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1

Leukemia -- Eosinophilic  

MedlinePLUS

... Signs Diagnosis Stages Treatment Options About Clinical Trials Latest Research Coping with Side Effects After Treatment Questions to ... leukemia that provides basic information and areas of research. Or, choose “Next” ... boxes located on the right side of your screen.

2

[A case of eosinophilic leukemia].  

PubMed

The clinical course and diagnostic difficulties in a case of eosinophilic leukaemia are described. For a long time period the case showed clinical manifestations of a hypereosinophilia syndrome. Shortly before death clinical signs of leukaemia developed, and the diagnosis was confirmed on autopsy. PMID:1841504

Traczyk, Z; Krysza?owicz, B; Zienkiewicz, H; Gajewski, W

1991-01-01

3

Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer.Net: Leukemia--Eosinophilic: Treatment Genetic Testing Registry: Myeloproliferative disorder, chronic, with eosinophilia MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Eosinophil Count--Absolute Seattle Cancer Care Alliance: Hypereosinophilia You might also find information ...

4

Chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat: cytochemical and immunophenotypical features.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old, male, domestic shorthaired cat was presented with a 3-day history of anorexia and depression. The cat was moderately dehydrated, had pale, slightly icteric, mucous membranes, oral ulcerations, and mild hepatosplenomegaly. A feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen test was positive. CBC results obtained at initial presentation included severe normocytic, normochromic, nonregenerative anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis (>100,000/microL) with 77% eosinophils. After 15 days of treatment with prednisone and doxycycline, the cat had persistent severe nonregenerative anemia (HCT 3.4%), thrombocytopenia (28,000/microL), and extreme eosinophilia (total eosinophils, 123.1 x 10(3)/microL; segmented 103.0 x 10(3)/microL; immature 20.1 X 10(3)/microL). Cytologic examination of aspirates from bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, and spleen revealed a predominance of mature and immature eosinophils, many with dysplastic changes. The M:E ratio was 96.4. On histopathologic examination, multiple organs were infiltrated by eosinophilic granulocytes. Neoplastic cells in blood and bone marrow stained positive for alkaline phosphatase and were negative for myeloperoxidase, chloroacetate esterase, and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase. On flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood, the neoplastic cells were positive for CD11b and CD14. These findings were consistent with chronic eosinophilic leukemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat associated with naturally acquired FeLV infection, in which flow cytometry was used to characterize the neoplastic cells. PMID:17123254

Gelain, Maria Elena; Antoniazzi, Elisa; Bertazzolo, Walter; Zaccolo, Maurizia; Comazzi, Stefano

2006-12-01

5

Myeloprolipherative disorder type chronic myeloid leukemia--eosinophilic form.  

PubMed

Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a very rare form of leucemia in the western world. Adequate response is seldomly achieved after treatment with corticosteroids, interferon-alfa (INF-alfa) and medications containing hydroxi-urea (Litalir). The study presents a patient with CEL with no initial therapeutic response to the use of corticosteroids, INF-alfa and hydroxy-urea, and with neither clinical nor hematological response. After setting a diagnosis of CEL, patient was ordinated Imatinib (Glivec tabbletes) in a daily dose of 200 mg. Two days afterwards there was an evident withdrawal of subjective and clinical symptoms of disease, and the complete blood count showed significant amendment. PMID:21776882

Arnautovic-Custovic, Aida; Hasic, Samira; Kopic, Emina; Jahic, Azra; Jovic, Svetlana

2011-01-01

6

Montelukast suppresses epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells induced by eosinophils.  

PubMed

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a mechanism by which eosinophils can induce airway remodeling. Montelukast, an antagonist of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor, can suppress airway remodeling in asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether montelukast can ameliorate airway remodeling by blocking EMT induced by eosinophils. EMT induced was assessed using a co-culture system of human bronchial epithelial cells and human eosinophils or the eosinophilic leukemia cell lines, Eol-1. Montelukast inhibited co-culture associated morphological changes of BEAS-2b cells, decreased the expression of vimentin and collagen I, and increased the expression of E-cadherin. Montelukast mitigated the rise of TGF-?1 production and Smad3 phosphorylation. Co-culture of human eosinophils with BEAS-2B cells significantly enhanced the production of CysLTs compared with BEAS-2B cells or eosinophils alone. The increase of CysLTs was abolished by montelukast pre-treatment. Montelukast had similar effects when co-culture system of Eol-1 and BEAS-2B was used. This study showed that montelukast suppresses eosinophils-induced EMT of airway epithelial cells. This finding may explain the mechanism of montelukast-mediated amelioration of airway remodeling in bronchial asthma. PMID:24845378

Hosoki, Koa; Kainuma, Keigo; Toda, Masaaki; Harada, Etsuko; Chelakkot-Govindalayathila, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi; Roeen, Ziaurahman; Nagao, Mizuho; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Fujisawa, Takao; Gabazza, Esteban C

2014-07-01

7

Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia--Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) in the Background of a Large Cell Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Clonal eosinophilic disorders are rare among hematological malignancies. Most eosinophilia tends to be due to secondary causes such as infections, hypersensitivity conditions, drug reactions, and connective tissue disorders. The presence of a primary clonal eosinophilic disorder such as chronic eosinophilic leukemia—not otherwise specified (NOS) in the presence of a synchronous large cell lymphoma—is rare making the diagnosis challenging. We present a case of a 51-year-old female with the aforementioned presentation and demonstrate the extensive workup performed to identify the diagnosis.

Gonsalves, Wilson I.; He, Rong; Pardanani, Animesh; Gupta, Vinay; Smeltzer, Jacob P.; Hanson, Curtis A.; Witzig, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

8

GATA1s induces hyperproliferation of eosinophil precursors in Down syndrome transient leukemia.  

PubMed

Transient leukemia (TL) is evident in 5-10% of all neonates with Down syndrome (DS) and associated with N-terminal truncating GATA1 mutations (GATA1s). Here we report that TL-cell clones generate abundant eosinophils in a substantial fraction of patients. Sorted eosinophils from patients with TL and eosinophilia carried the same GATA1s mutations as sorted TL blasts, consistent with their clonal origin. TL blasts exhibited a genetic program characteristic of eosinophils and differentiated along the eosinophil lineage in vitro. Similarly, ectopic expression of Gata1s, but not Gata1, in wild-type CD34(+)-hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells induced hyperproliferation of eosinophil promyelocytes in vitro. Although GATA1s retained the function of GATA1 to induce eosinophil genes by occupying their promoter regions, GATA1s was impaired in its ability to repress oncogenic MYC and the pro-proliferative E2F transcription network. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing (ChIP-seq) indicated reduced GATA1s occupancy at the MYC promoter. Knockdown of MYC, or the obligate E2F-cooperation partner DP1, rescued the GATA1s-induced hyperproliferative phenotype. In agreement, terminal eosinophil maturation was blocked in Gata1(?e2) knockin mice, exclusively expressing Gata1s, leading to accumulation of eosinophil precursors in blood and bone marrow. These data suggest a direct relationship between the N-terminal truncating mutations of GATA1 and clonal eosinophilia in DS patients. PMID:24336126

Maroz, A; Stachorski, L; Emmrich, S; Reinhardt, K; Xu, J; Shao, Z; Käbler, S; Dertmann, T; Hitzler, J; Roberts, I; Vyas, P; Juban, G; Hennig, C; Hansen, G; Li, Z; Orkin, S; Reinhardt, D; Klusmann, J-H

2014-06-01

9

Eosinophils.  

PubMed

In 1846, T. Wharton-Jones described a coarsely granular stage in the development of granulocytic cells in animal and human blood. Shortly thereafter, Max Schultze redefined the coarsely granular cells as a type distinct from finely granular cells, rather than just a developmental stage. It was, however, not until 1879, when Paul Ehrlich introduced a method to distinguish granular cells by the staining properties of their granules, that a classification became possible. An intensive staining for eosin, among other aniline dyes, was eponymous for the coarsely granular cell type, which thereupon became referred to as eosinophil granulocyte. Eosinophilia had already been described in many diseases by the late 19th century. The role of these cells, however, today remains a matter of continuing speculation and investigation. Many functions have been attributed to the eosinophil over the years, often linked to increasing knowledge about the granular and cytoplasmatic contents. A better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of eosinopoiesis has led to the development of knock-out mice strains as well as therapeutic strategies for reducing the eosinophil load in patients. The effect of these therapeutics and the characterization of the knock-out phenotypes have led to a great increase in the knowledge of the role of the eosinophil in disease. Today we think of the eosinophil as a multifunctional cell involved in host defense, tissue damage and remodeling, as well as immunomodulation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24925399

Radonjic-Hösli, Susanne; Simon, Hans-Uwe

2014-01-01

10

Cyclopamine induces eosinophilic differentiation and upregulates CD44 expression in myeloid leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Cyclopamine, a plant-derived steroidal alkaloid, inhibits the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway by antagonizing Smoothened. This drug can induce the differentiation of myeloid leukemia cell lines and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in primary culture. The treated cells were stained with Luxol-fast-blue, which is specific for eosinophilic granules. Ligation of CD44 with some specific monoclonal antibodies can reverse the differentiation of AML cells. Combined treatment with cyclopamine and a monoclonal antibody to ligate CD44 more than additively induced the differentiation of HL-60 cells. These results may provide useful information for the development of a CD44-targeted therapy in AML. PMID:20971508

Takahashi, Tsutomu; Kawakami, Koshi; Mishima, Seiji; Akimoto, Miho; Takenaga, Keizo; Suzumiya, Junji; Honma, Yoshio

2011-05-01

11

Characterization of interleukin 5 receptors on eosinophilic sublines from human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells  

PubMed Central

The T cell product interleukin 5 (IL-5) has been shown to be a key factor in the development and the maturation of the eosinophilic cell lineage. We report here on the detection of human IL-5 receptors on eosinophilic sublines of the promyelocytic leukemia HL-60. Sodium butyrate, which initiates differentiation to mature eosinophils, also induces the appearance of high affinity (Kd 1-5 X 10(-11) M) IL-5 binding sites on these cells. The receptors are specific for IL-5, since binding of radiolabeled ligand can only be inhibited with homologous or murine IL-5 and not by other cytokines. We further show that the receptors are functional, since IL-5 can stimulate the proliferation of these cells. Affinity crosslinking of surface-bound 125I human IL-5 or 35S mouse IL-5 identified two membrane polypeptides of approximately 60 and approximately 130 kD to which IL-5 is closely associated. The presence of granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor or tumor necrosis factor during butyrate induction decreased the expression of IL-5 binding sites compared with control cultures. The identification and characterization of human IL-5 receptors on HL-60 sublines should provide new insight into the role of this cytokine in eosinophil differentiation.

1990-01-01

12

[Successful treatment with low-dose dasatinib in a patient with chronic eosinophilic leukemia intolerant to imatinib].  

PubMed

A 77-year-old man with cough and dyspnea was admitted to hospital. Chest X-ray demonstrated reticulated shadows in the bilateral inferior lung fields and marked eosinophilia was detected in peripheral blood. Although he received steroid pulse therapy, eosinophilia became more serious and he was referred to our hospital. Bone marrow examination demonstrated a hypercellular marrow that consisted predominantly of dysplastic eosinophils with differentiation. FISH analysis of bone marrow cells demonstrated 4q12 deletion and RT-PCR analysis detected FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene, leading to the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL). Treatment with low-dose imatinib was immediately initiated; however, drug-induced systemic edema was progressive and became intolerable. Therefore, we changed imatinib to low-dose dasatinib (20 mg/day), resulting in complete molecular response of CEL after 3 months without any severe adverse effects. This is the first report on the efficacy of low-dose dasatinib for the treatment of CEL. The peak level (Cmax) of dasatinib in this patient was 55.3 nM, which exceeded the concentration of dasatinib required to inhibit cells with FIP1L1-PDGFRA by 50%. Thus, low-dose dasatinib with therapeutic drug monitoring can be a useful therapy for imatinib-intolerant CEL even in elderly patients. PMID:21821988

Imagawa, Jun; Harada, Yuka; Yoshida, Tetsumi; Tarutani, Miho; Kimura, Akiro; Matsumoto, Kana; Morita, Kunihiko; Harada, Hironori

2011-07-01

13

IFN-? and TNF-? potentiate prostaglandin D2-induced human eosinophil chemotaxis through up-regulation of CRTH2 surface receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptor CRTH2, is a pro-inflammatory molecule involved in eosinophil recruitment to the allergic airway. We investigated the expression of CRTH2 in eosinophil from allergic rhinitis patients (AR) and tested the modulatory role of several TH1 and TH2 cytokines closely related to the allergic immunological response, on the expression of CRTH2 receptor, utilizing human eosinophil cell line (Eol-1).The

A. E. El-Shazly; V. Moonen; M. Mawet; D. Begon; M. Henket; M. Arafa; R. Louis; P. Delvenne; P. P. Lefebvre

2011-01-01

14

The FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene cooperates with IL5 to induce murine hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES)\\/chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL)-like disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysregulated tyrosine kinase activity by the Fip1-like1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) (F\\/P) fusion gene has been identified as a cause of clonal hypereosinophilic syn- drome (HES), called F\\/P-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) in humans. However, transplantation of F\\/P-trans- duced hematopoietic stem cells\\/progeni- tors (F\\/P HSCs\\/Ps) into mice results in a chronic myelogenous leukemia-like dis- ease, which does not

Yoshiyuki Yamada; Marc E. Rothenberg; Andrew W. Lee; Hiroko Saito Akei; Eric B. Brandt; David A. Williams; Jose A. Cancelas

15

Systemic mastocytosis (SM) associated with chronic eosinophilic leukemia (SM-CEL): Detection of FIP1L1\\/PDGFR?, classification by WHO criteria, and response to therapy with imatinib  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on generally accepted criteria and the WHO-classification, a subset of patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) have (or develop) an associated clonal hematologic non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD). We describe a case of SM with coexisting chronic eosinophilic leukemia (SM-CEL). The patient, a 51-year-old male, was first seen in 1992 with small-sized infiltrates of spindle-shaped mast cells in his marrow,

Stefan Florian; Harald Esterbauer; Thomas Binder; Leonhard Müllauer; Oskar A. Haas; Wolfgang R. Sperr; Christian Sillaber; Peter Valent

2006-01-01

16

Leukemia inhibitory factor is synthesized and released by human eosinophils and modulates activation state and chemotaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is known to be produced by both inflamed peripheral autonomic nerves and several cell types involved in the regulation of the immune response. We have recently demonstrated that several structural cell types in human airways produce LIF in response to inflammatory stimuli and that LIF augments contractile responses to tachykinins in airway explants.

Xueyan Zheng; Darryl A. Knight; Danyi Zhou; Tracey D. Weir; Craig Peacock; R. Robert Schellenberg; Tony R. Bai

1999-01-01

17

Eosinophilic fasciitis  

MedlinePLUS

Eosinophilic fasciitis is a very rate syndrome in which muscle tissue under the skin, called fascia, becomes swollen and ... The cause of eosinophilic fasciitis is unknown. In people with this ... eosinophils, build up in the muscles and tissues. Eosinophils ...

18

A Case of FIP1L1-PDGFRA-Positive Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia with a Rare FIP1L1 Breakpoint  

PubMed Central

The idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) has remained for a long time a diagnosis of exclusion. Differential diagnosis between the HES and the related chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) relied on the identification of signs of clonality that allowed, when present, the reclassification of patients as CEL. Recently, a new acquired mutation was described in approximately 50% of the HES/CEL patients: a cryptic deletion on chromosome band 4q12 generating a FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene. According to the World Health Organization classification, this clonal abnormality has been proposed as a new surrogate marker for chronic eosinophilic leukemia diagnosis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction protocols were developed for an accurate del(4)(q12q12) and FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene detection. Here, we report a patient with a rare FIP1L1 intron 16 breakpoint located outside of the reported FIP1L1 breakpoint region (ie, from FIP1L1 introns 9 to 13). This case illustrates the risk of false-negative results with diagnostic procedures that do not take into account the occurrence of rare FIP1L1 breakpoints. As targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors has dramatically changed the prognosis of FIP1L1-PDGFRA (+) CEL, false-negative results could hamper accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Lambert, Frederic; Heimann, Pierre; Herens, Christian; Chariot, Alain; Bours, Vincent

2007-01-01

19

Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

Search Español Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®) Last Modified: 06/17/2014 General Information About Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of ...

20

Eosinophilic Pneumonias  

PubMed Central

Summary: This review starts with discussions of several infectious causes of eosinophilic pneumonia, which are almost exclusively parasitic in nature. Pulmonary infections due specifically to Ascaris, hookworms, Strongyloides, Paragonimus, filariasis, and Toxocara are considered in detail. The discussion then moves to noninfectious causes of eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration, including allergic sensitization to Aspergillus, acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonias, Churg-Strauss syndrome, hypereosinophilic syndromes, and pulmonary eosinophilia due to exposure to specific medications or toxins.

Akuthota, Praveen

2012-01-01

21

FIP1L1-PDGFRA-Positive Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia: A Low-Burden Disease with Dramatic Response to Imatinib - A Report of 5 Cases from South India  

PubMed Central

Objective: Eosinophilia associated with FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement represents a subset of chronic eosinophilic leukemia and affected patients are sensitive to imatinib treatment. This study was undertaken to learn the prevalence and associated clinicopathologic and genetic features of FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement in a cohort of 26 adult patients presenting with profound eosinophilia (>1.5x109/L). Materials and Methods: Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and gel electrophoresis were used for the detection of FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement. Results: Five male patients with splenomegaly carried the FIP1L1-PDGFRA gene rearrangement. All patients achieved complete hematological response within 4 weeks of starting imatinib. One patient had previous deep vein thrombosis and 1 patient had cardiomyopathy, which improved with steroids and imatinib. Conventional cytogenetics was normal in all these patients. No primary resistance to imatinib was noted. Conclusion: This study indicates the need to do the FIP1L1-PDGFRA assay in patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome. Prompt treatment of this condition with imatinib can lead to complete hematological response and resolution of the organ damage that can be seen in this setting.

Kumar, An?l N.; Sathyanarayanan, Vishwanath; Devi, Visweswariah Lakshmi; Rajkumar, Namratha N.; Das, Umesh; Dutt, Sarjana; Chinnagiriyappa, Lakshmaiah K

2014-01-01

22

FIP1L1-PDGFRA-Positive Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia: A Low-Burden Disease with Dramatic Response to Imatinib - A Report of 5 Cases from South India.  

PubMed

Objective: Eosinophilia associated with FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement represents a subset of chronic eosinophilic leukemia and affected patients are sensitive to imatinib treatment. This study was undertaken to learn the prevalence and associated clinicopathologic and genetic features of FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement in a cohort of 26 adult patients presenting with profound eosinophilia (>1.5x10(9)/L). Materials and Methods: Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and gel electrophoresis were used for the detection of FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement. Results: Five male patients with splenomegaly carried the FIP1L1-PDGFRA gene rearrangement. All patients achieved complete hematological response within 4 weeks of starting imatinib. One patient had previous deep vein thrombosis and 1 patient had cardiomyopathy, which improved with steroids and imatinib. Conventional cytogenetics was normal in all these patients. No primary resistance to imatinib was noted. Conclusion: This study indicates the need to do the FIP1L1-PDGFRA assay in patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome. Prompt treatment of this condition with imatinib can lead to complete hematological response and resolution of the organ damage that can be seen in this setting. PMID:24764730

Kumar, An?l N; Sathyanarayanan, Vishwanath; Devi, Visweswariah Lakshmi; Rajkumar, Namratha N; Das, Umesh; Dutt, Sarjana; Chinnagiriyappa, Lakshmaiah K

2014-03-01

23

Eosinophilic colitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with a bimodal peak of prevalence in neonates and young adults. EC remains a little understood condition in contrast to the increasingly recognized eosinophilic esophagitis. Clinical presentation of EC is highly variable according to mucosal, transmural, or serosal predominance of inflammation. EC has a broad differential diagnosis because colon tissue eosinophilia often occurs in parasitic infection, drug-induced allergic reactions, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders, which require thorough searching for secondary causes that may be specifically treated with antibiotics or dietary and drug elimination. Like eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease involving other segments of the gastrointestinal tract, EC responds very well to steroids that may be spared by using antihistamines, leukotriene inhibitors and biologics.

Okpara, Nnenna; Aswad, Bassam; Baffy, Gyorgy

2009-01-01

24

Eosinophilic Lung Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... allergic or chemical reactions and certain infections. Eosinophilic Pneumonia Eosinophilic pneumonia describes a category of pneumonias that ... low oxygen in the bloodstream. Acute Idiopathic Eosinophilic Pneumonia Acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia is a more sudden ...

25

Eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an atopic condition of the esophagus that has become increasingly recognized over the last decade. Diagnosis of the disorder is dependent on the patient’s clinical manifestations and histologic findings on esophageal mucosal biopsies. Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis should be referred to both an allergist and gastroenterologist for optimal management, which may include dietary modifications, pharmacologic agents such as corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers and biologics as well as mechanical dilatation of the esophagus. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of EoE are discussed in this review.

2011-01-01

26

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M2) with translocation (8;21) (q22;q22) and abnormal eosinophilic precursors in the bone marrow--a case report.  

PubMed

The translocation (8;21)(q22;q22) is frequently associated with M2 subtype of AML. The authors herein present a case of AML-M2 in a nine-year-old boy without hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy or any bleeding diathesis. Bone marrow examination revealed high number of eosinophilic precursors (60%) among the total nucleated bone marrow cells. Cytogenetic study with G- banding method showed 46, XY, t (8;21)(q22;q22). The morphological abnormalities in eosinophils observed in AML suggested that eosinophils may be a part of leukemic process. PMID:21630067

Gupta, Oneal; Aggarwal, Roopak; Prasad, Rajni

2012-02-01

27

Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... leukemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011: ... leukemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011: ...

28

Eosinophilic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Cell Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders Leukemias Lymphomas Myeloproliferative Disorders Spleen Disorders Topics in White Blood Cell ... Trade Names GLEEVEC , a drug used to treat cancer. If these drugs fail, various other drugs may ...

29

Tipifarnib and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Blast Phase  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-04-09

30

Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2013-06-03

31

Biomarkers in Bone Marrow Samples From Pediatric Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

2014-02-13

32

Eosinophilic esophagitis: case report.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition of the esophagus characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. It is a condition mainly affecting children; the adult form has only recently gained recognition as a distinct entity. The major symptom among adults with eosinophilic esophagitis is dysphagia. It is often misdiagnosed as gastroesophageal reflux disease because of the similarity in symptoms. An endoscopic biopsy is required to distinguish between the conditions. The cause of eosinophilic esophagitis is poorly understood, but food allergy has been implicated. Topical steroids are the most effective and convenient method for the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis in adults. The long-term prognosis of eosinophilic esophagitis is uncertain; however, data suggests a benign course. We herein present two eosinophilic esophagitis cases that were the first to be diagnosed in our clinic. PMID:17602357

Mungan, Zeynel; Pinarba?i, Binnur; Kaymako?lu, Sabahattin

2007-06-01

33

Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-01-08

34

Acute necrotising eosinophilic myocarditis.  

PubMed Central

Löffler's endocarditis is a recognised complication of diseases associated with eosinophilia. Eosinophilic heart disease is usually chronic, but there is a rare acute variety. Three patients with an unusual form of eosinophilic heart disease characterised by acute necrotising eosinophilic myocarditis after a possible initial viral infection and underlying allergic diathesis are reported. In contrast to previously reported cases of acute Löffler's endocarditis there was no notable extracardiac pathology. Images

Herzog, C A; Snover, D C; Staley, N A

1984-01-01

35

Biology of the Eosinophil  

PubMed Central

In this review, we aim to put in perspective the biology of a multifunctional leukocyte, the eosinophil, by placing it in the context of innate and adaptive immune responses. Eosinophils have a unique contribution in initiating inflammatory and adaptive responses due to their bidirectional interactions with dendritic cells and T cells, as well as their large panel of secreted cytokines and soluble mediators. The mechanisms and consequences of eosinophil responses in experimental inflammatory models are discussed.

Blanchard, Carine; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2014-01-01

36

Eosinophilic lung disease: immunological studies of blood and alveolar eosinophils.  

PubMed Central

Five patients with eosinophilic lung diseases and blood hypereosinophilia (PIE syndrome) were investigated clinically and by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Comparative studies on blood and alveolar eosinophils were carried out after purification and selection of eosinophil subpopulations according to their density. A predominant 'hypodense' alveolar eosinophil population was found in BAL fluids of active chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP). In addition, supernatants of alveolar macrophages obtained from CEP are able to enhance spontaneously the generation of eosinophil oxygen metabolites. Such eosinophil stimulation emphasizes a probable tissue cell cooperation. In addition, BAL permitted the study of membrane immunological markers on eosinophilic inflammatory cells endowed with migratory properties. An increase in eosinophils carrying surface IgE was demonstrated in alveolar cells from PIE Syndrome particularly with hypodense eosinophils from CEP patients. Although no specific stimulus is known at the present time, this work underlines the potential implication of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity processes in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic lung diseases.

Prin, L; Capron, M; Gosset, P; Wallaert, B; Kusnierz, J P; Bletry, O; Tonnel, A B; Capron, A

1986-01-01

37

Cilengitide in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b)

2013-01-23

38

Flame figures associated with eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy: is it possible to distinguish the condition from eosinophilic cellulitis in patients with hematoproliferative disease?  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a multifaceted dermatosis with a wide morphological spectrum, presenting as pruritic, erythematous, papular and occasionally vesicular, urticarial, nodular eruptions. Histopathologically eosinophil infiltration in the super and deep dermis was found. We reported a case of eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy presented as urticarial and vesicular lesions in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A skin biopsy revealed a prominent subepidermal blister and a diffuse infiltrate of eosinophils with flame figures in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Although flame figures associated with eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is rarely reported, we believe that it would not seem unusual to find them in this skin disease. Eosinophilic cellulitis, which share clinical and histological features with eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy, has also been described as showing an association with hematoproliferative diseases. In order to clearly describe eosinophilic dermatosis in patients with hematologic malignancies, the terminology eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy, instead of eosinophilic cellulitis, would be a more suitable term in patients with eosinophilic dermatosis.

Qiao, Jianjun; Sun, Chang-E; Zhu, Weifang; Zhu, Dingxian; Fang, Hong

2013-01-01

39

Mepolizumab in eosinophilic disorders  

PubMed Central

Mepolizumab (Bosatria®, GlaxoSmithKline) is a biologic agent developed to treat asthma. It represents a humanized monoclonal antibody of IgG1 ? type, which targets human IL-5 and thus prevents its interaction with the ?-chain of the IL-5 receptor. To date, it has not been approved for use in any eosinophil-related disorder; however, several studies have suggested some therapeutic benefit across a spectrum of eosinophil-related disorders. This article evaluates the currently available preclinical and clinical studies, and the impact of mepolizumab against a variety of eosinophilic disorders.

Abonia, J Pablo; Putnam, Philip E

2011-01-01

40

Bortezomib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-05-13

41

Chemotaxis of Human Eosinophils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human eosinophils respond chemotactically to preparations that are also chemotactically active for neutrophils. These include soluble bacterial factors in culture filtrates, and rabbit serum treated with immune complexes or with a mixture of highly purifi...

P. A. Ward

1968-01-01

42

Genetics of Eosinophilic Esophagitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an emerging worldwide food allergic disorder associated with polysensitization to multiple food allergens, resulting in greatly restricted diets and chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms in many individuals...

M. Rothenberg

2012-01-01

43

Genetics of Eosinophilic Esophagitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an emerging worldwide food allergic disorder associated with polysensitization to multiple food allergens, resulting in greatly restricted diets and chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms in many individuals...

M. E. Rothenberg

2011-01-01

44

Eosinophils in glioblastoma biology  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The development of this malignant glial lesion involves a multi-faceted process that results in a loss of genetic or epigenetic gene control, un-regulated cell growth, and immune tolerance. Of interest, atopic diseases are characterized by a lack of immune tolerance and are inversely associated with glioma risk. One cell type that is an established effector cell in the pathobiology of atopic disease is the eosinophil. In response to various stimuli, the eosinophil is able to produce cytotoxic granules, neuromediators, and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as pro-fibrotic and angiogenic factors involved in pathogen clearance and tissue remodeling and repair. These various biological properties reveal that the eosinophil is a key immunoregulatory cell capable of influencing the activity of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Of central importance to this report is the observation that eosinophil migration to the brain occurs in response to traumatic brain injury and following certain immunotherapeutic treatments for GBM. Although eosinophils have been identified in various central nervous system pathologies, and are known to operate in wound/repair and tumorstatic models, the potential roles of eosinophils in GBM development and the tumor immunological response are only beginning to be recognized and are therefore the subject of the present review.

2012-01-01

45

Eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis is an unfamiliar cause of acute myocardial ischemia. Most commonly, it presents as a left-sided chest pain or sudden death in middle-aged women with no traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease. Because the abrupt onset leaves almost no time for intervention, the symptoms readily lead to death, and most cases are diagnosed at necropsy. Dissection of the coronary artery wall with resultant occlusion of the lumen, which commonly affects the left anterior descending artery, is a consistent gross finding. An inflammatory infiltrate, which is predominantly composed of eosinophils in the tunica adventitia and tunica media and is often accompanied by a hematoma in between these 2 layers, is observed histologically. The etiology remains unclear, but an increase in the activity of eosinophils because of hormonal interactions during pregnancy has been suggested. Interplay of hormones is thought to culminate in the release of histolytic agents by the eosinophils, which initiate the dissection process. Currently, there is no specific treatment for eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis, but cyclophosphamide and prednisone have shown positive results in the treatment of spontaneous coronary artery dissection with unspecified periadventitial inflammation. Percutaneous coronary procedures have also resulted in favorable outcomes in a subset of patients. Because of the high, sudden death rate in eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis, deciphering the underlying pathophysiology of this almost invariably fatal disease remains both a challenge and a key to developing screening methods that will allow timely detection and thus treatment. PMID:24978927

Carreon, Chrystalle Katte; Esposito, Michael J

2014-07-01

46

Azacitidine, Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride, and Etoposide in Treating Older Patients With Poor-Prognosis Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-06-02

47

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.  

PubMed Central

We described three cases of eosinophilic pneumonia of unknown aetiology investigated clinically and by lung biopsy. The illnesses lasted between six and 20 weeks and consisted of cough, dyspnoea, malaise, and in two cases prolonged pyrexia. All had blood eosinophilia and chest radiographs showing widespread bilateral shadowing; in two cases this had a characteristic peripheral distribution. One patient recovered spontaneously and the other two responded to steroids, with disappearance of pyrexia within 12 hours and radiological clearing within 14 days. Lung function tests during the acute illness showed volume restriction or gas transfer defects or both in two cases. After remission all three showed abnormalities if small airways function. Lung biopsies performed during the acute illness were examined histologically and by transmission electron microscopy, and in two cases by immunofluorescence. There was both intra-alveolar and interstitial eosinophilic pneumonia with bronchiolitis obliterans, microgranulomata, and a vasculitis. Electron microscopy showed numerous eosinophils, many degranulated, and macrophages with phagocytosed eosinophilic granules and intracytoplasmic inclusions. In one case IgM, IgG, and IgA were demonstrated in the bronchial walls and interstitium. No IgE or complement was present. We believe that eosinophil granules are responsible for the tissue damage and fever and suggest mechanisms for this and for the response to steroid therapy. Images

Fox, B; Seed, W A

1980-01-01

48

Eosinophilic pleural or peritoneal effusions in dogs and cats: 14 cases (1986-1992).  

PubMed

Case records of 9 dogs and 5 cats with eosinophilic effusions were reviewed. The animals ranged from 11 months to 13 years old. Seven animals had pleural effusions, 5 had peritoneal effusions, and 2 had pleural and peritoneal effusions. Neoplasia was confirmed in 6 animals and suspected in 1. Eosinophilic pleural effusion was diagnosed 2 days after pneumothorax developed as a consequence of thoracic tube placement in a cat, and pneumothorax was diagnosed in another cat with eosinophilic peritoneal effusion. Other abnormalities seen in 1 or 2 animals associated with eosinophilic effusion were radiographic signs of interstitial or peribronchial pulmonary infiltrates, a history of allergic respiratory tract and skin disease, intestinal lymphangiectasia and lung lobe torsion, chylothorax, bite wounds causing intestinal perforation, and feline leukemia virus infection. Based only on the protein concentration of the effusion, 7 effusions were classified as transudates and 7 were classified as exudates. Five of the 14 animals had eosinophilia (> 1,200 eosinophils/microliters); 3 of these animals had neoplastic disease. Mean eosinophil count in blood samples was not significantly different between animals with neoplasia and those without. Eosinophil counts in blood samples were not linearly related to counts in effusions; however, in some animals the number of eosinophils in the effusion was much higher than the eosinophil count in blood, suggesting concentration of eosinophils in the effusion. PMID:8320159

Fossum, T W; Wellman, M; Relford, R L; Slater, M R

1993-06-01

49

Eosinophil-Deficient Transgenic Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technologies described herein are based on the discovery that expression of a toxin gene under control of an eosinophil-specific promoter can cause the ablation of eosinophils in a transgenic animal. Accordingly, the nucleic acid constructs featured i...

J. J. Lee, N. A. Lee

2004-01-01

50

Tanespimycin and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndromes  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

2013-09-27

51

Eosinophils and Eosinophilia  

PubMed Central

In their practice of medicine, clinicians occasionally encounter patients with eosinophilia in which the common causes have been satisfactorily ruled out. It is the purpose of this review to present some of the salient features of our present knowledge concerning the eosinophil and to suggest a method for studying eosinophilias of obscure cause.

Donohugh, Donald L.

1966-01-01

52

Eltrombopag Olamine in Improving Platelet Recovery in Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Chemotherapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-04-29

53

Combination Chemotherapy With or Without PSC 833, Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation, and/or Interleukin-2 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

2013-06-03

54

[Acute respiratory failure revealing an idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia: report of a pediatric case].  

PubMed

Eosinophilic pneumonias are a group of heterogeneous disorders, rarely reported in children. We describe a case of a 12-year-old boy hospitalized for an acute febrile respiratory failure. Chest radiograph showed bilateral diffuse infiltrates. A pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration was confirmed by a major blood eosinophilia at 33,800/mm(3) associated with increased eosinophilic rate (90%) on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Outcome improved markedly with mechanical ventilation and corticosteroid therapy. Laboratory screenings for parasitic or allergic disease were negative. Bone marrow smear and medullar caryotype eliminated an acute leukemia. No further visceral eosinophilic injury were found. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia should be included in etiological investigation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) even in young subjects. PMID:18565719

Khémiri, M; Ouederni, M; Ben Mansour, F; Ben Jaballah, N; Barsaoui, S

2008-06-01

55

Idarubicin, Cytarabine, and Tipifarnib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-05-09

56

Eosinophilic fasciitis as a paraneoplastic syndrome, a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare disease with characteristic clinical and histological features, previously reported to be associated with various hematological and solid malignancies. We report a typical case of eosinophilic fasciitis in a 67-year-old man in association with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and subsequently bladder cancer. On the two occasions, the eosinophilic fasciitis completely resolved upon successful treatment of the concomitant malignancy. The diagnosis of EF should trigger further evaluation for any associated hematological disorder, which, if adequately treated, can result in the resolution of EF. PMID:24525268

Haddad, Housam; Sundaram, Suchitra; Magro, Cynthia; Gergis, Usama

2014-06-01

57

Mechanisms of eosinophil cytokine release  

PubMed Central

Human eosinophils have been demonstrated to contain a multitude of cytokines and chemokines that exist preformed within these cells. This content of pre-formed cytokines, with diverse potential biologic activities, provides eosinophils with capabilities distinct from most other leukocytes. The localization of pre-formed cytokines within eosinophils is both within specific granules and associated with substantial numbers of morphologically distinct cytoplasmic vesicles. Stimulation for release of specific cytokines, such as IL-4, leads to a regulated signal transduction cascade, which is dependent on the formation of leukotriene C4 within eosinophils where it acts as an intracrine mediator. IL-4 release occurs selectively and is by means of vesicular transport. The capabilities of eosinophils not only to rapidly release pre-formed cytokines but also to differentially regulate which cytokines are released endow eosinophils with distinct abilities in innate and acquired immunity.

Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Weller, Peter F

2009-01-01

58

Decitabine as Maintenance Therapy After Standard Therapy in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-06-18

59

Eltrombopag Olamine in Treating Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-01-10

60

Daunorubicin Hydrochloride, Cytarabine, and Nilotinib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-03-30

61

Alvocidib, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-05-06

62

Eosinophilic Cystitis with Eosinophilic Cholecystitis: A Rare Association  

PubMed Central

We describe a rare case of eosinophilic cystitis associated with eosinophilic cholecystitis in a 30-year-old patient who underwent bladder biopsy for irritative voiding symptoms and routine elective cholecystectomy for gallstones. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. The rarity of this condition prompted us to report this entity in which no specific cause could be found.

Mallat, F.; Hmida, W.; Mestiri, S.; Ziadi, S.; Sriha, B.; Mokni, M.; Mosbah, F.

2013-01-01

63

Eosinophilic cystitis with eosinophilic cholecystitis: a rare association.  

PubMed

We describe a rare case of eosinophilic cystitis associated with eosinophilic cholecystitis in a 30-year-old patient who underwent bladder biopsy for irritative voiding symptoms and routine elective cholecystectomy for gallstones. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. The rarity of this condition prompted us to report this entity in which no specific cause could be found. PMID:24195001

Mallat, F; Hmida, W; Mestiri, S; Ziadi, S; Sriha, B; Mokni, M; Mosbah, F

2013-01-01

64

Eosinophils transcribe and translate messenger RNA for inducible nitric oxide synthase.  

PubMed

Because of the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in inflammatory states such as parasitic and hypersensitivity disorders and the fact that eosinophils are one of the cell types implicated, we asked whether eosinophils were able to express mRNA specific to inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and iNOS protein and to secrete nitric oxide. iNOS protein was detected on eosinophil preparations by immunocytochemistry using iNOS mAb. Expression of iNOS protein was also detected by immunoblotting in human purified eosinophils and an eosinophilic leukemia cell line, Eol-3. Nitrite production was detected in the supernatant of human eosinophils and Eol-3 cells cultured for 24 h, and was completely inhibited in the presence of the NOS inhibitor N-methylester-L-arginine. iNOS cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription-PCR. After subcloning, sequencing of the 259-bp fragment from three different human eosinophils cDNAs revealed 97% identity with macrophage/monocyte iNOS. Our studies describe for the first time the presence of iNOS on eosinophil and a putative new role for this cell in inflammatory states such as asthma and parasitic disease. PMID:8993004

del Pozo, V; de Arruda-Chaves, E; de Andrés, B; Cárdaba, B; López-Farré, A; Gallardo, S; Cortegano, I; Vidarte, L; Jurado, A; Sastre, J; Palomino, P; Lahoz, C

1997-01-15

65

Wells Syndrome (Eosinophilic Cellulitis)  

PubMed Central

Objective: To report a case of Wells syndrome (eosinophilic cellulitis) in a patient who was previously hospitalized twice and received several antibiotic treatments. Setting: Inpatient hospital consultation. Participant: One patient diagnosed with Wells Syndrome based on supporting clinical history, histopathological examination, and other laboratory data. Measurement: Change in signs and symptoms over time. Results: Improvement of skin lesions after administration of corticosteroids. Conclusion: Wells syndrome is a clinical condition that mimics bacterial cellulitis. It is characterized as an erythematous, edematous tender plaque with predilection for the lower extremity. The authors report this case to warn clinicians about other primary dermatological disorders that resemble infectious cellulitis in order to avoid misdiagnoses and delayed treatment.

Coloe, Jacquelyn; Peters, Sara; Zirwas, Matthew; Darabi, Kamruz

2011-01-01

66

Eosinophilic ulcers of the tongue.  

PubMed

A case of eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue is presented. Although the entity is rarely described, the distinctive histopathologic pattern featuring the remarkable presence of eosinophils in the superficial corium and in between muscle bundles, together with the benign clinical course, make a diagnosis possible. PMID:6491010

Borroni, G; Pericoli, R; Gabba, P; Rosso, R; Rabbiosi, G

1984-08-01

67

Entinostat and Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors or Refractory or Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-09-18

68

Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

2013-09-27

69

Respiratory Burst of Normal Human Eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative metabolism of eosinophils has generally been studied in cells from patients with eosinophilia. We isolated eosinophils with purity of >95% from normal donors. Oxygen metabolism of eosinophils and neutrophils was compared using Oproduction as a measure of the stimulus-induced respiratory burst. During 10 mm of stimulation, using phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or opsonized zymosan (OPZ), eosinophils pro- duced two

David C. Petreccia; William M. Nauseef; Robert A. Clark

70

Vorinostat, Cytarabine, and Etoposide in Treating Patients With Relapsed and/or Refractory Acute Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Myeloproliferative Disorders  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

2013-05-01

71

Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Biology to Therapy  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis, a recently recognized and growing clinical disorder over the past decade, is characterized by antigen-driven eosinophil accumulation in the esophagus. Symptoms frequently mimic those of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) but the two diseases are quite distinct in terms of their histopathology, genetic signature, response to therapy, hereditary risk and association with allergy. Disease pathogenesis involves the interplay of external and genetic factors, particularly food antigens and the eosinophil chemoattractant eotaxin-3, respectively. Transcript signatures and animal models have uncovered the importance of adaptive T cell immunity involving IL-5 and IL-13 elicited esophageal epithelial cell responses. Notably, symptoms, dysregulated esophageal gene expression and pathology are largely reversible following reduction of specific food antigen exposure, as well as anti-inflammatory therapy, but chronic treatment is necessary to prevent relapse. As such, eosinophilic esophagitis is a disease with the unique features of chronic esophagitis, atopy, immune sensitization to oral antigens, reversibility and familial association.

Rothenberg, Marc E.

2014-01-01

72

Steroids in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Swallowed fluticasone and oral viscous budesonide are effective first-line therapies for eosinophilic esophagitis in children. Side effects are minimal without evidence of Cushing syndrome, as seen in treatment with systemic corticosteroids. New studies on alternative delivery systems and different corticosteroids (eg, ciclesonide) are encouraging. As knowledge of corticosteroids in eosinophilic esophagitis expands, newer questions continue to arise concerning dose, delivery, and choice of corticosteroids; long-term adverse effects; and maintenance therapies. PMID:24813520

Contreras, Emily M; Gupta, Sandeep K

2014-06-01

73

Mucoid plugs in eosinophilic pneumonia.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old woman developed dyspnea, sputum production, and intermittent cough, which persisted for several months. She had received treatment for asthma without resolution of symptoms. Radiologic evidence of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates prompted a bronchoscopic examination, which showed extensive bronchial plugging. The material had a mucoid appearance. Bronchioalveolar lavage showed abundant eosinophils. Microscopy showed signs of eosinophilic pneumonia and detached allergic mucin. The patient received oral corticosteroids and aggressive bronchopulmonary toilette with resolution of symptoms. PMID:23208569

Cumbo-Nacheli, Gustavo; Ashton, Rendell W

2011-07-01

74

Eosinophilic esophagitis: Pathobiology and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis present with symptoms similar to those found in GERD, along with dense esophageal eosinophilia\\u000a that persist despite aggressive acid blockade. A dramatic increase in prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis over the past\\u000a several years has provided clinicians with a new explanation for previously unexplained dysphagia, food impaction, and vomiting.\\u000a In light of this recognition, an increasing number

Jessica J. Lee; Glenn T. Furuta

2007-01-01

75

Pathogenesis, classification, and therapy of eosinophilia and eosinophil disorders.  

PubMed

Eosinophilia is a recurrent feature and diagnostic clue in several hematologic malignancies. In stem cell- and myelopoietic neoplasms, eosinophils are derived from the malignant clone, whereas in lymphoid neoplasms and reactive states, eosinophilia is usually triggered by eosinopoietic cytokines. Myeloid neoplasms typically presenting with eosinophilia include chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), other myeloproliferative neoplasms, some acute leukemias, advanced mast cell disorders, and rare forms of myelodysplastic syndromes. Diagnostic evaluations in unexplained eosinophilia have to take these diagnoses into account. In such patients, a thorough hematologic work-up including bone marrow histology and immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, molecular markers, and a complete staging of potentially affected organ systems has to be initiated. Endomyocardial fibrosis, the most dangerous cardiovascular complication of the hypereosinophilic state, is frequently detected in PDGFR-mutated neoplasms, specifically in FIP1L1/PDGFRA+ CEL, but is usually not seen in other myeloid neoplasms or reactive eosinophilia, even if eosinophilia is recorded for many years. Treatment of hypereosinophilic patients depends on the variant of disease, presence of end organ damage, molecular targets, and the overall situation in each case. In a group of patients, oncogenic tyrosine kinases (TK) such as FIP1L1/PDGFRA, can be employed as therapeutic targets by using imatinib or other TK-blocking agents. PMID:19246139

Valent, Peter

2009-07-01

76

Targeting Eosinophils in Allergy, Inflammation and Beyond  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils can regulate local immune and inflammatory responses, and their accumulation in the blood and tissue is associated with several inflammatory and infectious diseases. As such, therapies aimed at eosinophils may help control diverse diseases, including atopic disorders such as asthma and allergy, and diseases not primarily associated with eosinophils such as autoimmunity and malignancy. Recently, eosinophil-targeted therapeutic agents aimed at blocking specific steps involved in eosinophil development, migration and activation have entered clinical testing and have produced encouraging results and insights into the role of eosinophils. Herein, we describe recent advances in the development of first generation eosinophil-targeted therapies and highlight strategies for using personalized medicine approaches for eosinophilic disorders.

Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2013-01-01

77

MK2206 in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors or Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Aggressive NK-cell Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myeloid/NK-cell Acute Leukemia; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Primary Central Nervous System Hodgkin Lymphoma; Primary Central Nervous System Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2014-04-28

78

[Eosinophilic globules in the Spitz nevus].  

PubMed

We compared the incidence and morphologic appearance of eosinophilic globules in Spitz's nevi, malignant melanoma and compound nevi. Eosinophilic globules were frequently found in Spitz's nevi, specially in those with junctional or compound features. An statistical significant increase of eosinophilic globules was found in Spitz's nevi when compared with malignant melanoma. Eosinophilic globules are not an reliable criteria for a diagnosis of a bening lesion. The use of multiple histologic parameters for differential diagnosis is necessary. PMID:6374330

Moreno, A; Salvatella, N; De Moragas, J M

1984-01-01

79

A review of eosinophilic gastroenteritis.  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare disease of unknown etiology characterized by patchy or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract wall with various gastrointestinal manifestations. As clinical presentation and radiological findings in EG are nonspecific, diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and exclusion of other disorders that are associated with peripheral eosinophilia. This article reviews the history, current concepts of this complex disorder and the common symptoms. Because there is no gold standard for this disease, a wide variety of diagnostic criteria is presented. Images Figure 1

Baig, Muhammad Ahsan; Qadir, Abdul; Rasheed, Javeria

2006-01-01

80

Strongyloidiasis histologically mimicking eosinophilic folliculitis.  

PubMed

The authors report an unusual case of strongyloidiasis in an Italian patient, who has always lived in Sicily. The patient presented with marked blood eosinophilia and an itching maculo-papular eruption, histologically simulating eosinophilic folliculitis. The clinical resolution was achieved after albendazol therapy. PMID:15319162

Cannavò, Serafinella P; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Guarneri, Claudio

2004-01-01

81

Vorinostat and Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-03-19

82

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: percutaneous biopsy under ultrasound guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an unusual disorder that is characterized by diffuse or scattered eosinophilic infiltration\\u000a of the digestive tract. The diagnosis is based on histology obtained by capsule, endoscopic, laparoscopic, or laparotomy biopsy.\\u000a The eosinophilic infiltration produces thickening of the small bowel wall that can be observed by using sonography. The appearance\\u000a produces the pseudokidney sign that can

S. F. Marco-Doménech; S. Gil-Sánchez; J. Jornet-Fayos; S. Ambit-Capdevila; M. Gonzalez-Añón

1998-01-01

83

Eosinophilic Histiocytosis. A Subset of Lymphomatoid Papulosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 43-year-old male with a 23-year history of small-plaque-type parapsoriasis developed a chronic recurrent self-healing papulonodular and tumoral cutaneous eruption. The microscopic findings were consistent with eosinophilic histiocytosis. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies revealed a population of T lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocyte-macrophage cells in the dermal infiltrate. These findings confirm the similarities between eosinophilic histiocytosis and lymphomatoid papulosis suggesting that the

Anna Tuneu; Abelardo Moreno; Ramón M. Pujol; José M. de Moragas

1988-01-01

84

The Consequences of Not Having Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence suggest that deficiency of eosinophils is not associated with any characteristic abnormality. Patients lacking eosinophils, in the setting of immunodeficiency or as a consequence of IgG-mediated eosinophil precursor destruction, do not display any distinguishing abnormalities related to eosinophil reduction. The observation that eosinophil-deficient mice do not display any distinctive syndrome or failure of their health is evidence that, under ordinary laboratory conditions, the eosinophil does not play a critical role in the well-being of mammals. Observations that monoclonal antibodies to interleukin-5 (IL-5) are well tolerated appear unsurprising in light of these findings. For example, patients with the hypereosinophilic syndrome have received mepolizumab, an anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody, for as long as 6 years and have not developed any characteristic set of adverse events. Safety data for reslizumab, another anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody, and benralizumab, a monoclonal antibody to the IL-5 receptor ?-chain, are comparatively limited, especially for benralizumab, although reports of administration of these antibodies to humans suggest that they are well tolerated. Thus, data to the present suggest that reduction of eosinophils appears to have no characteristic ill effects on normal health, and monoclonal antibodies that deplete eosinophils have the potential to be widely employed in the treatment of eosinophil-associated diseases.

Gleich, G. J.; Klion, A. D.; Lee, J. J.; Weller, P. F.

2014-01-01

85

Eosinophilic gastritis: histopathological characterization and quantification of the normal gastric eosinophil content.  

PubMed

There is limited information about normal eosinophil counts in the gastric mucosa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histopathology of 60 patients whose biopsies showed increased eosinophils in the gastric mucosa. We also investigated the eosinophil content in gastric biopsies from normal controls (matched for age, sex, and zip code), from patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis, and patients with Crohn's disease. Eosinophils were counted in five random high-power fields (HPFs) and reported in eosinophils/mm(2). Involvement of the muscularis mucosae or submucosa, sheets of eosinophils, and infiltration of the gastric epithelium were also evaluated. The median eosinophil count in the study patients was 539 eosinophils/mm(2); mean±SD=653±418 eosinophils/mm(2); range 127-2108. Sheets of eosinophils were seen in 38 patients, 27 showed involvement of the muscularis mucosae or submucosa. There were 7 patients without epithelial infiltration by eosinophils, whereas 34 were tallied as rare and 19 were scored as abundant. No study patient had no evidence of H. pylori. The mean eosinophil count for the 135 normal controls was 15.5±16.8 SD eosinophils/mm(2) (range 0-110); in the 93 controls with H. pylori gastritis the mean eosinophil count was 25±32.6 SD eosinophils/mm(2) (range 0-219); and for the 53 controls with Crohn's disease it was 31.4±44.4 SD eosinophils/mm(2) (range 0-203). There were no significant differences between the counts in biopsies from the antrum and corpus, and no significant variations by age, geographic location, or season. This study confirms that, in the United States population, the normal gastric eosinophilic counts are usually <38 eosinophils/mm(2). We recommend 'histological eosinophilic gastritis' for the diagnosis of gastric biopsies that show an average density ?127 eosinophils/mm(2) (or ?30 eosinophils per HPF) in at least five HPFs in the absence of known associated causes of eosinophilia. PMID:21169993

Lwin, Thida; Melton, Shelby D; Genta, Robert M

2011-04-01

86

Activation states of blood eosinophils in asthma.  

PubMed

Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation rich in eosinophils. Airway eosinophilia is associated with exacerbations and has been suggested to play a role in airway remodelling. Recruitment of eosinophils from the circulation requires that blood eosinophils become activated, leading to their arrest on the endothelium and extravasation. Circulating eosinophils can be envisioned as potentially being in different activation states, including non-activated, pre-activated or 'primed', or fully activated. In addition, the circulation can potentially be deficient of pre-activated or activated eosinophils, because such cells have marginated on activated endothelium or extravasated into the tissue. A number of eosinophil surface proteins, including CD69, L-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54), CD44, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, CD162), cytokine receptors, Fc receptors, integrins including ?M integrin (CD11b), and activated conformations of Fc receptors and integrins, have been proposed to report cell activation. Variation in eosinophil activation states may be associated with asthma activity. Eosinophil surface proteins proposed to be activation markers, with a particular focus on integrins, and evidence for associations between activation states of blood eosinophils and features of asthma are reviewed here. Partial activation of ?1 and ?2 integrins on blood eosinophils, reported by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) N29 and KIM-127, is associated with impaired pulmonary function and airway eosinophilia, respectively, in non-severe asthma. The association with lung function does not occur in severe asthma, presumably due to greater eosinophil extravasation, specifically of activated or pre-activated cells, in severe disease. PMID:24552191

Johansson, M W

2014-04-01

87

Esophageal functional impairments in experimental eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging chronic esophageal disease. Despite the increasing diagnosis of EoE globally, the causes of EoE and other esophageal eosinophilic disorders are not clearly understood. EoE pathology includes accumulation of inflammatory cells (e.g., eosinophils, mast cells), characteristic endoscopic features (e.g., furrows, the formation of fine concentric mucosal rings, exudates), and functional impairments (e.g., esophageal stricture, dysmotility). We hypothesized that the esophageal structural pathology and functional impairments of EoE develop as a consequence of the effector functions of the accumulated inflammatory cells. We analyzed eosinophils (anti-major basic protein immunostaining), esophageal stricture (X-ray barium swallowing), and esophageal motility (isometric force) in two established transgenic murine models of EoE (CD2-IL-5 and rtTA-CC10-IL-13) and a novel eosinophil-deficient model (?dblGATA/CD2-IL-5). Herein, we show the following: 1) CD2-IL-5 and doxycycline (DOX)-induced rtTA-CC10-IL-13 mice have chronic eosinophilic and mast cell esophageal inflammation; 2) eosinophilic esophageal inflammation promotes esophageal stricture in both transgenic murine models; 3) the eosinophil-deficient ?dblGATA/CD-2-IL-5 mice were protected from the induction of stricture, whereas the eosinophil-competent CD2-IL-5 mice develop esophageal stricture; 4) esophageal stricture is not reversible in DOX-induced rtTA-CC10-IL-13 mice (8 wk DOX followed by 8 wk no-DOX); and 5) IL-5 transgene-induced (CD2-IL-5) EoE evidences esophageal dysmotility (relaxation and contraction) that is independent of the eosinophilic esophageal inflammation: CD2-IL-5 and ?dblGATA/CD2-IL-5 mice have comparable esophageal dysmotility. Collectively, our present study directly implicates chronic eosinophilic inflammation in the development of the esophageal structural impairments of experimental EoE.

Mavi, Parm; Rajavelu, Priya; Rayapudi, Madhavi; Paul, Richard J.

2012-01-01

88

Dietary treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence supports impaired epithelial barrier function as the key initial event in the development of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and other allergic diseases. Symptom resolution, histologic remission, and prevention of both disease and treatment-related complications are the goals of treatment. Successful dietary treatments include elemental, empirical elimination and allergy test directed diets. Dietary therapy with exclusive elemental diet offers the best response. Cow's milk, wheat, egg, soy, peanut/tree nut, and fish/shellfish are the 6 food antigens most likely to induce esophageal inflammation. PMID:24813522

Gonsalves, Nirmala; Kagalwalla, Amir F

2014-06-01

89

Gallium-67 pulmonary uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

Eosinophilic pneumonia is usually diagnosed based on the findings on chest x-ray, white blood count, and transbronchial biopsy. After reporting a case of Ga-67 lung uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia, its histopathology is discussed and the mechanisms of Ga-67 uptake by inflammatory lesions are reviewed.

Morais, J.; Carrier, L.; Gariepy, G.; Le Bel, L.; Chartrand, R.; Picard, D.

1988-01-01

90

Eosinophilic oesophagitis: from physiopathology to treatment.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the oesophageal mucosa. Food and aero-allergens are involved in its pathogenesis. Dysphagia and food impaction are the dominant symptoms in adult with eosinophilic oesophagitis. However, a wide range of symptoms has been noticed such as chest pain or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms. Upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy and oesophageal biopsies are crucial for the diagnosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis. Endoscopy might be normal or reveal typical patterns such as rings, furrows, exudates, oedema, and stricture. Two to four biopsies should be performed both in the distal and in the proximal oesophagus, and 15 eosinophils per high power field within the oesophageal epithelium are the minimal threshold to diagnose eosinophilic oesophagitis. Allergy testing is recommended, although its impact to orient treatment remains to be demonstrated. Eosinophilic oesophagitis treatment includes medical treatment, diet and endoscopic dilation. Proton pump inhibitors are the first-line therapy as some eosinophilic oesophagitis phenotypes respond well to proton pump inhibitors. Topical viscous corticosteroids or diet elimination are the treatment of choice. There is no clear evidence in the literature to prefer one to the other. Finally endoscopic dilation should be considered in case of persistent symptomatic stenosis despite medical therapy. PMID:23545170

Roman, Sabine; Savarino, Edoardo; Savarino, Vincenzo; Mion, François

2013-11-01

91

Eosinophilic Enteritis Presenting as Intussusception in Adult  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is defined as a disorder that selectively affects the gastrointestinal tract with eosinophil-rich inflammation in the absence of any known causes for eosinophilia. The clinical manifestations vary according to the site of the eosinophilic infiltrated layer of the bowel wall. Eosinophilic enteritis presenting as intussusception in adult has not been previously reported in the literature. Especially, making the diagnosis of intussusception in adults is often difficult due to the variable clinical findings. In our case, the correct diagnosis of intussusception due to eosinophilic enteritis was arrived at rather easily based on the ultrasonography and endoscopic biopsy. The patient was treated with oral prednisolone at 30 mg/day for 7 days, and then the drug was tapered off for 2 months; we didn't perform surgery. He has been asymptomatic for about 1 year after discharge without disease recurrence.

Shin, Woon Geon; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Park, Choong Kee

2007-01-01

92

The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf), lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast-cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with transforming growth factor-? to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE.

Raheem, Mayumi; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

93

Risk factors for eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic antigen driven disease, whereby food and/or aeroallergens result in inflammation and luminal narrowing, and the clinical symptoms of dysphagia and food bolus obstruction events (FBOE). Established risk factors are male gender, Caucasian race and atopy. Increased risk amongst family members, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a gene coding thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) on the pseudoautosomal region of the X and Y chromosomes supports a genetic predisposition. Environmental factors including the timing and nature of food and aeroallergen exposure to the developing immune system may be important, whilst esophageal barrier function integrity and the influence of microbiota are worthy of future research. PMID:24990069

Philpott, H; Nandurkar, S; Royce, S G; Thien, F; Gibson, P R

2014-08-01

94

Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the monoclonal antibody 2QD45 specifically immunoprecipitated the {rm M_ R} 67,000 ECF-binding protein from ^{125}{rm I}-labeled mouse, rat, and human eosinophils as assessed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that this ECF-binding protein has a lower PI point than either mouse or bovine albumin.

Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

95

Successful Treatment of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis with Clarithromycin  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is an uncommon disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract, which is usually associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, ascites, and peripheral eosinophilia. Steroids remain the mainstay of treatment for EGE, but symptoms often recur when the dose is reduced. Macrolides have immunomodulatory effects as well as antibacterial effects. The immunomodulatory effect results in inhibition of T-lymphocyte proliferation and triggering of T-lymphocyte and eosinophil apoptosis. Macrolides also have a steroid-sparing effect through their influence on steroid metabolism. We report a rare case of EGE, which relapsed on steroid reduction but improved following clarithromycin treatment.

Hashino, Satoshi

2012-01-01

96

Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases: Review and Update  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are a progressively more frequent diverse group of intestinal diseases. The intention of this paper is to present the newest developments in the care of patients with EGIDs and to sum up a rising literature defining the clinical features and mechanistic elements of eosinophils and their intricate associations with the gastrointestinal tract. Clinicians ought to stay sensitive to EGIDs as a diagnostic likelihood for patients with general gastrointestinal symptoms. Further research is warranted to establish various methods leading to dysfunction coupled with eosinophilic gastrointestinal inflammation.

Jawairia, Mahreema; Shahzad, Ghulamullah; Mustacchia, Paul

2012-01-01

97

Eosinophilic enteritis confined to an ileostomy site.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic enteritis is a rather rare condition that can manifest anywhere from esophagus to rectum. Its description in the literature is sparse, but associations have been made with collagen vascular disease, malignancy, food allergy, parasitic or viral infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and drug sensitivity. We present the case of a 41-year-old male diagnosed with ulcerative colitis who underwent proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis and loop ileostomy formation utilizing Seprafilm®, who later developed eosinophilic enteritis of the loop ileostomy site. This is the first report of eosinophilic enteritis and its possible link to the use of bioabsorbable adhesion barriers. PMID:21960943

Laxa, Bernadette U; Bouchard, Alexandre; De Petris, Giovanni; Heigh, Russell; Heppell, Jacques

2011-05-01

98

Eosinophilic Enteritis Confined to an Ileostomy Site  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic enteritis is a rather rare condition that can manifest anywhere from esophagus to rectum. Its description in the literature is sparse, but associations have been made with collagen vascular disease, malignancy, food allergy, parasitic or viral infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and drug sensitivity. We present the case of a 41-year-old male diagnosed with ulcerative colitis who underwent proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis and loop ileostomy formation utilizing Seprafilm®, who later developed eosinophilic enteritis of the loop ileostomy site. This is the first report of eosinophilic enteritis and its possible link to the use of bioabsorbable adhesion barriers.

Laxa, Bernadette U.; Bouchard, Alexandre; De Petris, Giovanni; Heigh, Russell; Heppell, Jacques

2011-01-01

99

Measuring airway inflammation in asthma: Eosinophils and eosinophilic cationic protein in induced sputum compared with peripheral blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Airway eosinophilic inflammation is a characteristic feature of asthma. This can be assessed directly by measurement of eosinophils and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) in sputum or indirectly by measurement of the same markers in blood. We investigated the performance of these markers of airway eosinophilic inflammation in a population of patients with asthma compared with control subjects and the

Emilio Pizzichini; Marcia M. Pizzichini; Ann Efthimiadis; Jerry Dolovich; Frederick E. Hargreave

1997-01-01

100

[A case of eosinophilic pneumonia due to Nicolase (serrapeptase) after recovery from acute eosinophilic pneumonia].  

PubMed

A case of eosinophilic pneumonia due to Nicolase (serrapeptase) after recovery from acute eosinophilic pneumonia is described. A 32-year-old woman was previously admitted to another hospital because of acute onset of dyspnea accompanied by cough and fever. Chest X-ray films revealed diffuse infiltration in both lungs two days after her symptoms occurred. Her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed 13% eosinophils and transbronchial lung biopsy specimen also showed many eosinophils infiltrating in the lesions of the bronchial submucosa and alveolar septa. No infectious causes or related drugs were found. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed, and her condition improved gradually without steroid treatment. Because she recovered clinically and radiologically, she was discharged from hospital. Half a month later she was treated with Nicolase because of pharyngitis. She was admitted to the hospital again because of dyspnea, cough and fever three days after commencing to take Nicolase. Chest X-ray films also revealed diffuse infiltration in both lungs with pleural effusion, and her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed 37% eosinophils. When the drug lymphocyte stimulation test was performed, it was positive for Nicolase. Therefore drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed. This is a very rare case of Nicolase (serrapeptase)-induced eosinophilic pneumonia after recovering from acute eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:19348276

Kai, Naoko; Shirai, Ryo; Hirata, Norio; Iwata, Atsuko; Umeki, Kenji; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kishi, Kenji; Tokimatsu, Issei; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

2009-03-01

101

Eosinophilic neuritis and eosinophilic panniculitis in a patient with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

The pruritic, papular eruption of human immunodeficiency virus with associated peripheral eosinophilia is well documented. We describe a 32-year-old African American man with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; a generalized painful, pruritic, papular rash; peripheral blood eosinophilia; and perineural eosinophilic infiltrates with eosinophilic panniculitis. To our knowledge, the latter 2 features have not been previously described in the literature on human immunodeficiency virus dermatoses. We propose that eosinophilic neuritis and eosinophilic panniculitis may represent additional findings in the spectrum of cutaneous disease seen in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:16831033

Soldano, Anthony C; Walters, Ruth; Groben, Pamela A

2006-07-01

102

Atypical eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis on nasal septum.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology and is most commonly found in the nasal septum and sinus mucosa. We report a case of EAF and present a review of the available literature. A 51-year-old man with progressive nasal obstruction was referred to our hospital. CT and MRI scans revealed a mass on the nasal septum; this was surgically excised. Histological analysis of the resected tumour showed an inflammatory infiltrate with a predominance of eosinophils present in fibrous matrix and absence of eosinophilic vasculitis and onion skinning. Histologically, it resembled granuloma faciale. However, our case was considered to be an EAF although eosinophilic vasculitis and onion skinning were not observed. This was because a cutaneous lesion was absent and the lesion was limited to the nasal septal mucosa. PMID:16529899

Watanabe, Noriko; Moriwaki, Kazuhiro

2006-09-01

103

Eosinophilic cellulitis. (Well's syndrome) in a child.  

PubMed

Granulomatous dermatitis with eosinophilia (Well's syndrome) occurred in an 11-year-old boy. To our knowledge, eosinophilic cellulitis in a child in whom atrophic alopecia of the affect scalp later develops during the regression phase has not previously been reported. No notable effect of steroid therapy was observed. The cause of eosinophilic cellulitis is still unknown, but the presence of disseminated fibrinoid necrosis, vasculitis, eosinophilia, and a positive antinuclear factor test result might indicate an autoimmune or allergic disease. PMID:7259222

Nielsen, T; Schmidt, H; Søgaard, H

1981-07-01

104

Adult eosinophilic gastroenteritis and hypereosinophilic syndromes  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) in the adult is a distinctive pathologically-based disorder characterized by an eosinophil-predominant mucosal inflammatory process. Most often, the disorder is detected during endoscopic investigation for abdominal pain or diarrhea. Other causes of gastric and intestinal mucosal eosinophilia require exclusion, including parasitic infections and drug-induced causes. Occasionally, the muscle wall or serosal surface may be involved. EGE appears to be more readily recognized, in large part, due to an evolution in the imaging methods used to evaluate abdominal pain and diarrhea, in particular, endoscopic imaging and mucosal biopsies. Definition of EGE, however, may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not well standardized. Also, the eosinophilic inflammatory process may be either patchy or diffuse and the detection of the eosinophilic infiltrates may vary depending on the method of biopsy fixation. Treatment has traditionally focused on resolution of symptoms, and, in some instances, eosinophil quantification in pre-treatment and post-treatment biopsies. Future evaluation and treatment of EGE may depend on precise serological biomarkers to aid in definition of the long-term natural history of the disorder and its response to pharmacological or biological forms of therapy.

Freeman, Hugh James

2008-01-01

105

Analysing the eosinophil cationic protein - a clue to the function of the eosinophil granulocyte  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil granulocytes reside in respiratory mucosa including lungs, in the gastro-intestinal tract, and in lymphocyte associated organs, the thymus, lymph nodes and the spleen. In parasitic infections, atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma, the numbers of the circulating eosinophils are frequently elevated. In conditions such as Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES) circulating eosinophil levels are even further raised. Although, eosinophils were identified more than hundred years ago, their roles in homeostasis and in disease still remain unclear. The most prominent feature of the eosinophils are their large secondary granules, each containing four basic proteins, the best known being the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). This protein has been developed as a marker for eosinophilic disease and quantified in biological fluids including serum, bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal secretions. Elevated ECP levels are found in T helper lymphocyte type 2 (atopic) diseases such as allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis but also occasionally in other diseases such as bacterial sinusitis. ECP is a ribonuclease which has been attributed with cytotoxic, neurotoxic, fibrosis promoting and immune-regulatory functions. ECP regulates mucosal and immune cells and may directly act against helminth, bacterial and viral infections. The levels of ECP measured in disease in combination with the catalogue of known functions of the protein and its polymorphisms presented here will build a foundation for further speculations of the role of ECP, and ultimately the role of the eosinophil.

2011-01-01

106

Eosinophilic myocarditis associated with dense deposits of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in endomyocardium with high serum ECP  

PubMed Central

A case of eosinophilic myocarditis following high serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is described. A 27 year old woman was admitted with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III congestive heart failure. A haematological study showed hypereosinophilia with degranulation and vacuoles; the total eosinophil count was 7980/ml and the ECP serum concentration was noticeably high at 150 ng/ml. Endomyocardial biopsy from the right ventricle showed infiltration of eosinophils and dense deposits of ECP in the endocardium as well as the myocardium. Steroid treatment returned the total eosinophil count and serum ECP to normal, with satisfactory improvement in clinical features. Eosinophilia may cause cardiac damage, and this report confirms that eosinophil degranulation is toxic. Thus, serum ECP seems to be a reliable indicator for diagnosis and for determining treatment parameters of eosinophilic myocarditis.???Keywords: eosinophilic myocarditis; eosinophilia; eosinophil cationic protein; endomyocardial biopsy

Arima, M; Kanoh, T

1999-01-01

107

Isolation of human eosinophil phospholipase D.  

PubMed Central

Phospholipase D preferentially contained in human eosinophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes as compared to other leukocytes was isolated by sequential asion and cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The purified eosinophil enzyme specifically liberated choline from I-alpha-phosphatidyl choline with a pH optimum of 4.5-6.0 and exhibited a pI of 5.8-6.2 on polyacrylamide-gel isoelectric focusing, which are properties shared by phospholipase D from plant sources; however, its apparent mol wt of 60,000 is approximately one-half that of the plant enzymes. Eosinophil and cabbage phospholipase D inactivated a partially purified rat platelet-activating factor (PAF) in a time- and dose-dependent reaction. The cleavage of this PAF activity was attributed to the inherent phospholipase D activity of the eosinophil enzyme since the two activities chromatographed together at each purification step, and there was apparent reciprocal inhibition of choline-generating activity by PAF and of PAF-inactivating activity by phosphatidyl choline. Thus, possible regulatory functions of the eosinophil in immediate hypersensitivity reactions include inactivation of a PAF by phospholipase D as well as degradation of slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis by arylsulfatase B.

Kater, L A; Goetzl, E J; Austen, K F

1976-01-01

108

Blood eosinophils and serum eosinophil cationic protein in patients with acute and chronic urticaria  

PubMed Central

We have analysed the relationship of blood eosinophil count and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels in patients with acute and chronic idiopathic urticaria. The ECP levels and eosinophil counts were measured in the peripheral blood of 15 patients with acute urticaria, 25 with chronic idiopathic urticaria and 10 normal healthy subjects. Blood eosinophil counts and serum ECP levels increased in all patients with acute urticaria. Concerning patients affected by chronic urticaria, taking into account the recrudescence of the disease at the moment of taking the blood sample, only symptomatic patients showed increased eosinophil blood values whereas serum ECP levels were increased both in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Furthermore, serum ECP levels in chronic urticaria did not correlate with the peripheral eosinophil counts, as they did in acute urticaria. The results of the present study indicate that eosinophils may play a role in the inflammatory mechanisms in patients with acute and chronic urticaria showing a positive correlation between serum ECP levels and disease activity.

Lorenzo, G. Di; Mansueto, P.; Melluso, M.; Candore, G.; Cigna, D.; Pellitteri, M. E.; Salvo, A. Di

1996-01-01

109

Indomethacin inhibits eosinophil migration to prostaglandin D2 : therapeutic potential of CRTH2 desensitization for eosinophilic pustular folliculitis.  

PubMed

Indomethacin is a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, and shows therapeutic potential for various eosinophilic skin diseases, particularly eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. One of the unique characteristics of indomethacin is that, unlike other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, it is a potent agonist of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 cells (CRTH2), a receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 ). This study investigated the pharmacological actions of indomethacin on eosinophil migration to clarify the actual mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of indomethacin on eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. Eosinophils exhibited chemokinetic and chemotactic responses to both PGD2 and indomethacin through CRTH2 receptors. Pre-treatment of eosinophils with indomethacin greatly inhibited eosinophil migration to PGD2 and, to a much lesser extent, to eotaxin (CCL11); these effects could be mediated by homologous and heterologous desensitization of eosinophil CRTH2 and CCR3, respectively, by agonistic effects of indomethacin on CRTH2. Indomethacin also cancelled a priming effect of ?(12) -PGJ2 , a plasma metabolite of PGD2 , on eosinophil chemotaxis to eotaxin. Indomethacin down-modulated cell surface expression of both CRTH2 and CCR3. Hair follicle epithelium and epidermal keratinocytes around eosinophilic pustules together with the eccrine apparatus of palmoplantar lesions of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis were immunohistochemically positive for lipocalin-type PGD synthase. Indomethacin may exert therapeutic effects against eosinophilic skin diseases in which PGD2 -CRTH2 signals play major roles by reducing eosinophil responses to PGD2 . PMID:23582181

Kataoka, Naoko; Satoh, Takahiro; Hirai, Aiko; Saeki, Kazumi; Yokozeki, Hiroo

2013-09-01

110

Eosinophilic granuloma - x-ray of the skull (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... x-ray of the skull shows an eosinophilic granuloma (a lesion made-up of a type of ... This condition can range from a single eosinophilic granuloma to massive infiltration of skin, bone, and body ...

111

Substrates and products of eosinophil peroxidase.  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil peroxidase has been implicated in promoting oxidative tissue damage in a variety of inflammatory conditions, including asthma. It uses H(2)O(2) to oxidize chloride, bromide and thiocyanate to their respective hypohalous acids. The aim of this study was to establish which oxidants eosinophil peroxidase produces under physiological conditions. By measuring rates of H(2)O(2) utilization by the enzyme at neutral pH, we determined the catalytic rate constants for bromide and thiocyanate as 248 and 223 s(-1) and the Michaelis constants as 0.5 and 0.15 mM respectively. On the basis of these values thiocyanate is preferred 2.8-fold over bromide as a substrate for eosinophil peroxidase. Eosinophil peroxidase catalysed substantive oxidation of chloride only below pH 6.5. We found that when eosinophil peroxidase or myeloperoxidase oxidized thiocyanate, another product besides hypothiocyanite was formed; it also converted methionine into methionine sulphoxide. During the oxidation of thiocyanate, the peroxidases were present as their compound II forms. Compound II did not form when GSH was included to scavenge hypothiocyanite. We propose that the unidentified oxidant was derived from a radical species produced by the one-electron oxidation of hypothiocyanite. We conclude that at plasma concentrations of bromide (20-120 microM) and thiocyanate (20-100 microM), hypobromous acid and oxidation products of thiocyanate are produced by eosinophil peroxidase. Hypochlorous acid is likely to be produced only when substrates preferred over chloride are depleted. Thiocyanate should be considered to augment peroxidase-mediated toxicity because these enzymes can convert relatively benign hypothiocyanite into a stronger oxidant.

van Dalen, C J; Kettle, A J

2001-01-01

112

Natural Killer Cells Induce Eosinophil Activation and Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are potent inflammatory cells with numerous immune functions, including antigen presentation and exacerbation of inflammatory responses through their capacity to release a range of largely preformed cytokines and lipid mediators. Thus, timely regulation of eosinophil activation and apoptosis is crucial to develop beneficial immune response and to avoid tissue damage and induce resolution of inflammation. Natural Killer (NK) cells have been reported to influence innate and adaptive immune responses by multiple mechanisms including cytotoxicity against other immune cells. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the interaction between NK cells and eosinophils. Co-culture experiments revealed that human NK cells could trigger autologous eosinophil activation, as shown by up-regulation of CD69 and down-regulation of CD62L, as well as degranulation, evidenced by increased CD63 surface expression, secretion of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN). Moreover, NK cells significantly and dose dependently increased eosinophil apoptosis as shown by annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Direct contact was necessary for eosinophil degranulation and apoptosis. Increased expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in cocultured eosinophils and inhibition of eosinophil CD63 expression by pharmacologic inhibitors suggest that MAPK and PI3K pathways are involved in NK cell-induced eosinophil degranulation. Finally, we showed that NK cells increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression by eosinophils in co-culture and that mitochondrial inhibitors (rotenone and antimycin) partially diminished NK cell-induced eosinophil apoptosis, suggesting the implication of mitochondrial ROS in NK cell-induced eosinophil apoptosis. Pan-caspase inhibitor (ZVAD-FMK) only slightly decreased eosinophil apoptosis in coculture. Altogether, our results suggest that NK cells regulate eosinophil functions by inducing their activation and their apoptosis.

Awad, Ali; Yassine, Hanane; Barrier, Mathieu; Vorng, Han; Marquillies, Philippe; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Duez, Catherine

2014-01-01

113

A Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Presenting as Eosinophilic Colitis  

PubMed Central

Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) has three defining features: marked hypereosinophilia for at least 6 months, no confirmed etiology for the eosinophilia, and eosinophilia-related symptoms or organ dysfunction. However, a shorter period of hypereosinophilia with symptoms requiring eosinophil-lowering therapy is also acceptable. We report a case of HES presenting as eosinophilic colitis. Although hypereosinophilia was present for 3 months, this patient needed to be treated with eosionphil-lowering therapy for severe hematochezia. After systemic corticosteroid therapy, symptoms caused by organ involvement were dramatically improved.

Jeon, Young Woo; Kim, Hwa Jong; Han, Jae Pil; Kim, Hee Kyung; Ko, Bong Min; Park, Sung Kyu; Lee, Moon Sung

2012-01-01

114

EOSINOPHILS: MULTIFACETED BIOLOGIC PROPERTIES AND ROLES IN HEALTH AND DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Summary Eosinophils are leukocytes resident in mucosal tissues. During Th2-type inflammation, eosinophils are recruited from bone marrow and blood to the sites of immune response. While eosinophils have been considered end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasite infection and immunopathology in hypersensitivity disease, recent studies changed this perspective. Eosinophils are now considered multifunctional leukocytes involved in tissue homeostasis, modulation of adaptive immune responses, and innate immunity to certain microbes. Eosinophils are capable of producing immunoregulatory cytokines and are actively involved in regulation of Th2-type immune responses. However, such new information does not preclude earlier observations showing that eosinophils, in particular human eosinophils, are also effector cells with pro-inflammatory and destructive capabilities. Eosinophils with activation phenotypes are observed in biological specimens from patients with disease, and deposition of eosinophil products is readily seen in the affected tissues from these patients. Therefore, it would be reasonable to consider the eosinophil a multifaceted leukocyte that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. This review summarizes the emerging concept of the multifaceted immunobiology of eosinophils and discusses the roles of eosinophils in health and disease and the challenges and perspectives in the field.

Kita, Hirohito

2011-01-01

115

Eosinophilic granuloma simulating an aggressive rib neoplasm: CT evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic granuloma of bone can pose difficulties in diagnosis. We report a case of eosinophilic granuloma of rib origin in a child presenting with an enlarging chest mass whose appearance on computed tomography suggested Ewing sarcoma. Eosinophilic granuloma should be included in the differential diagnosis of an aggressive rib mass on CT in the pediatric patient.

A. A. Jabra; E. K. Fishman

1992-01-01

116

High-resolution EUS in children with eosinophilic “allergic” esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The pathophysiology of dysphagia associated with eosinophilic esophagitis is unknown. This study investigated possible anatomic alterations in children with eosinophilic esophagitis in comparison with healthy children by using high-resolution EUS to precisely measure individual tissue layers of the esophagus. Methods: Children with eosinophilic esophagitis (n = 11) and control children (n = 8) without esophagitis were prospectively evaluated by

Victor L. Fox; Samuel Nurko; Jonathan E. Teitelbaum; Kamran Badizadegan; Glenn T. Furuta

2003-01-01

117

Leukemia Ecology: Ecological Prophylaxis of Leukemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Etiopathogenesis of leukemia; Ecological leukemogenic factors; Epidemiology of leukemias; Geochemical environment in relationship to health and disease; Leukemia risk factor bank; Perspectives of leukemia prophylaxis by ecological and dietary me...

J. Aleksandrowica A. B. Skotnicki

1982-01-01

118

Antiallergic and Antiasthmatic Effects of a Novel Enhydrazinone Ester (CEE-1): Inhibition of Activation of Both Mast Cells and Eosinophils.  

PubMed

Activation of mast cells and eosinophils is a fundamental process in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. We have previously reported that the novel enhydrazinone ester CEE-1 (ethyl 4-phenylhydrazinocyclohex-3-en-2-oxo-6-phenyl-1-oate) possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity. We have now tested whether the compound also possesses antiallergic and antiasthmatic effects in vitro and in vivo. The compound significantly inhibited degranulation and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) release from activated human eosinophils, as well as IgE-dependent degranulation and LTC4 release from passively sensitized rat basophilic leukemia cells and bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells. In human eosinophils, the drug was more potent in inhibiting degranulation than LTC4 release {IC50 = 0.4 ?M [confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.9] versus 3.8 ?M (CI: 0.9-8.3)}, whereas in mast cells the reverse was essentially the case. The drug did not affect stimulus-induced calcium transients in eosinophils but significantly inhibited early phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). In vivo, topical application of 4.5-15 mg/kg of the compound significantly inhibited allergen-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. Similarly, in the mouse asthma model, the intranasal administration of 6.5-12.5 mg/kg of the compound significantly inhibited bronchial inflammation and eosinophil accumulation in bronchial lavage fluid, as well as abolishing airway hyper-responsiveness to methacholine. These results show that CEE-1 inhibits the activation of both mast cells and eosinophils in vitro, probably by blocking MAPK-activation pathways, and that these effects are translated into antiallergic and antiasthmatic effects in vivo. The compound, therefore, has potential application in the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases. PMID:24917545

Ezeamuzie, Charles I; El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Renno, Waleed M; Edafiogho, Ivan O

2014-08-01

119

Mechanism of nitrite oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase: implications for oxidant production and nitration by eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil peroxidase is a haem enzyme of eosinophils that is implicated in oxidative tissue injury in asthma. It uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize thiocyanate and bromide to their respective hypohalous acids. Nitrite is also a substrate for eosinophil peroxidase. We have investigated the mechanisms by which the enzyme oxidizes nitrite. Nitrite was very effective at inhibiting hypothiocyanous acid (‘cyanosulphenic acid’) and hypobromous acid production. Spectral studies showed that nitrite reduced the enzyme to its compound II form, which is a redox intermediate containing FeIV in the haem active site. Compound II does not oxidize thiocyanate or bromide. These results demonstrate that nitrite is readily oxidized by compound I, which contains FeV at the active site. However, it reacts more slowly with compound II. The observed rate constant for reduction of compound II by nitrite was determined to be 5.6×103 M?1·s?1. Eosinophils were at least 4-fold more effective at promoting nitration of a heptapeptide than neutrophils. This result is explained by our finding that nitrite reacts 10-fold faster with compound II of eosinophil peroxidase than with the analogous redox intermediate of myeloperoxidase. Nitration by eosinophils was increased 3-fold by superoxide dismutase, which indicates that superoxide interferes with nitration. We propose that at sites of eosinophilic inflammation, low concentrations of nitrite will retard oxidant production by eosinophil peroxidase, whereas at higher concentrations nitrogen dioxide will be a major oxidant formed by these cells. The efficiency of protein nitration will be decreased by the diffusion-controlled reaction of superoxide with nitrogen dioxide.

van Dalen, Christine J.; Winterbourn, Christine C.; Kettle, Anthony J.

2005-01-01

120

Constipation--another manifestation of eosinophilic gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic gastroenteris (EG) is a unique disease in which eosinophils penetrate into the layers of the GI tract. It is classified by the depth of the eosinophilic penetration, that can either be mucosal, muscularis or serosal. Symptoms vary with the bowel site involved as well as the depth of the eosinophilic penetration. Symptoms of the mucosal form of EG usually include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain while constipation is extremely rare. We present a case of mucosal EG presenting as constipation and abdominal pain in a 43 year old female. Constipation is not a typical symptom associated with EG and while muscularis EG can cause decreased colonic motility and obstruction, constipation with mucosal EG has not been previously reported. We are presenting the first case report of constipation associated with mucosal EG. Thus EG should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with constipation and abdominal pain and can easily be diagnosed with mucosal biopsies and treated with steroid therapy. PMID:22803505

Khan, Fahad; Chaudhry, Muhammad A; Nusrat, Salman; Qureshi, Noorulain; Ali, Tauseef

2012-01-01

121

Mitochondria in the Center of Human Eosinophil Apoptosis and Survival  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are abundantly present in most phenotypes of asthma and they contribute to the maintenance and exacerbations of the disease. Regulators of eosinophil longevity play critical roles in determining whether eosinophils accumulate into the airways of asthmatics. Several cytokines enhance eosinophil survival promoting eosinophilic airway inflammation while for example glucocorticoids, the most important anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat asthma, promote the intrinsic pathway of eosinophil apoptosis and by this mechanism contribute to the resolution of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Mitochondria seem to play central roles in both intrinsic mitochondrion-centered and extrinsic receptor-mediated pathways of apoptosis in eosinophils. Mitochondria may also be important for survival signalling. In addition to glucocorticoids, another important agent that regulates human eosinophil longevity via mitochondrial route is nitric oxide, which is present in increased amounts in the airways of asthmatics. Nitric oxide seems to be able to trigger both survival and apoptosis in eosinophils. This review discusses the current evidence of the mechanisms of induced eosinophil apoptosis and survival focusing on the role of mitochondria and clinically relevant stimulants, such as glucocorticoids and nitric oxide.

Ilmarinen, Pinja; Moilanen, Eeva; Kankaanranta, Hannu

2014-01-01

122

Leukotriene B4 amplifies eosinophil accumulation in response to nematodes.  

PubMed

Eosinophil accumulation is a defining feature of the immune response to parasitic worm infection. Tissue-resident cells, such as epithelial cells, are thought to initiate eosinophil recruitment. However, direct recognition of worms by eosinophils has not been explored as a mechanism for amplifying eosinophil accumulation. Here, we report that eosinophils rapidly migrate toward diverse nematode species in three-dimensional culture. These include the mammalian parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Surprisingly, collective migration toward worms requires paracrine leukotriene B4 signaling between eosinophils. In contrast, neutrophils show a minimal response to nematodes, yet are able to undergo robust leukotriene-dependent migration toward IgG-coated beads. We further demonstrate that eosinophils accumulate around C. elegans in the lungs of mice. This response is not dependent on bacterial products, CCR3, or complement activation. However, mice deficient in leukotriene signaling show markedly attenuated eosinophil accumulation after injection of C. elegans or N. brasiliensis. Our findings establish that nematode-derived signals can directly induce leukotriene production by eosinophils and that leukotriene signaling is a major contributor to nematode-induced eosinophil accumulation in the lung. The similarity of the eosinophil responses to diverse nematode species suggests that conserved features of nematodes are recognized during parasite infection. PMID:24889202

Patnode, Michael L; Bando, Jennifer K; Krummel, Matthew F; Locksley, Richard M; Rosen, Steven D

2014-06-30

123

Eosinophil extracellular DNA trap cell death mediates lytic release of free secretion-competent eosinophil granules in humans  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils release their granule proteins extracellularly through exocytosis, piecemeal degranulation, or cytolytic degranulation. Findings in diverse human eosinophilic diseases of intact extracellular eosinophil granules, either free or clustered, indicate that eosinophil cytolysis occurs in vivo, but the mechanisms and consequences of lytic eosinophil degranulation are poorly understood. We demonstrate that activated human eosinophils can undergo extracellular DNA trap cell death (ETosis) that cytolytically releases free eosinophil granules. Eosinophil ETosis (EETosis), in response to immobilized immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA), cytokines with platelet activating factor, calcium ionophore, or phorbol myristate acetate, develops within 120 minutes in a reduced NADP (NADPH) oxidase-dependent manner. Initially, nuclear lobular formation is lost and some granules are released by budding off from the cell as plasma membrane–enveloped clusters. Following nuclear chromatolysis, plasma membrane lysis liberates DNA that forms weblike extracellular DNA nets and releases free intact granules. EETosis-released eosinophil granules, still retaining eosinophil cationic granule proteins, can be activated to secrete when stimulated with CC chemokine ligand 11 (eotaxin-1). Our results indicate that an active NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism of cytolytic, nonapoptotic eosinophil death initiates nuclear chromatolysis that eventuates in the release of intact secretion-competent granules and the formation of extracellular DNA nets.

Ueki, Shigeharu; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Ghiran, Ionita; Spencer, Lisa A.; Dvorak, Ann M.; Weller, Peter F.

2013-01-01

124

Eosinophilic myocarditis associated with dense deposits of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in endomyocardium with high serum ECP.  

PubMed

A case of eosinophilic myocarditis following high serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is described. A 27 year old woman was admitted with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III congestive heart failure. A haematological study showed hypereosinophilia with degranulation and vacuoles; the total eosinophil count was 7980/ml and the ECP serum concentration was noticeably high at 150 ng/ml. Endomyocardial biopsy from the right ventricle showed infiltration of eosinophils and dense deposits of ECP in the endocardium as well as the myocardium. Steroid treatment returned the total eosinophil count and serum ECP to normal, with satisfactory improvement in clinical features. Eosinophilia may cause cardiac damage, and this report confirms that eosinophil degranulation is toxic. Thus, serum ECP seems to be a reliable indicator for diagnosis and for determining treatment parameters of eosinophilic myocarditis. PMID:10336931

Arima, M; Kanoh, T

1999-06-01

125

Primary lysis of eosinophils in severe desquamative asthma.  

PubMed

Primary lysis of eosinophils liberates free eosinophil granules (FEGs) releasing toxic proteins in association with bronchial epithelial injury repair. Eosinophil lysis may be significantly pathogenic. Bronchial mucosal FEGs are associated with uncontrolled asthma, severe asthma, aspirin-sensitive asthma, and lethal asthma. FEGs in the bronchial wall may characterize severe asthma without sputum eosinophilia. Excessive numbers of sputum FEGs occur in severe exacerbations of asthma and are reduced along with clinical improvement. Occurrence of FEGs affects interpretation of other sputum biomarkers including numbers of eosinophils, ECP, and eosinophil-stained macrophages. Thus, eosinophil lysis produces FEGs as bronchial biomarkers of severe asthma. Blood eosinophils in severe asthma seem primed exhibiting a propensity to lyse that is greater the more severe the asthma. Proclivity of blood eosinophils to lyse also distinguished three levels of severity among children with exacerbations of asthma. Numerous FEGs releasing toxic proteins occur in association with grave derangement and shedding of epithelium in severe asthma. Subepithelial FEGs correlate negatively with intact bronchial epithelium in clinically uncontrolled asthma. Significant correlations between sputum ECP, Creola bodies, and severity of asthma exacerbations have also been demonstrated. Hence, eosinophil lysis apparently causes epithelial desquamation in severe asthma. Exaggerated epithelial repair in turn would contribute to inflammatory and remodelling features of severe asthma. Perseverance of FEGs together with maintained disease activity, despite treatment with 'eosinophil-depleting' steroids and anti-IL5 biologicals, agrees with the possibility that eosinophil lysis is worthy target for novel anti-asthma drugs. Priming and lysis of eosinophils, and protein release from FEGs, are regulated and can be targeted. Eosinophil lysis and FEGs belong to the disease picture of severe asthma and need consideration in asthma studies concerned with phenotypes, biomarkers, roles of epithelial injury/repair, and targeting novel drugs. PMID:24330324

Persson, C

2014-02-01

126

Integrin Activation States and Eosinophil Recruitment in Asthma  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil arrest and recruitment to the airway in asthma are mediated, at least in part, by integrins. Eosinophils express ?4?1, ?6?1, ?L?2, ?M?2, ?X?2, ?D?2, and ?4?7 integrins, which interact with counter-receptors on other cells or ligands in the extracellular matrix. Whether a given integrin-ligand pair mediates cell adhesion and migration depends on the activation state of the integrin. Integrins exist in an inactive bent, an intermediate-activity extended closed, and a high-activity extended open conformation. Integrin activation states can be monitored by conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Studies in mice indicate that both ?1 and ?2 integrins mediate eosinophil recruitment to the lung. In vitro studies indicate that ?4?1 and ?M?2 are the principal integrins mediating eosinophil adhesion, including to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and the novel ?M?2 ligand periostin. In vivo, blood eosinophils have intermediate-activity ?1 integrins, as judged by mAb N29, apparently resulting from eosinophil binding of P-selectin on the surface of activated platelets, and have a proportion of their ?2 integrins in the intermediate conformation, as judged by mAb KIM-127, apparently due to exposure to low concentrations of interleukin-5 (IL-5). Airway eosinophils recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after segmental antigen challenge have high-activity ?1 integrins and high-activity ?M?2 that does not require IL-5. Here we review information on how the activation states of eosinophil ?1 and ?2 integrins correlate with measurements of eosinophil recruitment and pulmonary function in asthma. Blood eosinophil N29 reactivity is associated with decreased lung function under various circumstances in non-severe asthma and KIM-127 with BAL eosinophil numbers, indicating that intermediate-activity ?4?1 and ?M?2 of blood eosinophils are important for eosinophil arrest and consequently for recruitment and aspects of asthma.

Johansson, Mats W.; Mosher, Deane F.

2013-01-01

127

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: an unusual type of gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall with various gastrointestinal manifestations. Till date only 280 cases have been described in the literature. A high index of suspicion, by excluding other causes of peripheral eosinophilia, is a pre requisite for accurate diagnosis. EGE is an uncommon gastrointestinal disease affecting both children and adults. It was first described by Kaijser in 1937. Presentation may vary depending on location as well as depth and extent of bowel wall involvement and usually runs a chronic relapsing course. This condition can respond to low dose steroid therapy, thereby preventing grave complications like ascites and intestinal obstruction that might need surgical intervention. The natural history of EGE has not been well documented. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a chronic, waxing and waning condition. Mild and sporadic symptoms can be managed with reassurance and observation, whereas disabling gastrointestinal (GI) symptom flare-ups can often be controlled with oral corticosteroids. When the disease manifests in infancy and specific food sensitization can be identified, the likelihood of disease remission by late childhood is high. GI obstruction is the most common complication. Fatal outcomes are rare. PMID:23964139

Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge Ingle, Chitra R

2013-08-21

128

Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration and peripheral eosinophilia. It can be seen anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. It is diagnosed in the biopsies taken during endoscopic examination to the patients with abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea. A 40-year-old woman was admitted with abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea. She has not any disease, food, pollen, or drug allergy in her medical history. Leukocyte: 19,400/mm3 (neutrophil: 19.9%, eosinophil: 57.4%, lymphocyte: 16.5%), platelet: 281,000/ mm3, immunoglobulin E: 1721 IU/mL (normal range: 20–100 IU/mL) was counted in her blood examination. The duodenal biopsy was reported as EGE. We applied methylprednisolone 20 mg/day. With this treatment, the patient's symptoms regressed. In this article we present a case of chronic diarrhea diagnosed EGE. The first step in diagnosing is suspecting EGE. It should be borne in mind in patients with chronic diarrhea.

Temiz, Tayfun; Yaylac?, Selcuk; Demir, Mustafa Volkan; Kahyaoglu, Zeynep; Tamer, Ali; Uslan, Mustafa Ihsan

2012-01-01

129

Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum  

PubMed Central

Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion.

Li, Yunchuan; Liu, Honggang; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Hu, Bin

2013-01-01

130

The effects of phototherapy on eosinophil and eosinophilic cationic protein in newborns with hyperbilirubinemia.  

PubMed

Newborns with jaundice requiring or not requiring phototherapy (PT) are at greater risk of developing asthma later in life. In this study, we investigated the effect of PT treatment on eosinophil and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) levels in newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia. Thirty newborns diagnosed with severe hyperbilirubinemia and exposed to light-emitting diode (LED) PT were enrolled into the study. Total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels, complete blood count and serum ECP concentrations were measured before and after PT. TSB and hemoglobin (Hb) counts were lower after PT (p = 0.001). There was no difference between leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil and platelet count before and after PT. Eosinophil levels were increased after PT, although not significantly. ECP levels were higher after PT (p = 0.006). It may be speculated that newborns treated with LED PT, increased ECP might play a role in developing allergic diseases later in life. PMID:24527832

Beken, Serdar; Aydin, Banu; Zenciro??lu, Aysegül; Dilli, Dilek; Özkan, Elif; Dursun, Arzu; Okumus, Nurullah

2014-06-01

131

Eosinophil recruitment and activation: the role of lipid mediators  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are effector cells that migrate toward several mediators released at inflammatory sites to perform their multiple functions. The mechanisms driving eosinophil selective accumulation in sites of allergic inflammation are well-established and involve several steps controlled by adhesion molecules, priming agents, chemotactic, and surviving factors. Even though the majority of studies focused on role of protein mediators like IL-5 and eotaxins, lipid mediators also participate in eosinophil recruitment and activation. Among the lipid mediators with distinguish eosinophil recruitment and activation capabilities are platelet activating factor and the eicosanoids, including leukotriene B4, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and prostaglandin D2. In this review, we focused on the role of these four lipid mediators in eosinophil recruitment and activation, since they are recognized as key mediators of eosinophilic inflammatory responses.

Luna-Gomes, Tatiana; Bozza, Patricia T.; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne

2013-01-01

132

Helminthotoxic responses of intestinal eosinophils to Trichinella spiralis newborn larvae.  

PubMed Central

Because the gastrointestinal lamina propria is the first line of defense against invasion with Trichinella spiralis newborn larvae, we investigated the helminthotoxic characteristics of isolated lamina propria eosinophils. Eosinophils were isolated from the intestinal lamina propria of rats and purified to nearly 90% purity by a combination of velocity sedimentation through Percoll and unit gravity sedimentation through a continuous gradient of bovine serum albumin. Isolated eosinophils were of high viability and responded to surface receptor stimulation. Freshly isolated intestinal eosinophils lacked cytotoxic capacity when incubated with newborn larvae in the presence of specific antiserum. Peritoneal eosinophils from the same rats exhibited 100% helminthotoxicity after 24 h. Cytotoxicity could be stimulated in the intestinal eosinophils by the addition of recombinant murine interleukin-5.

Lee, T D

1991-01-01

133

Acute myeloid leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... For information on other types of leukemia, see: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) Leukemia ... number of platelets. A white blood cell count ( WBC ) is usually high but can be low or ...

134

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)  

MedlinePLUS

... this page Print this page Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a fast-growing cancer of a type ... that your body needs. Tweet Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphocytic leukemia or acute lymphoid ...

135

Activation of Eosinophils with Cytokines Produced by Lung Mast Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we show that the supernatant from activated lung mast cells induced the release of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) from eosinophils. Lung mast cells were purified using affinity magnetic selection with monoclonal antibody (mAb) YB5.B8 to achieve a final mast cell purity of 93–99%. Eosinophils were purified by immunomagnetic negative selection ( > 98.0% pure). The supernatant was obtained from

Yoshimichi Okayama; Hiroyuki Kobayashi; Leone K. Ashman; Stephan T. Holgate; Martin K. Church; Masatomo Mori

1997-01-01

136

Eosinophilic esophagitis and food impaction: an instructive case.  

PubMed

Although the key features of eosinophilic esophagitis have been increasingly described over recent years, this entity is still often not considered and consequently diagnosis is often either not made or delayed. Typical endoscopic findings may be present. The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, however, relies on the histological assessment of mucosal biopsies. This case report highlights a common pattern of presentation of eosinophilic esophagitis and demonstrates the importance of considering this diagnosis. PMID:22798122

Tilakaratne, Samantha; Day, Andrew; Lemberg, Daniel

2012-06-01

137

Anti-Interleukin-5 Antibody Therapy in Eosinophilic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilia in atopic diseases and hypereosinophilic syndrome is often associated with a high expression of interleukin-5 (IL-5). IL-5 plays an important role in regulating the production, differentiation, recruitment, activation, and survival of eosinophils. Therefore, neutralizing IL-5 with an antibody is a promising therapeutic strategy in eosinophilic diseases. In patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome and eosinophilic esophagitis, anti-IL-5 antibody therapy resulted in

Dagmar Simon; Lasse R. Braathen; Hans-Uwe Simon

2005-01-01

138

SIRP?/CD172a regulates eosinophil homeostasis.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are abundant in the lamina propria of the small intestine, but they rarely show degranulation in situ under steady-state conditions. In this study, using two novel mAbs, we found that intestinal eosinophils constitutively expressed a high level of an inhibitory receptor signal regulatory protein ? (SIRP?)/CD172a and a low, but significant, level of a tetraspanin CD63, whose upregulation is closely associated with degranulation. Cross-linking SIRP?/CD172a on the surface of wild-type eosinophils significantly inhibited the release of eosinophil peroxidase induced by the calcium ionophore A23187, whereas this cross-linking effect was not observed in eosinophils isolated from mice expressing a mutated SIRP?/CD172a that lacks most of its cytoplasmic domain (SIRP? Cyto(-/-)). The SIRP? Cyto(-/-) eosinophils showed reduced viability, increased CD63 expression, and increased eosinophil peroxidase release with or without A23187 stimulation in vitro. In addition, SIRP? Cyto(-/-) mice showed increased frequencies of Annexin V-binding eosinophils and free MBP(+)CD63(+) extracellular granules, as well as increased tissue remodeling in the small intestine under steady-state conditions. Mice deficient in CD47, which is a ligand for SIRP?/CD172a, recapitulated these phenomena. Moreover, during Th2-biased inflammation, increased eosinophil cell death and degranulation were obvious in a number of tissues, including the small intestine, in the SIRP? Cyto(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Collectively, our results indicated that SIRP?/CD172a regulates eosinophil homeostasis, probably by interacting with CD47, with substantial effects on eosinophil survival. Thus, SIRP?/CD172a is a potential therapeutic target for eosinophil-associated diseases. PMID:21775684

Verjan Garcia, Noel; Umemoto, Eiji; Saito, Yasuyuki; Yamasaki, Mikako; Hata, Erina; Matozaki, Takashi; Murakami, Masaaki; Jung, Yun-Jae; Woo, So-Youn; Seoh, Ju-Young; Jang, Myoung Ho; Aozasa, Katsuyuki; Miyasaka, Masayuki

2011-09-01

139

Eosinophils generate brominating oxidants in allergen-induced asthma  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils promote tissue injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of allergen-triggered diseases like asthma, but the chemical basis of damage to eosinophil targets is unknown. We now demonstrate that eosinophil activation in vivo results in oxidative damage of proteins through bromination of tyrosine residues, a heretofore unrecognized pathway for covalent modification of biologic targets in human tissues. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrated that 3-bromotyrosine serves as a specific “molecular fingerprint” for proteins modified through the eosinophil peroxidase-H2O2 system in the presence of plasma levels of halides. We applied a localized allergen challenge to model the effects of eosinophils and brominating oxidants in human lung injury. Endobronchial biopsy specimens from allergen-challenged lung segments of asthmatic, but not healthy control, subjects demonstrated significant enrichments in eosinophils and eosinophil peroxidase. Baseline levels of 3-bromotyrosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins from mildly allergic asthmatic individuals were modestly but not statistically significantly elevated over those in control subjects. After exposure to segmental allergen challenge, lung segments of asthmatics, but not healthy control subjects, exhibited a >10-fold increase in BAL 3-bromotyrosine content, but only two- to threefold increases in 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific oxidation product formed by neutrophil- and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase. These results identify reactive brominating species produced by eosinophils as a distinct class of oxidants formed in vivo. They also reveal eosinophil peroxidase as a potential therapeutic target for allergen-triggered inflammatory tissue injury in humans.

Wu, Weijia; Samoszuk, Michael K.; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Farver, Carol F.; Dweik, Raed A.; Kavuru, Mani S.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hazen, Stanley L.

2000-01-01

140

MiR-223 deficiency increases eosinophil progenitor proliferation  

PubMed Central

Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be involved in hematopoietic cell development but their role in eosinophilopoeisis has not yet been described. Here we show that miR-223 is up-regulated during eosinophil differentiation in an ex vivo bone marrow derived eosinophil culture system. Targeted ablation of miR-223 leads to an increased proliferation of eosinophil progenitors. We found up-regulation of a miR-223 target gene – IGF1R in the eosinophil progenitor cultures derived from miR-223-/- mice compared to miR-223+/+ littermate controls. The increased proliferation of miR-223-/- eosinophil progenitors was reversed by treatment with the IGF1R inhibitor (picropodophyllin). Whole genome microarray analysis of differentially regulated genes between miR-223+/+ and miR-223-/- eosinophil progenitor cultures identified a specific enrichment in genes that regulate hematologic cell development. Indeed, miR-223-/- eosinophil progenitors had a delay in differentiation. Our results demonstrate that miRNAs regulate the development of eosinophils by influencing eosinophil progenitor growth and differentiation and identify a contributory role for miR-223 in this process.

Lu, Thomas X.; Lim, Eun-Jin; Besse, John A.; Itskovich, Svetlana; Plassard, Andrew J.; Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2012-01-01

141

MiR-223 deficiency increases eosinophil progenitor proliferation.  

PubMed

Recently, microRNAs have been shown to be involved in hematopoietic cell development, but their role in eosinophilopoiesis has not yet been described. In this article, we show that miR-223 is upregulated during eosinophil differentiation in an ex vivo bone marrow-derived eosinophil culture system. Targeted ablation of miR-223 leads to an increased proliferation of eosinophil progenitors. We found upregulation of a miR-223 target gene, IGF1R, in the eosinophil progenitor cultures derived from miR-223(-/-) mice compared with miR-223(+/+) littermate controls. The increased proliferation of miR-223(-/-) eosinophil progenitors was reversed by treatment with an IGF1R inhibitor (picropodophyllin). Whole-genome microarray analysis of differentially regulated genes between miR-223(+/+) and miR-223(-/-) eosinophil progenitor cultures identified a specific enrichment in genes that regulate hematologic cell development. Indeed, miR-223(-/-) eosinophil progenitors had a delay in differentiation. Our results demonstrate that microRNAs regulate the development of eosinophils by influencing eosinophil progenitor growth and differentiation and identify a contributory role for miR-223 in this process. PMID:23325891

Lu, Thomas X; Lim, Eun-Jin; Besse, John A; Itskovich, Svetlana; Plassard, Andrew J; Fulkerson, Patricia C; Aronow, Bruce J; Rothenberg, Marc E

2013-02-15

142

Serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and myeloperoxidase in infections with filariea and schistosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serum levels of three major granulocyte proteins were measured in patients with onchocerciasis, bancroftian filariasis and intestinal schistosomiasis and compared to controls from patients with malaria, Africans living in areas not endemic for these infections and healthy Germans. The investigation comprised the determination of the eosinophil granule proteins eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN\\/EPX), and the neutrophil\\/monocyte

F. W. Tischendorf; N. W. Brattig; D. W. Büttner; A. Pieper; M. Lintzel

1996-01-01

143

Eosinophil as antigen-presenting cell: activation of T cell clones and T cell hybridoma by eosinophils after antigen processing.  

PubMed

We have studied the role of murine eosinophils as antigen-presenting cells (APC). Eosinophils have several characteristics that support the hypothesis of its function as potential APC: they have phagocytic capacity, express adhesion molecules and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens and can produce and release interleukin-1 (IL-1). We have obtained several T cell clones specific for Mesocestoides corti antigens and used T cell hybridoma specific for ovalbumin (OVA) to test this hypothesis. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-activated pure eosinophils (99.9%), express class II antigens and are able to present M. corti antigens to specific T cell clones or OVA to T cell hybridoma 3DO 11.10, inducing the proliferation of T cell clones and IL-2 release by the T cell hybridoma. Proliferation of T cells clones is dependent on the number of eosinophils used as APC. We have compared the efficiency of the same number of macrophages and eosinophils as APC, and have found that macrophages are more efficient than eosinophils. Lysosomotropic agents, such as chloroquine and ammonium chloride, that inhibit antigen processing, impaired eosinophil presentation. This presentation is restricted by MHC class II and inhibited by anti-I-Ad monoclonal antibody. The present study provides clear evidence of APC function for eosinophils. Our investigation points to a new role for eosinophils in the immune response. PMID:1623930

Del Pozo, V; De Andrés, B; Martín, E; Cárdaba, B; Fernández, J C; Gallardo, S; Tramón, P; Leyva-Cobian, F; Palomino, P; Lahoz, C

1992-07-01

144

Similarities between human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil cationic protein: homology with ribonuclease  

SciTech Connect

The eosinophil granule contains a series of basic proteins, including eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). EDN and ECP were isolated from eosinophil granules by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. Radioimmunoassay of fractions from heparin-Sepharose showed one peak of EDN activity and two peaks of ECP activity (termed ECP-1 and ECP-2). EDN, ECP-1, and ECP-2 each exhibited heterogeneity in charge and molecular weight when analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Digestion of EDN and both ECP's with endoglycosidase-F decreased their molecular weights indicating that their heterogeneity is due in part to n-linked oligosaccharides. Amino acid sequence analyses showed that ECP-1 and ECP-2 were identical from residues 1 through 59 and that EDN and ECP sequences were highly homologous (37 of 55 residues identical). Both EDN and ECP NH/sub 2/-terminal sequences showed significant homology to RNase, especially in regions of the RNase molecule involved in ligand binding. EDN, ECP-1 and ECP-2 had neurotoxic activity, causing the Gordon phenomenon at doses down 0.15 microgram; the proteins were comparable in their activities. These results indicate that EDN and ECP are related proteins and suggest that they derived from genes associated with the RNase family.

Gleich, G.J.; Loegering, D.A.; Bell, M.P.; Checkel, J.L.; Ackerman, S.J.; McKean, D.J.

1986-03-05

145

Effect of eosinophil-degranulating estrogens on spleen eosinophils and white pulp\\/red pulp ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A role for eosinophils in the immune reaction has not been yet established. Considering that these leukocytes accumulate in lymphoid organs under glucocorticoid stimulation, we explored the possibility that they participate in the depression of immune reactions induced by these hormones and that they degranulate to exert this action. In this context, we investigated the dose effect of three estrogens

A. N. Tchernitchin; W. Carter; J. Soto; P. Baumann

1990-01-01

146

Emerging Therapeutic Options for Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that often occurs in atopic persons. Management strategies include pharmacotherapy, dietary modification, and endoscopic therapy, although patients will often have a relapsing and remitting course. Currently, the primary pharmacotherapy for EoE consists of corticosteroids. Immuno-modulators, leukotriene antagonists, biologies, and monoclonal antibodies are currently under study for treatment of EoE. The role of immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reactions has been well documented and may provide insight into the etiology and effective therapy of EoE.

Dougherty, Timothy; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.

2014-01-01

147

Steroid treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis in adults.  

PubMed

Topical steroid therapy has been used to treat eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) for more than 15 years. We review the treatment trials of topical steroid therapy in adult patients with EoE. Currently, there is no commercially available preparation designed to deliver the steroid to the esophagus. Current regimens consist of swallowing steroid preparations designed for inhalation treatment for asthma. In the short term, steroids are associated with an approximately 15% to 25% incidence of asymptomatic esophageal candidiasis, but otherwise appear to be well tolerated. PMID:24813521

Alexander, Jeffrey A

2014-06-01

148

Eosinophilic esophagitis: interactions with gastroesophageal reflux disease.  

PubMed

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are not mutually exclusive. The notion that GERD and EoE can be distinguished by the response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment is based on the mistaken assumption that gastric acid suppression is the only important therapeutic effect of PPIs, and therefore only GERD can respond to PPIs. We believe that a clinical or histologic response to PPIs does not rule in GERD or rule out EoE. We recommend a trial of PPI therapy for patients with symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia, even if the diagnosis of EoE seems clear-cut. PMID:24813513

Cheng, Edaire; Souza, Rhonda F; Spechler, Stuart Jon

2014-06-01

149

The eosinophil peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide-bromide system of human eosinophils generates 5-bromouracil, a mutagenic thymine analogue.  

PubMed

Eosinophils use eosinophil peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and bromide ion (Br(-)) to generate hypobromous acid (HOBr), a brominating intermediate. This potent oxidant may play a role in host defenses against invading parasites and eosinophil-mediated tissue damage. In this study, we explore the possibility that HOBr generated by eosinophil peroxidase might oxidize nucleic acids. When we exposed uracil, uridine, or deoxyuridine to reagent HOBr, each reaction mixture yielded a single major oxidation product that comigrated on reversed-phase HPLC with the corresponding authentic brominated pyrimidine. The eosinophil peroxidase-H(2)O(2)-Br(-) system also converted uracil into a single major oxidation product, and the yield was near-quantitative. Mass spectrometry, HPLC, UV--visible spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy identified the product as 5-bromouracil. Eosinophil peroxidase required H(2)O(2) and Br(-) to produce 5-bromouracil, implicating HOBr as an intermediate in the reaction. Primary and secondary bromamines also brominated uracil, suggesting that long-lived bromamines also might be physiologically relevant brominating intermediates. Human eosinophils used the eosinophil peroxidase-H(2)O(2)-Br(-) system to oxidize uracil. The product was identified as 5-bromouracil by mass spectrometry, HPLC, and UV--visible spectroscopy. Collectively, these results indicate that HOBr generated by eosinophil peroxidase oxidizes uracil to 5-bromouracil. Thymidine phosphorylase, a pyrimidine salvage enzyme, transforms 5-bromouracil to 5-bromodeoxyridine, a mutagenic analogue of thymidine. These findings raise the possibility that halogenated nucleobases generated by eosinophil peroxidase exert cytotoxic and mutagenic effects at eosinophil-rich sites of inflammation. PMID:11329272

Henderson, J P; Byun, J; Mueller, D M; Heinecke, J W

2001-02-20

150

HIV-Associated Eosinophilic Folliculitis and Follicular Mucinosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term HIV-associated eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) designates an idiopathic dermatitis that appears in HIV-infected patients with different clinical manifestations but with a distinctive histological feature characterized by a predominantly eosinophilic infiltrate in the follicular infundibula. On the other side, follicular mucinosis (FM) is a reaction pattern in the follicular epithelium, characterized by a mucinous degeneration of the outer sheath of

G. F. Buezo; J. Fraga; P. Abajo; L. Ríos; E. Daudén; A. García-Díez

1998-01-01

151

The Effect of Transendothelial Migration on Eosinophil Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

In bronchial asthma, eosinophils found in the airways have an enhanced inflammatory capacity. We hypothesized that, at least in part, changes in functional phenotype are due to the effect of transendothelial migration. To model in vivo eosinophil trafficking to the lung, we cultured human pulmonary microvas- cular endothelial cell (HPMEC) monolayers on Transwell filters. The HPMECs were activated with interleukin

Hideaki Yamamoto; Julie B. Sedgwick; Rose F. Vrtis; William W. Busse

2000-01-01

152

Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is independent of eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils have been shown to in- crease in tissues during many fibrotic conditions and consequently have been suggested to contrib- ute to the development of fibrosis. This study tested the hypothesis that eosinophils are essential in the development of lung fibrosis in mice in response to bleomycin (BLM). Anti-IL-5 antibody was adminis- tered intraperitoneally into mice 2 h prior to

Huiqing Hao; Donald A. Cohen; Darrell Jennings; J. Scott Bryson; Alan M. Kaplan

153

Eosinophilic Bronchitis Is an Important Cause of Chronic Cough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic bronchitis presents with chronic cough and sputum eosinophilia, but without the abnor- malities of airway function seen in asthma. It is important to know how commonly eosinophilic bron- chitis causes cough, since in contrast to cough in patients without sputum eosinophilia, the cough re- sponds to inhaled corticosteroids. We investigated patients referred over a 2-yr period with chronic cough,

CHRISTOPHER E. BRIGHTLING; RICHARD WARD; KAH LAY GOH; ANDREW J. WARDLAW; IAN D. PAVORD

1999-01-01

154

Comparison of airway immunopathology of eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophilic bronchitis is a condition characterised by a corticosteroid responsive cough, sputum eosinophilia, and normal tests of variable airflow obstruction and airway responsiveness. We performed a detailed comparative immunopathological study to test the hypothesis that the different airway function in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma reflects differences in the nature of the lower airway inflammatory response.Methods: Exhaled nitric

C E Brightling; F A Symon; S S Birring; P Bradding; A J Wardlaw; I D Pavord

2003-01-01

155

Steroid-refractory Neonatal Eosinophilic Pneumonia Responsive to Cyclosporin A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic neonatal eosinophilic pneumonia is extremely rare. We report an infant who presented with tachypnea and interstitial infiltrates on chest radiograph at age 2 wk. Lung biopsy revealed perivascular and interstitial eosinophils. Despite initial improvement, the patient's condition became resistant to corticosteroids, cromolyn, and intravenous gamma globulin. After treatment with cy- closporin A his symptoms resolved. Morton RL, Shoemaker LR,

RONALD L. MORTON; LAWRENCE R. SHOEMAKER; NEMR S. EID

156

Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: distinguishing features from gastroesophageal reflux disease: a study of 41 patients.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults is a recently described entity occurring in young males with dysphagia, in whom esophageal biopsies show eosinophilic infiltration. This study defines the clinical and histological features of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, distinguishing it from gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal biopsies from patients with dysphagia or esophagitis were reviewed blindly, and assessed for: epithelial eosinophil counts, presence of eosinophilic microabscesses, edema, basal zone hyperplasia, lamina propria papillae elongation, eosinophils and fibrosis. Clinical and endoscopic findings were obtained. Eosinophilic esophagitis was diagnosed with epithelial eosinophils > or = 15 in > or = 2 high-power fields (hpfs) or > or = 25 in any hpf. Analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney, chi2 and ANOVA tests. Of 157 cases, 41 had eosinophilic esophagitis. Male gender (81%) and age < or = 45 (54%) were commoner in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (P = 0.001, 0.010, respectively). Dysphagia was more common in eosinophilic esophagitis patients (63%, P < 0.001); heartburn was more common in noneosinophilic esophagitis patients (53%, P < 0.001). Endoscopic rings were more common in eosinophilic esophagitis patients (27%, P = 0.023); hiatus hernia was more common in noneosinophilic esophagitis patients (11%, P = 0.022). Eosinophils were more numerous in eosinophilic esophagitis biopsies (mean 39/hpf, P < or = 0.001). Only eosinophilic esophagitis biopsies had eosinophilic microabscesses (42%, P < or = 0.001). Edema, basal zone hyperplasia, lamina propria papillae elongation and lamina propria eosinophils were commoner in eosinophilic esophagitis (P < or = 0.001-0.002), while lamina propria fibrosis was specific for eosinophilic esophagitis (39%, P < 0.001). Eosinophilic esophagitis is a disease with a predilection for young males with dysphagia and rings on endoscopy. Biopsies in eosinophilic esophagitis have high epithelial eosinophil counts, averaging nearly 40/hpf. Increased awareness of eosinophilic esophagitis is necessary, since treatment with allergen elimination or anti-inflammatory therapy may be more effective than acid suppression. PMID:16258505

Parfitt, Jeremy R; Gregor, James C; Suskin, Neville G; Jawa, Hani A; Driman, David K

2006-01-01

157

Eosinophil overview: structure, biological properties, and key functions.  

PubMed

The eosinophil is an enigmatic cell with a continuing ability to fascinate. A considerable history of research endeavor on eosinophil biology stretches from the present time back to the nineteenth century. Perhaps one of the most fascinating aspects of the eosinophil is how accumulating knowledge has changed the perception of its function from passive bystander, modulator of inflammation, to potent effector cell loaded with histotoxic substances through to more recent recognition that it can act as both a positive and negative regulator of complex events in both innate and adaptive immunity. This book consists of 26 chapters written by experts in the field of eosinophil biology that provide comprehensive and clearly written protocols for techniques designed to underpin research into the function of the eosinophil in health and disease. PMID:24986602

Lacy, Paige; Rosenberg, Helene F; Walsh, Garry M

2014-01-01

158

Idiopathic eosinophilic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic cholecystitis is a rare entity diagnosed on the basis of classical presentation of cholecystitis with presence of more than 90% eosinophilic infiltration within the gall bladder. The etiology of eosinophilic cholecystitis still remains obscure. However it is frequently associated with other more severe diseases like hypereosinophilic syndrome, eosinophilic-myalgia syndrome, parasitic infestations, few herbal medicines and certain drugs. We report two cases who presented with gall stone disease, which on histopathological evaluation was diagnosed as eosinophilic cholecystitis. Retrospective analysis of their case histories and investigation did not reveal any known etiology. These cases are being reported because of their rarity and to highlight the importance of complete workup to rule out other associated disorders that may be a manifestation of a more severe disease. PMID:24638193

Choudhury, Monisha; Pujani, Mukta; Katiyar, Yogita; Jyotsna, P Lalita; Rautela, Archna

2014-01-01

159

Eosinophils in human oral squamous carcinoma; role of prostaglandin D2  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are often predominant inflammatory leukocytes infiltrating oral squamous carcinoma (OSC) sites. Prostaglandins are secreted by oral carcinomas and may be involved in eosinophil infiltration. The objective of this study was to determine the factors contributing to eosinophil migration and potential anti-neoplastic effects on OSC. Eosinophil degranulation was evaluated by measuring release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Eosinophil chemotaxis towards OSC cells was assessed using artificial basement membrane. Eosinophil infiltration was prominent within the tissue surrounding the OSC tumor mass. We observed growth inhibition of the OSC cell line, SCC-9, during co-culture with human eosinophils, in vitro, which correlated with EPO activity that possesses growth inhibitory activity. The PGD2 synthase inhibitor, HQL-79, abrogated migration towards SCC-9. Our data suggest that OSC-derived PGD2 may play an important role via CRTH2 (the PGD2 receptor on eosinophils) in eosinophil recruitment and subsequent anti-tumor activity through the action of eosinophil cationic proteins.

2013-01-01

160

Eosinophils in health and disease: the LIAR hypothesis.  

PubMed

Discussions of eosinophils are often descriptions of end-stage effector cells with destructive capabilities mediated predominantly by released cytotoxic cationic granule proteins. Moreover, eosinophils in the medical literature are invariably associated with the pathologies linked with helminth infections or allergic diseases such as asthma. This has led to an almost fatalist view of eosinophil effector functions and associated therapeutic strategies targeting these cells that would make even William of Ockham proud - eosinophil effector functions have physiological consequences that increase patient morbidity/mortality and 'the only good eosinophils are dead eosinophils'. Unfortunately, the strengths of dogmas are also their greatest weaknesses. Namely, while the repetitive proclamation of dogmatic concepts by authoritative sources (i.e. reviews, meeting proceedings, textbooks, etc.) builds consensus within the medical community and lower the entropies surrounding difficult issues, they often ignore not easily explained details and place diminished importance on alternative hypotheses. The goal of this perspective is twofold: (i) we will review recent observations regarding eosinophils and their activities as well as reinterpret earlier data as part of the synthesis of a new paradigm. In this paradigm, we hypothesize that eosinophils accumulate at unique sites in response to cell turnover or in response to local stem cell activity(ies). We further suggest that this accumulation is part of one or more mechanisms regulating tissue homeostasis. Specifically, instead of immune cells exclusively mediating innate host defence, we suggest that accumulating tissue eosinophils are actually regulators of Local Immunity And/or Remodeling/Repair in both health and disease - the LIAR hypothesis; (ii) we want to be inflammatory (pun intended!) and challenge the currently common perspective of eosinophils as destructive end-stage effector cells. Our hope is to create more questions than we answer and provoke everyone to spend countless hours simply to prove us wrong! PMID:20447076

Lee, J J; Jacobsen, E A; McGarry, M P; Schleimer, R P; Lee, N A

2010-04-01

161

Activation of the Fas receptor on lung eosinophils leads to apoptosis and the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation of the airways.  

PubMed Central

While considerable progress has been made in understanding the events by which eosinophils accumulate in various pathophysiological conditions, the mechanisms controlling the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation are poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that lung eosinophils obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after aerosol allergen provocation of immunized mice expressed the Fas receptor. Stimulation of purified eosinophils in vitro with a monoclonal anti-Fas mAb (1 ng-1 microg/ml) induced a dose/time dependent loss of cell viability from 24-72 h. Measurement of DNA fragmentation with propidium iodide confirmed that anti-Fas induced eosinophil death by apoptosis. While incubation with IL-3, IL-5, or GM-CSF prevented spontaneous apoptosis, these factors failed to prevent anti-Fas induced apoptosis. Administration of anti-Fas mAb to the lungs after the induction of a lung eosinophilia increased the number of peroxidase positive macrophages in BAL fluid 4-12 h later which was followed by a marked reduction in the number of eosinophils in the airways. Importantly, Fas-mediated resolution of eosinophilic inflammation occurred in the absence of any overt secondary inflammatory changes in the lungs. We speculate that defects in this pathway may at least in part explain the chronic eosinophilic inflammation often observed in the lungs of asthmatic individuals. Images

Tsuyuki, S; Bertrand, C; Erard, F; Trifilieff, A; Tsuyuki, J; Wesp, M; Anderson, G P; Coyle, A J

1995-01-01

162

Hepatocyte Growth Factor Suppresses Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Release of Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin from Human Eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and eosinophilic granule proteins such as eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) are known to damage bronchial tissue and cause airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthma. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) regulates various biological activities and is known to be a multifunctional factor. In our previous study, we found that HGF suppressed allergic airway inflammation and AHR in a murine model

Wataru Ito; Masahide Takeda; Miyoshi Fujita; Yumiko Kamada; Hikari Kato; Takahito Chiba; Kazutoshi Yamaguchi; Shigeharu Ueki; Hiroyuki Kayaba; Arihiko Kanehiro; Junichi Chihara

2008-01-01

163

Human vs. Mouse Eosinophils: "That which we call an eosinophil, by any other name would stain as red"  

PubMed Central

The respective life histories of humans and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiological pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages of both species are invariantly maintained, each with identifiable eosinophils. This canonical presence nonetheless does not preclude disparities between human and mouse eosinophils and/or their effector functions. Indeed, many books and reviews dogmatically highlight differences, providing a rationale to discount the use of mouse models of human eosinophilic diseases. We suggest that this perspective is parochial and ignores the wealth of available studies and the consensus of the literature that overwhelming similarities (and not differences) exist between human and mouse eosinophils. The goal of this review is to summarize this literature and in some cases provide the experimental details, comparing and contrasting eosinophils and eosinophil effector functions in humans vs. mice. In particular, our review will provide a summation and an easy to use reference guide to important studies demonstrating that while differences exist, more often than not their consequences are unknown and do not necessarily reflect inherent disparities in eosinophil function, but instead, species-specific variations. The conclusion from this overview is that despite nominal differences, the vast similarities between human and mouse eosinophils provide important insights as to their roles in health and disease and, in turn, demonstrate the unique utility of mouse-based studies with an expectation of valid extrapolation to the understanding and treatment of patients.

Lee, James J.; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Ochkur, Sergei I; McGarry, Michael P.; Condjella, Rachel M.; Doyle, Alfred D.; Luo, Huijun; Zellner, Katie R.; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Willetts, Lian; LeSuer, William E.; Colbert, Dana C.; Helmers, Richard A.; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A.

2012-01-01

164

Interleukin5 Selectively Enhances the Chemotactic Response of Eosinophils Obtained From Normal but not Eosinophilic Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

LOOD AND LOCAL tissue eosinophilia are recog- B nized features of bronchial asthma, atopic allergy, helminthic infestations, and various malignant disorders.l.2 Through their ability to release granule-associated basic proteins and membrane-derived proinflammatory media- tors, eosinophils have been implicated as major effector cells in the pathogenesis of allergic di~ease.~-~ However, it remains unclear which mediators regulate the preferential recruitment and persistence

Roma Sehmi; Andrew J. Wardlaw; Oliver Cromwell; Kazuyuki Kurihara; Paul Waltmann; A. Barry Kay

1992-01-01

165

Understanding Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... I 800.955.4572 I www.LLS.org Tracking Your Leukemia Tests These tips may help you ... Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). A drug that blocks cell growth. Gleevec®, Sprycel® and Tasigna® are TKIs that ... team consists of master’s level oncology professionals who are available by phone Monday through Friday, 9 am to 6 pm ( ...

166

Leukemia Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence that immunological effector mechanisms contribute to the elimination of leukemic blasts in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation supports the concept that the immune system plays a prominent role in the control of leukemic disease. For patients with high-risk acute leukemia, relapse prevention in the setting of minimal residual disease is paramount. This review discusses vaccine strategies aimed to stimulate a

Ludmila Glouchkova; Birgit Ackermann; Dagmar Dilloo

2003-01-01

167

Eosinophilic colitis: epidemiology, clinical features, and current management  

PubMed Central

Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) represent a spectrum of inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders in which eosinophils infiltrate the gut in the absence of known causes for such tissue eosinophilia. EGIDs can be subgrouped as eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG), and eosinophilic colitis (EC). The least frequent manifestation of EGIDs is EC. EC is a heterogeneous entity with a bimodal age distribution, presenting with either an acute self-limited bloody diarrhea in otherwise healthy infants or as a more chronic relapsing colitis in young adults. The pathophysiology of primary EC appears related to altered hypersensitivity, principally as a food allergy in infants and T lymphocyte-mediated (i.e. non-IgE associated) in young adults. In adults, symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Endoscopic changes are generally modest, featuring edema and patchy granularity. Although standardized criteria are not yet established, the diagnosis of EC depends on histopathology that identifies an excess of eosinophils. Therapeutic approaches are based on case reports and small case series, as prospective randomized controlled trials are lacking. Eosinophilic colitis in infants is a rather benign, frequently food-related entity and dietary elimination of the aggressor often resolves the disorder within days. Adolescent or older patients require more aggressive medical management including: glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, leukotriene receptors antagonists as well as novel approaches employing biologics that target interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IgE. This review article summarizes the current knowledge of EC, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

Alfadda, Abdulrahman A.; Storr, Martin A.; Shaffer, Eldon A.

2011-01-01

168

Eosinophilic oesophagitis: epidemiology, clinical aspects, and association to allergy.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic oesophagitis is characterised by age-dependent symptoms mimicking gastrooesophageal reflux disease, a distinct endoscopic appearance and a histological picture with extensive infiltration of eosinophils in the oesophageal mucosa. Eosinophilic oesophagitis is more frequently seen in males, and patients often belong to the paediatric or adolescence age groups. The exact prevalence of eosinophilic oesophagitis is unknown, but it has been suggested that the United States has a higher prevalence than Europe. Several treatment algorithms have been suggested, including elemental diets, oral steroids, inhaled (swallowed) steroids, and leucotriene receptor antagonists. Detailed information on the eosinophilic inflammatory processes in the oesophageal mucosa was initially obtained from animal models, in particular with regard to the role of interleukin-5 and the chemokine eotaxin-1 in eosinophilic recruitment. Studies have suggested a cytotoxic effect of eosinophilic degranulation products on nerve fibers in the gastric/intestinal mucosa, implicating a direct effect of allergic inflammation on gastrointestinal motility. Human studies recently have emphasized the role of eotaxin-3 and identified a single nucleotide polymorphism probably related to disease susceptibility. PMID:17873738

Nielsen, Rasmus G; Husby, Steffen

2007-09-01

169

[Interleukin-5-induced generation of superoxide by eosinophils in asthma].  

PubMed

Superoxide generation was assessed in highly purified eosinophils (> 99.0% pure) with a flow cytometer. Eosinophils from patients with asthma were collected by centrifugation of leukocytes on Percoll density gradients, followed by negative immunoselection with anti-CD16 monoclonal antibodies. For comparison, highly purified neutrophils (< 99.5% pure) were collected by a similar method with anti-CD9 monoclonal antibodies. After incubation with a fluorescent probe, the cells were stimulated with various concentrations of PAF, PMA or various cytokines. Both eosinophils and neutrophils generated superoxide dose-dependently in response to PAF and PMA. Eosinophils generated superoxide in response to IL-3 and IL-5 (maximum concentration was 50 ng/ml), but neutrophils did not. IL-5-induced superoxide generation was lower in the presence of IL-5 antibodies. After stimulation with PMA, superoxide generation was significantly higher in neutrophils than in eosinophils (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in PAF-induced or GM-CSF-induced superoxide generation between eosinophils and neutrophils. After stimulation with the optimal concentration of IL-5 or PMA, eosinophils with a lower density generated significantly more superoxide than those with a higher density. PMID:7802603

Ikeda, Y; Akiyama, K; Mita, H; Shida, T

1994-09-01

170

[Case of chronic eosinophilic bronchiolitis associated with bronchial asthma].  

PubMed

A 62 year-old woman presented with diffuse, centriacinar nodular densities on chest radiography and CT, and an increase of peripheral blood eosinophils, four years after diagnosis of bronchial asthma. Diffuse panbronchiolitis was diagnosed, and was treated with erythromycin for a long period. One year later, she noticed exertional dyspnea, and her chest radiograph showed increased nodular densities. Lung biopsy under video-assisted thoracoscopy was performed, and revealed chronic bronchiolitis with eosinophilic infiltration, and focal, peribronchiolar eosinophilic infiltration in the alveolar septa and alveoli. She was treated with prednisolone, and her symptoms and nodular densities on chest radiography and CT were improved. We consider that the clinico-pathological findings of this case are consistent with those of chronic eosinophilic bronchiolitis, which has recently been reported in Japan. This case is different from previously reported ones in that eosinophilic bronchiolitis appeared in the course of bronchial asthma, suggesting the possibility that eosinophilic bronchiolitis may be accompanied with bronchial asthma or eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:15455952

Nagata, Nobuhiko; Harada, Susumu; Wakamatsu, Kentaro; Shigyo, Mutsumi; Kajiki, Akira; Kitahara, Yoshinari

2004-08-01

171

Eosinophilic myocarditis: two case reports and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic myocarditis is a rare and often under-diagnosed subtype of myocarditis with only around 30 cases published in the medical literature. In this article we present two patients with eosinophilic myocarditis with the aim to demonstrate the often elusive nature of the disease and present the current scientific literature on this topic. Case presentation A 76 years old Caucasian gentleman and a 36 years old Aboriginal gentleman both presenting with heart failure symptoms were eventually diagnosed with eosinophilic myocarditis after extensive evaluation. Their presentation, assessment, and medical management is explored in this article. Conclusions Eosinophilic myocarditis remains a rare and likely under-diagnosed subtype of myocarditis. The key features of this disease include myocardial injury in the setting of non-contributory coronary artery disease. Endomyocardial biopsy remains the definitive gold standard for diagnosis of noninfectious eosinophilic myocarditis. Non-invasive cardiac imaging in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia can be strongly suggestive of eosinophilic myocarditis with potential for earlier diagnosis. Failure to diagnose eosinophilic myocarditis and the delay of therapy may lead to irreversible myocardial injury. Therapies for this disease have yet to be validated in large prospective studies.

2013-01-01

172

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophil homeostasis.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are specialized myeloid cells associated with allergy and helminth infections. Blood eosinophils demonstrate circadian cycling, as described over 80?years ago, and are abundant in the healthy gastrointestinal tract. Although a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-5, and chemokines such as eotaxins mediate eosinophil development and survival, and tissue recruitment, respectively, the processes underlying the basal regulation of these signals remain unknown. Here we show that serum IL-5 levels are maintained by long-lived type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) resident in peripheral tissues. ILC2 cells secrete IL-5 constitutively and are induced to co-express IL-13 during type 2 inflammation, resulting in localized eotaxin production and eosinophil accumulation. In the small intestine where eosinophils and eotaxin are constitutive, ILC2 cells co-express IL-5 and IL-13; this co-expression is enhanced after caloric intake. The circadian synchronizer vasoactive intestinal peptide also stimulates ILC2 cells through the VPAC2 receptor to release IL-5, linking eosinophil levels with metabolic cycling. Tissue ILC2 cells regulate basal eosinophilopoiesis and tissue eosinophil accumulation through constitutive and stimulated cytokine expression, and this dissociated regulation can be tuned by nutrient intake and central circadian rhythms. PMID:24037376

Nussbaum, Jesse C; Van Dyken, Steven J; von Moltke, Jakob; Cheng, Laurence E; Mohapatra, Alexander; Molofsky, Ari B; Thornton, Emily E; Krummel, Matthew F; Chawla, Ajay; Liang, Hong-Erh; Locksley, Richard M

2013-10-10

173

Resonance Raman microspectroscopic characterization of eosinophil peroxidase in human eosinophilic granulocytes.  

PubMed Central

A resonance Raman microspectroscopic study is presented of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) in human eosinophilic granulocytes. Experiments were carried out at the single cell level with laser excitation in Soret-, Qv-, and charge transfer absorption bands of the active site heme of the enzyme. The Raman signal obtained from the cells was almost exclusively due to EPO. Methods were developed to determine depolarization ratios and excitation profiles of Raman bands of EPO in situ. A number of Raman band assignments based on earlier experiments with isolated EPO have been revised. The results show that in agreement with literature on isolated eosinophil peroxidase, the prosthetic group of the enzyme in the (unactivated) cells is a high spin, 6-coordinated, ferric protoporphyrin IX. The core size of the heme is about 2.04 A. The proximal and distal axial ligands are most likely a histidine with the strong imidazolate character typical for peroxidases, and a weakly bound water molecule, respectively. The data furthermore indicate that the central iron is displaced from the plane of the heme ring. The unusual low wavenumber Raman spectrum of EPO, strongly resembling that of lactoperoxidase, intestinal peroxidase and myeloperoxidase, suggests that these mammalian peroxidases are closely related, and characterized by, as yet unspecified, interactions between the peripheral substituents and the protein, different from those found in other protoheme proteins.

Salmaso, B L; Puppels, G J; Caspers, P J; Floris, R; Wever, R; Greve, J

1994-01-01

174

Theophylline and Dexamethasone Induce Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? Expression in Human Eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils are major effector cells in allergic diseases including asthma. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is a nuclear receptor that regulates immune reaction. We have previously demonstrated that human eosinophils express PPAR? and that stimulation with a synthetic agonist for PPAR? attenuated the factor-induced eosinophil survival and chemotaxis. However, the modulator of the eosinophil PPAR? expression has not yet been studied.

Atsuko Usami; Shigeharu Ueki; Wataru Ito; Yoshiki Kobayashi; Takahito Chiba; Gulixian Mahemuti; Hajime Oyamada; Yumiko Kamada; Miyoshi Fujita; Hikari Kato; Norihiro Saito; Hiroyuki Kayaba; Junichi Chihara

2006-01-01

175

Eosinophil deficiency compromises lung defense against Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Exposure to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus may result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive aspergillosis (IA), depending on the host's immune status. Neutrophil deficiency is the predominant risk factor for the development of IA, the most life-threatening condition associated with A. fumigatus exposure. Here we demonstrate that in addition to neutrophils, eosinophils are an important contributor to the clearance of A. fumigatus from the lung. Acute A. fumigatus challenge in normal mice induced the recruitment of CD11b+ Siglec F+ Ly-6G(lo) Ly-6C(neg) CCR3+ eosinophils to the lungs, which was accompanied by an increase in lung Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) mRNA levels. Mice deficient in the transcription factor dblGATA1, which exhibit a selective deficiency in eosinophils, demonstrated impaired A. fumigatus clearance and evidence of germinating organisms in the lung. Higher burden correlated with lower mRNA expression of Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) and Prg2 (major basic protein) as well as lower interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-17A, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and CXCL1 levels. However, examination of lung inflammatory cell populations failed to demonstrate defects in monocyte/macrophage, dendritic cell, or neutrophil recruitment in dblGATA1-deficient mice, suggesting that the absence of eosinophils in dlbGATA1-deficient mice was the sole cause of impaired lung clearance. We show that eosinophils generated from bone marrow have potent killing activity against A. fumigtaus in vitro, which does not require cell contact and can be recapitulated by eosinophil whole-cell lysates. Collectively, our data support a role for eosinophils in the lung response after A. fumigatus exposure. PMID:24379296

Lilly, Lauren M; Scopel, Michaella; Nelson, Michael P; Burg, Ashley R; Dunaway, Chad W; Steele, Chad

2014-03-01

176

Eosinophilic cystitis: treatment with intravesical steroids and oral antihistamines.  

PubMed

This is a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 56-year-old indigenous Australian woman who presented with urosepsis on the background of a urinary tract infection unresponsive to oral antibiotics. After resolution of the urosepsis, she had persisting urinary retention and a cystoscopy/bladder biopsy suggested eosinophilic cystitis. After 1 month of intravesical hydrocortisone and oral loratadine, repeat cystoscopy showed vast improvement in the bladder lesions. This case further strengthens the use of intravesical steroids and oral antihistamines for the management of eosinophilic cystitis. PMID:24014555

Zaman, Shahriar Raj; Vermeulen, Tersia L; Parry, Jeremy

2013-01-01

177

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)  

MedlinePLUS

... this page Print this page Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a fast-growing cancer of a type ... that your body needs. Tweet Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Symptoms of ALL How transplant can treat ALL ...

178

UNUSUAL EOSINOPHILIC GRANULE CELL PROLIFERATION IN COHO SALMON (ONCHORHYNCHUS KISUTCH)  

EPA Science Inventory

Proliferative lesions comprised of eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs) extended throughout the gastrointestinal tract of several mature, spawning coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum). istological examination of the tumour showed extensive proliferation and infiltration of EGC...

179

Diagnosis and management of eosinophilic asthma: a US perspective  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic asthma is now recognized as an important subphenotype of asthma based on the pattern of inflammatory cellular infiltrate in the airway. Eosinophilic asthma can be associated with increased asthma severity, atopy, late-onset disease, and steroid refractoriness. Induced sputum cell count is the gold standard for identifying eosinophilic inflammation in asthma although several noninvasive biomarkers, including fractional exhaled nitric oxide and periostin, are emerging as potential surrogates. As novel therapies and biologic agents become increasingly available, there is an increased need for specific phenotype-directed treatment strategies. Greater recognition and understanding of the unique immunopathology of this asthma phenotype has important implications for management of the disease and the potential to improve patient outcomes. The present review provides a summary of the clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of eosinophilic asthma.

Walford, Hannah H; Doherty, Taylor A

2014-01-01

180

Chronic Eosinophilic Myositis in a Rhesus Monkey Infected with Sarcosporidiosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chronic eosinophilic myositis is reported in a Rhesus monkey with disseminated sarcosporidiosis. Extension of all four limbs was limited, and sclerosis of the affected muscles was present. Sarcocysts were present in all affected muscles. This is thought t...

J. L. Stookey T. G. Terrell

1972-01-01

181

Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun; Son, Hyun-Jin

2013-01-01

182

Functional Expression of Transmembrane 4 Superfamily Molecules on Human Eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) molecules are exclusively found on hematopoietic cells. Several members of the TM4SF are reported to be associated with other cell surface molecules, including integrins, and might participate in signal transduction, but little is known about their role on eosinophils. In the present study, we determined the expression and function of TM4SF molecules on human eosinophils.

Kenji Matsumoto; Bruce S. Bochner; Hiroshi Wakiguchi; Takanobu Kurashige

1999-01-01

183

A method to study apoptosis in eosinophils by flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop a simple flow cytometric procedure to study eosinophil apoptosis. Eosinophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy, non-allergic individuals and then cultured in basal culture medium. The cells were examined after 24, 48 and 72 h for forward- and side scatter (FS-SSC) pattern, staining with FDA, PI, and anti-CD95, and light

Kristina Sandström; Lena Håkansson; Agneta Lukinius; Per Venge

2000-01-01

184

Chronic Periaortitis (Retroperitoneal Fibrosis) Concurrent with Recurrent Cutaneous Eosinophilic Vasculitis  

PubMed Central

Chronic periaortitis (CP) is usually accompanied by at least mild manifestations of systemic autoimmunity; however, skin manifestations are rare. Here, we report an 82-year-old woman presenting with a pruritic annular eosinophilic dermatosis that led to the diagnosis of recurrent cutaneous eosinophilic vasculitis (RCEV) coexisting with a latent CP. The present paper is reminder that a CP should be included as a potential differential diagnosis in the elaboration of patients with cutaneous vasculitis that is suspicious of underlying autoimmunity.

Kiorpelidou, Despoina; Gaitanis, Georgios; Zioga, Aikaterini; Tsili, Athina C.; Bassukas, Ioannis D.

2011-01-01

185

Urinary eosinophil protein X and serum eosinophil cationic protein in infants and young children with atopic dermatitis: Correlation with disease activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX) or eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) are released by eosinophil granulocytes in allergic diseases. Serum ECP (s-ECP) levels have been correlated with disease activity in atopic dermatitis (AD) in adults and young patients, and high urinary EPX (u-EPX) levels in asthmatic patients seem to reflect active disease. A relationship between AD severity

Neri Pucci; Enrico Lombardi; Elio Novembre; Silvia Farina; Roberto Bernardini; Elisabetta Rossi; Tania Favilli; Alberto Vierucci

2000-01-01

186

IL13 expression by blood T cells and not eosinophils is increased in asthma compared to non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In asthma interleukin (IL)-13 is increased in the airway compared with non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. Whether this differential expression is specific to the airway or is more generalised is uncertain. METHODS: We sought to examine IL-13 expression in peripheral blood T-cells and eosinophils in asthma and non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. Peripheral blood CD3+ cell and eosinophil intracellular IL-13 expression from subjects

Salman Siddiqui; Glenn Cruse; Susan Mckenna; William Monteiro; Vijay Mistry; Andrew Wardlaw; Christopher Brightling

2009-01-01

187

Inhibitory Action of Quercetin on Eosinophil Activation In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The influence of quercetin on eosinophil functions was examined in vitro and in vivo. The first set of experiments was undertaken to examine whether quercetin could suppress eosinophilia and IgE hyperproduction induced by Mesocestoides corti infection in BALB/c mice. The number of peripheral blood eosinophils and IgE levels were examined 21 days after infection. Oral administration of quercetin for 21 days could not suppress both peripheral blood eosinophilia and IgE hyperproduction, even when 20.0?mg/kg quercetin was used for treatment. The second part of the experiment was designed to examine the influence of quercetin on eosinophil activation induced by SCF stimulation in vitro. Eosinophils were obtained from M. corti-infected mice and stimulated with SCF in the presence of various concentrations of quercetin for 24?h. The addition of quercetin into cell cultures could suppress eosinophil activation induced by SCF stimulation as assessed by measuring the contents of RANTES, MIP-1?, ECP, and MBP in culture supernatants. The minimum concentration of quercetin which caused significant suppression of factor secretion was 5.0??M. These results may suggest that quercetin will be a good candidate for the supplement on the management of eosinophil-mediated diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma.

2013-01-01

188

Update on clinical and immunological features of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) are an increasingly common heterogeneous group of intestinal diseases. The purpose of this review is to present the latest developments in the care of patients with EGIDs and to summarize a growing literature defining the clinical features and mechanistic elements of eosinophils and their complex relationships with the gastrointestinal tract. Recent findings Recent studies continue to define what constitutes ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ numbers of eosinophils in the different sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptom complexes of EGIDs appear to be related primarily to the mucosal, as opposed to the muscular or serosal, forms of EGIDs. Dissection of the mucosal microenvironment is uncovering a complex array of cells, other than eosinophils, that likely contribute to the inflammatory response associated with EGIDs. Mechanistic studies have identified genetic perturbations (eotaxin-3, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-13, and filaggrin) that may also contribute to the development of the most often encountered and well studied EGID, eosinophilic esophagitis. Summary Clinicians should remain aware of EGIDs as a diagnostic possibility for patients with common gastrointestinal symptoms. Additional research is needed to determine mechanistic processes leading to dysfunction associated with eosinophilic gastrointestinal inflammation.

Masterson, Joanne C.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Lee, James J.

2014-01-01

189

Comparison of airway immunopathology of eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma  

PubMed Central

Methods: Exhaled nitric oxide was measured and induced sputum, bronchoscopy, bronchial wash (BW), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and bronchial biopsy were performed in 16 subjects with eosinophilic bronchitis, 15 with asthma, and 14 normal controls. Results: Both eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma were characterised by an induced sputum, BW and BAL eosinophilia, an increased number of epithelial and subepithelial eosinophils, and increased reticular basement membrane thickness. The median concentration of exhaled nitric oxide was higher in those with eosinophilic bronchitis (12 ppb) or asthma (8.5 ppb) than normal controls (2 ppb) (95% CI of the difference 5 to 16, p<0.0001 and 2 to 11.3, p=0.004, respectively). There were no group differences in epithelial integrity or the number of subepithelial T lymphocytes, mast cells or macrophages. Conclusion: With the exception of our previously reported association of smooth muscle mast cell infiltration with asthma, the immunopathology of eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma are similar which suggests that eosinophilic airway inflammation, increased exhaled nitric oxide, and increased basement membrane thickening are regulated independently of airway hyperresponsiveness.

Brightling, C; Symon, F; Birring, S; Bradding, P; Wardlaw, A; Pavord, I

2003-01-01

190

[A case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis with extra-vascular granuloma and eosinophilic vasculitis diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy].  

PubMed

A 62-year-old man was suffering from bronchial asthma and referred to our institution with dry cough and dyspnea on exertion in November, 2010. He was diagnosed with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EPGA, formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) by chest radiographic findings, blood eosinophilia, mononeuritis multiplex and cardiomyopathy. Steroid therapy was started and he was rapidly improved. Steroid therapy had been tapered off by May, 2012. After 2 months, however, progressive dyspnea, neural symptoms, deafness, re-elevation of blood eosinophils and bilateral multifocal infiltrations appeared. He was re-admitted to our institution. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) specimens revealed extra-vascular granuloma, eosinophilic vasculitis and eosinophilic pneumonia and we diagnosed him with the reccurence of EGPA. He was improved by steroid pulse therapy, then tapered. This case was the antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies negative EGPA. The case of EGPA with granuloma and vasculitis diagnosed by TBLB was rare. PMID:23760204

Hara, Yu; Kanoh, Soichiro; Fujikura, Yuji; Kawano, Shuichi; Misawa, Kazuhisa; Kawana, Akihiko

2013-05-01

191

The development of a sensitive and specific ELISA for mouse eosinophil peroxidase: Assessment of eosinophil degranulation ex vivo and in models of human disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse models of eosinophilic disorders are often part of preclinical studies investigating the underlying biological mechanisms of disease pathology. The presence of extracellular eosinophil granule proteins in affected tissues is a well established and specific marker of eosinophil activation in both patients and mouse models of human disease. Unfortunately, assessments of granule proteins in the mouse have been limited by

Sergei I. Ochkur; John Dongil Kim; Cheryl A. Protheroe; Dana Colbert; Redwan Moqbel; Paige Lacy; James J. Lee; Nancy A. Lee

192

Human versus mouse eosinophils: "that which we call an eosinophil, by any other name would stain as red".  

PubMed

The respective life histories of human subjects and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiologic pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages of both species are invariantly maintained, each with identifiable eosinophils. This canonical presence nonetheless does not preclude disparities between human and mouse eosinophils, their effector functions, or both. Indeed, many books and reviews dogmatically highlight differences, providing a rationale to discount the use of mouse models of human eosinophilic diseases. We suggest that this perspective is parochial and ignores the wealth of available studies and the consensus of the literature that overwhelming similarities (and not differences) exist between human and mouse eosinophils. The goal of this review is to summarize this literature and in some cases provide experimental details comparing and contrasting eosinophils and eosinophil effector functions in human subjects versus mice. In particular, our review will provide a summation and an easy-to-use reference guide to important studies demonstrating that although differences exist, more often than not, their consequences are unknown and do not necessarily reflect inherent disparities in eosinophil function but instead species-specific variations. The conclusion from this overview is that despite nominal differences, the vast similarities between human and mouse eosinophils provide important insights as to their roles in health and disease and, in turn, demonstrate the unique utility of mouse-based studies with an expectation of valid extrapolation to the understanding and treatment of patients. PMID:22935586

Lee, James J; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A; Ochkur, Sergei I; McGarry, Michael P; Condjella, Rachel M; Doyle, Alfred D; Luo, Huijun; Zellner, Katie R; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Willetts, Lian; Lesuer, William E; Colbert, Dana C; Helmers, Richard A; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A

2012-09-01

193

Clavicular eosinophilic granuloma causing adult shoulder pain  

PubMed Central

Though rarely reported, neoplasms of the clavicle occur, and their symptoms can be mistaken for more common shoulder conditions. We present the case of a benign clavicular neoplasm, rarely seen in adults, presenting with pain, and eventual pathologic fracture in a 49 year-old. A 49 year-old male firefighter underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for shoulder pain after magnetic resonance imaging revealed supraspinatus tendon tear. The patient's pain persisted after surgery, and was described as routine until he developed severe pain after minor blunt trauma. A local Emergency Room performed the first x-rays, which revealed a pathologic fracture of the distal clavicle through a destructive lesion. The patient was referred to an orthopedic oncologist, who performed incisional biopsy, which initially diagnosed osteomyelitis. The patient was subsequently taken to surgery for debridement. Pathology then yielded the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. The patient was taken back to surgery for formal curettage with open reduction and internal fixation. The patient's pain resolved, the pathologic fracture fully healed, and the patient returned to full time work as a firefighter. Though workup for common shoulder conditions often identifies incidental benign lesions of bone, the converse can be true. Persistent pain despite intervention should raise concern for further investigation. An x-ray alone can reveal a destructive bone lesion as the source of shoulder pain.

Sugi, Michelle T.; Fedenko, Alexander N.; Menendez, Lawrence R.; Allison, Daniel C.

2013-01-01

194

A Novel H+ Conductance in Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Efficient mechanisms of H+ ion extrusion are crucial for normal NADPH oxidase function. However, whether the NADPH oxidase—in analogy with mitochondrial cytochromes—has an inherent H+ channel activity remains uncertain: electrophysiological studies did not find altered H+ currents in cells from patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), challenging earlier reports in intact cells. In this study, we describe the presence of two different types of H+ currents in human eosinophils. The “classical” H+ current had properties similar to previously described H+ conductances and was present in CGD cells. In contrast, the “novel” type of H+ current had not been described previously and displayed unique properties: (a) it was absent in cells from gp91- or p47-deficient CGD patients; (b) it was only observed under experimental conditions that allowed NADPH oxidase activation; (c) because of its low threshold of voltage activation, it allowed proton influx and cytosolic acidification; (d) it activated faster and deactivated with slower and distinct kinetics than the classical H+ currents; and (e) it was ?20-fold more sensitive to Zn2+ and was blocked by the histidine-reactive agent, diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC). In summary, our results demonstrate that the NADPH oxidase or a closely associated protein provides a novel type of H+ conductance during phagocyte activation. The unique properties of this conductance suggest that its physiological function is not restricted to H+ extrusion and repolarization, but might include depolarization, pH-dependent signal termination, and determination of the phagosomal pH set point.

Banfi, Botond; Schrenzel, Jacques; Nusse, Oliver; Lew, Daniel P.; Ligeti, Erzsebet; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Demaurex, Nicolas

1999-01-01

195

Leukemia revisited  

SciTech Connect

Selected features of the historical development of our knowledge of leukemia are discussed. The use of different methodologies for study of the nature of leukemic cell proliferation are analyzed. The differences between older cell kinetic data using tritiated thymidine and autoradiography and the newer cell culture methods are more apparent than real. It is suggested that tritiated thymidine and extracorporeal irradiation of the blood may be useful for therapeutic agents that have not been given an adequate trial. Radiation leukemogenesis presents an opportunity for study of the nature of leukemogenesis that has not been exploited adequately.

Cronkite, E P

1980-01-01

196

Nitric oxide regulates human eosinophil adhesion mechanisms in vitro by changing integrin expression and activity on the eosinophil cell surface  

PubMed Central

The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), inhibits both rat and human eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro. Here, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in human eosinophil cell surface integrin expression and function was investigated. Human peripheral blood eosinophils were treated with L-NAME (0.01?–?1.0?mM) and their adhesion to human fibronectin and serum observed. Adhesion of cells to fibronectin and serum increased by 24.0±4.6 and 43.8±4.7%, respectively, when eosinophils were treated with 1.0?mM L-NAME. Increased adhesion by L-NAME could be abolished when cells were co-incubated with VLA-4- and Mac-1-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (2.5?mM), significantly inhibited eosinophil adhesion to fibronectin and serum by 34.3±4.5 and 45.2±5.6%, respectively. This inhibition was accompanied by a 4 fold increase in the levels of intracellular cyclic GMP. Flow cytometrical analysis demonstrated that L-NAME induced an increased expression of CD11b (Mac-1) on the eosinophil cell surface of 36.3±7.4%. L-NAME had no effect upon CD49d (VLA-4) expression. Treatment of human eosinophils, in vitro, with H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (0.1?mM), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, also significantly increased eosinophil adhesion to fibronectin and serum by 73.5±17.9 and 91.7±12.9%, respectively. This increase in adhesion could also be inhibited by co-incubation with the Mac-1 and VLA-4-specific mAbs. In conclusion, results indicate that NO, via a cyclic GMP-dependent mechanism, inhibits the adhesion of human eosinophils to the extracellular matrix (ECM). This inhibition is accompanied by a decrease in the expression and function of the eosinophil's adhesion molecules, in particular, the expression of the Mac-1 integrin and the function of the VLA-4 integrin.

Conran, N; Ferreira, H H A; Lorand-Metze, I; Thomazzi, S M; Antunes, E; de Nucci, G

2001-01-01

197

Eosinophilic granuloma of bone: two case reports.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a benign, self-limiting disorder that usually involves a single bone. However, there is a growing evidence that the clinical picture of EG is protean. We report two cases with EG that showed rare presentations. Case 1: A 14-year-old girl complained of headache in the left parietal region for several days. The initial examination was normal. During the next three weeks, her headache was progressive and she noticed a tender swelling on her head. Cranial computed tomography (CT) revealed an osteolytic lesion on the left parietal bone. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the lesion corresponded to a tumor that arose from the intradiploic region, and showed both extracranial and epidural extension. She underwent tumor resection and a diagnosis of EG was made on pathological examination. An immunohistochemical study with Ki-67 suggested accelerated growth of the tumor cells. Case 2: A 1.9-year-old boy suddenly complained of a pain in the back and soon had difficulty in walking without help. Several days later, he became unable to sit or walk. On examination, he had spastic paraplegia in addition to painful swelling on the back. A myelogram showed a block just below the T2 vertebra. Chest CT scanning disclosed that a tumor lying posterior to the T2 vertebra was causing marked cord compression and destruction of the posterior elements of the spine. The tumor extended at T1-T3 vertebral levels. He underwent tumor resection and recovered neurological ability. EG should be considered as a differential diagnosis for patients with osteolytic lesions who exhibit aggressive clinical features. PMID:22795066

Oguro, Katsuhiko; Sakai, Hidemasa; Arai, Masato; Igarashi, Takeyasu

2013-04-01

198

Eosinophil Ribonucleases and Their Cutaneous Lesion-Forming Activity1  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil granule proteins are deposited in cutaneous lesions in many human diseases, but how these proteins contribute to pathophysiology is obscure. We injected eosinophil cationic protein (ECP or RNase 3), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN or RNase 2), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), and major basic protein-1 (MBP1) intradermally into guinea pig and rabbit skin. ECP and EDN each induced distinct skin lesions at ? 2.5 ?M that began at 2 days, peaking about 7 days and persisting up to 6 weeks. These lesions were ulcerated (ECP) or crusted (EDN) with marked cellular infiltration. EPO and MBP1, 10 ?M, each produced perceptible induration and erythema with moderate cellular infiltration resolving within 2 weeks. ECP and EDN localized to dermal cells within 2 days whereas EPO and MBP1 remained extracellular. Overall, cellular localization and RNase activity of ECP and EDN were critical for lesion formation; differential glycosylation, net cationic charge, or RNase activity alone did not account for lesion formation. Ulcerated lesions from patients with the hypereosinophilic syndrome showed ECP and EDN deposition comparable to that in guinea pig skin. In conclusion, ECP and EDN disrupt skin integrity and cause inflammation. Their presence in ulcerative skin lesions may explain certain findings in human eosinophil-associated diseases.

Plager, Douglas A.; Davis, Mark D. P.; Andrews, Amy G.; Coenen, Michael J.; George, Terry J.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Leiferman, Kristin M.

2010-01-01

199

Killing of juvenile Fasciola hepatica by purified bovine eosinophil proteins.  

PubMed

Eosinophils were isolated from the mammary gland of Fasciola hepatica-infected cattle by intramammary infusion with a crude extract from adult F. hepatica. Up to 5 x 10(9) eosinophils with a purity of over 90% could be obtained from a single quarter of the gland. The major contaminating cells were monocytes which reached their peak several days following the eosinophil peak. Two major proteins were isolated from bovine eosinophil granules, a high molecular weight peroxidase-active protein and a smaller molecular weight predominantly basic protein. This smaller protein was thought to be the bovine equivalent of guinea-pig and human major basic protein (MBP), although it possessed an unusually high concentration of cysteine. The bovine MBP had a profound effect on juvenile F. hepatica in vitro causing damage and death at concentrations down to 1 x 10(-6) M. The damage was detected by a 51Cr release assay and/or a viability assay involving microscopical examination of the flukes. Other cations, especially protamine sulphate, were also shown to kill flukes, although both lysozyme, found in neutrophils, and the peroxidase-positive peak from bovine eosinophils were unable to mediate any detectable damage. PMID:7438542

Duffus, W P; Thorne, K; Oliver, R

1980-05-01

200

Killing of juvenile Fasciola hepatica by purified bovine eosinophil proteins.  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils were isolated from the mammary gland of Fasciola hepatica-infected cattle by intramammary infusion with a crude extract from adult F. hepatica. Up to 5 x 10(9) eosinophils with a purity of over 90% could be obtained from a single quarter of the gland. The major contaminating cells were monocytes which reached their peak several days following the eosinophil peak. Two major proteins were isolated from bovine eosinophil granules, a high molecular weight peroxidase-active protein and a smaller molecular weight predominantly basic protein. This smaller protein was thought to be the bovine equivalent of guinea-pig and human major basic protein (MBP), although it possessed an unusually high concentration of cysteine. The bovine MBP had a profound effect on juvenile F. hepatica in vitro causing damage and death at concentrations down to 1 x 10(-6) M. The damage was detected by a 51Cr release assay and/or a viability assay involving microscopical examination of the flukes. Other cations, especially protamine sulphate, were also shown to kill flukes, although both lysozyme, found in neutrophils, and the peroxidase-positive peak from bovine eosinophils were unable to mediate any detectable damage. Images Fig. 4

Duffus, W P; Thorne, K; Oliver, R

1980-01-01

201

Clonal origin of human erythro-eosinophilic colonies in culture.  

PubMed

We have observed the presence of erythropoietic bursts containing eosinophils and their precursors in methylcellulose culture of human peripheral blood and marrow nucleated cells in the presence of erythropoietin and medium conditioned by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated leukocytes (PHA-LCM). It was possible to identify these bursts (colonies) in situ in methylcellulose culture on the basis of their unique red and black colors. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the constituent erythroid and eosinophilic cells lay intermixed with each other, and through close intercellular connections formed compact colonies and bursts consisting of several sub-colonies. Differential counts of individual erythro-eosinophil colonies (EEo colonies) revealed only a small percentage of blast cells in most of the colonies. Replating experiments of single EEo colonies yielded only eosinophilic colonies and clusters and erythroid colonies. The clonal nature of the EEo colonies was documented by analysis of Y-chromatin-positive cells in individual EEo colonies derived from cocultures of male and female peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Comparison of conditioned media indicated that PHA-LCM is the best stimulator for EEo colonies. These studies suggest that the differentiation capabilities of the progenitors for EEo colonies are restricted to erythroid and eosinophilic differentiation. PMID:7059681

Nakahata, T; Spicer, S S; Ogawa, M

1982-04-01

202

Eosinophils in Fungus-Associated Allergic Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease.

Ghosh, Sumit; Hoselton, Scott A.; Dorsam, Glenn P.; Schuh, Jane M.

2013-01-01

203

Eosinophilic Colitis: University of Minnesota Experience and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic colitis is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease that is poorly understood. Neonates and young adults are more frequently affected. Clinical presentation is highly variable depending on the depth of inflammatory response (mucosal, transmural, or serosal). The pathophysiology of eosinophilic colitis is unclear but is suspected to be related to a hypersensitivity reaction given its correlation with other atopic disorders and clinical response to corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis is that of exclusion and differential diagnoses are many because colonic tissue eosinophilia may occur with other colitides (parasitic, drug-induced, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders). Similar to other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, steroid-based therapy and diet modification achieve very good and durable responses. In this paper, we present our experience with this rare pathology. Five patients (3 pediatric and 2 adults) presented with diarrhea and hematochezia. Mean age at presentation was 26 years. Mean duration of symptoms before pathologic diagnosis was 8 months. Mean eosinophil count per patient was 31 per high-power field. The pediatric patients responded very well to dietary modifications, with no recurrences. The adult patients were treated with steroids and did not respond. Overall mean followup was 22 (range, 2–48) months.

Gaertner, Wolfgang B.; MacDonald, Jennifer E.; Kwaan, Mary R.; Shepela, Christopher; Madoff, Robert; Jessurun, Jose; Melton, Genevieve B.

2011-01-01

204

Disruption of Fas Receptor Signaling by Nitric Oxide in Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that Fas ligand–Fas receptor interactions are involved in the regulation of eosinophil apoptosis and that dysfunctions in this system could contribute to the accumulation of these cells in allergic and asthmatic diseases. Here, we demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) specifically prevents Fas receptor–mediated apoptosis in freshly isolated human eosinophils. In contrast, rapid acceleration of eosinophil apoptosis by activation of the Fas receptor occurs in the presence of eosinophil hematopoietins. Analysis of the intracellular mechanisms revealed that NO disrupts Fas receptor–mediated signaling events at the level of, or proximal to, Jun kinase (JNK), but distal to sphingomyelinase (SMase) activation and ceramide generation. In addition, activation of SMase occurs downstream of an interleukin 1 converting enzyme–like (ICE-like) protease(s) that is not blocked by NO. However, NO prevents activation of a protease that targets lamin B1. These findings suggest a role for an additional NO-sensitive apoptotic signaling pathway that amplifies the proteolytic cascade initialized by activation of the Fas receptor. Therefore, NO concentrations within allergic inflammatory sites may be important in determining whether an eosinophil survives or undergoes apoptosis upon Fas ligand stimulation.

Hebestreit, Holger; Dibbert, Birgit; Balatti, Ivo; Braun, Doris; Schapowal, Andreas; Blaser, Kurt; Simon, Hans-Uwe

1998-01-01

205

Potential roles of eosinophils in cancer therapy: epidemiological studies, experimental models, and clinical pathology.  

PubMed

Eosinophils play important roles in allergic diseases as well as during helminth infection. As multifunctional leukocytes, eosinophils have also been indicated in anti-cancer immunity. Published studies have suggested an association between allergic conditions and a trend of decreased risk in numerous malignances. Moreover, eosinophil infiltration in tumor tissue is considered an independent prognostic factor. Eosinophils are often recruited to tumor sites, where eosinophil granule proteins and cytokines are released upon activation, which in turn damage and kill tumor cells. In the last decade, a number of patents based on potential cancer therapy using eosinophilic cytokines have been awarded. In this article, we review the current findings on epidemiology, experimental models, clinical pathology, and molecular mechanisms involved in the response of eosinophils towards cancer. Moreover, we discuss promising targeted therapies with eosinophilic cytokines as a novel perspective to combat cancer. PMID:24251812

Cao, Chao; Gu, Yangjun; Zhu, Chen; Palmai-Pallag, Timea; Lan, Fen; Chen, Zhihua; Li, Wen; Shen, Huahao; Ying, Songmin

2014-05-01

206

Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo.  

PubMed

Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4(+/+) or il4(-/-) eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103(+) dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activation in vitro and in vivo led to degranulation of eosinophil peroxidase, a granule protein whose enzymatic activity promoted DC activation in mice and humans in vitro, and intestinal and extraintestinal mouse DC activation and mobilization to lymph nodes in vivo. Further, eosinophil peroxidase enhanced responses to ovalbumin seen after immunization. Thus, eosinophils can be critical contributors to the intestinal immune system, and granule-mediated shaping of DC responses can promote both intestinal and extraintestinal adaptive immunity. PMID:25071163

Chu, Derek K; Jimenez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Verschoor, Christopher P; Walker, Tina D; Goncharova, Susanna; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Shen, Pamela; Gordon, Melissa E; Barra, Nicole G; Bassett, Jennifer D; Kong, Joshua; Fattouh, Ramzi; McCoy, Kathy D; Bowdish, Dawn M; Erjefält, Jonas S; Pabst, Oliver; Humbles, Alison A; Kolbeck, Roland; Waserman, Susan; Jordana, Manel

2014-07-28

207

Emerging roles of eosinophils and eosinophil-derived lipid mediators in the resolution of inflammation.  

PubMed

Acute inflammation and its resolution are essential processes for tissue protection and homeostasis. Once thought to be a passive process, the resolution of inflammation is now shown to involve active biochemical programs that enable inflamed tissues to return to homeostasis. The mechanisms by which acute inflammation is resolved are of interest, and research in recent years has uncovered new endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators (i.e., lipoxins, resolvins, protectin, and maresin) generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This review presents new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of inflammatory resolution, especially the roles of eosinophils, and a series of omega-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that they generate. PMID:22973272

Isobe, Yosuke; Kato, Taiga; Arita, Makoto

2012-01-01

208

Emerging Roles of Eosinophils and Eosinophil-Derived Lipid Mediators in the Resolution of Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Acute inflammation and its resolution are essential processes for tissue protection and homeostasis. Once thought to be a passive process, the resolution of inflammation is now shown to involve active biochemical programs that enable inflamed tissues to return to homeostasis. The mechanisms by which acute inflammation is resolved are of interest, and research in recent years has uncovered new endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators (i.e., lipoxins, resolvins, protectin, and maresin) generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This review presents new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of inflammatory resolution, especially the roles of eosinophils, and a series of omega-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that they generate.

Isobe, Yosuke; Kato, Taiga; Arita, Makoto

2012-01-01

209

Beta 2-adrenergic receptors on eosinophils. Binding and functional studies  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the binding characteristics and functional effects of beta-adrenoceptors on human and guinea pig eosinophils. We determined the binding of the beta-antagonist radioligand (125I)pindolol (IPIN) to intact eosinophils obtained from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs and from blood of patients with eosinophilia. Specific binding was saturable, and Scatchard analysis showed a single binding site with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 24.6 pM and maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 7,166 per cell. ICI 118,551, a beta 2-selective antagonist, inhibited IPIN binding with a Ki value of 0.28 nM and was approximately 5,000-fold more effective than the beta 1-selective antagonist, atenolol. Isoproterenol increased cAMP levels about 5.5-fold above basal levels (EC50 = 25 microM); albuterol, a beta 2-agonist, behaved as a partial agonist with a maximal stimulation of 80%. Binding to human eosinophils gave similar results with a Kd of 25.3 pM and a Bmax corresponding to 4,333 sites per cell. Incubation of both human and guinea pig eosinophils with opsonized zymosan (2 mg/ml) or with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (10(-8) and 10(-6) M) resulted in superoxide anion generation and the release of eosinophil peroxidase; albuterol (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) had no inhibitory effect on the release of these products. Thus, eosinophils from patients with eosinophilia and from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs possess beta-receptors of the beta 2-subtype that are coupled to adenylate cyclase; however, these receptors do not modulate oxidative metabolism or degranulation. The possible therapeutic consequences of these observations to asthma are discussed.

Yukawa, T.; Ukena, D.; Kroegel, C.; Chanez, P.; Dent, G.; Chung, K.F.; Barnes, P.J. (National Heart and Lung Institute, Brompton Hospital, London (England))

1990-06-01

210

Comparative immunoreactivity of the eosinophil constituents MBP and ECP in different types of urticaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to elucidate the role of eosinophil constituents in urticaria, we investigated major basic protein expression immunohistologically in comparison with that of eosinophilic cationic protein and the low-affinity IgE receptor in lesional and uninvolved skin of different types of urticaria. Eosinophil activation was studied with the markers EG1 and EG2. Different eosinophil constituents were found in all urticarial lesions

Norbert Haas; Kathrin Motel; Beate M. Czarnetzki

1995-01-01

211

Leukotriene B4 receptors on guinea pig alveolar eosinophils  

SciTech Connect

The existence of receptors for LTB4 on highly purified guinea pig alveolar eosinophils was investigated. Massive infiltration of eosinophils in alveolar spaces was induced in guinea pigs by i.v. injections of Sephadex beads G50 (16 mg/kg). Alveolar eosinophils (50 {times} 10(6) cells) were purified to approximately 98% by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. The binding studies indicated that alveolar eosinophils bind LTB4 in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of high-affinity binding sites (Kd1 = 1.00 {plus minus} 0.22 nM; Bmax1 = 966 {plus minus} 266 sites/cell) and low-affinity binding sites (Kd2 = 62.5 {plus minus} 8.9 nM; Bmax2 = 5557 {plus minus} 757 sites/cell). The metabolism of LTB4 by alveolar eosinophils in binding conditions was assessed by RP-HPLC and no significant degradation of (3H)LTB4 was observed. LTB4 dose-dependently stimulated eosinophil migration in both chemokinesis and chemotaxis assays with an EC50 value of 1.30 {plus minus} 0.14 and 18.14 {plus minus} 1.57 nM, respectively. LTB4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the production of superoxide anion with an apparent EC50 value of 50 {times} 10(-9) M in the authors experimental conditions. LTB4 also induced a dose-dependent increase in the generation of TxA2 with an EC50 value of 46.2 {times} 10(-9) M. Taken together, their results demonstrated that guinea pig alveolar eosinophils express two classes of specific receptors for LTB4. The high-affinity binding sites seem associated to chemokinesis and chemotaxis whereas the low-affinity binding sites seem associated to superoxide anion production and generation of TxA2. The existence of LTB4 receptors in eosinophils could explain the presence of these cells in hypersensitivity reactions.

Maghni, K.; de Brum-Fernandes, A.J.; Foeldes-Filep, E.G.; Gaudry, M.; Borgeat, P.; Sirois, P. (Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine University of Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada))

1991-09-01

212

IgE, Mast Cells, Basophils, and Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

IgE, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils are essential components of allergic inflammation. Antigen-specific IgE production, with subsequent fixation of IgE to Fc?RI receptors on mast cells and basophils, is central to the initiation and propagation of immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils are central effector cells in allergic inflammation, as well as in innate and adaptive immunity. This review highlights what is known about these components and their roles in disease pathogenesis.

Stone, Kelly D.; Prussin, Calman; Metcalfe, Dean D.

2010-01-01

213

Bleomycin stimulates lung fibroblast and epithelial cell lines to release eosinophil chemotactic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bleomycin stimulates lung fibroblast and epithelial cell lines to release eosinophil chemotactic activity. E. Sato, S. Koyama, R.A. Robbins. #ERS Journals Ltd 2000. ABSTRACT: The presence of eosinophils in the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis correlates with poor prognosis or resistance to therapy. Furthermore, eosinophils localize to areas undergoing active fibrosis. It was hypothesized that a human lung fibroblast

E. Sato; S. Koyama; R. A. Robbins

2000-01-01

214

Eosinophil degranulation status in allergic rhinitis: observations before and during seasonal allergen exposure.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that extensive degranulation is a likely prerequisite for a pathogenic role of eosinophils, little is known about the degranulation status of these cells in eosinophilic conditions. The present study of the ultrastructure of tissue eosinophils explores eosinophil degranulation in allergic rhinitis before and during seasonal allergen exposure. A total of 23 patients scored symptoms q.d., prior to and during the pollen season. The numbers of mucosal eosinophils and their degranulation status were determined in nasal biopsies. Furthermore, nasal lavage fluid levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and alpha2-macroglobulin were assessed as indices of eosinophil activity and plasma exudation, respectively. Seasonal allergen exposure was associated with increased nasal symptoms, increased lavage fluid levels of ECP and alpha2-macroglobulin, and increased numbers of tissue eosinophils. In the tissue, transmission electron microscopy revealed a moderate piecemeal degranulation already prior to the season (mean+/-sd 37+/-2.7% altered granules). Seasonal allergen exposure increased this degranulation (87+/-1.8%), and produced local areas with extensive deposition of granule proteins. The degree of eosinophil degranulation correlated with levels of ECP in lavage fluids obtained at histamine challenge. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis features moderately degranulated eosinophils already at nonsymptomatic baseline conditions. In association with the development of symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis, the tissue deposition of eosinophil granule proteins is dramatically elevated through increased eosinophil numbers, together with markedly augmented degranulation of individual cells. PMID:15516668

Ahlstrom-Emanuelsson, C A; Greiff, L; Andersson, M; Persson, C G A; Erjefält, J S

2004-11-01

215

The GM-CSF analogue E21R induces apoptosis of normal and activated eosinophils.  

PubMed

There is evidence that eosinophils have an important role in the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma. These cells are regulated by two classes of polypeptides, the colony-stimulating factors, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and the chemokines, such as RANTES and eotaxin. GM-CSF is involved in the production, survival, and functional activation of eosinophils. RANTES and eotaxin regulate the migration of eosinophils to inflammatory sites, but any effect of these chemokines on eosinophil survival is not known. In this study we demonstrate that although GM-CSF promoted eosinophil survival, the specific GM-CSF analogue E21R induced apoptosis of eosinophils. Apoptosis was observed with unstimulated as well as with chemokine (RANTES and eotaxin)-activated eosinophils. Neither RANTES nor eotaxin supported eosinophil survival, and a RANTES antagonist did not affect either cell survival or apoptosis. E21R also induced apoptosis of eosinophils from asthmatic patients. These findings suggest that the GM-CSF receptor may actively control the death as well as the survival of eosinophils, and thus precisely regulate their numbers and activities. Our data also indicate that chemokines are not involved in regulating the lifespan of eosinophils. The introduction of the GM-CSF analogue E21R may offer a novel therapy in inflammatory diseases associated with eosinophil infiltration of different etiologies. PMID:9372686

Iversen, P O; Robinson, D; Ying, S; Meng, Q; Kay, A B; Clark-Lewis, I; Lopez, A F

1997-11-01

216

Eosinophils Utilize Multiple Chemokine Receptors for Chemotaxis to the Parasitic Nematode Strongyloides stercoralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protective innate immunity to the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis requires eosinophils in the parasite killing process. Experiments were performed to determine if an extract of S. stercoralis would trigger eosinophil chemotaxis, and to then compare the chemotactic migration response, including second messenger signals and receptors, to those mechanisms triggered by host chemoattractants. Eosinophils undergo both chemotaxis and chemokinesis to soluble parasite

Louis H. Stein; Kevin M. Redding; James J. Lee; Thomas J. Nolan; Gerhard A. Schad; James B. Lok; David Abraham

2009-01-01

217

Highly purified selective isolation of eosinophils from human peripheral blood by negative immunomagnetic selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils are a minority constituent in human peripheral blood. The study of eosinophils has been limited by difficulty in achieving sufficient cell number and purity. We describe a modified protocol for immunomagnetic cell separation for efficient isolation of human peripheral blood eosinophils. We employ a mixture of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against cell-surface antigens on human hematopoietic cells combined with

Nilda M Munoz; Alan R Leff

2007-01-01

218

Mast Cell Tryptase Activates Peripheral Blood Eosinophils to Release Granule-Associated Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mast cells and eosinophils are important effector cells in asthma. Understanding their interactions is essential for studying asthma pathophysiology. Inflammatory mediators released from mast cells, such as arachidonic acid metabolites, TNF and IL-5, are important in eosinophil biology. However, little is known about the effects of mast cell-specific mediators, such as tryptase, on eosinophils. Our objective was to investigate

Harissios Vliagoftis; Paige Lacy; Betty Luy; Darryl Adamko; Morley Hollenberg; Dean Befus; Redwan Moqbel

2004-01-01

219

Serum eosinophilic cationic protein may predict clinical course of wheezing in young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty eight children aged between 2 and 4 years with three or more episodes of wheezing were studied to evaluate the role of eosinophil inflammation and its relation to persistence of wheezing two years later. Serum eosinophilic cationic protein, total eosinophil count, total IgE, skin prick test, and clinical features were evaluated at visit 1. Two years later at a

J R Villa; G García; S Rueda; A Nogales

1998-01-01

220

Leukemia Trial Results  

MedlinePLUS

... Compared with Ofatumumab in Patients with Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (Posted: 06/27/2014) - In an international randomized ... III clinical trial, patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) who were ...

221

Leukemia & Lymphoma Society  

MedlinePLUS

The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (LLS) is the world's largest voluntary health agency dedicated to blood cancer. The LLS mission: Cure leukemia, lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease and myeloma, and improve the quality ...

222

Apoptosis in acute leukemia.  

PubMed

In leukemias and malignant tumors the balance between apoptosis and cell proliferation is dysregulated. This review deals with the apoptosis in acute leukemia. There are several publications about the molecular basis of decreased apoptosis in acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and AML. However, there have been contradictory results. Different results are published about the correlation of the spontaneous and induced apoptosis in leukemia with prognosis. The potential causes of these contradictions are discussed. PMID:15158085

Schuler, Dezso; Szende, Béla

2004-07-01

223

Chronic neutrophilic leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a very rare entity, which has to be included among the chronic myeloid leukemias. Once an underlying cause of neutrophilia is excluded, the diagnosis of CNL is based on exclusion of chronic granulocytic and other types of chronic myeloid leukemias. The classification proposed by Sheperd et al. has proven to be helpful, but it

R. Zittoun; D. Réa; L. Hoang Ngoc; S. Ramond

1994-01-01

224

Interferon-? Inhibits in vitro Mobilization of Eosinophils by Interleukin5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Th2 cytokines play pivotal roles in allergic inflammation, including eosinophilia, and their actions are antagonized by Th1 cytokines, conferring them therapeutic potential. Methods: In this study, we examined the ability of a number of cytokines to suppress the activation of eosinophils that function as effector cells for allergic airway diseases. Results: Interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

Choon-Sik Park; Eun Nam Choi; Jung Sun Kim; Yun Sung Choi; Tai Youn Rhim; Hun Soo Chang; Il Yup Chung

2005-01-01

225

Alveolar haemorrhage in eosinophilic granulomatosis and polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss).  

PubMed

We describe two patients of alveolar haemorrhage in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (eGPA). This report adds to the evidence that pulmonary haemorrhage is a rare but severe manifestation of eGPA. It may not be associated with positive ANCA antibodies and requires aggressive treatment. PMID:24464436

Jagadeesh, L Yalakki; Sangle, S R; Verma, H; D'Cruz, D

2014-08-01

226

Hepatic eosinophil granulocytopoiesis in murine experimental Schistosomiasis mansoni.  

PubMed Central

In livers of mice with acute schistosomiasis eosinophil granulocytopoietic folliculi are described. Exogen stem cells were observed in hepatic sinusoids. Their proliferation and progressive maturation are described. Specific reactions to the presence of worms and their eggs, and Kupffer-cell stimulation and hyperplasia are considered to be responsible for this extramedullary granulocytopoiesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Borojevic, R.; Stocker, S.; Grimaud, J. A.

1981-01-01

227

Induction of Apoptosis in Bronchial Eosinophils: Beneficial or Harmful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Prominent eosinophil infiltration takes place in asthmatic bronchi, and damages bronchial epithelial cells. Aim: This study was designed to investigate whether induction of apoptosis in infiltrated cells in the airways is beneficial or harmful. Methods: A\\/J mice, which are genetically predisposed to be hyperresponsive to acetylcholine, were immunized with ovalbumin (OA) and alum. Thereafter, they were subjected to a

Naomi Yamashita; Makoto Tajima; Junichi Nakano; Hitoshi Arioka; Hidenori Arai; Tadashi Miyasaka; Shigeru Kubota; Ruji Kawashima; Ken Ohta

2000-01-01

228

Altered Eosinophils in Peyer's Patches of Nematode Infected Intestines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that eosinophils will localize in infected intestinal tissue and secrete important mediators that control parasite rejection. A series of infections have been run with Nippostrongylus brasilensis, a nematode, in August rats. The N. brasiliensis infection targets the gastro-intestinal tract of the host, causing a characteristic immune response against the nematodes in this area. The author collected Peyer's

Kara Elizabeth Stark

2001-01-01

229

Diffuse cylindrical bronchiectasis due to eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy in a dog  

PubMed Central

A miniature pinscher-cross was evaluated for chronic coughing. Computed tomography and bronchoscopy revealed severe, diffuse, cylindrical bronchiectasis secondary to eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy. Computed tomography is the gold standard for diagnosis of bronchiectasis in humans, and should be further investigated in dogs as a means of characterizing severity and pattern of disease.

Meler, Erika; Pressler, Barrak M.; Heng, Hock Gan; Baird, Debra K.

2010-01-01

230

Multifocal eosinophilic granuloma presenting as progressive brainstem and cerebellar dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 55 year old woman with multifocal eosinophilic granuloma (MEG) is described. She developed facial numbness and twitching followed by slowly progressive cerebellar symptoms. Two years later polyuria and polydipsia were noted. A CT of the brain showed multifocal enhancing lesions, and MRI showed areas of hyperintensity on T2 weighted studies in the cerebellar peduncles, pons, and midbrain. Radiographs of

T Fukazawa; T Yanagihara; K Hamada; T Hamada

1994-01-01

231

Pathogenic role of mast cells in experimental eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic allergic disease characterized by esophageal intraepithelial eosinophils, extracellular eosinophil granule deposition, induced mast cell accumulation, and epithelial cell hyperplasia. However, the processes involved in the development of a number of these characteristics are largely unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis whether induced mast cell accumulation in the esophagus has a role in promoting EoE pathogenesis. Accordingly, we induced experimental EoE in wild-type mice, mast cell-deficient WWv mice, and mast cell-reconstituted WWv mice. We report that esophageal mast cell numbers increase in parallel with eosinophils in a dose- and time-dependent manner following the induction of allergen-induced EoE. The induced mast cells are localized in the esophageal lamina propria and muscular mucosa but have no influence on promoting esophageal eosinophilia. The 5?-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation analysis indicated that mast cells have a significant role in muscle cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. In addition, the wild-type and mast cell-reconstituted WWv mice showed a comparable number of BrdU+ cells in the esophageal muscular mucosa following allergen-induced EoE. In conclusion, we provide for the first time direct evidence that mast cell promotes muscle cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy and may have a significant role in promoting esophageal functional abnormalities in EoE.

Niranjan, Rituraj; Mavi, Parm; Rayapudi, Madhavi; Dynda, Scott

2013-01-01

232

Constitutive production of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor by hypodense mononuclear eosinophils developed in vitro from hybrid eosinophil/basophil granulocytes.  

PubMed Central

We recently described the development in vitro of cells with granules characteristic of eosinophils and basophils (hybrid granulocytes) from normal human cord blood mononuclear cells cultured for 14 days with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL)-3, rhIL-5, and a soluble basement membrane, Matrigel. Hybrid granulocytes constitutively produced granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and rapidly developed into eosinophils after the exogenous cytokines and Matrigel were removed. To characterize the developmental progression of hybrid granulocytes, cells were maintained for an additional 14 days in medium containing rhIL-3, rhIL-5, and Matrigel. After 28 days, 73% +/- 1% (mean +/- SEM; n = 6) of the nonadherent cells were mononuclear eosinophils, 13% +/- 3% were eosinophils with two or more nuclear lobes, 13% +/- 4% were hybrid granulocytes, and 0.2% +/- 0.1% were basophils. More than 90% of the mononuclear eosinophils were hypodense as determined by centrifugation through metrizamide gradients. After an additional 5 days of culture in medium without exogenous cytokines, 65% +/- 3% (n = 5) of the 28-day cells excluded trypan blue. In contrast, 2% +/- 1% of freshly isolated peripheral blood eosinophils survived 5 days of culture without exogenous cytokines (n = 5). Fifty percent conditioned medium from in vitro derived 28-day mononuclear eosinophils and 14-day hybrid granulocytes maintained the survival of 60% +/- 7% and 77% +/- 7%, respectively, of freshly isolated peripheral blood eosinophils for 72 h, compared with 20% +/- 8% survival in medium alone (n = 3). The eosinophil viability-sustaining activity of 50% mononuclear eosinophil-conditioned medium was neutralized with a GM-CSF antibody. A total of 88% of the 28-day cells exhibited immunochemical staining for GM-CSF. Thus, during eosinophilopoiesis, both hybrid eosinophil/basophil intermediates and immature mononuclear eosinophils exhibit autocrine regulation of viability due to constitutive production of GM-CSF. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Boyce, J A; Friend, D; Gurish, M F; Austen, K F; Owen, W F

1996-01-01

233

A Functional ??TCR/CD3 Complex Distinct from ??T Cells Is Expressed by Human Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophils are effector cells during parasitic infections and allergic responses. However, their contribution to innate immunity has been only recently unravelled. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that human eosinophils express CD3 and ?? T Cell Receptor (TCR) but not ?? TCR. Surface expression of ??TCR/CD3 is heterogeneous between eosinophil donors and inducible by mycobacterial ligands. Surface immunoprecipitation revealed expression of the full ??TCR/CD3 complex. Real-time PCR amplification for CD3, ? and ? TCR constant regions transcripts showed a significantly lower expression in eosinophils than in ??T cells. Limited TCR rearrangements occur in eosinophils as shown by spectratyping analysis of CDR3 length profiles and in situ hybridization. Release by eosinophils of Reactive Oxygen Species, granule proteins, Eosinophil Peroxidase and Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin and cytokines (IFN-? and TNF-?) was observed following activation by ??TCR-specific agonists or by mycobacteria. These effects were inhibited by anti-??TCR blocking antibodies and antagonists. Moreover, ??TCR/CD3 was involved in eosinophil cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide evidence that human eosinophils express a functional ??TCR/CD3 with similar, but not identical, characteristics to ??TCR from ??T cells. We propose that this receptor contributes to eosinophil innate responses against mycobacteria and tumors and may represent an additional link between lymphoid and myeloid lineages.

Woerly, Gaetane; Loiseau, Sylvie; Hermann, Emmanuel; Fournie, Jean-Jacques; Heliot, Laurent; Mattot, Virginie; Soncin, Fabrice; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Dombrowicz, David; Capron, Monique

2009-01-01

234

The effect of in vitro activation and platelet interaction on the CD9 distribution and adhesion properties of human eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and Design: The redistribution of CD9 in peripheral blood eosinophils was investigated with respect to the interaction with platelets during in vitro activation, and whether this interaction exerts influence on eosinophil adhesion properties.¶Materials and Methods: Flow cytometry was used to investigate the CD9 expression in purified eosinophils or eosinophils from different whole blood preparations, with or without platelets present.

E. Fernvik; J. Lundahl; C. G. M. Magnusson; G. Halldén

1999-01-01

235

Therapeutic Strategies for Harnessing Human Eosinophils in Allergic Inflammation, Hypereosinophilic Disorders, and Cancer  

PubMed Central

The eosinophil is a multifunctional granulocyte best known for providing host defense against parasites. Paradoxically, eosinophils are also implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, asthma, and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Emerging evidence also supports the potential for harnessing the cytotoxic power of eosinophils and redirecting it to kill solid tumors. Central to eosinophil physiology is interleukin-5 (IL-5) and its receptor (IL-5R) which is composed of a ligand-specific alpha chain (IL-5R?) and the common beta chain (?c). Eosinophil activation can lead to their degranulation, resulting in rapid release of an arsenal of tissue-destructive proinflammatory mediators and cytotoxic proteins that can be both beneficial and detrimental to the host. This review discusses eosinophil immunobiology and therapeutic strategies for targeting of IL-5 and IL-5R, as well as the potential for harnessing eosinophil cytotoxicity as a tumoricide.

Amini-Vaughan, Zhaleh J.; Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita; Huston, David P.

2013-01-01

236

Therapeutic strategies for harnessing human eosinophils in allergic inflammation, hypereosinophilic disorders, and cancer.  

PubMed

The eosinophil is a multifunctional granulocyte best known for providing host defense against parasites. Paradoxically, eosinophils are also implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, asthma, and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Emerging evidence also supports the potential for harnessing the cytotoxic power of eosinophils and redirecting it to kill solid tumors. Central to eosinophil physiology is interleukin-5 (IL-5) and its receptor (IL-5R) which is composed of a ligand-specific alpha chain (IL-5R?) and the common beta chain (?c). Eosinophil activation can lead to their degranulation, resulting in rapid release of an arsenal of tissue-destructive proinflammatory mediators and cytotoxic proteins that can be both beneficial and detrimental to the host. This review discusses eosinophil immunobiology and therapeutic strategies for targeting of IL-5 and IL-5R, as well as the potential for harnessing eosinophil cytotoxicity as a tumoricide. PMID:22875242

Amini-Vaughan, Zhaleh J; Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita; Huston, David P

2012-10-01

237

Ascaris suum Infection in Calves II. Circulating and Marrow Eosinophil Responses  

PubMed Central

An increment in the number of circulating eosinophils occurred between the 11th and 14th days after infection with Ascaris suum and this increase was generally greater after a challenge infection. Continual infection with small numbers of A. suum eggs over prolonged periods resulted in circulating eosinophil levels which fluctuated and were dose-dependent. The per cent marrow eosinophils always increased after a primary infection and a greater increase usually followed a challenge infection. The maximum increment of marrow eosinophils occurred between the tenth and 12th days and preceded the rise in circulating eosinophils by 36 hours. Antihistamine therapy did not alter eosinophil responses to A. suum. Circulating eosinophilia was not usually reflected by drastic changes in differential white cell counts. However, an increase in total white cell count often followed infection with A. suum and frequently parallelled changes in eosinophil counts. Hemoglobin and P.C.V. values remained within normal limits in A. summ infected calves.

Greenway, J. A.; McCraw, B. M.

1970-01-01

238

Dermatophagoides-farinae-induced pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation in mice.  

PubMed

Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) is one of the most common species of dust mites that induce asthma and allergic rhinitis. We have reported that Der f challenge on sensitized mice elicited a distinct type of hypersensitivity, called early-type hypersensitivity (ETH), in subcutaneous tissues and in airways. The airway ETH was accompanied by a series of inflammatory and immunological events including cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, inflammatory cell infiltration, eosinophilia, and airway hyperreactivity. In the present study, we further defined the course of the Der-f-induced eosinophilia and examined the local cytokine gene expression and the roles of cytokines, mast-cell-derived vasoactive amines, and corticosteroids in the development of pulmonary eosinophilia. BALB/c mice were sensitized with crude extract of Der f in complete Freund's adjuvant and were intranasally challenged with Der f on day 14 after sensitization. The number of blood eosinophils, total and differential leukocyte counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, and the expression of cytokine genes in BAL cells were assessed at various time points after challenge for up to 12 days. The total number of leukocytes in the BAL fluids was increased 6 h after challenge (AC) and peaked at 72 h. The early cellular response in the BAL fluids was dominated by neutrophils which were subsequently replaced by a marked infiltration of eosinophils. The number of eosinophils in BAL fluids increased at 24 h and peaked at 72 h, making up 43% of all cells recovered by BAL. BAL eosinophils declined gradually to normal background levels around day 12. Concurrently, there was a significant reduction in the number of eosinophils in blood 24 h AC. The number of blood eosinophils increased thereafter, reached a peak at 72 h, and remained above baseline level for up to 10 days. Saline challenge did not induce eosinophilia in BAL fluids and blood of sensitized mice. Histopathological examination revealed a mixed granulocytic, monocytic pulmonary inflammation with a large number of eosinophils accumulating within the submucosa of the airways and blood vessels of sensitized mice after challenge. Der f challenge induced a sequential expression pattern of eight cytokine genes in BAL cells. The mRNA of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha strongly expressed throughout the course of the experiment. The IL-6 mRNA expression peaked at 0.5-72 h, IL-10 at 1-6 and 48-72 h, IL-4 at 6-72 h, IL-2 at 6-96 h, IL-5 at 24-72 h, and interferon-gamma at 24-96 h. Intraperitoneal injection of sensitized mice with monoclonal antibody (mAb) to murine IL-5 (TRFK5, 300 micrograms/mouse) 1 h before challenge caused 62% suppression of eosinophils in the BAL fluids. The concomitant accumulation of neutrophils and mononuclear cells, however, was not affected by this treatment. On the other hand, intranasal administration of mAb to murine TNF-alpha (MP6-XT3, 20 micrograms/ mouse), but not IL-5, 1 h before challenge and 24 h AC significantly reduced the numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the BAL fluids. The intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone (50 mg/kg) for a total of four times resulted in total inhibition of the Der-f-induced cellular responses, whereas vasoactive amine antagonists (diphenhydramine, ketanserin and cyprohepatidine) did not show any effect. PMID:8980467

Yu, C K; Yang, B C; Lee, S C; Wang, J Y; Hsiue, T R; Lei, H Y

1997-01-01

239

Eosinophil-mediated injury to lung parenchymal cells and interstitial matrix. A possible role for eosinophils in chronic inflammatory disorders of the lower respiratory tract.  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are a common component of the inflammation of the lower respiratory tract that characterizes the interstitial lung disorders. Bronchoalveolar lavage analyses (n = 680) of 251 patients with interstitial lung disease demonstrated that eosinophils represented greater than 5% of the effector cells comprising the alveolitis in 20% of all lavages. In contrast, lavage of normal individuals (n = 117) showed that eosinophils were never greater than 5% of the total effector cells recovered. To evaluate a possible role for eosinophils in mediating some of the cellular and connective tissue matrix derangements of the lung parenchyma found in interstitial disease, eosinophils were evaluated for the presence of proteases capable of cleaving connective tissue proteins found in the lung and for the ability to mediate cytotoxicity to lung parenchymal cells. Evaluation of guinea pig and human eosinophils demonstrated that eosinophil granules contained a collagenase that specifically cleaved human collagen types I and III, the two major connective tissue components of the human lung parenchyma. In contrast, the eosinophil did not contain an elastase or a nonspecific neutral protease. The eosinophil collagenase appeared to be a metalloprotease, as it was inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate but not by phenylmethanesulfonyl-fluoride or alpha 1-antitrypsin. The eosinophil also has the capacity to injure lung parenchymal cells. Without further stimulation, eosinophils purified from peritoneal exudates of guinea pigs demonstrated spontaneous cytotoxicity for human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1), cat lung epithelial cells (AK-D) and rat lung mesothelial cells (I6B). Under identical conditions, the epithelial cells were more sensitive to eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity than the fibroblasts or mesothelial cells (P less than 0.01), consistent with the clinical observation that in the interstitial disorders, the alveolar epithelial cells are damaged more commonly than fibroblasts or pleural cells. The eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity could be partially inhibited by the antioxidants catalase and dimethylsulfoxide suggesting that toxic oxygen radicals play a role in mediating the cellular damage. Importantly, eosinophils purified from bronchoalveolar lavage of human interstitial lung disease also demonstrated spontaneous cytotoxicity for lung epithelial cells. These observations demonstrate that eosinophils are frequent participants of the alveolitis of the interstitial lung disorders and suggest that these cells have the potential to damage the parenchymal cells and collagen matrix of the lower respiratory tract. Images

Davis, W B; Fells, G A; Sun, X H; Gadek, J E; Venet, A; Crystal, R G

1984-01-01

240

SDA, a DNA Aptamer Inhibiting E- and P-Selectin Mediated Adhesion of Cancer and Leukemia Cells, the First and Pivotal Step in Transendothelial Migration during Metastasis Formation.  

PubMed

Endothelial (E-) and platelet (P-) selectin mediated adhesion of tumor cells to vascular endothelium is a pivotal step of hematogenous metastasis formation. Recent studies have demonstrated that selectin deficiency significantly reduces metastasis formation in vivo. We selected an E- and P-Selectin specific DNA Aptamer (SDA) via SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) with a Kd value of approximately 100 nM and the capability of inhibiting the interaction between selectin and its ligands. Employing human colorectal cancer (HT29) and leukemia (EOL-1) cell lines we could demonstrate an anti-adhesive effect for SDA in vitro. Under physiological shear stress conditions in a laminar flow adhesion assay, SDA inhibited dynamic tumor cell adhesion to immobilized E- or P-selectin. The stability of SDA for more than two hours allowed its application in cell-cell adhesion assays in cell culture medium. When adhesion of HT29 cells to TNF?-stimulated E-selectin presenting human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells was analyzed, inhibition via SDA could be demonstrated as well. In conclusion, SDA is a potential new therapeutic agent that antagonizes selectin-mediated adhesion during metastasis formation in human malignancies. PMID:24699049

Faryammanesh, Rassa; Lange, Tobias; Magbanua, Eileen; Haas, Sina; Meyer, Cindy; Wicklein, Daniel; Schumacher, Udo; Hahn, Ulrich

2014-01-01

241

SDA, a DNA Aptamer Inhibiting E- and P-Selectin Mediated Adhesion of Cancer and Leukemia Cells, the First and Pivotal Step in Transendothelial Migration during Metastasis Formation  

PubMed Central

Endothelial (E-) and platelet (P-) selectin mediated adhesion of tumor cells to vascular endothelium is a pivotal step of hematogenous metastasis formation. Recent studies have demonstrated that selectin deficiency significantly reduces metastasis formation in vivo. We selected an E- and P-Selectin specific DNA Aptamer (SDA) via SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) with a Kd value of approximately 100 nM and the capability of inhibiting the interaction between selectin and its ligands. Employing human colorectal cancer (HT29) and leukemia (EOL-1) cell lines we could demonstrate an anti-adhesive effect for SDA in vitro. Under physiological shear stress conditions in a laminar flow adhesion assay, SDA inhibited dynamic tumor cell adhesion to immobilized E- or P-selectin. The stability of SDA for more than two hours allowed its application in cell-cell adhesion assays in cell culture medium. When adhesion of HT29 cells to TNF?-stimulated E-selectin presenting human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells was analyzed, inhibition via SDA could be demonstrated as well. In conclusion, SDA is a potential new therapeutic agent that antagonizes selectin-mediated adhesion during metastasis formation in human malignancies.

Faryammanesh, Rassa; Lange, Tobias; Magbanua, Eileen; Haas, Sina; Meyer, Cindy; Wicklein, Daniel; Schumacher, Udo; Hahn, Ulrich

2014-01-01

242

Carbonic Anhydrase IV Is Expressed on IL-5-Activated Murine Eosinophils.  

PubMed

Eosinophilia and its cellular activation are hallmark features of asthma, as well as other allergic/Th2 disorders, yet there are few, if any, reliable surface markers of eosinophil activation. We have used a FACS-based genome-wide screening system to identify transcriptional alterations in murine lung eosinophils recruited and activated by pulmonary allergen exposure. Using a relatively stringent screen with false-positive correction, we identified 82 candidate genes that could serve as eosinophil activation markers and/or pathogenic effector markers in asthma. Carbonic anhydrase IV (Car4) was a top dysregulated gene with 36-fold induction in allergen-elicited pulmonary eosinophils, which was validated by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Eosinophil CAR4 expression was kinetically regulated by IL-5, but not IL-13. IL-5 was both necessary and sufficient for induction of eosinophil CAR4. Although CAR4-deficient mice did not have a defect in eosinophil recruitment to the lung, nor a change in eosinophil pH-buffering capacity, allergen-challenged chimeric mice that contained Car4(-/-) hematopoietic cells aberrantly expressed a series of genes enriched in biological processes involved in epithelial differentiation, keratinization, and anion exchange. In conclusion, we have determined that eosinophils express CAR4 following IL-5 or allergen exposure, and that CAR4 is involved in regulating the lung transcriptome associated with allergic airway inflammation; therefore, CAR4 has potential value for diagnosing and monitoring eosinophilic responses. PMID:24808371

Wen, Ting; Mingler, Melissa K; Wahl, Benjamin; Khorki, M Eyad; Pabst, Oliver; Zimmermann, Nives; Rothenberg, Marc E

2014-06-15

243

Proton channel HVCN1 is required for effector functions of mouse eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Background Proton currents are required for optimal respiratory burst in phagocytes. Recently, HVCN1 was identified as the molecule required for the voltage-gated proton channel activity associated with the respiratory burst in neutrophils. Although there are similarities between eosinophils and neutrophils regarding their mechanism for respiratory burst, the role of proton channels in eosinophil functions has not been fully understood. Results In the present study, we first identified the expression of the proton channel HVCN1 in mouse eosinophils. Furthermore, using HVCN1-deficient eosinophils, we demonstrated important cell-specific effector functions for HVCN1. Similar to HVCN1-deficient neutrophils, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils produced significantly less reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation compared with WT eosinophils. In contrast to HVCN1-deficient neutrophils, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils did not show impaired calcium mobilization or migration ability compared with wild-type (WT) cells. Uniquely, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils underwent significantly increased cell death induced by PMA stimulation compared with WT eosinophils. The increased cell death was dependent on NADPH oxidase activation, and correlated with the failure of HVCN1-deficient cells to maintain membrane polarization and intracellular pH in the physiological range upon activation. Conclusions Eosinophils require proton channel HVCN1 for optimal ROS generation and prevention of activation-induced cell death.

2013-01-01

244

Expression and functional roles of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in human eosinophils.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism in asthma links the estrogen and allergic immune responses. The function of estrogen was classically believed to be mediated through its nuclear receptors, i.e., estrogen receptors (ERs). However, recent studies established the important roles of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) as a novel membrane receptor for estrogen. To date, the role of GPER in allergic inflammation is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether GPER might affect the functions of eosinophils, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Here, we demonstrated that GPER was expressed in purified human peripheral blood eosinophils both at the mRNA and protein levels. Although GPER agonist G-1 did not induce eosinophil chemotaxis or chemokinesis, preincubation with G-1 enhanced eotaxin (CCL11)-directed eosinophil chemotaxis. G-1 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and caspase-3 activities. The anti-apoptotic effect was not affected by the cAMP-phospodiesterase inhibitor rolipram or phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors. In contrast to resting eosinophils, G-1 induced apoptosis and increased caspase-3 activities when eosinophils were co-stimulated with IL-5. No effect of G-1 was observed on eosinophil degranulation in terms of release of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). The current study indicates the functional capacities of GPER on human eosinophils and also provides the previously unrecognized mechanisms of interaction between estrogen and allergic inflammation. PMID:24718279

Tamaki, Mami; Konno, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Takeda, Masahide; Itoga, Masamichi; Moritoki, Yuki; Oyamada, Hajime; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Chihara, Junichi; Ueki, Shigeharu

2014-07-01

245

Eosinophils as a novel cell source of prostaglandin D2: autocrine role in allergic inflammation  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin (PG)D2 is a key mediator of allergic inflammatory diseases that is mainly synthesized by mast cells, which constitutively express high levels of the terminal enzyme involved in PGD2 synthesis, the hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS). Here, we investigated whether eosinophils are also able to synthesize, and therefore, supply biologically active PGD2. PGD2 synthesis was evaluated within human blood eosinophils, in vitro-differentiated mouse eosinophils, and eosinophils infiltrating inflammatory site of mouse allergic reaction. Biological function of eosinophil-derived PGD2 was studied by employing inhibitors of synthesis and activity. Constitutive expression of H-PGDS was found within non-stimulated human circulating eosinophils. Acute stimulation of human eosinophils with A23187 (0.1 – 5 ?M) evoked PGD2 synthesis, which was located at the nuclear envelope and was inhibited by pre-treatment with HQL-79 (10 ?M), a specific H-PGDS inhibitor. Pre-stimulation of human eosinophils with arachidonic acid (AA; 10 ?M) or human eotaxin (6 nM) also enhanced HQL-79-sensitive PGD2 synthesis, which, by acting on membrane-expressed specific receptors (DP1 and DP2), displayed an autocrine/paracrine ability to trigger leukotriene (LT)C4 synthesis and lipid body biogenesis, hallmark events of eosinophil activation. In vitro-differentiated mouse eosinophils also synthesized paracrine/autocrine active PGD2 in response to AA stimulation. In vivo, at late time point of the allergic reaction, infiltrating eosinophils found at the inflammatory site appeared as an auxiliary PGD2-synthesizing cell population. Our findings reveal that eosinophils are indeed able to synthesize and secrete PGD2, hence representing during allergic inflammation an extra cell source of PGD2, which functions as an autocrine signal for eosinophil activation.

Luna-Gomes, Tatiana; Magalhaes, Kelly G; Mesquita-Santos, Fabio P.; Bakker-Abreu, Ilka; Samico, Rafaela F.; Molinaro, Raphael; Calheiros, Andrea S.; Diaz, Bruno L.; Bozza, Patricia T.

2011-01-01

246

Upregulation and activation of eosinophil integrins in blood and airway after segmental lung antigen challenge1  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that there are clinically relevant differences in eosinophil integrin expression and activation in patients with asthma. To evaluate this, surface densities and activation states of integrins on eosinophils in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of 19 asthmatic subjects were studied before and 48 h after segmental Ag challenge. At 48 h, there was increased expression of ?D and the N29 epitope of activated ?1 integrins on blood eosinophils and of ?M, ?2, and the mAb24 epitope of activated ?2 integrins on airway eosinophils. Changes correlated with the late-phase fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after whole-lung inhalation of the Ag that was subsequently used in segmental challenge and were greater in subjects defined as dual responders. Increased surface densities of ?M and ?2 and activation of ?2 on airway eosinophils correlated with the concentration of IL-5 in BAL fluid. Activation of ?1 and ?2 on airway eosinophils correlated with eosinophil percentage in BAL. Thus, eosinophils respond to an allergic stimulus by activation of integrins in a sequence that likely promotes eosinophilic inflammation of the airway. Before challenge, ?1 and ?2 integrins of circulating eosinophils are in low-activation conformations, and ?D?2 surface expression is low. After Ag challenge, circulating eosinophils adopt a phenotype with activated ?1 integrins and upregulated ?D?2, changes that are predicted to facilitate eosinophil arrest on VCAM-1 in bronchial vessels. Finally, eosinophils present in IL-5-rich airway fluid have a hyperadhesive phenotype associated with increased surface expression of ?M?2 and activation of ?2 integrins.

Johansson, Mats W.; Kelly, Elizabeth A. B.; Busse, William W.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Mosher, Deane F.

2008-01-01

247

Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... stages are used for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Stage 0 In stage 0 chronic lymphocytic leukemia , there are ... or check-ups. Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment of stage 0 chronic ...

248

Update on Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis and Its Clinical Relevance  

PubMed Central

Summary: Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is caused by a variety of helminthic infections. These worm-specific infections are named after the causative worm genera, the most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Worm parasites enter an organism through ingestion of contaminated water or an intermediate host and can eventually affect the central nervous system (CNS). These infections are potentially serious events leading to sequelae or death, and diagnosis depends on currently limited molecular methods. Identification of parasites in fluids and tissues is rarely possible, while images and clinical examinations do not lead to a definitive diagnosis. Treatment usually requires the concomitant administration of corticoids and anthelminthic drugs, yet new compounds and their extensive and detailed clinical evaluation are much needed. Eosinophilia in fluids may be detected in other infectious and noninfectious conditions, such as neoplastic disease, drug use, and prosthesis reactions. Thus, distinctive identification of eosinophils in fluids is a necessary component in the etiologic diagnosis of CNS infections.

Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Yoshimura, Kentaro

2009-01-01

249

[A case of eosinophilic cystitis presenting with urinary retention].  

PubMed

A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital presenting with urinary retention. Ultrasonography revealed bilateral hydronephrosis and magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis showed diffuse thickening of the bladder wall. The hydronephrosis was improved by urethral balloon catheter. A cystoscopic examination revealed papillary lesions, polypoid yellow lesions and gross mucosal edema in the whole bladder. Pathological examination of transurethral punch biopsy showed no malignancy but inflammatory infiltration in the submucosa of bladder wall with many eosinophils. She performed clean intermittent self-catheterization and was treated with corticosteroids and antihistaminics. Three months after diagnosis, conservative treatment resulted in an excellent relief of symptoms, decrement of residual urine and remission of the bladder lesions in cystoscopy. In women with urinary retention, eosinophilic cystitis (EC) must be considered in the differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of EC presenting with urinary retention reported in the Japanese literature. PMID:17310774

Umemoto, Susumu; Izumi, Koji; Kita, Kaoru; Kanno, Hitomi

2007-01-01

250

Eosinophilic fasciitis. Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic fasciitis is a recently described rheumatic disease, some 20 cases having been reported in abstract form. Previous descriptions have stressed the localized nature of skin involvement, the absence of visceral changes or Raynaud's phenomenon, an association with hypergammaglobulinaemia and eosinophilia, and a good response to corticosteroid therapy. The most conspicuous feature of this entity has been a massive thickening of the subcutaneous fascia, when an adequate (skin down to muscle) biopsy has been performed. We report another case conforming to these general features, with the exception that Raynaud's phenomenon was a prominent symptom. A critical review of the literature suggests that eosinophilic fasciitis should tentatively be regarded as a variant of scleroderma. Images

Bennett, R M; Herron, A; Keogh, L

1977-01-01

251

Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-10-07

252

Dissociation between symptoms and histological severity in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives The relationship between patient symptoms and histological severity of Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) is not known. We created a pediatric EE symptom score (PEESS) and compared the results with histological findings in the esophagus. Methods Subjects ages 3–18 years with a histologic diagnosis of EE or their parent completed a survey rating the frequency and severity of their gastrointestinal symptoms. Scores ranged from 0–98. Eosinophil numbers in esophageal biopsy specimens were correlated with the PEESS. Results Forty-nine subjects completed the PEESS. The symptom score did not correlate with the peak eosinophil count (r2=0.079). Newly diagnosed, untreated EE subjects (N=15) had a mean score of 24.7 ± 16.4 with a modest correlation between the PEESS and the number of eosinophils in the distal esophagus (r2=0.37). The mean PEESS score in the 34 treated patients was lower than in untreated patients [15.6 ± 12.9. p=0.046]. The mean score for treated patients in histologic remission was the same as treated patients with active EE, irrespective of treatment type. Abdominal pain was the most frequent and severe symptom reported. Of 20/34 subjects (58.8%) in histologic remission, 17 (85%) continued to report symptoms with a mean score of 17.4 ± 9.9 (range 1–38). Three children with active histologic EE (10%) reported no symptoms. Conclusions Children with untreated EE had a higher PEESS than treated subjects. Symptoms persisted in 85% of EE patients despite histologic resolution and 10% with active EE reported no symptoms. Our data indicates a dissociation between symptoms and histology in pediatric EE.

Pentiuk, Scott; Putnam, Phillip E.; Collins, Margaret H.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2009-01-01

253

[Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis presenting as livedo racemosa].  

PubMed

As a rare antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) is characterized by asthma, severe peripheral eosinophilia and the presence of extravascular granulomas. Cutaneous involvement usually includes palpable purpura or cutaneous to subcutaneous nodes. We present the case of a 43-year-old woman with EPGA and the unusual cutaneous manifestation of livedo racemosa. PMID:24700024

Klossowski, N; Vordenbäumen, S; Sewerin, P; Braun, S A; Reifenberger, J; Homey, B; Meller, S

2014-04-01

254

IgE, Mast Cells, and Eosinophils in Atopic Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with specific immune and inflammatory mechanisms. Atopy is among\\u000a the major features of the diagnosis criteria for AD but is not an essential feature. Thus, patients diagnosed with AD can\\u000a be atopic or non-atopic. This review focuses on the role of IgE, mast cells, and eosinophils in the pathogenesis of AD.

Fu-Tong Liu; Heidi Goodarzi; Huan-Yuan Chen

255

Glycomic analysis of human mast cells, eosinophils and basophils  

PubMed Central

In allergic diseases such as asthma, eosinophils, basophils and mast cells, through release of preformed and newly generated mediators, granule proteins and cytokines, are recognized as key effector cells. While their surface protein phenotypes, mediator release profiles, ontogeny, cell trafficking and genomes have been generally explored and compared, there has yet to be any thorough analysis and comparison of their glycomes. Such studies are critical to understand the contribution of carbohydrates to the induction and regulation of allergic inflammatory responses and are now possible using improved technologies for detecting and characterizing cell-derived glycans. We thus report here the application of high-sensitivity mass spectrometric-based glycomics methodologies to the analysis of N-linked glycans derived from isolated populations of human mast cells, eosinophils and basophils. The samples were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) screening analyses and MALDI-TOF/TOF sequencing studies. Results reveal substantive quantities of terminal N-acetylglucosamine containing structures in both the eosinophil and the basophil samples, whereas mast cells display greater relative quantities of sialylated terminal epitopes. For the first time, we characterize the cell surface glycan structures of principal allergic effector cells, which by interaction with glycan-binding proteins (e.g. lectins) have the possibility to dictate cellular functions, and might thus have important implications for the pathogenesis of inflammatory and allergic diseases.

North, Simon J; von Gunten, Stephan; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Trollope, Alana; MacGlashan, Donald W; Jang-Lee, Jihye; Dell, Anne; Metcalfe, Dean D; Kirshenbaum, Arnold S; Bochner, Bruce S; Haslam, Stuart M

2012-01-01

256

A case of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis associated with optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

We report a case of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) associated with optic neuropathy. The visual acuity in the right eye was suddenly reduced to no light perception on awakening in the morning. Fundus examination of both eyes on the same day showed no remarkable changes. Emergency computed tomography showed pan-sinusitis bilaterally and a partial defect of the sphenoid bone on the right side. From the clinical findings, the case was diagnosed as optic neuropathy associated with chronic sinusitis. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) was performed on the same day, and all of the major sinuses were found to be filled with highly viscous fluid. Part of the optic canal had a defect probably due to inflammatory invasion from the adjacent sphenoid bone. Steroid therapy was started immediately postoperatively. Histopathological examination of excised polyps showed that numerous eosinophils had invaded the polyps but no hyphae were present. The patient reported that he had bronchial asthma and had had nasal polypectomy. Six months after the ESS and steroid therapy, the patient had a recurrence of the sinusitis. At that time, laboratory examination showed an elevation of total IgE and eosinophil numbers. From the clinical findings and course, this case was diagnosed as ECRS accompanied by optic neuropathy. Although ECRS rarely has ocular complications, the inflammation can spread and the optic nerve can be affected. PMID:21760710

Kurimoto, Takuji; Tonari, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Norihiko; Matsuo, Junko; Oku, Hidehiro; Sugasawa, Jun; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

2011-01-01

257

Biodegradation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Eosinophil Peroxidase  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is one of the major oxidant-producing enzymes during inflammatory states in the human lung. The degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) upon incubation with human EPO and H2O2 is reported. Biodegradation of SWCNTs is higher in the presence of NaBr, but neither EPO alone nor H2O2 alone caused the degradation of nanotubes. Molecular modeling reveals two binding sites for SWCNTs on EPO, one located at the proximal side (same side as the catalytic site) and the other on the distal side of EPO. The oxidized groups on SWCNTs in both cases are stabilized by electrostatic interactions with positively charged residues. Biodegradation of SWCNTs can also be executed in an ex vivo culture system using primary murine eosinophils stimulated to undergo degranulation. Biodegradation is proven by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible-NIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal Raman imaging. Thus, human EPO (in vitro) and ex vivo activated eosinophils mediate biodegradation of SWCNTs: an observation that is relevant to pulmonary responses to these materials.

Andon, Fernando T.; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Yanamala, Naveena; Feng, Weihong; Baygan, Arjang; Chambers, Benedict J.; Hultenby, Kjell; Ye, Fei; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Brandner, Birgit D.; Fornara, Andrea; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Kotchey, Gregg P.; Star, Alexander; Shvedova, Anna A.

2014-01-01

258

Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with eosinophilic enteritis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder that may present with various symptoms. It may involve the gastrointestinal tract in a variety of ways; some of the most well-known ones are transaminitis, lupus mesenteric vasculitis, lupus enteritis and mesenteric vascular leakage. We describe a case of a patient with SLE who presented with a five-month history of diarrhea caused by eosinophilic enteritis. To the best of our knowledge, there are few cases reported in the literature of patients with SLE who initially present with chronic diarrhea due to eosinophilic enteritis. Case presentation A 38-year-old Persian Iranian woman was admitted with a five-month history of diarrhea and abdominal pain. A physical examination showed nothing abnormal. Initially, she had only lymphopenia and mild eosinophilia. No autoimmune or infectious etiology was detected to justify these abnormalities. A thorough evaluation was not helpful in finding the etiology, until she developed a scalp lesion similar to discoid lupus erythematosus. Computed tomography showed small bowel wall thickening. Briefly, she manifested full-blown SLE, and it was revealed that the diarrhea was caused by eosinophilic enteritis. Conclusion Considering SLE in a patient who presents with chronic diarrhea and lymphopenia may be helpful in earlier diagnosis and therapy. This is an original case report of interest to physicians who practice internal medicine, family medicine and gastroenterology.

2011-01-01

259

Deposition process of eosinophilic substance in mouse nasal septum.  

PubMed

An eosinophilic substance is usually observed in the mouse nasal septum, and its volume increases with age. In contrast to descriptions in textbooks defining the eosinophilic substance as amyloid, our previous report revealed that the observed eosinophilic substance is not amyloid, but consisted of collagen and an amorphous material. Furthermore, it was suggested that the amorphous material was produced by the clear hematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained nasal gland epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the deposition process of the amorphous material produced by nasal gland epithelial cells in the interstitium morphologically. In most cases, the amorphous materials in the clear HE-stained nasal gland epithelial cells accumulated at the basal portion. Collagen fibers surrounding the nasal glands partially disappeared, whereas the amorphous material in contact with the rough endoplasmic reticulum of the nasal gland epithelial cells continued to the amorphous material in the interstitium. These findings suggested that the amorphous material produced by the clear HE-stained nasal gland epithelial cells migrated to the interstitium through the partial opening of the basement membrane. PMID:19652481

Doi, Takuya; Kotani, Yuri; Kokoshima, Hiroko; Kanno, Takeshi; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru; Matsui, Takane

2009-07-01

260

Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatments include chemotherapy, other drugs, radiation therapy, stem cell transplants, and targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Once the leukemia ...

261

Eosinophils: Offenders or General Bystanders in Allergic Airway Disease and Pulmonary Immunity?  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils have long been noted to be present in asthma and other forms of pulmonary inflammation, but whether they act as true offenders or merely as bystanders has been a point of uncertainty. However, in recent years, there has been increasing evidence suggesting that eosinophils are not passive cells in the respiratory system, acting only as markers of allergic inflammation. This review discusses key evidence from animal models and human clinical trials that support the importance of eosinophils as active and necessary, rather than passive and unnecessary, to the pathogenesis of allergic airway disease. Analyses that are supportive of important immunoregulatory roles of eosinophils in allergic pulmonary inflammation are also reviewed. Data indicating that eosinophils contribute to viral, bacterial, and mycobacterial defense and clearance are detailed. Continually increasing evidence has supported a new conception of eosinophils as being multifaceted immune cells with complex interactions with other immune cells and their local environment.

Akuthota, Praveen; Xenakis, Jason J.; Weller, Peter F.

2011-01-01

262

Eosinophil-derived cytokines in health and disease: unraveling novel mechanisms of selective secretion  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, our understanding of eosinophils has evolved from that of categorically destructive effector cells to include active participation in immune modulation, tissue repair processes, and normal organ development, both in health and disease. At the core of their newly appreciated functions is the capacity of eosinophils to synthesize, store within intracellular granules, and very rapidly secrete a highly diverse repertoire of cytokines. Mechanisms governing the selective secretion of preformed cytokines from eosinophils are attractive therapeutic targets, and may well be more broadly applicable to other immune cells. Here we discuss recent advances in deciphering pathways of cytokine secretion, both from intact eosinophils, and from tissue-deposited cell-free eosinophil granules, extruded from eosinophils undergoing a lytic cell death.

Melo, Rossana C. N.; Liu, Linying; Xenakis, Jason J.; Spencer, Lisa A.

2012-01-01

263

Platelet-activating factor stimulates cytoplasmic alkalinization and granule acidification in human eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and IL-5 on intracellular pH were investigated in human eosinophils. Purified peripheral blood eosinophils were loaded with the ratiometric fluorescent pH indicator BCECF-AM ester. Stimulation of eosinophils with PAF produced time- dependent alkalinization of the cytoplasm from an initial pH of 7.1±0.04 to 7.5±0.05. A similar alkalinization response was produced by the calcium ionophore,

Jennifer L. Bankers-Fulbright; Gail M. Kephart; Kathleen R. Bartemes; Hirohito Kita; Scott M. O'Grady

2004-01-01

264

TP receptor-mediated release of eosinophil chemotactic activity from human bronchial smooth muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are reports indicating that thromboxane A2 receptors (TP receptors) may stimulate the eosinophil accumulation in the lower airways of asthmatics, however, the mechanisms behind such an effect remain unknown. We quantified the synthesis of eosinophil chemotactic activity and eosinophilic CC chemokines, including CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL24, and CCL26 in primary cultures of human bronchial smooth muscle cells

Yusuke Suzuki; Koichiro Asano; Kyoko Niimi; Jun Miyata; Yoshiki Shiraishi; Koichi Fukunaga; Tetsuya Shiomi; Takeshi Nakajima; Tsuyoshi Oguma; Koichi Sayama; Akitoshi Ishizaka

2008-01-01

265

Eosinophils in the 1990s: new perspectives on their role in health and disease.  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are characterized by their unique crystalloid granules that contain four basic proteins--MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO. The cell has many common features with neutrophils but, unlike that cell type, eosinophils utilize VLA-4/VCAM-1 as an adherence pathway and have a number of other receptors not shared by neutrophils. These include recognition units for IgE (distinct from CD23), and receptors for IL-5, IL-3 and RANTES. Following stimulation with a variety of agents, eosinophils preferentially elaborate LTC4 as the major 5-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid and produce substantial amounts of PAF. Of particular interest is the ability of eosinophils to synthesize a number of cytokines. Thus eosinophils have marked pro-inflammatory potential. There is now convincing evidence that eosinophilia is T-cell dependent. The Th2-type cell, which selectively secretes IL-5 and IL-4, seems particularly involved. IL-5, IL-3 and GM-CSF are required for eosinophil maturation, and cause activation and prolonged survival of the mature cell. IL-5 is unique in that it promotes terminal differentiation of the committed eosinophil precursor and in vivo in mice appears to be sufficient on its own for eosinophil growth from uncommited stem cells. IL-4 selectively upregulates VCAM-1 expression on endothelial cells thus augmenting VLA-4-dependent eosinophil adhesion. The role of eosinophils in disease is complex but in general their numbers are increased in helminthic parasitic disease and atopic allergy and asthma. Eosinophil products can produce many of the pathological features of asthma, and helminthic larvae coated with immunoglobulin or complement are particularly susceptible to eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity. Eosinopenia is often related to acute inflammation or stress.

Wardlaw, A. J.

1994-01-01

266

Regular salbutamol use increases CXCL8 responses in asthma: relationship to the eosinophil response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular salbutamol use can exacerbate allergen-induced airway eosinophilia in asthmatics, but its effect on airway eosinophil chemokine responses is unknown. Asthmatic subjects (n=14) were treated for 10 days with placebo or salbutamol in a double-blind, cross-over study, then given same-dose allergen challenges. Their sputa were then analysed 1 and 7 h later for a panel of eosinophil-related cytokines. Eosinophils from

J. R. Gordon; V. A. Swystun; F. Li; X. Zhang; B. E. Davis; P. Hull; D. W. Cockcroft

2003-01-01

267

An Alternate STAT6Independent Pathway Promotes Eosinophil Influx into Blood during Allergic Airway Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEnhanced eosinophil responses have critical roles in the development of allergic diseases. IL-5 regulates the maturation, migration and survival of eosinophils, and IL-5 and eotaxins mediate the trafficking and activation of eosinophils in inflamed tissues. CD4+ Th2 cells are the main producers of IL-5 and other cells such as NK also release this cytokine. Although multiple signalling pathways may be

Wan Wang; Philip M. Hansbro; Paul S. Foster; Ming Yang; Karen Mossman

2011-01-01

268

Critical Role of Mitochondria, but Not Caspases, during Glucocorticosteroid-Induced Human Eosinophil Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs used in the treatment of eosinophilic disorders. These molecules di- rectly promote eosinophil apoptosis, yet the molecular mech- anisms regulating this process remain ill-defined. We show here that stimulation of human peripheral blood eosinophils with dexamethasone induced DNA fragmentation, chromatin and cytoplasm condensation, and caspase-3 activation, as assessed by the proteolysis of its zymogen form

Séverine Létuvé; Anne Druilhe; Martine Grandsaigne; Michel Aubier; Marina Pretolani

2002-01-01

269

Expression of Fc?RIII (CD16) on human peripheral blood eosinophils increases in allergic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Blood eosinophils have mRNA for Fc?RIIIB (CD16) but no or minimal spontaneous CD16 expression. Because IFN-? and chemotactic factors induce eosinophil CD16 expression in vitro, we postulated that blood eosinophils could express CD16. Objective: Blood of nonallergic controls and subjects with allergic rhinitis, allergic and nonallergic asthma, or hypereosinophilia of various etiologies were analyzed for leukocyte CD16 surface expression.

Francis Davoine; Sophie Lavigne; Jamila Chakir; Claudine Ferland; Marie-Ève Boulay; Michel Laviolette

2002-01-01

270

Regulation of Functional Phenotypes of Cord Blood-Derived Eosinophils by g-Secretase Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils develop from stem cells in the bone marrow under the influence of hematopoietic cytokines, particularly IL-5. Previously, we have demonstrated that blockage of Notch signaling by a g-secretase inhibitor (GSI) promotes the differentiation of umbil- ical cord blood (UCB)-derived eosinophils. These highly major basic protein (MBP)-positive eosinophils cultured in the presence of the inhibitor lack the migratory response to

Jin Hyun Kang; Hye Lee; Hyemyung Seo; Jong Sook Park; Key Hyun Nam; Soon Young Shin; Choon-Sik Park

2007-01-01

271

Organ-specific eosinophilic disorders of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that increase in various tissues in a variety of disorders. Locally, they can be involved in the initiation and propagation of diverse inflammatory responses. In this review, the clinical association of eosinophils with diseases of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract is summarized. An approach to determining the causal role of eosinophils in these diseases is presented. Recent findings concerning molecular diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed.

Simon, Dagmar; Wardlaw, Andrew; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2010-01-01

272

Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages.  

PubMed

Eosinophils in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have been implicated in metabolic homeostasis and the maintenance of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs). The absence of eosinophils can lead to adiposity and systemic insulin resistance in experimental animals, but what maintains eosinophils in adipose tissue is unknown. We show that interleukin-5 (IL-5) deficiency profoundly impairs VAT eosinophil accumulation and results in increased adiposity and insulin resistance when animals are placed on a high-fat diet. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) are resident in VAT and are the major source of IL-5 and IL-13, which promote the accumulation of eosinophils and AAM. Deletion of ILC2s causes significant reductions in VAT eosinophils and AAMs, and also impairs the expansion of VAT eosinophils after infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, an intestinal parasite associated with increased adipose ILC2 cytokine production and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Further, IL-33, a cytokine previously shown to promote cytokine production by ILC2s, leads to rapid ILC2-dependent increases in VAT eosinophils and AAMs. Thus, ILC2s are resident in VAT and promote eosinophils and AAM implicated in metabolic homeostasis, and this axis is enhanced during Th2-associated immune stimulation. PMID:23420878

Molofsky, Ari B; Nussbaum, Jesse C; Liang, Hong-Erh; Van Dyken, Steven J; Cheng, Laurence E; Mohapatra, Alexander; Chawla, Ajay; Locksley, Richard M

2013-03-11

273

5-Lipoxygenase-Dependent Recruitment of Neutrophils and Macrophages by Eotaxin-Stimulated Murine Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LT)B4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1) were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24?h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24?h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS) mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5-LO is the initial recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin, not the secondary neutrophil accumulation. Eosinophil-dependent recruitment of neutrophils in naive BALB/c mice was associated with increased binding of bacteria.

Luz, Ricardo Alves; Xavier-Elsas, Pedro; de Luca, Bianca; Masid-de-Brito, Daniela; Cauduro, Priscila Soares; Gondar Arcanjo, Luiz Carlos; Cordeiro Faria dos Santos, Ana Carolina; de Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Maria; Gaspar-Elsas, Maria Ignez Capella

2014-01-01

274

Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have been implicated in metabolic homeostasis and the maintenance of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs). The absence of eosinophils can lead to adiposity and systemic insulin resistance in experimental animals, but what maintains eosinophils in adipose tissue is unknown. We show that interleukin-5 (IL-5) deficiency profoundly impairs VAT eosinophil accumulation and results in increased adiposity and insulin resistance when animals are placed on a high-fat diet. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) are resident in VAT and are the major source of IL-5 and IL-13, which promote the accumulation of eosinophils and AAM. Deletion of ILC2s causes significant reductions in VAT eosinophils and AAMs, and also impairs the expansion of VAT eosinophils after infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, an intestinal parasite associated with increased adipose ILC2 cytokine production and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Further, IL-33, a cytokine previously shown to promote cytokine production by ILC2s, leads to rapid ILC2-dependent increases in VAT eosinophils and AAMs. Thus, ILC2s are resident in VAT and promote eosinophils and AAM implicated in metabolic homeostasis, and this axis is enhanced during Th2-associated immune stimulation.

Molofsky, Ari B.; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Liang, Hong-Erh; Van Dyken, Steven J.; Cheng, Laurence E.; Mohapatra, Alexander; Chawla, Ajay

2013-01-01

275

Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

1984-02-01

276

Nilotinib and Imatinib Mesylate After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

2014-04-25

277

Population cytogenetics of leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic myelogenous and acute leukemia are reviewed with regard to data obtained prior to banding of chromosomes, data obtained with banding of chromosomes, and pH-negative patients. Abnormal chromosome patterns of patients are described. Relationships of chromosome abnormalities in acute and chronic myelogenous leukemia are discussed and chromosomal abnormalities in other neoplastic conditions are reviewed. (HLW)

1975-01-01

278

Cytogenetics in acute leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic analyses in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have revealed a great number of non-random chromosome abnormalities. In many instances, molecular studies of these abnormalities identified specific genes implicated in the process of leukemogenesis. The more common chromosome aberrations have been associated with specific laboratory and clinical characteristics, and are now being used as diagnostic and

Krzysztof Mrózek; Nyla A Heerema; Clara D Bloomfield

2004-01-01

279

Hairy cell leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 24 patients with hairy cell leukemia, histological and fine structural findings from biopsies of the bone marrow are reported and their validity is compared with other diagnostic procedures available. Diagnosis by light microscopy of anterior iliac crest biopsies obtained by the method of myelotomy is possible with a high degree of accuracy. The differentiation of hairy cell leukemia from

K. F. Vykoupil; J. Thiele; A. Georgii

1976-01-01

280

The Family Leukemia Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

Pollitt, Eleanor

1976-01-01

281

Leukemia Steering Committee Roster  

Cancer.gov

Leukemia Steering Committee Roster Co-chairs Jerry Radich, M.D.Fred Hutchinson Cancer CenterSeattle, WA Wendy Stock, M.D.University of ChicagoChicago, IL Members Fred Appelbaum, M.D.Fred Hutchinson Cancer CenterSeattle, WA Deborah Banker, Ph.D.Leukemia

282

Immunotherapy for Pediatric Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of leukemia in childhood. Despite this, leukemia remains a leading cause of pediatric cancer-related mortality and the prognosis is guarded for individuals with relapsed or refractory disease. Standard therapies are associated with a wide array of acute and long-term toxicities and further treatment intensification may not be tolerable or beneficial. The curative potential of allogeneic stem cell transplantation is due in part to the graft-versus-leukemia effect, which provides evidence for the therapeutic capacity of immune-based therapies. In recent years there have been significant advances in the development and application of immunotherapy in the treatment of leukemias, including the demonstration of activity in chemotherapy-resistant cases. This review summarizes immunotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of pediatric leukemia including current results and future directions.

Shah, Nirali N.; Dave, Hema; Wayne, Alan S.

2013-01-01

283

Acute leukemia in women.  

PubMed

The treatment and survival outcome of acute leukemia in women is generally similar to that of men. However, acute leukemia in women poses additional challenges in clinical practice. In addition to important precautions during therapy, such as prevention of abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women and therapy during pregnancy, women who are survivors of acute leukemia face unique and potentially long-term health-related problems. In this review, we address the aforementioned issues, as well as the various health and psychosocial challenges faced by women who survive childhood leukemia during their path to adulthood. Finally, we address the issue of therapy-related acute leukemia in the category of women who are survivors of breast and ovarian cancer. PMID:20187729

Lo-Coco, Francesco; Fouad, Tamer M; Ramadan, Safaa M

2010-03-01

284

Immunotoxins for leukemia.  

PubMed

Unconjugated monoclonal antibodies that target hematopoietic differentiation antigens have been developed to treat hematologic malignancies. Although some of these have activity against chronic lymphocytic leukemia and hairy cell leukemia, in general, monoclonal antibodies have limited efficacy as single agents in the treatment of leukemia. To increase their potency, the binding domains of monoclonal antibodies can be attached to protein toxins. Such compounds, termed immunotoxins, are delivered to the interior of leukemia cells based on antibody specificity for cell surface target antigens. Recombinant immunotoxins have been shown to be highly cytotoxic to leukemic blasts in vitro, in xenograft model systems, and in early-phase clinical trials in humans. These agents will likely play an increasing role in the treatment of leukemia. PMID:24578503

Wayne, Alan S; Fitzgerald, David J; Kreitman, Robert J; Pastan, Ira

2014-04-17

285

IL-3 and TNF? increase Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Receptor (TSLPR) expression on eosinophils and enhance TSLP-stimulated degranulation  

PubMed Central

Background Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and eosinophils are prominent components of allergic inflammation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether TSLP could activate eosinophils, focusing on measuring the regulation of TSLPR expression on eosinophils and degranulation in response to TSLP, as well as other eosinophil activation responses. Methods Eosinophil mRNA expression of TSLPR and IL-7R? was examined by real-time quantitative PCR of human eosinophils treated with TNF? and IL-5 family cytokines, and TSLPR surface expression on eosinophils was analyzed by flow cytometry. Eosinophils were stimulated with TSLP (with and without pre-activation with TNF? and IL-3) and evaluated for release of eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN), phosphorylation of STAT5, and survival by trypan blue exclusion. A blocking antibody for TSLPR was used to confirm the specificity of TSLP mediated signaling on eosinophil degranulation. Results Eosinophil expression of cell surface TSLPR and TSLPR mRNA was upregulated by stimulation with TNF? and IL-3. TSLP stimulation resulted in release of EDN, phosphorylation of STAT5 as well as promotion of viability and survival. TSLP-stimulated eosinophil degranulation was inhibited by a functional blocking antibody to TSLPR. Pre-activation of eosinophils with TNF? and IL-3 promoted eosinophil degranulation at lower concentrations of TSLP stimulation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that eosinophils are activated by TSLP and that eosinophil degranulation in response to TSLP may be enhanced on exposure to cytokines present in allergic inflammation, indicating that the eosinophil has the capacity to participate in TSLP-driven allergic responses.

2012-01-01

286

Effects of astragaloside IV on eosinophil activation induced by house dust mite allergen.  

PubMed

Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) has been noted for its reduction of eosinophilic airway inflammation in a murine model of chronic asthma. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in this anti-inflammatory phenomenon, the effect of AS-IV on human blood eosinophils was studied in vitro. Eosinophils were isolated from the blood of patients with mild atopic asthma, preincubated with AS-IV for 1 h and stimulated in the presence or absence of the house dust mite allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1 for 4 h. The survival of the eosinophils at 48 h was investigated using trypan blue and the surface expression of CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by the eosinophils was analyzed using flow cytometry. The secretion of cytokines in the supernatants and the chemotaxis of the eosinophils were measured by ELISA and the transwell system, respectively. Der p 1 was found to prolong the survival of the eosinophils. Similarly, the expression of CCR3 and ICAM-1, secretion of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-5, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and the granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and transmigration of the eosinophils were increased in the presence of Der p 1. However, these inductive effects on the eosinophils were significantly inhibited by AS-IV (50 µg/ml). These findings suggest that AS-IV modulates eosinophil activation and trafficking in response to Der p 1 and may therefore be a useful therapeutic option in eosinophilic asthma. PMID:22505212

Gu, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Desheng; Wang, Yuwei; Du, Qiang; Cai, Jiankang

2012-07-01

287

COPD exacerbation severity and frequency is associated with impaired macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic airway inflammation is observed in 10-30% of COPD subjects. Whether increased eosinophils or impairment in their clearance by macrophages is associated with the severity and frequency of exacerbations is unknown. Methods We categorised 103 COPD subjects into 4 groups determined by the upper limit of normal for their cytoplasmic macrophage red hue (<6%), an indirect measure of macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils, and area under the curve sputum eosinophil count (?3%/year). Eosinophil efferocytosis by monocyte-derived macrophages was studied in 17 COPD subjects and 8 normal controls. Results There were no differences in baseline lung function, health status or exacerbation frequency between the groups: A-low red hue, high sputum eosinophils (n?=?10), B-high red hue, high sputum eosinophils (n?=?16), C-low red hue, low sputum eosinophils (n?=?19) and D- high red hue, low sputum eosinophils (n?=?58). Positive bacterial culture was lower in groups A (10%) and B (6%) compared to C (44%) and D (21%) (p?=?0.01). The fall in FEV1 from stable to exacerbation was greatest in group A (?FEV1 [95 % CI] -0.41 L [-0.65 to -0.17]) versus group B (-0.16 L [-0.32 to -0.011]), C (-0.11 L [-0.23 to -0.002]) and D (-0.16 L [-0.22 to -0.10]; p?=?0.02). Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils was impaired in COPD versus controls (86 [75 to 92]% versus 93 [88 to 96]%; p?=?0.028); was most marked in group A (71 [70 to 84]%; p?=?0.0295) and was inversely correlated with exacerbation frequency (r?=?-0.63; p?=?0.006). Conclusions Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils is impaired in COPD and is related to the severity and frequency of COPD exacerbations.

2014-01-01

288

Eosinophilic ulcer of oral mucosa: a case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Eosinophilic Ulcer (EU) is a rare self-limiting chronic benign lesion of the oral mucosa with pathogenesis still unclear, however it may resemble malignancies, traumatic ulcerations and some infections such as deep fungal infections, tuberculosis and primary syphilis. This is a case report of a patient with EU in the lateral border of the tongue with no history of associated trauma and refractory to treatment with drugs. The ulcer rapidly healed after an incisional biopsy and the definite diagnosis was achieved only combining histologic findings and the clinical follow-up.

Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Passador-Santos, Fabricio; Capella, Diogo L.; Manfro, Gabriel; Nodari, Rudy Jose; Presta, Andreia Antoniuk

2012-01-01

289

Hiccups as a Presenting Symptom of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic esophageal disease increasingly recognized in adults for its gastrointestinal manifestations. This paper discusses a young woman with EoE who presented with persistent hiccups and intermittent dyspepsia. The patient was initially treated with trials of both H2 blocker and proton pump inhibitor. However, her hiccups resolved only after treatment with topical fluticasone. A repeat upper endoscopy while on steroid treatment demonstrated both histologic remission of EoE and resolution of esophageal trachealization. Our patient's clinical course supports an association between hiccups and EoE, suggesting that EoE be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with refractory hiccups.

Levy, Alexander N.; Rahaman, Soroya M.; Bonis, Peter A.; Javid, Golrokh; Leung, John

2012-01-01

290

Exenatide-induced eosinophilic sclerosing lipogranuloma at the injection site.  

PubMed

: Sclerosing lipogranuloma is a granulomatous reaction to the injection of a high-viscosity fluid in the tissues for the cosmetic purpose of improving body contour; lesions on the extremities and buttocks are commonly the results of injections of therapeutic agents in oily vehicles. Exenatide, once-weekly injection, is a therapeutic method for patients with type 2 diabetes. Here, we describe a case of exenatide once weekly induced eosinophilic sclerosing lipogranuloma at the injection site of a 62-year-old patient. To the best of our knowledge, the histopathologic features of this adverse event have not been reported in the medical literature. PMID:24366197

Shan, Shi-Jun; Guo, Ying

2014-06-01

291

Clinical implications and pathogenesis of esophageal remodeling in eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), remodeling changes are manifest histologically in the epithelium and subepithelium where lamina propria fibrosis, expansion of the muscularis propria, and increased vascularity occur. The clinical symptoms and complications of EoE are largely consequences of esophageal remodeling. Available therapies have demonstrated variable ability to reverse existing remodeling changes of the esophagus. Systemic therapies have the potential of addressing subepithelial remodeling. Esophageal dilation remains a useful, adjunctive therapeutic maneuver in symptomatic adults with esophageal stricture. As novel treatments emerge, it is essential that therapeutic end points account for the fundamental contributions of esophageal remodeling to overall disease activity. PMID:24813517

Hirano, Ikuo; Aceves, Seema S

2014-06-01

292

Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia Following Secondhand Cigarette Smoke Exposure  

PubMed Central

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a disease characterized by an acute febrile onset, eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and a dramatic response to corticosteroids. Although many studies have reported a close relationship between direct cigarette smoking and AEP, few studies have identified an association between passive smoking and AEP. Here, we report a case of AEP in a 19-year-old female with cough, fever, and dyspnea after 4 weeks of intense exposure to secondhand smoke for 6 to 8 hours a day in an enclosed area.

Chung, Min Kyung; Lee, Seok Jeong; Kim, Mi Yeon; Lee, Jin Hwa; Chang, Jung Hyun; Sim, Sung Shin

2014-01-01

293

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a young girl – long term remission under Montelukast  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are an emerging disease entity characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. Oral steroids can be still considered as first line treatment. Unfortunately relapses are quite common. Usually long term low-dose prednisone or immunosuppressive therapy is required, which is especially problematic in young patients. Thus a reliable steroid sparing agent with low side effects suitable

Ivo Quack; Lorenz Sellin; Nikolaus J Buchner; Dirk Theegarten; Lars C Rump; Bernhard F Henning

2005-01-01

294

Clinical assessment of asthma severity partially corresponds to sputum eosinophilic airway inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the aim to evaluate the relationship between sputum eosinophil percentages and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) concentrations, as markers of airway inflammation, and different levels of asthma severity, we examined 223 patients consecutively observed in our asthma clinic. Diagnosis of asthma was made according to internationally accepted criteria. Asthma severity was evaluated according to frequency of symptoms, FEV1, peak expiratory

M. L Bartoli; E Bacci; S Carnevali; S Cianchetti; F. L Dente; A Di Franco; D Giannini; M Taccola; B Vagaggini; P. L Paggiaro

2004-01-01

295

Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Mediates Antiapoptotic Signals Partially via p38 MAP Kinase Activation in Human Eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a proinflammatory cytokine with many biological effects on a variety of cells. In particular, TNF-? has been shown to act as a death or survival factor which mediates apoptosis or antiapoptotic signals in various types of cells. In eosinophils, TNF-? has been reported to activate eosinophil functions. However, it is not clearly defined whether TNF-?

Kayo Tsukahara; Atsuhito Nakao; Masaki Hiraguri; Satoshi Miike; Mizuko Mamura; Yasushi Saito; Itsuo Iwamoto

1999-01-01

296

Eosinophilic granuloma of the head and neck: CT and MRI features in three cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the radiological findings and more specifically the MRI features in three typical cases of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis of the head and neck. All three cases were of solitary eosinophilic granuloma of bone: two mandibular and one temporal bone lesion. Reports on the MRI features of head and neck eosinophilic granulomas are rare.

R. Hermans; B. De Foer; M.-H. Smet; J. Leysen; L. Feenstra; E. Fossion; A. L. Baert

1994-01-01

297

Diethylcarbamazine and Non-Diethylcarbamazine Related Bancroftian Granuloma: An Immunohistochemical Study of Eosinophil Toxic Proteins  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested, mostly using in vitro experiments, that defenses against parasites involve mainly activated eosinophils and their toxic proteins, such as major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Eosinophil degranulation has been described around degenerating onchocercal microfilariae in patients treated with diethylcarbamazine (DEC). In bancroftian filariasis, traditional histopathologic studies have shown remarkable numbers of eosinophils in granulomatous lesions associated with both DEC-induced and spontaneous death of adult Wuchereria bancrofti parasites. No immunohistochemical study targeting eosinophil degranulation has been previously performed in these granulomas, which are found mainly within intrascrotal lymphatic vessels. This investigation was undertaken in 22 (12 DEC-treated and 10 untreated) male patients in order to determine the immunohistochemical expressions of MBP, EPO and ECP in bancofitian granulomas, using the indirect method. Stained intact esosinophils, as well as granular, extra-cellular material positive for all three proteins, were found in all granulomas. The immunohistochemical patterns were similar in both DEC-treated and untreated cases, irrespective of microfilaremia, blood eosinophilia, and granuloma age. Positive intact cells were observed mostly at the periphery of the granulomas, whereas granular material predominated in central areas around dead or degenerating parasites. These results indicate that eosinophils accumulate in the granulomas and degranulate preferentially in close proximity to degenerating or dead adult parasites. In bancroftian granulomas, influx and degranulation of eosinophils are considered a consequence of parasite death, rather than its cause.

Figueredo-Silva, Jose; Cavalcanti, Carmelita; Montenegro, Luciano Tavares; Noroes, Joaquim; Dreyer, Gerusa

2010-01-01

298

Salbutamol delays human eosinophil apoptosis via a cAMP-dependent mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils play a major role in asthma. One described mechanism leading to the impaired clearance of these cells from the lung is the delay in their programmed cell death (apoptosis). ?2-Adrenoceptor agonists have been shown to prolong survival and delay apoptosis of eosinophils. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms, especially the role of cAMP pathway,

Hannu Kankaanranta; Jouni Parkkonen; Pinja Ilmarinen-Salo; Mark A. Giembycz; Eeva Moilanen

2011-01-01

299

TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is based on the presence of > or = 15 eosinophils/hpf in the esophagus of a patient with symptoms of esophageal dysfunction in whom GERD is excluded. EoE is likely mediated by interaction of environmental al...

D. Broide S. Aceves

2013-01-01

300

Platelet-activating factor. A potent chemotactic and chemokinetic factor for human eosinophils.  

PubMed Central

Platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether), an inflammatory mediator with a wide range of biological activities including neutrophil aggregation and chemotaxis, was studied for its effect on human eosinophil locomotion (chemotaxis and chemokinesis). Human eosinophils (25-95% purity) were obtained from donors with a variety of diseases associated with hypereosinophilia. PAF-acether elicited directional locomotion of eosinophils, in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, at concentrations from 10(-5) to 10(-8) M; lyso-PAF had minimal activity over the same dose range. Compared with PAF-acether, the eosinophil locomotory responsiveness of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), histamine, and the valyl- and alanyl-eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (ECF-A) tetrapeptides was negligible. Conversely, neutrophil responsiveness to PAF-acether (optimum 10(-6) M) was comparable in effect to LTB4 (optimum dose 10(-8) M). It was shown that PAF-acether elicited both chemotaxis and chemokinesis of eosinophils. Comparison of normal density and light density eosinophils revealed no qualitative difference in the response to PAF-acether and the other chemoattractants, although the light density cells seemed to demonstrate a greater degree of locomotion to PAF-acether and LTB4. Thus, PAF-acether appears to be a potent eosinophilotactic agent which may play a role in inflammatory reactions characterized by eosinophil infiltration.

Wardlaw, A J; Moqbel, R; Cromwell, O; Kay, A B

1986-01-01

301

Monoclonal antibodies distinguish between storage and secreted forms of eosinophil cationic protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic effects of eosinophils on parasites1 and cells2 are due largely to the secretion of various granule proteins, following stimulation3. In order to study this secretory process (degranulation) further, we have raised mouse monoclonal antibodies against both human eosinophil granule extracts and secretion products. From immunocytochemical studies it appears that one antibody, EG1, recognized both the storage and secreted

Po-Chun Tai; Christopher J. F. Spry; Christer Peterson; Per Venge; Inge Olsson

1984-01-01

302

Role of CCL11 in Eosinophilic Lung Disease during Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major viral pathogen of infants and the elderly. Significant morbidity is caused by an overexuberant mixed lung cell infiltrate, which is thought to be driven by chemokines. One of the main chemotactic mediators responsible for the movement of eosinophils is CCL11 (eotaxin). Using a mouse model of eosinophilic bronchiolitis induced by RSV, we show

Stephen P. Matthews; John S. Tregoning; Anthony J. Coyle; Tracy Hussell; Peter J. M. Openshaw

2005-01-01

303

Interplay of Adaptive Th2 Immunity with Eotaxin-3\\/CC Chemokine Receptor 3 in Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently described disorder associated with atopy. Although studies of esophageal tissue suggest that Th2 cytokines and eotaxin-3 may be crucial in disease pathogenesis, little is known about the systemic immunological phenotypes of children with EE. Objectives: To define the phenotypes of peripheral blood eosinophils and lymphocytes in EE and to examine for correlations

Jennifer Z. Bullock; Joyce M Villanueva; Carine Blanchard; Alexandra H Filipovich; Philip E Putnam; Margaret H. Collins; Kimberly A. Risma; Rachel M. Akers; Cassie L. Kirby; Bridget K. Buckmeier; Simon P. Hogan; Marc E. Rothenberg

2007-01-01

304

Unusual Presentation of Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia with "Reversed Halo Sign": A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The reversed halo sign (RHS) may sometimes be seen in patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), but is rarely associated with other diseases. Herein, we present a case of a 21-year-old woman with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of RHS. This is an unusual and rare presentation of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.

Gholamnejad, Mahdia; Rezaie, Nader

2014-01-01

305

A critical role for eotaxin in experimental oral antigen-induced eosinophilic gastrointestinal allergy  

PubMed Central

Despite marked advances in the understanding of allergic responses, the mechanisms regulating gastrointestinal allergy are not very well understood. We have developed a model of antigen-induced eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal allergy and characterized the role of eotaxin and IL-5. Challenge of allergen-sensitized mice with oral allergen, in the form of enteric-coated beads, resulted in marked allergen-specific IgG1 and IgE, Th2-type (IL-4 and IL-5) cytokine production, and eosinophil accumulation in the blood and small intestine. In the genetic absence of eotaxin, a chemokine constitutively expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, eosinophil recruitment into the small intestine was ablated, and these mice developed enhanced eosinophil accumulation in the blood compared with wild-type mice. Interestingly, in the absence of IL-5, allergen challenge promoted partial eosinophil accumulation into the small intestine and a decline in circulating eosinophil levels. Collectively, these results establish that the accumulation of gastrointestinal eosinophils is antigen induced, can occur independent of IL-5, and provides a molecular mechanism to explain the dichotomy between peripheral blood and tissue eosinophilia. Furthermore, eotaxin is identified as a critical regulator of antigen-induced eosinophilic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract.

Hogan, Simon P.; Mishra, Anil; Brandt, Eric B.; Foster, Paul S.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2000-01-01

306

Stimulation of P2 purinergic receptors induces the release of eosinophil cationic protein and interleukin-8 from human eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Extracellular nucleotides are the focus of increasing attention for their role as extracellular mediators since they are released into the extracellular environment in a regulated manner and/or as a consequence of cell damage. Here, we show that human eosinophils stimulated with different nucleotides release eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and the chemokine interleukin 8 (IL-8), and that release of these two proteins has a different nucleotide requirement. Release of ECP was triggered in a dose-dependent manner by ATP, UTP and UDP, but not by 2?-&3?-o-(4-benzoyl-benzoyl)adenosine 5?-triphosphate (BzATP), ADP and ?,?-methylene adenosine 5? triphosphate (?,?-meATP). Release of IL-8 was triggered by UDP, ATP, ?,?-meATP and BzATP, but not by UTP or ADP. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin abrogated nucleotide-stimulated ECP but not IL-8 release. Release of IL-8 stimulated by BzATP was fully blocked by the P2X7 blocker KN-62, while release triggered by ATP was only partially inhibited. IL-8 secretion due to UDP was fully insensitive to KN-62 inhibition. Priming of eosinophils with GM-CSF increased IL-8 secretion irrespectively of the nucleotide used as a stimulant. It is concluded that extracellular nucleotides trigger secretion of ECP by stimulating a receptor of the P2Y subfamily (possibly P2Y2), while, on the contrary, nucleotide-stimulated secretion of IL-8 can be due to activation of both P2Y (P2Y6) and P2X (P2X1 and P2X7) receptors.

Idzko, Marco; Panther, Elisabeth; Bremer, Hinrich C; Sorichter, Stephan; Luttmann, Werner; Virchow, Christian J; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Herouy, Yared; Norgauer, Johannes; Ferrari, Davide

2003-01-01

307

Changes in CD11b and L-selectin Expression on Eosinophils Are Mediated by Human Lung Fibroblasts In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic airway infiltration is a central feature in asthma. Eosinophils recovered from bronchoal- veolar fluid show an activated phenotype, e.g., increased CD11b and decreased L-selectin expression. We investigated whether lung fibroblasts are able to activate eosinophils in vitro , and if so, which activating factor is most important. CD11b and L-selectin expression of isolated peripheral blood eosinophils were measured by

FOKJE M. SPOELSTRA; HESSEL HOVENGA; JACOBIEN A. NOORDHOEK; DIRKJE S. POSTMA; HENK F. KAUFFMAN

308

Accumulation of CXCR3Expressing Eosinophils and Increased Concentration of Its Ligands (IP10 and Mig) in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Since human peripheral eosinophils have been shown to migrate to the CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) ligands IFN-?-inducible protein 10 (IP10) and monokine induced by IFN-? (Mig), this confirms that CXCR3 is functionally expressed on these cells. IP10 expression has been shown to be increased in the airways of asthmatics. Eosinophil accumulations are found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)

Shigeki Katoh; Kiyoyasu Fukushima; Nobuhiro Matsumoto; Naomi Ehara; Kiyoshi Matsumoto; Akira Yamauchi; Mitsuomi Hirashima

2005-01-01

309

Localization of Eosinophilic Esophagitis from H&E stained images using multispectral imaging  

PubMed Central

This study is an initial investigation on the capability of multispectral imaging to capture subtle spectral information that would enable the automatic delineation between the eosinophilic esophagitis and other eosin stained tissue components, especially the RBCs. In the method, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the spectral transmittance samples of the different tissue components, excluding however the transmittance samples of the eosinophilic esophagitis. From the average spectral error configuration of the eosinophilic esophagitis transmittance samples, i.e. the difference between the actual transmittance and the estimated transmittance using m PC vectors, we indentified two spectral bands by which we can localize the eosinophils. Initial results show the possibility of automatically localizing the eosinophilic esophagitis by utilizing spectral information.

2011-01-01

310

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) was first classified in the category of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), but it always seemed somewhat out of place compared with the rest of the MDS categories. In the 1990s, many argued that there were two different forms of CMML, a proliferative type and a myelodysplastic type. Then in 2001 the World Health Organization created

P D Emanuel

2008-01-01

311

Update on basic and clinical aspects of eosinophilic oesophagitis.  

PubMed

: The identification of a distinct syndrome, designated eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), with its own clinical and histopathological characteristics, was first described in the early 1990s. Meanwhile intense research has uncovered many molecular, immunological and clinical aspects of this chronic-inflammatory disorder. This article focuses exclusively on basic and clinical insights of EoE gathered during the last few years. Regarding aetiopathogenesis it has become clear that EoE is a food-triggered disease with milk and wheat as the dominant culprit food categories. However, it is still debated whether a disturbed mucosal integrity allowing allergens to cross the mucosal barrier, or changes in wheat and milk manufacturing might induce these inflammatory responses. Furthermore, basic science and clinical studies have accordingly confirmed that a chronic eosinophilic inflammation leads to a remodelling of the oesophagus with micro- and macro-morphological alterations, ending in a strictured oesophagus with impaired function. Fortunately, long-term therapeutic trials, using either topical corticosteroids or dietary allergen avoidance, have demonstrated that this sequela can be prevented or even reversed. This finding is of clinical relevance as it supports the initiation of a consistent anti-inflammatory therapy. Nevertheless, EoE is still an enigmatic disease and the long list of unanswered questions will certainly stimulate further research. PMID:24700438

Straumann, Alex; Schoepfer, Alain

2014-08-01

312

CT imaging features of eosinophilic colitis in children  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a gastrointestinal disease of undetermined etiology whose clinical features overlap with those of the inflammatory bowel diseases. To the best of our knowledge, the CT imaging features of EC have not been described in children. Objective To report and analyze the clinical, imaging and histological findings in seven children with EC. Materials and methods Children with EC were identified in a pediatric pathology database, and those with CT imaging within 2 months of diagnosis were included, totaling seven children. Clinical, imaging and pathological features were reviewed and analyzed. Results The most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and rectal bleeding. EC was characterized as a dense and predominantly eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria or epithelium without granulomas. CT scans were abnormal in six children (86%), demonstrating colonic wall thickening, predominantly cecal, in five (71%), mild to moderate terminal ileal thickening in two (29%), and pneumatosis in one (14%). Right colonic involvement was greater than terminal ileal involvement. Conclusion CT imaging findings in children with EC include right colonic wall thickening of variable extent downstream and absent or mild involvement of the terminal ileum. EC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in children presenting with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea.

Schroeder, Shauna; Furuta, Glenn T.; Capocelli, Kelley; Masterson, Joanne C.; Fenton, Laura Z.

2013-01-01

313

Eosinophilic Granuloma Presenting as an Epidural Hematoma and Cyst  

PubMed Central

Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare immunologic disorder characterized by histiocyte proliferation in multiple organ systems. Eosinophilic granuloma, a benign bone lesion, represents a focal form of LCH. We experienced a case of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in a patient who presented with intracranial epidural hematoma and cyst on the midline of the frontal skull. A 10-year-old boy presented with a rapidly growing large scalp mass on the midline frontal area after mild head trauma. The scalp mass was painless and immobile. Plain skull x-ray showed a punched-out bone lesion. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a non-enhancing osteolytic lesion presenting with an epidural hematoma and cyst on the midline of the frontal skull. The lesion of the skull was completely resected and the patient's recovery was uneventful. The acute presentation of a solitary eosinophilic granuloma of skull with an epidural hematoma has been described in only five cases in the literature and we report the first case of LCH presenting as an intracranial epidural hematoma on frontal area.

Lee, Young-Suk; Park, Yong-Sook

2008-01-01

314

Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis.

Wechsler, Joshua B; Schwartz, Sally; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F

2014-01-01

315

Severe eosinophilic pneumonia presenting during gemcitabine adjuvant chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Gemcitabine is widely accepted as the standard treatment for pancreatic cancer, but it can cause unpredictable side effects. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a rare complication with gemcitabine, but is sometimes fatal. We describe a cured case of acute, severe gemcitabine-induced pulmonary toxicity. The patient was a 76-year-old man with pancreatic cancer who was receiving adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy after surgery. The patient received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 for three 4-week cycles, with intervals of 1 week. He developed severe general fatigue on day 1 of the third cycle. Computed tomography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity with pleural effusion. There was no increase in ?-D-glucan, and cytomegalovirus antigenemia assays were negative. No bacteria or acid-fast bacilli were found. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased. Considering these data, we diagnosed eosinophilic pneumonia induced by gemcitabine. The patient was immediately treated with a steroid and neutrophil elastase inhibitor under respiratory supportive therapy. After 4 weeks, his pulmonary symptoms were markedly improved. Physicians should be cognizant of the possible association of serious pulmonary toxicity with gemcitabine treatment. A delay in diagnosis and treatment could lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:23883337

Yakabe, Tomomi; Kitahara, Kenji; Komiya, Kazutoshi; Sueoka-Aragane, Naoko; Kimura, Shinya; Sugioka, Takashi; Noshiro, Hirokazu

2013-01-01

316

Esophageal Rupture as a Primary Manifestation in Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory process characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and, histologically, by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. In adults, it commonly presents with dysphagia, food impaction, and chest or abdominal pain. Chronic inflammation can lead to diffuse narrowing of the esophageal lumen which may cause food impaction. Endoscopic procedures to relieve food impaction may lead to complications such as esophageal perforation due to the friability of the esophageal mucosa. Spontaneous transmural esophageal rupture, also known as Boerhaave's syndrome, as a primary manifestation of EoE is rare. In this paper, we present two adult patients who presented with esophageal perforation as the initial manifestation of EoE. This rare complication of EoE has been documented in 13 other reports (11 adults, 2 children) and only 1 of the patients had been previously diagnosed with EoE. A history of dysphagia was present in 1 of our patients and in the majority of previously documented patients. Esophageal perforation is a potentially severe complication of EoE. Patients with a history of dysphagia and patients with spontaneous esophageal perforation should warrant an evaluation for EoE.

Vernon, Natalia; Mohananey, Divyanshu; Ghetmiri, Ehsan; Ghaffari, Gisoo

2014-01-01

317

A flow cytometric method for the detection of intracellular basic proteins in unseparated peripheral blood and bone marrow eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils and their basic proteins play a major role in allergic disease and methods are required to monitor their expression in clinical situations. In this article we describe a flow cytometric method for the detection of intracellular eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) in unseparated clinical samples. After fixation with parabenzoquinone and permeabilization with n-octyl-?-d-glucopyranoside, the detection of

N. Krug; A. M. Thurau; P. Lackie; J. Baier; G. Schultze-Werninghaus; C. H. L. Rieger; U. Schauer

1996-01-01

318

IL-3 induces B7.2 (CD86) expression and costimulatory activity in human eosinophils.  

PubMed

Eosinophils in tissues are often present in intimate contact with T cells in allergic and parasitic diseases. Resting eosinophils do not express MHC class II proteins or costimulatory B7 molecules and fail to induce proliferation of T cells to Ags. IL-5 and GM-CSF induce MHC class II and B7 expression on eosinophils and have been reported in some studies to induce eosinophils to present Ag to T cells. The cytokine IL-3, like IL-5 and GM-CSF, is a survival and activating factor for eosinophils and the IL-3 receptor shares with the IL-5 and GM-CSF receptors a common signal transducing beta-chain. IL-3-treated eosinophils expressed HLA-DR and B7.2, but not B7.1 on their surface and supported T cell proliferation in response to the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, as well as the proliferation of HLA-DR-restricted tetanus toxoid (TT) and influenza hemagglutinin-specific T cell clones to antigenic peptides. This was inhibited by anti-B7.2 mAb. In contrast, IL-3-treated eosinophils were unable to present native TT Ag to either resting or TT-specific cloned T cells. In parallel experiments, eosinophils treated with IL-5 or GM-CSF were also found to present superantigen and antigenic peptides, but not native Ag, to T cells. These results suggest that eosinophils are deficient in Ag processing and that this deficiency is not overcome by cytokines that signal via the beta-chain. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that eosinophils activated by IL-3 may contribute to T cell activation in allergic and parasitic diseases by presenting superantigens and peptides to T cells. PMID:11714768

Celestin, J; Rotschke, O; Falk, K; Ramesh, N; Jabara, H; Strominger, J; Geha, R S

2001-12-01

319

CD14+CD33+ myeloid cell-CCL11-eosinophil signature in ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that eotaxins (CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26) and IL-5 contribute to eosinophil recruitment to the intestine in UC and that intestinal macrophages are important producers of CCL11 in this disease. Peripheral blood and rectal biopsy samples were obtained from patients with active (n=18) and quiescent UC (n=9), and control patients (n=7). Eosinophil and macrophage levels and activation were analyzed by flow cytometry. Rectal mRNA levels of CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, and IL-5 were determined by qRT-PCR. The cellular source of CCL11 was visualized by immunofluorescence analyses. Eosinophil numbers were elevated in the blood and rectum of active and quiescent UC patients compared with controls. Levels of activated eosinophils (CD66b(high)) correlated with disease severity. Rectal CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 mRNA levels were increased in active UC, whereas only CCL11 was elevated in quiescent UC. Levels of CCL11, but not CCL24 and CCL26, positively correlated with eosinophil numbers. Numbers of CD14(+)CD33(+) cells correlated with CCL11 and eosinophil levels. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed the presence of CD14(+)CCL11(+) mononuclear cells in colonic biopsies in UC. These results support the hypothesis that CCL11 contributes to eosinophil recruitment in UC and that intestinal myeloid cells are a source of CCL11. Interestingly, rectal levels of CCL24, CCL26, and IL-5 only increase during active UC, coinciding with further elevation of eosinophil numbers and with the activation of rectal eosinophils. In conclusion, there is a link among CD14(+)CD33(+) myeloid cells, CCL11, and eosinophils in adult UC. PMID:23904440

Lampinen, Maria; Waddell, Amanda; Ahrens, Richard; Carlson, Marie; Hogan, Simon P

2013-11-01

320

Adhesion mechanisms involved in C5a-induced eosinophil homotypic aggregation.  

PubMed

During the process of migration into tissues, leukocytes interact primarily with vascular endothelial cells but they have also been shown to interact with each other. In this study we investigated the adhesion mechanisms involved in guinea pig eosinophil homotypic aggregation as assessed by changes in light transmission. The anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 6.5E, at concentrations in excess of those previously shown to abrogate CD18-dependent eosinophil adherence to serum-coated plastic, inhibited C5a-induced eosinophil aggregation to a maximum of 49-68%. In contrast, the anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mAb RR1/1, which binds to guinea pig eosinophils and has been shown to block guinea pig ICAM-1 function, had no effect on C5a-induced responses. Similarly, two functionally active anti-very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) mAbs has no effect on eosinophil aggregation and did not affect the CD18-independent component of the aggregation response. The role of L-selectin in eosinophil aggregation was investigated by using heparin, the selectin-binding polysaccharide fucoidin, and the anti-L-selectin mAb MEL-14. Heparin concentration dependently inhibited C5a- and platelet- activating factor- (PAF) induced aggregation but C5a-induced responses were inhibited more potently. Fucoidin, but not the carbohydrate dermatan sulphate, effectively inhibited C5a-induced eosinophil aggregation. PMA- and PAF- induced responses were also inhibited by fucoidin. Moreover, fucoidin and 6.5E were additive in their ability to inhibit C5a-induced aggregation. Similarly, MEL-14 effectively inhibited C5a-induced eosinophil aggregation. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that guinea pig eosinophil homotypic aggregation is mostly dependent on CD11/CD18 and L-selectin present on the eosinophil surface. In addition, VLA-4 plays no role in mediating this aggregation response. PMID:8604017

Teixeira, M M; Rossi, A G; Hellewell, P G

1996-03-01

321

Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

2013-01-16

322

What Is Childhood Leukemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... bones. New blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets) are made there. In infants, active bone marrow ... form white blood cells (other than lymphocytes), red blood cells, or platelets. Hybrid or mixed lineage leukemias: In these rare ...

323

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... has spread, your physician may order a chest x-ray, lumbar puncture (which collects fluid from the spinal ... The treatment of ALL is done in multiple phases. The first phase kills the leukemia cells in ...

324

Hairy cell leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... B cells, a type of white blood cell (lymphocyte). ... Kantarjian H, O’Brien S. The chronic leukemias. In Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 190. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. ...

325

Drugs Approved for Leukemia  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

326

Population Cytogenetics of Leukemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chronic myelogenous and acute leukemia are reviewed with regard to data obtained prior to banding of chromosomes, data obtained with banding of chromosomes, and pH-negative patients. Abnormal chromosome patterns of patients are described. Relationships of...

J. Rowley

1975-01-01

327

BMS-214662 in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2013-01-22

328

Thrombosis and acute leukemia.  

PubMed

Thrombosis is a common complication in patients with acute leukemia. While the presence of central venous lines, concomitant steroids, the use of Escherichia coli asparaginase and hereditary thrombophilic abnormalities are known risk factors for thrombosis in children, information on the pathogenesis, risk factors, and clinical outcome of thrombosis in adult patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still scarce. Expert consensus and guidelines regarding leukemia-specific risk factors, thrombosis prevention, and treatment strategies, as well as optimal type of central venous catheter in acute leukemia patients are required. It is likely that each subtype of acute leukemia represents a different setting for the development of thrombosis and the risk of bleeding. This is perhaps due to a combination of different disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms of thrombosis, including the type of chemotherapy protocol chosen, the underlying patients health, associated risk factors, as well as the biology of the disease itself. The risk of thrombosis may also vary according to ethnicity and prevalence of hereditary risk factors for thrombosis; thus, it is advisable for Latin American, Asian, and African countries to report on their specific patient population. PMID:22507812

Crespo-Solís, Erick

2012-04-01

329

Flavopiridol and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia or Refractory Anemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-04-01

330

Airway Platelet Activation is Associated with Airway Eosinophilic Inflammation in Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic asthma is characterized by airway inflammation associated with recruitment and activation of eosinophils. In mice, allergen exposure induces platelet migration to the airways that is necessary for eosinophil recruitment and activation. We therefore hypothesized that in the airways of human subjects with asthma, (1) platelet activation would be positively associated with eosinophil activation and (2) platelet and eosinophil activation would both be associated with clinical asthma characteristics. Methods Nasal wash levels of p-selectin (a measure of platelet activation) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) (a measure of eosinophil activation) were compared with each other and with clinical asthma characteristics in a cross-sectional study of urban children and adolescents (6-20y) with asthma. Results Regression analysis revealed a significantly positive association between log10 p-selectin levels and log10 ECP levels (Beta=0.50 ng/mL [95%CI: 0.05 to 0.94 ng/mL]; P=0.029). Additionally, ECP was significantly and negatively associated with two asthma-related quality of life measurements and p-selectin was associated with one of these. Conclusions Our study shows the first significant association between platelet and eosinophil activation in airways of human subjects with asthma. These data provide a first step toward delineating what appears to be an important role for platelets in airway eosinophilia.

Benton, Angela S; Kumar, Nikila; Lerner, Jennifer; Wiles, Andrew; Foerster, Matthew; Teach, Stephen J; Freishtat, Robert J

2012-01-01

331

Highly up-regulated CXCR3 expression on eosinophils in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum  

PubMed Central

CXCR3, predominately expressed on memory/activated T cells, is a receptor for both interferon-? inducible protein-10/CXC ligand 10 (CXCL10) and monokine induced by interferon-?/CXCL9. We reported here that CXCR3 was highly up-regulated on infiltrating eosinophils in Schistosoma japonicum egg-induced granuloma in the mouse liver. It was also highly and functionally up-regulated on peritoneal exudate eosinophils in mice infected with S. japonicum. The phenomena were demonstrated at protein and mRNA levels using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry evaluation of biopsy, flow cytometry and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction technique, and verified by Northern blotting and chemotaxis assay in vitro. We also found that CCR3 expression on the infiltrating and peritoneal exudate cells was significantly decreased, CXCR4 expression was unchanged during the 42-day period of infection. We screened mRNA expression levels of the all known chemokine receptors in purified peritoneal exudate eosinophils and liver granuloma dominated by eosinophils. CXCR3 was highly and functionally up-regulated on peritoneal exudate eosinophils in mice infected with S. japonicum, meanwhile CCR3 was significantly and functionally down-regulated in these cells. The findings could lead to a better understanding of the chemokine receptor expression pattern of eosinophils at inflamed tissue sites caused by parasites. These could be also crucial for establishing a therapeutic strategy for eosinophilic inflammation via intervention in chemokine actions.

Li, He; Chunsong, Hu; Guobin, Cai; Qiuping, Zhang; Qun, Li; Xiaolian, Zhang; Baojun, Huang; Linjie, Zhang; Junyan, Liu; Mingshen, Jiang; Jinquan, Tan

2004-01-01

332

Periostin is a systemic biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic airway inflammation is heterogeneous in asthmatic patients. We recently described a distinct subtype of asthma defined by the expression of genes inducible by TH2 cytokines in bronchial epithelium. This gene signature, which includes periostin, is present in approximately half of asthmatic patients and correlates with eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, identification of this subtype depends on invasive airway sampling, and hence noninvasive biomarkers of this phenotype are desirable. Objective We sought to identify systemic biomarkers of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients. Methods We measured fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), peripheral blood eosinophil, periostin, YKL-40, and IgE levels and compared these biomarkers with airway eosinophilia in asthmatic patients. Results We collected sputum, performed bronchoscopy, and matched peripheral blood samples from 67 asthmatic patients who remained symptomatic despite maximal inhaled corticosteroid treatment (mean FEV1, 60% of predicted value; mean Asthma Control Questionnaire [ACQ] score, 2.7). Serum periostin levels are significantly increased in asthmatic patients with evidence of eosinophilic airway inflammation relative to those with minimal eosinophilic airway inflammation. A logistic regression model, including sex, age, body mass index, IgE levels, blood eosinophil numbers, Feno levels, and serum periostin levels, in 59 patients with severe asthma showed that, of these indices, the serum periostin level was the single best predictor of airway eosinophilia (P = .007). Conclusion Periostin is a systemic biomarker of airway eosinophilia in asthmatic patients and has potential utility in patient selection for emerging asthma therapeutics targeting TH2 inflammation.

Jia, Guiquan; Erickson, Richard W.; Choy, David F.; Mosesova, Sofia; Wu, Lawren C.; Solberg, Owen D.; Shikotra, Aarti; Carter, Richard; Audusseau, Severine; Hamid, Qutayba; Bradding, Peter; Fahy, John V.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Harris, Jeffrey M.; Arron, Joseph R.

2012-01-01

333

Siglec-8 as a drugable target to treat eosinophil and mast cell-associated conditions  

PubMed Central

Siglecs (sialic acid immunoglobulin-like lectins) are members of the immunoglobulin gene family that contain sialoside binding N-terminal domains. They are cell surface proteins found predominantly on cells of the immune system. Among them, Siglec-8 is uniquely expressed by human eosinophils and mast cells, as well as basophils. Engaging this structure with antibodies or glycan ligands results in apoptosis in human eosinophils and inhibition of release of preformed and newly generated mediators from human mast cells without affecting their survival. Pro-apoptotic effects are also seen when its closest functional paralog, Siglec-F, on mouse eosinophils is similarly engaged in vitro, and beneficial effects are observed after administration of Siglec-F antibody using models of eosinophilic pulmonary and gastrointestinal inflammation in vivo. Siglec-8 targeting may thus provide a means to specifically inhibit or deplete these cell types. Cell-directed therapies are increasingly sought after by the pharmaceutical industry for their potential to reduce side effects and increase safety. The challenge is to identify suitable targets on the cell type of interest, and selectively deliver a therapeutic agent. By targeting Siglec-8, monoclonal antibodies and glycan ligand-conjugated nanoparticles may be ideally suited for treatment of eosinophil and mast cell-related diseases, such as asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic urticaria, hypereosinophilic syndromes, mast cell and eosinophil malignancies and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders.

Kiwamoto, Takumi; Kawasaki, Norihito; Paulson, James C.; Bochner, Bruce S.

2013-01-01

334

Semaphorin 7A is expressed on airway eosinophils and upregulated by IL-5 family cytokines.  

PubMed

Semaphorin 7A (sema7a) plays a major role in TGF-?1-induced lung fibrosis. Based on the accumulating evidence that eosinophils contribute to fibrosis/remodeling in the airway, we hypothesized that airway eosinophils may be a significant source of sema7a. In vivo, sema7a was expressed on the surface of circulating eosinophils and upregulated on bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils obtained after segmental bronchoprovocation with allergen. Based on mRNA levels in unfractionated and isolated bronchoalveolar cells, eosinophils are the predominant source of sema7a. In vitro, among the members of the IL-5-family cytokines, sema7a protein on the surface of blood eosinophils was increased more by IL-3 than by GM-CSF or IL-5. Cytokine-induced expression of cell surface sema7a required translation of newly synthesized protein. Finally, a recombinant sema7a induced alpha-smooth muscle actin production in human bronchial fibroblasts. semaphorin 7A is a potentially important modulator of eosinophil profibrotic functions in the airway remodeling of patients with chronic asthma. PMID:24333536

Esnault, Stephane; Kelly, Elizabeth A; Johansson, Mats W; Liu, Lin Ying; Han, Shih-Tsung; Akhtar, Moneeb; Sandbo, Nathan; Mosher, Deane F; Denlinger, Loren C; Mathur, Sameer K; Malter, James S; Jarjour, Nizar N

2014-01-01

335

Observations on use of montelukast in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: insights for the future.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by dense infiltration of the esophageal epithelium with eosinophils, typically accompanied by dysphagia. Effective therapies include the use of topical and systemic steroids as well as elimination diets. No previous reports have described the use of montelukast in the management of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients with eosinophilic esophagitis followed in our pediatric center between 2000 and 2009. Those treated with montelukast were studied in detail. Study outcome was clinical response rate, defined by symptom (not histologic) improvement. Twenty-one patients with eosinophilic esophagitis were identified. Eight patients were maintained on montelukast (range 4-10 mg daily) after confirming the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis histologically and failing to respond to a trial of proton pump inhibitor therapy. Three of eight patients had a clinical response (one had complete response and two with partial response) that could be attributed to montelukast. Four other patients responded clinically, but other therapies were concomitantly implemented. No side effects were reported with montelukast treatment with a mean follow-up duration of 32 months. Five patients had remained on montelukast therapy at the time of the final follow-up. Montelukast has minimal risk of adverse reactions compared with steroid therapy and may offer clinical relief in a small subset of children with eosinophilic esophagitis. Histologic response could not be verified in this study. Prospective studies, using higher montelukast doses, may potentially play a role and should be considered for future investigation. PMID:21073625

Stumphy, J; Al-Zubeidi, D; Guerin, L; Mitros, F; Rahhal, R

2011-05-01

336

The expanding role(s) of eosinophils in health and disease  

PubMed Central

Surprisingly, the role(s) of eosinophils in health and disease is often summarized by clinicians and basic research scientists as a pervasive consensus opinion first learned in medical/graduate school. Eosinophils are rare white blood cells whose activities are primarily destructive and are only relevant in parasitic infections and asthma. However, is this consensus correct? This review argues that the wealth of available studies investigating the role(s) of eosinophils in both health and disease demonstrates that the activities of these granulocytes are far more expansive and complex than previously appreciated. In turn, this greater understanding has led to the realization that eosinophils have significant contributory roles in a wide range of diseases. Furthermore, published studies even implicate eosinophil-mediated activities in otherwise healthy persons. We suggest that the collective reports in the literature showing a role for eosinophils in an ever-increasing number of novel settings highlight the true complexity and importance of this granulocyte. Indeed, discussions of eosinophils are no longer simple and more often than not now begin with the question/statement “Did you know …?”

Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Helmers, Richard A.

2012-01-01

337

IDENTIFICATION OF A MAJOR BASIC PROTEIN IN GUINEA PIG EOSINOPHIL GRANULES  

PubMed Central

Elucidation of the functions of the eosinophil might be accomplished by analysis of the granule constituents. We have purified eosinophils (93% or greater) from the peritoneal cavity of the guinea pig and have investigated a variety of methods to disrupt cells and liberate intact granules. Lysis in 0.34 M sucrose gave the best yield of granules and these had the characteristic morphology of eosinophil granules when examined by electron microscopy. Granules were solubilized by a variety of treatments and the solutions analyzed by polyacrylamide electrophoresis at pH 3 in 6 M urea. Comparison of the electrophoretic patterns of solubilized eosinophil and neutrophil granules revealed a difference: a major portion (53±3%; x ±1 SE) of the protein from the eosinophil granule migrated as a single component. This major band protein has a molecular weight between 6,000 and 12,000 daltons and a pI of 10 or greater. Analysis of eosinophil granule constituents on Sephadex G-50 revealed two main peaks; peak 1 possessed peroxidase activity and peak 2 contained the major band protein. These studies indicate that eosinophil granules contain a cationic protein of low molecular weight which lacks peroxidase activity and which accounts for greater than 50% of granule protein.

Gleich, Gerald J.; Loegering, David A.; Maldonado, Jorge E.

1973-01-01

338

Workshop Report from the NIH Taskforce on the Research Needs of Eosinophil-Associated Diseases (TREAD)  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophils are blood cells that are often found in high numbers in the tissues of allergic conditions and helminthic parasite infections. The pathophysiological roles that eosinophils may serve in other human ‘eosinophil-associated’ diseases remain obscure. Objective NIH Institutes and the Office of Disease Prevention assembled an international taskforce of clinical and basic scientists with the charge to propose and prioritize unmet research needs in eosinophil-associated diseases. Methods The taskforce used an organ system approach to dissect out the different and common themes of eosinophil cell involvement in these diseases. In early 2012, a draft document was circulated for review. The document was amended and the prioritizations were set at a NIH-organized workshop in June 2012. Results The taskforce identified significant research needs. These needs cross disease entities but some are disease-specific. There are substantial shortcomings to the various preclinical animal models, as well as significant gaps in our epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic knowledge. The taskforce recognized that recent efforts by patient advocacy groups have played instrumental roles in improving the identification and characterization of these disorders. However, communication amongst the eosinophil interested communities, e.g., governmental funding and regulatory agencies, and industry and clinician scientists need to be more comprehensive. Conclusions Significant efforts are required to address our knowledge gaps in order to improve the outcomes of eosinophil-associated diseases. NIH Institutes, other federal agencies, lay organizations and the pharmaceutical industry should consider the taskforce’s recommendations in their future research activities.

Bochner, Bruce S.; Book, Wendy; Busse, William W.; Butterfield, Joseph; Furuta, Glenn T.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Klion, Amy D.; Lee, James J.; Leiferman, Kristin M.; Minnicozzi, Michael; Moqbel, Redwan; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Wechsler, Michael E.; Weller, Peter F.

2012-01-01

339

Identification of human eosinophil lysophospholipase as the constituent of Charcot-Leyden crystals.  

PubMed Central

Since the initial descriptions of Charcot-Leyden crystals more than 100 years ago, the presence of these slender, dipyramidal crystals in human tissues and biologic fluids has become a hallmark of eosinophilic leukocyte infiltration, especially in association with allergic and helminthic diseases. The formation of these crystals in vitro after disruption of human eosinophils, but not of other cell types, in hypotonic saline or detergent established the eosinophil as the unique cellular source of the crystalline protein. Charcot-Leyden crystals have now been found to express lysophospholipase activity (lysolecithin acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.5), and the solubilized Charcot-Leyden crystal protein presents a single stained protein band that is coincident with the lysophospholipase activity eluted from replicate gels on alkaline polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. On sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the solubilized Charcot-Leyden crystal protein migrates with a molecular weight of 17,400, which is comparable to that of eosinophil lysophospholipase purified chromatographically to homogeneity; further, on combination, the two proteins comigrate as a single staining band. Finally, the chromatographically purified eosinophil lysophospholipase in hypotonic buffer forms dipyramidal crystals morphologically identical to Charcot-Leyden crystals. The findings that chromatographically purified, homogeneous eosinophil lysophospholipase and Charcot-Leyden crystal protein express the same enzymatic activity, are of the same size and charge, and form crystals of identical morphology indicate that human eosinophil lysophospholipase is the constituent of Charcot-Leyden crystals. Images

Weller, P F; Goetzl, E J; Austen, K F

1980-01-01

340

Eosinophils Mediate the Pathogenesis of Halothane-Induced Liver Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major health issue, as it remains difficult to predict which new drugs will cause injury and who will be susceptible to this disease. This is due in part to the lack of animal models and knowledge of susceptibility factors that predispose individuals to DILI. In this regard, liver eosinophilia has often been associated with DILI, though its role remains unclear. We decided to investigate this problem in a murine model of halothane-induced liver injury (HILI). When female Balb/cJ mice were administered halothane, eosinophils were detected by flow cytometry in the liver within 12 hours and increased thereafter proportionally to liver damage. Chemokines, CCL11 and CCL24, which are known to attract eosinophils, increased in response to halothane-treatment. The severity of HILI was decreased significantly when the study was repeated in wild-type mice made deficient in eosinophils with a depleting antibody and in eosinophil lineage-ablated ?dblGata?/? mice. Moreover, depletion of neutrophils by pretreating animals with Gr-1 antibody prior to halothane administration failed to reduce the severity of HILI at antibody concentrations that did not affect hepatic eosinophils. Immunohistochemical staining for the granule protein, major basic protein, revealed that eosinophils accumulated exclusively around areas of hepatocellular necrosis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that eosinophils have a pathologic role in HILI in mice and suggest that they may contribute similarly in many clinical cases of DILI.

Proctor, William R.; Chakraborty, Mala; Chea, Lynette S.; Morrison, Jeffrey C.; Berkson, Julia D.; Semple, Kenrick; Bourdi, Mohammed; Pohl, Lance R.

2012-01-01

341

Interleukin 5 messenger RNA expression by eosinophils in the intestinal mucosa of patients with coeliac disease  

PubMed Central

Interleukin 5 (IL-5), the major factor involved in eosinophil differentiation, is produced by T cells or mast cells. In the present study, we found that eosinophils infiltrating the mucosa of four patients with active coeliac disease also express the IL-5 mRNA. No positive signal was obtained in normal duodenum tissues and in the cell infiltrate from patients submitted to gluten restriction. The identification of labeled mucosal cells as eosinophils relied on their typical morphology. Moreover, highly purified blood eosinophils from three out of four patients with eosinophilia were also strongly labeled with the IL-5 antisense but not with the corresponding sense probe. Together, these results suggest that eosinophils have the capacity to synthesize IL-5, which could contribute to paracrine interactions with T and B cells and, in autocrine fashion, locally participate, through binding to the IL-5 receptor, to eosinophil differentiation and activation. These data might have implications not only in the pathology of coeliac disease but also in other diseases associated with eosinophil infiltration.

1992-01-01

342

Molecular mechanisms regulating the synergism between IL-32? and NOD for the activation of eosinophils.  

PubMed

IL-32 is a proinflammatory cytokine associated with infections, autoimmune diseases, and allergic asthma. In the present study, we elucidated the synergistic effect of IL-32? and NOD ligand on the activation of human eosinophils, principal effector cells for allergic inflammation, and the underlying mechanisms. Specific IL-32-binding protein, PR3, was found to localize on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm of eosinophils. IL-32? was more capable of activating eosinophils than its isotype variant IL-32? and exhibited synergistic effect with NOD1 ligand iE-DAP and NOD2 ligand MDP on the induction of allergic inflammation-related IL-1?, TNF-?, and chemokines CXCL8, CCL3, and CCL4 (P<0.05). Moreover, IL-32? and iE-DAP or MDP induced the significant up-regulation of the cell-surface expression of adhesion molecule CD18 and ICAM-1 on eosinophils. Synergism between IL-32? and NOD ligands was dependent on the activation of intracellular caspase 1, ERKs, p38 MAPK, and NF-?B pathways in eosinophils. The further-enhanced CD18 and ICAM-1 expression and production of cytokines and chemokines were observed in eosinophils cocultured with human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, combined treatment of IL-32? and NOD ligand could activate the release of eosinophil extracellular DNA traps, thereby implying the pathogen-defense mechanisms of eosinophils. Together, the above study provides pivotal immunological mechanisms by which bacterial infection-mediated activation of NOD1,2, together with IL-32?, can synergize the activation of eosinophils interacting with bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:24295830

Wong, Chun-Kwok; Dong, Jie; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei

2014-04-01

343

The effect of the selectin binding polysaccharide fucoidin on eosinophil recruitment in vivo.  

PubMed

1. In order to accumulate at sites of inflammation, leukocytes initially roll on endothelial cells of postcapillary venules before becoming firmly attached. This process of rolling is mediated by selectins which bind to carbohydrate counter-ligands present on the surface of both leukocytes and endothelial cells. The polysaccharide fucoidin has been previously shown to inhibit leukocyte rolling in the mesenteric circulation and to reduce neutrophil accumulation in the skin and meninges in experimental inflammation. 2. In the present study we have assessed the effects of fucoidin on eosinophil function in vitro and eosinophil accumulation at sites of inflammation in guinea-pig skin. 3. At concentrations of up to 1200 micrograms ml-1, fucoidin inhibited phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced eosinophil homotypic aggregation by up to 60% but had no inhibitory effect on PMA-induced eosinophil adhesion to serum-coated plates. 4. Fucoidin effectively reduced the binding of the anti-L-selectin mAb MEL-14 to guinea-pig eosinophils. Binding of a P-selectin-IgG chimera to eosinophils was also partially inhibited by fucoidin, but binding of an anti-CD18 or an anti-VLA-4 mAb were unaffected. 5. When given systemically to guinea-pigs, fucoidin suppressed 111In-labelled eosinophil recruitment to sites of allergic inflammation. 111In-labelled eosinophil accumulation induced by platelet-activating factor (PAF) and zymosan-activated plasma (as a source of C5a des Arg) was also inhibited. 6. These results demonstrate a role for fucoidin-sensitive selectins in mediating eosinophil recruitment in vivo. PMID:9134218

Teixeira, M M; Hellewell, P G

1997-03-01

344

Characterization of eosinophilic esophagitis murine models using optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Pre-clinical studies using murine models are critical for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying immune-mediated disorders such as Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In this study, an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system capable of providing three-dimensional images with axial and transverse resolutions of 5 µm and 10 µm, respectively, was utilized to obtain esophageal images from a murine model of EoE-like disease ex vivo. Structural changes in the esophagus of wild-type (Tslpr+/+) and mutant (Tslpr?/?) mice with EoE-like disease were quantitatively evaluated and food impaction sites in the esophagus of diseased mice were monitored using OCT. Here, the capability of OCT as a label-free imaging tool devoid of tissue-processing artifacts to effectively characterize murine EoE-like disease models has been demonstrated.

Alex, Aneesh; Noti, Mario; Wojno, Elia D. Tait; Artis, David; Zhou, Chao

2014-01-01

345

Hiccups as a presenting symptom of eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic esophageal disease increasingly recognized in adults for its gastrointestinal manifestations. This paper discusses a young woman with EoE who presented with persistent hiccups and intermittent dyspepsia. The patient was initially treated with trials of both H(2) blocker and proton pump inhibitor. However, her hiccups resolved only after treatment with topical fluticasone. A repeat upper endoscopy while on steroid treatment demonstrated both histologic remission of EoE and resolution of esophageal trachealization. Our patient's clinical course supports an association between hiccups and EoE, suggesting that EoE be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with refractory hiccups. PMID:22740808

Levy, Alexander N; Rahaman, Soroya M; Bonis, Peter A; Javid, Golrokh; Leung, John

2012-05-01

346

Different Sarcocystis spp. are present in bovine eosinophilic myositis.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that Sarcocystis species are associated with bovine eosinophilic myositis (BEM). To date, parasite identification in this myopathy has been based on morphological techniques. The aim of the present study was to use molecular techniques to identify Sarcocystis species inside lesions of BEM. Histologically, BEM lesions of 97 condemned carcasses were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis species. Intralesional and extralesional cysts were collected using laser capture microdissection and the species was determined with a PCR-based technique based on 18S rDNA. Intralesional sarcocysts or remnants were found in BEM lesions in 28% of the carcasses. The majority (82%) of intralesional Sarcocystis species were found to be S. hominis. However S. cruzi and S. hirsuta were also found, as well as an unidentified species. It can be concluded that Sarcocystis species present in lesions of BEM are not restricted to one species. PMID:23870431

Vangeel, Lieve; Houf, Kurt; Geldhof, Peter; De Preter, Katleen; Vercruysse, Jozef; Ducatelle, Richard; Chiers, Koen

2013-11-01

347

[Cycle vomiting syndrome as a clinical appearance of eosinophilic gastroenteritis].  

PubMed

The authors report the case study of a 16-year old boy who presented with cyclic vomiting syndrome. His main clinical symptoms had been unpredictable sudden-onset vomiting episodes interrupting long episodes of full health lasting for several months since the patient was a toddler. Histological results of the upper tract endoscopy showed eosinophil gastroenteritis with long-existing, undetected cow milk allergy as the likely underlying reason. The patient became symptomless following the elimination of cow milk from his diet. The symptoms did not recur following a cow milk load test carried out half a year later, and the patient continues to be symptomless after more than one-year of continuous cow milk consumption. In this paper, the authors would like to highlight the importance of EG int the differential diagnosis of any chronic, recidive gastrointestinal symptoms and discuss the likely underlying causes of EG in paediatrics. PMID:16302358

Tokodi, István; Máj, Csilla; Gábor, Simon

2005-10-30

348

Eosinophilic Cystitis Mimicking Bladder Tumour - A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 16–year–old male presented with urinary urgency, a frequency of 4 months duration and intermittent gross haematuria which were there since one month. Eosinophilia was noted in complete blood count and CT KUB with contrast showed a filling defect in the right lateral wall, over the vesicoureteric junction. Cystoscopy revealed a sessile mass lesion over right vesico–ureteric junction, with bullous oedema . Rest of the mucosa was normal. Transurethral resection of lesion was performed and histological examination showed features of eosinophilic cystitis. Patient was treated with corticosteroids, antimicrobial agents and antihistaminics and he is recovering well. We are presenting this case for its rare presentation and its possibility of mimicking a bladder tumour. Biopsy of the lesion was diagnostic and an early treatment showed good results.

D, Manimaran; T M, Karthikeyan; M, Sreenivasulu; V R, Mrinalini; V, Gopinath

2013-01-01

349

Sputum Hyaluronan and Versican in Severe Eosinophilic Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background We examined levels of hyaluronan, a matrix glycosaminoglycan and versican, a matrix proteoglycan, in the sputum of asthmatics treated with mepolizumab (anti-IL-5 mAb) versus placebo to evaluate the utility of these measurements as possible biomarkers of asthma control and airway remodeling. Methods Severe, prednisone-dependent asthmatics received either mepolizumab or placebo as described in a previously published randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. We measured hyaluronan and versican levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sputum collected before and after the 16-week treatment phase. Patients underwent a predefined prednisone tapering schedule if they remained exacerbation free and sputum eosinophil percentage, asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) and spirometry were monitored. Results After 6 months of mepolizumab therapy and prednisone tapering there was a significant increase in sputum hyaluronan in the placebo group compared with baseline (P=0.003). In contrast, there was a significant decrease in sputum hyaluronan in the active treatment group compared with placebo (P=0.007) which correlated with improvements in FEV1% (P=0.001) and ACQ scores (P=0.009) as well as a decrease in sputum eosinophils (P=0.02). There was a non-significant increase in sputum versican in the placebo group (P=0.16), a decrease in the mepolizumab group (P=0.13) and a significant inverse correlation between versican reduction and FEV1% improvement (P=0.03). Conclusions Sputum hyaluronan values are reduced with mepolizumab therapy and correlate with improved clinical and spirometry values suggesting this measurement may serve as a non-invasive biomarker of asthma control.

Ayars, Andrew G; Altman, Leonard C; Potter-Perigo, Sue; Radford, Katherine; Wight, Thomas N; Nair, Parameswaran

2014-01-01

350

Eosinophilic granuloma of the temporal bone in children.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a bony destructive disease that frequently occurs in children; it is a subtype of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The aims of this study were to detect the presenting features of temporal bone lesions in children and to evaluate the efficacy of surgery combined with radiotherapy in treatment of the disease. A retrospective study on 12 children with EG of the temporal bone was done. Computed tomography and hearing assessment were performed for all patients. All patients were treated with cortical mastoidectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy. Follow-up was carried out for at least 2 years. The patients' presenting symptoms were external ear canal mass in 10 patients (83.3%), postauricular swelling in 8 patients (66.7%), and persistent otorrhea in 4 patients (33.3%). Ten patients (83.3%) showed conductive hearing loss, whereas 2 patients (16.7%) showed mixed hearing loss on the affected side. Computed tomography showed osteolytic defects without sclerotic margins filled with soft tissue masses involving the mastoid bone. Histopathologic examination showed eosinophils and Langerhans cells that were immune reactive for CD1 antigen and S-100 protein. Postoperative follow-up showed complete cure of the disease in 10 children (83.3%), with recurrence detected in 2 patients (16.7%) who needed second surgical intervention. We concluded that temporal bone EG in children may present with features that mimic the features of chronic suppurative otitis media. However, computed tomography and histopathologic examination are diagnostic. Cortical mastoidectomy together with postoperative radiotherapy is an achievable treatment in most cases. PMID:24717312

Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; Rashed, Mohammed; Khalifa, Badawi; Talaat, Ahmed; Nassar, Ahmed

2014-05-01

351

Augmentation of spontaneous macrophage-mediated cytolysis by eosinophil peroxidase  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), a cationic protein purified from horse blood, adhered to four different types of tumor cells, markedly potentiating their lysis by preformed or enzymatically generated H(2)0(2) (up to 76-fold, as assayed in serum-containing tissue culture medium without supplemental halide). Similarly, compared with uncoated tumor cells, EPO-coated tumor cells were up to 32 times more sensitive to lysis when incubated with macrophages or granulocytes whose respiratory burst was triggered by PMA. However, EPO-coated tumor cells were also readily lysed by bacillus Calmette- Guerin-activated macrophages in the absence of exogenous triggering agents. This spontaneous cytolysis was rapid (50 percent at 2 h) and potent (50 percent lysis at macrophage/tumor cell ratios of 1.5 to 4.6), and was observed with both a peroxide-sensitive tumor (TLX9) and a peroxide-resistant tumor (NK lymphoma). Under the conditions used, neither EPO alone nor macrophages alone were spontaneously cytolytic. Neither EPO nor EPO-coated tumor cells triggered a detectable increment in H(2)0(2) release from macrophages. Nonetheless, spontaneous macrophage-mediated cytolysis of EPO- coated tumor cells was completely inhibitable by catalase (50 percent inhibition, 23 U/ml), although not by heated catalase, indicating a requirement for H(2)0(2). Cytolysis was also completely inhibitable by azide (50 percent inhibition, 2.6 X 10 -5 M), indicating a requirement for enzymatic activity of EPO. Thus, a cytophilic peroxidase from eosinophils and H(2)0(2) spontaneously released from activated macrophages interacted synergistically in a physiologic medium to destroy tumor cells.

Nathan, CF; Klebanoff, SJ

1982-01-01

352

Esophageal dilations in eosinophilic esophagitis: A single center experience  

PubMed Central

AIM: To diagnose the clinical and histologic features that may be associated with or predictive of the need for dilation and dilation related complications; examine the safety of dilation in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). METHODS: The medical records of all patients diagnosed with EoE between January 2002 and July 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Esophageal biopsies were reexamined by an experienced pathologist to confirm the diagnosis (? 15 eos/hpf per current guidelines). Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients who did not receive dilation therapy and those who did. Demographics, clinical history, the use of pharmacologic therapy, endoscopic and pathology findings, and the number of biopsies and dilations carried out, if any, and their locations were recorded for each patient. The dilation group was further examined based on the interval between diagnosis and dilation, and whether or not a complication occurred. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were identified with EoE and 22 (36%) of them underwent esophageal dilations for stricture/narrowing. The peak eos/hpf was significantly higher in patients who received a dilation (P = 0.04). Four (18% of pts.) minor complications occurred: deep mucosal tear 1, and small mucosal tears 3. There were no cases of esophageal perforations. Higher peak eos/hpf counts were not associated with increased risk of complications. CONCLUSION: Esophageal dilation appears to be a safe procedure in EoE patients, carrying a low complication rate. No correlation was found between the peak of eosinophil count and complication rate. Complications can occur independently of the histologic features. The long-term outcome of EoE treatment, with or without dilation, needs to be determined.

Ukleja, Andrew; Shiroky, Jennifer; Agarwal, Amitesh; Allende, Daniela

2014-01-01

353

Enhanced therapeutic response with addition of loratadine in subserosal eosinophilic gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

A case of a 45-year-old Caucasian male initially reported with symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction was presented. Diagnostic tests revealed presence of eosinophilic ascites with marked peripheral eosinophilia, a significant thickening of stomach and intestinal wall and infiltration of gastric and duodenal mucosa with eosinophiles. Findings were conclusive with subserosal type of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and the patient's treatment started with a combination of parenteral methylprednisolone and oral loratadine. A prompt clinical response was encountered after 5 days of treatment with complete resolution. PMID:23348189

Salki?, Nermin N; Mustedanagi?-Mujanovi?, Jasminka; Jovanovi?, Predrag; Alibegovi?, Ervin

2013-02-01

354

Eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration into splenic B-cell high-grade lymphoma in a dog.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old mixed-breed dog showing ascites, anorexia and anemia was found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. The dog died 4 days after initial presentation and was diagnosed with splenic high-grade B-cell lymphoma at necropsy. Remarkable infiltrations of eosinophils were observed in spleen and liver tissues. The eosinophilia and infiltration of eosinophils into the lesions could have been associated with B-cell lymphoma because causes other than lymphoma were excluded. This is the first report of eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltrations into neoplastic lesions in a dog with high-grade B-cell lymphoma. PMID:20467202

Tomiyasu, Hirotaka; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ugai, Jun; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Ide, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Masashi; Ohno, Koichi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayam, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

2010-10-01

355

Intrapleural Corticosteroid Injection in Eosinophilic Pleural Effusion Associated with Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE) is defined as a pleural effusion that contains at least 10% eosinophils. EPE occurs due to a variety of causes such as blood or air in the pleural space, infection, malignancy, or an autoimmune disease. Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) associated with eosinophilic pleural effusion is a rare condition generally characterized by the presence of the signs and symptoms but not fulfilling the existing classification criteria. We report a case involving a 67-year-old man with UCTD and EPE, who has been successfully treated with a single intrapleural corticosteroid injection.

Kim, Eunjung; Yang, Bokyung; Kim, Mihee; Kang, Jingu; Lee, Jiun

2013-01-01

356

Mast cell mediators prostaglandin-D2 and histamine activate human eosinophils.  

PubMed

Airway damage secondary to eosinophil activation is thought to contribute to the development of asthma. Using the fluorescent dye FURA-2 to measure the concentration of cytosolic calcium, we found that supernatants from anti-IgE-stimulated human lung mast cells increased cytosolic calcium in human eosinophils. We then examined the major mast cell mediators (histamine, PGD2, platelet-activating factor (PAF), eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (ECF-A), leukotriene (LT)C4 and LTB4) for their ability to increase cytosolic calcium in eosinophils. We found that both PAF (5 x 10(-9) to 5 x 10(-6) M) and PGD2 (two of five donors responsive at 1 x 10(-9) M) were potent stimuli for calcium mobilization. LTB4 (10(-8), 10(-7) M) and histamine were also active, although higher concentrations of histamine were required to see a response (3 x 10(-7) to 10(-5) M). LTC4, val-ECF-A, and ala-ECF-A were inactive. The effects of PGD2 and histamine were specific for eosinophils, although LTB4 and PAF increased calcium in both neutrophils and eosinophils. The histamine-induced increase in intracellular calcium was not blocked by the H1 or H2 antagonists pyrilamine or cimetidine (10(-4) M), respectively; however, the response to 10(-6) M histamine was completely blocked by the specific H3 antagonist thioperamide (10(-6) M). To evaluate the relative contribution of these stimulatory mast cell mediators on the calcium mobilizing activity in supernatants from anti-IgE-stimulated human lung mast cell (HLMC), we examined the effect of supernatants from HLMC pretreated with indomethacin and/or the 5-lipoxygenase pathway inhibitor MK886. These supernatants were added to FURA-2-loaded eosinophils that had been preincubated with thioperamide and/or the PAF antagonist WEB-2086. We found that the increase in eosinophil calcium in response to supernatants from anti-IgE-stimulated-HLMC was totally inhibited only when the mast cells were challenged in the presence of indomethacin and MK886, and the eosinophils were preincubated with thioperamide. WEB-2086 had little effect. When we examined the effect of these mediators on eosinophil secretory function, we found that PGD2 (not histamine) primed eosinophils for enhanced release of LTC4 in response to the calcium ionophore A23187. We conclude that the activation of eosinophils by PGD2 and other mast cell products may contribute to airways inflammation that is characteristic of asthma. PMID:1588043

Raible, D G; Schulman, E S; DiMuzio, J; Cardillo, R; Post, T J

1992-06-01

357

A rare case of Ibuprofen-induced eosinophilic meningitis in a 13-year-old girl.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is based on clinical manifestations and microscopic identification of eosinophils present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It is caused by a variety of helminthic infections with most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Many case reports are there in which parasites have been found responsible, but there are rare reports of CSF eosinophilia associated with the use of drugs. We report a case of drug-induced (ibuprofen) eosinophilic meningitis in a healthy female who presented to us with severe headache and improved dramatically after drug withdrawal. PMID:24596473

Bansal, Sharad; Gupta, Mukesh; Sharma, Deepak; Bansal, Shweta

2014-01-01

358

Missing the beat: arrhythmia as a presenting feature of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.  

PubMed

Palpitations are a common presenting symptom in patients attending the emergency department; however, eosinophilic infiltration of the myocardium is rarely the cause. This case describes a 77-year-old woman who presents with sudden onset palpitations and is later diagnosed with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (previously known as Churg-Strauss syndrome). Cardiac involvement does occur in 50% of cases but heart failure, myocarditis, pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis and myocardial infarction are much more commonly recognised complications. Arrhythmia is less well described. In this report, we propose eosinophilic inflammation as the precipitant for an aberrant conduction pathway. PMID:24811559

Sharpley, Faye Amelia

2014-01-01

359

Obatoclax, Fludarabine, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

2013-09-27

360

[Classification of myeloid leukemias].  

PubMed

Myeloid leukemia in this series corresponds to the myeloid neoplasms of the 4th WHO classification of pathology and genetics of tumor of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissue. The myeloid neoplasms are composed of six categories, which are 1) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), a new category of 2) myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB or FGFR1, 3) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/MPN, 4) MDS, 5) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and related precursor neoplasms, and 6) acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage. In MPNs without chronic myelogenous leukemia, the genetic marker of JAK2 V617F is added to the diagnostic criteria for polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. MDS has the new subtype of refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia composed of refractory anemia, refractory neutropenia and refractory thrombocytopenia. AML with t(9; 11) (p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL, AML with t(6;9) (p23; q34); DEK-NUP214, AML with inv(3) (q21q26.2) or t(3; 3) (q21 ; q26.2); RPN1-EVI1 and AML (megakaryoblastic) with t(1; 22) (p13; q13); RBM15-MKL1 are added to the subtype of AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities, and AML with gene mutations of NPM1 and CEBPA are also added as provisional entities of it. The myeloid neoplasms of the 4th WHO classification are comprehensive and seem to be dynamic by incorporating the results of leukemia researches. PMID:19860179

Kuriyama, Kazutaka

2009-10-01

361

Gastrointestinal manifestations of leukemia.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of leukemia occur in up to 25% of patients at autopsy, generally during relapse. Its presence varies with the type of leukemia and has been decreasing over time due to improved chemotherapy. Gross leukemic lesions are most common in the stomach, ileum, and proximal colon. Leukemia in the esophagus and stomach includes hemorrhagic lesions from petechiae to ulcers, leukemic infiltrates, pseudomembranous esophagitis, and fungal esophagitis. Lesions in the small and large bowel are usually hemorrhagic or infiltrative. Infiltration of lymphoreticular organs, mainly spleen, liver, and lymph nodes, is more prominent in chronic than acute leukemia. Neutropenic enterocolitis, a necrotizing process involving the cecum, ascending colon, and terminal ileum, is increasing in incidence due to greater intensity of chemotherapy. Distension of bowel leads to mucosal breaches, permitting entry of organisms that grow profusely in the absence of neutrophils. Ischemic necrosis follows, leading to perforation and/or peritonitis. Patients present with fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and tenderness. Ultrasound and computed tomography scans show thickening of the bowel wall. Treatment is supportive with surgery for necrosis and perforation. The main GI causes of death in leukemia are hemorrhage, infection, and necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:21913980

Ebert, Ellen C; Hagspiel, Klaus D

2012-03-01

362

Urinary eosinophil protein X in childhood asthma: relation with changes in disease control and eosinophilic airway inflammation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations between uEPX and other markers of asthma control and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Methods. We measured uEPX at baseline, after 1?year and after 2?years in 205 atopic asthmatic children using inhaled fluticasone. At the same time points, we assessed symptom scores (2 weeks diary card), lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1))), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and percentage eosinophils in induced sputum (% eos). Results. We found negative correlations between uEPX and FEV(1) at baseline (r = -0.18, P = 0.01), after 1 year (r = -0.25, P < 0.01) and after 2 years (r = -0.21, P = 0.02). Within-patient changes of uEPX showed a negative association with FEV(1) changes (at 1?year: r = -0.24, P = 0.01; at 2?years: r = -0.21, P = 0.03). Within-patient changes from baseline of uEPX correlated with changes in % eos. No relations were found between uEPX and symptoms. Conclusion. In this population of children with atopic asthma, uEPX correlated with FEV(1) and % eos, and within-subjects changes in uEPX correlated with changes in FEV(1) and % eos. As the associations were weak and the scatter of uEPX wide, it seems unlikely that uEPX will be useful as a biomarker for monitoring asthma control in the individual child. PMID:23401643

Nuijsink, Marianne; Hop, Wim C J; Sterk, Peter J; Duiverman, Eric J; De Jongste, Johan C

2013-01-01

363

Eosinophilic pulmonary syndrome as a manifestation of GVHD following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in three patients.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic pulmonary syndrome is an uncommon problem in SCT recipients that can mimic an infectious process. We report the occurrence of eosinophilic pulmonary syndrome in three patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and postulate that this entity is part of the clinicopathologic spectrum of pulmonary GVHD. In all three cases, active chronic GVHD of the skin preceded or coincided with the development of pulmonary involvement. Other common features included peripheral blood eosinophilia, diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and lung biopsies showing pronounced infiltrates of eosinophils involving the small bronchioles. All patients responded promptly to systemic steroid therapy, with improvement of their pulmonary symptoms and the resolution of peripheral blood eosinophilia. Clinicians should be aware that eosinophilic pulmonary syndrome can occur following HSCT, may be associated with other manifestations of chronic GVHD, and generally responds well to corticosteroid therapy. PMID:18794871

Akhtari, M; Langston, A A; Waller, E K; Gal, A A

2009-01-01

364

Herpes simplex primo-infection in an immunocompetent host with eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis and herpes simplex esophagitis are separately well-described entities, but their simultaneous occurrence may pose a special challenge to the clinician, especially regarding the optimal therapeutic approach. The following case report describes a patient with a history of cow's milk and dairy products intolerance, but without an underlying immunologic defect, in whom eosinophilic esophagitis was diagnosed in the course of primary herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) infection that clinically presented as herpes labialis and severe esophagitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction from cytological brush and by immunohistochemical staining that detected the presence of HSV1 DNA in esophageal mucosa, and histologically by persistent eosinophil-predominant inflammation, typical of eosinophilic esophagitis. Despite severe clinical presentation, the HSV1 infection was self-limited. After a directed elimination diet was introduced, the clinical course was favorable, without the need for antiviral therapy. PMID:23782375

Žaja Franulovi?, Orjena; Lesar, Tatjana; Busic, Nikolina; Tešovi?, Goran

2013-06-01

365

A Case of Unifocal Eosinophilic Granuloma of the Mandible in an Adult Female: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic granuloma of bone is a disease with an incidence of one new case per 350,000 to 2 million per year, which is an uncommon disease of maxillofacial region, and presents in more than 90% in children under the age of ten with predominance for males. As a result, eosinophilic granuloma of the jaw is always unconsidered in the differential diagnosis of similar lesions by many clinicians. It is difficult to make a correct diagnosis on it without proof of a pathological diagnosis, which correlates with the diverse clinical and radiographic presentations of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaws. In the present paper we report a rare case of unifocal eosinophilic granuloma of mandible occurring in an adult female.

Agarwal, Anshita; Agrawal, Gaurav P.; Alam, Sarwar; Husain, Benazeer

2012-01-01

366

In vitro effects of Uriage spring water on the apoptosis of human eosinophils.  

PubMed

The influx of eosinophils in tissues plays a central role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis. The death of eosinophils by apoptosis is an important factor for the resolution of hypereosinophilia. In the present study, we have shown that Uriage spring water induced in vitro the apoptosis of IL-5-primed eosinophils. This effect was dose-dependent and was statistically significant at Uriage water concentrations above 20%. The induction of apoptosis was related to the Ca2+ content of Uriage water. Indeed, Ca2+ at the same concentration as in Uriage water mimicked the apoptotic effect of the spring water. Furthermore, EGTA reversed the apoptotic effect of Uriage water. These results suggest that topically applied, Uriage water could contribute to the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:9711468

Beauvais, F; Garcia-Mace, J L; Joly, F

1998-01-01

367

Primary eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adults: new aspects for diagnosis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, Th2-type immune-mediated disorder. During the past decade, the increasing prevalence of EoE has been recognized in pediatric and adult populations all over the world. EoE diagnosis can be frequent challenging. Three criteria must be met to diagnose EoE: clinical symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, an esophageal biopsy with a peak eosinophil count of at least 15 eosinophils per high-power microscopy field and exclusion of other possible causes of esophageal eosinophilia. Although eosinophils mediate the EoE pathogenesis, proinflammatory cytokines are also critically involved. In the past years biologic therapeutics have revolutionized treatment of EoE. PMID:24294812

Bordea, M A; Sama?ca, G; Cristea, V; Miu, N

2013-01-01

368

Imidapril-induced eosinophilic pleurisy. Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

We describe an unusual case of a patient with eosinophilic pleurisy associated with long-term administration of imidapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI). An 81-year-old woman who had been given imidapril for the treatment of essential hypertension was admitted to our hospital for investigation of persistent low-grade fever, dry cough and difficulty in breathing. Left-sided eosinophilic pleurisy was diagnosed based on eosinophilic pleural effusion and peripheral eosinophilia. Soon after administration of imidapril was discontinued, her clinical symptoms subsided, and there was improvement in both diagnostic imaging and laboratory findings. So far, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case in which ACEI induced eosinophilic pleurisy. PMID:16088288

Yoshida, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Ritsuko; Hayashi, Haruyuki; Irie, Yasubumi

2005-01-01

369

EOSINOPHIL INFLUX TO THE NASAL AIRWAY FOLLOWING LOCAL, LOW-LEVEL LPS CHALLENGE IN HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Recent obervations show that atopic asthmatic subjects have increased sensitivity to respirable endotoxin (or LPS) compared with normal persons. In vitro studies demonstrate that LPS enchances eosinophil survival. These obervations suggest that the effects of inhal...

370

Nasal eosinophils and reversibility to the decongestion test in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

Nasal obstruction is sustained by eosinophilic inflammation in allergic rhinitis. The decongestion test consists of spraying an intranasal vasoconstrictor drug to evaluate the reversibility of nasal airflow limitation. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships of both the number of nasal eosinophils and the degree of nasal obstruction symptom with the reversibility of nasal airflow after the decongestion test in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Eighty-three patients with PAR were studied. Total symptom score, sensitization, rhinomanometry, and the decongestion test were performed in all the patients. Using multivariate analysis, the eosinophils number was significantly (and inversely) associated (p < 0.001) with the reversibility of nasal airflow, whereas the nasal obstruction symptom degree was not (p = 0.338). This study provides evidence of a significant association between nasal eosinophils and the reversibility to the decongestion test in patients with PAR. PMID:17619557

Ciprandi, Giorgio; Cirillo, Ignazio; Klersy, Catherine; Tosca, Maria Angela; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

2007-01-01

371

Eosinophils and allergic airway disease: there is more to the story  

PubMed Central

The eosinophil has been perceived as a terminal effector cell in allergic airway diseases. However, recent work has shown that this multifunctional cell could be more involved in the initial stages of allergic disease development than was previously thought, particularly with regard to the ability of the eosinophil to modulate T-cell responses. In this review, we discuss recent advances that suggest that eosinophils can present antigen to naïve as well as to antigen experienced T cells, induce T helper 2 cell development, cytokine production or both, and affect T-cell migration to sites of inflammation. These findings are changing the way that eosinophil function in disease is perceived, and represent a shift in the dogma of allergic disease development.

Walsh, Elizabeth R.; August, Avery

2009-01-01

372

Eosinophilic cystitis in a patient with hypereosinophila syndrome: A case report  

PubMed Central

Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare disorder that is characterized by hypereosinophilia and organ damage, caused by the infiltration of eosinophils. In rare cases, the urinary bladder may also be involved. The current case report presented a 56-year-old male with gross hematuria and hypereosinophilia. The diagnosis of eosinophilic cystitis associated HES was established. Oral prednisone with a slow tapering regimen was administered as the primary treatment for the patient, which achieved partial hematological remission and complete relief of cystitis during a six-month follow-up period. Although eosinophilic cystitis is not commonly the primary manifestation of HES, eosinophilic cystitis should be taken into consideration following the onset of urinary symptoms in patients with HES.

JIANG, PENG; WANG, CHAOJUN; JIN, BAIYE; LIN, YIWEI; CHEN, SHANWEN

2014-01-01

373

Successful treatment of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia with anti-IgE therapy.  

PubMed

Anti-IgE therapy, using recombinant humanized anti-IgE antibodies, is clinically effective in patients with eosinophil-related disorders such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and chronic urticaria. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia tends to respond promptly to systemic corticosteroid therapy, however; relapses are common following corticosteroid tapering. We treated two patients (17- and 19-yr-old males) of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia whose symptoms were cough and dyspnea on exertion. The symptoms were recurrent while tapering off corticosteroid. They were treated with anti-IgE antibody without recurrence for 2 yr and 15 months. Here, we first describe clinical experience of the 2 cases of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:23091327

Shin, Yoo Seob; Jin, Hyun Jung; Yoo, Hye-Soo; Hwang, Eui-kyung; Nam, Young Hee; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

2012-10-01

374

Molecular analysis of minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia with chromosome 16 inversion.  

PubMed

We report a 3-year-old girl with minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia and chromosome 16 inversion (inv 16). Inv 16 is generally associated with acute myelomonocytic leukemia with dysplastic eosinophils in the bone marrow (AML-M4Eo). Recently, molecular analysis showed that a fusion gene is generated by this inversion between the CBFB gene on the q arm and the MYH11 gene on the p arm. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, we tried to detect CBFB/MYH11 chimeric mRNA in blasts from our patients, however, were unable to detect any chimeric mRNA in the blasts: The absence of CBFB/MYH11 transcripts in this case suggests that rare chimeric products might be formed as a result of inv 16 that could not be detected by the primer sets used in this study. Another possibility is that different genes are rearranged on the chromosome 16 with the inv 16. More detailed molecular analysis of this case might be necessary in order to elucidate these possibility. Analyzing leukemias with inv 16 which do not have a typical CBFB/MYH11 chimeric mRNA might lead to understanding an alternative pathogenesis for acute leukemia with inv 16. PMID:9156661

Sotomatsu, M; Ogawa, C; Shimoda, M; Matsui, A; Nakazawa, S; Eguchi, M; Morikawa, A

1997-01-01

375

Platelet-activating factor-induced human eosinophil activation. Generation and release of cyclo-oxygenase metabolites in human blood eosinophils from asthmatics.  

PubMed Central

The spontaneous and stimulated generation of fatty acid cyclo-oxygenase pathway-derived products of arachidonic acid from highly purified (91.6 +/- 1.3%, n = 23) human blood eosinophils obtained from asthmatics were examined using combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Under resting conditions, eosinophils spontaneously generated 0.24 +/- 0.10 pg prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 0.51 +/- 0.20 prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), 0.35 +/- 0.10 pg prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and 8.5 +/- 2.2 pg thromboxane B2 (TXB2), the stable metabolite of TXA2 per 10(6) cells. In contrast, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha and 9 alpha,11 beta-prostaglandin F2 were not detectable. Stimulation of eosinophils with platelet-activating factor (PAF) for 5 min induced a two- to sixfold increase in the biosynthesis of prostanoids. More than 95% of the generated prostanoids were released into the surrounding medium. The response to PAF was inhibited by the PAF receptor antagonist WEB 2086 (1 microM). The fatty acid cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen, abolished both the spontaneous and PAF-stimulated generation of prostanoids by eosinophils. LTB4, PMA and calcimycin also produced an increase in prostanoid production, whereas lyso-PAF, the PAF precursor and metabolite, failed to induce prostanoid generation over basal production. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that PAF potently activates human eosinophils to generate and release several fatty acid cyclo-oxygenase metabolites of the arachidonic acid pathway, with TXB2 being the most abundant. These data are in agreement with previous observations suggesting that PAF may be an important stimulus for prostanoid release by the eosinophil in allergic diseases such as asthma. Images Figure 4

Kroegel, C; Matthys, H

1993-01-01

376

Airway inflammation, airway responsiveness and cough before and after inhaled budesonide in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airway inflammation, airway responsiveness and cough before and after inhaled bude- sonide in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis. C.E. Brightling, R. Ward, A.J. Wardlaw, I.D. Pavord. #ERS Journals Ltd 2000. ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, characterized by sputum eosinophilia similar to that seen in asthma, but unlike asthma the patients have no objective evidence of variable

C. E. Brightling; R. Ward; A. J. Wardlaw; I. D. Pavord

2000-01-01

377

Eosinophilic pleural effusion and giardiasis: A causal or a casual relationship?  

PubMed Central

A case of bilateral eosinophilic pleural effusion with coincidental intestinal infestation of giardia lamblia is being reported. After reviewing the possible causes of this type of pleural effusion, no clinical or laboratory data were obtained which could explain this condition except giardiasis. Moreover the clearance of pleural effusion with the treatment of giardia with metronidazole suggests giardia as the probable cause of bilateral eosinophilic pleural effusion.

Singh, Urvinderpal; Garg, Nishi; Chopra, Vishal

2013-01-01

378

MicroRNA-21* regulates the prosurvival effect of GM-CSF on human eosinophils.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are the principal effector cells of allergic inflammation, and hematopoietic cytokine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is the primary cytokine that activates and prolongs the survival of eosinophils in local inflammatory sites by mediating anti-apoptotic activity in allergic inflammation. To investigate the immunopathological role of microRNA (miRNA) in allergic inflammation, we elucidated the regulatory mechanisms of miRNA on the GM-CSF-mediated in vitro survival in eosinophils. Eosinophils were purified from fresh human peripheral blood buffy coat fraction obtained from adult volunteer using microbead magnetic cell sorting. The apoptosis, viability and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were assessed by flow cytometry, and the expression of miRNA was analyzed using Agilent Human miRNA Microarray with Human miRNA Microarray Version 3 and real time RT-PCR. We have confirmed the increased in vitro viability of GM-CSF-treated eosinophils and upregulated expression of miRNA-21* (miR-21*), a complementary miRNA of miR-21, in GM-CSF-treated eosinophils. The transfection of pre-miR miR-21* precursor molecule could up-regulate the miR-21* expression, subsequently enhance the GM-CSF-activated ERK pathway and reverse the apoptosis of eosinophils, while anti-miR-21* inhibitor could down-regulate the miR-21* expression, suppress the GM-CSF-activated ERK pathway and enhance the apoptosis. Our results should shed light on the potential immunopathological role of miRNA-21* regulating the in vitro apoptosis of eosinophils and development of novel molecular treatment of allergic inflammation. PMID:22698984

Wong, Chun Kwok; Lau, Kin Mang; Chan, Iris Hiu Shuen; Hu, Shuiqing; Lam, Yvonne Yi On; Choi, Angela On Kei; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei

2013-02-01

379

Ultrastructural morphology, cytochemistry, and morphometry of eosinophil granules in Ch?diak-Higashi syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal enlargement in Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS) occurs to varying degrees in different cell types and has provided insight into the pathophysiology of lysosomal granules. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of involvement of eosinophil crystalloid granules (CGs) and smaller non-crystalloid granules (NCGs) in giant granule formation. Eosinophils from two CHS patients were evaluated after glutaraldehyde fixation and staining for morphologic examination, peroxidase, and complex carbohydrate using uranyl acetate-lead citrate, diaminobenzidine-lead citrate, and periodate-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) methods, respectively. Although many CGs appeared normal in shape and size, several CGs appeared enlarged and a few measured over 5 microns in diameter, consistent with giant granule formation in CHS. These giant granules either occasionally contained a single large crystalloid or, more frequently, contained numerous normal-size crystalloids. Enlargement of granules was also observed in some precursor CGs of bone marrow early eosinophils, indicating that giant granule formation was initiated during granule genesis. Almost all NCGs in late eosinophils were small granules and stained strongly with PA-TCH-SP in contrast to CGs. Most, but not all small granules were peroxidase-positive in eosinophil precursors, whereas the percentage of peroxidase-negative small granules increased in late eosinophils. This indicated the presence of at least two small granule populations. Morphometric studies indicated CHS selectively involved CGs and demonstrated that neither the average size nor numbers of NCGs were significantly different from normal eosinophils. Thus, these studies indicate that CHS selectively involves CGs, and demonstrate preservation of normal granule size and heterogeneity for NCGs in late eosinophils. These observations suggest that the underlying CHS pathophysiology does not involve all lysosomal subpopulations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Hamanaka, S. C.; Gilbert, C. S.; White, D. A.; Parmley, R. T.

1993-01-01

380

Eosinophils contribute to innate antiviral immunity and promote clearance of respiratory syncytial virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils are recruited to the lungs in response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection; however, their role in promoting antiviral host defense remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that eosinophils express TLRs that recognize viral nucleic acids, are activated and degranulate after single- stranded RNA (ssRNA) stimulation of the TLR-7-MyD88 pathway, and provide host defense against RSV that is MyD88 depen-

Simon Phipps; Chuan En Lam; Suresh Mahalingam; Matthew Newhouse; Ruben Ramirez; Helene F. Rosenberg; Paul S. Foster; Klaus I. Matthaei; John Curtin

2007-01-01

381

Plasma histamine concentration and histamine detection in peripheral blood eosinophils in cats.  

PubMed

Plasma histamine levels were measured in 11 clinically healthy cats and 15 cats with allergic dermatitis. Histamine levels were markedly elevated in 5/15 allergic cats. A calcium ionophore, A23187, stimulates histamine release from feline peripheral blood cells. Immunostaining of blood smears from clinically healthy cats revealed that approximately 10% of eosinophils possessed histamine-containing granules. These results indicate that some peripheral eosinophils in cats contain histamine and can release histamine by appropriate stimulation. PMID:16650786

Kadoya, Michiyo; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

2006-10-01

382

The GM-CSF Analogue E21R Induces Apoptosis of Normal and Activated Eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that eosinophils have an important role in the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma. These cells are regulated by two classes of polypeptides, the colony-stimulating factors, such as gran- ulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and the chemokines, such as RANTES and eotaxin. GM-CSF is involved in the production, survival, and functional activation of eosinophils. RANTES and eotaxin regulate the

PER O. IVERSEN; DOUGLAS ROBINSON; SUN YING; QIU MENG; A. BARRY KAY; IAN CLARK-LEWIS; ANGEL F. LOPEZ

1997-01-01

383

Further studies on the interaction of Toxoplasma gondii with neutrophils and eosinophils.  

PubMed

Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii are ingested by neutrophils and eosinophils through a process which can be significantly inhibited by previous incubation of the host cells with cytochalasin D. Although dividing zoites within the leukocytes could be observed, after 3 h of infection, killing of parasites within the parasitophorous vacuole was detected. Cytochemical studies showed that both in neutrophils and eosinophils there is a process of NADP(H) oxidase activation, which was higher in the latter. PMID:11989861

MacLaren, A; De Souza, W

2002-01-01

384

Expression of cell surface adhesion molecules by peripheral blood eosinophils during Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of infection of sheep with the gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichostrongylus colubriformis on expression of adhesion molecules CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD44, CD49d and CD62L by peripheral blood eosinophils was examined by flow cytometry. Initially, to establish the sensitivity of adhesion molecules to inflammatory signals, eosinophil-rich exudates were elicited in non-lactating mammary glands of immune sheep by infusion of

LM Stevenson; IG Colditz; LF LeJambre

2001-01-01

385

The interaction of human peripheral blood eosinophils with bacterial lipopolysaccharide is CD14 dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) was es- timated. The results show induction of TNF-a and ECP-release by LPS and lipid A in a dose-dependent manner. Anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody (moAb) (clone MEM- 18) and the synthetic lipid A partial struc- ture 406 blocked the release of TNF-a and ECP by LPS-stimulated eosinophils. Stud- ies with radioactively labeled LPS showed dose-dependent uptake of

Sabine G. Plotz; Arnd Lentschat; Heidrun Behrendt; Werner Plotz; Lutz Hamann; Hans-Dieter Flad; Artur J. Ulmer

2010-01-01

386

Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Modulates Airway Eosinophil Adhesion in Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils migrate from the vascular circulation to the inflamed airways during asthma exacerbations. While the mechanism(s) of this processis not known, the expression of urokinase-typeplasmin- ogenactivator receptor(uPAR)has beenfoundto modulateneutro- phil adhesion and migration to inflammatory sites. We hypothe- sizedthatincreasedexpressionofuPARanditsligand,uPA,enhance eosinophil adhesion in patients with asthma. Patients with allergic asthma underwent segmental bronchoprovocation with allergen; 48 h later, peripheral blood and

Anne M. Brooks; Mary Ellen Bates; Rose F. Vrtis; Nizar N. Jarjour; Paul J. Bertics; Julie B. Sedgwick

2006-01-01

387

Interleukin33 enhances adhesion, CD11b expression and survival in human eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils are important effector cells in allergic diseases, but the mechanisms regulating their biological functions remain obscure. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a recently identified cytokine of the IL-1 family, and it reportedly accelerates the production of Th2-associated cytokines and promotes tissue inflammation. However, the action of IL-33 on effector cells such as eosinophils has remained unclear. In this study, we investigated

Maho Suzukawa; Rikiya Koketsu; Motoyasu Iikura; Susumu Nakae; Kenji Matsumoto; Hiroyuki Nagase; Hirohisa Saito; Kouji Matsushima; Ken Ohta; Kazuhiko Yamamoto; Masao Yamaguchi

2008-01-01

388

Role of cyclic GMP on inhibition by nitric oxide donors of human eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate the effects of the nitric oxide (NO) donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP), 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) on N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP, 1 × 10?7 M)-induced human eosinophil chemotaxis, cyclic guanosine-3?,5?-monophosphate (cGMP) levels, protein nitration and cytotoxicity. Human eosinophils were exposed to SNP, SIN-1 and SNAP (0.001–1.0 mM) for either short (10 min) or prolonged (90 min) time periods. Exposition of eosinophils with these NO donors significantly inhibited the eosinophil chemotaxis irrespective of whether cells were exposed to these agents for 10 or 90 min. No marked differences were detected among them regarding the profile of chemotaxis inhibition. Exposition of eosinophils to SNP, SIN-1 and SNAP (0.001–1.0 mM) markedly elevated the cGMP levels above basal levels, but the 90-min exposition resulted in significantly higher levels compared with the 10-min protocols (5.3±0.6 and 2.6±0.2 nM 1.5 × 106 cells?1, respectively). The cGMP levels achieved with SNAP were greater than SNP and SIN-1. The NO donors did not induce cell toxicity in any experimental condition used. Additionally, eosinophils exposed to SNP, SIN-1 and SNAP (1.0 mM each) either for 10 or 90 min did not show any tyrosine nitration in conditions where a strong nitration of bovine serum albumin was observed. Our findings show that inhibitory effects of fMLP-induced human eosinophil chemotaxis by NO donors at short or prolonged exposition time were accompanied by significant elevations of cGMP levels. However, additional elevations of cGMP levels do not change the functional profile (chemotaxis inhibition) of stimulated eosinophils.

Thomazzi, Sara M; Moreira, Juliana; Marcondes, Sisi; Nucci, Gilberto De; Antunes, Edson

2004-01-01

389

Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rats and Snails after an Outbreak of Human Eosinophilic Meningitis, Jamaica  

PubMed Central

After an outbreak in 2000 of eosinophilic meningitis in tourists to Jamaica, we looked for Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and snails on the island. Overall, 22% (24/109) of rats harbored adult worms, and 8% (4/48) of snails harbored A. cantonensis larvae. This report is the first of enzootic A. cantonensis infection in Jamaica, providing evidence that this parasite is likely to cause human cases of eosinophilic meningitis.

Lindo, John F.; Waugh, Cecilia; Hall, John; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Ashley, Deanna; Sullivan, James J.; Bishop, Henry S.; Robinson, David G.; Holtz, Timothy; Robinson, Ralph D.

2002-01-01

390

Nerve growth factor is preformed in and activates human peripheral blood eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies have shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) is produced by and can act on several immune-inflammatory cells.Objectives: The objective of this study was to study the effects of NGF on human peripheral blood eosinophils and assess whether these cells produce and store NGF.Methods: Eosinophils were purified by negative immunoselection (magnetic cell sorting systems, purity 98% to 100%)

Abraham Solomon; Luigi Aloe; Jacob Pe’er; Joseph Frucht-Pery; Stefano Bonini; Sergio Bonini; Francesca Levi-Schaffer

1998-01-01

391

The role of chemical mediators in eosinophil infiltration in allergic rhinitis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of chemical mediators other than histamine in eosinophil infiltration in the nasal mucosa was studied using histamine H1 receptor-deficient mice. Histamine H1 receptor-deficient mice and wild-type controls were immunized with ovalbumin and consecutive topical antigen instillation was performed. Histological alterations and eosinophil infiltration into the nasal mucosa of mice were examined. Diffuse infiltration of inflammatory cells and edema

Ryoji Kayasuga; Yoshinori Iba; Maria Alejandra Hossen; Takeshi Watanabe; Chiaki Kamei

2003-01-01

392

[Leukemia stem cell].  

PubMed

Cancer is the main cause of death in advanced countries. It has become progressively clear that cancer cells are distributed in a developmental hierarchy, in which whole cancer tissues originate from cancer stem cells(CSCs). CSCs were first discovered in a case of acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia stem cells(LSCs)are resistant to conventional chemotherapies because of their dormancy and are therefore the cause of minimal residual disease and relapse. Many investigators are working to develop novel therapeutic strategies for eliminating LSCs. LSC biology is discussed in the first part of this review, and the therapeutic approach to LSC targeting is described in the latter part. PMID:24743272

Iwasaki, Hiromi

2014-03-01

393

Eosinophils regulate dendritic cells and Th2 pulmonary immune responses following allergen provocation 1  

PubMed Central

Reports have recently suggested that eosinophils have the potential to modulate allergen-dependent pulmonary immune responses. The studies presented expand these reports demonstrating in the mouse that eosinophils are required for the allergen dependent Th2 pulmonary immune responses mediated by dendritic cells (DC) and T lymphocytes. Specifically, the recruitment of peripheral eosinophils to the pulmonary lymphatic compartment(s) was required for the accumulation of myeloid DCs in draining lymph nodes and, in turn, antigen-specific T effector cell production. These effects on DCs and antigen-specific T cells did not require MHC II expression on eosinophils, suggesting that these granulocytes have an accessory role as opposed to direct T cell stimulation. The data also showed that eosinophils uniquely suppress the DC-mediated production of Th17, and to smaller degree Th1 responses. The cumulative effect of these eosinophil-dependent immune mechanisms is to promote the Th2 polarization characteristic of the pulmonary microenvironment following allergen challenge.

Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Zellner, Katie R.; Colbert, Dana; Lee, Nancy A.; Lee, James J.

2011-01-01

394

Hypereosinophilia Presenting as Eosinophilic Vasculitis and Multiple Peripheral Artery Occlusions without Organ Involvement  

PubMed Central

We report here a case with hypereosinophilia and peripheral artery occlusion. A 32-yr-old Korean woman presented to us with lower extremity swelling and pain. Angiography revealed that multiple lower extremity arteries were occlusive. The biopsy specimen showed perivascular and periadnexal dense eosinophilic infiltration in dermis and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Laboratory investigations revealed a persistent hypereosinophilia. She was prescribed prednisolone 60 mg daily. Her skin lesion and pain were improved and the eosinophil count was dramatically decreased. After discharge, eosinophil count gradually increased again. Cyanosis and pain of her fingers recurred. She had been treated with cyclophosphamide pulse therapy. Her eosinophilia was decreased, but the cyanosis and tingling sense were progressive. The extremity arterial stenoses were slightly progressed. Skin biopsy showed perivascular eosinophilic infiltration in the dermis and CD40 ligand (CD40L) positive eosinophilic infiltration. The serum TNF-? was markedly increased. These results suggest that CD40L (a member of TNF-? superfamily) could play a role in the inflammatory processes when eosinophil infiltration and activation are observed. We prescribed prednisolone, cyclophosphamide, clopidogrel, cilostazol, beraprost and nifedipine, and she was discharged.

Kim, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Bum; Yun, Young-Sun; Shin, Jung-Im; Oh, Il-Young; Sir, Jung-Ju; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Song, Yeong-Wook; Choi, Dong-Chul; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young

2005-01-01

395

Development and characterisation of a novel and rapid lung eosinophil influx model in the rat.  

PubMed

Eosinophils play a major role in the development and severity of asthma. Robust and rapid preclinical animal models are desirable to profile novel therapeutics inhibiting the influx of eosinophils into the airways. To develop a rapid, airway eosinophil recruitment model in the rat, Brown-Norway (BN) rats were immunised with ovalbumin (OVA)/alum on day 0, 1 and 2 and challenged with OVA aerosol on day 5 and 6. On day 7 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analysed for eosinophil numbers, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity and cytokines. Lung sections were also examined. The immunised animals showed a strong selective influx of eosinophils into the airways correlating with enhanced EPO activity, Interleukin (IL-4), IL-5 and monocytes chemo attractant protein levels in the BALF in comparison to sham-sensitised rats. In addition the immunised rats developed goblet cell metaplasia in the lung and showed OVA specific IgG1 and IgE levels in the serum but no airway hyperreactivity after metacholine challenge. Airway inflammation was suppressed by applying the steroids Budesonide (intra tracheally) and Prednisolone (per orally), Roflumilast a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, and the H1 receptor antagonists Epinastine and Ketotifen. Montelukast, a Leukotriene receptor antagonist and Chromoglycate, a mast cell stabiliser, had no effect in this model. In summary, in this novel preclinical rat model therapeutics expected to inhibit the development of airway eosinophilia can rapidly be tested. PMID:18490184

Werner-Klein, Melanie; Göggel, Rolf; Westhof, Andreas; Erb, Klaus J

2008-08-01

396

Significance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is characterized by chronic eosinophilic infiltration of the lung. It is dramatically responsive to corticosteroid treatment, but symptoms and radiopacities recur frequently after tapering or discontinuing the medication. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a well-known noninvasive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the relationships of FeNO with peripheral eosinophilia and the clinical state of CEP and its validity for predicting exacerbation of CEP. Methods Standard clinical and laboratory parameters, peripheral eosinophil percentage and count, and FeNO level were measured in 18 patients with CEP at several assessment points over 1 year. Results FeNO level was positively correlated with peripheral eosinophil count (r?=?0.341, P?=?0.005) and percentage (r?=?0.362, P?=?0.003). The median (IQR) FeNO levels were 79 (41–88) and 35 (26–49) ppb in uncontrolled (13/74 measurements) and controlled (61/74 measurements) CEP, respectively (P?=?0.010). The FeNO level of 66.0 ppb showed the largest area under the curve (0.835) for predicting exacerbation of CEP (sensitivity?=?0.80, specificity?=?0.84). Conclusion FeNO may be useful for monitoring eosinophilic parenchymal inflammation and determining the appropriate corticosteroid dose in CEP.

2014-01-01

397

Comparative analysis of genes regulated in acute myelomonocytic leukemia with and without inv(16)(p13q22) using microarray techniques, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry immunophenotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16)(p13q22), also known as M4Eo, is a distinct type of leukemia with characteristic clinicopathologic and cytogenetic features. Patients with M4Eo have monocytosis, high blast counts, and abnormal bone marrow eosinophils that contain large basophilic granules. The inv(16)(p13q22) or, less commonly, the t(16;16)(p13;q22) causes fusion of the CBF? gene at 16q22 and the MYH11 gene at 16p13,

Xiaoping Sun; Wei Zhang; Latha Ramdas; David N Stivers; Daniel M Jones; Hagop M Kantarjian; Elihu H Estey; Saroj Vadhan-Raj; L Jeffrey Medeiros; Carlos E Bueso-Ramos

2007-01-01

398

Leukemia in benzene workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the possible association between occupational exposure to benzene and subsequent death from leukemia, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of workers who had been exposed to benzene in the manufacture of rubber hydrochloride at two locations in Ohio. Ascertainment of vital status was accomplished for 98% of the cohort.

Robert A. Rinsky; Ronald J. Young; Alexander B. Smith

1981-01-01

399

Plasma cell leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare, yet aggressive plasma cell (PC) neoplasm, variant of multiple myeloma (MM), characterized by high levels of PCs circulating in the peripheral blood. PCL can either originate de novo (primary PCL) or as a secondary leukemic transformation of MM (secondary PCL). Presenting signs and symptoms are similar to those seen in MM such as

Flavio Albarracin; Rafael Fonseca

2011-01-01

400

Familial Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was previously documented in a father and 4 of his offspring. Follow-up studies revealed spontaneous regression of the disease in 1 patient and shifts in the clinical patterns in other patients; the unaffected sibling de...

C. Y. Neuland W. A. Blattner D. L. Mann M. C. Fraser S. Tsai

1983-01-01

401

Leukemia Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The LKSC follows an efficient, cost-effective, science-driven, and transparent process to identify and promote the "Best Science" in clinical research on leukemia and related diseases by addressing the design and prioritization of phase III trials and large phase II studies.

402

Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor A is an intrinsic, self-limiting suppressor of IL-5-induced eosinophil development  

PubMed Central

Summary Eosinophilia is a hallmark characteristic of TH2-associated diseases and is critically regulated by the central eosinophil growth factor interleukin 5 (IL-5). Here we demonstrate that IL-5 activity in eosinophils was regulated by paired immunoglobulin-like receptor (PIR)-A and PIR-B. Upon self-recognition of ?2M molecules, PIR-B served as a permissive checkpoint for IL-5-induced eosinophil development by suppressing the pro-apoptotic activities of PIR-A, which were mediated by the Grb2-Erk-Bim pathway. PIR-B-deficient bone marrow (BM) eosinophils underwent compartmentalized apoptosis, resulting in decreased blood eosinophilia in naïve, IL-5- and aeroallergen-challenged mice. Subsequently, Pirb?/? mice displayed impaired aeroallergen-induced lung eosinophilia and induction of lung TH2 responses. Collectively, these data uncovers an intrinsic, self-limiting pathway regulating IL-5-induced eosinophil expansion, which has broad implications for eosinophil-associated diseases.

Moshkovits, Itay; Itan, Michal; Karo-Atar, Danielle; Bouffi, Carine; Fulkerson, Patricia; Rashkovan, Diana; Jung, Steffen; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Munitz, Ariel

2013-01-01

403

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin-elicited basophil responses promote eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food allergy-associated inflammatory disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia. Current management strategies for EoE are nonspecific, and thus there is a need to identify specific immunological pathways that could be targeted to treat this disease. EoE is associated with polymorphisms in the gene that encodes thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a cytokine that promotes allergic inflammation, but how TSLP might contribute to EoE disease pathogenesis has been unclear. Here, we describe a new mouse model of EoE-like disease that developed independently of IgE, but was dependent on TSLP and basophils, as targeting TSLP or basophils during the sensitization phase limited disease. Notably, therapeutic TSLP neutralization or basophil depletion also ameliorated established EoE-like disease. In human subjects with EoE, we observed elevated TSLP expression and exaggerated basophil responses in esophageal biopsies, and a gain-of-function TSLP polymorphism was associated with increased basophil responses in patients with EoE. Together, these data suggest that the TSLP-basophil axis contributes to the pathogenesis of EoE and could be therapeutically targeted to treat this disease. PMID:23872715

Noti, Mario; Wojno, Elia D Tait; Kim, Brian S; Siracusa, Mark C; Giacomin, Paul R; Nair, Meera G; Benitez, Alain J; Ruymann, Kathryn R; Muir, Amanda B; Hill, David A; Chikwava, Kudakwashe R; Moghaddam, Amin E; Sattentau, Quentin J; Alex, Aneesh; Zhou, Chao; Yearley, Jennifer H; Menard-Katcher, Paul; Kubo, Masato; Obata-Ninomiya, Kazushige; Karasuyama, Hajime; Comeau, Michael R; Brown-Whitehorn, Terri; de Waal Malefyt, Rene; Sleiman, Patrick M; Hakonarson, Hakon; Cianferoni, Antonella; Falk, Gary W; Wang, Mei-Lun; Spergel, Jonathan M; Artis, David

2013-08-01

404

Distribution of eosinophilic meningitis cases attributable to Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Hawaii.  

PubMed

During November 2004-January 2005, 5 cases of eosinophilic meningitis (EM) attributable to Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection were reported in Hawaii. To determine if this temporal clustering reflected an increased incidence, we ascertained EM and A. cantonensis cases by systematic review of statewide laboratory and medical records for January 2001-February 2005 and generalized the data to population estimates. We identified 83 EM cases; 24 (29%) were attributed to A. cantonensis infection, which was included in the discharge diagnoses for only 2 cases. Comparison of A. cantonensis infection incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) for the baseline (January 2001-October 2004) and cluster (November 2004-February 2005) periods showed statistically significant increases for the state as a whole (0.3 vs. 2.1), the Big Island of Hawaii (1.1 vs. 7.4), and Maui County (0.4 vs. 4.3). These findings underscore the need to consider the diagnosis of A. cantonensis infection, especially in the state of Hawaii. PMID:18217550

Hochberg, Natasha S; Park, Sarah Y; Blackburn, Brian G; Sejvar, James J; Gaynor, Kate; Chung, Heath; Leniek, Karyn; Herwaldt, Barbara L; Effler, Paul V

2007-11-01

405

Foreign body impaction as presentation of eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Esophageal foreign body is a frequent pediatric presentation, and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an important underlying disease. To determine characteristics common in the presentation of esophageal foreign body indicative of underlying EoE and reach a recommendation for the appropriate scenario in which to obtain esophageal mucosal biopsy, 312 pediatric esophageal foreign bodies requiring operative removal were reviewed. Patients older than 18 years or with a known history of esophageal surgery or pathology were excluded. Eligibility criteria were met in 271 cases. Twenty-seven patients were biopsied, and 18 were diagnosed with EoE. The following factors were identified in the EoE population: food impaction (89%), older age (average 12.2 years), male sex (78%), atopic disease (61%), previous esophageal foreign body or frequent dysphagia (83%), and endoscopic abnormalities (100%). These factors are all associated with an underlying diagnosis of EoE, and patients meeting these criteria should be strongly considered for intraoperative esophageal mucosal biopsy. PMID:23959816

Hudson, Scott; Sampson, Chris; Muntz, Harlan R; Jackson, W Daniel; Smith, Marshall E

2013-11-01

406

Successful surgical treatment of two patients with eosinophilic endomyocardial disease.  

PubMed Central

Cardiac surgery to treat severe heart failure was of benefit to two patients with endomyocardial disease and hypereosinophilia-eosinophilic endomyocardial disease. Both patients had severe biventricular fibrosis with mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. One had predominant right ventricular disease and was treated by right ventricular endocardectomy with tricuspid and mitral xenograft valve replacement. The second patient's main haemodynamic problem was considered to be mitral regurgitation. His mitral valve was replaced by a Starr-Edwards prosthesis; endocardectomy was not performed. Though both patients had toxic confusional states for several weeks postoperatively there was distinct symptomatic and objective evidence of improvement which has been maintained for over 16 months. Previous reports of surgical treatment of 22 patients without eosinophilia (all of whom had endomyocardial resection) and three other patients with eosinophilia have shown equally encouraging results. There has been no evidence of recurrence or progression of heart damage in follow-up periods of up to seven years. It is concluded that cardiac surgery is an important advance in the treatment of endomyocardial disease in patients with or without an eosinophilia. Images

Davies, J; Sapsford, R; Brooksby, I; Olsen, E G; Spry, C J; Oakley, C M; Goodwin, J F

1981-01-01

407

Induction of Malignant Plasma Cell Proliferation by Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

The biology of the malignant plasma cells (PCs) in multiple myeloma (MM) is highly influenced by the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in which they reside. More specifically, BM stromal cells (SCs) are known to interact with MM cells to promote MM cell survival and proliferation. By contrast, it is unclear if innate immune cells within this same space also actively participate in the pathology of MM. Our study shows for the first time that eosinophils (Eos) can contribute to the biology of MM by enhancing the proliferation of some malignant PCs. We first demonstrate that PCs and Eos can be found in close proximity in the BM. In culture, Eos were found to augment MM cell proliferation that is predominantly mediated through a soluble factor(s). Fractionation of cell-free supernatants and neutralization studies demonstrated that this activity is independent of Eos-derived microparticles and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), respectively. Using a multicellular in vitro system designed to resemble the native MM niche, SCs and Eos were shown to have non-redundant roles in their support of MM cell growth. Whereas SCs induce MM cell proliferation predominantly through the secretion of IL-6, Eos stimulate growth of these malignant cells via an IL-6-independent mechanism. Taken together, our study demonstrates for the first time a role for Eos in the pathology of MM and suggests that therapeutic strategies targeting these cells may be beneficial.

Wong, Tina W.; Kita, Hirohito; Hanson, Curtis A.; Walters, Denise K.; Arendt, Bonnie K.; Jelinek, Diane F.

2013-01-01

408

Regulation of lymphocyte proliferation by eosinophils via chymotrypsin-like protease activity and adhesion molecule interaction  

PubMed Central

We investigated the regulatory mechanisms responsible for release of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) from eosinophils activated by platelet-activating factor (PAF) and monitored intra-cellular pH (pHi) changes using a pH-sensitive fluorescent probe. We also explored the mechanisms by which eosinophils suppress T-lymphocyte proliferation induced by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). In these experiments, a separated culture to investigate the ECP-mediated pathway and a coculture to identify the adhesion molecules involved in eosinophil-lymphocyte interactions were employed. Chymostatin (1×10?6?M) inhibited ECP release by about 50% via stimulation by PAF or recombinant interleukin 5(rIL-5) plus IgG. PAF (1×10?7?M) raised eosinophil pHi from 6.9 to 7.3 within 20?s and pretreatment of these cells with chymostatin (1×10?6?M), but not with leupeptin or E64-d, completely prevented this increase. Calcium ionophore A23187 (1×10?7?M) induced ECP release and raised pHi to within a range similar to that of PAF, however, chymostatin had no effect on either. Chymostatin reversed ECP-mediated suppression of PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in separated cultures, but not in cocultures. In coculture, eosinophils exhibited the same level of suppression of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation in response to PHA. Monoclonal antibodies against CD11a, CD18 and CD54, but not CD11b, restored eosinophil suppression of T-lymphocyte proliferation which was chymostatin-resistant in coculture. Eosinophils were unable to suppress the proliferative response to lymphocytes to anti-CD3 stimulation. In conclusion, chymostatin specifically inhibited both the eosinophil pHi increase and ECP release induced by PAF. Eosinophils regulate PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation via the ECP-mediation associated with chymotrypsin-like protease activity. These cells also control interactions with lymphocyte between adhesion molecules, CD11a, CD18 and CD54.

Matsunaga, Yoichi; Shono, Masayuki; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Ogawa, Kenichi; Yamada, Tatsuo

2000-01-01

409

Leukemia and Benzene  

PubMed Central

Excessive exposure to benzene has been known for more than a century to damage the bone marrow resulting in decreases in the numbers of circulating blood cells, and ultimately, aplastic anemia. Of more recent vintage has been the appreciation that an alternative outcome of benzene exposure has been the development of one or more types of leukemia. While many investigators agree that the array of toxic metabolites, generated in the liver or in the bone marrow, can lead to traumatic bone marrow injury, the more subtle mechanisms leading to leukemia have yet to be critically dissected. This problem appears to have more general interest because of the recognition that so-called “second cancer” that results from prior treatment with alkylating agents to yield tumor remissions, often results in a type of leukemia reminiscent of benzene-induced leukemia. Furthermore, there is a growing literature attempting to characterize the fine structure of the marrow and the identification of so called “niches” that house a variety of stem cells and other types of cells. Some of these “niches” may harbor cells capable of initiating leukemias. The control of stem cell differentiation and proliferation via both inter- and intra-cellular signaling will ultimately determine the fate of these transformed stem cells. The ability of these cells to avoid checkpoints that would prevent them from contributing to the leukemogenic response is an additional area for study. Much of the study of benzene-induced bone marrow damage has concentrated on determining which of the benzene metabolites lead to leukemogenesis. The emphasis now should be directed to understanding how benzene metabolites alter bone marrow cell biology.

Snyder, Robert

2012-01-01

410

Priming of eosinophils by GM-CSF is mediated by protein kinase CbetaII-phosphorylated L-plastin.  

PubMed

The priming of eosinophils by cytokines leading to augmented response to chemoattractants and degranulating stimuli is a characteristic feature of eosinophils in the course of allergic inflammation and asthma. Actin reorganization and integrin activation are implicated in eosinophil priming by GM-CSF, but their molecular mechanism of action is unknown. In this regard, we investigated the role of L-plastin, an eosinophil phosphoprotein that we identified from eosinophil proteome analysis. Phosphoproteomic analysis demonstrated the upregulation of phosphorylated L-plastin after eosinophil stimulation with GM-CSF. Additionally, coimmunoprecipitation studies demonstrated a complex formation of phosphorylated L-plastin with protein kinase C?II (PKC?II), GM-CSF receptor ?-chain, and two actin-associated proteins, paxilin and cofilin. Inhibition of PKC?II with 4,5-bis(4-fluoroanilino)phtalimide or PKC?II-specific small interfering RNA blocked GM-CSF-induced phosphorylation of L-plastin. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis also showed an upregulation of ?(M)?(2) integrin, which was sensitive to PKC?II inhibition. In chemotaxis assay, GM-CSF treatment allowed eosinophils to respond to lower concentrations of eotaxin, which was abrogated by the above-mentioned PKC?II inhibitors. Similarly, inhibition of PKC?II blocked GM-CSF induced priming for degranulation as assessed by release of eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil peroxidase in response to eotaxin. Importantly, eosinophil stimulation with a synthetic L-plastin peptide (residues 2-19) phosphorylated on Ser(5) upregulated ?(M)?(2) integrin expression and increased eosinophil migration in response to eotaxin independent of GM-CSF stimulation. Our results establish a causative role for PKC?II and L-plastin in linking GM-CSF-induced eosinophil priming for chemotaxis and degranulation to signaling events associated with integrin activation via induction of PKC?II-mediated L-plastin phosphorylation. PMID:21525390

Pazdrak, Konrad; Young, Travis W; Straub, Christof; Stafford, Susan; Kurosky, Alexander

2011-06-01

411

Comparison of leukotriene B4 and D4 effects on human eosinophil and neutrophil motility in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motility of isolated normal human peripheral blood eosinophils and neutrophils in response to exogenous leukotrienes B4 and D4 was examined by means of a modified under-agarose technique and a novel quantitative sampling strategy. Leukotriene D4 was a po- tent chemoattractant for eosinophils, with a significant threshold chemotactic effect evident at 10'#{176} M. The abo- lition of eosinophil chemotaxis by

A. L. Nieves; D. F. Woodward

1994-01-01

412

Treatment of Children with Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Next Topic Treatment of children with acute promyelocytic leukemia Treatment of children with acute myeloid leukemia Treatment for most children ... 2014 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Leukemia in Children? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, ...

413

How Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... How is chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated? How is chronic lymphocytic leukemia staged? For most cancers, staging is the process ... and the results of imaging tests. Staging for chronic lymphocytic leukemia A staging system is a standardized way for ...

414

Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-07-21

415

MS-275 and Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-04-09

416

Imatinib Mesylate and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2013-01-22

417

Eosinophil Inversely Associates with Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance in Chinese Adults  

PubMed Central

Context Limited population-based study focused on relationship between eosinophil and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objectives We aimed to evaluate the relationship between peripheral eosinophil percentage and glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in a large sample size of Chinese population aged 40 and older. Design and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among 9,111 Chinese adults including 3,561 men and 5,550 women. The glucose metabolism status was confirmed by 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and serum insulin levels were used to evaluate insulin resistance. Homeostasis model assessment-B was used to evaluate ? cell function. Results The average age of participants was 58.5 years. The prevalence of T2D decreased across the tertiles of eosinophil percentage (21.3%, 18.2% and 16.9%, P<0.0001). Each one tertile increase of eosinophil percentage inversely associated with risk of T2D when referred not only to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.76–0.87, P< 0.0001), but also to impaired glucose regulation (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83–0.97, P?=?0.006), respectively, after adjustment for the confounding factors. Compared with the first tertile, the third tertile of eosinophil percentage associated with a 23% decrease of insulin resistance in NGT participants after full adjustments (P?=?0.005). Each 1-standard deviation of increment of eosinophil percentage associated with a 37% decrease of insulin resistance (P?=?0.005). Conclusions Higher peripheral eosinophil percentage was associated with decreased risk of T2D. The inverse relation to insulin resistance was detected in NGT participants.

Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Li, Mian; Wang, Tiange; Sun, Jichao; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Baihui; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Xu, Yiping

2013-01-01

418

Treatment with a Novel Chemokine-Binding Protein or Eosinophil Lineage-Ablation Protects Mice from Experimental Colitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in numerous inflammatory diseases. The present study was conducted to clarify the precise role of eosinophils in the development of colitis by using eosinophil-depleted mice and a novel chemokine-binding protein that neutralizes CCL11 action. Colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to wild-type and eosinophil-deficient ?dblGATA-1 mice. Accumulation of eosinophils in the gut of mice given DSS paralleled worsening of clinical score and weight loss. In response to DSS, ?dblGATA-1 mice showed virtual absence of eosinophil recruitment, amelioration of clinical score, weight loss, and tissue destruction, and no lethality. There was a decrease in CXCL1 and CCL3 production and decreased neutrophil influx in the intestine of ?dblGATA-1 mice. Transfer of bone marrow cells from wild-type mice reconstituted disease manifestation in DSS-treated ?dblGATA-1 mice, and levels of CCL11 were increased after DSS treatment and localized to inflammatory cells. Treatment with the chemokine-binding protein evasin-4 at a dose that prevented the function of CCL11 greatly ameliorated clinical score, weight loss, overall tissue destruction, and death rates. In conclusion, the influx of eosinophils is critical for the induction of colitis by DSS. Treatment with a novel chemokine-binding protein decreased eosinophil influx and greatly ameliorated colitis, suggesting that strategies that interfere with the recruitment of eosinophils may be useful as therapy for colitis.

Vieira, Angelica T.; Fagundes, Caio T.; Alessandri, Ana Leticia; Castor, Marina G.M.; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Borges, Valdineria O.; Silveira, Katia Daniella; Vieira, Erica L.M.; Goncalves, Juliana L.; Silva, Tarcilia A.; Deruaz, Maud; Proudfoot, Amanda E.I.; Sousa, Lirlandia P.; Teixeira, Mauro M.

2009-01-01

419

FTY720 Regulates Bone Marrow Egress of Eosinophils and Modulates Late-Phase Skin Reaction in Mice  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilia in the blood and skin is frequently observed in patients with certain inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis. However, the mechanism underlying eosinophil circulation and the role of eosinophils in cutaneous immune responses remain unclear. In repeated hapten application-induced cutaneous responses in BALB/c mice, the administration of FTY720 before the last challenge decreased the number of skin-infiltrating eosinophils and reduced the late-phase reaction. A similar reduction of the late-phase reaction was observed by a sphingosine-1-phosphate G protein-coupled receptor (S1P1)-selective agonist, SEW2871. We monitored numerous alterations of eosinophils in the blood, spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes of interleukin-5 transgenic mice, used as an eosinophilia model, following FTY720 administration. The number of circulating eosinophils was significantly decreased after treatment with FTY720, and eosinophils accumulated in the bone marrow. In addition, eosinophils expressed S1P1, S1P3, and S1P4 mRNAs, and their chemotactic response to S1P was abolished by FTY720 as well as by SEW2871. These findings suggest that FTY720 affects the number of eosinophils in both the blood and skin by inhibiting the egress of eosinophils from the bone marrow and thus downmodulating the late-phase reaction.

Sugita, Kazunari; Kabashima, Kenji; Sakabe, Jun-ichi; Yoshiki, Ryutaro; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Tokura, Yoshiki

2010-01-01

420

Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The acute myeloid leukemias (AML) represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies derived from the pluripotent hematopoietic\\u000a stem cell. These leukemias are generally characterized by genetic lesions that result in a combination of defects causing\\u000a unregulated proliferation of cells and defects in cellular maturation (Gilliland and Griffin 2002). AML accounts for approximately\\u000a 15–20% of acute leukemia in children. In contrast to

Brenda Gibson; John Perentesis; Todd A. Alonzo; Gertjan J. L. Kaspers

421

Plasma cell leukemia with myelofibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We describe a case of plasma cell leukemia associated with myelofibrosis. A 60-year-old woman was admitted due to lumbago and monoclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Peripheral blood showed about 40% of plasma-cell-like cells. A bone marrow aspiration was dry tap. The patient was diagnosed as having plasma cell leukemia with myelofibrosis by bone marrow biopsy. Plasma cell leukemia as well as myelofibrosis

T. Murayama; T. Matsui; Y. Hayashi; T. Taniguchi; M. Ito; T. Natazuka; S. Imoto; N. Iwata; T. Isobe; H. Ito; K. Chihara

1994-01-01

422

Phase 1 Study of Terameprocol (EM-1421) in Patients With Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Leukemias; Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML); Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL); Adult T Cell Leukemia (ATL); Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML-BP); Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL); Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML)

2009-01-29

423