles of isolated rat hearts, flushing unbound EPO, then perfusing them with a buffer containing 100 microM Br- and 1 microM H2O2. Acute congestive heart failure (evidenced by a precipitous decrement in rate pressure product, stroke volume work, aortic output, and MVO2 to 0-33% of control values) ensued over 20 min, which deletion of EPO, Br-, or H2O2 completely abrogated. These findings raise the possibility that EPO bound to endocardial cells might utilize H2O2 generated either by overlying phagocytes or endogenous cardiac metabolism along with the virtually inexhaustible supply of Br- from flowing blood to fuel HOBr-mediated cell damage. By this mechanism, EPO may play an important role in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic endocarditis. PMID:1985118



Hodgkin's disease and leukemia  

PubMed Central

Four cases of acute leukemia occurring in patients with Hodgkin's disease are described. The literature on the association of these two diseases is reviewed. Acute myeloid or undifferentiated leukemias appear to be, at least in part, a complication affecting long-term survivors of Hodgkin's disease. Reed Sternberg cell leukemia is an unusual form of Hodgkin's disease and may be associated with a poor prognosis. The cytology and cytochemistry of Reed Sternberg cells are briefly discussed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4503267

Chan, B. W. B.; McBride, J. A.



Eosinophils Are Important for Protection, Immunoregulation and Pathology during Infection with Nematode Microfilariae  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and their granule proteins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1), during infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Using eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL), we further clarify the role of eosinophils in clearance of microfilariae during primary, but not challenge infection in vivo. Deletion of EPO or MBP-1 alone was insufficient to abrogate parasite clearance suggesting that either these molecules are redundant or eosinophils act indirectly in parasite clearance via augmentation of other protective responses. Absence of eosinophils increased mast cell recruitment, but not other cell types, into the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during challenge infection. In addition absence of eosinophils or EPO alone, augmented parasite-induced IgE responses, as measured by ELISA, demonstrating that eosinophils are involved in regulation of IgE. Whole body plethysmography indicated that nematode-induced changes in airway physiology were reduced in challenge infection in the absence of eosinophils and also during primary infection in the absence of EPO alone. However lack of eosinophils or MBP-1 actually increased goblet cell mucus production. We did not find any major differences in cytokine responses in the absence of eosinophils, EPO or MBP-1. These results reveal that eosinophils actively participate in regulation of IgE and goblet cell mucus production via granule secretion during nematode-induced pathology and highlight their importance both as effector cells, as damage-inducing cells and as supervisory cells that shape both innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:24626328

Cadman, Emma T.; Thysse, Katherine A.; Bearder, Siobhan; Cheung, Anita Y. N.; Johnston, Ashleigh C.; Lee, James J.; Lawrence, Rachel A.



Human Surfactant Protein D Alters Oxidative Stress and HMGA1 Expression to Induce p53 Apoptotic Pathway in Eosinophil Leukemic Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Surfactant protein D (SP-D), an innate immune molecule, has an indispensable role in host defense and regulation of inflammation. Immune related functions regulated by SP-D include agglutination of pathogens, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, antigen presentation, T lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine secretion, induction of apoptosis and clearance of apoptotic cells. The present study unravels a novel ability of SP-D to reduce the viability of leukemic cells (eosinophilic leukemic cell line, AML14.3D10; acute myeloid leukemia cell line, THP-1; acute lymphoid leukemia cell lines, Jurkat, Raji; and human breast epithelial cell line, MCF-7), and explains the underlying mechanisms. SP-D and a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rhSP-D) induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, and dose and time-dependent apoptosis in the AML14.3D10 eosinophilic leukemia cell line. Levels of various apoptotic markers viz. activated p53, cleaved caspase-9 and PARP, along with G2/M checkpoints (p21 and Tyr15 phosphorylation of cdc2) showed significant increase in these cells. We further attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of rhSP-D induced apoptosis using proteomic analysis. This approach identified large scale molecular changes initiated by SP-D in a human cell for the first time. Among others, the proteomics analysis highlighted a decreased expression of survival related proteins such as HMGA1, overexpression of proteins to protect the cells from oxidative burst, while a drastic decrease in mitochondrial antioxidant defense system. rhSP-D mediated enhanced oxidative burst in AML14.3D10 cells was confirmed, while antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, abrogated the rhSP-D induced apoptosis. The rhSP-D mediated reduced viability was specific to the cancer cell lines and viability of human PBMCs from healthy controls was not affected. The study suggests involvement of SP-D in host’s immunosurveillance and therapeutic potential of rhSP-D in the eosinophilic leukemia and cancers of other origins. PMID:24391984

Mahajan, Lakshna; Pandit, Hrishikesh; Madan, Taruna; Gautam, Poonam; Yadav, Ajit K.; Warke, Himangi; Sundaram, Curam S.; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Sarma, P. Usha; Kishore, Uday; Surolia, Avadhesha



Chronic asthma is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, fibrosis,  

E-print Network

Chronic asthma is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, fibrosis, airway remodelling for the treatment of chronic asthma. Olive Leavy ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER Shen, Z.-J. et al. Pin1 regulates TGF-1. Invest. 118, 479­490 (2008) Allergy And AsthmA Regulation of TGF1 PINned down ReseaRch highlights NATURE

Cai, Long


What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?  


... about acute lymphocytic leukemia? What is acute lymphocytic leukemia? Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic ... germs by surrounding and digesting them. Development of leukemia Any type of early blood-forming cell of ...


How Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Found?  


... acute lymphocytic leukemia classified? How is acute lymphocytic leukemia found? At this time there are no special ... doctor right away. Tests to find acute lymphocytic leukemia Most of the symptoms seen in leukemia also ...


Constitutive production of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor by hypodense mononuclear eosinophils developed in vitro from hybrid eosinophil/basophil granulocytes.  

PubMed Central

We recently described the development in vitro of cells with granules characteristic of eosinophils and basophils (hybrid granulocytes) from normal human cord blood mononuclear cells cultured for 14 days with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL)-3, rhIL-5, and a soluble basement membrane, Matrigel. Hybrid granulocytes constitutively produced granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and rapidly developed into eosinophils after the exogenous cytokines and Matrigel were removed. To characterize the developmental progression of hybrid granulocytes, cells were maintained for an additional 14 days in medium containing rhIL-3, rhIL-5, and Matrigel. After 28 days, 73% +/- 1% (mean +/- SEM; n = 6) of the nonadherent cells were mononuclear eosinophils, 13% +/- 3% were eosinophils with two or more nuclear lobes, 13% +/- 4% were hybrid granulocytes, and 0.2% +/- 0.1% were basophils. More than 90% of the mononuclear eosinophils were hypodense as determined by centrifugation through metrizamide gradients. After an additional 5 days of culture in medium without exogenous cytokines, 65% +/- 3% (n = 5) of the 28-day cells excluded trypan blue. In contrast, 2% +/- 1% of freshly isolated peripheral blood eosinophils survived 5 days of culture without exogenous cytokines (n = 5). Fifty percent conditioned medium from in vitro derived 28-day mononuclear eosinophils and 14-day hybrid granulocytes maintained the survival of 60% +/- 7% and 77% +/- 7%, respectively, of freshly isolated peripheral blood eosinophils for 72 h, compared with 20% +/- 8% survival in medium alone (n = 3). The eosinophil viability-sustaining activity of 50% mononuclear eosinophil-conditioned medium was neutralized with a GM-CSF antibody. A total of 88% of the 28-day cells exhibited immunochemical staining for GM-CSF. Thus, during eosinophilopoiesis, both hybrid eosinophil/basophil intermediates and immature mononuclear eosinophils exhibit autocrine regulation of viability due to constitutive production of GM-CSF. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8637892

Boyce, J A; Friend, D; Gurish, M F; Austen, K F; Owen, W F



Comparison of Human Eosinophils from Normals and Patients with Eosinophilia  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of the biochemistry and physiology of eosinophils have relied upon cells obtained from patients with eosinophilia (EE). It is unknown whether such cells might have been activated or partially exhausted by the pathological state causing eosinophilia. We examined cell surface charge, membrane transport of deoxyglucose, activation of lyso-somal acid phosphatase, and oxidative metabolism to provide a profile to compare EE with purified normal eosinophils (NE) and normal neutrophils. Eosinophils or neutrophils were obtained in >95% purity from normal individuals and patients with eosinophilia of diverse etiologies. Cell surface charge was determined by electrophoretic mobility in micromoles per second per volt per centimeter. Normal eosinophils demonstrated a surface charge of 2.46±0.03. Stimulation of the cells by zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) reduced the surface charge to 1.82±0.02. In contrast, the charge of “resting” EE was already reduced (1.89±0.05) and was not altered by ZAS. Resting and stimulated neutrophils had a charge of 1.98±0.01 and 1.69±0.02, respectively. Uptake of [3H]2-deoxyglucose has been shown to reflect carrier-facilitated hexose transport in granulocytes. Deoxyglucose uptake by resting NE and NE stimulated by ZAS was 2.40±0.40 and 5.44±0.39 (cpm × 10?3/2 × 105 eosinophils), respectively. Resting and stimulated EE demonstrated deoxyglucose uptake of 7.55±0.58 and 15.3±0.6, respectively. Lysosomal acid phosphatase was determined by an electron microscopic cytochemical technique. In normal eosinophils and neutrophils, lysosomal acid phosphatase in mature cells is held in a latent form. Normal eosinophils demonstrated weakly positive acid phosphatase activity in 7.8±1.2% of the specific granules. Normal eosinophils, stimulated by opsonized staphylococci or the calcium ionophore A23187, develop rapid activation of acid phosphatase in ?80% of the granules throughout the cells. Resting EE were usually already activated and demonstrated acid phosphatase in 48.6±8.6% of the granules (range, 2-95% granules positive; significant activation was observed in preparations in EE from 11 of 15 patients). Oxidative metabolism was monitored by measurement of the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMPS) (metabolism of 1-[14C]glucose to 14CO2). Previous studies demonstrated that resting EE have an HMPS activity which is nearly that of stimulated neutrophils, yet EE remain capable of further 7-10-fold increase when stimulated by opsonized zymosan. In contrast, the HMPS of NE (resting and stimulated) was not significantly different from that of neutrophils. Thus eosinophils obtained from patients with eosinophilia appear significantly activated when compared with normal eosinophils by the criteria of surface charge, activation of lysosomal acid phosphatase, membrane hexose transport, and hexose monophosphate shunt activities. Images PMID:7440715

Bass, David A.; Grover, William H.; Lewis, Jon C.; Szejda, Pamela; DeChatelet, Lawrence R.; McCall, Charles E.



Upper-airway cough syndrome with latent eosinophilic bronchitis.  


Upper-airway cough syndrome often coexists with other diseases that elicit chronic cough. However, the concomitant conditions are not always relevant to chronic cough, which complicates the cause diagnosis of chronic cough. The objective of this study was to explore the diagnosis and clinical implication of upper-airway cough syndrome with latent eosinophilic bronchitis. Eleven patients with upper-airway cough syndrome and latent eosinophilic bronchitis were retrospectively analyzed for their clinical manifestations, changes of eosinophilia in induced sputum, and cough threshold with capsaicin defined as capsaicin concentration that elicits two or more coughs (C2) and five or more coughs (C5) between pretreatment and post-treatment. All patients reported a history of allergic rhinitis, showed persistent dry cough or small amounts of viscid sputum with a time course of 2-60 months (median = 7 months), and presented with symptoms and signs of rhinitis, normal lung function, and airway responsiveness. Initial eosinophil percentage in induced sputum was 3.5-8.0%. Cough disappeared after 2-5 (3 +/- 1) weeks of only oral antihistamine. With successful treatment, cough threshold C2 increased from 1.73 +/- 1.45 to 4.43 +/- 4.50 micromol/L (t = 2.64, P = 0.025) and C5 increased from 2.79 +/- 2.16 to 10.10 +/- 8.22 micromol/L (t = 3.10, P = 0.011). However, there was no significant change of eosinophil percentage in induced sputum (4.8 +/- 1.5% vs. 4.4 +/- 1.4%, t = 0.84, P = 0.427). Upper-airway cough syndrome with latent eosinophilic bronchitis is a unique condition. The recognition of the entity may avoid unnecessary use of corticosteroids. PMID:19862573

Yu, Li; Wei, Weili; Wang, Lan; Huang, Yang; Shi, Cuiqin; Lü, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin



Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)  


... however you can Daughter's dying wish became mother's motivation Stories Anna, transplant recipient and her daughter Every ... can support the cause. For Patients and Families Learning about your disease Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) How ...


Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)  


... however you can Daughter's dying wish became mother's motivation Stories Anna, transplant recipient and her daughter Every ... can support the cause. For Patients and Families Learning about your disease Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) How ...


Steroid resistance in leukemia  

PubMed Central

There are several types of leukemia which are characterized by the abnormal growth of cells from the myeloid or lymphoid lineage. Because of their lympholytic actions, glucocorticoids (GCs) are included in many therapeutic regimens for the treatment of various forms of leukemia. Although a significant number of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients respond well to GC treatment during initial phases; prolonged treatments sometimes results in steroid-resistance. The exact mechanism of this resistance has yet not been completely elucidated, but a correlation between functional GC receptor expression levels and steroid-resistance in patients has been found. In recent years, several other mechanisms of action have been reported that could play an important role in the development of such drug resistances in leukemia. Therefore, a better understanding of how leukemic patients develop drug resistance should result in drugs designed appropriately to treat these patients. PMID:24520542

Shah, Darshan S; Kumar, Raj



Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)  


... called staging. Tests that look at changes in DNA inside the cancer cells may also be done. Results from these ... PDQ Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment. Bethesda, Md: National ... last modified: April 19, 2013. Available at: http://www.cancer. ...


Drugs Approved for Leukemia

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.


A Functional ??TCR/CD3 Complex Distinct from ??T Cells Is Expressed by Human Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophils are effector cells during parasitic infections and allergic responses. However, their contribution to innate immunity has been only recently unravelled. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that human eosinophils express CD3 and ?? T Cell Receptor (TCR) but not ?? TCR. Surface expression of ??TCR/CD3 is heterogeneous between eosinophil donors and inducible by mycobacterial ligands. Surface immunoprecipitation revealed expression of the full ??TCR/CD3 complex. Real-time PCR amplification for CD3, ? and ? TCR constant regions transcripts showed a significantly lower expression in eosinophils than in ??T cells. Limited TCR rearrangements occur in eosinophils as shown by spectratyping analysis of CDR3 length profiles and in situ hybridization. Release by eosinophils of Reactive Oxygen Species, granule proteins, Eosinophil Peroxidase and Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin and cytokines (IFN-? and TNF-?) was observed following activation by ??TCR-specific agonists or by mycobacteria. These effects were inhibited by anti-??TCR blocking antibodies and antagonists. Moreover, ??TCR/CD3 was involved in eosinophil cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide evidence that human eosinophils express a functional ??TCR/CD3 with similar, but not identical, characteristics to ??TCR from ??T cells. We propose that this receptor contributes to eosinophil innate responses against mycobacteria and tumors and may represent an additional link between lymphoid and myeloid lineages. PMID:19536290

Woerly, Gaetane; Loiseau, Sylvie; Hermann, Emmanuel; Fournie, Jean-Jacques; Heliot, Laurent; Mattot, Virginie; Soncin, Fabrice; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Dombrowicz, David; Capron, Monique



Eosinophil-associated lung diseases. A cry for surfactant proteins a and d help?  


Surfactant proteins (SP)-A and SP-D (SP-A/-D) play important roles in numerous eosinophil-dominated diseases, including asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and allergic rhinitis. In these settings, SP-A/-D have been shown to modulate eosinophil chemotaxis, inhibit eosinophil mediator release, and mediate macrophage clearance of apoptotic eosinophils. Dysregulation of SP-A/-D function in eosinophil-dominated diseases is also not uncommon. Alterations in serum SP-A/-D levels are associated with disease severity in allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Furthermore, oligimerization of SP-A/-D, necessary for their proper function, can be perturbed by reactive nitrogen species, which are increased in eosinophilic disease. In this review, we highlight the associations of eosinophilic lung diseases with SP-A and SP-D levels and functions. PMID:24960334

Ledford, Julie G; Addison, Kenneth J; Foster, Matthew W; Que, Loretta G



Eosinophils as Antigen-Presenting Cells in Allergic Upper Airway Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review The recognition of eosinophils as complex immunomodulatory cells has been increasing in recent years. One prominent novel immunomodulatory function of eosinophils is their role as antigen presenting cells (APCs). This review will examine the evidence that has enhanced the understanding of eosinophils as APCs in the context of allergic inflammation, with a focus on data applicable to allergic upper airway disease. Recent Findings Recent studies expand on prior findings that eosinophils can express MHC Class II and co-stimulatory molecules. Eosinophils have also been found to traffic to regional lymph nodes and act as professional APCs in various experimental settings. Summary Accumulating evidence of the ability of eosinophils to act as APCs suggests that eosinophils may have more complex immunomodulatory roles in allergic upper airway disease than previously appreciated. PMID:19949323

Akuthota, Praveen; Wang, Haibin; Weller, Peter F.



Mixed phenotype murine leukemias.  


Cell lines were derived from eight individual leukemias induced by X-rays in NFS mice. First typed as null cells (surface immunoglobulin negative, Thy-1 negative), they turned out to have a mixed phenotype with myeloid cytochemical markers, pre-B surface antigens and molecular markers of pro-B lymphocytes. They represent murine models for mixed phenotype (pro-pre-B-myeloid) leukemias. PMID:8350626

Defresne, M P; Borremans, B; Verhofstede, C; Peled, A; Thiry, A; Greimers, R; Robberecht, P; Nabarra, B; Verschaeve, L; Hooghe, R



Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia



Thrombosis and acute leukemia.  


Thrombosis is a common complication in patients with acute leukemia. While the presence of central venous lines, concomitant steroids, the use of Escherichia coli asparaginase and hereditary thrombophilic abnormalities are known risk factors for thrombosis in children, information on the pathogenesis, risk factors, and clinical outcome of thrombosis in adult patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still scarce. Expert consensus and guidelines regarding leukemia-specific risk factors, thrombosis prevention, and treatment strategies, as well as optimal type of central venous catheter in acute leukemia patients are required. It is likely that each subtype of acute leukemia represents a different setting for the development of thrombosis and the risk of bleeding. This is perhaps due to a combination of different disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms of thrombosis, including the type of chemotherapy protocol chosen, the underlying patients health, associated risk factors, as well as the biology of the disease itself. The risk of thrombosis may also vary according to ethnicity and prevalence of hereditary risk factors for thrombosis; thus, it is advisable for Latin American, Asian, and African countries to report on their specific patient population. PMID:22507812

Crespo-Solís, Erick



Myeloid leukemia after hematotoxins  

SciTech Connect

One of the most serious consequences of cancer therapy is the development of a second cancer, especially leukemia. Several distinct subsets of therapy-related leukemia can now be distinguished. Classic therapy-related myeloid leukemia typically occurs 5 to 7 years after exposure to alkylating agents and/or irradiation, has a myelodysplastic phase with trilineage involvement, and is characterized by abnormalities of the long arms of chromosomes 5 and/or 7. Response to treatment is poor, and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is recommended. Leukemia following treatment with agents that inhibit topoisomerase 11, however, has a shorter latency, no preleukemic phase, a monoblastic, myelomonocytic, or myeloblastic phenotype, and balanced translocations, most commonly involving chromosome bands 11 q23 or 21 q22. The MLL gene at 11 q23 or the AML1 gene at 21 q22 are almost uniformly rearranged. MLL is involved with many fusion gene partners. Therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia also occurs with 1 1 q23 rearrangements. Therapy-related leukemias with 11 q23 or 21 q22 rearrangements, inv(16) or t(15;17), have a more favorable response to treatment and a clinical course similar to their de novo counterparts. 32 refs., 4 tabs.

Larson, R.A.; LeBeau, M.M.; Vardiman, J.W.; Rowley, J.D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)



Subacute Myelogenous Leukemia: A Special Type of Myelogenous Leukemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The clinical course, laboratory findings, cytochemical studies and ultrastructural observations of 22 subacute myelogenous leukemia (SML) cases are reported and compared with those of 28 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cases. There were marked difference...

C. Yang, W. Yan, S. Qi T. Yang, Y. Wang



SDA, a DNA Aptamer Inhibiting E- and P-Selectin Mediated Adhesion of Cancer and Leukemia Cells, the First and Pivotal Step in Transendothelial Migration during Metastasis Formation  

PubMed Central

Endothelial (E-) and platelet (P-) selectin mediated adhesion of tumor cells to vascular endothelium is a pivotal step of hematogenous metastasis formation. Recent studies have demonstrated that selectin deficiency significantly reduces metastasis formation in vivo. We selected an E- and P-Selectin specific DNA Aptamer (SDA) via SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) with a Kd value of approximately 100 nM and the capability of inhibiting the interaction between selectin and its ligands. Employing human colorectal cancer (HT29) and leukemia (EOL-1) cell lines we could demonstrate an anti-adhesive effect for SDA in vitro. Under physiological shear stress conditions in a laminar flow adhesion assay, SDA inhibited dynamic tumor cell adhesion to immobilized E- or P-selectin. The stability of SDA for more than two hours allowed its application in cell-cell adhesion assays in cell culture medium. When adhesion of HT29 cells to TNF?-stimulated E-selectin presenting human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells was analyzed, inhibition via SDA could be demonstrated as well. In conclusion, SDA is a potential new therapeutic agent that antagonizes selectin-mediated adhesion during metastasis formation in human malignancies. PMID:24699049

Faryammanesh, Rassa; Lange, Tobias; Magbanua, Eileen; Haas, Sina; Meyer, Cindy; Wicklein, Daniel; Schumacher, Udo; Hahn, Ulrich



Anticipation in familial leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Anticipation refers to worsening severity or earlier age at onset with each generation for an inherited disease and primarily has been described for neurodegenerative illnesses resulting from expansion of trinucleotide repeats. We have tested for evidence of anticipation in familial leukemia. Of 49 affected individuals in nine families transmitting autosomal dominant acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the mean age at onset is 57 years in the grandparental generation, 32 years in the parental generation, and 13 years in the youngest generation (P < .001). Of 21 parent-child pairs with AML, 19 show younger ages at onset in the child and demonstrate a mean decline in age at onset of 28 years (P < .001). Of 18 affected individuals from seven pedigrees with autosomal dominant chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the mean age at onset in the parental generation is 66 years versus 51 years in the youngest generation (P = .008). Of nine parent-child pairs with CLL, eight show younger ages at onset in the child and reveal a mean decline in age at onset of 21 years (P = .001). Inspection of rare pedigrees transmitting acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple types of leukemia, and lymphoma is also compatible with anticipation. Sampling bias is unlikely to explain these findings. This suggests that dynamic mutation of unstable DNA sequence repeats could be a common mechanism of inherited hematopoietic malignancy with implications for the role of somatic mutation in the more frequent sporadic cases. We speculate on three possible candidate genes for familial leukemia with anticipation: a locus on 21q22.1-22.2, CBL2 on 11q23.3, and CBFB or a nearby gene on 16q22. 55 refs., 4 figs.

Horwitz, M.; Jarvik, G.P.; Goode, E.L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)



Connexin 43 expression on peripheral blood eosinophils: role of gap junctions in transendothelial migration.  


Eosinophils circulate in the blood and are recruited in tissues during allergic inflammation. Gap junctions mediate direct communication between adjacent cells and may represent a new way of communication between immune cells distinct from communication through cytokines and chemokines. We characterized the expression of connexin (Cx)43 by eosinophils isolated from atopic individuals using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy and studied the biological functions of gap junctions on eosinophils. The formation of functional gap junctions was evaluated measuring dye transfer using flow cytometry. The role of gap junctions on eosinophil transendothelial migration was studied using the inhibitor 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid. Peripheral blood eosinophils express Cx43 mRNA and protein. Cx43 is localized not only in the cytoplasm but also on the plasma membrane. The membrane impermeable dye BCECF transferred from eosinophils to epithelial or endothelial cells following coculture in a dose and time dependent fashion. The gap junction inhibitors 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid and octanol did not have a significant effect on dye transfer but reduced dye exit from eosinophils. The gap junction inhibitor 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibited eosinophil transendothelial migration in a dose dependent manner. Thus, eosinophils from atopic individuals express Cx43 constitutively and Cx43 may play an important role in eosinophil transendothelial migration and function in sites of inflammation. PMID:25110696

Vliagoftis, Harissios; Ebeling, Cory; Ilarraza, Ramses; Mahmudi-Azer, Salahaddin; Abel, Melanie; Adamko, Darryl; Befus, A Dean; Moqbel, Redwan



Carbonic anhydrase IV is expressed on IL-5-activated murine eosinophils.  


Eosinophilia and its cellular activation are hallmark features of asthma, as well as other allergic/Th2 disorders, yet there are few, if any, reliable surface markers of eosinophil activation. We have used a FACS-based genome-wide screening system to identify transcriptional alterations in murine lung eosinophils recruited and activated by pulmonary allergen exposure. Using a relatively stringent screen with false-positive correction, we identified 82 candidate genes that could serve as eosinophil activation markers and/or pathogenic effector markers in asthma. Carbonic anhydrase IV (Car4) was a top dysregulated gene with 36-fold induction in allergen-elicited pulmonary eosinophils, which was validated by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Eosinophil CAR4 expression was kinetically regulated by IL-5, but not IL-13. IL-5 was both necessary and sufficient for induction of eosinophil CAR4. Although CAR4-deficient mice did not have a defect in eosinophil recruitment to the lung, nor a change in eosinophil pH-buffering capacity, allergen-challenged chimeric mice that contained Car4(-/-) hematopoietic cells aberrantly expressed a series of genes enriched in biological processes involved in epithelial differentiation, keratinization, and anion exchange. In conclusion, we have determined that eosinophils express CAR4 following IL-5 or allergen exposure, and that CAR4 is involved in regulating the lung transcriptome associated with allergic airway inflammation; therefore, CAR4 has potential value for diagnosing and monitoring eosinophilic responses. PMID:24808371

Wen, Ting; Mingler, Melissa K; Wahl, Benjamin; Khorki, M Eyad; Pabst, Oliver; Zimmermann, Nives; Rothenberg, Marc E



Interaction of eosinophils with endothelial cells is modulated by prostaglandin EP4 receptors.  


Eosinophil extravasation across the endothelium is a key feature of allergic inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of PGE(2) and its receptor, E-type prostanoid receptor (EP)-4, in the regulation of eosinophil interaction with human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. PGE(2) and the EP4 receptor agonist ONO AE1-329 significantly reduced eotaxin-induced eosinophil adhesion to fibronectin, and formation of filamentous actin and gelsolin-rich adhesive structures. These inhibitory effects were reversed by a selective EP4 receptor antagonist, ONO AE3-208. PGE(2) and the EP4 agonist prevented the activation and cell-surface clustering of ?2 integrins, and L-selectin shedding of eosinophils. Under physiological flow conditions, eosinophils that were treated with the EP4 agonist showed reduced adhesion to endothelial monolayers upon stimulation with eotaxin, as well as after TNF-?-induced activation of the endothelial cells. Selective activation of EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors did not alter eosinophil adhesion to endothelial cells, whereas the EP4 antagonist prevented PGE(2) from decreasing eosinophil adhesion. Finally, eosinophil transmigration across thrombin- and TNF-?-activated endothelial cells was effectively reduced by the EP4 agonist. These data suggest that PGE(2) -EP4 signaling might be protective against allergic responses by inhibiting the interaction of eosinophils with the endothelium and might hence be a useful therapeutic option for controlling inappropriate eosinophil infiltration. PMID:21681739

Konya, Viktoria; Philipose, Sonia; Bálint, Zoltán; Olschewski, Andrea; Marsche, Gunther; Sturm, Eva M; Schicho, Rudolf; Peskar, Bernhard A; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos




E-print Network

1 ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA FALLON, NEVADA REVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE EXPERT PANEL the state health department's investigation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases that had been of a hazardous chemical contaminant. However, the absence of cases of acute myeloid leukemia, the type


Eosinophilic Pleuritis due to Sparganum: A Case Report.  


Sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by migrating plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Infection in humans is mainly caused by the ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked flesh of infected frogs, snakes, and chickens. Here, we report a rare case of a 45-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with left lower chest pain. The chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed localized pleural effusion in the left lower lobe; further, peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic pleural effusion were present. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed, which revealed long worm-shaped material that was identified as a sparganum by DNA sequencing. The patient showed clinical improvement after drainage of the sparganum. This study demonstrates the importance of considering parasitic diseases in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusion. PMID:25352705

Oh, Youngmin; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Chang, You-Jin; Eom, Keeseon; Park, Jung-Gi; Lee, Ki-Man; Choe, Kang-Hyeon; An, Jin-Young



Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity. PMID:22563277

Chung, Won Jung; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan



Eosinophilic pneumonia as a presentation of occult chronic granulomatous disease.  


We present a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in a previously healthy young woman who presented with what initially appeared to be an acute eosinophilic pneumonia. A second lung biopsy taken after treatment with steroids showed invasive Aspergillus with associated necrotizing granulomas, a pattern commonly found in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Both siblings, and by extrapolation, the patient, were actually found to have CGD. A review of the literature revealed other cases of presumed immunocompetent patients with IPA with presentations and lung histopathology similar to that of our patient. We conclude that chronic granulomatous disease presenting in the adult may be more common than previously assumed, and that patients previously presumed immunocompetent, but with granulomatous invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, may have chronic granulomatous disease. Furthermore, and most devastatingly in this case, the presentation may simulate a recently described steroid responsive acute lung disease, acute eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:9311521

Trawick, D; Kotch, A; Matthay, R; Homer, R J



A rare cause of chronic dysphagia: eosinophilic esophagitis†  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is attributable to environmental factors, allergens and several immunological causes. The most typical symptoms include dysphagia and sensation of food impingement in the retrosternal area. Although its clinical features resemble those of gastroesophageal reflux, proton pump inhibitors are not effective for its treatment. The diagnosis of EE is dependent on the pathological detection of eosinophilic infiltration in esophageal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated a patient who applied to our clinic with complaints of long-term difficulty in swallowing, sensation of food sticking while eating and weight loss; the patient was diagnosed with EE, following biochemical, radiological, endoscopic and pathological assessments and was treated with steroids. The results show that EE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with dysphagia and food impingement in the retrosternal area, and the diagnosis should be confirmed through multiple esophageal biopsies. PMID:25249002

Destek, Sebahattin; Gul, Vahit Onur; Ahioglu, Serkan; Tatar, Zeynep; Erbil, Yesim



Eosinophilic Pleuritis due to Sparganum: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by migrating plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Infection in humans is mainly caused by the ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked flesh of infected frogs, snakes, and chickens. Here, we report a rare case of a 45-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with left lower chest pain. The chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed localized pleural effusion in the left lower lobe; further, peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic pleural effusion were present. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed, which revealed long worm-shaped material that was identified as a sparganum by DNA sequencing. The patient showed clinical improvement after drainage of the sparganum. This study demonstrates the importance of considering parasitic diseases in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusion.

Oh, Youngmin; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Chang, You-Jin; Eom, Keeseon; Park, Jung-Gi; Lee, Ki-Man; Choe, Kang-Hyeon



[Case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia probably induced by minocycline].  


We reported a case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) induced by minocycline. A 55-year-old man presented with a low grade fever and cough and was treated with antibiotics, including minocycline (MINO). During treatment, the patient developed symptoms of acute respiratory failure, and computed tomography (CT) scan showed bilateral ground grass opacities. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. The percentage of eosinophils in the BAL fluid was elevated (66%). The patient was treated with methylprednisolone under a diagnosis of AEP. Immediately after initiation of therapy, the CT film findings and clinical symptoms improved. Although a drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test for MINO was negative, we speculated that AEP was caused by MINO in this case. PMID:18318258

Shimizu, Takashi; Shimizu, Natsue; Kinebuchi, Shin-ichi; Toyama, Jozi



Familial eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis in a mother and daughter.  


A 17-year-old girl was admitted to our unit with weight loss, dyspnoea, arthralgia and sinusitis. Her medical history was noteworthy for bronchial asthma and she required systemic steroid therapy. Her mother had a history of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). Laboratory tests revealed excessive eosinophilia and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation. The assay for peripheral antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies was negative. Histopathological examination of lung biopsy revealed EGPA. The patient was treated with methylpredinosolone; her eosinophil count normalised and she began to improve clinically and radiographically. There is no genetic factor to influence susceptibility to this disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of familial EGPA disease in the literature, with a mother and daughter both being affected. EGPA disease should be kept in mind in a patient with uncontrolled asthma and eosinophilia with a positive family history for EGPA. PMID:25368130

Harmanci, Koray; Anil, Hulya; Kocak, Abdulkadir; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri



Cough due to asthma and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis.  


Asthma and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis are among the most common causes of chronic cough, accounting for about 25 and 10% of cases, respectively. Chronic cough due to asthma may present in isolation in which case it is known as cough-variant asthma. Nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis is characterized by the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation in the absence of variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Both conditions share many immunopathological features with the exceptions to date of mast cell infiltration into the airway smooth muscle, increased IL-13 expression, and narrowing and thickening of the airway wall, which are features reserved to asthma. In most cases the trigger that causes the cough is uncertain. However, removal of potential triggers is important to consider, in particular with respect to occupational exposure to known sensitisers. In both conditions there is subjective and objective improvement following treatment with inhaled corticosteroids, which is associated with the presence of an airway eosinophilia. Whether eosinophilic inflammation is the cause of cough or an epiphenomenon is uncertain, but the failure of anti-IL-5 to modify cough in asthma has questioned a causal association. In asthma, beta-agonist theophylline, leukotriene receptor antagonist, and oral corticosteroid therapy improve cough. In noneosinophilic bronchitis, some patients require oral corticosteroids but the benefit of other additional therapies is unknown. In general, response to therapy in both conditions is very good and the limited long-term data available suggest that both usually have a benign course, although in some cases persistent airflow obstruction may occur. PMID:19669108

Brightling, Christopher E



Comprehensive multiplexed protein quantitation delineates eosinophilic and neutrophilic experimental asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Improvements in asthma diagnosis and management require deeper understanding of the heterogeneity of the complex airway inflammation. We hypothesise that differences in the two major inflammatory phenotypes of asthma; eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma, will be reflected in the lung protein expression profile of murine asthma models and can be delineated using proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Methods BAL from mice challenged with ovalbumin (OVA/OVA) alone (standard model of asthma, here considered eosinophilic) or OVA in combination with endotoxin (OVA/LPS, model of neutrophilic asthma) was analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compared with steroid-treated animals and healthy controls. In addition, conventional inflammatory markers were analysed using multiplexed ELISA (Bio-Plex™ assay). Multivariate statistics was performed on integrative proteomic fingerprints using principal component analysis. Proteomic data were complemented with lung mechanics and BAL cell counts. Results Several of the analysed proteins displayed significant differences between the controls and either or both of the two models reflecting eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma. Most of the proteins found with mass spectrometry analysis displayed a considerable increase in neutrophilic asthma compared with the other groups. Conversely, the larger number of the inflammatory markers analysed with Bio-Plex™ analysis were found to be increased in the eosinophilic model. In addition, major inflammation markers were correlated to peripheral airway closure, while commonly used asthma biomarkers only reflect central inflammation. Conclusion Our data suggest that the commercial markers we are currently relying on to diagnose asthma subtypes are not giving us comprehensive or specific enough information. The analysed protein profiles allowed to discriminate the two models and may add useful information for characterization of different asthma phenotypes. PMID:24993465



Chemokines in allergic responses: eosinophils, basophils, mast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils, basophils and mast cells play key roles in the allergic response. These cells are cellular members of the innate\\u000a immune system and contain granules with a variety of potent biological mediators. Mast cells are tissue bound and positioned\\u000a near epithelial surfaces and as such can respond quickly to tissue injury, parasites and allergens by releasing the content\\u000a of their

Zamaneh Mikhak; Andrew D. Luster


Clinical value of monitoring eosinophil activity in asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the use of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in monitoring disease activity in childhood asthma, serum ECP in 175 asthmatic children was assessed. Forty five patients with cystic fibrosis, 23 with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), and 87 healthy children were used as controls. Serum ECP concentrations (34.3 micrograms\\/l v 9.8 micrograms\\/l) were significantly higher in children with bronchial

D Y Koller; Y Herouy; M Götz; E Hagel; R Urbanek; I Eichler



Obatoclax, Fludarabine, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia



Asthma: eosinophil disease, mast cell disease, or both?  


: Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and localize specifically to key tissue structures such as the submucosal glands and airway smooth muscle within asthmatic bronchi, irrespective of disease severity or phenotype. Here they are activated and interact exclusively with these structural cells via adhesive pathways and through the release of soluble mediators acting across the distance of only a few microns. The location of mast cells within the airway smooth muscle bundles seems particularly important for the development and propagation of asthma, perhaps occurring in response to, and then serving to aggravate, an underlying abnormality in asthmatic airway smooth muscle function. Targeting this mast cell-airway smooth muscle interaction in asthma offers exciting prospects for the treatment of this common disease. PMID:20525129

Bradding, Peter



Epigenetics of Chronic Rhinosinusitis and the Role of the Eosinophil  

PubMed Central

Introduction One theory for the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) involves aberration in the expression of genes that maintain the sinonasal innate immune system. We propose that the alteration in gene expression seen in CRSwNP is a result of oxidative byproducts of eosinophils. Activated eosinophils and neutrophils may lead to the production of hypobromous acid (HOBr) and hypochlorous acid (HOCL) and the post-translational modification product 5-bromocytosine (5BrC) and 5 chlorocytosine (CIC) respectively. 5BrC and CIC may cause aberrant methylation of cytosine during DNA replication and mimic the endogenous methylation signal associated with gene silencing. We propose to use gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify the presence of 5BrC and CIC in CRSwNP patients. Methods Patients with CRSwNP undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery were prospectively recruited into this study. Using GC-MS tissue specimens were analyzed for the presence of 5BrC, CIC and methylated cytosine. Results Tissue specimens from 14 patients with CRSwNP and 3 normal controls were processed using GC-MS. CRSwNP specimens demonstrate elevated levels of 5BrC and CIC compared to normal controls. Conclusion Eosinophils, which are predominantly found in CRSwNP, may lead to DNA modification and gene silencing via 5BrC and aberrant methylation patterns and may help explain the pathogenesis of CRSwNP. PMID:22311846

Seiberling, Kristin A; Church, Christopher A; Herring, Jason; Sowers, Lawrence



Eosinophils secrete IL-4 to facilitate liver regeneration.  


The liver is a central organ for the synthesis and storage of nutrients, production of serum proteins and hormones, and breakdown of toxins and metabolites. Because the liver is susceptible to toxin- or pathogen-mediated injury, it maintains a remarkable capacity to regenerate by compensatory growth. Specifically, in response to injury, quiescent hepatocytes enter the cell cycle and undergo DNA replication to promote liver regrowth. Despite the elucidation of a number of regenerative factors, the mechanisms by which liver injury triggers hepatocyte proliferation are incompletely understood. We demonstrate here that eosinophils stimulate liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy and toxin-mediated injury. Liver injury results in rapid recruitment of eosinophils, which secrete IL-4 to promote the proliferation of quiescent hepatocytes. Surprisingly, signaling via the IL-4R? in macrophages, which have been implicated in tissue repair, is dispensable for hepatocyte proliferation and liver regrowth after injury. Instead, IL-4 exerts its proliferative actions via IL-4R? in hepatocytes. Our findings thus provide a unique mechanism by which eosinophil-derived IL-4 stimulates hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating liver. PMID:23716700

Goh, Y P Sharon; Henderson, Neil C; Heredia, Jose E; Red Eagle, Alex; Odegaard, Justin I; Lehwald, Nadja; Nguyen, Khoa D; Sheppard, Dean; Mukundan, Lata; Locksley, Richard M; Chawla, Ajay



Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24705802

CHOI, Gil Soon; OAK, Chulho; CHUN, Bong-Kwon; WILSON, Donald; JANG, Tae Won; KIM, Hee-Kyoo; JUNG, Mannhong; TUTKUN, Engin; PARK, Eun-Kee



Biodegradation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Eosinophil Peroxidase  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is one of the major oxidant-producing enzymes during inflammatory states in the human lung. The degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) upon incubation with human EPO and H2O2 is reported. Biodegradation of SWCNTs is higher in the presence of NaBr, but neither EPO alone nor H2O2 alone caused the degradation of nanotubes. Molecular modeling reveals two binding sites for SWCNTs on EPO, one located at the proximal side (same side as the catalytic site) and the other on the distal side of EPO. The oxidized groups on SWCNTs in both cases are stabilized by electrostatic interactions with positively charged residues. Biodegradation of SWCNTs can also be executed in an ex vivo culture system using primary murine eosinophils stimulated to undergo degranulation. Biodegradation is proven by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible-NIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal Raman imaging. Thus, human EPO (in vitro) and ex vivo activated eosinophils mediate biodegradation of SWCNTs: an observation that is relevant to pulmonary responses to these materials. PMID:23447468

Andon, Fernando T.; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Yanamala, Naveena; Feng, Weihong; Baygan, Arjang; Chambers, Benedict J.; Hultenby, Kjell; Ye, Fei; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Brandner, Birgit D.; Fornara, Andrea; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Kotchey, Gregg P.; Star, Alexander; Shvedova, Anna A.



Inhibition of human eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro by the anti-allergic agent emedastine difumarate.  


Emedastine difumarate (emedastine), an anti-allergic agent with anti-histaminic properties, was studied for its effect on human eosinophil chemotaxis induced by platelet activating factor (PAF). Peripheral blood eosinophils (98% purity) were obtained from healthy donors and chemotaxis assay were performed in microchemotaxis chambers. Emedastine showed a significant inhibitory effect on 10(-6) M PAF-induced eosinophil chemotaxis, in dose dependent fashion, at concentrations from 10(-6) to 10(-8) M. Conversely, no inhibitory effect was observed on human neutrophil chemotaxis. Pretreatment of eosinophils with Pyrilamine did not affect PAF-induced eosinophil chemotaxis. Thus emedastine appears to possess a potent and selective inhibitory effect on eosinophils chemotaxis, an action which is probably unrelated to its anti-histamine properties. PMID:8933171

el-Shazly, A E; Masuyama, K; Samejima, Y; Eura, M; Ishikawa, T



Eosinophils in the 1990s: new perspectives on their role in health and disease.  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are characterized by their unique crystalloid granules that contain four basic proteins--MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO. The cell has many common features with neutrophils but, unlike that cell type, eosinophils utilize VLA-4/VCAM-1 as an adherence pathway and have a number of other receptors not shared by neutrophils. These include recognition units for IgE (distinct from CD23), and receptors for IL-5, IL-3 and RANTES. Following stimulation with a variety of agents, eosinophils preferentially elaborate LTC4 as the major 5-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid and produce substantial amounts of PAF. Of particular interest is the ability of eosinophils to synthesize a number of cytokines. Thus eosinophils have marked pro-inflammatory potential. There is now convincing evidence that eosinophilia is T-cell dependent. The Th2-type cell, which selectively secretes IL-5 and IL-4, seems particularly involved. IL-5, IL-3 and GM-CSF are required for eosinophil maturation, and cause activation and prolonged survival of the mature cell. IL-5 is unique in that it promotes terminal differentiation of the committed eosinophil precursor and in vivo in mice appears to be sufficient on its own for eosinophil growth from uncommited stem cells. IL-4 selectively upregulates VCAM-1 expression on endothelial cells thus augmenting VLA-4-dependent eosinophil adhesion. The role of eosinophils in disease is complex but in general their numbers are increased in helminthic parasitic disease and atopic allergy and asthma. Eosinophil products can produce many of the pathological features of asthma, and helminthic larvae coated with immunoglobulin or complement are particularly susceptible to eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity. Eosinopenia is often related to acute inflammation or stress. PMID:7937446

Wardlaw, A. J.



TLR3 in Human Eosinophils: Functional Effects and Decreased Expression during Allergic Rhinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Viral respiratory infections are increasingly implicated in allergic exacerbations. Virus-induced activation of eosinophils through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) could be involved. The present study was designed to examine TLR3 expression in eosinophils from bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) during symptomatic allergic rhinitis, and to evaluate the functional responsiveness of TLR3 in purified eosinophils. Methods: BM and PB samples

Anne Månsson; Mattias Fransson; Mikael Adner; Mikael Benson; Rolf Uddman; Sven Björnsson; Lars-Olaf Cardell



Eosinophils develop in distinct stages and are recruited to peripheral sites by alternatively activated macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils are associated with allergic diseases and helminth infections. Development of these cells and recruitment to peripheral tissues are only partially understood. Distinct stages of eosinophil development in fetal liver, bone mar- row, and blood could be identified using IL-4 re- porter mice and mAb against FIRE, Siglec-F, and CCR3. Immature eosinophils were present in the fetal liver and could

David Voehringer; N. van Rooijen; Richard M. Locksley



TP receptor-mediated release of eosinophil chemotactic activity from human bronchial smooth muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are reports indicating that thromboxane A2 receptors (TP receptors) may stimulate the eosinophil accumulation in the lower airways of asthmatics, however, the mechanisms behind such an effect remain unknown. We quantified the synthesis of eosinophil chemotactic activity and eosinophilic CC chemokines, including CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL24, and CCL26 in primary cultures of human bronchial smooth muscle cells

Yusuke Suzuki; Koichiro Asano; Kyoko Niimi; Jun Miyata; Yoshiki Shiraishi; Koichi Fukunaga; Tetsuya Shiomi; Takeshi Nakajima; Tsuyoshi Oguma; Koichi Sayama; Akitoshi Ishizaka



Solitary eosinophilic granuloma causing spinal cord compression in a child presenting with abdominal pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a case of an eosinophilic granuloma of T7 causing spinal cord compression in an 8-year-old boy who presented with abdominal pain. The purpose of this report was to illustrate both the variable clinical presentation and the rare incidence of cord compression due to an eosinophilic granuloma. Eosinophilic granuloma is a benign tumour-like condition that produces focal bone

Michael Leonard; Damian McCormack



Usefulness of FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis.  


Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare disorder with similar characteristics of scleroderma-like illness. We report a case of eosinophilic fasciitis in a 37-year-old woman with a 3-month history of progressive stiffness involving her forearms and lower legs. Laboratory test disclosed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation ratio and hypereosinophilia. On PET/CT images, FDG uptake was increased along the fasciae of bilateral upper and lower extremities while sparing muscles and subcutaneous fat. Biopsy was performed and histologic examination confirmed diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis. FDG PET/CT may be helpful in the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis as it could clearly illustrate anatomical involvement of the disease. PMID:24152641

Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Gi Jeong; Lee, Jae-Hoon



5-Lipoxygenase-Dependent Recruitment of Neutrophils and Macrophages by Eotaxin-Stimulated Murine Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LT)B4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1) were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24?h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24?h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS) mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5-LO is the initial recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin, not the secondary neutrophil accumulation. Eosinophil-dependent recruitment of neutrophils in naive BALB/c mice was associated with increased binding of bacteria. PMID:24723744

Luz, Ricardo Alves; Xavier-Elsas, Pedro; de Luca, Bianca; Masid-de-Brito, Daniela; Cauduro, Priscila Soares; Gondar Arcanjo, Luiz Carlos; Cordeiro Faria dos Santos, Ana Carolina; de Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Maria; Gaspar-Elsas, Maria Ignez Capella



Leukemia in benzene workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the possible association between occupational exposure to benzene and subsequent death from leukemia, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of workers who had been exposed to benzene in the manufacture of rubber hydrochloride at two locations in Ohio. Ascertainment of vital status was accomplished for 98% of the cohort.

Robert A. Rinsky; Ronald J. Young; Alexander B. Smith




Microsoft Academic Search

Data are reviewed on the induction of leukemia, osteogenic sarcoma, ; thyroid cancer, and skin cancer by exposure to ionizing radiation. Available ; data on man are compared with experimental data from laboratory animals. The ; radiation danger from fallout for human populations is considered. (43 ; references.) (C.H.);



Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  


... of ALL occur each year in the United States. Most children who are treated are cured. While adults have a lower cure rate, they too can be successfully treated. Who is most likely to have ALL? ALL is the most common leukemia among children. About 60 percent of those ...


Leukemia Steering Committee

The LKSC follows an efficient, cost-effective, science-driven, and transparent process to identify and promote the "Best Science" in clinical research on leukemia and related diseases by addressing the design and prioritization of phase III trials and large phase II studies.


Leukemia and Benzene  

PubMed Central

Excessive exposure to benzene has been known for more than a century to damage the bone marrow resulting in decreases in the numbers of circulating blood cells, and ultimately, aplastic anemia. Of more recent vintage has been the appreciation that an alternative outcome of benzene exposure has been the development of one or more types of leukemia. While many investigators agree that the array of toxic metabolites, generated in the liver or in the bone marrow, can lead to traumatic bone marrow injury, the more subtle mechanisms leading to leukemia have yet to be critically dissected. This problem appears to have more general interest because of the recognition that so-called “second cancer” that results from prior treatment with alkylating agents to yield tumor remissions, often results in a type of leukemia reminiscent of benzene-induced leukemia. Furthermore, there is a growing literature attempting to characterize the fine structure of the marrow and the identification of so called “niches” that house a variety of stem cells and other types of cells. Some of these “niches” may harbor cells capable of initiating leukemias. The control of stem cell differentiation and proliferation via both inter- and intra-cellular signaling will ultimately determine the fate of these transformed stem cells. The ability of these cells to avoid checkpoints that would prevent them from contributing to the leukemogenic response is an additional area for study. Much of the study of benzene-induced bone marrow damage has concentrated on determining which of the benzene metabolites lead to leukemogenesis. The emphasis now should be directed to understanding how benzene metabolites alter bone marrow cell biology. PMID:23066403

Snyder, Robert



What Are the Risk Factors for Childhood Leukemia?  


... leukemia? What are the risk factors for childhood leukemia? A risk factor is anything that affects your ... of leukemia. Having a brother or sister with leukemia Siblings (brothers and sisters) of children with leukemia ...


Eosinophils affect functions of in vitro-activated human CD3-CD4+ T cells  

PubMed Central

Background The recent development of eosinophil-targeting agents has raised enthusiasm for management of patients with hypereosinophilic syndromes. Roughly half of anti-IL-5-treated patients with corticosteroid-responsive lymphocytic (L-HES) and idiopathic disease variants can be tapered off corticosteroids. Potential consequences of corticosteroid-withdrawal on clonal expansion of pre-malignant CD3-CD4+ T-cells associated with L-HES are a subject of concern. Indeed, corticosteroid treatment inhibits T-cell activation and may lower blood CD3-CD4+ cell counts. On the other hand, previous studies have shown that eosinophils support CD4 T-cell activation, suggesting that targeted eosinophil depletion may negatively regulate these cells. Objectives Effects of eosinophils on CD4 T-cell activation in vitro were investigated as an indirect means of exploring whether treatment-induced eosinophil depletion may affect pathogenic T-cells driving L-HES. Methods Helper (CD4) T-cells and CD3-CD4+ cells from healthy controls and L-HES patients, respectively, were cultured in vitro in presence of anti-CD3/CD28 or dendritic cells. Effects of eosinophils on T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were investigated. Results Eosinophils enhanced CD3-driven proliferation of CD4 T-cells from healthy subjects in vitro, while inhibiting TCR-independent proliferation and IL-5 production by CD3-CD4+ T-cells. Conclusions While this study confirms previous work showing that eosinophils support activation of normal helper T-cells, our in vitro findings with CD3-CD4+ T-cells suggest that eosinophil-depletion may favor activation and expansion of this pathogenic lymphocyte subset. With the ongoing development of eosinophil-targeted therapy for various eosinophilic conditions, the indirect consequences of treatment on the underlying immune mechanisms of disease should be investigated in detail in the setting of translational research programs. PMID:23642304



Leukemia -- Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic  


... Cell Lymphocytic : Overview Download PDF Leukemia - Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic : Overview This section has been reviewed and ... Statistics › f t g e + Leukemia - Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic Guide Cancer.Net Guide Leukemia - Chronic T- ...


Genetics Home Reference: Acute promyelocytic leukemia  


... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Acute promyelocytic leukemia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed April 2011 What is acute promyelocytic leukemia? Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a form of acute ...


Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) (For Parents)  


... Causes Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping About Leukemia Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the ... and protect the body against disease. But in leukemia, WBCs turn cancerous and multiply when they shouldn' ...


Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) (For Parents)  


... Causes Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping About Leukemia Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the ... and protect the body against disease. But in leukemia, WBCs turn cancerous and multiply when they shouldn' ...


Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) (For Parents)  


... Causes Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping About Leukemia Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the ... and protect the body against disease. But in leukemia, WBCs turn cancerous and multiply when they shouldn' ...


Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) (For Parents)  


... Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Cancer & Tumors > Juvenile ... Causes Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping About Leukemia Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects ...


How Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Diagnosed?  


... chronic myeloid leukemia classified? How is chronic myeloid leukemia diagnosed? Many people with CML do not have ... of samples used to test for chronic myeloid leukemia If signs and symptoms suggest you may have ...


Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia



MS-275 and Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia



Chronic cough and eosinophilic esophagitis: an uncommon association.  


An increasing number of children, usually with gastrointestinal symptoms, is diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), and a particular subset of these patients complains of airway manifestations. We present the case of a 2-year-old child with chronic dry cough in whom EE was found after a first diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) due to pathological 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Traditional allergologic tests were negative, while patch tests were diagnostic for cow's milk allergy. We discuss the intriguing relationship between GERD and EE and the use of patch test for the allergologic screening of patients. PMID:21960955

Orizio, Paolo; Cinquini, Massimo; Minetti, Stefano; Alberti, Daniele; Paolo, Camilla Di; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Torri, Fabio; Crispino, Paola; Facchetti, Susanna; Rizzini, Fabio Lodi; Bassotti, Gabrio; Tosoni, Cinzia



Chronic Cough and Eosinophilic Esophagitis: An Uncommon Association  

PubMed Central

An increasing number of children, usually with gastrointestinal symptoms, is diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), and a particular subset of these patients complains of airway manifestations. We present the case of a 2-year-old child with chronic dry cough in whom EE was found after a first diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) due to pathological 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Traditional allergologic tests were negative, while patch tests were diagnostic for cow's milk allergy. We discuss the intriguing relationship between GERD and EE and the use of patch test for the allergologic screening of patients. PMID:21960955

Orizio, Paolo; Cinquini, Massimo; Minetti, Stefano; Alberti, Daniele; Paolo, Camilla Di; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Torri, Fabio; Crispino, Paola; Facchetti, Susanna; Rizzini, Fabio Lodi; Bassotti, Gabrio; Tosoni, Cinzia



Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome) caused by a temporary henna tattoo  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells’ syndrome) is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology. Wells’ syndrome is usually seen in adulthood but very rare in childhood. Although pathogenesis of the disease is not very clear, it is a hypersensitivity reaction developing against a variety of exogenous and endogenous antigenic stimuli. Paraphenylenediamine is a strong allergen frequently used as a temporary henna tattoo, which makes the color darker. Here, a 9-year-old male patient with Wells’ syndrome is presented, which developed following a temporary henna tattoo and shown by the patch test sensitivity to paraphenylenediamine.

Celegen, Mehmet; Kark?ner, Canan Sule Unsal; Gunay, Ilker; Diniz, Gullden; Can, Demet



Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome) caused by a temporary henna tattoo.  


Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome) is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology. Wells' syndrome is usually seen in adulthood but very rare in childhood. Although pathogenesis of the disease is not very clear, it is a hypersensitivity reaction developing against a variety of exogenous and endogenous antigenic stimuli. Paraphenylenediamine is a strong allergen frequently used as a temporary henna tattoo, which makes the color darker. Here, a 9-year-old male patient with Wells' syndrome is presented, which developed following a temporary henna tattoo and shown by the patch test sensitivity to paraphenylenediamine. PMID:25395929

Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Celegen, Mehmet; Kark?ner, Canan Sule Unsal; Günay, Ilker; Diniz, Güllden; Can, Demet



Exenatide-induced eosinophilic sclerosing lipogranuloma at the injection site.  


Sclerosing lipogranuloma is a granulomatous reaction to the injection of a high-viscosity fluid in the tissues for the cosmetic purpose of improving body contour; lesions on the extremities and buttocks are commonly the results of injections of therapeutic agents in oily vehicles. Exenatide, once-weekly injection, is a therapeutic method for patients with type 2 diabetes. Here, we describe a case of exenatide once weekly induced eosinophilic sclerosing lipogranuloma at the injection site of a 62-year-old patient. To the best of our knowledge, the histopathologic features of this adverse event have not been reported in the medical literature. PMID:24366197

Shan, Shi-Jun; Guo, Ying



Leukemia in Animals and Man  

PubMed Central

General comparative aspects of leukemia were reviewed. Leukemia in adult cattle occurs frequently within certain multiple case herds. Cattle in these herds often have persistent lymphocytosis and increased numbers of atypical lymphocytes in blood. Attempts are being made to demonstrate the frequency in which this is a “pre-leukemic” or “perileukemic” condition. With the recognition of viral causative agent(s) in chickens, laboratory rodents and cats, there is increased interest in the leukemia of dogs, cattle and other animals, for the disease in these animals may serve as valuable models in the study and isolation of human leukemogenic agents. Epidemiologic and clinicopathologic aspects of animal leukemias share comparative similarities with themselves and with lymphoreticular neoplasms of man. Causative factor(s) probably act on the host, regardless of species, in a similar fashion. It is not likely, but neither improbable, that leukemia in domesticated animals and leukemia in man share common causal relationships. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:18730090

Theilen, Gordon H.; Dungworth, Donald L.; Kawakami, Thomas G.



Phase I Dose-Escalation Trial of Clofarabine Followed by Escalating Doses of Fractionated Cyclophosphamide in Children With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemias

Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Myeloproliferative Disorders; Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia; Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia; Acute Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Myelofibrosis; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia



Molecular cloning and characterization of a human eotaxin receptor expressed selectively on eosinophils  

PubMed Central

The chemokine eotaxin is unusual in that it appears to be a highly specific chemoattractant for eosinophils. Ligand-binding studies with radiolabeled eotaxin demonstrated a receptor on eosinophils distinct from the known chemokine receptors CKR-1 and -2. The distinct eotaxin binding site on human eosinophils also bound RANTES (regulated on activation T expressed and secreted) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)3. We have now isolated a cDNA from eosinophils, termed CKR-3, with significant sequence similarity to other well characterized chemokine receptors. Cells transfected with CKR-3 cDNA bound radiolabeled eotaxin specifically and with high affinity, comparable to the binding affinity observed with eosinophils. This receptor also bound RANTES and MCP-3 with high affinity, but not other CC or CXC chemokines. Furthermore, receptor transfectants generated in a murine B cell lymphoma cell line migrated in transwell chemotaxis assays to eotaxin, RANTES, and MCP-3, but not to any other chemokines. A monoclonal antibody recognizing CKR-3 was used to show that eosinophils, but not other leukocyte types, expressed this receptor. This pattern of expression was confirmed by Northern blot with RNA from highly purified leukocyte subsets. The restricted expression of CKR-3 on eosinophils and the fidelity of eotaxin binding to CKR-3, provides a potential mechanism for the selective recruitment and migration of eosinophils within tissues. PMID:8676064



Monoclonal antibodies distinguish between storage and secreted forms of eosinophil cationic protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic effects of eosinophils on parasites1 and cells2 are due largely to the secretion of various granule proteins, following stimulation3. In order to study this secretory process (degranulation) further, we have raised mouse monoclonal antibodies against both human eosinophil granule extracts and secretion products. From immunocytochemical studies it appears that one antibody, EG1, recognized both the storage and secreted

Po-Chun Tai; Christopher J. F. Spry; Christer Peterson; Per Venge; Inge Olsson



Eosinophilic bronchitis, eosinophilia associated genetic variants, and notch signaling in asthma.  


While much has indeed been learned about the biology and role of eosinophils, the paradigm of eosinophils has the pros and cons in development of asthma. To answer the questions in the black box, this review firstly discusses the biological and morphological differences between asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis (EB). EB is an interesting clinical manifestation of eosinophilic airway disease that does not involve airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), demonstrating that airway eosinophilia alone is insufficient to merit a diagnosis of asthma. Secondly, I will describe and discuss the effect(s) of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes CCR3, IL-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA (IL5RA), and IL1RL1, and finally the in vitro and in vivo effects of Notch inhibition on both eosinophil differentiation and experimental asthma. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is not as important in the pathogenesis and maintenance of asthma as had previously been thought. However, the role of eosinophils in other asthma subphenotypes, including refractory or severely remodeled asthma, needs to be evaluated further. High-throughput methodologies such as genomics will facilitate the discovery of new markers of inflammation; these, in turn, will aid in the evaluation of the role of eosinophils in asthma and its various subphenotypes. PMID:20592918

Park, Choon-Sik



Eosinophil Peroxidase in Sputum Represents a Unique Biomarker of Airway Eosinophilia  

PubMed Central

Background Sputum eosinophilia has been shown to be a predictor of asthma patient response to therapies. However, quantitative cell counts and differentials of sputum are labor intensive. The objective of this study was to validate a novel ELISA-based assay of eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) in sputum as a rapid and reliable marker of airway eosinophils. Methods The utility of EPX-based ELISA as an eosinophil-specific assay was achieved through comparisons with sputum eosinophil differential counts in freshly prepared and archived patient samples from a variety of clinical settings. Results EPX levels in sputum correlated with eosinophil percentage (rs=0.84) in asthma patients with varying degrees of airway eosinophilia. Significantly, unlike assays of other eosinophil granule proteins (e.g., ECP and EDN), which often detect the presence of these proteins even in asthma patients with neutrophilic bronchitis, EPX-based ELISA levels are not increased in this subset of asthma patients or in COPD patients lacking evidence of an airway eosinophilia. Moreover, sputum EPX was a surrogate marker of airway eosinophilia in other patient studies (e.g., allergen inhalation and treatment trials the anti-(IL-5) therapeutic Mepolizumab™). Finally, EPX levels in cyto-centrifuged prepared sputum supernatants correlated with those from rapidly prepared non-centrifuged filtrates of sputum (rs 0.94). Conclusions EPX-based ELISA is a valid, reliable, repeatable, and specific surrogate marker of eosinophils and/or eosinophil degranulation in the sputum of respiratory patients. PMID:23931643

Nair, Parameswaran; Ochkur, Sergei I.; Protheroe, Cheryl; Radford, Katherine; Efthimiadis, Ann; Lee, Nancy A.; Lee, James J.



Regulation of Spontaneous Eosinophil Apoptosis--A Neglected Area of Importance  

PubMed Central

Asthma is characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils in the airways in most phenotypes. Eosinophils are inflammatory cells that require an external survival-prolonging stimulus such as granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-5, or IL-3 for survival. In their absence, eosinophils are programmed to die by spontaneous apoptosis in a few days. Eosinophil apoptosis can be accelerated by Fas ligation or by pharmacological agents such as glucocorticoids. Evidence exists for the relevance of these survival-prolonging and pro-apoptotic agents in the regulation of eosinophilic inflammation in inflamed airways. Much less is known about the physiological significance and mechanisms of spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis even though it forms the basis of regulation of eosinophil longevity by pathophysiological factors and pharmacological agents. This review concentrates on discussing the mechanisms of spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis compared to those of glucocorticoid- and Fas-induced apoptosis. We aim to answer the question whether the external apoptotic stimuli only augment the ongoing pathway of spontaneous apoptosis or truly activate a specific pathway.

Ilmarinen, Pinja; Moilanen, Eeva; Kankaanranta, Hannu



Eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a young girl – long term remission under Montelukast  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are an emerging disease entity characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. Oral steroids can be still considered as first line treatment. Unfortunately relapses are quite common. Usually long term low-dose prednisone or immunosuppressive therapy is required, which is especially problematic in young patients. Thus a reliable steroid sparing agent with low side effects suitable

Ivo Quack; Lorenz Sellin; Nikolaus J Buchner; Dirk Theegarten; Lars C Rump; Bernhard F Henning



STAT3 Activation and Infiltration of Eosinophil Granulocytes in Mycosis Fungoides.  


Eosinophil granulocytes have been implicated in anticancer immunity but recent data indicate that eosinophils can also promote cancer. Herein, we studied eosinophils in skin lesions from 43 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF). The presence of eosinophils correlated with disease stage: 78% of patients with advanced disease displayed eosinophil infiltration, whereas this was only seen in 11% of patients with patches (p<0.01), and in 48% of those with plaque disease. Importantly, 72% of patients with positive staining for phospho-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription (pY-STAT3) in malignant T-cells also stained positively for eosinophils, whereas this was only observed in 28% of pY-STAT3-negative patients (p<0.01). Notably, malignant T-cells expressed eosinophilic activation and trafficking factors: High-mobility group BOX-1 protein (HMGB1) and interleukin 5 (IL5). STAT3 siRNA profoundly inhibited IL5 but not HMGB1 expression. In conclusion, these data suggest that malignant T-cells orchestrate accumulation and activation of eosinophils supporting the notion of STAT3 being a putative target for therapy. PMID:25275020

Fredholm, Simon; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette R; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Petersen, David L; Nielsen, Inger Ø; Kauczok, Claudia-S; Wobser, Marion; Ralfkiaer, Ulrik; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Wasik, Mariusz A; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Geisler, Carsten; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Gniadecki, Robert; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels



Correlation between exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils, and methacholine responsiveness in patients with mild asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eosinophils in induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are currently used as non-invasive markers in the assessment of airway inflammation in asthma. As both sputum eosinophils (%) and exhaled NO are raised in asthmatic subjects not receiving inhaled steroids and decreased following corticosteroid therapy, a relationship between them is plausible. METHODS: Exhaled NO was measured by chemiluminescence analyser,

A. Jatakanon; S. Lim; S. A. Kharitonov; K. F. Chung; P. J. Barnes



Unusual presentations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis: Case series and review of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an uncommon disease characterized by focal or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract, and is usually associated with dyspepsia, diarrhea and peripheral eosinophilia. Diffuse gastrointestinal tract and colonic involvement are uncommon. The endoscopic appearance may vary from normal to mucosal nodularity and ulceration. Gastrointestinal obstruction is unusual and is associated with predominantly muscular disease. We

Rafiq A Sheikh; Thomas P Prindiville; R Erick Pecha; Boris H Ruebner



Studies on blood eosinophils. II. Patients with L?ffler's cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed Central

Studies were done on blood eosinophils from four patients with raised blood eosinophil counts and heart failure. In three of the patients cardiological studies demonstrated the distinctive endocardial lesions and restrictive cardiomyopathy of Löffler's endocarditis and endomyocardial fibrosis. The fourth patient died with similar symptoms and signs. In blood films it was found that all four had more than 1 X 10(9) eosinophils per litre which were vacuolated and contained reduced numbers of crystalloid granules which were also shown to have ultrastructural changes. Unlike eosinophils from normal individuals the patients' eosinophils possessed receptors for rabbit IgG-coated erythrocytes and actively phagocytosed erythrocytes coated with rabbit IgG or human C3b. It is concluded that in these patients, a large proportion of the circulating eosinophils had developed characteristics of mature or stimulated eosinophils. This enabled them to respond to soluble substances in the bloodstream by forming endocytic vacuoles which led to degranulation of the crystalloid granules. These studies, taken in conjunction with other recent work in this field, support the concept that the restrictive cardiomyopathy of hypereosinophilic states, including Löffler's endocarditis and endomyocardial fibrosis, is a result of prolonged release of products from degranulated eosinophils while they are in the circulation. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 2c FIG. 3 PMID:939049

Spry, C J; Tai, P C



Infiltrative Eosinophilic Myocarditis Diagnosed and Localized by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

Infiltrative Eosinophilic Myocarditis Diagnosed and Localized by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging A58-year-old man with a history of asthma was admitted for pneumonia and peripheral neuropathy eosinophil count of 2002/uL and pulmonary infiltrates seen on chest x-ray. His hospital course

Kamp, Tim


Expression and Function of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor FLT1 in Human Eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is highly expressed in the airway of patients with asthma. Whether VEGF affects eosinophil function in vitro and if VEGF receptors are involved was tested. Eosinophils were from venous blood of healthy donors. Cell migra- tion was studied by micropore filter assays. Signaling mechanisms required for VEGF-dependent migration were tested using signaling enzyme blockers. Expression

Clemens Feistritzer; Nicole C. Kaneider; Daniel H. Sturn; Birgit A. Mosheimer; Christian M. Kahler; Christian J. Wiedermann



The use of skin prick tests and patch tests to identify causative foods in eosinophilic esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis is a disease entity in which patients have (1) elevated eosinophils on esophageal biopsy and (2) symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. The symptoms do not improve on aggressive acid blockade but do improve on elimination diet or corticosteroid treatment, which tentatively links food allergies to this disorder. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify potential food

Jonathan M. Spergel; Janet L. Beausoleil; Maria Mascarenhas; Chris A. Liacouras



Veliparib and Temozolomide in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia



A Sensitive High Throughput ELISA for Human Eosinophil Peroxidase: A Specific Assay to Quantify Eosinophil Degranulation from Patient-derived Sources  

PubMed Central

Quantitative high throughput assays of eosinophil-mediated activities in fluid samples from patients in a clinical setting have been limited to ELISA assessments for the presence of the prominent granule ribonucleases, ECP and EDN. However, the demonstration that these ribonucleases are expressed by leukocytes other than eosinophils, as well as cells of non-hematopoietic origin, limits the usefulness of these assays. Two novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) were used to develop an eosinophil-specific and sensitive sandwich ELISA. The sensitivity of this EPX-based ELISA was shown to be similar to that of the commercially available ELISA kits for ECP and EDN. More importantly, evidence is also presented confirming that among these granule protein detection options, EPX-based ELISA is the only eosinophil-specific assay. The utility of this high throughput assay to detect released EPX was shown in ex vivo degranulation studies with isolated human eosinophils. In addition, EPX-based ELISA was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several in vivo patient settings, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained following segmental allergen challenge of subjects with allergic asthma, induced sputum derived from respiratory subjects following hypotonic saline inhalation, and nasal lavage of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. This unique EPX-based ELISA thus provides an eosinophil-specific assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative. In addition, this assay is adaptable to high throughput formats (e.g., automated assays utilizing microtiter plates) using the diverse patient fluid samples typically available in research and clinical settings. PMID:22750539

Ochkur, Sergei I.; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Colbert, Dana; Condjella, Rachel M.; Bersoux, Sophie; Helmers, Richard A.; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Kern, Robert; Peters, Anju; Schleimer, Robert P.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Nair, Parameswaran; Lee, James J.; Lee, Nancy A.



Accumulation of CXCR3Expressing Eosinophils and Increased Concentration of Its Ligands (IP10 and Mig) in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Since human peripheral eosinophils have been shown to migrate to the CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) ligands IFN-?-inducible protein 10 (IP10) and monokine induced by IFN-? (Mig), this confirms that CXCR3 is functionally expressed on these cells. IP10 expression has been shown to be increased in the airways of asthmatics. Eosinophil accumulations are found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)

Shigeki Katoh; Kiyoyasu Fukushima; Nobuhiro Matsumoto; Naomi Ehara; Kiyoshi Matsumoto; Akira Yamauchi; Mitsuomi Hirashima



Parental smoking and childhood leukemia.  


Childhood leukemia is the most common cancer among children, representing 31% of all cancer cases occurring in children younger than the age of 15 years in the USA. There are only few known risk factors of childhood leukemia (sex, age, race, exposure to ionizing radiation, and certain congenital diseases, such as Down syndrome and neurofibromatosis), which account for only 10% of the childhood leukemia cases. Several lines of evidence suggest that childhood leukemia may be more due to environmental rather than genetic factors, although genes may play modifying roles. Human and animal studies showed that the development of childhood leukemia is a two-step process that requires a prenatal initiating event(s) plus a postnatal promoting event(s). Despite a substantial public health effort to reduce cigarette smoking, a large proportion of the US and world population still smoke. Tobacco smoke contains at least 60 known human or animal carcinogens, with the major chemical classes being volatile hydrocarbons, aldehydes, aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and nitrosamines; among these chemicals, only benzene is an established leukemogen, although other chemicals in the tobacco could interact with one another in a complex way to jointly attain a significant carcinogenic effect on the development of leukemia. Although tobacco smoke is an established risk factor for adult myeloid leukemia, the studies of association between parental smoking and childhood leukemia have produced inconsistent results. The majority of the studies on maternal smoking and childhood leukemia did not find a significant positive association and some even reported an inverse association. In contrast to studies of maternal smoking, studies of paternal smoking and childhood leukemia reported more positive associations but only by less than half of the studies. Future directions to be considered for improving the study of parental smoking and childhood leukemia are: 1) consider all sources of benzene exposure in addition to smoking, including occupational exposure and traffic exhausts; 2) childhood leukemia is a heterogeneous disease and epidemiologic studies of childhood leukemia can be greatly improved by grouping childhood leukemia into more homogeneous groups by molecular techniques (e.g., structural and numerical chromosomal changes); and 3) assess gene-environment interaction. It is hoped that through the continual effort, more will be uncovered regarding the causes of childhood leukemia. In the meantime, more effort should be spent on educating the parents to quit smoking, because parental smoking is known to affect many childhood diseases (e.g., asthma, respiratory tract infection, and otitis media) that are much more prevalent than childhood leukemia. PMID:19107431

Chang, Jeffrey S



Hepatomegaly and Periportal Oedema of the Liver in a Patient with Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

Periportal halos are an uncommon finding on computerised tomography (CT) of the liver. Here, reported a case of periportal halos and hepatomegaly in a patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis. A 49-year-old male presented with a six week history of right lower quadrant pain and diarrhoea. A CT of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly and multiple hypodense periportal halos around the patent portal veins consistent with periportal oedema. A colonoscopy showed normal looking mucosa in the colon and terminal ileum. Blind biopsies taken throughout the terminal ileum and colon showed increased numbers of eosinophils (more than 25 per high-power field) consistent with eosinophilic gastroenteritis. A liver biopsy showed minimal non-specific chronic inflammatory infiltrates and eosinophils in the portal tracts with ductular proliferation. In conclusion, eosinophilic gastroenteritis should be considered in patients presenting with periportal halos, hepatomegaly, and diarrhoea. PMID:24643224

HUI, Chee-Kin



A case of eosinophilic cholangitis: Imaging findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, cholangioscopy, and intraductal ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

A 38-year-old woman was referred to our institution due to epigastralgia. She presented with obstructive jaundice and eosinophilia. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed diffuse narrowing from the distal common bile duct to the bifurcation of the hepatic ducts. An endoscopic plastic biliary stent was inserted; the specimen obtained from the common bile duct wall revealed dense infiltration by eosinophils. Treatment was started with prednisolone 60 mg daily. The patient’s biliary stenosis and eosinophilia gradually improved. Eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs or stomach is relatively common, but it is rare in the common bile duct. Most of the reported cases of eosinophilic cholangitis presented with eosinophilia; our patient’s eosinophil count was over 1000/mm3. Since our patient had allergies to pollen and house dust, a relationship between the allergies and the eosinophilic cholangitis was suspected, but no cause was identified. PMID:17461504

Matsumoto, Naoki; Yokoyama, Kiyoshi; Nakai, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Toshiki; Otani, Takeshi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Tanaka, Naohide; Iwasaki, Ariyoshi; Arakawa, Yasuyuki; Sugitani, Masahiko



Hairy Cell Leukemia Variant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 59-year-old man presented with lymphocytosis with huge splenomegaly. The abnormal lymphocytes had a high nucleoplasmxytoplasm ratio, a prominent nucleolus and hairy cytoplasmic projections. Immunophenotyping revealed B-cell leukemia with negative reactions to CD5 and CD25. Cytogenetic study showed 46, XY, der(5)t(5;6)(q35;p21), del(7)(p13)\\/ 46, idem, add(22)(q13). The patient did not respond to chlorambucil and a combination of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone.

Po Dunn; Lee-Yung Shih; Yat-Sen Ho; Hwai-Fang Tien



Helicobacter pylori Infection Affects Eosinophilic Cationic Protein in the Gastric Juice of Patients with Idiopathic Chronic Urticaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Helicobacter pylori, the main cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer, has been associated with idiopathic chronic urticaria (ICU), an immunological skin disorder of unknown origin. Eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) is a cytotoxic molecule secreted by the activated eosinophils involved in the pathogenesis of ICU. We assessed serum\\/gastric juice ECP levels and gastric mucosal eosinophil infiltration in ICU patients infected or

V. Ojetti; A. Armuzzi; A. De Luca; E. Nucera; F. Franceschi; M. Candelli; G. F. Zannoni; S. Danese; S. Di Caro; M. Vastola; D. Schiavino; G. Gasbarrini; G. Patriarca; P. Pola; A. Gasbarrini



Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: a clinicopathological study of patients with disease of the mucosa, muscle layer, and subserosal tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological spectrum of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and identify possible difficulties in establishing the diagnosis. All patients with a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, defined by the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and eosinophilic infiltration of the gut (38), or a radiological diagnosis with peripheral eosinophilia (two), were identified from the Mayo Clinic records; in

N J Talley; R G Shorter; S F Phillips; A R Zinsmeister



Human eosinophils can express the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha.  

PubMed Central

By in situ hybridization, 44-100% of the blood eosinophils from five patients with hypereosinophilia and four normal subjects exhibited intense hybridization signals for TNF-alpha mRNA. TNF-alpha protein was detectable by immunohistochemistry in blood eosinophils of hypereosinophilic subjects, and purified blood eosinophils from three atopic donors exhibited cycloheximide-inhibitable spontaneous release of TNF-alpha in vitro. Many blood eosinophils (39-91%) from hypereosinophilic donors exhibited intense labeling for macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) mRNA, whereas eosinophils of normal donors demonstrated only weak or undetectable hybridization signals for MIP-1 alpha mRNA. Most tissue eosinophils infiltrating nasal polyps were strongly positive for both TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha mRNA. By Northern blot analysis, highly enriched blood eosinophils from a patient with the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome exhibited differential expression of TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha mRNA. These findings indicate that human eosinophils represent a potential source of TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha, that levels of expression of mRNA for both cytokines are high in the blood eosinophils of hypereosinophilic donors and in eosinophils infiltrating nasal polyps, that the eosinophils of normal subjects express higher levels of TNF-alpha than MIP-1 alpha mRNA, and that eosinophils purified from the blood of atopic donors can release TNF-alpha in vitro. Images PMID:8514874

Costa, J J; Matossian, K; Resnick, M B; Beil, W J; Wong, D T; Gordon, J R; Dvorak, A M; Weller, P F; Galli, S J



Measurement of Inflammatory Mediators of Mast Cells and Eosinophils in Native Nasal Lavage Fluid in Nasal Polyposis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nasal polyposis (NP) often coexists with asthma, rhinitis and sinusitis. Polyp histology typically shows chronic, eosinophilic inflammation. The inflammatory cell infiltrate generally includes eosinophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells and mast cells. Objective: To gain insight into the natural history of NP, we analysed mediator levels and leukocyte values in nasal fluids and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total IgE levels and

Gabriele Di Lorenzo; Agata Drago; Maria Esposito Pellitteri; Giuseppina Candore; Alfredo Colombo; Francesco Gervasi; Maria Luisa Pacor; Francesco Purello D’Ambrosio; Calogero Caruso



Role of PGE2 in asthma and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis.  


Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but unlike asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Several studies suggest that prostaglandins may play an important role in orchestrating interactions between different cells in several inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PGE(2) is important because of the multiplicity of its effects on immune response in respiratory diseases; however, respiratory system appears to be unique in that PGE(2) has beneficial effects. We described that the difference in airway function observed in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma could be due to differences in PGE(2) production. PGE(2) present in induced sputum supernatant from NAEB patients decreases BSMC proliferation, probably due to simultaneous stimulation of EP2 and EP4 receptors with inhibitory activity. This protective effect of PGE(2) may not only be the result of a direct action exerted on airway smooth-muscle proliferation but may also be attributable to the other anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:22529528

Sastre, Beatriz; del Pozo, Victoria



Emerging management concepts for eosinophilic esophagitis in children.  


Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a newly recognized condition that appears to be increasing in incidence for as yet unknown reasons. It can occur at any age and presents both to gastroenterologists and allergists. Clinical manifestations range from gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, feeding difficulties, dysphagia or food bolus impaction) to co-existing atopic conditions (asthma, allergic rhinitis or eczema). The diagnosis requires demonstration of at least 15 eosinophils per high power field on esophageal histology, usually in the context of resistance to proton pump inhibitor treatment or a normal 24-h esophageal pH monitoring study. The differential diagnosis between EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be problematic as there is significant clinical overlap between both conditions. Although difficult-to-manage esophageal strictures are well recognized in patients with long-standing EoE, little is known about risk factors for the development of this complication. There is a paucity of data on both the natural history and optimal long-term management of EoE. Current treatment options include food allergen elimination diets, use of topical aerosolized corticosteroids, or a combination of the two. Pediatric case studies have been provided to illustrate the complexity of decision points that often arise in the management of these patients. This paper aims to discuss the various strategies currently available to clinicians in the management of EoE and highlights gaps in the current evidence base that urgently require further research. PMID:21545525

Heine, Ralf G; Nethercote, Mark; Rosenbaum, Jeremy; Allen, Katrina J



Eosinophilic fasciitis. A pathologic study of twenty cases.  

PubMed Central

This report presents a detailed light-microscopic evaluation of biopsies obtained from 20 patients with eosinophilic fasciitis, a newly recognized disorder characterized by inflammation and thickening of the deep fascia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and peripheral and tissue eosinophilia. Early in the course of the disease, the deep fascia and lower subcutis are edematous and infiltrated with lymphocytes, plasma cells, histiocytes, and eosinophils; these features are associated with impressive peripheral eosinophilia. As the illness progresses, these structures and eventually the dermis become collagenized, thickened, and sclerotic. Tissue eosinophilia may be focal or diffuse and is usually observed in the fascia and/or lower subcutis. Extracutaneous involvement has been limited to a chronic synovitis and tenosynovitis, the latter frequently associated with the carpal tunnel syndrome. Deposits of immunoglobulin and/or complement were found in five of eight biopsies studied by direct immunofluorescence, which suggests that an immunologic stimulus may be responsible for initiating this syndrome. Differential diagnoses are discussed. Images Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 7 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:474708

Barnes, L.; Rodnan, G. P.; Medsger, T. A.; Short, D.



Severe eosinophilic pneumonia presenting during gemcitabine adjuvant chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Gemcitabine is widely accepted as the standard treatment for pancreatic cancer, but it can cause unpredictable side effects. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a rare complication with gemcitabine, but is sometimes fatal. We describe a cured case of acute, severe gemcitabine-induced pulmonary toxicity. The patient was a 76-year-old man with pancreatic cancer who was receiving adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy after surgery. The patient received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 for three 4-week cycles, with intervals of 1 week. He developed severe general fatigue on day 1 of the third cycle. Computed tomography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity with pleural effusion. There was no increase in ?-D-glucan, and cytomegalovirus antigenemia assays were negative. No bacteria or acid-fast bacilli were found. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased. Considering these data, we diagnosed eosinophilic pneumonia induced by gemcitabine. The patient was immediately treated with a steroid and neutrophil elastase inhibitor under respiratory supportive therapy. After 4 weeks, his pulmonary symptoms were markedly improved. Physicians should be cognizant of the possible association of serious pulmonary toxicity with gemcitabine treatment. A delay in diagnosis and treatment could lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:23883337



Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia in children: the French experience  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia is extremely rare in children and adults. We present herein the first series describing the specificities of idiopathic chronic (ICEP) and acute (IAEP) eosinophilic pneumonia in children. Methods We retrospectively analyzed all cases of ICEP and IAEP in children that were retrieved from French Reference Centers for rare pediatric lung diseases. Results Five cases of pediatric ICEP were identified. Corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy dramatically improved the outcome in three cases. The remaining two cases had a persistent interstitial pattern with progressive development of cystic airspace lesions. Three cases of IAEP in adolescents were reported, with one requiring four days of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Conclusion ICEP is a rare disease with a polymorphic clinical presentation in children. We identified patients with persistent interstitial patterns progressing to cystic airspace regions, for which the boundaries with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are difficult to establish. We therefore propose a specific pediatric definition and classification algorithm. IAEP in children remains an inflammatory reaction of the lung to an acute toxic exposure, mainly tobacco, as in adults. International studies are required to comprehensively assess the various clinical forms of the disease as well as the appropriate therapeutic regimens. PMID:24555756



Phase 1 Study of Terameprocol (EM-1421) in Patients With Leukemia

Leukemias; Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML); Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL); Adult T Cell Leukemia (ATL); Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML-BP); Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL); Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML)



Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

In three patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia who were heterozygous at the X-linked glucose-6-phospháte dehydrogenase locus, lymphocytes were studied to determine if they had the same stem cell origin as the leukemic myeloid cells. Normal tissues such as skin had both B and A glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzymes, but the leukemic myelogenous cells displayed only one isoenzyme type, consistent with their clonal origin. A population of cells with undoubted thymus-derived (T)-lymphocyte characteristics had both isoenzymes. Presumably, then, these T cells did not arise from the leukemic stem cell, either because they antedated the development of leukemia in that stem cell or, more likely, because they arose from progenitors not involved by the disease. In contrast, another population of lymphocytes showed only one isoenzyme type, suggesting that it arose from the chronic myelocytic leukemia stem cell. However, although this population contained many cells with the characteristics of bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes, it is not certain that the single enzyme produced by the cells over all can be attributed to B lymphocytes rather than to contaminating non-B-lymphoid cells. PMID:308953

Fialkow, Philip J.; Denman, A. Michael; Jacobson, Robert J.; Lowenthal, Mark N.



CD14+CD33+ myeloid cell-CCL11-eosinophil signature in ulcerative colitis.  


This study tested the hypothesis that eotaxins (CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26) and IL-5 contribute to eosinophil recruitment to the intestine in UC and that intestinal macrophages are important producers of CCL11 in this disease. Peripheral blood and rectal biopsy samples were obtained from patients with active (n=18) and quiescent UC (n=9), and control patients (n=7). Eosinophil and macrophage levels and activation were analyzed by flow cytometry. Rectal mRNA levels of CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, and IL-5 were determined by qRT-PCR. The cellular source of CCL11 was visualized by immunofluorescence analyses. Eosinophil numbers were elevated in the blood and rectum of active and quiescent UC patients compared with controls. Levels of activated eosinophils (CD66b(high)) correlated with disease severity. Rectal CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 mRNA levels were increased in active UC, whereas only CCL11 was elevated in quiescent UC. Levels of CCL11, but not CCL24 and CCL26, positively correlated with eosinophil numbers. Numbers of CD14(+)CD33(+) cells correlated with CCL11 and eosinophil levels. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed the presence of CD14(+)CCL11(+) mononuclear cells in colonic biopsies in UC. These results support the hypothesis that CCL11 contributes to eosinophil recruitment in UC and that intestinal myeloid cells are a source of CCL11. Interestingly, rectal levels of CCL24, CCL26, and IL-5 only increase during active UC, coinciding with further elevation of eosinophil numbers and with the activation of rectal eosinophils. In conclusion, there is a link among CD14(+)CD33(+) myeloid cells, CCL11, and eosinophils in adult UC. PMID:23904440

Lampinen, Maria; Waddell, Amanda; Ahrens, Richard; Carlson, Marie; Hogan, Simon P



Th17 cytokines induce pro-fibrotic cytokines release from human eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Background Subepithelial fibrosis is one of the most critical structural changes affecting bronchial airway function during asthma. Eosinophils have been shown to contribute to the production of pro-fibrotic cytokines, TGF-? and IL-11, however, the mechanism regulating this process is not fully understood. Objective In this report, we investigated whether cytokines associated with inflammation during asthma may induce eosinophils to produce pro-fibrotic cytokines. Methods Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of 10 asthmatics and 10 normal control subjects. Eosinophils were stimulated with Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines and the production of TGF-? and IL-11 was determined using real time PCR and ELISA assays. Results The basal expression levels of eosinophil derived TGF-? and IL-11 cytokines were comparable between asthmatic and healthy individuals. Stimulating eosinophils with Th1 and Th2 cytokines did not induce expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines. However, stimulating eosinophils with Th17 cytokines resulted in the enhancement of TGF-? and IL-11 expression in asthmatic but not healthy individuals. This effect of IL-17 on eosinophils was dependent on p38 MAPK activation as inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not other kinases, inhibited IL-17 induced pro-fibrotic cytokine release. Conclusions Th17 cytokines might contribute to airway fibrosis during asthma by enhancing production of eosinophil derived pro-fibrotic cytokines. Preventing the release of pro-fibrotic cytokines by blocking the effect of Th17 cytokines on eosinophils may prove to be beneficial in controlling fibrosis for disorders with IL-17 driven inflammation such as allergic and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23496774



SB-715992 in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes

Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia



Developmental Outcome of Childhood Leukemia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature on developmental and psychosocial outcomes of childhood leukemia is reviewed, focusing on preschool-age children. Studies are categorized in terms of outcome measures: intelligence/achievement, neuropsychological, memory/attention, and psychosocial tests. Evidence suggests that preschool children with leukemia are at high risk for…

Coniglio, Susan J.; Blackman, James A.



Voltage-activated proton current in eosinophils from human blood.  

PubMed Central

1. The resting membrane potential of freshly purified normodense human eosinophils bathed in and dialysed with quasi-physiological solutions was -63 +/- 2 mV (n = 100). 2. In voltage-clamp mode with quasi-physiological internal and external solutions, voltage steps from the holding potential of -60 mV to levels positive to +20 mV resulted in development of a quasi-instantaneous outward current and a slowly developing outward current. The instantaneous current was absent when the cells were bathed in and dialysed with K(+)-free solution. 3. The slow outward current persisted following simultaneous replacement of K+, Na+ and most of the Cl- with largely impermeant ions (tetraethylammonium, N-methyl-D-glucamine and methanesulphonate) and was augmented when the cell was dialysed with a solution of increased buffering capacity for protons. The observed reversal potential of the current closely followed the hydrogen equilibrium potential over a wide range of internal-external pH combinations, indicating that the conductance underlying the slow outward current was highly selective for H+ ions. 4. Acidification of the pipette solution (increasing [H+]i) augmented the outward H+ current and shifted its activation range negatively, whilst acidification of the external solution had the opposite effect. The voltage dependence of the current is modulated by the transmembrane pH gradient so the only outward current could be activated. However, when the outward current was activated by a voltage step, rapid acidification of external solution produced an inward H+ current which rapidly deactivated. 5. The proton current was reversibly inhibited in a voltage-dependent manner by extracellular application of Zn2+. The apparent dissociation constants were 8 nM (at +40 mV), 36 nM (at +70 mV) and 200 nM (at +100 mV). 6. The proton current was augmented by exposure to 10 microM arachidonic acid. This augmentation consisted of a shift of the voltage dependence of activation to more negative potentials and enhancement of maximum conductance (gH,max). The proton current recorded in eosinophils was significantly augmented under conditions of elevated cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). The threshold level of [Ca2+]i associated with this effect lay between 0.1 and 1 microM and was not measurably affected by cytosolic acidification. 7. Eosinophils from human blood possess a voltage-dependent H+ conductance (gH) which normally allows protons to move outwards only; raising [Ca2+]i was associated with augmentation of gH and intracellular acidification or arachidonate shifted its activation range negatively towards physiological potentials. PMID:8910217

Gordienko, D V; Tare, M; Parveen, S; Fenech, C J; Robinson, C; Bolton, T B



Suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 expression in eosinophils: regulation by PGE? and Th2 cytokines.  


Asthma and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) are respiratory disorders characterized by a predominance of Th2 cells and eosinophilic inflammation. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play an important role in Th2-mediated allergic responses through control of the balance between Th1 and Th2 cells, particularly, SOCS3 and SOCS5. The aim of this study was to analyze SOCS expression in human peripheral blood eosinophils from patients with asthma, NAEB and healthy controls. SOCS expression in eosinophils from subjects was demonstrated by different techniques. Results showed that expression of SOCS3 in eosinophils and CD4 T cells from patients was higher than in healthy subjects. In addition, we demonstrated that prostaglandin E? (PGE?) and Th2 cytokines are able to upregulate SOCS3 production in eosinophils and attenuate its degranulation. In conclusion, eosinophils are able to transcribe and translate SOCS3 protein and can contribute to the regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance through SOCS3 production. PMID:21765854

López, Esther; Zafra, María Paz; Sastre, Beatriz; Gámez, Cristina; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Sastre, Joaquín; Lahoz, Carlos; Quirce, Santiago; Del Pozo, Victoria



The prognostic value of the eosinophil in acute renal allograft rejection.  


A case report of marked peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration of a rejected renal allograft in a transplant recipient stimulated our review of the clinical course of 132 consecutive renal transplant recipients. A total of 187 acute rejections occurred in 112 patients. Diagnosis was made by renal biopsy in 124 cases. The percentage of eosinophils in the leukocyte differential of patients with irreversible rejection was 5.2 +/- 5.7 (mean +/- SD) versus that seen in patients with reversible rejection, 2.9 +/- 3.5 (P less than .05). The difference in the total eosinophil counts in each group was not statistically significant. Patients with peripheral blood eosinophil percentages greater than or equal to 4% had a 37.9% irreversible rejection rate, whereas those who had less than 4%, had a 22.4% loss rate (P less than .01). Six of seven patients with greater than or equal to 2% eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate of their renal allograft lost their kidney, whereas grafts with less than 2% eosinophils had a 36.8% loss rate (P less than .02). We conclude that the increased presence of eosinophils in the peripheral blood and/or renal allograft biopsy specimen is an adverse prognostic factor for acute rejection outcome. PMID:3520986

Weir, M R; Hall-Craggs, M; Shen, S Y; Posner, J N; Alongi, S V; Dagher, F J; Sadler, J H



The expanding role(s) of eosinophils in health and disease  

PubMed Central

Surprisingly, the role(s) of eosinophils in health and disease is often summarized by clinicians and basic research scientists as a pervasive consensus opinion first learned in medical/graduate school. Eosinophils are rare white blood cells whose activities are primarily destructive and are only relevant in parasitic infections and asthma. However, is this consensus correct? This review argues that the wealth of available studies investigating the role(s) of eosinophils in both health and disease demonstrates that the activities of these granulocytes are far more expansive and complex than previously appreciated. In turn, this greater understanding has led to the realization that eosinophils have significant contributory roles in a wide range of diseases. Furthermore, published studies even implicate eosinophil-mediated activities in otherwise healthy persons. We suggest that the collective reports in the literature showing a role for eosinophils in an ever-increasing number of novel settings highlight the true complexity and importance of this granulocyte. Indeed, discussions of eosinophils are no longer simple and more often than not now begin with the question/statement “Did you know …?” PMID:22936660

Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Helmers, Richard A.



Interleukin 5 messenger RNA expression by eosinophils in the intestinal mucosa of patients with coeliac disease  

PubMed Central

Interleukin 5 (IL-5), the major factor involved in eosinophil differentiation, is produced by T cells or mast cells. In the present study, we found that eosinophils infiltrating the mucosa of four patients with active coeliac disease also express the IL-5 mRNA. No positive signal was obtained in normal duodenum tissues and in the cell infiltrate from patients submitted to gluten restriction. The identification of labeled mucosal cells as eosinophils relied on their typical morphology. Moreover, highly purified blood eosinophils from three out of four patients with eosinophilia were also strongly labeled with the IL-5 antisense but not with the corresponding sense probe. Together, these results suggest that eosinophils have the capacity to synthesize IL-5, which could contribute to paracrine interactions with T and B cells and, in autocrine fashion, locally participate, through binding to the IL-5 receptor, to eosinophil differentiation and activation. These data might have implications not only in the pathology of coeliac disease but also in other diseases associated with eosinophil infiltration. PMID:1730922



Pathogenesis and classification of eosinophil disorders: a review of recent developments in the field.  


Eosinophils and their products play an essential role in the pathogenesis of various reactive and neoplastic disorders. Depending on the underlying disease, molecular defect and involved cytokines, hypereosinophilia may develop and may lead to organ damage. In other patients, persistent eosinophilia is accompanied by typical clinical findings, but the causative role and impact of eosinophilia remain uncertain. For patients with eosinophil-mediated organ pathology, early therapeutic intervention with agents reducing eosinophil counts can be effective in limiting or preventing irreversible organ damage. Therefore, it is important to approach eosinophil disorders and related syndromes early by using established criteria, to perform all appropriate staging investigations, and to search for molecular targets of therapy. In this article, we review current concepts in the pathogenesis and evolution of eosinophilia and eosinophil-related organ damage in neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. In addition, we discuss classifications of eosinophil disorders and related syndromes as well as diagnostic algorithms and standard treatment for various eosinophil-related disorders. PMID:22475285

Valent, Peter; Gleich, Gerald J; Reiter, Andreas; Roufosse, Florence; Weller, Peter F; Hellmann, Andrzej; Metzgeroth, Georgia; Leiferman, Kristin M; Arock, Michel; Sotlar, Karl; Butterfield, Joseph H; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Mayerhofer, Matthias; Vandenberghe, Peter; Haferlach, Torsten; Bochner, Bruce S; Gotlib, Jason; Horny, Hans-Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Klion, Amy D



Pathogenesis and classification of eosinophil disorders: a review of recent developments in the field  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils and their products play an essential role in the pathogenesis of various reactive and neoplastic disorders. Depending on the underlying disease, molecular defect and involved cytokines, hypereosinophilia may develop and may lead to organ damage. In other patients, persistent eosinophilia is accompanied by typical clinical findings, but the causative role and impact of eosinophilia remain uncertain. For patients with eosinophil-mediated organ pathology, early therapeutic intervention with agents reducing eosinophil counts can be effective in limiting or preventing irreversible organ damage. Therefore, it is important to approach eosinophil disorders and related syndromes early by using established criteria, to perform all appropriate staging investigations, and to search for molecular targets of therapy. In this article, we review current concepts in the pathogenesis and evolution of eosinophilia and eosinophil-related organ damage in neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. In addition, we discuss classifications of eosinophil disorders and related syndromes as well as diagnostic algorithms and standard treatment for various eosinophil-related disorders. PMID:22475285

Valent, Peter; Gleich, Gerald J; Reiter, Andreas; Roufosse, Florence; Weller, Peter F; Hellmann, Andrzej; Metzgeroth, Georgia; Leiferman, Kristin M; Arock, Michel; Sotlar, Karl; Butterfield, Joseph H; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Mayerhofer, Matthias; Vandenberghe, Peter; Haferlach, Torsten; Bochner, Bruce S; Gotlib, Jason; Horny, Hans-Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Klion, Amy D



Rebeccamycin Analog in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes



Surfactant Protein-A Suppresses Eosinophil-Mediated Killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Allergic Lungs  

PubMed Central

Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT) and SP-A?/? allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova) that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp) to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp) as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A?/? mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation and damage. PMID:22384248

Ledford, Julie G.; Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Kislan, Michele M.; Nugent, Julia L.; Hollingsworth, John W.



A parallel signal-transduction pathway for eotaxin- and interleukin-5-induced eosinophil shape change  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-5 (IL-5) and eotaxin are the most important cytokines/chemokines responsible for regulating eosinophil locomotion and are known to play a co-operative role in the selective recruitment of eosinophils to inflamed tissues. Following exposure to chemoattractants, eosinophils undergo a series of events, including reorganization of actin filaments and subsequent rapid shape changes, culminating in chemotaxis. In this study we examined the signalling pathways for eosinophil shape change regulated by eotaxin and IL-5, primarily using a gated autofluorescence/forward-scatter assay. Eotaxin and IL-5 were able to elicit shape change with peaks at 10 and 60 min, respectively, and IL-5 triggered the shape change more efficiently than eotaxin. The pharmacological inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) and p38 blocked both eotaxin- and IL-5-induced eosinophil shape change in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, depletion of intracellular Ca2+ and inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) strongly reduced eosinophil shape change. In contrast, even when used at high concentrations, protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors caused only a slight reduction in the ability to change shape. However, treatment with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, such as GF109203X and staurosporine, resulted in a striking inhibition of eosinophil shape change by IL-5, but not eotaxin. Data from the inhibition of activation and chemotaxis of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) by the PKC inhibitors were also consistent with findings from the experiments on shape change. Collectively, two eosinophil-selective cytokines/chemokines probably regulate eosinophil shape change via a largely overlapping signalling pathway, with involvement of PKC restricted to the IL-5 signal alone. PMID:12562334

Choi, Eun Nam; Choi, Moon Kyung; Park, Choon-Sik; Chung, Il Yup



Activated eosinophils in adult coeliac disease: evidence for a local release of major basic protein.  

PubMed Central

The eosinophil population is increased in the jejunal mucosa of patients with coeliac disease. Eosinophils may participate in the mucosal damage by releasing their granule components that have cytotoxic properties such as eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and major basic protein (MBP). This study aimed to assess the presence of ECP and MBP in the jejunal mucosa of 10 adult patients with active coeliac disease who presented with villous flattening. Endoscopic jejunal biopsy specimens were obtained from macroscopically flattened jejunal mucosa and were processed for ultrastructural study and immunogold labelling using anti-MBP, anti-ECP, and anti-IgA antibodies. Numerous eosinophils were found in the upper part of the lamina propria and showed two types of morphological change: some were lytic and others exhibited ultrastructural signs of activation, containing altered granules with fading of the central core. IgA plasma cells were intermingled with eosinophils and had dense deposits on the external side of their cytoplasmic membrane. MBP was detected in central cores of granules but also diffusely in their matrix and in tight association with dense extracellular deposits. Conversely, ECP was detected only in the matrix of eosinophil granules. This study showed that numerous eosinophils are in an activated state in the mucosa of patients with active coeliac disease and release cytotoxic proteins such as MBP, which could contribute to the mucosal damage. The observation that eosinophils and IgA plasmocytes were closely associated in the mucosa supports a role for IgA in eosinophil recruitment and activation in coeliac disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1427370

Colombel, J F; Torpier, G; Janin, A; Klein, O; Cortot, A; Capron, M



Interactions between NADPH oxidase-related proton and electron currents in human eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Proton and electron currents in human eosinophils were studied using the permeabilized-patch voltage-clamp technique, with an applied NH4+ gradient to control pHi.Voltage-gated proton channels in unstimulated human eosinophils studied with the permeabilized-patch approach had properties similar to those reported in whole-cell studies.Superoxide anion (O2?) release assessed by cytochrome c reduction was compared in human eosinophils and neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). PMA-stimulated O2 release was more transient and the maximum rate was three times greater in eosinophils.In PMA-activated eosinophils, the H+ current amplitude (IH) at +60 mV increased 4.7-fold, activation was 4.0 times faster, deactivation (tail current decay) was 5.4 times slower, the H+ conductance–voltage (gH–V) relationship was shifted ?43 mV, and diphenylene iodinium (DPI)-inhibitable inward current reflecting electron flow through NADPH oxidase was activated. The data reveal that PMA activates the H+ efflux during the respiratory burst by modulating the properties of H+ channels, not simply as a result of NADPH oxidase activity.The electrophysiological response of eosinophils to PMA resembled that reported in human neutrophils, but PMA activated larger proton and electron currents in eosinophils and the response was more transient.ZnCl2 slowed the activation of H+ currents and shifted the gH–V relationship to more positive voltages. These effects occurred at similar ZnCl2 concentrations in eosinophils before and after PMA stimulation. These data are compatible with the existence of a single type of H+ channel in eosinophils that is modulated during the respiratory burst. PMID:11559774

DeCoursey, T E; Cherny, V V; DeCoursey, A G; Xu, W; Thomas, L L



Eosinophilic cystitis: three cases, and a review over 10?years.  


Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare disease. We describe three cases, where presentations of the disease are similar. To highlight probable causes of the disease, symptoms, clinical findings and treatment modalities, we reviewed 56 cases over a 10-year period. The most common symptoms were frequency, dysuria, urgency, pain and haematuria. Common clinical findings were presence of bladder mass, peripheral eosinophilia and thickened bladder wall. A variety of medical treatments were used, most frequently steroids, antibiotics and antihistamines. Recurrence occurred in patients on tapering or discontinuing prednisone, among other reasons. There is no consensus about the treatment of EC, but In light of our findings in this review, the treatment of choice in our department will be tapered prednisone over 6-8?weeks in combination with antihistamine. PMID:25312971

Mosholt, Karina Sif Søndergaard; Dahl, Claus; Azawi, Nessn Htum



Eosinophilic granuloma of the temporal bone in children.  


Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a bony destructive disease that frequently occurs in children; it is a subtype of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The aims of this study were to detect the presenting features of temporal bone lesions in children and to evaluate the efficacy of surgery combined with radiotherapy in treatment of the disease. A retrospective study on 12 children with EG of the temporal bone was done. Computed tomography and hearing assessment were performed for all patients. All patients were treated with cortical mastoidectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy. Follow-up was carried out for at least 2 years. The patients' presenting symptoms were external ear canal mass in 10 patients (83.3%), postauricular swelling in 8 patients (66.7%), and persistent otorrhea in 4 patients (33.3%). Ten patients (83.3%) showed conductive hearing loss, whereas 2 patients (16.7%) showed mixed hearing loss on the affected side. Computed tomography showed osteolytic defects without sclerotic margins filled with soft tissue masses involving the mastoid bone. Histopathologic examination showed eosinophils and Langerhans cells that were immune reactive for CD1 antigen and S-100 protein. Postoperative follow-up showed complete cure of the disease in 10 children (83.3%), with recurrence detected in 2 patients (16.7%) who needed second surgical intervention. We concluded that temporal bone EG in children may present with features that mimic the features of chronic suppurative otitis media. However, computed tomography and histopathologic examination are diagnostic. Cortical mastoidectomy together with postoperative radiotherapy is an achievable treatment in most cases. PMID:24717312

Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; Rashed, Mohammed; Khalifa, Badawi; Talaat, Ahmed; Nassar, Ahmed



Development of a suspension array assay in multiplex for the simultaneous measurement of serum levels of four eosinophil granule proteins.  


The concentrations of major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) have been associated with eosinophilic disease severity. Whereas a variety of techniques have been used to measure individual eosinophil granule protein concentration, none of these methods efficiently measures MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO simultaneously. A multiplex suspension array system was developed to simultaneously measure the concentrations of MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO in serum. The assay showed excellent inter- and intra-assay reliability, and serum levels of MBP, ECP and EDN from eosinophilic subjects analyzed by ELISA and multiplex were highly correlated (r=0.8579; P<0.0001, r=0.6356; P=0.0006 and r=0.8600; P<0.0001, respectively, Spearman rank correlation). Moreover, the multiplex assay required 500-fold less serum than a single ELISA to achieve comparable sensitivity. Absolute eosinophil count and eosinophil surface expression of the activation marker, CD69, were significantly correlated with concentrations of MBP, EDN and EPO, but not ECP, in serum from eosinophilic subjects. Furthermore, subjects with eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder and normal peripheral absolute eosinophil counts (<0.5×10(9)/l) had significantly increased concentrations of MBP (P<0.0001), ECP (P<0.0001), EDN (P=0.0001) and EPO (P<0.0001) compared to normal donors. In summary, the eosinophil granule protein multiplex assay provides a rapid and reliable way to measure eosinophil granule protein levels and should prove useful in assessing patterns of degranulation in patients with eosinophilic disorders. PMID:24914990

Makiya, Michelle A; Herrick, Jesica A; Khoury, Paneez; Prussin, Calman P; Nutman, Thomas B; Klion, Amy D



Entinostat and Clofarabine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed, Relapsed, or Refractory Poor-Risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Bilineage/Biphenotypic Leukemia

Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia



Topical Corticosteroids Do Not Revert the Activated Phenotype of Eosinophils in Eosinophilic Esophagitis but Decrease Surface Levels of CD18 Resulting in Diminished Adherence to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and Endothelial Cells.  


Swallowed topical corticosteroids are the standard therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in adults. Eosinophils in the blood of untreated EoE patients have an activated phenotype. Our aim was to determine if corticosteroids restore the phenotype of eosinophils to a healthy phenotype and if certain cell-surface molecules on blood eosinophils correlate with eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. Levels of eight surface markers on eosinophils from treated and untreated EoE patients were determined by flow cytometry and analyzed using multivariate methods of pattern recognition. Corticosteroid-treated EoE patients' eosinophils had decreased levels of CD18 compared to both untreated patients and healthy controls, but maintained their activated phenotype. CD18 expression correlated positively with eosinophil numbers in the esophagus and promoted the adherence of eosinophils to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and to endothelial cells. The diminished expression of CD18 may be one mechanism behind the reduced entry of eosinophils into the esophagus in corticosteroid-treated EoE patients. PMID:24870064

Lingblom, Christine; Bergquist, Henrik; Johnsson, Marianne; Sundström, Patrik; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Bove, Mogens; Wennerås, Christine



A Case of Unifocal Eosinophilic Granuloma of the Mandible in an Adult Female: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic granuloma of bone is a disease with an incidence of one new case per 350,000 to 2 million per year, which is an uncommon disease of maxillofacial region, and presents in more than 90% in children under the age of ten with predominance for males. As a result, eosinophilic granuloma of the jaw is always unconsidered in the differential diagnosis of similar lesions by many clinicians. It is difficult to make a correct diagnosis on it without proof of a pathological diagnosis, which correlates with the diverse clinical and radiographic presentations of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaws. In the present paper we report a rare case of unifocal eosinophilic granuloma of mandible occurring in an adult female. PMID:22953070

Agarwal, Anshita; Agrawal, Gaurav P.; Alam, Sarwar; Husain, Benazeer



Extracellular DNA traps in bronchoalveolar fluid from a murine eosinophilic pulmonary response.  


Asthma is associated with a loss of the structural integrity of airway epithelium and dysfunction of the physical barrier, which protects airways from external harmful factors. Granulocyte activation causes the formation of extracellular traps, releasing web-like structures of DNA and proteins, being important to kill pathogens extracellularly. We investigated whether eosinophils infiltrating airways in an experimental model of asthma would induce eosinophil extracellular traps (EETs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. We showed that an ovalbumin (OVA) asthma protocol presented a significant increase in eosinophil counts with increased extracellular DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as in lung tissue, confirming the presence of DNA traps colocalized with eosinophil peroxidase. EETs formation was reversed by DNase treatment. With these approaches, we demonstrated for the first time that OVA-challenged mice release extracellular DNA traps, which could aggravate pulmonary dysfunction. PMID:25130372

Cunha, A A; Porto, B N; Nuñez, N K; Souza, R G; Vargas, M H M; Silveira, J S; Souza, T T R; Jaeger, N; Pitrez, P M




EPA Science Inventory

Role of Monocytes and Eosinophils in Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection Joleen M. Soukup and Susanne Becker US Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; ...


Retinoic acids up-regulate functional eosinophil-driving receptor CCR3.  


Eotaxins and their receptor CCR3 have a definitive role for tissue accumulation of eosinophils both under homeostatic and pathologic conditions. However, physiological stimuli that can up-regulate CCR3 in blood-derived human eosinophils have not been recognized. As a prior gene microarray study revealed up-regulation of CCR3 in eosinophils stimulated with retinoic acids (RAs), the expression of functional CCR3 was examined. We found that 9-cis RA and all-trans RA (ATRA) significantly induced surface CCR3 expression regardless of the presence of IL-3 or IL-5. Pharmacological manipulations with receptor-specific agonists and antagonists indicated that retinoic acid receptor-? activation is critical for CCR3 up-regulation. RA-induced CCR3 was associated with its functional capacity, in terms of the calcium mobilization and chemotactic response to eotaxin-1 (CCL11). Our study suggests an important role of vitamin A derivatives in the tissue accumulation of eosinophils. PMID:23742077

Ueki, S; Nishikawa, J; Yamauchi, Y; Konno, Y; Tamaki, M; Itoga, M; Kobayashi, Y; Takeda, M; Moritoki, Y; Ito, W; Chihara, J



Can We Determine Appropriate Foods to Eliminate to Treat Eosinophilic Esophagitis?  


... published in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JACI), Spergel and colleagues at The Children’s Hospital ... eosinophilic esophagitis. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JACI) is the official scientific journal of the ...


Effect of antiallergic drugs on interleukin 5-induced eosinophil infiltration of rat airways.  


Interleukin (IL)-5 is thought to play important roles in asthma and to be a potential therapeutic target. An intratracheal injection of murine recombinant IL-5 (3-30 microg/animal) induced a dose-dependent increase in the number of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of Brown Norway (BN) rats 24 h after administration. Bovine serum albumin (30pg/animal), used as reference material, did not cause any change. The reaction was not observed in F344 rats. The increase in the number of eosinophils did not accompany bronchial hyperreactivity in BN or F344 rats. Prednisolone (3-10 mg/kg, i.p.) and emedastine (30 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the increased number of eosinophils induced by the IL-5 challenge. These results suggest that IL-5 is a potent inducer of eosinophils in the airway of BN rats. Prednisolone and emedastine are effective against IL-5-induced eosinophilia. PMID:11913525

Takizawa, Toshiaki; Kawada, Naoki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Hiroichi



Histopathologic study of eosinophilic bronchointerstitial pneumonia caused by Crenosoma striatum in the hedgehog.  


Crenosoma striatum is a species of parasitic nematodes from the family Crenosomatidae responsible for pathologic lung lesions in the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Infection with C. striatum can cause weight loss, dry cough, and bronchitis. In the present study, hedgehogs killed by road accidents, or trapped and found dead on farms in different parts of Mazandaran province (Iran), were transferred to the laboratory. After dissection, parasite samples collected from the lung were placed into 70% alcohol. After clarification with lactophenol and subsequent staining, the nematodes were identified as C. striatum according to previously published guidelines. For histopathologic examination, lung samples were collected. The tissues were fixed and following routine processing, sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic diagnoses included hyperemia, eosinophilic bronchointerstitial pneumonia, thickening of the interstitium, and eosinophilic microabscesses in bronchial airways. Eosinophilic pneumonia was characterized by eosinophil and other mononuclear leukocyte infiltration within the lung interstitium. Crenosoma striatum can lead to mortality in hedgehogs. PMID:25000695

Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Mousapour, Aliasghar; Dozouri, Rohollah; Eshkevari, Shahab Ramezanpour; Nikzad, Mohammad; Nikzad, Reza; Omidzahir, Shila




EPA Science Inventory

Background: Recent obervations show that atopic asthmatic subjects have increased sensitivity to respirable endotoxin (or LPS) compared with normal persons. In vitro studies demonstrate that LPS enchances eosinophil survival. These obervations suggest that the effects of inhal...


Involvement of annexin I in the dexamethasone-mediated upregulation of A549 cells phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils.  


Phagolysis of apoptotic eosinophils plays an important role in the successful resolution of asthmatic inflammation. However, little is known about underlying mechanisms. Our aim is to investigate whether annexin I is involved in the dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of phagolysis of apoptotic eosinophils by A549 cells. Phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils by A549 cells was visualized under laser confocal scanning microscopy. The effect of dexamethasone and TNF-alpha treatment on surface annexin I expression on A549 cells was assayed by Western blot. Eosinophils were purified under sterile conditions from periphery blood of five normal donors. A549 cells were visually assessed for apoptotic eosinophil phagocytosis by microscope. The concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8 and TGF-beta(1) released by A549 cells to the culture supernatants was measured by RIA or ELISA. Dexamethasone upregulated apoptotic eosinophils phagocytosis by A549 cells in a time-dependent manner, which correlated with annexin I surface expression. Annexin I mAb abolished dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of apoptotic eosinophil phagocytosis by A549 cells. Phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils did not change IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-beta(1) release from A549 cells. These results suggest that annexin I is involved in upregulating of dexamethasone-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils by A549 cells. Furthermore, the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic eosinophils did not increase proinflammatory responses. PMID:17644190

Wang, Cheng; Wang, Jiong; Guo, Hou-Fu; Liu, Rong-Yu



Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha influences eosinophil recruitment in antigen-specific airway inflammation.  


Allergic airway inflammation is characterized by peribronchial eosinophil accumulation within the submucosa of the airway of the lung. In the present study we have utilized a model of airway inflammation induced by intratracheal challenge with parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) egg antigen (SEA) in presensitized mice. The recruitment of neutrophils and eosinophils into the airway was found to be maximal at 8 and 48 h post challenge, respectively. Since macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) has previously been found to be chemotactic for eosinophils, in vitro, we postulated that MIP-1 alpha was involved in the airway inflammation and more specifically in eosinophil recruitment into the airway. Initial studies demonstrated an increase in MIP-1 alpha mRNA expression at 8 h post-SEA challenge, as compared to vehicle-treated control mice. We next demonstrated a significant increase in MIP-1 alpha protein in the lungs of SEA-challenged mice at 8 h compared to control challenged mice, correlating to the mRNA data. Immunohistochemical staining of lungs from SEA-challenged mice demonstrated MIP-1 alpha protein expression in airway epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and in recruited mononuclear cell populations. Immunolocalization of MIP-1 alpha to cells within the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid demonstrated that macrophages and eosinophils stained positive for the protein. To determine the contribution of MIP-1 alpha expression to eosinophil accumulation, SEA-challenged mice were passively immunized with either neutralizing MIP-1 alpha antibodies or normal rabbit IgG, 3-4 h prior to the intratracheal SEA challenge. These studies demonstrated a > 50% decrease in eosinophil recruitment to the lungs and airway in animals receiving neutralizing MIP-1 alpha antibodies with no effect on early neutrophil recruitment. These results suggest that the production of MIP-1 alpha, induced by an antigen-specific response, plays an important role in recruitment of eosinophils in this airway model of inflammation. PMID:7843237

Lukacs, N W; Strieter, R M; Shaklee, C L; Chensue, S W; Kunkel, S L



Eosinophilic reaction in nasal cytology in patients sensitive to perennial and seasonal allergens.  


Nasal exfoliative cytology is a complementary tool in diagnostics of allergic (AR) and non-allergic (NAR) rhinitis. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of the nasal cytology in patients sensitive to common inhalant allergens with positive SPT(+) and negative SPT(-) (Skin Prick Tests) depending on the symptoms of intermittent and persistent rhinitis. The study was performed in a group of 285 patients treated in the Department of Allergology University Hospital in Krakow, suspected on AR in 2008-2010. The patients were made a smear test of inferior nasal concha. The samples were stained using the eosin-hematoxylin method and examined under a light microscope (1000x). Patients were divided into two groups: SPT(+) (144 patients) and SPT(-) (141 patients). Depending on the percentage of obtained eosinophils each group was divided into three subgroups: 0-2%, 3-20%, >20%. In the most percentage of patients with 3-20% of eosinophils in nasal cytology were found, in both studied groups (SPT)(+) and (SPT)(-), while the highest percentage of eosinophils (> 20%) was observed in the bigger group of patients with SPT(+), than with SPT(-). The number of patients with eosinophils > 20% in the SPT(+) group was higher in patients with persistent symptoms (NS differences), while in the SPT(-) group, the number of patients with intermittent symptoms in the subgroup > 20% of eosinophils statistically prevailed (p<0.001). The mean percentage of eosinophils in both groups was comparable, while the statistically significant differences were found considering the distinguished subgroups. In intermittent SPT(+) group the most sensitizing allergens were pollen grains (birch or grass pollen), while the patients with persistent AR symptoms were mainly sensitive the house dust mites. The mean percentage of eosinophils in an exfoliative cytology correlated significantly with allergic rhinitis symptoms and SPT results, the most evident relationship was found between higher level of eosinophils and the patients with confirmed AR diagnosis on the basis of positive SPT, manifesting the intermittent symptoms. PMID:24720123

Zy?a, Ma?gorzata; Le?niak, Ma?gorzata; Myszkowska, Dorota; Dabal, Ewa; Lorenc, Justyna; Wojtaszek-Czapla, Maria; Obtu?owicz, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa



Enhanced Tissue Factor Expression by Blood Eosinophils from Patients with Hypereosinophilia: A Possible Link with Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Thrombotic risk is increased in eosinophil-mediated disorders, and several hypotheses have been proposed to link eosinophilia and thrombosis. In particular, eosinophils have been described as source of tissue factor (TF), the main initiator of blood coagulation; however, this aspect is still controversial. This study was aimed to evaluate whether TF expression varies in eosinophils isolated from normal subjects and patients with different hypereosinophilic conditions. Eosinophils were immunologically purified from peripheral blood samples of 9 patients with different hypereosinophilic conditions and 9 normal subjects. Western blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed to test eosinophil TF expression. For comparison, TF expression was evaluated in monocytes from blood donors and in human endothelial (ECV304) and fibroblast (IMR90) cell lines. Western blot analysis revealed a major band of 47,000 corresponding to native TF in homogenates of purified eosinophils with a higher intensity in the 9 patients than in the 9 controls (p<0.0001). According to RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct), TF gene expression was higher in eosinophils from patients than in those from controls, median (range) 35.10 (19.45–36.50) vs 37.17 (35.33–37.87) (p?=?0.002), and was particularly abundant in one patient with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome and ischemic heart attacks (Ct: 19.45). TF gene expression was moderate in monocytes, Ct: 31.32 (29.82–33.49) and abundant in endothelial cells, Ct: 28.70 (27.79–29.57) and fibroblasts, Ct: 22.77 (19.22–25.05). Our results indicate that human blood eosinophils contain variable amounts of TF. The higher TF expression in patients with hypereosinophilic disorders may contribute to increase the thrombotic risk. PMID:25375118

Cugno, Massimo; Marzano, Angelo V.; Lorini, Maurizio; Carbonelli, Vincenzo; Tedeschi, Alberto



Eotaxin-2 Alters Eosinophil Integrin Function via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesion molecules and chemokines contribute to selective eosinophil recruitment in allergic inflammation. In this study, we examined the effects of eotaxin-2, a CCR3-specific chemo- kine, on integrin-mediated eosinophil adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion mole- cule-1 (ICAM-1), or both using a parallel plate flow system. Tis- sue culture plates were coated with various combinations of VCAM-1, ICAM-1,

Hiroshi Tachimoto; Matsuo Kikuchi; Sherry A. Hudson; Carol A. Bickel; Robert G. Hamilton; Bruce S. Bochner



Eosinophilic esophagitis: a case report with a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an allergic inflammatory condition of the esophagus and is characterized by dense eosinophilic\\u000a infiltration of the esophagus. There has been a dramatic increase in the diagnosis of EE in Western countries in recent years;\\u000a however, in Japan, there are very few reports of EE. We present a rare case of EE in a 70-year-old Japanese woman,

Hirohito SanoKatsuhiko; Katsuhiko Iwakiri; Noriyuki Kawami; Yuriko Tanaka; Mariko Umezawa; Tadasu Iizumi; Makoto Kotoyori; Yoshio Hoshihara; Kaiyo Takubo; Choitsu Sakamoto



[Eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a tropical area: report of a Congolese case].  


Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with an unknown natural history, and its relation to digestive allergies has not been confirmed. This study reports the case of a 27 year old patient who developed eosinophilic gastroenteritis with gastric, intestinal, rectal and peritoneal localisations. In the Congo, massive blood hypereosinophilia suggests digestive parasitosis and gastroenteritis with malnutrition and cutaneous symptoms suggest AIDS/HIV, making the present agnosis uncommon. PMID:16294164

Ibara, Jean-Rosaire; Ngoma Mambouana, Philomène; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Itoua-Ngaporo, Assori; Paris, Jean-Claude



Induction of Normal Human Eosinophil Migration in vitro by Substance P  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of tachykinins in allergic inflammation, the effect of substance P (SP) on normal human eosinophil migration was examined in Boy-den chamber type assays. SP stimulated eosinophil migration in vitro with an EC50 of about 1-10 pM and maximal effects were seen at 100 pM. A carboxy-terminal fragment of SP possessed appreciable activity whereas an amino-ter-minal fragment

F. J. Wiedermann; C. M. Kähler; N. Reinisch; C. J. Wiedermann



PXD101 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia



Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia



Architecture and inflammatory cell composition of the feline lung with special consideration of eosinophil counts.  


An increase in the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is a hallmark of feline asthma; however, a wide range in the percentage of eosinophils in BALF has been documented in healthy cats. In this study, BALF and lung tissue were collected from 15 cats without respiratory disease, BALF was taken from 15 cats with asthma and lung tissue was collected from six different asthmatic cats. Total nucleated cell count (TNCC) and inflammatory cell percentages were measured in BALF and lung tissue was evaluated microscopically. Asthmatic cats had a significantly higher eosinophil count in lung tissue, but BALF TNCC did not differ significantly between groups. Cats without respiratory signs had significantly more numerous macrophages and lymphocytes in BALF than asthmatics, but significantly lower percentages of eosinophils (4.2 ± 7.8% versus 49.4 ± 20.6%, P <0.001). In healthy feline airways a BALF eosinophil percentage of <5% can be expected. Dominant microscopical findings in feline asthma include high eosinophil counts, airway remodelling and inflammation. There is good correlation between the findings in BALF and tissue in feline asthma. PMID:24529513

Shibly, S; Klang, A; Galler, A; Schwendenwein, I; Christian, M; Guija, A; Tichy, A; Hirt, R A



Significance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is characterized by chronic eosinophilic infiltration of the lung. It is dramatically responsive to corticosteroid treatment, but symptoms and radiopacities recur frequently after tapering or discontinuing the medication. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a well-known noninvasive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the relationships of FeNO with peripheral eosinophilia and the clinical state of CEP and its validity for predicting exacerbation of CEP. Methods Standard clinical and laboratory parameters, peripheral eosinophil percentage and count, and FeNO level were measured in 18 patients with CEP at several assessment points over 1 year. Results FeNO level was positively correlated with peripheral eosinophil count (r?=?0.341, P?=?0.005) and percentage (r?=?0.362, P?=?0.003). The median (IQR) FeNO levels were 79 (41–88) and 35 (26–49) ppb in uncontrolled (13/74 measurements) and controlled (61/74 measurements) CEP, respectively (P?=?0.010). The FeNO level of 66.0 ppb showed the largest area under the curve (0.835) for predicting exacerbation of CEP (sensitivity?=?0.80, specificity?=?0.84). Conclusion FeNO may be useful for monitoring eosinophilic parenchymal inflammation and determining the appropriate corticosteroid dose in CEP. PMID:24885379



Catapult-like release of mitochondrial DNA by eosinophils contributes to antibacterial defense.  


Although eosinophils are considered useful in defense mechanisms against parasites, their exact function in innate immunity remains unclear. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of eosinophils within the gastrointestinal immune system. We show here that lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria activates interleukin-5 (IL-5)- or interferon-gamma-primed eosinophils to release mitochondrial DNA in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner, but independent of eosinophil death. Notably, the process of DNA release occurs rapidly in a catapult-like manner--in less than one second. In the extracellular space, the mitochondrial DNA and the granule proteins form extracellular structures able to bind and kill bacteria both in vitro and under inflammatory conditions in vivo. Moreover, after cecal ligation and puncture, Il5-transgenic but not wild-type mice show intestinal eosinophil infiltration and extracellular DNA deposition in association with protection against microbial sepsis. These data suggest a previously undescribed mechanism of eosinophil-mediated innate immune responses that might be crucial for maintaining the intestinal barrier function after inflammation-associated epithelial cell damage, preventing the host from uncontrolled invasion of bacteria. PMID:18690244

Yousefi, Shida; Gold, Jeffrey A; Andina, Nicola; Lee, James J; Kelly, Ann M; Kozlowski, Evelyne; Schmid, Inès; Straumann, Alex; Reichenbach, Janine; Gleich, Gerald J; Simon, Hans-Uwe



Eosinophil as a Protective Cell in S. aureus Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Cell counts of leukocytes subpopulations are demonstrating to have an important value in predicting outcome in severe infections. We evaluated here the render of leukogram counts to predict outcome in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Data from patients admitted to the ICU of Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid from 2006 to 2011 with diagnosis of VAP caused by S. aureus were retrospectively collected for the study (n = 44). Leukocyte counts were collected at ICU admission and also at VAP diagnosis. Our results showed that nonsurvivors had significant lower eosinophil counts at VAP diagnosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis performed by the Wald test for forward selection showed that eosinophil increments from ICU admission to VAP diagnosis and total eosinophil counts at VAP diagnosis were protective factors against mortality in the first 28 days following diagnosis: (HR [CI 95%], P): (0.996 [0.993–0.999], 0.010); (0.370 [0.180–0.750], 0.006). Patients with eosinophil counts <30?cells/mm3 at diagnosis died earlier. Eosinophil counts identified survivors: (AUROC [CI 95%], P): (0.701 [0.519–0.882], 0.042). Eosinophil behaves as a protective cell in patients with VAP caused by S. aureus. PMID:24082429

Rodriguez-Fernandez, Ana; Andaluz-Ojeda, David; Almansa, Raquel; Justel, Mar; Eiros, Jose Maria; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raul



c-FLIP Protects Eosinophils from TNF-?-Mediated Cell Death In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Understanding the signals that regulate eosinophil survival and death is critical to developing new treatments for asthma, atopy, and gastrointestinal disease. Previous studies suggest that TNF-? stimulation protects eosinophils from apoptosis, and this TNF-?-mediated protection is mediated by the upregulation of an unknown protein by NF-?B. Here, we show for the first time that eosinophils express the caspase 8-inhibitory protein c-FLIP, and c-FLIP expression is upregulated upon TNF-? stimulation. Considering that c-FLIP expression is regulated by NF-?B, we hypothesized that c-FLIP might serve as the “molecular switch” that converts TNFRI activation to a pro-survival signal in eosinophils. Indeed, we found that one c-FLIP isoform, c-FLIPL, is required for mouse eosinophil survival in the presence of TNF-? both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, our results suggest c-FLIP as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of eosinophil-mediated disease. PMID:25333625

Gordy, Claire; Liang, Jie; Pua, Heather; He, You-Wen



Vaccine Therapy Plus Immune Adjuvant in Treating Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia



Pharmacogenetics in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Progress in the treatment of acute leukemia in children has been remarkable, from a disease being lethal four decades ago to current cure rates exceeding 80%. This exemplary progress is largely due to the optimization of existing treatment modalities rather than the discovery of new antileukemic agents. However, despite these high cure rates, the annual number of children whose leukemia relapses after their initial therapy remains greater than that of new cases of most types of childhood cancers. The aim of pharmacogenetics is to develop strategies to personalize treatment and tailor therapy to individual patients, with the goal of optimizing efficacy and safety through better understanding of human genome variability and its influence on drug response. In this review, we summarize recent pharmacogenomic studies related to the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. These studies illustrate the promise of pharmacogenomics to further advance the treatment of human cancers, with childhood leukemia serving as a paradigm. PMID:19100367

Cheok, Meyling H.; Pottier, Nicolas; Kager, Leo



Toxocara canis: failure to find IgE receptors (Fc epsilon R) on eosinophils from infected mice suggests that murine eosinophils do not kill helminth larvae by an IgE-dependent mechanism.  


Eosinophils obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from the lungs of mice infected with Toxocara canis were characterized by flow cytometry with respect to cytophilic antibodies and surface Fc receptors. Freshly harvested BAL eosinophils were negative for sIgM, sIgA, sIgE, and Fc epsilon RII. These eosinophils were positive for sIgG1 and Fc gamma RII, although not all Fc gamma RIIs contained bound ligand. Culturing eosinophils for 24 or 48 hr with exogenous IgE and/or IL-4 did not induce IgE binding capacity or Fc epsilon RII expression. IL-4 did not decrease Fc gamma RII expression but did decrease ligand binding capacity by Fc gamma RII. These findings are in marked contrast to the results of studies characterizing the surface of both human and rat eosinophils and may indicate different functional activities for mouse BAL eosinophils in helminth infections. PMID:8299761

Jones, R E; Finkelman, F D; Hester, R B; Kayes, S G



[Chronic myeloid leukemia].  


More than 10 years have passed since imatinib as a first developed BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) introduced in treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In globally, there are tremendous numbers of patients on imatinib therapy. Based upon randomized trials comparing second generation TKIs such as dasatinib and nilotinib versus imatinib, both TKIs produce faster and deeper response than imatinib and they can be selected as first-line therapy for newly diagnosed chronic phase of CML (CP-CML) as imatinib. Bosutinib is a potent for imatinib resistant/intolerant CP-CML and can be used as second or third-line therapy. Ponatinib is the only clinically available TKI that has activity against the T315 mutation that is resistant to all other TKIs. Currently, a choice among these potent TKIs should take into consideration the drug side effect profiles and the patient's comorbidities. PMID:25016806

Usui, Noriko



Treatment of prolymphocytic leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Prolymphocytic leukemia is characterized by marked splenomegaly, distinctive cellular morphologic characteristics, and a poor clinical course. Five patients with typical PL were treated systematically with vincristine/prednisone, chlorambucil/prednisone, splenic irradiation, splenectomy, and other chemotherapy regimens. No patient responded to vincristine/prednisone. Two patients responded to chlorambucil/prednisone, and four patients had brief responses to splenic irradiation. Two patients underwent splenectomy, one of whom had a prolonged clinical remission. There were no complete remissions. No other chemotherapy combinations were of value. The median survival was 33 months. Recommendations are made to use chlorambucil/prednisone or splenic irradiation as initial treatment. Splenectomy should be considered in patients refractory to these modalities. The course of PL may be more protracted than originally reported.

Hollister, D. Jr.; Coleman, M.



Treatment of prolymphocytic leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Prolymphocytic leukemia is characterized by marked splenomegaly, distinctive cellular morphologic characteristics, and a poor clinical course. Five patients with typical PL were treated systematically with vincristine/prednisone, chlorambucil/prednisone, splenic irradiation, splenectomy, and other chemotherapy regimens. No patient responded to vincristine/prednisone. Two patients responded to chlorambucil/prednisone, and four patients had brief responses to splenic irradiation. Two patients underwent splenectomy, one of whom had a prolonged clinical remissions. No other chemotherapy combinations were of value. The median survival was 33 months. Recommendations are made to use chlorambucil/prednisone or splenic irradiation as initial treatment. Splenectomy should be considered in patients refractory to these modalities. The course of PL may be more protracted than originally reported.

Hollister, S. Jr.; Coleman, M.



Risk-Based Classification System of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia



Molecular diagnosis of lymphoblastic leukemia.  


The mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene at chromosome band 11q23 is commonly involved in reciprocal translocations that is detected in acute leukemia. The MLL gene, commonly known as mixed lineage leukemia or myeloid lymphoid leukemia, has been independently identified and cloned from the 11q23 breakpoint of acute leukemia. We describe a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia whose cells had shown reciprocal translocation between short arm (p21) of chromosome 2 and long arm (q23) of chromosome number 11 [t(2;11) (p21;q23)] by cytogenetic analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) was also performed for reconfirmation with a probe for MLL which showed split signals, hybridizing to both the derivative 2 and 11 chromosomes. Our study confirmed FISH as the most suitable assay for detecting MLL rearrangements because of its sensitivity and speed. It recommended that FISH should be used as complementary to conventional cytogenetic analysis. In conclusion, evaluation of the t(2;11)(p21;q23) was done by molecular clarification and flow cytometry. PMID:24125990

Goud, Kalal Iravathy; Dayakar, Seetha; Prasad, S V S S; Rao, Koteshwar N; Shaik, Amina; Vanjakshi, S



Mechanisms of eosinophil accumulation around eggs of Schistosoma japonicum : Role of two purified components, allergen and eosinophil chemotactic factor, from soluble egg antigens measured on sensitized guinea pig skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of eosinophil response induced by soluble egg antigen (SEA) inSchistosoma japonicum-infected guinea pig tissues were analyzed using two purified components of SEA: major allergenic components (JEAL) and a major eosinophil chemotactic component (ECF-SjE). Eosinophil response to the crude SEA ofS. japonicum was detected at the injection site mainly at 2–8 h after the antigenic challenge; this response consisted of

Y. Horii; M. Owhashi; A. Ishii



Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor A is an intrinsic, self-limiting suppressor of IL-5-induced eosinophil development  

PubMed Central

Summary Eosinophilia is a hallmark characteristic of TH2-associated diseases and is critically regulated by the central eosinophil growth factor interleukin 5 (IL-5). Here we demonstrate that IL-5 activity in eosinophils was regulated by paired immunoglobulin-like receptor (PIR)-A and PIR-B. Upon self-recognition of ?2M molecules, PIR-B served as a permissive checkpoint for IL-5-induced eosinophil development by suppressing the pro-apoptotic activities of PIR-A, which were mediated by the Grb2-Erk-Bim pathway. PIR-B-deficient bone marrow (BM) eosinophils underwent compartmentalized apoptosis, resulting in decreased blood eosinophilia in naïve, IL-5- and aeroallergen-challenged mice. Subsequently, Pirb?/? mice displayed impaired aeroallergen-induced lung eosinophilia and induction of lung TH2 responses. Collectively, these data uncovers an intrinsic, self-limiting pathway regulating IL-5-induced eosinophil expansion, which has broad implications for eosinophil-associated diseases. PMID:24212998

Moshkovits, Itay; Itan, Michal; Karo-Atar, Danielle; Bouffi, Carine; Fulkerson, Patricia; Rashkovan, Diana; Jung, Steffen; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Munitz, Ariel



Helminthic eosinophilic meningitis: emerging zoonotic diseases in the South.  


Today most emerging infectious diseases, such as West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), arise in the natural environment as zoonoses and are often imported into the United States (US). The most common helminthic infections that can cause eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) in the US, neuroangiostrongyliasis and baylisascariasis, share many of the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases. Neuroangiostrongyliasis, a rodent zoonosis caused by the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is now endemic in the US following the importation of infected rats on container ships and African land snails, the parasite's intermediate hosts, as biological controls and exotic pets. Baylisascariasis, a raccoon zoonosis, caused by the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, has extended its US distribution range from suburban neighborhoods in the northern US to the Southeast and West Coast since the 1980s. Both A. cantonensis and B. procyonis are now enzootic in Louisiana and have caused EoM in humans. This review analyzes scientific articles selected by MEDLINE search, 1966-2008, in order to assess the evolving epidemiology of EoM in the US, and specifically in Louisiana; and to alert Louisiana clinicians to populations at increased risk of helminthic EoM as a result of age, ethnicity, lifestyle, food choices, location of permanent residence, or recent travel in the Americas or Caribbean. Most parasitic diseases causing EoM are no longer confined to tropical countries; they are now endemic in the US and in Louisiana and more cases may be anticipated. PMID:19283982

Diaz, James H



Clara cells drive eosinophil accumulation in allergic asthma.  


Development of allergic asthma is a complex process involving immune, neuronal and tissue cells. In the lung, Clara cells represent a major part of the "immunomodulatory barrier" of the airway epithelium. To understand the contribution of these cells to the inflammatory outcome of asthma, disease development was assessed using an adjuvant-free ovalbumin model. Mice were sensitised with subcutaneous injections of 10 ?g endotoxin-free ovalbumin in conjunction with naphthalene-induced Clara cell depletion. Clara epithelial cell depletion in the lung strongly reduced eosinophil influx, which correlated with decreased eotaxin levels and, moreover, diminished the T-helper cell type 2 inflammatory response, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13. In contrast, airway hyperresponsiveness was increased. Further investigation revealed Clara cells as the principal source of eotaxin in the lung. These findings are the first to show that Clara airway epithelial cells substantially contribute to the infiltration of eotaxin-responsive CCR3+ immune cells and augment the allergic immune response in the lung. The present study identifies Clara cells as a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory lung diseases such as allergic asthma. PMID:21828027

Sonar, S S; Ehmke, M; Marsh, L M; Dietze, J; Dudda, J C; Conrad, M L; Renz, H; Nockher, W A



Eosinophils can function as antigen-presenting cells to induce primary and secondary immune responses to Strongyloides stercoralis.  


Several studies have demonstrated roles for eosinophils during innate and adaptive immune responses to helminth infections. However, evidence that eosinophils are capable of initiating an immune response to parasite antigens is lacking. The goal of the present in vitro study was to investigate the potential of eosinophils to serve as antigen-presenting cells (APC) and initiate an immune response to parasite antigens. Purified eosinophils were exposed to soluble Strongyloides stercoralis antigens, and the expression of various surface markers involved in cell activation was examined. Antigen-exposed eosinophils showed a sixfold increase in expression levels of CD69 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, a fourfold increase in levels of T-cell costimulatory molecule CD86, and a twofold decrease in levels of CD62L compared to eosinophils cultured in medium containing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The ability of eosinophils to present antigen to T cells was determined by culturing them with T cells in vitro. Eosinophils pulsed with antigen stimulated antigen-specific primed T cells and CD4+ T cells to increase interleukin-5 (IL-5) production. The blocking of MHC class II expression on eosinophils inhibited their ability to induce IL-5 production by CD4+ T cells in culture. Antigen-pulsed eosinophils were able to prime naïve T cells and CD4+ T cells in culture and polarized them into Th2 cells producing IL-5 similar to that induced by antigen-loaded dendritic cells. These results demonstrate that eosinophils are capable of activating antigen-specific Th2 cells inducing the release of cytokines and assist in the priming of naïve T cells to initiate Th2 responses against infection. This study highlights the potential of eosinophils to actively induce immune responses against infection by amplifying antigen-specific Th2-cell responses. PMID:16714550

Padigel, Udaikumar M; Lee, James J; Nolan, Thomas J; Schad, Gerhard A; Abraham, David



Dasatinib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia



Phase I/II Study of Nilotinib/Ruxolitinb Therapy for TKI Resistant Ph-Leukemia

Chronic Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Accelerated Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Philadelphia Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Resistant to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy



Risk-Adapted Chemotherapy in Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Standard-Risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia



Mast cell tryptase induces eosinophil recruitment in the pleural cavity of mice via proteinase-activated receptor 2.  


Proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) 2 has been implicated in eosinophil migration. Mast cell (MC) tryptase has been similarly implicated in allergic diseases through the activation of PAR-2, but the role of this receptor in MC tryptase-induced inflammation is not well elucidated. This study aims to investigate the ability of MC tryptase or PAR-2 activating peptide (SLIGRL-NH2) to induce eosinophil recruitment to the pleural cavity of mice. Mast cell tryptase-injected mice were pretreated with PAR-2 antagonist ENMD-1068. Mice injected with SLIGRL-NH2 were pretreated with mast cell tryptase inhibitor APC 366, and eosinophil migration into the pleural cavity and PAR-2 expression was analyzed after 24 or 48 h. SLIGRL-NH2-induced eosinophil recruitment was inhibited by APC 366, and MC tryptase-induced eosinophil recruitment was abolished by ENMD-1068. MC tryptase induced PAR-2 expression on pleural eosinophils. Our results demonstrate a key role for PAR-2 in mediating eosinophil recruitment in MC tryptase-induced pleurisy in mice. The ability of MC tryptase to inducing PAR-2 expression on eosinophils corroborates the relevance of MC tryptase and PAR-2 on modulating eosinophil migration. PMID:23749157

Matos, Natália A; Silva, Josiane F; Matsui, Tamires C; Damasceno, Karine A; Duarte, Igor D G; Lemos, Virginia S; Cassali, Geovanni D; Klein, André



Eosinophilic Cystitis Presented as a Manifestation of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Background Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a group of disorders marked by the sustained overproduction of eosinophils, in which eosinophilic infiltration and inflammatory substance release cause damage to multiple organs. Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is an inflammatory disorder caused by eosinophilic infiltration of the bladder wall. Although EC is often associated with eosinophilia, it has been rarely reported as a manifestation of HES. We report a case of EC as a primary manifestation of HES. The patient was a 27-year-old male with a history of complete intracardiac repair of tetralogy of Fallot who presented with an acute onset of dysuria accompanied by eosinophilia (7.5 × 103/?l, 60% of white blood cells). Ultrasonography and MRI of the bladder showed a bladder mass, a biopsy of which revealed eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation. Methods We performed a literature search in PubMed from 2001 to 2012 to find patients with EC who may have had HES. Results There were 4 patients with HES who had EC including the present case. Of 14 patients reported as EC in whom the eosinophil count was described, 5 had eosinophils of ?1,500/?l. None of the 5 patients had secondary causes for eosinophilia. Of the 9 patients with definite or probable HES, 7 patients (78%) were male and 5 patients (56%) showed a concomitant eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder. Conclusion HES may not be uncommon as the cause of EC. Thorough evaluation and close monitoring are warranted in EC patients with elevated eosinophils. PMID:23573073

Kojima, Katsuaki; Maeda, Jun; Mikami, Shuji; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Ide, Hiroki; Hattori, Seiya; Takahashi, Takao; Awazu, Midori



In vitro modulation of the eosinophil-dependent enhancement of the permeability of the bronchial mucosa.  

PubMed Central

1. Basolateral to apical albumin flux has been measured in sheets of bovine bronchial and tracheal mucosa mounted in vitro. 2. Addition of guinea-pig peritoneal eosinophils or neutrophils to the basolateral side of such tissues had no significant influence on the transmucosal flux of albumin in either the bronchial or tracheal mucosa. 3. Stimulation of eosinophils or neutrophils by the calcium ionophore A23187, or by their presentation to an opsonized airways mucosa, resulted in a significant increase in the transbronchial flux of albumin. This effect was seen after only 60 min incubation of the leucocytes with the bronchial mucosa, and was no greater when the contact time was extended to 180 min. Incubation of bronchial mucosal tissues with 1 mg ml-1 polyarginine for 3 h produced a significant increase in albumin flux, but was ineffective at 0.5 mg ml-1. 4. In contrast to the bronchial mucosa, the tracheal mucosa appeared resistant to the effects of stimulated eosinophils and neutrophils. 5. The lipoxygenase inhibitor AA-861 failed to influence the ability of eosinophils to augment the transmembrane flux of albumin. However, insertion of a Millipore filter mask between the eosinophils and the bronchial mucosa significantly inhibited the eosinophil-dependent enhancement of mucosal permeability. 6. The broad spectrum antiproteinase alpha 2-macroglobulin achieved almost total ablation of the action of stimulated eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa. These results suggest that proteinases may make a significant contribution to the genesis of epithelial injury, whereas leukotrienes do not. Images Figure 2 PMID:1797305

Herbert, C. A.; Edwards, D.; Boot, J. R.; Robinson, C.



Repeated Nitrogen Dioxide Exposures and Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation in Asthmatics: A Randomized Crossover Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a ubiquitous atmospheric pollutant, may enhance the asthmatic response to allergens through eosinophilic activation in the airways. However, the effect of NO2 on inflammation without allergen exposure is poorly studied. Objectives: We investigated whether repeated peaks of NO2, at various realistic concentrations, induce changes in airway inflammation in asthmatics. Methods: Nineteen nonsmokers with asthma were exposed at rest in a double-blind, crossover study, in randomized order, to 200 ppb NO2, 600 ppb NO2, or clean air once for 30 min on day 1 and twice for 30 min on day 2. The three series of exposures were separated by 2 weeks. The inflammatory response in sputum was measured 6 hr (day 1), 32 hr (day 2), and 48 hr (day 3) after the first exposure, and compared with baseline values measured twice 10–30 days before the first exposure. Results: Compared with baseline measurements, the percentage of eosinophils in sputum increased by 57% after exposure to 600 ppb NO2 (p = 0.003) but did not change significantly after exposure to 200 ppb. The slope of the association between the percentage of eosinophils and NO2 exposure level was significant (p = 0.04). Eosinophil cationic protein in sputum was highly correlated with eosinophil count and increased significantly after exposure to 600 ppb NO2 (p = 0.001). Lung function, which was assessed daily, was not affected by NO2 exposure. Conclusions: We observed that repeated peak exposures of NO2 performed without allergen exposure were associated with airway eosinophilic inflammation in asthmatics in a dose-related manner. Citation: Ezratty V, Guillossou G, Neukirch C, Dehoux M, Koscielny S, Bonay M, Cabanes PA, Samet JM, Mure P, Ropert L, Tokarek S, Lambrozo J, Aubier M. 2014. Repeated nitrogen dioxide exposures and eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatics: a randomized crossover study. Environ Health Perspect 122:850–855;? PMID:24747297

Guillossou, Gaelle; Neukirch, Catherine; Dehoux, Monique; Koscielny, Serge; Bonay, Marcel; Cabanes, Pierre-Andre; Samet, Jonathan M.; Mure, Patrick; Ropert, Luc; Tokarek, Sandra; Lambrozo, Jacques; Aubier, Michel



Eosinophil differentiation in response to Fasciola hepatica and its excretory/secretory antigens.  


Bone marrow cells from mice infected with Fasciola hepatica, from mice injected with F. hepatica excretory/secretory (ES) antigens, and from uninfected or uninjected control animals were cultured in the presence of F. hepatica ES antigens or the eosinophil differentiation cytokine IL-5. Eosinophil maturation in cultures was assessed quantitatively by measuring eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity and qualitatively by visual appraisal in stained preparations over a week. It was found that the presence in all cultures (including those from control animals) of either ES antigens at an optimal concentration of 100 micrograms ml-1 (established in preliminary trials) or IL-5 at 500 units ml-1 led to enhanced EPO activity. EPO activity in cultures without IL-5 or ES antigens remained static or fell over the culture period. At day 3 in all cultures containing IL-5 or ES antigens, there was maintenance of or only a slight decline in, the number of eosinophils that were present when cultures were initiated, and more of them were mature than at day 0 as evidenced by their EPO activity. However, there was a marked fall in eosinophil numbers in all cultures in the absence of IL-5 or ES antigens. The results indicate that F. hepatica ES antigens, like IL-5, stimulate eosinophil maturation in bone marrow with a consequent rise in EPO activity in the cells. Whether the antigen(s) acts directly or indirectly on the eosinophils or their precursors has yet to be established. Nevertheless, it seems clear that F. hepatica produces a molecule with a functionally similar effect to that of IL-5. PMID:8300295

Milbourne, E A; Howell, M J



Workshop Report from the NIH Taskforce on the Research Needs of Eosinophil-Associated Diseases (TREAD)  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophils are blood cells that are often found in high numbers in the tissues of allergic conditions and helminthic parasite infections. The pathophysiological roles that eosinophils may serve in other human ‘eosinophil-associated’ diseases remain obscure. Objective NIH Institutes and the Office of Disease Prevention assembled an international taskforce of clinical and basic scientists with the charge to propose and prioritize unmet research needs in eosinophil-associated diseases. Methods The taskforce used an organ system approach to dissect out the different and common themes of eosinophil cell involvement in these diseases. In early 2012, a draft document was circulated for review. The document was amended and the prioritizations were set at a NIH-organized workshop in June 2012. Results The taskforce identified significant research needs. These needs cross disease entities but some are disease-specific. There are substantial shortcomings to the various preclinical animal models, as well as significant gaps in our epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic knowledge. The taskforce recognized that recent efforts by patient advocacy groups have played instrumental roles in improving the identification and characterization of these disorders. However, communication amongst the eosinophil interested communities, e.g., governmental funding and regulatory agencies, and industry and clinician scientists need to be more comprehensive. Conclusions Significant efforts are required to address our knowledge gaps in order to improve the outcomes of eosinophil-associated diseases. NIH Institutes, other federal agencies, lay organizations and the pharmaceutical industry should consider the taskforce’s recommendations in their future research activities. PMID:22935587

Bochner, Bruce S.; Book, Wendy; Busse, William W.; Butterfield, Joseph; Furuta, Glenn T.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Klion, Amy D.; Lee, James J.; Leiferman, Kristin M.; Minnicozzi, Michael; Moqbel, Redwan; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Wechsler, Michael E.; Weller, Peter F.



Eosinophil accumulation induced by human interleukin-8 in the guinea-pig in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a neutrophil chemoattractant cytokine. Initially IL-8 appeared to exhibit specificity for neutrophils over other cells of the immune system. However, several recent studies have shown that this mediator can also activate other leucocyte types in vitro. In this study we have used an in vivo model of local [111In]leucocyte accumulation in the guinea-pig and an in vitro assay of leucocyte activation (changes in cytosolic-free Ca2+) to investigate the eosinophil chemoattractant activity of IL-8. The intradermal injection of recombinant human (rh)IL-8 induced a dose-dependent accumulation of intravenously administered [111In]eosinophils into the skin sites over 4 hr. Time-course experiments revealed that this cell infiltration was delayed in onset, occurring between 1 and 2 hr after injection of IL-8. The delay may indicate that IL-8 operates via an indirect mechanism. In contrast, eosinophil accumulation induced by the complement fragment C5a occurred within the first hour following injection. Other human cytokines, IL-1, IL-3, IL-5, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), were not eosinophil chemoattractants in this in vivo test system. Direct activation of eosinophils by IL-8 was demonstrated in vitro by a transient elevation in cytoplasmic-free Ca2+ levels where it was less potent than either rhC5a or leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Experiments using [111In]neutrophils in vivo indicated that rhIL-8 and rhC5a were similar in potency in inducing local neutrophil infiltration into guinea-pig skin. The demonstration of the eosinophil chemoattractant activity of IL-8 in vivo raises the possibility that this cytokine, or a structurally related molecule, contributes towards eosinophil infiltration in a number of inflammatory conditions such as asthma, helminthic infections and adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:8344709

Collins, P D; Weg, V B; Faccioli, L H; Watson, M L; Moqbel, R; Williams, T J



Childhood leukemia in Woburn, Massachusetts  

SciTech Connect

Possible associations between environmental hazards and the occurrence of childhood leukemia were investigated in Woburn, MA, for the period 1969-79. Residents of Woburn were concerned over what they perceived to be a large number of childhood leukemia cases; at the same time there was extensive publicity about uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in Woburn, which resulted in its being placed on the Superfund list. Many believed that the elevated rate of childhood leukemia was related to these sites or to two city water wells that had been closed in 1979 when they were found to be contaminated by organic chemicals. An occurrence was defined as childhood leukemia when it was diagnosed in a Woburn resident less than 20 years old between 1969 and 1979 and confirmed by review of hospital and pathology records. This investigation confirmed an increase in incidence which was distributed uniformly over the 11-year period. Six of the persons with leukemia were located close to each other in one census tract, 7.5 times the expected number. Parents of the children and of two matched control groups were interviewed about medical history, mother's pregnancy history, school history, and environmental exposures. There were no significant differences between the leukemia victims and persons in the control groups. No leukemia sufferer had contact with a hazardous waste site. While the contaminants of Wells G and H, which had been closed, are not known leukemogens, it is not possible to rule out exposure to this water as a factor, particularly in the eastern Woburn residents.

Cutler, J.J.; Parker, G.S.; Rosen, S.; Prenney, B.; Healey, R.; Caldwell, G.G.



PS-341 in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Blast Phase, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia



General Information about Hairy Cell Leukemia  


General Information About Hairy Cell Leukemia Hairy cell leukemia is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white ... platelets. Yellow marrow is made mostly of fat. Leukemia may affect red blood cells, white blood cells, ...


Nilotinib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia



Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) currently requires endoscopic biopsy and histopathologic analysis of the biopsy specimens to count intraepithelial eosinophils. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an endomicroscopy technology that is capable of obtaining high-resolution, optically sectioned images of esophageal mucosa without the administration of exogenous contrast. Objective In this study, we investigated the capability of a high-speed form of RCM, termed spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM), to count intraepithelial esophageal eosinophils and characterize other microscopic findings of EoE. Design A total of 43 biopsy samples from 35 pediatric patients and 8 biopsy samples from 8 adult patients undergoing EGD for EoE were imaged by SECM immediately after their removal and then processed for routine histopathology. Two SECM readers, trained on adult cases, prospectively counted intraepithelial eosinophils and detected the presence of abscess, degranulation, and basal cell hyperplasia on SECM images from the pediatric patients. A pathologist blinded to the SECM data analyzed the same from corresponding slides. Setting The Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital. Results Eosinophils by SECM demonstrated a higher reflectance than the surrounding cells and other inflammatory cells. There was good correlation between SECM and histology maximum eosinophil counts/high-power field (R = 0.76, P < .0001). Intra- and interobserver correlations for SECM counts were very good (R = 0.93 and R = 0.92, respectively; P < .0001). For the commonly used eosinophil count cutoff of 15 per high-power field, the sensitivity and specificity of SECM for EoE were 100%. The sensitivity and specificity for abscess, degranulation, and basal cell hyperplasia were 100% and 82%, 91% and 60%, and 94% and 80%, respectively. Intra- and interobserver agreements for these microscopic features of EoE were very good (? = 0.9/0.9, 0.84/1.0, 0.91/0.81, respectively). Limitation Ex vivo study. Conclusions This study demonstrates that RCM can be used to accurately count intraepithelial eosinophils and identify other microscopic abnormalities associated with EoE on freshly excised biopsy samples. These findings suggest that RCM may be developed into a tool for assessing eosinophilic infiltration in the esophagus in vivo. PMID:21944314

Yoo, Hongki; Kang, DongKyun; Katz, Aubrey J.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Yagi, Yukako; Tanpowpong, Pornthep; Namati, Jacqueline; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.



Human Eosinophils Express the High Affinity IgE Receptor, Fc?RI, in Bullous Pemphigoid  

PubMed Central

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc?RI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n?=?16) with total IgE?400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil Fc?RI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (?, ? and ?) of the Fc?RI. Surface expression of the Fc?RI? was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the ?- and ?-chains of the Fc?RI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the Fc?RI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

Messingham, Kelly N.; Holahan, Heather M.; Frydman, Alexandra S.; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A.




PubMed Central

Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic-pathologic entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (? 20%) and absolute number (? 2 × 10 9/L) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds for diagnosis be reexamined and consensus recommendations are made for diagnosis, as well as, response and progression criteria. Induction therapy needs to begin promptly and have high clinical activity leading to rapid disease control in an effort to minimize the risk of early death. Intensive chemotherapy regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding of the pathogenesis of PCL. PMID:23288300

de Larrea, Carlos Fernandez; Kyle, Robert A.; Durie, Brian GM; Ludwig, Heinz; Usmani, Saad; Vesole, David H.; Hajek, Roman; Miguel, Jesus San; Sezer, Orhan; Sonneveld, Pieter; Kumar, Shaji K.; Mahindra, Anuj; Comenzo, Ray; Palumbo, Antonio; Mazumber, Amitabha; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Richardson, Paul G.; Badros, Ashraf Z.; Caers, Jo; Cavo, Michele; LeLeu, Xavier; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Chim, CS; Schots, Rik; Noeul, Amara; Fantl, Dorotea; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Landgren, Ola; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Moreau, Philippe; Fonseca, Rafael; Merlini, Giampaolo; Lahuerta, JJ; Blade, Joan; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Shah, Jatin J.



Familial Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Families with multiple individuals affected with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other related B-cell tumors have been described in the literature and strong familial aggregation has been seen in population studies. However, predisposing germ line mutations have not been identified. We will discuss the spectrum of conditions associated with CLL in families and the advances in identifying the underlying susceptibility genes. Recent Findings Familial CLL does not appear to differ substantially from sporadic CLL in terms of prognostic markers and clinical outcome, although it may be associated with more indolent disease. The precursor condition, monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) also aggregates in CLL families. Linkage studies have been conducted in high-risk CLL families to screen the whole genome for susceptibility loci but no gene mutations have yet been identified by this method. Association studies of candidate genes have implicated several genes as being important in CLL but more studies are needed. Results from whole genome association studies are promising. Summary The ability to conduct large scale genomic studies in unrelated CLL cases and in high risk CLL families will play an important role in detecting susceptibility genes for CLL over the next few years and thereby help to delineate etiologic pathways. PMID:20389242

Goldin, Lynn R.; Slager, Susan L.; Caporaso, Neil E.



Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.  


Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a rare fatal hematopoietic disorder of early childhood. We are presenting a case of 9-month-old female child who was admitted with abdominal distension, irritability, and hepatosplenomegaly. Peripheral blood film examination showed leukoerythroblastosis with leukocytosis, absolute monocytosis, microcytic hypo chromic anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow examination showed myeloid hyperplasia, Hb HPLC revealed normal HbF (1.3 %) and HbA2 (2.9 %). There was absolute gamma globulinemia and DCT positivity. Cytogenetic studies revealed a normal karyotype with absence of Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, monosomy 7 or any other chromosomal abnormality. Diagnosis of JMML was rendered according to the diagnostic criteria laid down by WHO classification 2008 with presence of peripheral blood monocytosis >1 × 10(9)/L, blasts <20 % of leucocytes in blood or nucleated cells in bone marrow, absence of Ph chromosome, presence of immature granulocytes in the blood and WBC count >10 × 10(9)/L. The patient was then started on a regimen of chemotherapy to which she gave a promising response. PMID:24426365

Sethi, Neha; Kushwaha, Shivani; Dhingra, Bhawana; Pujani, Mukta; Chandra, Jagdish; Shukla, Shailaja



Cough due to asthma, cough-variant asthma and non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis.  


Among the most common causes of chronic cough are asthma (25%) and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (10%). In asthma, cough may present as an isolated symptom, in which case it is known as cough variant asthma. Variable airflow obstruction and airway hyper-responsiveness are cardinal features of asthma, which are absent in nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. The presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation is a common feature of asthma and is a diagnostic criterion for nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. At a cellular level, mast cell infiltration into the airway smooth muscle bundle, narrowing of the airway wall, and increased interleukin-13 expression are features of asthma and not nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. In most cases, the trigger that causes the cough is uncertain, but occasionally occupational exposure to a sensitizer is identified, and avoidance is recommended. In both conditions, there is improvement following treatment with inhaled corticosteroids, which is associated with the presence of an airway eosinophilia and increased exhaled nitric oxide. Generally, response to therapy in both conditions is very good, and the limited long-term data available suggest that both usually have a benign course, although in some cases fixed airflow obstruction may occur. PMID:20172262

Desai, Dhan; Brightling, Chris



Cutting edge: histamine is required for IL-4-driven eosinophilic allergic responses.  


Histamine is an important allergic mediator, and studies have defined roles for both histamine 1 and 4 receptors in allergic airway inflammation. In this study, we show that histamine is necessary to generate IL-4-driven eosinophilic inflammation, as histamine-deficient mice cannot generate eosinophilic lung inflammation in response to intratracheal IL-4 and exogenous histamine restores responsiveness. This is histamine 2 receptor (H2R) dependent because H2R knockout mice fail to respond to IL-4, and a H2R agonist restores inflammation in histidine decarboxylase knockout. Furthermore, alveolar epithelial cells require H2R to produce CCL24, an eosinophil recruitment factor, whereas H2R blockade reduces CCL24 production from wild-type cells. In an allergic inflammation model, H2R knockout mice show significantly reduced eosinophilic inflammation and CCL24 expression. These data demonstrate a previously unidentified role for H2R in allergic inflammation and establishes a synergy between endogenous histamine and IL-4 that supports eosinophilic recruitment to the lung. PMID:22156496

Swartzendruber, Julie A; Byrne, Adam J; Bryce, Paul J



Recalcitrant eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of Ofuji with palmoplantar pustulosis: dramatic response to narrowband UVB phototherapy.  


Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of Ofuji is a recalcitrant disease typified by non-infective eosinophilic spongiosis involving the infundibular region of the hair follicle. We present a case of a 49-year-old Chinese man with known palmoplantar pustulosis and acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau which was promptly resolved with methotrexate therapy. He returned with an erythematous papulopustular eruption with coalescence to annular plaques, occurring over the face, chest and back with active palmoplantar pustulation. Histology from skin biopsy of the palmar lesion was in keeping with palmoplantar psoriasis, while biopsy of the facial and truncal lesions revealed florid perifollicular eosinophilic congregation diagnostic of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of Ofuji. Indomethacin was initiated with partial improvement of lesions with cyclical flares. A trial of narrowband ultraviolet-B phototherapy at a frequency of thrice weekly achieved sustained clearance of both eosinophilic pustular folliculitis and palmoplantar lesions. Indomethacin was tailed down and eventually discontinued with maintenance of narrowband ultraviolet-B therapy; this achieved successful control of the disease. PMID:23017177

Lim, Hua Liang; Chong, Wei-Sheng



Evaluation of plasma eosinophil count and mean platelet volume in patients with coronary slow flow  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of coronary slow flow has not been clearly defined, although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis, have been reported. It is known that eosinophils play an important role in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombosis. We aimed to compare the eosinophil counts of coronary slow flow patients versus healthy controls. METHODS: This study included 50 coronary slow flow patients (19 males, mean age 65.6±13.7 years) and 30 healthy controls (10 males, mean age 57.86±11.6 years). These participants were evaluated using concurrent routine biochemical tests as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts and mean platelet volume (MPV), which were obtained from the whole blood count. These parameters were compared between groups. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the study groups were comparable. The coronary slow flow patients had a higher mean platelet volume and eosinophil count than the control group (8.38±0.86 vs 6.28±1.6 fL and 0.31±0.42 vs 0.09±0.05; p<0.001 and 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a relationship between eosinophil count and MPV in patients with coronary slow flow. PMID:24838897

Demir, Mehmet; Cosar, Selvi; Melek, Mehmet



Effects of Fungi and Eosinophils on Mucin Gene Expression in Rhinovirus-Infected Nasal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose Fungi, rhinoviruses (RVs), and eosinophils are associated with upper respiratory diseases. We evaluated the effects of fungal stimulation and eosinophil co-culture on the expression of mucin genes in RV-infected nasal polyp epithelial cells. Methods Nasal polyp epithelial cells were obtained from chronic rhinosinusitis patients. Cultured epithelial cells were stimulated with Alternaria and Aspergillus with or without RV-16 infection. The epithelial cells were co-cultured with eosinophils for 16 h. MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC8 mRNA expressions in the epithelial cells were quantified using real-time RT-PCR. To determine the underlying mechanism, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors were used to inhibit mucin gene expression. Results Fungi and RV-16 induced mucin gene expression in nasal polyp epithelial cells. However, there was no synergistic increase in mucin gene expression, with the exception of MUC4 mRNA expression stimulated by 25 µg/mL Aspergillus. When RV-16-infected epithelial cells were stimulated with fungi and then co-cultured with eosinophils, MUC4, MUC5B, and MUC8 mRNA expressions increased. Mucin gene expression was inhibited by NF-?B inhibitors. Conclusions RV-16, airborne fungi, and eosinophils may exacerbate the inflammatory process in nasal mucosal diseases by enhancing mucin gene expression. PMID:24587952

Ye, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Jeong-Kyu



Modulation of eosinophil chemotactic activities to leukotriene B4 by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  


Eosinophil accumulation induced by leukotriene B4 appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. We evaluated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on chemotaxis to leukotriene B4 in guinea pig peritoneal eosinophils. Guinea pigs that were sensitized to polymyxin B were administered an intraperitoneal injection of polymyxin B (1 mg/animal) alone or combined with DHA (15 or 50 mg/kg, i.p.), EPA (50 or 100 mg/kg, i.p.), or with linoleic acid (LA) (100 mg/kg, i.p.). Forty hours later, eosinophils were obtained from the intraperitoneal lavage fluid and purified. The chemotactic and chemokinetic responses of eosinophils to leukotriene B4 were measured using a 96-well microchemotaxis chamber. DHA significantly decreased the chemotactic and chemokinetic responses of eosinophils in a dose-dependent fashion. A higher dose of EPA also significantly inhibited both of those responses, whereas LA had no effect. Our results suggested a possible mechanism for the improvement of allergic diseases by dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA. PMID:9610849

Kikuchi, S; Sakamoto, T; Ishikawa, C; Yazawa, K; Torii, S



Inhibitory receptor gp49B regulates eosinophil infiltration during allergic inflammation.  


gp49B, an Ig-like receptor, negatively regulates the activity of mast cells and neutrophils through cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs. To characterize the role of gp49B further in vivo, gp49B-deficient mice were tested in two allergic models. Responses to ragweed (RW) challenge in the lung and conjunctiva were assessed in models of allergic inflammation and during an infection with parasitic larvae of the nematode Ascaris suum. Infiltration by inflammatory cells into the lung during allergic responses was under negative control of the inhibitory receptor gp49B. Furthermore, an increase in conjunctival inflammation with a predominance of eosinophils, neutrophils, and degranulated mast cells was observed in RW-sensitized, gp49B-deficient mice, which had been challenged in the eye, as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) controls. Finally, an increase in allergic inflammation in the lungs of A. suum-infected, RW-sensitized mice was observed upon RW challenge, as compared with C57BL/6 WT controls. The observed influx of eosinophils into mucus membranes is characteristic of allergic asthma and allergic conjunctivitis and may contribute to airway hyper-responsiveness, airway remodeling, and mucus production. Expression of gp49B was detected on peripheral eosinophils of control mice and on eosinophils from lungs of mice treated with RW, suggesting a role for gp49B on eosinophils in dampening allergic inflammatory responses. PMID:17761953

Norris, Hillary H; Peterson, Mary E; Stebbins, Chris C; McConchie, Brittany W; Bundoc, Virgilio G; Trivedi, Shweta; Hodges, Marcus G; Anthony, Robert M; Urban, Joseph F; Long, Eric O; Keane-Myers, Andrea M



Allergic pulmonary inflammation in mice is dependent on eosinophil-induced recruitment of effector T cells  

PubMed Central

The current paradigm surrounding allergen-mediated T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses in the lung suggests an almost hegemonic role for T cells. Our studies propose an alternative hypothesis implicating eosinophils in the regulation of pulmonary T cell responses. In particular, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice devoid of eosinophils (the transgenic line PHIL) have reduced airway levels of Th2 cytokines relative to the OVA-treated wild type that correlated with a reduced ability to recruit effector T cells to the lung. Adoptive transfer of Th2-polarized OVA-specific transgenic T cells (OT-II) alone into OVA-challenged PHIL recipient mice failed to restore Th2 cytokines, airway histopathologies, and, most importantly, the recruitment of pulmonary effector T cells. In contrast, the combined transfer of OT-II cells and eosinophils into PHIL mice resulted in the accumulation of effector T cells and a concomitant increase in both airway Th2 immune responses and histopathologies. Moreover, we show that eosinophils elicit the expression of the Th2 chemokines thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 and macrophage-derived chemokine/CCL22 in the lung after allergen challenge, and blockade of these chemokines inhibited the recruitment of effector T cells. In summary, the data suggest that pulmonary eosinophils are required for the localized recruitment of effector T cells. PMID:18316417

Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Ochkur, Sergei I.; Pero, Ralph S.; Taranova, Anna G.; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Colbert, Dana C.; Lee, Nancy A.; Lee, James J.



Sialyltransferase ST3Gal-III regulates Siglec-F ligand formation and eosinophilic lung inflammation in mice  

PubMed Central

Siglec-F is highly expressed on mouse eosinophils and plays an important role in regulating levels of eosinophilic lung inflammation. In this study we investigated the mechanism of constitutive and inducible Siglec-F ligand expression by lung airway epithelial cells and inflammatory cells in WT and genetically altered mice (ST3Gal-III heterozygotes; Fuc-TIV/VII double null; STAT6 null). Flow cytometry demonstrated that Siglec-F ligands are constitutively expressed in vitro and in vivo in selected lung cell types (epithelial cells, eosinophils, macrophages, mast cells, but not CD4, CD8, or B cells) and induced in response to divergent stimuli including innate stimuli (TLR ligands, Alternaria), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13), and adaptive immune stimuli (OVA allergen). Furthermore studies of deficient mice demonstrated the greater importance of the sialyltransferase ST3Gal-III compared to fucosyltransferases Fuc-TIV/VII in the synthesis of the constitutive and inducible Siglec-F ligands by lung epithelial and non-epithelial cells. In keeping with this, ST3Gal-III heterozygote mice (deficient in expression of Siglec-F ligands) also had significantly enhanced OVA-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation associated with reduced eosinophil apoptosis. Reduced eosinophil apoptosis in the lung of ST3Gal-III deficient mice is likely mediated by reduced epithelial expression of Siglec-F ligands as WT eosinophils (which highly express Siglec-F) cultured with ST3Gal-III deficient epithelial cells (which do not express Siglec-F ligand) showed reduced eosinophil apoptosis compared to WT eosinophils cultured with WT epithelial cells. Overall, these studies demonstrate that ST3Gal-III plays an important role in Siglec-F ligand formation and eosinophil apoptosis with resultant effects on eosinophilic inflammation in the lung. PMID:23677475

Suzukawa, Maho; Miller, Marina; Rosenthal, Peter; Cho, Jae Youn; Doherty, Taylor; Varki, Ajit; Broide, David



Pharmacogenetics in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  


Progress in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children has been remarkable, from a disease being lethal four decades ago to current cure rates exceeding 80%. This exemplary progress is largely due to the optimization of existing treatment modalities rather than the discovery of new antileukemic agents. However, despite these high cure rates, the annual number of children whose leukemia relapses after their initial therapy remains greater than that of new cases of most types of childhood cancers. The aim of pharmacogenetics is to develop strategies to personalize treatment and tailor therapy to individual patients, with the goal of optimizing efficacy and safety through better understanding of human genome variability and its influence on drug response. In this review, we summarize recent pharmacogenomic studies related to the treatment of pediatric ALL. These studies illustrate the promise of pharmacogenomics to further advance the treatment of human cancers, with childhood leukemia serving as a paradigm. PMID:19100367

Cheok, Meyling H; Pottier, Nicolas; Kager, Leo; Evans, William E



Regulating the leukemia stem cell  

PubMed Central

Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are responsible for sustaining and propagating malignant disease, and, as such, are promising targets for therapy. Studies of human LSCs have served an important role in defining the major tenets of the cancer stem cell model, which center on the frequencies of cancer stem cells, their potential hierarchical organization, and their degree of maturation. LSCs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have recently been studied using mouse syngeneic models of leukemia induced by MLL oncogenes. These studies have revealed that LSCs are more analogous to progenitor cells and employ embryonic stem cell-like genetic programs for their maintenance, prompting a refinement of the original cancer stem cell model with important implications for design of therapies to selectively target LSCs. PMID:19959097

Cleary, Michael L.



Cough in asthma is due to eosinophilic airway inflammation: a pro/con debate.  


Multiple prospective studies have demonstrated that asthma is among the most common etiologies of chronic cough, along with upper-airway cough syndrome (formerly known as postnasal drip syndrome) and gastroesophageal reflux disease. More recently, the entity of nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis has been appreciated as a significant cause of chronic cough worldwide. Chronic cough associated with both of these conditions typically responds well to therapy with systemic or inhaled corticosteroids, thus leading to a general assumption that the suppression of eosinophilic airway inflammation explains the improvement in cough. However, some recent studies challenge a causal relationship between eosinophilic airway inflammation and cough in asthmatics. The 4th American Cough Conference, held in New York in June 2013, provided an ideal forum for discussion and debate of this issue between two internationally recognized experts in the field of asthma and chronic cough. PMID:24337175

Niimi, Akio; Brightling, Christopher E; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V



[Can eosinophilic bronchitis be considered as an occupational disease? Medical certification aspects].  


Eosinophilic bronchitis (EB) is a condition which can be associated with occupational exposure to low, as well as to high molecular weight allergens. The prevalence of occupational eosinophilic bronchitis is unknown and the data concerning its work-related etiology are available only from the case reports. However, there is a need to establish the principles, especially in the context of medical certification among workers occupationally exposed to allergens. This paper reviews current knowledge on the etiology, clinical features, and diagnostic procedures in the eosinophilic bronchitis. The importance of EB, especially in view of the problems emerging in the prophylactic care taken by occupational health services and the principles of medical certification when occupational etiology is suspected are also presented. PMID:24502121

Kleniewska, Aneta; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta



Eosinophils and mast cells as therapeutic targets in pediatric functional dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing appreciation for the importance of inflammation as a pathophysiologic entity that contributes to functional gastrointestinal disorders including functional dyspepsia (FD). Importantly, inflammation may serve as a mediator between psychologic and physiologic functions. This manuscript reviews the literature implicating two inflammatory cell types, mast cells and eosinophils, in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms and explores their potential as targets for the treatment of FD. There are a number of inciting events which may initiate an inflammatory response, and the subsequent recruitment and activation of mast cells and eosinophils. These include internal triggers such as stress and anxiety, as well as external triggers such as microbes and allergens. Previous studies suggest that there may be efficacy in utilizing medications directed at mast cells and eosinophils. Evidence exists to suggest that combining “anti-inflammatory” medications with other treatments targeting stress can improve the rate of symptom resolution in pediatric FD. PMID:24199024

Friesen, Craig A; Schurman, Jennifer V; Colombo, Jennifer M; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M



Pansclerotic morphea with features of eosinophilic fasciitis: distinct entities or part of a continuum?  


Scleroderma is a highly complex disorder in its clinical manifestations and pathogenesis. It has a wide range of clinical manifestations due to varying degrees of vasculopathy, autoimmunity, altered endothelium function, and abnormal fibrosis. The most widely used classification system grouped eosinophilic fasciitis and disabling pansclerotic morphea of childhood into the category of deep morphea. This previous classification does not include a category for overlapping conditions. A proposed new classification includes a new mixed subtype in which a combination of two or more of the previous subtypes is present in the same individual, although eosinophilic fasciitis has been excluded. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy who presented with features of disabling pansclerotic morphea and eosinophilic fasciitis simultaneously, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported. This suggests that these diseases are part of a more closely related continuum rather than separate disorders, as currently classified. PMID:24383741

Odhav, Ashika; Hoeltzel, Mark F; Canty, Kristi



Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia That Has Responded to Treatment With Imatinib Mesylate, Dasatinib, or Nilotinib

Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia



Hairy Cell Leukemia (‘Leukemic Reticuloendotheliosis’), Reticulosarcoma, and Monocytic Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochemical and electron-microscopic studies have been carried out on leukemic monocytes and ‘hairy cells’ (HC), ‘reticulosarcoma’ (RS) cells and cells of cases of ‘reticulosis’ and ‘reticulosarcoma cell leukemia’. Additional investigations included quantitative determinations of the urinary lysozyme excretion, skin window studies, testing of the phagocytosis of ferritin by HC, and labelling of the Fc receptors on HC at the ultrastructural

F. Schmalzl; D. Huhn; H. Asamer; H. Braunsteiner



Eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue in an 80-year-old Iranian woman after a psychologically stressful event.  


Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa is a benign self-limiting, chronic lesion more frequently seen in the oral cavity or tongue that can mimic squamous cell carcinoma. The pathogenesis of this problem is unknown. In this paper, we present a case of an 80-year-old woman with eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue after a psychologically stressful event. PMID:23417388

Akhavan, Ali; Mosavi, Ali; Jarrahi, Mohammadreza; Navabii, Hossein



Eosinophils promote generation and maintenance of immunoglobulin-A-expressing plasma cells and contribute to gut immune homeostasis.  


Although in normal lamina propria (LP) large numbers of eosinophils are present, little is known about their role in mucosal immunity at steady state. Here we show that eosinophils are needed to maintain immune homeostasis in gut-associated tissues. By using eosinophil-deficient ?dblGATA-1 and PHIL mice or an eosinophil-specific depletion model, we found a reduction in immunoglobulin A(+) (IgA(+)) plasma cell numbers and in secreted IgA. Eosinophil-deficient mice also showed defects in the intestinal mucous shield and alterations in microbiota composition in the gut lumen. In addition, TGF-?-dependent events including class switching to IgA in Peyer's patches (PP), the formation of CD103(+) T cells including Foxp3(+) regulatory (Treg), and also CD103(+) dendritic cells were disturbed. In vitro cultures showed that eosinophils produce factors that promote T-independent IgA class switching. Our findings show that eosinophils are important players for immune homeostasis in gut-associated tissues and add to data suggesting that eosinophils can promote tissue integrity. PMID:24745334

Chu, Van Trung; Beller, Alexander; Rausch, Sebastian; Strandmark, Julia; Zänker, Michael; Arbach, Olga; Kruglov, Andrey; Berek, Claudia



Human Ribonuclease A Superfamily Members, Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin and Pancreatic Ribonuclease, Induce Dendritic Cell Maturation and Activation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of mammalian antimicrobial proteins produced by neutrophils and cells of epithelial origin have chemotactic and activating effects on host cells, including cells of the immune system. Eosinophil granules contain an antimicrobial protein known as eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), which belongs to the RNase A superfamily. EDN has antiviral and chemotactic activities in vitro. In this study, we show that

De Yang; Qian Chen; Helene F. Rosenberg; Susanna M. Rybak; Dianne L. Newton; Zhao Yuan Wang; Qin Fu; Velizar T. Tchernev; Minjuan Wang; Barry Schweitzer; Stephen F. Kingsmore; Dhavalkumar D. Patel; Joost J. Oppenheim; O. M. Zack Howard


Mast cell and eosinophil activation during early phase of grass pollen-induced ocular allergic reaction.  


Both mast cells and eosinophils were implicated in the pathophysiology of allergic conjunctivitis; however, the potential role of eosinophils in an early phase of allergic reaction has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between clinical symptoms and sequence of mast cells and eosinophils specific mediators release into tear fluid during conjunctival allergen provocation. Patients with grass pollen rhinoconjunctivitis (n = 38) and healthy volunteers (n = 10) were challenged with increasing doses of allergen applied on the conjunctiva. The clinical symptoms were assessed by clinical score. Tear fluid was collected from 12 patients before provocation, at 20 and 40 minutes after positive response. Tryptase and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were measured using UniCap and 15-hydroxyeicosanoid acid (15-HETE) with a specific immunoassay. All allergic patients (but no control subjects) had a positive clinical response to the challenge. In 1 patient symptoms appeared after 50 BU/mL of grass allergen administration, in 3 patients symptoms appeared after 500 BU/mL (7.9% of patients), in 14 patients symptoms appeared after 1600 BU/mL (36.8%), and in 20 patients symptoms appeared after 5000 BU/mL (52.6%). The allergen dose was not correlated with the skin-prick test diameter. The mean tryptase concentration increased at 20 minutes from "nondetectable" to 5.89 ± 1.97 micrograms/L and then decreased to 1.77 ± 1.07 micrograms/L (n = 12; p < 0.05) at 40 minutes. ECP concentration was not changed at 20 minutes but increased at 40 minutes from 1.38 ± 0.98 micrograms/L before provocation to 10.61 ± 7.78 micrograms/L (n = 7; p < 0.05). There was no change in 15-HETE release. Both mast cells and eosinophils are activated during allergic reaction in conjunctiva and activation of eosinophils is preceded by activation of mast cells. PMID:21262097

Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, Monika; Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Jarzebska, Marzanna; Kowalski, Marek L



Eosinophils and monocytes produce pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine, which activates cultured monocytes/macrophages.  


Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC/CCL18) belongs to the family of CC chemokines and shares 61% sequence identity with monocyte inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha. Produced by dendritic cells and macrophages primarily in the lung, PARC is known to be chemotactic for T cells. Because PARC's biological function is largely unknown, we screened various leukocyte populations for PARC expression and for response to PARC, with the idea that the cellular source may link PARC to disease states in which it may be involved. Here we report that eosinophils obtained from individuals with mild eosinophilia express PARC as assessed by RT-PCR on eosinophil RNA. The eosinophil preparations were free of monocytes, a known source of PARC, and no RT-PCR product was obtained from neutrophils. Furthermore, PARC protein was detected by ELISA in the supernatants of eosinophils from seven of nine donors and in higher concentration in the supernatants of monocytes on day 1 of culture. Purified recombinant PARC activated human monocytes/macrophages kept in culture for 3-4 days but not freshly isolated monocytes. The threshold dose for Ca(2+) mobilization as determined fluorometrically in indo 1-AM-labeled monocytes was 5 nM; maximal response was reached with approximately 50 nM PARC. PARC was chemotactic for these cultured monocytes and caused actin polymerization determined by FITC-phalloidin binding and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. In contrast, PARC activated neither neutrophils nor eosinophils. Eosinophil production of PARC, its chemotactic effect on monocytes and lymphocytes, and PARC's previously described localization to the lung suggest that this chemokine might play a role in pulmonary leukocyte trafficking. PMID:12716654

Schraufstatter, Ingrid; Takamori, Hiroshi; Sikora, Lyudmila; Sriramarao, P; DiScipio, Richard G



Eosinophil-induced release of acetylcholine from differentiated cholinergic nerve cells.  


One immunological component of asthma is believed to be the interaction of eosinophils with parasympathetic cholinergic nerves and a consequent inhibition of acetylcholine muscarinic M2 receptor activity, leading to enhanced acetylcholine release and bronchoconstriction. Here we have used an in vitro model of cholinergic nerve function, the human IMR32 cell line, to study this interaction. IMR32 cells, differentiated in culture for 7 days, expressed M2 receptors. Cells were radiolabeled with [3H]choline and electrically stimulated. The stimulation-induced release of acetylcholine was prevented by the removal of Ca2+. The muscarinic M1/M2 receptor agonist arecaidine reduced the release of acetylcholine after stimulation (to 82 +/- 2% of control at 10(-7) M), and the M2 receptor antagonist AF-DX 116 increased it (to 175 +/- 23% of control at 10(-5) M), indicating the presence of a functional M2 receptor that modulated acetylcholine release. When human eosinophils were added to IMR32 cells, they enhanced acetylcholine release by 36 +/- 10%. This effect was prevented by inhibitors of adhesion of the eosinophils to the IMR32 cells. Pretreatment of IMR32 cells with 10 mM carbachol, to desensitize acetylcholine receptors, prevented the potentiation of acetylcholine release by eosinophils or AF-DX 116. Acetylcholine release was similarly potentiated (by up to 45 +/- 7%) by degranulation products from eosinophils that had been treated with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or that had been in contact with IMR32 cells. Contact between eosinophils and IMR32 cells led to an initial increase in expression of M2 receptors, whereas prolonged exposure reduced M2 receptor expression. PMID:12948933

Sawatzky, Deborah A; Kingham, Paul J; Durcan, Niamh; McLean, W Graham; Costello, Richard W



Pulmonary eosinophils and their role in immunopathologic responses to formalin-inactivated pneumonia virus of mice  

PubMed Central

Enhanced disease is the term used to describe the aberrant Th2 skewed responses to naturally-acquired human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) infection observed in individuals vaccinated with formalin-inactivated viral antigens. Here we explore this paradigm with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a pathogen that faithfully reproduces features of severe hRSV infection in a rodent host. We demonstrate that PVM infection in mice vaccinated with formalin-inactivated antigens from PVM-infected cells (PVM Ags) yields Th2-skewed hypersensitivity, analogous to that observed in response to hRSV. Specifically, we detect elevated levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of PVM-infected mice that were vaccinated with PVM Ags, but not among mice vaccinated with formalin-inactivated antigens from uninfected cells (Ctrl Ags). Interestingly, infection in PVM Ag-vaccinated mice was associated with a ~10-fold reduction in lung virus titer and protection against weight loss when compared to infected mice vaccinated with Ctrl Ags, despite the absence of serum neutralizing antibodies. Given recent findings documenting a role for eosinophils in promoting clearance of hRSV in vivo, we explored the role of eosinophils in altering the pathogenesis of disease with eosinophil-deficient mice. We found that eosinophil deficiency had no impact on virus titer in PVM Ags-vaccinated mice, nor on weight loss or levels of CCL11 (eotaxin-1), interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-5, or IL-13 in BAL fluid. However, levels of both IL-4 and CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1?) in BAL fluid were markedly diminished in PVM Ag-vaccinated, PVM-infected eosinophil-deficient mice when compared to wild type controls (246 words). PMID:19542471

Percopo, Caroline M.; Qiu, Zhijun; Phipps, Simon; Foster, Paul S.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.



Selective T Cell Depletion in Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients With Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Undergoing Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Graft Versus Host Disease; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia



GTI-2040 in Treating Patients With Relapsed, Refractory, or High-Risk Acute Leukemia, High-Grade Myelodysplastic Syndromes, or Refractory or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia



Eosinophilic cystitis mimicking tuberculosis: An analysis of five cases with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare disease. It is a transmural inflammation of the bladder, predominantly with eosinophils. High index of suspicion is needed for timely intervention. EC should be kept as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms due to small capacity bladder with a negative workup for urinary tuberculosis and in patients having hematuria and negative cytology, or incidentally found bladder lesions with known risk factors. Initial treatment is conservative with removal of risk factor, anti-histaminics and steroids. Augmentation cystoplasty should be considered in patients with a small capacity bladder. These patients need a strict and long term follow-up. PMID:23662013

Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Varun; Ganesamoni, Raguram; Singh, Shrawan



Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa: report of a case with multiple synchronous lesions.  


Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa is considered to be a benign, reactive, and self-limiting lesion, with unclear pathogenesis, manifesting as a rapidly developing solitary ulcer. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with 4 synchronous ulcerations of the tongue. Histopathological examination showed polymorphic inflammatory infiltrate, rich in eosinophils, involving the superficial mucosa and the deeper muscle layer. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed single CD30 cells scattered within an inflammatory infiltrate. All the lesions began to regress spontaneously within 1 week after biopsy. A 4-year follow-up showed no recurrence. PMID:24950420

Damevska, Katerina; Gocev, Gorgi; Nikolovska, Suzana



Vasculitides in hairy cell leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-two cases of vasculitis coincident with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) havebeen reported, of which 17 had panarteritis nodosa (PAN), 21 had cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV), and 4 had vessel wall infiltration by hairy cells. PAN generally occurred after the diagnosis of HCL, splenectomy, and infection. HBs antigen was detected in 3 of 12 patients tested, whereas immune complexes were positive

Paul Hasler; Hansjörg Kistler; Heini Gerber



Immunoregulatory properties of childhood leukemias  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of in vitro humoral immune responses and immunoregulatory properties of leukemic cell was carried out in 17 children with acute leukemia prior to therapy. Leukemias were of the non-T, non-B-cell type in 13 patients and of T-cell origin in four. Bone marrow and peripheral blood cells consisted of 24-96% lymphoblasts and were generally deficient in surface Ig-positive cells. Induction of Ig secreting cells in response to pokeweed mitogen was markedly decreased in marrow and peripheral mononuclear cell cultures of leukemic patients. Co-culture of leukemic cells with normal lymphocytes led to marked deviations from the expected Ig secreting-cell response of the cell mixtures. The predominant effect was enhancement, as was the case with eight non-T, non-B-cell and one T-cell leukemia samples. Suppression of the Ig secreting-cell response was observed in only three instances, two with non-T, non-B-cell and one with T-cell leukemia samples. These findings implicate non-T, non-B as well as more differentiated leukemic cells in having the potential for modifying Ig production by B cells.

Banker, D.S.; Pahwa, R.N.; Miller, D.R.; Hilgartner, M.W.; Good, R.A.; Pahwa, S.G.



Targeting Progressive Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

In this study, researchers are testing the effectiveness of an immunotoxin called LMB-2 in selectively killing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. LMB-2 binds to a protein called CD25 and delivers a bacterial toxin that may kill the cells.


Sorafenib Tosylate and Chemotherapy in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia



Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L1 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia



Eosinophil chemotactic chemokine profilings of the brain from permissive and non-permissive hosts infected with Angiostrongylus cantonenis.  


Angiostrongylus cantonensis invasion primarily cause heavy or negligible eosinophic meningitis and meningoencephalitis in the brain of non-permissive and permissive hosts, respectively. Chemokines are effective leukocyte chemoattractants and may play an essential role in mediating eosinophil recruitment in angiostrongyliasis. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed changes in peripheral and CSF eosinophil counts, and expression profilings of eosinophil chemotactic chemokines in A. cantonensis-infected mice (CCL 2, CCL 3, CCL 5, CCL7, CCL 8, CCL 11, CCL 12, CCL 24 and CCL 28) and rats (CCL 2, CCL 3, CCL 5, CCL 11 and CCL 12) were explored at 1, 2, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (dpi), and found significantly elevated numbers of eosinophils in blood and CSF of infected mice after 5 dpi, while significant increases of eosinophils in blood and CSF of infected rats were detected after 5 and 14 dpi, respectively. The kinetics of CSF eosinophilia is basically correlated with eosinophil chemotactic chemokine levels in brains of infected animals at each time point. Interestingly, less CSF eosinophils and infiltration of eosinophils in the brain were noted in rats than in mice, though extremely high levels of chemokines were also maintained in the brains of infected rats at 21 dpi. We further described CCL 11 (eotaxin), a previously reported eosinophil chemotactic factor in angiostrongyliasis, was mainly released from activated microglia in mice and rats infected with A. cantonensis. Our results reveal that different complicated chemokine networks mediate recruitment of eosinophils between permissive and non-permissive hosts during A. cantonensis infection, and provide promising targets for clinical treatment of angiostrongyliasis. PMID:24233410

Li, Shuting; Yang, Fan; Ji, Pengyu; Zeng, Xin; Wu, Xiaoying; Wei, Jie; Ouyang, Lisi; Liang, Jinyi; Zheng, Huanqin; Wu, Zhongdao; Lv, Zhiyue



Alemtuzumab and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Untreated Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L1 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L1 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia



Combination Chemotherapy and Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Children With Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

L1 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Non-T, Non-B Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia



What's New in Childhood Leukemia Research and Treatment?  


... Next Topic Additional resources for childhood leukemia What’s new in childhood leukemia research and treatment? Researchers are ... Children Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Leukemia in Children Research? Other Resources and ...


Treatment of Children with APL (Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia)  


... Article Close Push escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS ... How is childhood leukemia treated? Immediate treatment of childhood leukemia Surgery for childhood leukemia Radiation ...


What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?  


... leukemia? What should you ask your doctor about acute lymphocytic leukemia? It is important to have frank, honest discussions ... answer many of your questions. What kind of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) do I have? Do I have any ...


Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Treatment in Adults (Beyond the Basics)  


... Leukemia Patient information Patient information: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment in adults (Beyond the Basics) Author Richard ... article ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA OVERVIEW GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT ALL TREATMENT INDUCTION OF REMISSION CONSOLIDATION/INTENSIFICATION THERAPY MAINTENANCE ...


Genetics Home Reference: Familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA  


... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA On this page: Description Genetic ... Reviewed May 2012 What is familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA? Familial acute myeloid leukemia with ...


Genetics Home Reference: Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia  


... PubMed Recent literature Conditions > Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... January 2014 What is cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia? Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) is ...


Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Lymphocytic Lymphoma, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma