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1

Leukemia -- Eosinophilic  

MedlinePLUS

... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Leukemia - Eosinophilic Leukemia - Eosinophilic This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Leukemia - Eosinophilic. Use the menu below to choose the Overview section to get started. ...

2

Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Español Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®) Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia Key Points for This Section Chronic eosinophilic leukemia ... include fever and feeling very tired. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a disease in which too many white ...

3

Mechanisms for the proliferation of eosinophilic leukemia cells by FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}  

SciTech Connect

The constitutively activated tyrosine kinase Fip1-like 1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha} (PDGFR{alpha}) causes eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells to proliferate. Recently, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors suppressed this proliferation and induced the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils in parallel with a decrease in the level of FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation and whether the suppression of cell proliferation triggers the differentiation into eosinophils. The FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} inhibitor imatinib inhibited the proliferation of EoL-1 cells and decreased the level of the oncoprotein c-Myc as well as the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The proliferation of EoL-1 cells and expression of c-Myc were also inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126 and JNK inhibitor SP600125. The expression of the eosinophilic differentiation marker CCR3 was not induced by imatinib. These findings suggest that FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation of EoL-1 cells through the induction of c-Myc expression via ERK and JNK signaling pathways, but is not involved in the inhibition of differentiation toward mature eosinophils.

Ishihara, Kenji; Kitamura, Hajime; Hiraizumi, Kenji; Kaneko, Motoko; Takahashi, Aki [Laboratory of Pathophysiological Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Zee, OkPyo [Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Graduate School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seyama, Toshio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hong, JangJa; Ohuchi, Kazuo [Laboratory of Pathophysiological Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hirasawa, Noriyasu [Laboratory of Pathophysiological Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)], E-mail: hirasawa@mail.pharm.tohoku.ac.jp

2008-02-22

4

Secretion of MCP?1, IL?8 and IL?6 induced by house dust mite, dermatophagoides pteronissinus in human eosinophilic EOL?1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus) is an important factor in triggering allergic diseases. The function of eosinophils, particularly in the production of cytokine or chemokine, is critical in understanding the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we examined whether D. pteronissinus extract (DpE) induces the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP?1)\\/ CCL2, IL?8\\/CXCL8, and IL?6 that mediate

In Sik Kim

2009-01-01

5

[Mastocytosis and eosinophilic leukemia: diagnostics and classification].  

PubMed

Mastocytosis and myeloid eosinophilic neoplasms are rare diseases of the bone marrow and are often a diagnostic challenge for hematopathologists. In mastocytosis, compact mast cell infiltrates represent the main diagnostic criterion and for myeloid eosinophilic neoplasms, eosinophilic granulocytes dominate the histological picture. Both disease groups include phenotypically and prognostically very different entities which are each defined by WHO criteria. For systemic mastocytosis (SM), a differentiation between indolent and aggressive or even leukemic forms is of prognostic importance. In indolent variants of SM, a local and/or systemic, usually reactive increase in eosinophilic granulocytes (SM-eo) is often observed. In contrast, an increase in neoplastic eosinophils is often observed in advanced SM, predominantly in diseases designated SM with associated non-mastocytic hematological neoplasms (SM-AHNMD), e.g. in SM with chronic eosinophilic leukemia (SM-CEL). Apart from mastocytoses, immunophenotypically aberrant tissue mast cells are only observed in certain rare forms of myeloid neoplasms with eosinophilia, in particular in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN-eo) with cytogenic anomalies in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of eosinophilic leukemias, however, fulfils the morphological and clinical requirements in a limited way only and needs an update. PMID:23085697

Sotlar, K; Valent, P; Horny, H-P

2012-11-01

6

Chronic eosinophilic leukemia: a rare cause of hypereosinophilic syndrome.  

PubMed

Hypereosinophilic syndromes are a wide group of entities. We present a 24-year-old-male with left lower quadrant abdominal pain, elevated eosinophil counts and splenomegaly. Molecular analysis was positive for FIP1LI -PDGFRA gene compatible with chronic eosinophilic leukemia. He was managed with Imatinib producing resolution of the disease. PMID:25065049

Ortiz, Cristina; Jimenez, Madeline; Matos, Nelson A

2014-01-01

7

Expression of human platelet-activating factor receptor gene in EoL-1 cells following butyrate-induced differentiation.  

PubMed Central

Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent lipid mediator of allergic inflammation through its interaction with eosinophils. Expression of the PAF receptor is modulated by many agents, including those responsible for cell differentiation. We report here that differentiation of a human eosinophilic leukaemia cell line, EoL-1, by sodium n-butyrate is associated with induction of PAF receptor gene expression, as indicated by: PAF receptor mRNA accumulation; increases in the binding of [3H]WEB 2086, a PAF antagonist; analysis of cell-surface expression of PAF receptor protein using a monoclonal anti-(PAF receptor) antibody; and augmentation of PAF-induced increase in the intracellular concentration of calcium. Using cDNA cloning, the receptor expressed in EoL-1 cells was identified as 'Transcript 1', one of two transcripts which was previously reported from human genomic analysis (Mutoh, Bito, Minami, Nakamura, Honda, Izumi, Nakata, Kurachi, Terano and Shimizu (1993) FEBS Lett. 322, 129-134). The PAF-induced calcium response and phosphoinositide turnover were decreased by pertussis toxin (PTX) treatment, suggesting that these signals are coupled largely with PTX-sensitive G-protein(s) in EoL-1 cells. These systems may provide a useful experimental model with which to investigate the relationship between eosinophilic differentiation and PAF receptor induction, and the role of eosinophils in allergic responses. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7848283

Izumi, T; Kishimoto, S; Takano, T; Nakamura, M; Miyabe, Y; Nakata, M; Sakanaka, C; Shimizu, T

1995-01-01

8

Montelukast suppresses epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells induced by eosinophils.  

PubMed

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a mechanism by which eosinophils can induce airway remodeling. Montelukast, an antagonist of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor, can suppress airway remodeling in asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether montelukast can ameliorate airway remodeling by blocking EMT induced by eosinophils. EMT induced was assessed using a co-culture system of human bronchial epithelial cells and human eosinophils or the eosinophilic leukemia cell lines, Eol-1. Montelukast inhibited co-culture associated morphological changes of BEAS-2b cells, decreased the expression of vimentin and collagen I, and increased the expression of E-cadherin. Montelukast mitigated the rise of TGF-?1 production and Smad3 phosphorylation. Co-culture of human eosinophils with BEAS-2B cells significantly enhanced the production of CysLTs compared with BEAS-2B cells or eosinophils alone. The increase of CysLTs was abolished by montelukast pre-treatment. Montelukast had similar effects when co-culture system of Eol-1 and BEAS-2B was used. This study showed that montelukast suppresses eosinophils-induced EMT of airway epithelial cells. This finding may explain the mechanism of montelukast-mediated amelioration of airway remodeling in bronchial asthma. PMID:24845378

Hosoki, Koa; Kainuma, Keigo; Toda, Masaaki; Harada, Etsuko; Chelakkot-Govindalayathila, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi; Roeen, Ziaurahman; Nagao, Mizuho; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Fujisawa, Takao; Gabazza, Esteban C

2014-07-01

9

GATA1s induces hyperproliferation of eosinophil precursors in Down syndrome transient leukemia  

PubMed Central

Transient leukemia (TL) is evident in 5–10% of all neonates with Down syndrome (DS) and associated with N-terminal truncating GATA1-mutations (GATA1s). Here we report that TL cell clones generate abundant eosinophils in a substantial fraction of patients. Sorted eosinophils from patients with TL and eosinophilia carried the same GATA1s-mutation as sorted TL-blasts, consistent with their clonal origin. TL-blasts exhibited a genetic program characteristic of eosinophils and differentiated along the eosinophil lineage in vitro. Similarly, ectopic expression of Gata1s, but not Gata1, in wild-type CD34+-hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells induced hyperproliferation of eosinophil promyelocytes in vitro. While GATA1s retained the function of GATA1 to induce eosinophil genes by occupying their promoter regions, GATA1s was impaired in its ability to repress oncogenic MYC and the pro-proliferative E2F transcription network. ChIP-seq indicated reduced GATA1s occupancy at the MYC promoter. Knockdown of MYC, or the obligate E2F-cooperation partner DP1, rescued the GATA1s-induced hyperproliferative phenotype. In agreement, terminal eosinophil maturation was blocked in Gata1?e2 knockin mice, exclusively expressing Gata1s, leading to accumulation of eosinophil precursors in blood and bone marrow. These data suggest a direct relationship between the N-terminal truncating mutations of GATA1 and clonal eosinophilia in DS patients. PMID:24336126

Maroz, Aliaksandra; Stachorski, Lena; Emmrich, Stephan; Reinhardt, Katarina; Xu, Jian; Shao, Zhen; Käbler, Sebastian; Dertmann, Tobias; Hitzler, Johann; Roberts, Irene; Vyas, Paresh; Juban, Gaetan; Hennig, Christian; Hansen, Gesine; Li, Zhe; Orkin, Stuart; Reinhardt, Dirk; Klusmann, Jan-Henning

2014-01-01

10

EOL-1, the homolog of the mammalian Dom3Z, regulates olfactory learning in C. elegans.  

PubMed

Learning is an essential function of the nervous system. However, our understanding of molecular underpinnings of learning remains incomplete. Here, we characterize a conserved protein EOL-1 that regulates olfactory learning in Caenorhabditis elegans. A recessive allele of eol-1 (enhanced olfactory learning) learns better to adjust its olfactory preference for bacteria foods and eol-1 acts in the URX sensory neurons to regulate learning. The mammalian homolog of EOL-1, Dom3Z, which regulates quality control of pre-mRNAs, can substitute the function of EOL-1 in learning regulation, demonstrating functional conservation between these homologs. Mutating the residues of Dom3Z that are critical for its enzymatic activity, and the equivalent residues in EOL-1, abolishes the function of these proteins in learning. Together, our results provide insights into the function of EOL-1/Dom3Z and suggest that its activity in pre-mRNA quality control is involved in neural plasticity. PMID:25274815

Shen, Yu; Zhang, Jiangwen; Calarco, John A; Zhang, Yun

2014-10-01

11

Controversies and open questions in the definitions and classification of the hypereosinophilic syndromes and eosinophilic leukemias.  

PubMed

Eosinophilia is frequently detectable in certain myeloid neoplasms and various reactive conditions, but it may also occur in the absence of an apparent underlying disease, or, rarely, as a paraneoplastic feature with solid tumors. In myeloid neoplasms, eosinophils are considered to belong to the malignant clone in most cases, whereas in all other conditions, eosinophilia is a reactive process triggered by eosinopoietic cytokines. Excessive accumulation of eosinophils, also termed hypereosinophilia (HE), is typically seen in eosinophilic leukemias, but it may also occur in other neoplasms and reactive disorders. HE-related end organ damage may develop in patients with reactive HE but also in those with hematologic malignancies. During the past few years, our knowledge about HE and HE-related organ damage in hematologic and nonhematologic disorders has improved considerably. Moreover, proposals for the definition and classification of eosinophil disorders have been generated by various expert groups and by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, several questions related to eosinophils and HE remain open, and many aspects of the definition and classification of eosinophil disorders and related pathologies remain controversial. In the current article, these open issues are discussed with special reference to the 2008 WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms and other classifications proposed by immunologists and various expert panels, as well as definitions and criteria recently proposed in a multidisciplinary consensus proposal. PMID:22449627

Valent, Peter; Horny, Hans-Peter; Bochner, Bruce S; Haferlach, Torsten; Reiter, Andreas

2012-04-01

12

Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... forming the genetic blueprints for making proteins (messenger RNA or mRNA). The PDGFRA gene provides instructions for ... inflammation ; inherited ; leukemia ; ligand ; lymphoma ; mast cells ; messenger RNA ; mRNA ; mutation ; myeloid ; nervous system ; neutrophils ; population ; prevalence ; ...

13

Ponatinib efficiently kills imatinib-resistant chronic eosinophilic leukemia cells harboring gatekeeper mutant T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR?: roles of Mcl-1 and ?-catenin  

PubMed Central

Background T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR? in a subset of chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a gatekeeper mutation that is resistant to many tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) (e.g., imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib), similar to T315I Bcr-Abl. Therefore, novel TKIs effective against T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR? are needed. Ponatinib (AP24534) is a novel orally bioavailable TKI against T315I Bcr-Abl, but it is not clear whether ponatinib is effective against T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR?. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ponatinib on T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR?. Methods Molecular docking analysis in silico was performed. The effects of ponatinib on PDGFR? signaling pathways, apoptosis and cell cycling were examined in EOL-1, BaF3 cells expressing either wild type (WT) or T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR?. The in vivo antitumor activity of ponatinib was evaluated with xenografted BaF3-T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR? cells in nude mice models. Results Molecular docking analysis revealed that ponatinib could bind to the DFG (Asp-Phe-Gly)-out state of T674I PDGFR?. Ponatinib potently inhibited the phosphorylation of WT and T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR? and their downstream signaling molecules (e.g., Stat3, Stat5). Ponatinib strikingly inhibited the growth of both WT and T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR?-carrying CEL cells (IC50: 0.004–2.5 nM). It induced apoptosis in CEL cells with caspase-3-dependent cleavage of Mcl-1, and inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of ?-catenin to decrease its stability and pro-survival functions. In vivo, ponatinib abrogated the growth of xenografted BaF3-T674I FIP1L1-PDGFR? cells in nude mice. Conclusions Ponatinib is a pan-FIP1L1-PDGFR? inhibitor, and clinical trials are warranted to investigate its efficacy in imatinib-resistant CEL. PMID:24472312

2014-01-01

14

Identification of Ponatinib as a potent inhibitor of growth, migration and activation of neoplastic eosinophils carrying FIP1L1-PDGFRA  

PubMed Central

In chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), the transforming oncoprotein FIP1L1-PDGFRA is a major target of therapy. In most patients, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib induces complete remission. For patients who are intolerant or resistant, novel TKI have been proposed. We examined the in vitro effects of 14 kinase blockers on growth and function of EOL-1 cells, a FIP1L1-PDGFRA+ eosinophil cell line. Major growth-inhibitory effects were seen with all PDGFR-blocking agents, with IC50 values in the low nM-range: ponatinib: 0.1-0.2 nM, sorafenib: 0.1-0.2 nM, masitinib: 0.2-0.5 nM, nilotinib: 0.2-1 nM, dasatinib: 0.5-2 nM, sunitinib: 1-2 nM, midostaurin: 5-10 nM. These drugs were also found to block activation of PDGFR-downstream signaling molecules, including Akt, S6, and STAT5 in EOL-1 cells. All effective TKI produced apoptosis in EOL-1 cells as determined by microscopy, Annexin-V/PI, and caspase-3-staining. In addition, PDGFR-targeting TKI were found to inhibit cytokine-induced migration of EOL-1 cells. In all bioassays employed, ponatinib was found to be the most potent compound in EOL-1 cells. In addition, ponatinib was found to downregulate expression of the activation-linked surface antigen CD63 on EOL-1 cells, and to suppress growth of primary neoplastic eosinophils. We also examined drug effects on Ba/F3 cells expressing two clinically relevant imatinib-resistant mutant-forms of FIP1L1-PDGFRA, namely T674I and D842V. Strong inhibitory effects on both mutants were only seen with ponatinib. In summary, novel PDGFR-targeting TKI may be alternative agents for the treatment of patients with imatinib-resistant CEL. Although several different PDGFR-targeting agents are effective, the most potent drug appears to be ponatinib. PMID:24407160

Sadovnik, Irina; Lierman, Els; Peter, Barbara; Herrmann, Harald; Suppan, Verena; Stefanzl, Gabriele; Haas, Oskar; Lion, Thomas; Pickl, Winfried; Cools, Jan; Vandenberghe, Peter; Valent, Peter

2015-01-01

15

Glucocorticoid regulation of human eosinophil gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular analysis of steroid-regulated gene expression in freshly isolated human eosinophils is difficult due to the inherent high rate of spontaneous apoptosis and elevated levels of endogenous ribonucleases. To circumvent these limitations, we determined if the human eosinophilic cell line EoL-1 could serve as an in vitro model of glucocorticoid signaling. We found by optimizing growth conditions in low serum-containing

Sanjay Chauhan; Craig H. Leach; Susan Kunz; John W. Bloomb; Roger L. Miesfeld

2003-01-01

16

Rumex L. species induce apoptosis in 1301, EOL-1 and H-9 cell lines.  

PubMed

The Rumex L. (dock) species for many centuries have been used in medical treatment, through their adstringent, spasmolitic or cholagogic action. In the present study, the in vitro screening of cytotoxic activities of ethanol extract from roots, leaves and fruits of six Rumex species: R. acetosa L., R. acetosella L., R. confertus Willd., R. crispus L., R. hydrolapathum Huds. and R. obtusifolius L. were performed. We found remarkable cytotoxic activities on leukemic 1301 and EOL-1 cell lines and T cell line at concentration dependent manners. Cytotoxic activity was determined in two ways: trypan blue test and annexin-V FITC and propidium iodide assay. Received IC50 values of investigated extracts on 1301, EOL-1 and H-9 cell lines ranged from 0.22, 0.17 and 0.04 to 2.56, 1.91 and 1.83 mg/mL, respectively. Analysis of morphological changes demonstrated that the extract exerted cell-death via apoptosis. The overall activities of Rumex species support the traditional use of the extract from the fruits of R. confertus, R. crispus, R. hydrolapathum and R. obtusifolius in the treatment of cancer. PMID:22594263

Wegiera, Magdalena; Smolarz, Helena D; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna

2012-01-01

17

WT1 transcript amount discriminates secondary or reactive eosinophilia from idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome or chronic eosinophilic leukemia.  

PubMed

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) comprise a spectrum of indolent to aggressive diseases characterized by persistent hypereosinophilia. Hypereosinophilia can result from the presence of a defect in the hematopoietic stem cell giving rise to eosinophilia, it can be present in many myeloproliferative disorders or alternatively it may be a reactive form, secondary to many clinical conditions. The hybrid gene FIP1L1-PDGRFalpha was identified in a subset of patients presenting with HES or chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL). In spite of this, the majority of HES patients do not present detectable molecular lesions and for many of them the diagnosis is based on exclusion criteria and sometimes it remains doubt. In this study we explored the possibility to distinguish between HES/CEL and reactive hypereosinophilia based on WT1 transcript amount. For this purpose, 312 patients with hypereosinophilia were characterized at the molecular and cytogenetic level and analyzed for WT1 expression at diagnosis and during follow-up. This study clearly demonstrates that WT1 quantitative assessment allows to discriminate between HES/CEL and reactive eosinophilia and represents a useful tool for disease monitoring especially in the patients lacking a marker of clonality. PMID:17508006

Cilloni, D; Messa, F; Martinelli, G; Gottardi, E; Arruga, F; Defilippi, I; Carturan, S; Messa, E; Fava, M; Giugliano, E; Rosso, V; Catalano, R; Merante, S; Nicoli, P; Rondoni, M; Ottaviani, E; Soverini, S; Tiribelli, M; Pane, F; Baccarani, M; Saglio, G

2007-07-01

18

Novel Association between Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide and CRTH2 Receptor in Recruiting Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

We explored the relation between vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), CRTH2, and eosinophil recruitment. It is shown that CRTH2 expression by eosinophils from allergic rhinitis (AR) patients and eosinophil cell line (Eol-1 cells) was up-regulated by VIP treatment. This was functional and resulted in exaggerated migratory response of cells against PGD2. Nasal challenge of AR patients resulted in a significant increase of VIP contents in nasal secretion (ELISA), and the immunohistochemical studies of allergic nasal tissues showed significant expression of VIP in association with intense eosinophil recruitment. Biochemical assays showed that VIP-induced eosinophil chemotaxis from AR patients and Eol-1 cells was mediated through the CRTH2 receptor. Cell migration against VIP was sensitive to protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition but not to tyrosine kinase or p38 MAPK inhibition or calcium chelation. Western blot demonstrated a novel CRTH2-mediated cytosol-to-membrane translocation of PKC-?, PKC-?, and PKA-?, -?, and -II?reg in Eol-1 cells upon stimulation with VIP. Confocal images and FACS demonstrated a strong association and co-localization between VIP peptide and CRTH2 molecules. Further, VIP induced PGD2 secretion from eosinophils. Our results demonstrate the first evidence of association between VIP and CRTH2 in recruiting eosinophils. PMID:23168411

El-Shazly, Amr E.; Begon, Dominique Y.; Kustermans, Gaelle; Arafa, Mohammad; Dortu, Estelle; Henket, Monique; Lefebvre, Philippe P.; Louis, Renaud; Delvenne, Philippe

2013-01-01

19

Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... two are acute, meaning they get worse quickly. chronic lymphocytic leukemia chronic myeloid leukemia acute myeloid leukemia acute lymphocytic leukemia Chronic and Acute Leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia are ...

20

ETV6-PDGFRB and FIP1L1-PDGFRA stimulate human hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation into eosinophils: the role of nuclear factor-?B  

PubMed Central

Background ETV6-PDGFRB (also called TEL-PDGFRB) and FIP1L1-PDGFRA are receptor-tyrosine kinase fusion genes that cause chronic myeloid malignancies associated with hypereosinophilia. The aim of this work was to gain insight into the mechanisms whereby fusion genes affect human hematopoietic cells and in particular the eosinophil lineage. Design and Methods We introduced ETV6-PDGFRB and FIP1L1-PDGFRA into human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells isolated from umbilical cord blood. Results Cells transduced with these oncogenes formed hematopoietic colonies even in the absence of cytokines. Both oncogenes also stimulated the proliferation of cells in liquid culture and their differentiation into eosinophils. This model thus recapitulated key features of the myeloid neoplasms induced by ETV6-PDGFRB and FIP1L1-PDGFRA. We next showed that both fusion genes activated the transcription factors STAT1, STAT3, STAT5 and nuclear factor-?B. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibition blocked nuclear factor-?B activation in transduced progenitor cells and patients’ cells. Nuclear factor-?B was also activated in the human FIP1L1-PDGFRA-positive leukemia cell line EOL1, the proliferation of which was blocked by borte-zomib and the I?B kinase inhibitor BMS-345541. A mutant I?B that prevents nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-?B inhibited cell growth and the expression of eosinophil markers, such as the interleukin-5 receptor and eosinophil peroxidase, in progenitors transduced with ETV6-PDGFRB. In addition, several potential regulators of this process, including HES6, MYC and FOXO3 were identified using expression microarrays. Conclusions We show that human CD34+ cells expressing PDGFR fusion oncogenes proliferate autonomously and differentiate towards the eosinophil lineage in a process that requires nuclear factor-?B. These results suggest new treatment possibilities for imatinib-resistant myeloid neoplasms associated with PDGFR mutations. PMID:22271894

Montano-Almendras, Carmen P.; Essaghir, Ahmed; Schoemans, Hélène; Varis, Inci; Noël, Laura A.; Velghe, Amélie I.; Latinne, Dominique; Knoops, Laurent; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste

2012-01-01

21

Decitabine, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2015-03-19

22

Eosinophilic Fasciitis  

MedlinePLUS

... In This Topic Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue Eosinophilic Fasciitis Symptoms Diagnosis ... Tumors Osteonecrosis Bone and Joint Infections Joint Disorders Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue Vasculitic Disorders Gout and ...

23

Eosinophilic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Lymphocytic Leukocytosis Monocyte Disorders Eosinophilic Disorders Basophilic Disorders Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Blood Disorders > White Blood Cell Disorders ...

24

Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

25

Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

Leukemia is a type of blood cancer that begins in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the ... bones, where blood cells are produced. The term leukemia means white blood. White blood cells (leukocytes) are ...

26

Eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic disease of increasing prevalence. Because EoE is a chronic disease, its prevalence will continue to increase. Antigen triggers, including food and aeroallergens, drive eosinophilic and T helper cell type 2 inflammation, resulting in subepithelial fibrosis; this esophageal remodeling is the likely underlying pathogenesis for complications of narrowing, rigidity, and food impactions. Management includes dietary antigen elimination and topical corticosteroids. Long-term therapy and repeated endoscopy are often needed; consideration must be given to maintenance regimens and side effects. This review describes the clinical features, treatment options, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of EoE. PMID:25459582

Aceves, Seema S

2015-02-01

27

Eosinophilic Lung Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... PhD Dept. of Medicine View full profile Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Eosinophilic lung disorders are a category of ... Directory of Programs & Services Doctors Who Treat Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Rohit K. Katial Rafeul Alam Joshua J. ...

28

Eosinophil count - absolute  

MedlinePLUS

An absolute eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the number of white blood cells called eosinophils. Eosinophils become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions.

29

Eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis  

PubMed Central

Background: There is a broad etiology for effusion eosinophilia that includes allergic, reactive, infectious, immune, neoplastic, and idiopathic causes. We report and describe the cytomorphologic findings of a rare case of eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis. Case Presentation: A 17-year-old male manifested acutely with eosinophilic ascites due to severe biopsy-proven subserosal eosinophilic ileitis. Isolated peritoneal fluid submitted for cytologic evaluation revealed that 65% eosinophils were present in a bloody background. The patient responded to corticosteroids, with complete resolution of his ascites. Conclusion: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with subserosal involvement should be added to the list of causes for eosinophils in peritoneal fluid. The finding of eosinophilic ascites, with appropriate clinical and laboratory findings, may warrant the need to perform laparoscopic intestinal biopsies to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:20976207

Setia, Namrata; Ghobrial, Peter; Liron, Pantanowitz

2010-01-01

30

Idarubicin and Cytarabine With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

2013-01-23

31

Tipifarnib and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Blast Phase  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-04-09

32

Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2013-06-03

33

Biomarkers in Bone Marrow Samples From Pediatric Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

2014-10-23

34

3-AP and Fludarabine in Treating Patients With Myeloproliferative Disorders, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Accelerated Phase or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Polycythemia Vera; Primary Myelofibrosis; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2014-12-16

35

Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-01-08

36

Leukemia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains what leukemia is and reviews the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

37

Neurotoxicity of Human Eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils contain a substance that is neurotoxic when injected intracerebrally or intrathecally into laboratory animals--an effect known as the ``Gordon phenomenon.'' We found neurotoxic activity in eosinophils from three patients with eosinophilic syndromes by injecting cell preparations into rabbits and guinea pigs. These animals developed a syndrome of muscular rigidity and ataxia, progressing to severe paralysis. No neurotoxic activity was

David T. Durack; S. Mark Sumi; Seymour J. Klebanoff

1979-01-01

38

Eosinophilic activation in cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--The neutrophil is a potent contributor to pulmonary destruction in cystic fibrosis. Since eosinophils also possess destructive potential the involvement of eosinophils in cystic fibrosis has been investigated. METHODS--Eosinophil numbers and levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a marker of eosinophil activation, were determined in the serum of 42 patients with cystic fibrosis and in the sputum of 10 of

D Y Koller; M Götz; I Eichler; R Urbanek

1994-01-01

39

Tipifarnib in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Cellular Diagnosis, Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-03-22

40

Bortezomib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-05-13

41

[Angiostrongylosis or eosinophilic meningitis].  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningitis, or angiostrongyliasis, is a common disease in Asia, in the Caribbean and in the Pacific islands. It is caused by a rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Infection occurs by consumption of raw or undercooked snails. Diagnosis is based on epidemiological criteria, clinical manifestations, elevated count of eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid and serological tests. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. PMID:20465114

Bourée, Patrice; Dumazedier, Déborah; Dahane, Naïma

2010-04-20

42

Lenalidomide in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-07-25

43

Azacitidine, Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride, and Etoposide in Treating Older Patients With Poor-Prognosis Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-12-19

44

Pachydermatous eosinophilic dermatitis.  

PubMed

We report three South African black teenage girls with extensive pruritic papular lesions arising on a pachydermatous base, resembling severe atopic dermatitis or onchodermatitis. All three had peculiar hypertrophic genital lesions and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Histological studies showed an eosinophil-rich lymphohistiocytic infiltrate and variable fibrosis. Extensive fibrillar extracellular deposition of eosinophil granule major basic protein was demonstrated by an indirect immunofluorescence technique. A beneficial therapeutic effect was obtained using dapsone, prednisolone and cetirizine. The term pachydermatous eosinophilic dermatitis is proposed and its position among other conditions characterized by peripheral blood and skin tissue eosinophilia, is discussed. PMID:8731671

Jacyk, W K; Simson, I W; Slater, D N; Leiferman, K M

1996-03-01

45

Tanespimycin and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndromes  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

2013-09-27

46

Eosinophilic esophagitis: A subset of eosinophilic gastroenteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) was first described over 50 years ago. Despite its long history, it remains an ill-defined\\u000a and poorly understood entity. EG can present in a number of ways, none of which are exclusive to the disorder. EG has features\\u000a of allergy and immune dysregulation but does not clearly fit into the category of allergic or immune disorder. While

Chris A. Liacouras; Jonathan E. Markowitz

1999-01-01

47

Differentiation in vitro of hybrid eosinophil/basophil granulocytes: autocrine function of an eosinophil developmental intermediate  

PubMed Central

Granulocytes with the hybrid characteristics of eosinophils and basophils have been identified in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of humans with myeloid leukemias. We now describe a technique by which such hybrid granulocytes can be developed in vitro from normal cord blood precursors cultured in the presence of recombinant human interleukin (rhIL) 3 (350 pM) and rhIL-5 (200 pM) in a plastic vessel coated with Matrigel. After 14 d in culture, 90 +/- 3% (mean +/- standard error of the mean) of the nonadherent cells cultured in the Matrigel-coated flasks contained both eosinophil and basophil granules, as indicated by staining with Wright's and Giemsa stains. Of the nonadherent cells, 93 +/- 1% contained cyanide-resistant peroxidase, and 88 +/- 2% were toluidine blue-positive, characteristic of eosinophil and basophil granules, respectively. Transmission electron micrographs showed hybrid cells containing ultrastructurally distinct eosinophil granules with developing crystalline cores and basophil granules with reticular structures. These 14-d cord blood-derived cell cultures showed strong hybridization signals for eosinophil-derived neurotoxin by RNA blot analysis and contained 78 ng histamine per 10(6) cells. When the granulocytes were removed from cytokine-containing medium and suspended without Matrigel in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), more than 80% of the granulocytes excluded trypan blue for as long as 5 d, and 93% had developed into eosinophils at 6 d. Conditioned medium prepared over 48 h from the 14-d cell cultures (hybrid granulocytes) sustained the 4-d viability in vitro of 78% of peripheral blood eosinophils from atopic donors. In comparison, 13% survived in RPMI 1640 containing 10% FCS alone. This viability- sustaining activity was nearly completely neutralized by an anti- granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) antibody and was only minimally reduced by anti-IL-3 or IL-5. Thus, cells possessing both eosinophil and basophil granules by both histochemical and ultrastructural analysis can be developed from normal progenitors in vitro in response to eosinophilopoietic cytokines and Matrigel. Their subsequent spontaneous development into mature eosinophils suggests that hybrid granulocytes are part of a normal developmental sequence during eosinophilopoiesis. Furthermore, these hybrid granulocytes are capable of autoregulation through elaboration of GM-CSF, which sustains their viability. PMID:7540656

1995-01-01

48

Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Down Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

2015-02-10

49

Eltrombopag Olamine in Improving Platelet Recovery in Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Chemotherapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2015-02-16

50

Combination Chemotherapy With or Without PSC 833, Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation, and/or Interleukin-2 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

2013-06-03

51

Recent Advances in Eosinophil Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils are pleiotropic multi-functional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of diverse inflammatory responses. Recent studies examining eosinophil biology have focused on delineating the molecular basis of FIP1L1\\/PDGRF?-fusion gene induced HES, the molecular steps involved in eosinophil recruitment in tumor-associated eosinophilia and EGID, and the role of eosinophils in asthma. In this review, these studies are summarized, focusing on the

Simon P. Hogan

2007-01-01

52

Radiographic abnormalities in eosinophilic esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an unusual condition of unknown cause in which there is eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract usually accompanied by a peripheral eosinophilia. Rarely, it can also involve the esophagus. Recently, the authors have encountered 3 cases of eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. All patients had a strong history of allergies. Two of our patients have had upper

Peter J. Feczko; Robert D. Halpert; Martin Zonca

1985-01-01

53

Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Strictures, Impactions, Dysphagia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic esophagitis, long known to be a feature of acid reflux, has recently been described in patients with food allergies and macroscopically furrowed esophagus. The pathophysiology and optimal management of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis is unclear. We describe our clinical experience related to eosinophilic esophagitis and obstructive symptoms in children and propose etiopathogenesis and management guidelines. Twelve children with obstructive

Seema Khan; Susan R. Orenstein; Carlo Di Lorenzo; Samuel A. Kocoshis; Philip E. Putnam; Luther Sigurdsson; Theresa M. Shalaby

2003-01-01

54

Amphiregulin Production by Human Eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Amphiregulin (AREG) plays critical roles in mammary gland development, immune responses against nematode infection, and mucous production in the lung. Since remarkable eosinophil infiltration has been shown at all of these tissue sites, we examined AREG production by human eosinophils in vitro. Methods: Using Ficoll and antibody-coated immunomagnetic beads, eosinophils and other blood cells were purified from peripheral blood

Kenji Matsumoto; Shuhei Fukuda; Yuri Nakamura; Hirohisa Saito

2009-01-01

55

Idarubicin, Cytarabine, and Tipifarnib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-05-09

56

Alvocidib, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-05-06

57

Decitabine as Maintenance Therapy After Standard Therapy in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-06-18

58

Eltrombopag Olamine in Treating Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2015-02-19

59

Eosinophilic fasciitis as a paraneoplastic syndrome, a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare disease with characteristic clinical and histological features, previously reported to be associated with various hematological and solid malignancies. We report a typical case of eosinophilic fasciitis in a 67-year-old man in association with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and subsequently bladder cancer. On the two occasions, the eosinophilic fasciitis completely resolved upon successful treatment of the concomitant malignancy. The diagnosis of EF should trigger further evaluation for any associated hematological disorder, which, if adequately treated, can result in the resolution of EF. PMID:24525268

Haddad, Housam; Sundaram, Suchitra; Magro, Cynthia; Gergis, Usama

2014-06-01

60

Eosinophil Purification from Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are granulocytes integral to allergic inflammation and parasitic responses and comprise 1–4% of the circulating leukocytes in human beings under normal conditions. Isolation of human eosinophils allows for ex vivo and in vitro experimentation, providing a valuable tool for the study of allergic mechanisms. Here, we describe a technique for the isolation of human eosinophils by negative selection from whole blood obtained by venipuncture. PMID:24986603

Akuthota, Praveen; Capron, Kelsey; Weller, Peter F.

2014-01-01

61

Entinostat and Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors or Refractory or Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-09-18

62

Genetics Home Reference: Eosinophil peroxidase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Eosinophil peroxidase deficiency On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed December 2014 What is eosinophil peroxidase deficiency? Eosinophil peroxidase deficiency is a condition that ...

63

Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

2013-09-27

64

Eosinophilic Cystitis with Eosinophilic Cholecystitis: A Rare Association  

PubMed Central

We describe a rare case of eosinophilic cystitis associated with eosinophilic cholecystitis in a 30-year-old patient who underwent bladder biopsy for irritative voiding symptoms and routine elective cholecystectomy for gallstones. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. The rarity of this condition prompted us to report this entity in which no specific cause could be found. PMID:24195001

Mallat, F.; Hmida, W.; Mestiri, S.; Ziadi, S.; Sriha, B.; Mokni, M.; Mosbah, F.

2013-01-01

65

Vorinostat, Cytarabine, and Etoposide in Treating Patients With Relapsed and/or Refractory Acute Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Myeloproliferative Disorders  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

2013-05-01

66

Radiographic manifestations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, characterized by focal or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Although little over 250 cases of EG have been reported in the literature, EG is probably more common than reports in the literature would indicate. A retrospective review of 25 patients with EG along with a review of

K. M. Vitellas; W. F. Bennett; J. G. Bova; J. C. Johnson; J. K. Greenson; J. H. Caldwell

1995-01-01

67

Telemonitoring Device in Managing Outpatient Care of Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome or Acute Myeloid Leukemia After Intensive Chemotherapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

2015-03-02

68

Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma. PMID:23616768

Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A.; Prado, Carla M.; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

2013-01-01

69

An Overview of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease affecting both children and adults. The condition is characterized by an eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. Symptoms of esophageal dysfunction include dysphagia, food impaction and symptoms mimicking gastroesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic examination typically reveals mucosal fragility, ring or corrugated mucosa, longitudinal furrows, whitish plaques or a small caliber esophagus. Histologic findings of >15 eosinophils per high-power field is the diagnostic hallmark of EoE. An elimination diet, topical corticosteroids or endoscopic dilation for fibrostenotic disease serve as effective therapeutic option. PMID:25368745

Park, Hyojin

2014-01-01

70

Management of polyostotic eosinophilic granuloma  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic granuloma is a rare disease which is difficult to diagnose clinically and radiographically. Localized Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis, previously known as eosinophilic granuloma, mainly affects the skull, mandible, vertebrae, pelvis and ribs in children and the long bones of adults. We present a case report of a female who developed pain and swelling over the left mandibular region, and was later diagnosed as eosinophilic granuloma, which after administration of intralesional corticosteroid with surgical enucleation showed positive response. This disease is of importance to dental professionals because early clinical signs can occur in the jaw and can cause extensive destruction of the periodontal tissues and bone. The purpose of this case report is to describe a case of eosinophilic granuloma with emphasis on conservative approach for the treatment and the radiographic changes observed during and after the treatment. PMID:23559966

Parihar, Ajay; Newaskar, Vilas

2012-01-01

71

MK2206 in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors or Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Aggressive NK-cell Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myeloid/NK-cell Acute Leukemia; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Primary Central Nervous System Hodgkin Lymphoma; Primary Central Nervous System Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2014-04-28

72

Epidemiology of eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergy-associated disease defined clinically by esophagus-related symptoms in combination with a dense esophageal eosinophilia, both of which are unresponsive to prolonged acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors. Over the last two decades EoE has increasingly been recognized in various geographical areas (mostly industrialized countries) with high socioeconomic development. The prevalence rate is increasing and reaches up to 50 patients per 100,000 inhabitants in some indicator regions. Whether this increased prevalence is due to a real increase in incidence, a result of increased awareness by health care providers or because of the nonfatal nature of EoE adding more and more cases to the patient pool is still a matter of controversy. Several studies have consistently demonstrated a male predominance in EoE, with a male-to-female risk ratio of 3:1. The average age at diagnosis ranges between 30 and 50 years and suggests that EoE is a disease of the middle-aged man. It can affect patients of every race, but the disease is more common among Caucasians. In both children and adults, EoE has been clearly associated with allergies to food and aeroallergens, and most EoE patients present with a personal allergic background (e.g. asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis or oral allergy syndrome). In conclusion, knowledge of epidemiologic parameters of EoE is crucial for identifying risk factors as well as pathogenic mechanisms, planning preventive measures and determining optimal treatment strategies. PMID:24603379

Hruz, Petr

2014-01-01

73

Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients  

MedlinePLUS

Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients Basics Overview Eosinophilic esophagitis also known as (EoE) is a chronic disease that occurs in both children and adults resulting in inflammation ...

74

Targeting Eosinophils in Allergy, Inflammation and Beyond  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils can regulate local immune and inflammatory responses, and their accumulation in the blood and tissue is associated with several inflammatory and infectious diseases. As such, therapies aimed at eosinophils may help control diverse diseases, including atopic disorders such as asthma and allergy, and diseases not primarily associated with eosinophils such as autoimmunity and malignancy. Recently, eosinophil-targeted therapeutic agents aimed at blocking specific steps involved in eosinophil development, migration and activation have entered clinical testing and have produced encouraging results and insights into the role of eosinophils. Herein, we describe recent advances in the development of first generation eosinophil-targeted therapies and highlight strategies for using personalized medicine approaches for eosinophilic disorders. PMID:23334207

Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2013-01-01

75

High Intraepithelial Eosinophil Counts in Esophageal Squamous Epithelium Are Not Specific for Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe histologic criterion of >20 eosinophils per high power field (hpf) is presently believed to establish the diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis (IEE). This is based on data that the number of intraepithelial eosinophils in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is less than 20\\/hpf. This study tests this belief.METHODSPathology records were searched for patients who had an eosinophil count >20\\/hpf in

Sonali Rodrigo; Gebran Abboud; Daniel Oh; Steven R. DeMeester; Jeffrey Hagen; John Lipham; Tom R. DeMeester; Parakrama Chandrasoma

2008-01-01

76

The antiallergic drug oxatomide promotes human eosinophil apoptosis and suppresses IL5-induced eosinophil survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophils accumulated in sites of allergic inflammation are thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, and tissue eosinophilia is attributable to increased eosinophil survival or decreased eosinophil apoptosis. Objective: Effects of the antiallergic, histamine H1 blocker oxatomide on viability and apoptosis of eosinophils isolated from the peripheral

Mariko Domae; Hironori Sagara; Morito Sakaue; Takeshi Fukuda; Yuichiro Kamikawa

2003-01-01

77

Cytolysis of eosinophils in nasal secretions.  

PubMed

It is still unknown how eosinophils degranulate in nasal mucus. Currently, cytolysis is being reevaluated as the mode of degranulation of eosinophils in allergic nasal mucosa. To examine whether eosinophils migrating to the nasal mucus degranulate by cytolysis, we sampled nasal mucus from 9 patients with nasal allergy and observed it under electron and light microscopes. Both intact and necrotic eosinophils were observed in the nasal mucus. Although the total eosinophil count in the nasal mucus was not correlated with the frequency of sneezes, there was a significant correlation (p = .0025) between the rate of eosinophil lysis and the frequency of sneezes. Whereas extracellular release of eosinophil peroxidase was not detected from the eosinophils with intact cell membranes, large quantities of eosinophil peroxidase were found outside the eosinophils with injured cell membranes. We concluded that eosinophils migrating to the nasal mucus degranulate mainly by cytolysis, and that granular proteins released from the necrotic eosinophils into the nasal mucus are one of the important factors causing hypersensitivity in the nasal mucosa. PMID:12597291

Watanabe, Kensuke; Misu, Toshihiro; Inoue, Satomi; Edamatsu, Hideo

2003-02-01

78

Eosinophilic esophagitis: a clinicopathological review.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is considered to be a chronic antigen-driven disease whereby food and/or aeroallergens induce a chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the esophagus, resulting in pathological hyperplasia of the epithelia and muscular layers, and fibrosis of the lamina propria (referred to collectively as remodelling) and the symptoms of dysphagia and food impaction. EoE shares features with other atopic conditions of asthma and atopic dermatitis, such as a TH2 cytokine milieu and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils, mast cells and lymphocytes. Relatively distinct features include the strong male predominance amongst adult patients, and the expression of the eosinophil chemokine eotaxin 3. Current first line treatments such as strict dietary modification and corticosteroids fail many patients. Looking forward, clarification of distinct genotype/phenotype associations, determining the reversibility of remodelling following treatment, and the development of new pharmacotherapies that target fibrotic pathways (as opposed to eosinophilic inflammation per se) or specifically improve barrier integrity appear relevant. PMID:25200122

Philpott, Hamish; Nandurkar, Sanjay; Thien, Francis; Gibson, Peter R; Royce, Simon G

2015-02-01

79

The management of eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic, chronic esophageal inflammatory disease resistant to acid suppressive therapy and is associated with variable symptoms indicative of upper gastrointestinal dysfunction. Per current guidelines established by The International Group of Eosinophil Researchers (TIGERS), the diagnosis is made in symptomatic patients after a biopsy that confirms a peak eosinophil level of ?15 eosinophils/high-powered field (HPF). The esophagus is distinguished by pronounced tissue eosinophilia in which dietary antigens are key inciting factors for disease pathogenesis; EoE being reversed by elimination of triggering food allergens suggests that the disease is mediated in part by allergic sensitization to foods. Moreover, experimental EoE in mice can be induced not only via food exposure but also via aeroallergen exposure. Consistent with an allergic etiology rather than an acid-induced esophagitis, swallowed glucocorticoids are effective for the treatment of EoE. Evaluation by an allergist is a recommended part of the diagnostic workup, especially for management of allergic comorbidities. Clinical practice for the evaluation of patients with EoE mainly relies on prick skin tests due to the ease and validation of these tests in the context of immediate hypersensitivity. However, both atopy patch testing and serum IgE testing have been used in EoE. Herein, we reviewed the basic clinical features of EoE with a focus on the approach to diagnosing causative food allergens and to dietary therapy. PMID:24565538

Greenhawt, Matthew; Aceves, Seema S; Spergel, Jonathan M; Rothenberg, Marc E

2013-01-01

80

Eosinophils in Infection and Intestinal Immunity  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs; e.g. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) are thought to be a consequence of an uncontrolled inflammatory response against luminal antigens, including commensal bacteria. The observed link between eosinophil levels and severity and remission rates in IBD has led to speculation that eosinophils may contribute to the antimicrobial inflammatory response in IBD. Recent Findings Eosinophils express the necessary cellular machinery (innate immune receptors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, antibacterial proteins and DNA traps) to mount an efficient antibacterial response; however, the rapid decline in eosinophil numbers following acute systemic bacterial infection suggests a very limited role for eosinophils in bacterial responses. Summary We describe the clinical evidence of eosinophil involvement in IBD; summarize the in vitro and in vivo evidence of eosinophil anti-bacterial activity and the biology of eosinophils focusing on eosinophil-mediated bactericidal mechanisms and the involvement of eosinophil-derived granule proteins in this response; and conceptualize the contribution of eosinophils to an anti-commensal bacterial response in IBD. PMID:23132211

Hogan, Simon P.; Waddell, Amanda; Fulkerson, Patricia C.

2013-01-01

81

Leukemia - B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia and Hairy Cell Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... of leukemia in adults: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) ... of leukemia may occur by itself, together with CLL , or CLL may turn into PLL. PLL tends ...

82

Eosinophilic oesophagitis: investigations and management.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EO) is an immune/antigen mediated, chronic, relapsing disease characterised by dysphagia, food bolus impaction and a dense oesophageal eosinophilic infiltrate. Characteristic endoscopic features include corrugated rings, linear furrows and white exudates, but none are diagnostic. Despite its increasing prevalence, EO remains underdiagnosed. There is a strong association with other atopic conditions. Symptoms, histology and endoscopic findings can overlap with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Currently endoscopy and oesophageal biopsies are the investigation of choice. Oesophageal physiology studies, endoscopic ultrasound, impedance planimetry and serology may have a role in the diagnosis and monitoring of response to therapy. Acid reducing medication is advocated as first line or adjuvant therapy. Dietary therapy is comprised of elimination diets or can be guided by allergen assessment. In adults, topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. Endoscopic dilatation is safe and effective for the treatment of non-responsive strictures. Other therapeutic options (immunomodulators, biological agents, leukotriene receptor antagonists) are under investigation. PMID:24664254

Kumar, Mayur; Sweis, Rami; Wong, Terry

2014-05-01

83

Eosinophil Secretion of Granule-Derived Cytokines  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration, and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here, we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines. PMID:25386174

Spencer, Lisa A.; Bonjour, Kennedy; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Weller, Peter F.

2014-01-01

84

Eosinophilic Jejunitis Presenting as Intractable Abdominal Pain  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical manifestations are related to the layer(s) and extent of the bowel involved. In this paper, we present a case of intractable abdominal pain caused by jejunal submucosal eosinophilic infiltration without mucosal involvement, diagnosed by deep endoscopic biopsies. The patient was successfully treated with steroids without need for surgery for diagnosis or therapy. PMID:25565932

Mungan, Zeynel; Attila, Tan; Kapran, Yersu; Tokatli, Ilyas Pinar; Unal, Zeynep

2014-01-01

85

Eosinophils: changing perspectives in health and disease  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils have been traditionally perceived as largely end-stage, cytotoxic effector cells. Recent studies have profoundly altered this simplistic view of eosinophils and their function. New insights into the molecular basis of development, trafficking and degranulation of eosinophils have provided a better understanding of the role of these cells in promoting homeostasis through their immunomodulatory functions. Likewise, recent developments have generated a more sophisticated view of how eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of disease, including asthma and primary hypereosinophilic syndromes, and also a more complete appreciation of their activities in parasitic infection. PMID:23154224

Rosenberg, Helene F.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Foster, Paul S.

2015-01-01

86

Eosinophilic enteritis: a rare cause of diarrhoea.  

PubMed

We report a case of a healthy young man presenting with 1-week history of diarrhoea, acute abdominal pain and weight loss. Laboratory investigation showed very high peripheral eosinophils levels. After exclusion of the other causes of eosinophilia, a histological bowel sample analysis revealed marked eosinophilic infiltration of a small bowel mucosal layer which confirmed the suspicion of eosinophilic enteritis. Unlike most of the described cases, this patient did not require any specific treatment. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare and heterogeneous disease that is probably underdiagnosed in clinical practice because it requires a high degree of suspicion and an endoscopic biopsy for definite diagnosis. PMID:24081600

Lladó, Ana; Oliveira, João; Silva, Pedro; Pinheiro, Sofia

2013-01-01

87

Eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a distinct subtype of renal cell carcinoma that accounts for 5% of all renal tumors. This subtype is further subdivided into two variants, classic and eosinophilic, with the latter variant being less frequent. We report two cases of the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma diagnosed at our institution between January 2008 and December 2012. PMID:25552800

Yourshaw, Charles J.; Zhang, Haiying

2015-01-01

88

Eosinophilic oesophagitis: from physiopathology to treatment.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the oesophageal mucosa. Food and aero-allergens are involved in its pathogenesis. Dysphagia and food impaction are the dominant symptoms in adult with eosinophilic oesophagitis. However, a wide range of symptoms has been noticed such as chest pain or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms. Upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy and oesophageal biopsies are crucial for the diagnosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis. Endoscopy might be normal or reveal typical patterns such as rings, furrows, exudates, oedema, and stricture. Two to four biopsies should be performed both in the distal and in the proximal oesophagus, and 15 eosinophils per high power field within the oesophageal epithelium are the minimal threshold to diagnose eosinophilic oesophagitis. Allergy testing is recommended, although its impact to orient treatment remains to be demonstrated. Eosinophilic oesophagitis treatment includes medical treatment, diet and endoscopic dilation. Proton pump inhibitors are the first-line therapy as some eosinophilic oesophagitis phenotypes respond well to proton pump inhibitors. Topical viscous corticosteroids or diet elimination are the treatment of choice. There is no clear evidence in the literature to prefer one to the other. Finally endoscopic dilation should be considered in case of persistent symptomatic stenosis despite medical therapy. PMID:23545170

Roman, Sabine; Savarino, Edoardo; Savarino, Vincenzo; Mion, François

2013-11-01

89

Gallium-67 pulmonary uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

Eosinophilic pneumonia is usually diagnosed based on the findings on chest x-ray, white blood count, and transbronchial biopsy. After reporting a case of Ga-67 lung uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia, its histopathology is discussed and the mechanisms of Ga-67 uptake by inflammatory lesions are reviewed.

Morais, J.; Carrier, L.; Gariepy, G.; Le Bel, L.; Chartrand, R.; Picard, D.

1988-01-01

90

Eosinophilic meningitis and hydrocephalus in an infant.  

PubMed

Central nervous system invasion by helminths is the most frequent cause of eosinophilic pleocytosis in the CSF. Although CSF eosinophilia is an unusual finding in the continental United States, it is not an uncommon observation in cases of meningitis in Hawaii and the South Pacific. The rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis has been implicated as the causal agent responsible for cases of eosinophilic meningitis in these areas. The diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis secondary to A cantonensis is generally an indirect one, based on the characteristic clinical findings, documented eosinophilic pleocytosis of the CSF, and history of consumption of food likely to contain infected larvae. Hydrocephalus developed in a 9-month-old infant from Samoa with absolute eosinophilia and an eosinophilic pleocytosis of the CSF. PMID:7092618

Enzenauer, R W; Yamaoka, R M

1982-06-01

91

Eosinophils in innate immunity: an evolving story  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are innate immune leukocytes found in relatively low numbers within the blood. Terminal effector functions of eosinophils, deriving from their capacity to release their content of tissue-destructive cationic proteins, have historically been considered primary effector mechanisms against specific parasites, and are likewise implicated in tissue damage accompanying allergic responses such as asthma. However, the past decade has seen dramatic advancements in the field of eosinophil immunobiology, revealing eosinophils to also be key participants in many other facets of innate immunity, from bridging innate and adaptive immune responses to orchestrating tissue remodeling events. Here, we review the multifaceted functions of eosinophils in innate immunity that are currently known, and discuss new avenues in this evolving story. PMID:21042920

Shamri, Revital; Xenakis, Jason J.; Spencer, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

92

The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf), lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast-cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with transforming growth factor-? to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE. PMID:24910846

Raheem, Mayumi; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

93

Regulation of Eosinophil Apoptosis: Transduction of Survival and Death Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since eosinophils are prominent in allergic inflammation, investigators became interested in how these cells accumulate in tissues and their role within the inflammatory cascade. There is increasing evidence from several laboratories that eosinophil numbers are regulated in vivo, not only by eosinophil production in the bone marrow, but also by the amount of eosinophil apoptosis. Moreover, it has been directly

Hans-Uwe Simon; Rafeul Alam

1999-01-01

94

Childhood Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

95

Eosinophilic oesophagitis: A paediatric update.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a key differential for gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in children. It can be difficult for clinicians to decide which patients need referral for the assessment of EoE, which can only be confirmed by histological analysis of endoscopic biopsies. Recent guidelines recommend that EoE can only be diagnosed following the exclusion of GOR through empiric treatment with proton pump inhibitors prior to endoscopy. Some aspects of history are strongly suggestive of EoE: red flags for referral include poor weight gain in the context of reflux symptoms, choking during eating or food impaction. Therapeutic options include dietary allergen elimination or swallowed aerosolised corticosteroids. Other novel therapies have failed to demonstrate benefit, but novel diagnostic biomarkers to enable non-invasive disease ascertainment and follow-up show some promise. PMID:25363166

Allen, Katrina J; Heine, Ralf G

2014-11-01

96

Developmental, Malignancy-Related, and Cross-Species Analysis of Eosinophil, Mast Cell, and Basophil Siglec-8 Expression  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to determine when during hematopoiesis Siglec-8 gets expressed, whether it is expressed on hematologic malignancies, and if there are other non-human species that express Siglec-8. Methods Siglec-8 mRNA and cell surface expression was monitored during in vitro maturation of human eosinophils and mast cells. Flow cytometry was performed on human blood and bone marrow samples, and on blood samples from dogs, baboons, and rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Results Siglec-8 is a late maturation marker. It is detectable on eosinophils and basophils from subjects with chronic eosinophilic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and on malignant and non-malignant bone marrow mast cells, as well as the HMC-1.2 cell line. None of the Siglec-8 monoclonal antibodies tested recognized leukocytes from dogs, baboons, and rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Conclusions Siglec-8-based therapies should not target immature human leukocytes but should recognize mature and malignant eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils. So far, there is no suitable species for preclinical testing of Siglec-8 monoclonal antibodies. PMID:21938510

Hudson, Sherry A.; Herrmann, Harald; Du, Jian; Cox, Paul; Haddad, El-Bdaoui; Butler, Barbara; Crocker, Paul R.; Ackerman, Steven J.; Valent, Peter

2012-01-01

97

[A case of eosinophilic pneumonia due to Nicolase (serrapeptase) after recovery from acute eosinophilic pneumonia].  

PubMed

A case of eosinophilic pneumonia due to Nicolase (serrapeptase) after recovery from acute eosinophilic pneumonia is described. A 32-year-old woman was previously admitted to another hospital because of acute onset of dyspnea accompanied by cough and fever. Chest X-ray films revealed diffuse infiltration in both lungs two days after her symptoms occurred. Her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed 13% eosinophils and transbronchial lung biopsy specimen also showed many eosinophils infiltrating in the lesions of the bronchial submucosa and alveolar septa. No infectious causes or related drugs were found. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed, and her condition improved gradually without steroid treatment. Because she recovered clinically and radiologically, she was discharged from hospital. Half a month later she was treated with Nicolase because of pharyngitis. She was admitted to the hospital again because of dyspnea, cough and fever three days after commencing to take Nicolase. Chest X-ray films also revealed diffuse infiltration in both lungs with pleural effusion, and her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed 37% eosinophils. When the drug lymphocyte stimulation test was performed, it was positive for Nicolase. Therefore drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed. This is a very rare case of Nicolase (serrapeptase)-induced eosinophilic pneumonia after recovering from acute eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:19348276

Kai, Naoko; Shirai, Ryo; Hirata, Norio; Iwata, Atsuko; Umeki, Kenji; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kishi, Kenji; Tokimatsu, Issei; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

2009-03-01

98

The role of eosinophils in asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years it has become apparent that the eosinophil may represent a powerful effector cell in the pathogenesis\\u000a of asthma, particularly in the late asthmatic response. It can be stimulated by a number of stimuli among which PAF appears\\u000a to be one of the most effective. The eosinophil is a source for a variety of proinflammatory and toxic products

Claus Kroegel

1990-01-01

99

Eosinophilic granuloma: bilateral temporal bone involvement.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic granuloma is an uncommon condition that is characterized by unifocal or multifocal osteolytic lesions that often affect the skull. Unilateral lesions of the temporal bone are not uncommon, but bilateral temporal bone lesions are rare. In fact, to the best of our knowledge, fewer than 20 such cases have been reported during the past 40 years. We report a new case of bilateral temporal bone eosinophilic granuloma, and we review the disease process and its treatment. PMID:17703812

Barton, Chester P; Horlbeck, Drew

2007-06-01

100

Protein Radical Formation Resulting from Eosinophil Peroxidase-catalyzed Oxidation of Sulfite*  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is an abundant heme protein in eosinophils that catalyzes the formation of cytotoxic oxidants implicated in asthma, allergic inflammatory disorders, and cancer. It is known that some proteins with peroxidase activity (horseradish peroxidase and prostaglandin hydroperoxidase) can catalyze oxidation of bisulfite (hydrated sulfur dioxide), leading to the formation of sulfur trioxide anion radical (·SO3?). This free radical further reacts with oxygen to form peroxymonosulfate anion radical (?O3SOO·) and the very reactive sulfate anion radical (SO4??), which is nearly as strong an oxidant as the hydroxyl radical. However, the ability of EPO to generate reactive sulfur radicals has not yet been reported. Here we demonstrate that eosinophil peroxidase/H2O2 is able to oxidize bisulfite, ultimately forming the sulfate anion radical (SO4??), and that these reactive intermediates can oxidize target proteins to protein radicals, thereby initiating protein oxidation. We used immuno-spin trapping and confocal microscopy to study protein oxidation by EPO/H2O2 in the presence of bisulfite in a pure enzymatic system and in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 clone 15 cells, maturated to eosinophils. Polyclonal antiserum raised against the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) detected the presence of DMPO covalently attached to the proteins resulting from the DMPO trapping of protein free radicals. We found that sulfite oxidation mediated by EPO/H2O2 induced the formation of radical-derived DMPO spin-trapped human serum albumin and, to a lesser extent, of DMPO-EPO. These studies suggest that EPO-dependent oxidative damage may play a role in tissue injury in bisulfite-exacerbated eosinophilic inflammatory disorders. PMID:20501663

Ranguelova, Kalina; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Ramirez, Dario C.; Summers, Fiona A.; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Mason, Ronald P.

2010-01-01

101

Purification of functional eosinophils from human bone marrow.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are granulocytic leukocytes that are best known for their involvement in host immune defense and pathologic states. More recently, they have also been shown to play a role in regulation of murine plasma cell homeostasis in the bone marrow, which prompted our investigation of human bone marrow eosinophils. However, effective methods to isolate eosinophils from human bone marrow thereby allowing comparisons with circulating eosinophils have not yet been described. Herein we describe the development of a novel, cost effective protocol for the purification of eosinophils from human bone marrow that allows us to obtain bone marrow eosinophils of near 100% purity after an 8-day culture system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that bone marrow eosinophils have characteristics similar to blood eosinophils, including the expression of IL-5R?, the presence of eosinophil-specific granules, and similar activation kinetics upon phorbol myristate acetate and high-dose IL-5 stimulation. While migratory responses toward the chemokine CXCL12 differed between purified bone marrow and freshly isolated blood eosinophils, migratory responses were similar upon comparison of bone marrow eosinophils with blood eosinophils cultured ex vivo for 8 days prior to assay. Interestingly, a concurrent upregulation of CXCR4 expression was not observed in these cultured blood eosinophils. Taken together, we have overcome the existing challenges to the study of bone marrow eosinophils through our novel strategy for cell purification and have thus enabled future investigations of these cells and their role(s) in human health and disease. PMID:23085531

Wong, Tina W; Jelinek, Diane F

2013-01-31

102

Dietary therapies for eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) represents a prevalent chronic esophageal disorder. Since the condition was first described, its pathophysiology has been known to have an immune-allergic origin, but the high response rate to dietary therapies based on feeding patients exclusively with amino acid-based elemental formulas (with complete elimination of table foods) has clearly established EoE as a particular form of food allergy. Nevertheless, the management of EoE in clinical practice remains widely heterogeneous, with topical steroids being a therapeutic mainstay. However, a growing body of evidence points to dietary therapy as an effective treatment option for both children and adults with EoE, as this approach is capable of achieving a sustained symptomatic and histological response without resorting to drugs. This article reviews the available data on the major types of dietary therapy for EoE, including elemental formula diets, skin allergy testing-directed elimination diets and empirical elimination diets based on common food allergens. PMID:24236700

Arias, Angel; Lucendo, Alfredo J

2014-01-01

103

Non-invasive Ultrasound to Identify Eosinophil Granule Proteins in Eosinophilic Esophagitis.  

PubMed

Although traditional microbubble contrast agents are bright, the high contrast of gas bubbles and air-water interfaces in the upper gastrointestinal tract renders these agents less useful for diagnosing diseases such as eosinophilic esophagitis, a disease characterized by patchy infiltration of eosinophils into the esophagus. Here we report a first-in-class ultrasound contrast enhancement agent composed of echogenic insulin particles, which are labeled with molecular recognition elements to diagnose eosinophil-associated diseases. We prepared solid echogenic insulin particles, tethered antibodies to eosinophil granule major basic protein 1 (MBP-1) to their surfaces and experimentally evaluated binding of these agents to MBP-1 on ex vivo non-human primate esophagi. We found that insulin particles can be readily observed by ultrasound and bind to MBP-1-coated esophagi within minutes. Our results suggest the potential of this new class of solid contrast agents to image, diagnose and improve management of eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:25638318

Saffari, Hedieh; Kennedy, Anne; Peterson, Kathryn A; Gleich, Gerald J; Pease, Leonard F

2015-03-01

104

Diagnostic Approach to Eosinophilic Renal Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Context Eosinophilic renal neoplasms include a spectrum of solid and papillary tumors ranging from indolent benign oncocytoma to highly aggressive malignancies. Recognition of the correct nature of the tumor, especially in biopsy specimens, is paramount for patient management. Objective To review the diagnostic approach to eosinophilic renal neoplasms with light microscopy and ancillary techniques. Data Sources Review of the published literature and personal experience. Conclusions The following tumors are in the differential diagnosis of oncocytic renal cell neoplasm: oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hybrid tumor, tubulocystic carcinoma, papillary RCC, clear cell RCC with predominant eosinophilic cell morphology, follicular thyroid-like RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC, acquired cystic disease–associated RCC, rhabdoid RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor translocation RCC, epithelioid angiomyolipoma, and unclassified RCC. In low-grade nonpapillary eosinophilic neoplasms, distinction between oncocytoma and low-grade RCC mostly rests on histomorphology; however, cytokeratin 7 immunostain may be helpful. In high-grade nonpapillary lesions, there is more of a role for ancillary techniques, including immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 7, CA9, CD10, racemase, HMB45, and Melan-A. In papillary eosinophilic neoplasms, it is important to distinguish sporadic type 2 papillary RCC from microphthalmia transcription factor translocation and hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC. Histologic and cytologic features along with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization tests for TFE3 (Xp11.2) and TFEB [t(6;11)] are reliable confirmatory tests. Eosinophilic epithelial neoplasms with architecture, cytology, and/or immunoprofile not qualifying for either of the established types of RCC should be classified as unclassified eosinophilic RCC and arbitrarily assigned a grade (low or high). PMID:25357116

Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Jorda, Merce; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I.

2015-01-01

105

[Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].  

PubMed

The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

Vasilescu, Raluca

2014-01-01

106

Eosinophilic esophagitis: an autoimmune esophageal disorder.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) represents a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal inflammatory disease associated with esophageal dysfunction resulting from severe inflammation. The incidence and prevalence of EoE have been increasing in the past decade; however, the reason for this increase is unclear. There is a chronic inflammatory infiltrate that is present in EoE which promotes inflammation, symptoms, and dysfunction. In addition to eosinophils, interleukin (IL)-5 expressing T cells, B cells, eotaxin-3, IL-13, and IgE-bearing mast cells are present in EoE and are thought to contribute to the disease process. Eosinophils are pro-inflammatory and modulate multiple aspects of the immune response. Eosinophils produce a wide range of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors. Once activated, eosinophils release granule components, which are toxic to a variety of tissues. Transforming growth factor ?1 is a pro-fibrotic molecule produced by epithelial and inflammatory cells, is overexpressed in EoE, and plays a role in esophageal remodeling. Fibrous remodeling in EoE could be associated with symptoms of dysphagia and may explain and predict future esophageal strictures and dysmotility. EoE is a complex disease involving multiple activation pathways, a large number of cells, and various inflammatory molecules. It, along with other atopic disease, is becoming increasingly prevalent and has an important genetic load and may represent as an immunological tolerance disorder of the GI tract. PMID:25499460

Malhotra, Neha; Levine, Jeremiah

2014-12-01

107

Eosinophilic fasciitis with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare connective tissue disorder, which can be associated with hematological complications in 10% of cases, such as aplastic anemia or acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria had never been described in a patient suffering from eosinophilic fasciitis. We report an original case of a 59-year-old patient who developed a moderate aplastic pancytopenia while he was treated for a biopsy-proven eosinophilic fasciitis. A complete set of investigations was carried out and was found to be negative, including a first research of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Two years after disease onset, while pancytopenia remained stable, occurrence of morning dark urine led to found a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone. We discuss a potential link between the two conditions and hypothesize that paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria blood cells may pre-exist for a long time and take a survival advantage in the setting of marrow injury, as observed in eosinophilic fasciitis with hematological complications. We finally suggest that paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria should be included as a hematological complication of eosinophilic fasciitis. PMID:22999899

de Boysson, Hubert; Chèze, Stéphane; Chapon, Françoise; Le Mauff, Brigitte; Auzary, Christophe; Geffray, Loïk

2013-03-01

108

Indomethacin inhibits eosinophil migration to prostaglandin D2: therapeutic potential of CRTH2 desensitization for eosinophilic pustular folliculitis  

PubMed Central

Summary Indomethacin is a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, and shows therapeutic potential for various eosinophilic skin diseases, particularly eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. One of the unique characteristics of indomethacin is that, unlike other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, it is a potent agonist of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 cells (CRTH2), a receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). This study investigated the pharmacological actions of indomethacin on eosinophil migration to clarify the actual mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of indomethacin on eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. Eosinophils exhibited chemokinetic and chemotactic responses to both PGD2 and indomethacin through CRTH2 receptors. Pre-treatment of eosinophils with indomethacin greatly inhibited eosinophil migration to PGD2 and, to a much lesser extent, to eotaxin (CCL11); these effects could be mediated by homologous and heterologous desensitization of eosinophil CRTH2 and CCR3, respectively, by agonistic effects of indomethacin on CRTH2. Indomethacin also cancelled a priming effect of ?12-PGJ2, a plasma metabolite of PGD2, on eosinophil chemotaxis to eotaxin. Indomethacin down-modulated cell surface expression of both CRTH2 and CCR3. Hair follicle epithelium and epidermal keratinocytes around eosinophilic pustules together with the eccrine apparatus of palmoplantar lesions of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis were immunohistochemically positive for lipocalin-type PGD synthase. Indomethacin may exert therapeutic effects against eosinophilic skin diseases in which PGD2-CRTH2 signals play major roles by reducing eosinophil responses to PGD2. PMID:23582181

Kataoka, Naoko; Satoh, Takahiro; Hirai, Aiko; Saeki, Kazumi; Yokozeki, Hiroo

2013-01-01

109

SOCS3 Silencing Attenuates Eosinophil Functions in Asthma Patients.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are one of the key inflammatory cells in asthma. Eosinophils can exert a wide variety of actions through expression and secretion of multiple molecules. Previously, we have demonstrated that eosinophils purified from peripheral blood from asthma patients express high levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). In this article, SOCS3 gene silencing in eosinophils from asthmatics has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the suppressor function in eosinophils. SOCS3 siRNA treatment drastically reduced SOCS3 expression in eosinophils, leading to an inhibition of the regulatory transcription factors GATA-3 and FoxP3, also interleukin (IL)-10; in turn, an increased STAT3 phosphorilation was observed. Moreover, SOCS3 abrogation in eosinophils produced impaired migration, adhesion and degranulation. Therefore, SOCS3 might be regarded as an important regulator implicated in eosinophil mobilization from the bone marrow to the lungs during the asthmatic process. PMID:25764157

Zafra, M Paz; Cañas, Jose A; Mazzeo, Carla; Gámez, Cristina; Sanz, Veronica; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Quirce, Santiago; Barranco, Pilar; Ruiz-Hornillos, Javier; Sastre, Joaquín; Del Pozo, Victoria

2015-01-01

110

Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, formerly Churg-Strauss Syndrome (EGPA)  

MedlinePLUS

... formerly Churg-Strauss Syndrome (EGPA) Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, formerly Churg-Strauss Syndrome (EGPA) First Description Who ... Course of EGPA First Description Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGP), formerly known as the Churg-Strauss Syndrome , ...

111

[A case of clinically diagnosed eosinophilic bronchiolitis].  

PubMed

A 71-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of an intractable productive cough. Although he was treated for bronchial asthma, the symptom did not improve. Furthermore, since he developed progressive dyspnea and hypoxemia, he was admitted to our hospital. Marked eosinophilia in a blood test and sputum, poorly defined centrilobular nodules throughout the bilateral lung fields in a chest CT scan, and mixed ventilatory impairment in a spirometric test were revealed. Thoracoscopic lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage were not conducted because of progressive respiratory failure. Therefore, we clinically diagnosed eosinophilic bronchiolitis, and immediately administered oral prednisolone (30 mg daily). His symptoms and examination findings rapidly improved. This case suggests that eosinophilic bronchiolitis should be taken into consideration for differential diagnoses of eosinophilic lung disease and obstructive lung disease, and marked eosinophilia in sputum may be one of the useful tools for diagnosis of this disease when invasive examinations are inadequate. PMID:25492882

Miura, Yosuke; Tomizawa, Yoshio; Kuwako, Tomohito; Tomizawa, Mai; Takahashi, Gen; Yoshii, Akihiro; Saito, Ryusei; Yamada, Masanobu

2014-11-01

112

Substrates and products of eosinophil peroxidase.  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil peroxidase has been implicated in promoting oxidative tissue damage in a variety of inflammatory conditions, including asthma. It uses H(2)O(2) to oxidize chloride, bromide and thiocyanate to their respective hypohalous acids. The aim of this study was to establish which oxidants eosinophil peroxidase produces under physiological conditions. By measuring rates of H(2)O(2) utilization by the enzyme at neutral pH, we determined the catalytic rate constants for bromide and thiocyanate as 248 and 223 s(-1) and the Michaelis constants as 0.5 and 0.15 mM respectively. On the basis of these values thiocyanate is preferred 2.8-fold over bromide as a substrate for eosinophil peroxidase. Eosinophil peroxidase catalysed substantive oxidation of chloride only below pH 6.5. We found that when eosinophil peroxidase or myeloperoxidase oxidized thiocyanate, another product besides hypothiocyanite was formed; it also converted methionine into methionine sulphoxide. During the oxidation of thiocyanate, the peroxidases were present as their compound II forms. Compound II did not form when GSH was included to scavenge hypothiocyanite. We propose that the unidentified oxidant was derived from a radical species produced by the one-electron oxidation of hypothiocyanite. We conclude that at plasma concentrations of bromide (20-120 microM) and thiocyanate (20-100 microM), hypobromous acid and oxidation products of thiocyanate are produced by eosinophil peroxidase. Hypochlorous acid is likely to be produced only when substrates preferred over chloride are depleted. Thiocyanate should be considered to augment peroxidase-mediated toxicity because these enzymes can convert relatively benign hypothiocyanite into a stronger oxidant. PMID:11485572

van Dalen, C J; Kettle, A J

2001-01-01

113

Substrates and products of eosinophil peroxidase.  

PubMed

Eosinophil peroxidase has been implicated in promoting oxidative tissue damage in a variety of inflammatory conditions, including asthma. It uses H(2)O(2) to oxidize chloride, bromide and thiocyanate to their respective hypohalous acids. The aim of this study was to establish which oxidants eosinophil peroxidase produces under physiological conditions. By measuring rates of H(2)O(2) utilization by the enzyme at neutral pH, we determined the catalytic rate constants for bromide and thiocyanate as 248 and 223 s(-1) and the Michaelis constants as 0.5 and 0.15 mM respectively. On the basis of these values thiocyanate is preferred 2.8-fold over bromide as a substrate for eosinophil peroxidase. Eosinophil peroxidase catalysed substantive oxidation of chloride only below pH 6.5. We found that when eosinophil peroxidase or myeloperoxidase oxidized thiocyanate, another product besides hypothiocyanite was formed; it also converted methionine into methionine sulphoxide. During the oxidation of thiocyanate, the peroxidases were present as their compound II forms. Compound II did not form when GSH was included to scavenge hypothiocyanite. We propose that the unidentified oxidant was derived from a radical species produced by the one-electron oxidation of hypothiocyanite. We conclude that at plasma concentrations of bromide (20-120 microM) and thiocyanate (20-100 microM), hypobromous acid and oxidation products of thiocyanate are produced by eosinophil peroxidase. Hypochlorous acid is likely to be produced only when substrates preferred over chloride are depleted. Thiocyanate should be considered to augment peroxidase-mediated toxicity because these enzymes can convert relatively benign hypothiocyanite into a stronger oxidant. PMID:11485572

van Dalen, C J; Kettle, A J

2001-08-15

114

Isospora belli superinfection in a patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis--a diagnostic challenge.  

PubMed

Isospora belli infection, characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia, is often seen as an opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is also reported in patients with underlying lymphoproliferative disorders including lymphoma and leukemia. Eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disorders (EGID), including eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with various GI symptoms. We report a case of a 50-year-old male who developed Isospora superinfection of the small bowel while receiving systemic corticosteroids for EGE. He presented with worsening diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting with worsening peripheral eosinophilia. I. belli infection was diagnosed by the detection of oocysts in stool samples and by the presence of the parasite on duodenal biopsy in the background of tissue eosinophilia. I. belli can cause severe chronic diarrhea in immunocompromised patients on corticosteroids. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole often provided rapid cure. Even though peripheral blood eosinophilia was seen in both EGE and Isospora infection, the identification of subnuclear protozoal inclusions as a new histologic finding, as well as the absence of this finding in previous duodenal biopsies coupled with the continued presence of tissue eosinophilia, favored a parasitic superinfection in the setting of underlying EGE. PMID:22325178

Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Venkatesh, Preethi G K; Downs-Kelly, Erinn; Shen, Bo

2012-03-01

115

Multilevel Intramedullary Spinal Neurocysticercosis With Eosinophilic Meningitis  

PubMed Central

Background Cysticercal involvement of the spinal cord is a very rare form of neurocysticercosis. Intramedullary cysts are even less common. Objective To describe a novel presentation of multilevel intramedullary neurocysticercosis with eosinophilic meningitis. Design Case report. Patient A 35-year-old man with a history of cerebral neurocysticercosis who presented with both cauda equina and Brown-Sequard syndromes associated with cerebrospinal fluid findings of eosinophilic meningitis. Results Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the multilevel intramedullary cord lesions. The patientwas treated medically with dexamethasone and albendazole and had a good recovery. Conclusion Intramedullary neurocysticercosis should be considered as a potentially treatable cause of multilevel spinal lesions with subacute meningitis. PMID:15148157

Torabi, Amir M.; Quiceno, Mary; Mendelsohn, Dianne B.; Powell, Craig M.

2014-01-01

116

Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Red on Microscopy, White on Endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The presenting symptom of eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic TH2-type inflammatory disease, is uniform dysphagia attacks. Histology reveals a dense mucosal infiltration with eosinophils. Unfortunately, endoscopic findings are often unremarkable or misleading. This study characterizes the endoscopic manifestations of eosinophilic esophagitis and analyzes the nature and clinical features of the frequently observed white alterations. Methods: Thirty adult patients (22 males,

Alex Straumann; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Kathleen A. Bucher; Pius Heer; Hans-Uwe Simon

2004-01-01

117

High-resolution EUS in children with eosinophilic “allergic” esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The pathophysiology of dysphagia associated with eosinophilic esophagitis is unknown. This study investigated possible anatomic alterations in children with eosinophilic esophagitis in comparison with healthy children by using high-resolution EUS to precisely measure individual tissue layers of the esophagus. Methods: Children with eosinophilic esophagitis (n = 11) and control children (n = 8) without esophagitis were prospectively evaluated by

Victor L. Fox; Samuel Nurko; Jonathan E. Teitelbaum; Kamran Badizadegan; Glenn T. Furuta

2003-01-01

118

Eosinophil Arrest in Shear Flow 2017 J. Clin. Invest.  

E-print Network

Eosinophil Arrest in Shear Flow 2017 J. Clin. Invest. © The American Society for Clinical://www.jci.org The C-C Chemokine Receptor CCR3 Participates in Stimulation of Eosinophil Arrest on Inflammatory . CCR3 mAb slightly but signifi- cantly reduced eosinophil arrest and accumulation, by pre- venting

Springer, Timothy A.

119

Generation of Eosinophils from Cryopreserved Murine Bone Marrow Cells  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow from CD34+ eosinophil lineage–committed progenitors, whose levels in the bone marrow are elevated in a variety of human diseases. These findings suggest that increased eosinophil lineage–committed progenitor production is an important process in disease-associated eosinophilia. The pathways central to the biology of the eosinophil lineage–committed progenitor remain largely unknown. Thus, developing new methods to investigate the regulators of eosinophil lineage–committed progenitor differentiation is needed to identify potential therapeutic targets to specifically inhibit eosinophil production. We tested cytokine regimens to optimize liquid cultures for the study of eosinophil lineage–committed progenitor and eosinophil precursor differentiation into mature eosinophils. Stem cell factor (but not fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand) was required for optimal yield of eosinophils. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of cell preservation and scale on the culture, successfully culturing functional eosinophils from fresh and frozen murine bone marrow cells and in a standard-sized and 96-well culture format. In summary, we have developed an adaptable culture system that yields functionally competent eosinophils from murine low-density bone marrow cells and whose cytokine regime includes expansion of progenitors with stem cell factor alone with subsequent differentiation with interleukin 5. PMID:25551463

Schollaert, Kaila L.; Stephens, Michael R.; Gray, Jerilyn K.; Fulkerson, Patricia C.

2014-01-01

120

Characteristics of eosinophils migrating around fungal hyphae in nasal discharge.  

PubMed

It is known that eosinophil granular proteins cause tissue damage. To explore how eosinophils degranulate, we studied the degranulation of eosinophils that had migrated around fungal hyphae. In electron microscopic observations of allergic mucin from patients with allergic fungal sinusitis, fungal hyphae were detected, surrounded by numerous eosinophils. A number of eosinophils, including many disintegrated eosinophils, adhered to the cuticular layer of the hyphal surface. Although the fungal hyphae were detected in allergic mucins in all 5 patients, fungal hyphae surrounded by eosinophils were observed in only 1 patient. In the eosinophil cytoplasm, the cell membrane was invaginated, deep, and sheetlike, and the space formed by its infolding was filled with a highly electron-dense substance. This substance appeared to be a mixture of the cuticular substance of the hyphal surface and granular proteins. Thus, the eosinophil phagocytosed the cuticular substance of the hyphae into a sheetlike invaginated space, and released granular proteins into that space. The structure invaginated in the cytoplasm retained its form even after disintegration of the eosinophil, and adhered to the cuticular layer. This structure detected in eosinophils has not been reported previously, and is considered to be an interesting finding from the viewpoint of the function of eosinophils. PMID:15053201

Watanabe, Kensuke; Misu, Toshihiro; Ohde, Shigenori; Edamatsu, Hideo

2004-03-01

121

RESEARCH Open Access Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia in children  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia in children: the French experience Lisa® Group Abstract Background: Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia is extremely rare in children and adults) and acute (IAEP) eosinophilic pneumonia in children. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed all cases of ICEP

122

Familial eosinophilic cellulitis, dysmorphic habitus, and mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophilic cellulitis is a polymorphous, chronic disease characterized by eosinophil infiltration and granulomatous inflammation. Objective: Our purpose was to describe the clinical, histologic, and immunohistologic findings in three family members who have had eosinophilic cellulitis since childhood associated with mental retardation and abnormal body habitus. Methods: Family members were evaluated. Multiple skin biopsy specimens were obtained and examined after

Mark D. P. Davis; A. C. Brown; R. Dwain Blackston; Claudia Gaughf; Ellen A. Peterson; Gerald J. Gleich; Kristin M. Leiferman

1998-01-01

123

Eosinophils mediate protective immunity against secondary nematode infection.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are versatile cells that regulate innate and adaptive immunity, influence metabolism and tissue repair, and contribute to allergic lung disease. Within the context of immunity to parasitic worm infections, eosinophils are prominent yet highly varied in function. We have shown previously that when mice undergo primary infection with the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis, eosinophils play an important immune regulatory role that promotes larval growth and survival in skeletal muscle. In this study, we aimed to address the function of eosinophils in secondary infection with T. spiralis. By infecting eosinophil-ablated mice, we found that eosinophils are dispensable for immunity that clears adult worms or controls fecundity in secondary infection. In contrast, eosinophil ablation had a pronounced effect on secondary infection of skeletal muscle by migratory newborn larvae. Restoring eosinophils to previously infected, ablated mice caused them to limit muscle larvae burdens. Passive immunization of naive, ablated mice with sera or Ig from infected donors, together with transfer of eosinophils, served to limit the number of newborn larvae that migrated in tissue and colonized skeletal muscle. Results from these in vivo studies are consistent with earlier findings that eosinophils bind to larvae in the presence of Abs in vitro. Although our previous findings showed that eosinophils protect the parasite in primary infection, these new data show that eosinophils protect the host in secondary infection. PMID:25429065

Huang, Lu; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Luber, Kierstin L; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

2015-01-01

124

Antiallergic and antiasthmatic effects of a novel enhydrazinone ester (CEE-1): inhibition of activation of both mast cells and eosinophils.  

PubMed

Activation of mast cells and eosinophils is a fundamental process in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. We have previously reported that the novel enhydrazinone ester CEE-1 (ethyl 4-phenylhydrazinocyclohex-3-en-2-oxo-6-phenyl-1-oate) possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity. We have now tested whether the compound also possesses antiallergic and antiasthmatic effects in vitro and in vivo. The compound significantly inhibited degranulation and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) release from activated human eosinophils, as well as IgE-dependent degranulation and LTC4 release from passively sensitized rat basophilic leukemia cells and bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells. In human eosinophils, the drug was more potent in inhibiting degranulation than LTC4 release {IC50 = 0.4 ?M [confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.9] versus 3.8 ?M (CI: 0.9-8.3)}, whereas in mast cells the reverse was essentially the case. The drug did not affect stimulus-induced calcium transients in eosinophils but significantly inhibited early phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). In vivo, topical application of 4.5-15 mg/kg of the compound significantly inhibited allergen-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. Similarly, in the mouse asthma model, the intranasal administration of 6.5-12.5 mg/kg of the compound significantly inhibited bronchial inflammation and eosinophil accumulation in bronchial lavage fluid, as well as abolishing airway hyper-responsiveness to methacholine. These results show that CEE-1 inhibits the activation of both mast cells and eosinophils in vitro, probably by blocking MAPK-activation pathways, and that these effects are translated into antiallergic and antiasthmatic effects in vivo. The compound, therefore, has potential application in the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases. PMID:24917545

Ezeamuzie, Charles I; El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Renno, Waleed M; Edafiogho, Ivan O

2014-08-01

125

Optic neuropathy secondary to eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis.  

PubMed

: Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare fibroinflammatory disorder with a predilection for upper respiratory tract submucosa. We report a 45-year-old man with progressive unilateral visual loss secondary to a retroorbital soft tissue mass with histological features consistent with EAF. The patient experienced marked improvement in vision after endoscopic optic nerve decompression through sphenoethmoidectomy. PMID:25232841

Lloyd, Adam P; Benzimra, James D; Warfield, Adrian T; Prasad, Balaji T S; Matthews, Timothy D; Ahmed, Shahzada K

2015-03-01

126

Eosinophilic esophagitis: asthma of the esophagus?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is rapidly emerging as a distinct disease entity in both pediatric and adult gastroenterology. The typical clinical presentation includes solid food dysphagia in young men who have an atopic predisposition. Food impaction necessitating endoscopic intervention is common. EE should be suspected, in particular, in patients with unexplained dysphagia or those with no response to antacid or anti-acid

AMINDRA S. ARORA; Kiyoshi Yamazaki

2004-01-01

127

[Eosinophilic granuloma of the orbit (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A case of a tumor of the upper lid involving the bons in a 6 1/2 year old body is reported. Histology revealed a solitary eosinophilic granuloma. The classification of this systemic disease which almost always shows an orbital manifestation is discussed. PMID:916611

Nover, A; Ohmer, B

1977-08-01

128

Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis in East Asians  

PubMed Central

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease worldwide, with a prevalence rate of 5%-15% in the general population. CRS is currently classified into two types: CRS with and without nasal polyps. CRS may also be divided into eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) and non-ECRS subtypes based on the presence of tissue eosinophilic infiltration or not. There are significant geographic and ethnic differences in the tissue eosinophilic infiltration, which is predominant in Western white patients and less common in East Asians, despite an increasing tendency for its prevalence in East Asia countries. ECRS differs significantly from non-ECRS in clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and strategies, and underlying pathogenic mechanisms. ECRS commonly demonstrates more severe symptoms, polyp diseases with a higher incidence of bilateral polyps and sinonasal diseases on computed tomography, and the increase in blood eosinophils. ECRS is considered a special and recalcitrant subtype of CRS, commonly with poor treatment outcomes compared to non-ECRS. The differentiation of specific subtypes and clinical features of CRS will be important for developing novel treatment strategies and improving treatment outcomes for individual phenotypes of CRS. This review discusses clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ECRS in East Asians. PMID:25516863

Wang, En-Tong; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Peng-Fei; Guo, Li-Juan

2014-01-01

129

Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis in East Asians.  

PubMed

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease worldwide, with a prevalence rate of 5%-15% in the general population. CRS is currently classified into two types: CRS with and without nasal polyps. CRS may also be divided into eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) and non-ECRS subtypes based on the presence of tissue eosinophilic infiltration or not. There are significant geographic and ethnic differences in the tissue eosinophilic infiltration, which is predominant in Western white patients and less common in East Asians, despite an increasing tendency for its prevalence in East Asia countries. ECRS differs significantly from non-ECRS in clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and strategies, and underlying pathogenic mechanisms. ECRS commonly demonstrates more severe symptoms, polyp diseases with a higher incidence of bilateral polyps and sinonasal diseases on computed tomography, and the increase in blood eosinophils. ECRS is considered a special and recalcitrant subtype of CRS, commonly with poor treatment outcomes compared to non-ECRS. The differentiation of specific subtypes and clinical features of CRS will be important for developing novel treatment strategies and improving treatment outcomes for individual phenotypes of CRS. This review discusses clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ECRS in East Asians. PMID:25516863

Wang, En-Tong; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Peng-Fei; Guo, Li-Juan

2014-12-16

130

Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis (eosinophilic meningitis, Alicata's disease).  

PubMed

Angiostrongyliasis is an infectious disease caused by nematode parasites of the genus Angiostrongylus. The rat lung worm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, primarily a parasite of rodents, is largely responsible for human cases of eosinophilic meningitis, or meningoencerphalitis, which occurs on many Pacific islands and in Southeast Asia. The disorder, which frequently occurs in epidemic extent, is caused by invasion of the central nervous system by developing larvae of the parasite. The infection is most frequently due to ingestion of food containing the infective, third-state, larvae. Meningitic and ocular forms of the disease have been recognized. The disease has been described or referred to under a variety of synonyms. The terms eosinophilic meningitis, eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, and epidemic eosinophilic meningitis were first used to describe the disease before its etiology was known. These terms, however, lack specificity, because the eosinophilic meningitic syndrome may accompany many other parasitic as well as nonparasitic diseases of the central nervous system. Nevertheless, they are still being widely used, since in most cases only the epidemiology of the disease points to the etiologic role of A. cantonensis. Direct clinical or laboratory evidence of the etiologic agent is usually not established because reliable tests are not yet available. The term angiostrongylosis, or angiostrongyliasis, if used without the adjective, also may give rise to confusion, since the same term is applied to the pulmonary infection of dogs by A. vasorum and might be used for infection by any other Angiostrongylus species. Even the term cerebral or ocular angiostrongyliasis may prove in the future to have similar disadvantages. The scientifically correct term angiostrongyliasis cantonensis has been used recently. It is sufficiently specific and formed in analogy to the names of other parasitic diseases of man, like schistosomiasis japonica, schistosomiasis mansoni, schistosomiasis haematobia. For the murine infection, as well as for the disease produced experimentally in animals, the term angiostrongylosis cantonensis ought to be reserved because of the preferential use by veterinarians of the ending osis for designation of pathological changes produced in animals by parasites. After the recent discovery of A. costaricensis, another rat parasite causing human disease in Costa Rica, it becomes necessary to distinguish between angiostrongyliasis cantonensis (eosinophilic meningitis) and angiostrongyliasis costaricensis (intra-abdominal eosinophilic granulomatosis). A potential disadvantage of these terms may be encountered in case of a systemic revision or reclassification of the parasite. This has happened at intervals. A. cantonensis was named Pulmonema cantonensis by its discoverer and later was described under the name Haemostrongylus ratti. PMID:1095293

Jindrak, K

1975-01-01

131

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: an overview.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, defined as an eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplotype of the IL-10 promoter gene are the most studied genetic determinants. Among the acquired pathogenetic factors, the exposure to different allergens, infections, vaccinations, drugs, and silica exposure have been involved. Eosinophils are the most characteristic cells in EGPA and different studies have demonstrated their role as effector and immunoregulatory cells. EGPA is considered as a disease with a prevalent activation of the Th-2 cellular-mediated inflammatory response and also humoral immunity plays an important role. A link between B and T inflammatory responses may explain different disease features. EGPA typically develops into three sequential phases: the allergic phase, distinguished by the occurrence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis, the eosinophilic phase, in which the main pathological finding is the eosinophilic organ infiltrations (e.g., lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal system), and the vasculitic phase, characterized by purpura, peripheral neuropathy, and constitutional symptoms. ANCA (especially pANCA anti-myeloperoxidase) are present in 40-60% of the patients. An elevation of IgG4 is frequently found. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide are classically used for remission induction, while azathioprine and methotrexate are the therapeutic options for remission maintenance. B-cell depletion with rituximab has shown promising results for remission induction. PMID:25404930

Gioffredi, Andrea; Maritati, Federica; Oliva, Elena; Buzio, Carlo

2014-01-01

132

Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, defined as an eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplotype of the IL-10 promoter gene are the most studied genetic determinants. Among the acquired pathogenetic factors, the exposure to different allergens, infections, vaccinations, drugs, and silica exposure have been involved. Eosinophils are the most characteristic cells in EGPA and different studies have demonstrated their role as effector and immunoregulatory cells. EGPA is considered as a disease with a prevalent activation of the Th-2 cellular-mediated inflammatory response and also humoral immunity plays an important role. A link between B and T inflammatory responses may explain different disease features. EGPA typically develops into three sequential phases: the allergic phase, distinguished by the occurrence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis, the eosinophilic phase, in which the main pathological finding is the eosinophilic organ infiltrations (e.g., lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal system), and the vasculitic phase, characterized by purpura, peripheral neuropathy, and constitutional symptoms. ANCA (especially pANCA anti-myeloperoxidase) are present in 40–60% of the patients. An elevation of IgG4 is frequently found. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide are classically used for remission induction, while azathioprine and methotrexate are the therapeutic options for remission maintenance. B-cell depletion with rituximab has shown promising results for remission induction. PMID:25404930

Gioffredi, Andrea; Maritati, Federica; Oliva, Elena; Buzio, Carlo

2014-01-01

133

Mitochondria in the Center of Human Eosinophil Apoptosis and Survival  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are abundantly present in most phenotypes of asthma and they contribute to the maintenance and exacerbations of the disease. Regulators of eosinophil longevity play critical roles in determining whether eosinophils accumulate into the airways of asthmatics. Several cytokines enhance eosinophil survival promoting eosinophilic airway inflammation while for example glucocorticoids, the most important anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat asthma, promote the intrinsic pathway of eosinophil apoptosis and by this mechanism contribute to the resolution of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Mitochondria seem to play central roles in both intrinsic mitochondrion-centered and extrinsic receptor-mediated pathways of apoptosis in eosinophils. Mitochondria may also be important for survival signalling. In addition to glucocorticoids, another important agent that regulates human eosinophil longevity via mitochondrial route is nitric oxide, which is present in increased amounts in the airways of asthmatics. Nitric oxide seems to be able to trigger both survival and apoptosis in eosinophils. This review discusses the current evidence of the mechanisms of induced eosinophil apoptosis and survival focusing on the role of mitochondria and clinically relevant stimulants, such as glucocorticoids and nitric oxide. PMID:24603536

Ilmarinen, Pinja; Moilanen, Eeva; Kankaanranta, Hannu

2014-01-01

134

Leukotriene B4 amplifies eosinophil accumulation in response to nematodes  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil accumulation is a defining feature of the immune response to parasitic worm infection. Tissue-resident cells, such as epithelial cells, are thought to initiate eosinophil recruitment. However, direct recognition of worms by eosinophils has not been explored as a mechanism for amplifying eosinophil accumulation. Here, we report that eosinophils rapidly migrate toward diverse nematode species in three-dimensional culture. These include the mammalian parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Surprisingly, collective migration toward worms requires paracrine leukotriene B4 signaling between eosinophils. In contrast, neutrophils show a minimal response to nematodes, yet are able to undergo robust leukotriene-dependent migration toward IgG-coated beads. We further demonstrate that eosinophils accumulate around C. elegans in the lungs of mice. This response is not dependent on bacterial products, CCR3, or complement activation. However, mice deficient in leukotriene signaling show markedly attenuated eosinophil accumulation after injection of C. elegans or N. brasiliensis. Our findings establish that nematode-derived signals can directly induce leukotriene production by eosinophils and that leukotriene signaling is a major contributor to nematode-induced eosinophil accumulation in the lung. The similarity of the eosinophil responses to diverse nematode species suggests that conserved features of nematodes are recognized during parasite infection. PMID:24889202

Patnode, Michael L.; Bando, Jennifer K.; Krummel, Matthew F.; Locksley, Richard M.

2014-01-01

135

[The eosinophil and Entamoeba histolytica. II. Testicular amebic lesions produced in eosinophilic rats].  

PubMed

Even though eosinophiles are not characteristic of amebiasis, polymorphonuclear eosinophilic cells are regularly found in the inflammatory lesion which occurs in the early phases of amebic invasion. To acquire better knowledge of the intervention of these cells when confronted with E. histolytica, testicular lesions were produced by means of direct injection of amebas in rats with eosinophilia. Eosinophilia (greater than or equal to 4%) was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by an intravenous injection of Sephadex G200 suspension. Later, both the eosinophilic and normal (control) rats were challenged with an intratesticular injection (on the left side) of 2 x 10(6) amebas of the virulent strain HM1-IMSS. The other testicle was injected with BFS-A to serve as control. The testicles were removed 5 hours later and evaluated histologically. The size and celullarity of the testicular lesions produced by the ameba on both eosinophilic and controls were similar, whereas lesions were not found in testicles injected with BSF-A. Within the limits of our experimental model, the results suggest that eosinophils do not contribute substantially to the genesis of tissue lesions produced by E. histolytica. PMID:1726663

López-Osuna, M; Pérez-Tamayo, R; Frenk, P; Kretschmer, R

1990-01-01

136

GWAS identifies four novel eosinophilic esophagitis loci.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disorder characterized by infiltration of the oesophagus with eosinophils. We had previously reported association of the TSLP/WDR36 locus with EoE. Here we report genome-wide significant associations at four additional loci; c11orf30 and STAT6, which have been previously associated with both atopic and autoimmune diseases, and two EoE-specific loci, ANKRD27 that regulates the trafficking of melanogenic enzymes to epidermal melanocytes and CAPN14, that encodes a calpain whose expression is highly enriched in the oesophagus. The identification of five EoE loci, not only expands our aetiological understanding of the disease but may also represent new therapeutic targets to treat the most debilitating aspect of EoE, oesophageal inflammation and remodelling. PMID:25407941

Sleiman, Patrick M A; Wang, Mei-Lun; Cianferoni, Antonella; Aceves, Seema; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Nadeau, Kari; Bredenoord, Albert J; Furuta, Glenn T; Spergel, Jonathan M; Hakonarson, Hakon

2014-01-01

137

Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Infants and Toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding refusal is often described in conjunction with the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) in pediatric patients;\\u000a however, there are little data regarding the specific clinical manifestations and effective management of this condition in\\u000a very young children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presentation of EE in infants and toddlers referred to the\\u000a Interdisciplinary Feeding Team Clinic

Scott P. Pentiuk; Claire Kane Miller; Ajay Kaul

2007-01-01

138

Significance of feeding dysfunction in eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Feeding dysfunction is a frequent presenting symptom of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Here we present 3 children of various ages whose manifestations of EoE associated feeding dysfunction led to significant and life altering impact on their growth and development. Early identification of presenting symptoms of EoE will allow for prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatments. Recognition of salient features of dysfunction and treatment by feeding therapists and nutritionists led to symptom resolution and growth. PMID:25152606

Menard-Katcher, Calies; Henry, Michelle; Furuta, Glenn T; Atkins, Dan; Maune, Nancy Creskoff; Haas, Angela M

2014-01-01

139

Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: An emerging problem with unique esophageal features  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition in which there is dense eosinophilic infiltration of the surface lining of the esophagus. Reports of eosinophilic esophagitis pertain almost exclusively to pediatric populations. However, eosinophilic esophagitis is emerging as a clinical affliction of adults. This report describes the clinical and endoscopic findings of eosinophilic esophagitis in the largest cohort of adult patients reported

Jon W Potter; Kia Saeian; Benson T Massey; Richard A Komorowski; Reza Shaker; Walter J Hogan

2004-01-01

140

Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum  

PubMed Central

Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion. PMID:23634315

Li, Yunchuan; Liu, Honggang; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Hu, Bin

2013-01-01

141

Helminthotoxic responses of intestinal eosinophils to Trichinella spiralis newborn larvae.  

PubMed

Because the gastrointestinal lamina propria is the first line of defense against invasion with Trichinella spiralis newborn larvae, we investigated the helminthotoxic characteristics of isolated lamina propria eosinophils. Eosinophils were isolated from the intestinal lamina propria of rats and purified to nearly 90% purity by a combination of velocity sedimentation through Percoll and unit gravity sedimentation through a continuous gradient of bovine serum albumin. Isolated eosinophils were of high viability and responded to surface receptor stimulation. Freshly isolated intestinal eosinophils lacked cytotoxic capacity when incubated with newborn larvae in the presence of specific antiserum. Peritoneal eosinophils from the same rats exhibited 100% helminthotoxicity after 24 h. Cytotoxicity could be stimulated in the intestinal eosinophils by the addition of recombinant murine interleukin-5. PMID:1937799

Lee, T D

1991-12-01

142

Relationships Between Eosinophilic Inflammation, Tissue Remodeling and Fibrosis in Eosinophilic Esophagitis*  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS The clinical and pathologic features of Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) include extensive tissue remodeling. Increasing evidence supports a key role for the eosinophil in multiple aspects of the esophageal remodeling and fibrosis seen in this allergic disease, including epithelial hyperplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, smooth muscle hyperplasia, and angiogenesis. These structural changes contribute to the endoscopic findings of esophageal thickening, luminal narrowing, furrowing, transient and fixed rings (trachealization) and stricture, as well as the clinical features of dysmotility, dysphagia and food impactions in pediatric and adult EE. This chapter reviews the clinical implications of esophageal remodeling and fibrosis in EE and discusses the possible pathogenic mechanisms inducing and regulating these responses. We focus specifically on eosinophil and cytokine interactions with the esophageal epithelium, vascular endothelium, resident fibroblasts, and smooth muscle. Current and potential therapeutic interventions are discussed that may impact the development or resolution of chronic esophageal remodeling and fibrosis in EE. PMID:19141355

Aceves, Seema S.; Ackerman, Steven J.

2009-01-01

143

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates degranulation in human eosinophils.  

PubMed

Degranulation from eosinophils in response to secretagogue stimulation is a regulated process that involves exocytosis of granule proteins through specific signalling pathways. One potential pathway is dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its effector molecules, p35 and p39, which play a central role in neuronal cell exocytosis by phosphorylating Munc18, a regulator of SNARE binding. Emerging evidence suggests a role for Cdk5 in exocytosis in immune cells, although its role in eosinophils is not known. We sought to examine the expression of Cdk5 and its activators in human eosinophils, and to assess the role of Cdk5 in eosinophil degranulation. We used freshly isolated human eosinophils and analysed the expression of Cdk5, p35, p39 and Munc18c by Western blot, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation. Cdk5 kinase activity was determined following eosinophil activation. Cdk5 inhibitors were used (roscovitine, AT7519 and small interfering RNA) to determine its role in eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) secretion. Cdk5 was expressed in association with Munc18c, p35 and p39, and phosphorylated following human eosinophil activation with eotaxin/CCL11, platelet-activating factor, and secretory IgA-Sepharose. Cdk5 inhibitors (roscovitine, AT7519) reduced EPX release when cells were stimulated by PMA or secretory IgA. In assays using small interfering RNA knock-down of Cdk5 expression in human eosinophils, we observed inhibition of EPX release. Our findings suggest that in activated eosinophils, Cdk5 is phosphorylated and binds to Munc18c, resulting in Munc18c release from syntaxin-4, allowing SNARE binding and vesicle fusion, with subsequent eosinophil degranulation. Our work identifies a novel role for Cdk5 in eosinophil mediator release by agonist-induced degranulation. PMID:25346443

Odemuyiwa, Solomon O; Ilarraza, Ramses; Davoine, Francis; Logan, Michael R; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Wu, Yingqi; Majaesic, Carina; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige

2015-04-01

144

SIRP?/CD172a regulates eosinophil homeostasis.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are abundant in the lamina propria of the small intestine, but they rarely show degranulation in situ under steady-state conditions. In this study, using two novel mAbs, we found that intestinal eosinophils constitutively expressed a high level of an inhibitory receptor signal regulatory protein ? (SIRP?)/CD172a and a low, but significant, level of a tetraspanin CD63, whose upregulation is closely associated with degranulation. Cross-linking SIRP?/CD172a on the surface of wild-type eosinophils significantly inhibited the release of eosinophil peroxidase induced by the calcium ionophore A23187, whereas this cross-linking effect was not observed in eosinophils isolated from mice expressing a mutated SIRP?/CD172a that lacks most of its cytoplasmic domain (SIRP? Cyto(-/-)). The SIRP? Cyto(-/-) eosinophils showed reduced viability, increased CD63 expression, and increased eosinophil peroxidase release with or without A23187 stimulation in vitro. In addition, SIRP? Cyto(-/-) mice showed increased frequencies of Annexin V-binding eosinophils and free MBP(+)CD63(+) extracellular granules, as well as increased tissue remodeling in the small intestine under steady-state conditions. Mice deficient in CD47, which is a ligand for SIRP?/CD172a, recapitulated these phenomena. Moreover, during Th2-biased inflammation, increased eosinophil cell death and degranulation were obvious in a number of tissues, including the small intestine, in the SIRP? Cyto(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Collectively, our results indicated that SIRP?/CD172a regulates eosinophil homeostasis, probably by interacting with CD47, with substantial effects on eosinophil survival. Thus, SIRP?/CD172a is a potential therapeutic target for eosinophil-associated diseases. PMID:21775684

Verjan Garcia, Noel; Umemoto, Eiji; Saito, Yasuyuki; Yamasaki, Mikako; Hata, Erina; Matozaki, Takashi; Murakami, Masaaki; Jung, Yun-Jae; Woo, So-Youn; Seoh, Ju-Young; Jang, Myoung Ho; Aozasa, Katsuyuki; Miyasaka, Masayuki

2011-09-01

145

Eosinophils in the Esophagus—Peptic or Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis? Case Series of Three Patients with Esophageal Eosinophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Scattered eosinophils in the distal esophagus traditionally provide the hallmark for peptic esophagitis, but the upper limit of eosinophils and the longitudinal extent of peptic inflammation along the esophagus are unknown. Recently, adults and children with upper intestinal symptoms and >20 eosinophils\\/high-power field (eos\\/HPF) have been given the diagnosis of allergic esophagitis. Standardized diagnostic criteria for allergic esophagitis are lacking

Peter Ngo; Glenn T. Furuta; Donald A. Antonioli; Victor L. Fox

2006-01-01

146

Targeting AMCase reduces esophageal eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of egg induced eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Studies of AMCase inhibition in mouse models of lung eosinophilic inflammation have produced conflicting results with some studies demonstrating inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation and others not. No studies have investigated the role of AMCase inhibition in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We have used a mouse model of egg (OVA) induced EoE to determine whether pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase with allosamidin reduced eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in the esophagus in EoE. Administration of intra-esophageal OVA for 6 weeks to BALB/c mice induced increased levels of esophageal eosinophils, mast cells, and features of esophageal remodeling (fibrosis, basal zone hyperplasia, deposition of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin). Administration of intraperitoneal (ip) allosamidin to BALB/c mice significantly inhibited AMCase enzymatic activity in the esophagus. Pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase with ip allosamidin inhibited both OVA induced increases in esophageal eosinophilic inflammation and OVA induced esophageal remodeling (fibrosis, epithelial basal zone hyperplasia, extracellular matrix deposition of fibronectin). This inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation in the esophagus by ip allosamidin was associated with reduced eotaxin-1 expression in the esophagus. Oral allosamidin inhibited eosinophilic inflammation in the epithelium but did not inhibit esophageal remodeling. These studies suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase results in inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in the esophagus in a mouse model of egg induced EoE partially through effects in the esophagus on reducing chemokines (i.e. eotaxin-1) implicated in the pathogenesis of EoE. PMID:24239745

Cho, Jae Youn; Rosenthal, Peter; Miller, Marina; Pham, Alexa; Aceves, Seema; Sakuda, Shohei; Broide, David H

2014-01-01

147

What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... get acute myeloid leukemia? What is acute myeloid leukemia? Leukemia is a type of cancer that starts ... person to bleed or bruise easily. Acute myeloid leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) goes by many names, ...

148

What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... about chronic myeloid leukemia? What is chronic myeloid leukemia? Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), also known as chronic ... is the same as for adults. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts in the ...

149

Role of advanced diagnostics for eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), diagnostic tests aid in the identification of pathophysiologic consequences and accurate detection of the disease. The EoE Endoscopic Reference Score (EREFS) classifies and grades the severity of the five major endoscopically identified esophageal features of EoE (edema, rings, exudates, furrows and strictures). The EREFS may be useful in the evaluation of disease severity and as an objective outcome of response to therapy. pH monitoring identifies the presence of abnormal degrees of acid exposure in the esophagus that characterizes gastroesophageal reflux disease. The presence of acid reflux, however, does not indicate that the reflux is responsible for esophageal eosinophilia. Esophageal manometry has not demonstrated a characteristic abnormality with sufficient sensitivity to make the test of diagnostic value in clinical practice. On the other hand, manometric characteristics of esophageal pressurization and longitudinal muscle dysfunction may help identify important pathophysiologic consequences of EoE. Esophageal impedance testing has demonstrated increased baseline mucosal impedance that correlates with increased epithelial permeability in EoE. Reduced mucosal integrity may provide intraluminal allergens access to antigen-presenting cells, serving as an early event in the pathogenesis of EoE. The functional luminal impedance probe (FLIP) provides quantitative assessment of esophageal mural compliance, a physiologic correlate of remodeling in EoE. Studies using FLIP have associated reductions in esophageal distensibility in EoE with the important outcome of food impaction risk. Finally, confocal endomicroscopy, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy and novel eosinophil-enhancing contrast agents are emerging methods that may allow for in vivo visualization of esophageal eosinophilic inflammation, thereby improving the detection and understanding of this emerging disease. PMID:24603385

Hirano, Ikuo

2014-01-01

150

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)  

MedlinePLUS

... this page Print this page Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a fast-growing cancer of a type ... that your body needs. Tweet Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) How transplant can treat ALL Transplant outcomes for ...

151

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)  

MedlinePLUS

... Acute childhood leukemia; Cancer - acute childhood leukemia (ALL); Leukemia - acute childhood (ALL) ... Most of the time, no clear cause can be found for ALL. But the ... Past treatment with chemotherapy drugs Receiving a bone marrow ...

152

HIV-Associated Eosinophilic Folliculitis and Follicular Mucinosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term HIV-associated eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) designates an idiopathic dermatitis that appears in HIV-infected patients with different clinical manifestations but with a distinctive histological feature characterized by a predominantly eosinophilic infiltrate in the follicular infundibula. On the other side, follicular mucinosis (FM) is a reaction pattern in the follicular epithelium, characterized by a mucinous degeneration of the outer sheath of

G. F. Buezo; J. Fraga; P. Abajo; L. Ríos; E. Daudén; A. García-Díez

1998-01-01

153

Endoscopy in eosinophilic esophagitis: “feline” esophagus and perforation risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis is an underdiagnosed disease with typical endoscopic findings, which have not been well described. Methods: Charts and pathology reports at two tertiary care centers from June 1993 to April 2002 were reviewed to describe the endoscopic findings of this disease and to correlate them with clinical characteristics. Eight patients were identified as having eosinophilic

Mitchell Kaplan; Ece A. Mutlu; Shriram Jakate; Keith Bruninga; John Losurdo; Joseph Losurdo; Ali Keshavarzian

2003-01-01

154

Clinical and immunopathologic effects of swallowed fluticasone for eosinophilic esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently recognized clinical disorder that is understood poorly. We aimed to determine the efficacy of swallowed fluticasone propionate on the immunopathologic features associated with EE. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 20 pediatric patients with EE. Inclusion criteria specified a peak eosinophil density of ?24 cells per 400× field in the

Richard J Noel; Philip E Putnam; Margaret H Collins; Amal H Assa’ad; Jesus R Guajardo; Sean C Jameson; Marc E Rothenberg

2004-01-01

155

Clinical and Endoscopic Features of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEosinophilic esophagitis in adults is regarded as unusual, being diagnosed mostly in young men presenting with dysphagia. Mucosal furrows are a sentinel endoscopic feature. This study examined the demographic and clinical profile of adults with eosinophilic esophagitis seen from 1981 to 2002.

John Croese; Stephen K. Fairley; John W. Masson; André K. H. Chong; David A. Whitaker; Peter A. Kanowski; Neal I. Walker

2003-01-01

156

An Audit of Endoscopic Complications in Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in adults, characterized by the triad of dysphagia, a ringed esophagus, and mucosal eosinophilic infiltration, has asso- ciated complications that include vertical mucosal lacera- tions, instrumental perforation, and emesis-induced rup- ture. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features can be used to predict the risk for development

Matthew S. Cohen; Adam B. Kaufman; Juan P. Palazzo; Daniel Nevin; Anthony J. DiMarino; Sidney Cohen

2007-01-01

157

Dissection of the Hyperadhesive Phenotype of Airway Eosinophils in Asthma  

E-print Network

Dissection of the Hyperadhesive Phenotype of Airway Eosinophils in Asthma Steven R. Barthel, Nizar, and Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin­Madison, Madison, Wisconsin Asthma is characterized. Keywords: adhesion molecules; cell trafficking; eosinophils; human Asthma is an inflammatory syndrome

Mosher, Deane F.

158

Steroid responsive eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gastric outlet obstruction is a rare complication of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, most commonly treated surgically. We report a case of eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child that responded to conservative medical management. A brief review of this clinical entity is also provided....

159

Eosinophilic panniculitis in a female child: An unusual presentation  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic panniculitis (EP) is characterized by prominent infiltration of subcutaneous fat with eosinophils. The etiology is diverse. This is not a disease but represents a reaction pattern that may occur in a variety of circumstances. The exact pathogenesis of the disease is still unclear. We present the case of a 6-year-old girl child who was diagnosed with EP. PMID:25657915

Jain, Sonia; Jain, Pramod; Jakhar, Preeti; Shivkumar, V. B.

2015-01-01

160

EOSINOPHILIC MYOSITIS DUE TO SARCOCYSTIS HOMINIS IN A BEEF COW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A case of eosinophilic myositis in an eight-year-old beef cow was investigated. The cow originated from a herd that had a high incidence of eosinophilic myositis in slaughtered adult females during a period of two years. Histologically, the lesions in the muscles were characterized as granulomas wit...

161

Bullous eosinophilic cellulitis in a child treated with dapsone.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic cellulitis, or Wells syndrome, is a rare but well-described condition in which bullous lesions are uncommon, especially in childhood. We report a case of bullous eosinophilic cellulitis recalcitrant to steroid therapy in a 9-year-old boy who was successfully treated with oral dapsone. PMID:22958063

Moon, Sung-Hyuk; Shin, Min-Kyung

2013-01-01

162

Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multiple microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment.

Parmley, R.T.; Crist, W.M.; Roper, M.; Takagi, M.; Austin, R.L.

1981-12-01

163

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia accompanied by mediastinal lymphadenopathy and thrombocytopenia.  

PubMed Central

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia, which was described in 1989, is thought to represent a hypersensitivity reaction to unidentified inhaled antigens. Here, we present a case of a marble mine worker with acute eosinophilic pneumonia complicated with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:17128696

Esme, Hidir; Sahin, Onder; Sezer, Murat; Fidan, Fatma; Unlu, Mehmet

2006-01-01

164

The enhancement of eosinophil function by lymphocyte supernatants.  

PubMed Central

Supernatants obtained from non-stimulated lymphocytes, lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin and lymphocytes from patients with schistosomiasis that were stimulated with Schistosomiasis haematobium ova were shown to enhance a number of eosinophil functions. Eosinophil chemotaxis, phagocytosis, microbicidal activity, Nitro blue tetrazolium reduction, hexose monophosphate shunt activity and glycolysis were increased. Eosinophil iodination was not affected. Only those supernatants obtained from phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes and lymphocytes from patients with schistosomiasis that were stimulated with S. haematobium ova showed eosinophil chemotactic activity. The active factor was found to be heat stable, and had no effect on cAMP and cGMP metabolism. The most likely mechanism of enhanced eosinophil function is through the increased activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt activity and glycolysis. PMID:6303654

Sher, R; Wadee, A; Joffe, M

1983-01-01

165

Understanding Leukemias  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid medical students at all levels understand the laboratory diagnosis of leukemias. It includes introductory material on the basic laboratory tests specific to diagnoses, their general application and pitfalls in interpretation. The introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating the major categories of leukemia. This tutorial focuses on diagnosis and relative little on treatment is included. QuickTime movie player, Flash player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/ . Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun; braunm@indiana.edu.Annotated: falseDisease diagnosis: neoplastic

Braun, Mark

166

IL-5 triggers a cooperative cytokine network that promotes eosinophil precursor maturation.  

PubMed

Eosinophils originate in the bone marrow from an eosinophil lineage-committed, IL-5R?-positive, hematopoietic progenitor (eosinophil progenitor). Indeed, IL-5 is recognized as a critical regulator of eosinophilia and has effects on eosinophil progenitors, eosinophil precursors, and mature eosinophils. However, substantial levels of eosinophils remain after IL-5 neutralization or genetic deletion, suggesting that there are alternative pathways for promoting eosinophilia. In this study, we investigated the contributory role of IL-5 accessory cytokines on the final stages of eosinophil differentiation. IL-5 stimulation of low-density bone marrow cells resulted in expression of a panel of cytokines and cytokine receptors, including several ligand-receptor pairs. Notably, IL-4 and IL-4R? were expressed by eosinophil precursors and mature eosinophils. Signaling through IL-4R? promoted eosinophil maturation when IL-5 was present, but IL-4 stimulation in the absence of IL-5 resulted in impaired eosinophil survival, suggesting that IL-4 cooperates with IL-5 to promote eosinophil differentiation. In contrast, CCL3, an eosinophil precursor-produced chemokine that signals through CCR1, promotes terminal differentiation of CCR1-positive eosinophil precursors in the absence of IL-5, highlighting an autocrine loop capable of sustaining eosinophil differentiation. These findings suggest that brief exposure to IL-5 is sufficient to initiate a cytokine cooperative network that promotes eosinophil differentiation of low-density bone marrow cells independent of further IL-5 stimulation. PMID:25230753

Fulkerson, Patricia C; Schollaert, Kaila L; Bouffi, Carine; Rothenberg, Marc E

2014-10-15

167

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophil homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are specialized myeloid cells associated with allergy and helminth infections. Blood eosinophils demonstrate circadian cycling, as described over 80 years ago,1 and are abundant in the healthy gastrointestinal tract. Although a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-5, and chemokines such as eotaxins, mediate eosinophil development and survival,2 and tissue recruitment,3 respectively, the processes underlying the basal regulation of these signals remain unknown. Here, we show that serum IL-5 is maintained by long-lived type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) resident in peripheral tissues. ILC2 secrete IL-5 constitutively and are induced to co-express IL-13 during type 2 inflammation, resulting in localized eotaxin production and eosinophil accumulation. In the small intestine where eosinophils and eotaxin are constitutive,4 ILC2 co-express IL-5 and IL-13, which is enhanced after caloric intake. The circadian synchronizer vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) also stimulates ILC2 through the VPAC2 receptor to release IL-5, linking eosinophil levels with metabolic cycling. Tissue ILC2 regulate basal eosinophilopoiesis and tissue eosinophil accumulation through constitutive and stimulated cytokine expression, and this dissociated regulation can be tuned by nutrient intake and central circadian rhythms. PMID:24037376

Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Van Dyken, Steven J.; von Moltke, Jakob; Cheng, Laurence E.; Mohapatra, Alexander; Molofsky, Ari B.; Thornton, Emily E.; Krummel, Matthew F.; Chawla, Ajay; Liang, Hong-Erh; Locksley, Richard M.

2013-01-01

168

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophil homeostasis.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are specialized myeloid cells associated with allergy and helminth infections. Blood eosinophils demonstrate circadian cycling, as described over 80?years ago, and are abundant in the healthy gastrointestinal tract. Although a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-5, and chemokines such as eotaxins mediate eosinophil development and survival, and tissue recruitment, respectively, the processes underlying the basal regulation of these signals remain unknown. Here we show that serum IL-5 levels are maintained by long-lived type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) resident in peripheral tissues. ILC2 cells secrete IL-5 constitutively and are induced to co-express IL-13 during type 2 inflammation, resulting in localized eotaxin production and eosinophil accumulation. In the small intestine where eosinophils and eotaxin are constitutive, ILC2 cells co-express IL-5 and IL-13; this co-expression is enhanced after caloric intake. The circadian synchronizer vasoactive intestinal peptide also stimulates ILC2 cells through the VPAC2 receptor to release IL-5, linking eosinophil levels with metabolic cycling. Tissue ILC2 cells regulate basal eosinophilopoiesis and tissue eosinophil accumulation through constitutive and stimulated cytokine expression, and this dissociated regulation can be tuned by nutrient intake and central circadian rhythms. PMID:24037376

Nussbaum, Jesse C; Van Dyken, Steven J; von Moltke, Jakob; Cheng, Laurence E; Mohapatra, Alexander; Molofsky, Ari B; Thornton, Emily E; Krummel, Matthew F; Chawla, Ajay; Liang, Hong-Erh; Locksley, Richard M

2013-10-10

169

Interleukin5 Selectively Enhances the Chemotactic Response of Eosinophils Obtained From Normal but not Eosinophilic Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

LOOD AND LOCAL tissue eosinophilia are recog- B nized features of bronchial asthma, atopic allergy, helminthic infestations, and various malignant disorders.l.2 Through their ability to release granule-associated basic proteins and membrane-derived proinflammatory media- tors, eosinophils have been implicated as major effector cells in the pathogenesis of allergic di~ease.~-~ However, it remains unclear which mediators regulate the preferential recruitment and persistence

Roma Sehmi; Andrew J. Wardlaw; Oliver Cromwell; Kazuyuki Kurihara; Paul Waltmann; A. Barry Kay

1992-01-01

170

Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: distinguishing features from gastroesophageal reflux disease: a study of 41 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults is a recently described entity occurring in young males with dysphagia, in whom esophageal biopsies show eosinophilic infiltration. This study defines the clinical and histological features of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, distinguishing it from gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal biopsies from patients with dysphagia or esophagitis were reviewed blindly, and assessed for: epithelial eosinophil counts, presence of

Jeremy R Parfitt; James C Gregor; Neville G Suskin; Hani A Jawa; David K Driman

2006-01-01

171

Advances in clinical management of eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsy specimens, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histological features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (with a current incidence of 1 new case per 10,000 per year and prevalence of 0.5 to 1 case per 1000 per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids, such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and nondirected empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenotic complications of EoE. There are a number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment end points, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines; EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

Dellon, Evan S; Liacouras, Chris A

2014-12-01

172

Eosinophil granule cationic proteins regulate the classical pathway of complement.  

PubMed Central

Major basic protein, the primary constituent of eosinophil granules, regulates the alternative and classical pathways of complement. Major basic protein and other eosinophil granule cationic proteins, which are important in mediating tissue damage in allergic disease, regulate the alternative pathway by interfering with C3b interaction with factor B to assemble an alternative pathway C3 convertase. In the present study, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, as well as major basic protein, were examined for capacity to regulate the classical pathway. Eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and major basic protein inhibited formation of cell-bound classical pathway C3 convertase (EAC1,4b,2a), causing 50% inhibition of complement-mediated lysis at about 0.19, 0.75 and 0.5 micrograms/10(7) cellular intermediates, respectively. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin had no activity on this pathway of complement. The eosinophil granule proteins were examined for activity on the formation of the membrane attack complex. Major basic protein and eosinophil cationic protein had no activity on terminal lysis. In contrast, eosinophil peroxidase inhibited lysis of EAC1,4b,2a,3b,5b, but had only minimal activity on later events in complement lysis. These polycations were then examined to determine the site(s) at which they regulated the early classical pathway. Eosinophil granule polycationic proteins: (1) reduced the Zmax at all time points but had only minimal effect on the Tmax during the formation of the classical pathway C3 convertase (EAC1,4b,2a); (2) inhibited formation of EAC1,4b,2a proportional to C4 but independent of C2 concentration; (3) inhibited fluid phase formation of C1,4b,2a, as reflected by a decrease in C1-induced consumption of C2 over time; and (4) inhibited C1 activity over time without a direct effect on either C4 or C2. These observations suggest that polycations regulate the early classical pathway by interfering with C1 and may exert this activity in vivo. PMID:7750997

Weiler, J M; Edens, R E; Bell, C S; Gleich, G J

1995-01-01

173

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with urticarial plaques and hypereosinophilia in a child.  

PubMed

Our report describes a previously healthy 10-year-old female who was seen for urticarial plaques and mild loss of appetite. An initial laboratory workup revealed an elevated leukocyte count of 30,000/microL and a peripheral eosinophil count of 22,500/microL. A skin biopsy showed a marked hypersensitivity tissue response with abundant eosinophils. Further investigation of her peripheral eosinophilia uncovered Giardia lamblia in a stool sample. Despite treatment with the anti-parasitic agent furazolidone, the patient's urticarial plaques, leukocyte count, and peripheral eosinophil count remained unchanged. A bone marrow biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). ALL with hypereosinophilia (ALL/Eo) represents a rare and distinct subset of ALL, with more than 30 cases documented in the literature. Our discussion summarizes the clinical aspects of this disease and reviews the reported dermatological manifestations of ALL/Eo. PMID:15577757

Chien, Andy J; Argenyi, Zsolt B; Colven, Roy M; Kirby, Philip

2004-11-01

174

The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects  

SciTech Connect

Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

Linet, M.S.

1984-01-01

175

Leukemia revisited  

SciTech Connect

Selected features of the historical development of our knowledge of leukemia are discussed. The use of different methodologies for study of the nature of leukemic cell proliferation are analyzed. The differences between older cell kinetic data using tritiated thymidine and autoradiography and the newer cell culture methods are more apparent than real. It is suggested that tritiated thymidine and extracorporeal irradiation of the blood may be useful for therapeutic agents that have not been given an adequate trial. Radiation leukemogenesis presents an opportunity for study of the nature of leukemogenesis that has not been exploited adequately.

Cronkite, E P

1980-01-01

176

Decitabine in Treating Children With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-01-22

177

Esophageal Rupture in a Patient With Idiopathic Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis is an extremely rare condition with fewer than 20 cases described in the literature. We present a case presenting as an emergency with esophageal perforation that eventually required subtotal esophagectomy.

Peter J Riou; Andrew G Nicholson; Ugo Pastorino

1996-01-01

178

Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Eosinophilic and Neutrophilic Airway Inflammation in Asthma  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways, characterized by either predominant eosinophilic or neutrophilic, or even mixed eosinophilic/neutrophilic inflammatory patterns. Eosinophilic inflammation can be associated with the whole spectrum of asthma severity, ranging from mild-to-moderate to severe uncontrolled disease, whereas neutrophilic inflammation occurs mostly in more severe asthma. Eosinophilic asthma includes either allergic or nonallergic phenotypes underlying immune responses mediated by T helper (Th)2 cell-derived cytokines, whilst neutrophilic asthma is mostly dependent on Th17 cell-induced mechanisms. These immune-inflammatory profiles develop as a consequence of a functional impairment of T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes, which promotes the activation of dendritic cells directing the differentiation of distinct Th cell subsets. The recent advances in the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying asthmatic inflammation are contributing to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, potentially suitable for the implementation of future improvements in antiasthma pharmacologic treatments.

Vatrella, Alessandro; Busceti, Maria Teresa; Gallelli, Luca; Calabrese, Cecilia; Terracciano, Rosa

2015-01-01

179

UNUSUAL EOSINOPHILIC GRANULE CELL PROLIFERATION IN COHO SALMON (ONCHORHYNCHUS KISUTCH)  

EPA Science Inventory

Proliferative lesions comprised of eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs) extended throughout the gastrointestinal tract of several mature, spawning coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum). istological examination of the tumour showed extensive proliferation and infiltration of EGC...

180

Methotrexate-induced pleuropericarditis and eosinophilic pleural effusion.  

PubMed

A 41-year-old man developed widespread skin rash involving his knees, elbows, and gluteal region. He received methotrexate for approximately 1 month and later developed dyspnea and a left-sided eosinophilic pleural effusion. He was transiently placed on oral steroids. Subsequent skin biopsy showed psoriatric arthritis. Methotrexate was restarted and 8 weeks into the treatment, he developed dyspnea, a hemorrhagic pericardial effusion, and a right-sided eosinophilic pleural effusion. Methotrexate was discontinued, but patient developed dyspnea with a recurrent right eosinophilic pleural effusion, 2 weeks later. Pleural biopsies were obtained through medical pleuroscopy that revealed mild chronic inflammation with prominent eosinophils and no evidence for malignancy. Oral steroids were restarted with significant improvement in his symptoms. PMID:24419196

Cudzilo, Corey; Aragaki, Alejandro; Guitron, Julian; Benzaquen, Sadia

2014-01-01

181

Childhood Cancer: Leukemia (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

About Leukemia The term leukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells (also called leukocytes or WBCs). When ... the disease without it coming back. Types of Leukemia In general, leukemias are classified into acute (rapidly ...

182

Variability in Diagnostic Criteria for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging clinicopathologic entity defined by abnormal esophageal eosinophilic infiltration. Our understanding of this disease is hampered by the lack of a uniform diagnostic standard. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the range of diagnostic strategies and histologic criteria in the EoE literature.METHODS:The MEDLINE-indexed literature from 1950 through December 31, 2006 was independently

Evan S. Dellon; Ademola Aderoju; John T. Woosley; Robert S. Sandler; Nicholas J. Shaheen

2007-01-01

183

Bactericidal Activity of Human Eosinophilic Granulocytes against Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils participate in allergic inflammation and may have roles in the body's defense against helminthic infestation. Even under noninflammatory conditions, eosinophils are present in the mucosa of the large intestine, where large numbers of gram-negative bacteria reside. Therefore, roles for eosinophils in host defenses against bacterial invasion are possible. In a system for bacterial viable counts, the bactericidal activity of eosinophils and the contribution of different cellular antibacterial systems against Escherichia coli were investigated. Eosinophils showed a rapid and efficient killing of E. coli under aerobic conditions, whereas under anaerobic conditions bacterial killing decreased dramatically. In addition, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of the NADPH oxidase and thereby of superoxide production, also significantly inhibited bacterial killing. The inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production l-N5-(1-iminoethyl)-ornithine dihydrochloride did not affect the killing efficiency, suggesting that NO or derivatives thereof are of minor importance under the experimental conditions used. To investigate the involvement of superoxide and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) in bacterial killing, EPO was blocked by azide. The rate of E. coli killing decreased significantly in the presence of azide, whereas addition of DPI did not further decrease the killing, suggesting that superoxide acts in conjunction with EPO. Bactericidal activity was seen in eosinophil extracts containing granule proteins, indicating that oxygen-independent killing may be of importance as well. The findings suggest that eosinophils can participate in host defense against gram-negative bacterial invasion and that oxygen-dependent killing, i.e., superoxide acting in conjunction with EPO, may be the most important bactericidal effector function of these cells. PMID:11349018

Persson, Terese; Andersson, Pia; Bodelsson, Mikael; Laurell, Martin; Malm, Johan; Egesten, Arne

2001-01-01

184

Changes in Eosinophil Granulocyte Kinetics in Severe Hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of eosinophil granulocytes have been studied in guinea pigs simultaneously exposed to severe at imulated aitude of 20,000 ft(6,096 m) by determining the percentages of blood eosi- showing DNA-labelling at intervals after an Hypoxia 8-hour course of tritiated thymidine injections. Labelled eosinophils were detected at an earlier interval in hypoxic animals (36 h against 72 h in the controls)

G. Hudson; K. N Chin; D. J Moffatt

1972-01-01

185

Eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a Belgian traveller.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningitis is a rare clinical entity. The most frequent cause in travellers to the tropics is infection with the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. In this report, we describe a case of eosinophilic meningitis due to infection with this nematode in a traveller who presented with slight headache, diarrhoea, general malaise and thoracic radicular pain after a trip through Latin America and the Fiji Islands. She responded less than optimally to repeated steroid and albendazole treatments, but finally recovered completely. PMID:18342273

Ali, A B; Van den Enden, Erwin; Van Gompel, Alfons; Van Esbroeck, Marjan

2008-01-01

186

Induction of Eosinophil Apoptosis by the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor AT7519 Promotes the Resolution of Eosinophil-Dominant Allergic Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophils not only defend the body against parasitic infection but are also involved in pathological inflammatory allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and contact dermatitis. Clearance of apoptotic eosinophils by macrophages is a key process responsible for driving the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and can be defective in allergic diseases. However, enhanced resolution of eosinophilic inflammation by deliberate induction of eosinophil apoptosis using pharmacological agents has not been previously demonstrated. Here we investigated the effect of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor drug, AT7519, on human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis and examined whether it could enhance the resolution of a murine model of eosinophil-dominant inflammation in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Eosinophils from blood of healthy donors were treated with AT7519 and apoptosis assessed morphologically and by flow-cytometric detection of annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. AT7519 induced eosinophil apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. Therapeutic administration of AT7519 in eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation was investigated using an established ovalbumin-sensitised mouse model of allergic pleurisy. Following ovalbumin challenge AT7519 was administered systemically at the peak of pleural inflammation and inflammatory cell infiltrate, apoptosis and evidence of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils assessed at appropriate time points. Administration of AT7519 dramatically enhanced the resolution of allergic pleurisy via direct induction of eosinophil apoptosis without detriment to macrophage clearance of these cells. This enhanced resolution of inflammation was shown to be caspase-dependent as the effects of AT7519 were reduced by treatment with a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor (z-vad-fmk). Conclusions Our data show that AT7519 induces human eosinophil apoptosis and enhances the resolution of a murine model of allergic pleurisy by inducing caspase-dependent eosinophil apoptosis and enhancing macrophage ingestion of apoptotic eosinophils. These findings demonstrate the utility of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors such as AT7519 as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of eosinophil dominant allergic disorders. PMID:21984938

Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Leitch, Andrew E.; Lucas, Christopher D.; Sheldrake, Tara A.; Dorward, David A.; Hirani, Nik; Pinho, Vanessa; de Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Lyons, John F.; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

2011-01-01

187

Eosinophil accumulation in rats injected with Sephadex particles.  

PubMed

Intravenous injection of Sephadex G200 particles into rats on days 0, 2 and 5 caused an increase in eosinophil numbers in blood and lung tissues. Peak numbers were obtained on days 3-12 and thereafter declined to approach control values by day 21. The rise in eosinophil numbers was paralleled by an increase in lung cell fragility as measured by a transient reduction in the number of viable cells isolated from parenchymatous tissue following the digestion of lung fragments in vitro. This decrease in lung cell viability was not seen in rats given a single injection of Sephadex. Dexamethasone, dapsone and isoprenaline given before each injection of Sephadex reduced lung and blood eosinophil numbers and prevented lung cell death. Aspirin and indomethacin were without effect. Incubation of normal lung tissues with disrupted peritoneal eosinophils reduced the numbers of viable cells recovered. No such effects were seen using intact eosinophils and disrupted or intact neutrophils and mononuclear cells. This system provides a model of lung cell damage associated with eosinophil infiltration in vivo. PMID:1701340

Cook, R M

1990-09-01

188

Eosinophil-derived IL-10 supports chronic nematode infection.  

PubMed

Eosinophilia is a feature of the host immune response that distinguishes parasitic worms from other pathogens, yet a discrete function for eosinophils in worm infection has been elusive. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying the striking and unexpected observation that eosinophils protect intracellular, muscle-stage Trichinella spiralis larvae against NO-mediated killing. Our findings indicate that eosinophils are specifically recruited to sites of infection at the earliest stage of muscle infection, consistent with a local response to injury. Early recruitment is essential for larval survival. By producing IL-10 at the initiation of infection, eosinophils expand IL-10(+) myeloid dendritic cells and CD4(+) IL-10(+) T lymphocytes that inhibit inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and protect intracellular larvae. The results document a novel immunoregulatory function of eosinophils in helminth infection, in which eosinophil-derived IL-10 drives immune responses that eventually limit local NO production. In this way, the parasite co-opts an immune response in a way that enhances its own survival. PMID:25210122

Huang, Lu; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

2014-10-15

189

Human versus mouse eosinophils: "that which we call an eosinophil, by any other name would stain as red".  

PubMed

The respective life histories of human subjects and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiologic pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages of both species are invariantly maintained, each with identifiable eosinophils. This canonical presence nonetheless does not preclude disparities between human and mouse eosinophils, their effector functions, or both. Indeed, many books and reviews dogmatically highlight differences, providing a rationale to discount the use of mouse models of human eosinophilic diseases. We suggest that this perspective is parochial and ignores the wealth of available studies and the consensus of the literature that overwhelming similarities (and not differences) exist between human and mouse eosinophils. The goal of this review is to summarize this literature and in some cases provide experimental details comparing and contrasting eosinophils and eosinophil effector functions in human subjects versus mice. In particular, our review will provide a summation and an easy-to-use reference guide to important studies demonstrating that although differences exist, more often than not, their consequences are unknown and do not necessarily reflect inherent disparities in eosinophil function but instead species-specific variations. The conclusion from this overview is that despite nominal differences, the vast similarities between human and mouse eosinophils provide important insights as to their roles in health and disease and, in turn, demonstrate the unique utility of mouse-based studies with an expectation of valid extrapolation to the understanding and treatment of patients. PMID:22935586

Lee, James J; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A; Ochkur, Sergei I; McGarry, Michael P; Condjella, Rachel M; Doyle, Alfred D; Luo, Huijun; Zellner, Katie R; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Willetts, Lian; Lesuer, William E; Colbert, Dana C; Helmers, Richard A; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A

2012-09-01

190

Induced sputum inflammatory mediator concentrations in eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but in contrast to asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Our hypothesis was that the differences in airway pathophysiology maybe due to less active airway inflammation in eosinophilic bronchitis, with reduced release of important effector mediators. We measured the concentration of various proinflammatory mediators in induced sputum cell-free supernatant in eight patients with eosinophilic bronchitis, 17 patients with asthma matched for sputum eosinophil count, and 10 normal subjects. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LT) were measured by enzyme immunoassay, eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) by fluoroimmunoassay, prostanoids (PGE(2), PGD(2), TXB(2), and PGF(2alpha)) by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectroscopy, and histamine by radioenzymic assay. The geometric mean sputum eosinophil count was similar in asthma (13.4%) and eosinophilic bronchitis (12.5%). Sputum cys-LT and ECP were a mean (95% CI) 1.6-fold (1.1, 2.5) and 6.4-fold (1.4, 28) higher in eosinophilic bronchitis and 1.9-fold (1.3, 2.9) and 7.7-fold (1.2, 46) higher in asthma compared with that in control subjects (geometric mean, 5.9 and 95 ng/ml, respectively). In eosinophilic bronchitis the mean concentration of sputum PGD(2) (0.79 ng/ml) and histamine (168 ng/ml) were significantly higher than in asthma (mean absolute difference in PGD(2) concentration, 0.47 ng/ml [95% CI, 0.19 to 0. 74] and mean-fold difference in histamine concentration, 6.7 [95% CI 1.7 to 26]) and normal subjects (0.64 ng/ml [0.36 to 0.90] and 11-fold [3.3 to 36]), respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic bronchitis is associated with active airway inflammation with increased release of vasoactive and bronchoconstrictor mediators. PMID:10988099

Brightling, C E; Ward, R; Woltmann, G; Bradding, P; Sheller, J R; Dworski, R; Pavord, I D

2000-09-01

191

Clinical and radiological character of eosinophilic cystitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare disease and remains a poorly understood. We explored the potential etiology, clinical and radiological presentation, diagnosis and therapeutic experience with EC. Materials and Methods: A pooled ten patients diagnosed with EC were retrospectively studied in our hospital to assess clinical presentation symptoms, radiological and pathological diagnosis, treatment and outcomes between 1998 and 2012. Results: Nine patients presented with irritative urinary symptoms, one was symptomless. Allergic history were found in 2 patients, bladder mass was detected in all by radiologic tests or cystoscopy. Radiology revealed diffuse thickening of bladder wall in 7 cases among which one with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis, solitary tumor-like lesion in other 3. Elevated serum leukocytes were evident in 4 cases while elevated peripheral eosinophilias were observed in 3. One was asymptomatic and without specific therapy (group 1, 10%), transurethral resection of the lesions in one tumor-like case (10%). The other 8 cases were treated with corticosteroid and/or antihistaminics and 5 patients had excellent outcome with symptom resolution (62.5%). Conclusions: EC usually follows a benign course, most treated with corticosteroids and resulted in relief of symptoms while some may relapse. Surgery is an available choice for drug refractory or localized EC. PMID:25785027

Li, Gang; Cai, Bing; Song, Hualin; Yang, Zhi

2015-01-01

192

Supportive Care for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... lymphocytic leukemia treated? Chemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Monoclonal antibodies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Targeted therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Surgery for chronic lymphocytic ...

193

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

194

Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood ...

195

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

196

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

197

The role of eosinophils in angiostrongyliasis: multiple roles for a versatile cell?  

PubMed

Human infection with the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is characterized by a vigorous eosinophil response that gives the disease its name, eosinophilic meningitis. The actual role eosinophils play, both protective and destructive, in this infectious process is still largely a mystery. Research since 2002 has indicated that eosinophils are a multifaceted granulocyte that contributes to a wide range of physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. This article suggests an expanded role for eosinophils as both classic antiparasitic effector cells and as immune regulatory cells in eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. PMID:23901384

Gosnell, William L; Kramer, Kenton J

2013-06-01

198

The Role of Eosinophils in Angiostrongyliasis: Multiple Roles for a Versatile Cell?  

PubMed Central

Human infection with the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is characterized by a vigorous eosinophil response that gives the disease its name, eosinophilic meningitis. The actual role eosinophils play, both protective and destructive, in this infectious process is still largely a mystery. Research since 2002 has indicated that eosinophils are a multifaceted granulocyte that contributes to a wide range of physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. This article suggests an expanded role for eosinophils as both classic antiparasitic effector cells and as immune regulatory cells in eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostronglyus cantonensis. PMID:23901384

Kramer, Kenton J

2013-01-01

199

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with eosinophilic cystitis: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare, distinct clinical entity, and EG associated with eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is extremely rare and has not been well documented. Here, we report two cases of EG and coexistent EC along with findings from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An 18-year-old male with a history of hematuria, urgency and occasional urodynia for two weeks and a 34-year-old male with a history of abdominal distention for one week were admitted to our hospital. Abdominal contrast-enhanced CT in both patients revealed wall thickening in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract with inhomogeneous reinforcement, coexistent with local or diffuse bladder wall thickening with progressive enhancement, and also showed that the bladder mucosal lining was nondestructive. Pelvic MRI showed that the local or diffuse thickened bladder wall was iso-intense on T1-weighted images, hypo-intense on T2-weighted images, and slightly restricted on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in one case. After therapy, the thickened wall of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder had improved markedly in the two cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the radiological imaging of EG and coexistent EC by both CT and MRI and the first with DWI findings. PMID:25780317

Han, Shu-Gao; Chen, Ying; Qian, Zi-Hua; Yang, Li; Yu, Ri-Sheng; Zhu, Xiu-Liang; Li, Qing-Hai; Chen, Qian

2015-01-01

200

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with eosinophilic cystitis: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare, distinct clinical entity, and EG associated with eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is extremely rare and has not been well documented. Here, we report two cases of EG and coexistent EC along with findings from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An 18-year-old male with a history of hematuria, urgency and occasional urodynia for two weeks and a 34-year-old male with a history of abdominal distention for one week were admitted to our hospital. Abdominal contrast-enhanced CT in both patients revealed wall thickening in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract with inhomogeneous reinforcement, coexistent with local or diffuse bladder wall thickening with progressive enhancement, and also showed that the bladder mucosal lining was nondestructive. Pelvic MRI showed that the local or diffuse thickened bladder wall was iso-intense on T1-weighted images, hypo-intense on T2-weighted images, and slightly restricted on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in one case. After therapy, the thickened wall of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder had improved markedly in the two cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the radiological imaging of EG and coexistent EC by both CT and MRI and the first with DWI findings. PMID:25780317

Han, Shu-Gao; Chen, Ying; Qian, Zi-Hua; Yang, Li; Yu, Ri-Sheng; Zhu, Xiu-Liang; Li, Qing-Hai; Chen, Qian

2015-03-14

201

Eosinophils and immune mechanisms. III. Production of the lymphokine eosinophil stimulation promoter by mouse T lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The lymphoid cell population responsible for production of eosinophil stimulation promoter (ESP), a lymphokine which increases migration of eosinophils, was investigated in murine Schistosoma mansoni infection. Con A challenge induced ESP production, whereas LPS did not. Prior treatment with anti-thetaC3H alloantiserum plus complement in vitro eliminated ESP production; in vivo treatment with rabbit anti-mouse thymocyte serum consistently reduced ESP production by splenic lymphoid cells, but affected lymph node cell ESP production only after exceptionally large doses. Thymocytes did not produce significant amounts of ESP; nor did lymphoid cells from congenitally athymic mice. Depletion of B lymphocytes and macrophages by nylon fiber adherence eliminated antigen-induced ESP production; this was partially restored by addition of non-immune, 72-hr peritoneal exudate cells. Con A-induced ESP production was not affected by nylon fiber treatment. These results demonstrate that ESP is produced by an ATS-sensitive, peripheralized T lymphocyte population, and suggest a macrophage requirement for antigen-induced production of this lymphokine. PMID:1082904

Greene, B M; Colley, D G

1976-04-01

202

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

What is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)? This type of cancer begins in the blood and bone marrow or mediastinum. The abnormal cells interfere with the ... com (Mayo Clinic). Type the keywords acute lymphoblastic leukemia or leukemia into the search box. Healing begins ...

203

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)  

MedlinePLUS

What is chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)? The most common type of leukemia, this slow-growing cancer is a blood and bone marrow disease. About 15, ... and Lymphoma Society). Type the keywords chronic lymphocytic leukemia into the search box. What kinds of questions ...

204

Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

Cancer.gov

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. An acute leukemia can become worse quickly if it is not treated and can result in death within months. AML is the most common type of acute leukemia in American adults and the average age of a patient with AML is 67.

205

The circadian clock is functional in eosinophils and mast cells  

PubMed Central

Allergic diseases are frequently exacerbated between midnight and early morning, suggesting a role for the biological clock. Mast cells (MC) and eosinophils are the main effector cells of allergic diseases and some MC-specific or eosinophil-specific markers, such as tryptase or eosinophil cationic protein, exhibit circadian variation. Here, we analysed whether the circadian clock is functional in mouse and human eosinophils and MC. Mouse jejunal MC and polymorphonuclear cells from peripheral blood (PMNC) were isolated around the circadian cycle. Human eosinophils were purified from peripheral blood of non-allergic and allergic subjects. Human MC were purified from intestinal tissue. We found a rhythmic expression of the clock genes mPer1, mPer2, mClock and mBmal1 and eosinophil-specific genes mEcp, mEpo and mMbp in murine PMNC. We also found circadian variations for hPer1, hPer2, hBmal1, hClock, hEdn and hEcp mRNA and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in human eosinophils of both healthy and allergic people. Clock genes mPer1, mPer2, mClock and mBmal1 and MC-specific genes mMcpt-5, mMcpt-7, mc-kit and mFc?RI ?-chain and protein levels of mMCPT5 and mc-Kit showed robust oscillation in mouse jejunum. Human intestinal MC expressed hPer1, hPer2 and hBmal1 as well as hTryptase and hFc?RI ?-chain, in a circadian manner. We found that pre-stored histamine and de novo synthesized cysteinyl leukotrienes, were released in a circadian manner by MC following IgE-mediated activation. In summary, the biological clock controls MC and eosinophils leading to circadian expression and release of their mediators and, hence it might be involved in the pathophysiology of allergy. PMID:23876110

Baumann, Anja; Gönnenwein, Simone; Bischoff, Stephan C; Sherman, Hadas; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren; Lorentz, Axel

2013-01-01

206

[Eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis in children].  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis is a disease commonly seen in Taiwan, especially in children during the summer rainy season. Most of the cases reported in other countries were adults and their clinical manifestations were different from children. Studies on special clinical characteristics among 87 children in Taiwan were performed. Thirty-eight (43.7%) were male and 49 (56.3%) females, and 88.5% could be traced to a history of contact with the intermediate host, the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, which plays a major role in transmission. The incubation period (average: 13.0 days) was shorter in children than in adults (average: 16.5 days). Near thirty percent (28.7%) of the total cases, the clinical form was meningoencephalitis, which was higher than in adult cases seen in Thailand (5%). The most common clinical symptom was fever (92.0%), followed by vomiting and headache. The percentages of sixth and seventh cranial neuropathy associated with the disease were 17.2% and 11.5% respectively. Ophthalmologic fundoscopy showed that 23.0% with papilledema which was significantly higher than seen in adults (12%) in Thailand. Most of the cases in this study had peripheral leukocytosis (above 10,000/mm3) and eosinophilia (above 10%); the percentages were 83.9% and 85.1%, respectively. The worm recovery rate from cerebrospinal fluid by lumbar puncture of 87 cases was 43.7%; 141 worms were collected from one female patient using a pumping method. In the recent 3 years, levamisole was used clinically with good result. PMID:8184688

Hwang, K P; Chen, E R; Chen, T S

1994-01-01

207

Fecal microbiota transplantation and prednisone for severe eosinophilic gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by patchy or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall to a variable depth and various gastrointestinal manifestations. We describe a case of severe eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting as frequent bowel obstruction and diarrhea in a 35-year-old man. The patient was misdiagnosed and underwent surgery because of intestinal obstruction when he was first admitted to a local hospital. Then he was misdiagnosed as having Crohn’s disease in another university teaching hospital. Finally, the patient asked for further treatment from our hospital because of the on-going clinical trial for treating refractory Crohn’s disease by fecal microbiota transplantation. Physical examination revealed a slight distended abdomen with diffuse tenderness. Laboratory investigation showed the total number of normal leukocytes with neutrophilia as 90.5%, as well as eosinopenia, monocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Barium radiography and sigmoidoscopy confirmed inflammatory stenosis of the sigmoid colon. We diagnosed the patient as having eosinophilic gastroenteritis by multi-examinations. The patient was treated by fecal microbiota transplantation combined with oral prednisone, and was free from gastrointestinal symptoms at the time when we reported his disease. This case highlights the importance of awareness of manifestations of a rare disease like eosinophilic gastroenteritis. PMID:25473198

Dai, Yi-Xuan; Shi, Chuan-Bing; Cui, Bo-Ta; Wang, Min; Ji, Guo-Zhong; Zhang, Fa-Ming

2014-01-01

208

EP4 receptor stimulation down-regulates human eosinophil function.  

PubMed

Accumulation of eosinophils in tissue is a hallmark of allergic inflammation. Here we observed that a selective agonist of the PGE(2) receptor EP4, ONO AE1-329, potently attenuated the chemotaxis of human peripheral blood eosinophils, upregulation of the adhesion molecule CD11b and the production of reactive oxygen species. These effects were accompanied by the inhibition of cytoskeletal rearrangement and Ca(2+) mobilization. The involvement of the EP4 receptor was substantiated by a selective EP4 antagonist, which reversed the inhibitory effects of PGE(2) and the EP4 agonist. Selective kinase inhibitors revealed that the inhibitory effect of EP4 stimulation on eosinophil migration depended upon activation of PI 3-kinase and PKC, but not cAMP. Finally, we found that EP4 receptors are expressed by human eosinophils, and are also present on infiltrating leukocytes in inflamed human nasal mucosa. These data indicate that EP4 agonists might be a novel therapeutic option in eosinophilic diseases. PMID:21365278

Luschnig-Schratl, Petra; Sturm, Eva M; Konya, Viktoria; Philipose, Sonia; Marsche, Gunther; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Samberger, Claudia; Lang-Loidolt, Doris; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Lippe, Irmgard Th; Peskar, Bernhard A; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

2011-11-01

209

Eosinophils in Fungus-Associated Allergic Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease. PMID:23378838

Ghosh, Sumit; Hoselton, Scott A.; Dorsam, Glenn P.; Schuh, Jane M.

2013-01-01

210

Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4+/+ or il4?/? eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103+ dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activation in vitro and in vivo led to degranulation of eosinophil peroxidase, a granule protein whose enzymatic activity promoted DC activation in mice and humans in vitro, and intestinal and extraintestinal mouse DC activation and mobilization to lymph nodes in vivo. Further, eosinophil peroxidase enhanced responses to ovalbumin seen after immunization. Thus, eosinophils can be critical contributors to the intestinal immune system, and granule-mediated shaping of DC responses can promote both intestinal and extraintestinal adaptive immunity. PMID:25071163

Chu, Derek K.; Jimenez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Verschoor, Christopher P.; Walker, Tina D.; Goncharova, Susanna; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Shen, Pamela; Gordon, Melissa E.; Barra, Nicole G.; Bassett, Jennifer D.; Kong, Joshua; Fattouh, Ramzi; McCoy, Kathy D.; Bowdish, Dawn M.; Erjefält, Jonas S.; Pabst, Oliver; Humbles, Alison A.; Kolbeck, Roland; Waserman, Susan

2014-01-01

211

Expression of soluble proteins in Escherichia coli by linkage with the acidic propiece of eosinophil major basic protein.  

PubMed

An expression method has been developed to produce soluble cationic polypeptides in Escherichia coli while avoiding inclusion body deposition. For this technique the recombinant product is linked through a thrombin or factor Xa susceptible bond to the amino-terminal domain of the precursor of eosinophil major basic protein (MBP). This N-terminal domain is strongly acidic and is apparently able to shield eosinophils from the potentially injurious activities of MBP. It was reasoned that constructs of this acidic domain with small heterologous cationic proteins expressed in E. coli could result in soluble expression while preventing trafficking and packaging into insoluble inclusion bodies. This has been demonstrated using four examples: complement C5a, CCL18, fibroblast growth factor-?, and leukemia inhibitory factor, whose isoelectric points range from 8.93 to 9.59. Further general applicability of this technique has been shown by using two different expression systems, one which encodes an amino-terminal oligo-histidine leash, and another that codes for an amino-terminal glutathione-S-transferase. Thus the utility of coupling MAP to cationic polypeptides for the purpose of soluble heterologous protein expression in E. coli has been demonstrated. PMID:21550406

DiScipio, Richard G; Khaldoyanidi, Sophia K; Schraufstatter, Ingrid U

2011-09-01

212

A chronic eosinophilic pneumonia case with long exposure to isocyanates.  

PubMed

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a disease with unknown etiology, characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia and abnormal eosinophil accumulation in the lungs. A 43-year-old male with 30 years history of exposure to isocyanates was admitted with the complaint of sputum, cough, progressive dyspnoea, and weight loss. Physical examination revealed bilaterally decreased breath sounds and extensive rales. On laboratory analysis; leukocytosis (12.3 10(3)/proportional variant L), hypereosinophilia (30%), elevated CRP and RF (1000 IU/ml), and IgE levels (1160 IU/ml) in the serum were observed. Chest radiograph and computed tomography on admission showed reticulonodular pattern at both lung fields. Pulmonary function tests assumed a restrictive pattern and a low diffusing capacity. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed a marked eosinophilia (50%). Transbronchial lung biopsy indicated eosinophilic pneumonia. In this case we aimed to describe a rare case of CEP probably caused by exposure to isocyanate. PMID:25823164

Yalcin, Funda; Sak, Zafer Hasan Ali; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Gencer, Mehmet

2014-10-01

213

In Vivo Priming of Platelet-Activating Factor-Induced Eosinophil Chemotaxis in Allergic Asthmatic Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-3, and IL-5 are important modulators of eosinophilia and eosinophil function. Eosino- phil chemotaxis is known to be particularly sensitive for cytokine priming. In the present study, we compared chemo- tactic responses of eosinophils derived from peripheral blood of allergic asthmatics to responses of eosinophils from peripheral blood of healthy individuals. Eosinophils from

A. J. Warringa; H. J. J. Mengelers; P. H. M. Kuijper; J. A. M. Raaijmakers; P. L. B. Bruijnzee; L. Koenderman

1992-01-01

214

Leukotriene B4 receptors on guinea pig alveolar eosinophils  

SciTech Connect

The existence of receptors for LTB4 on highly purified guinea pig alveolar eosinophils was investigated. Massive infiltration of eosinophils in alveolar spaces was induced in guinea pigs by i.v. injections of Sephadex beads G50 (16 mg/kg). Alveolar eosinophils (50 {times} 10(6) cells) were purified to approximately 98% by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. The binding studies indicated that alveolar eosinophils bind LTB4 in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of high-affinity binding sites (Kd1 = 1.00 {plus minus} 0.22 nM; Bmax1 = 966 {plus minus} 266 sites/cell) and low-affinity binding sites (Kd2 = 62.5 {plus minus} 8.9 nM; Bmax2 = 5557 {plus minus} 757 sites/cell). The metabolism of LTB4 by alveolar eosinophils in binding conditions was assessed by RP-HPLC and no significant degradation of (3H)LTB4 was observed. LTB4 dose-dependently stimulated eosinophil migration in both chemokinesis and chemotaxis assays with an EC50 value of 1.30 {plus minus} 0.14 and 18.14 {plus minus} 1.57 nM, respectively. LTB4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the production of superoxide anion with an apparent EC50 value of 50 {times} 10(-9) M in the authors experimental conditions. LTB4 also induced a dose-dependent increase in the generation of TxA2 with an EC50 value of 46.2 {times} 10(-9) M. Taken together, their results demonstrated that guinea pig alveolar eosinophils express two classes of specific receptors for LTB4. The high-affinity binding sites seem associated to chemokinesis and chemotaxis whereas the low-affinity binding sites seem associated to superoxide anion production and generation of TxA2. The existence of LTB4 receptors in eosinophils could explain the presence of these cells in hypersensitivity reactions.

Maghni, K.; de Brum-Fernandes, A.J.; Foeldes-Filep, E.G.; Gaudry, M.; Borgeat, P.; Sirois, P. (Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine University of Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada))

1991-09-01

215

Caustic ingestion: a possible cause of eosinophilic esophagitis?  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease in both pediatric and adult patients. It is a chronic disease of the esophagus and refers to intense eosinophilic infiltration limited to the esophageal epithelium in the absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In most patients, EoE is thought to be part of an allergic response to food antigens or aeroallergens. One such trigger could be caustic damage of the mucosa. To the best of our knowledge, the following case report describes for the first time the possible association between caustic injury of the esophagus and EoE. PMID:23478872

Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok; Liacouras, Chris

2013-04-01

216

Eosinophilic esophagitis in children with esophageal atresia.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has only rarely been reported in esophageal atresia (EA) patients. A retrospective case analysis of all EA patients born at our center between January 1999 and April 2012 was performed. A total of 113 of patients were identified; 10 patients were excluded as a result of inadequate data. Eighteen patients (17%) were diagnosed with EoE. The average number of eosinophilis was 30/high-power field (HPF) (19/HPF-80/HPF). The median age for diagnosis of EoE was 1 year and 6 months (8 months-8 years and 7 months). Children with EoE had a significantly greater incidence of reflux symptoms, dysphagia, tracheomalacia, and 'hypoxic spells' (P?

Dhaliwal, J; Tobias, V; Sugo, E; Varjavandi, V; Lemberg, D; Day, A; Bohane, T; Ledder, O; Jiwane, A; Adams, S; Henry, G; Dilley, A; Shi, E; Krishnan, U

2014-01-01

217

Thoughts on the Complex Relationship Between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data suggest that the interaction between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic esophagitis can be complex, and that the notion of establishing a clear distinction between the two disorders may be too simplistic. There are at least four situations in which GERD might be associated with esophageal eosinophils: (a) GERD causes esophageal injury that results in a mild eosinophilic

Stuart Jon Spechler; Robert M. Genta; Rhonda F. Souza

2007-01-01

218

Hemopoietic sites and development of eosinophil granulocytes in the loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unique eosinophils, each of which contained only one eosinophilic granule, have been found in the peripheral blood of the loach (itMisgurnus anguillicaudatus). Several loach organs have been studied by light and electron microscopy to determine the hemopoietic site of this cell type. Eosinophils are produced mainly in the spleen and to a small extent in the kidney, but not in

K. Ishizeki; T. Nawa; T. Tachibana; Y. Sakakura; S. Iida

1984-01-01

219

OUTBREAK OF EOSINOPHILIC MENINGITIS ASSOCIATED WITH DRINKING RAW VEGETABLE JUICE IN SOUTHERN TAIWAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis is the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a parasite that is endemic in the southeast Asian and Pacific regions. Outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis associated with drinking raw vegetable juice are rarely reported, even in regions of endemic infection. We performed a cohort study among Taiwanese with eosinophilic meningitis who drank raw vegetable juice within

HUNG-CHIN TSAI; SUSAN SHIN-JUNG LEE; CHUN-KAI HUANG; CHUAN-MIN YEN; ENG-RIN CHEN; YUNG-CHING LIU

220

Development and characterisation of a novel and rapid lung eosinophil influx model in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils play a major role in the development and severity of asthma. Robust and rapid preclinical animal models are desirable to profile novel therapeutics inhibiting the influx of eosinophils into the airways. To develop a rapid, airway eosinophil recruitment model in the rat, Brown-Norway (BN) rats were immunised with ovalbumin (OVA)\\/alum on day 0, 1 and 2 and challenged with

Melanie Werner-Klein; Rolf Göggel; Andreas Westhof; Klaus J. Erb

2008-01-01

221

What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... key statistics for chronic lymphocytic leukemia? What is chronic lymphocytic leukemia? Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of ... and other tissues. Are there different types of CLL? Doctors have found that there seem to be ...

222

Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-10-07

223

Chronic asthma is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, fibrosis,  

E-print Network

Chronic asthma is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, fibrosis, airway remodelling for the treatment of chronic asthma. Olive Leavy ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER Shen, Z.-J. et al. Pin1 regulates TGF-1. Invest. 118, 479­490 (2008) Allergy And AsthmA Regulation of TGF1 PINned down ReseaRch highlights NATURE

Cai, Long

224

Eosinophilic meningitis in a child raising snails as pets.  

PubMed

The rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is the principal cause of eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis worldwide. It is endemic in Taiwan and the Asia Pacific area. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy who was referred to us suffering from intermittent headache, low-grade fever and blurred vision of 4-5 days' duration. He had been treated for gastroenteritis just prior to referral. The patient's history was unremarkable, except that he raised snail (Ampullarium canaliculatus) as pet at home. On physical examination, the patient's consciousness was alert and well oriented. No papilledema was found on fundal examination. The neurological examination revealed normal cranial nerve function, mild weakness of both lower limbs and normal deep tendon reflexes, but positive Babinski and Kernig signs. Laboratory findings showed peripheral eosinophilia, elevated immunoglobulin E level, cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilic pleocytosis and the presence of stage 3 A. cantonensis larvae, which confirmed the diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis. A 2-week course of mebendazole combined the glucocorticosteroids was beneficial in relieving headache, paresthesia and the other eosinophilic meningitis symptoms in the patient. PMID:14739022

Wan, Kong-Sang; Weng, Wen-Chein

2004-03-01

225

Eosinophilic meningitis: a case series and review of literature of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/?L in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents. PMID:25560024

Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M

2015-01-01

226

A Pilot Study of Omalizumab in Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are an emerging subset of immune pathologies within the spectrum of allergic inflammation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE), once considered a rare disease, is increasing in incidence, with a rate of over 1 in 10,000 in the US, for unknown reasons. The clinical management of EoE is challenging, thus there is an urgent need for understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of this eosinophilic disease to develop better therapeutic approaches. In this open label, single arm, unblinded study, we evaluated the effects of an anti-IgE treatment, omalizumab, on local inflammation in the esophagus and clinical correlates in patients with EoE. Omalizumab was administered for 12 weeks to 15 subjects with long standing EoE. There were no serious side effects from the treatment. Esophageal tissue inflammation was assessed both before and after therapy. After 3 months on omalizumab, although tissue Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly reduced in all but two of the subjects, we found that full remission of EoE, which is defined as histologic and clinical improvement only in 33% of the patients. The decrease in tryptase-positive cells and eosinophils correlated significantly with the clinical outcome as measured by improvement in endoscopy and symptom scores, respectively. Omalizumab-induced remission of EoE was limited to subjects with low peripheral blood absolute eosinophil counts. These findings demonstrate that in a subset of EoE patients, IgE plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and that anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab may result in disease remission. Since this study is open label there is the potential for bias, hence the need for a larger double blind placebo controlled study. The data presented in this pilot study provides a foundation for proper patient selection to maximize clinical efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01040598 PMID:25789989

Loizou, Denise; Enav, Benjamin; Komlodi-Pasztor, Edina; Hider, Pamela; Kim-Chang, Julie; Noonan, Laura; Taber, Tabitha; Kaushal, Suhasini; Limgala, Renuka; Brown, Margaret; Gupta, Raavi; Balba, Nader; Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Khojah, Amer; Alpan, Oral

2015-01-01

227

Human Surfactant Protein D Alters Oxidative Stress and HMGA1 Expression to Induce p53 Apoptotic Pathway in Eosinophil Leukemic Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Surfactant protein D (SP-D), an innate immune molecule, has an indispensable role in host defense and regulation of inflammation. Immune related functions regulated by SP-D include agglutination of pathogens, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, antigen presentation, T lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine secretion, induction of apoptosis and clearance of apoptotic cells. The present study unravels a novel ability of SP-D to reduce the viability of leukemic cells (eosinophilic leukemic cell line, AML14.3D10; acute myeloid leukemia cell line, THP-1; acute lymphoid leukemia cell lines, Jurkat, Raji; and human breast epithelial cell line, MCF-7), and explains the underlying mechanisms. SP-D and a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rhSP-D) induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, and dose and time-dependent apoptosis in the AML14.3D10 eosinophilic leukemia cell line. Levels of various apoptotic markers viz. activated p53, cleaved caspase-9 and PARP, along with G2/M checkpoints (p21 and Tyr15 phosphorylation of cdc2) showed significant increase in these cells. We further attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of rhSP-D induced apoptosis using proteomic analysis. This approach identified large scale molecular changes initiated by SP-D in a human cell for the first time. Among others, the proteomics analysis highlighted a decreased expression of survival related proteins such as HMGA1, overexpression of proteins to protect the cells from oxidative burst, while a drastic decrease in mitochondrial antioxidant defense system. rhSP-D mediated enhanced oxidative burst in AML14.3D10 cells was confirmed, while antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, abrogated the rhSP-D induced apoptosis. The rhSP-D mediated reduced viability was specific to the cancer cell lines and viability of human PBMCs from healthy controls was not affected. The study suggests involvement of SP-D in host’s immunosurveillance and therapeutic potential of rhSP-D in the eosinophilic leukemia and cancers of other origins. PMID:24391984

Mahajan, Lakshna; Pandit, Hrishikesh; Madan, Taruna; Gautam, Poonam; Yadav, Ajit K.; Warke, Himangi; Sundaram, Curam S.; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Sarma, P. Usha; Kishore, Uday; Surolia, Avadhesha

2013-01-01

228

Eosinophils isolated with two different methods show different characteristics of activation.  

PubMed

Eosinophils can be isolated from a mixed suspension of granulocytes by different procedures. We compared functional responses of human eosinophils purified according to two different principles: (1) an fMLP-induced difference in specific gravity between eosinophils and neutrophils and (2) selective removal of neutrophils by means of immunomagnetic beads coated with CD16 mAb. The results showed that eosinophils isolated with the CD16 beads method have a higher capacity to synthesize platelet activating factor (PAF) after stimulation with serum-treated zymosan (STZ) than eosinophils purified with the fMLP method. Binding of STZ and subsequent activation of the respiratory burst were also increased in CD16-isolated eosinophils. Furthermore, eosinophils isolated with the CD16 beads showed stronger chemotactic responses towards C5a and PAF. The difference in activity of these eosinophil preparations might be explained by a loss of the more active cells during the isolation with the fMLP method: only 30-60% of the eosinophils were recovered with this method, in contrast to a recovery of more than 95% with the CD16 beads method. Indeed, this 'lost' population of eosinophils, subsequently purified with CD16-coated beads, had a higher respiratory burst activity. The alternative explanation, i.e., an enhancement of eosinophil function by the beads method, appeared not to be valid, because repurification of fMLP-isolated eosinophils in the presence of fresh neutrophils and CD16-coated beads did not change the reactivity of the eosinophils. We conclude that the fMLP method leads to selective purification of eosinophils with a resting (or 'unprimed') phenotype. PMID:7836780

Blom, M; Tool, A T; Mul, F P; Knol, E F; Roos, D; Verhoeven, A J

1995-01-27

229

Nilotinib and Imatinib Mesylate After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

2014-12-09

230

The Family Leukemia Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

Pollitt, Eleanor

1976-01-01

231

Leukemia CTPM November 2011  

Cancer.gov

The Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Working Group of the Leukemia Steering Committee held an in- person meeting on November 2nd, 2011 in Rockville, MD to discuss ALL treatment strategies, consider trials for disease subtypes, and obtain a general consensus on the next clinical trial(s).

232

Leukemia Steering Committee Roster  

Cancer.gov

Leukemia Steering Committee Roster Co-chairs Jerry Radich, M.D. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center Seattle, WA Wendy Stock, M.D. University of Chicago Chicago, IL Members John C. Byrd, M.D. Ohio State University Columbus, OH Laura Cleveland Leukemia Patient

233

Interaction of eosinophils with endothelial cells is modulated by prostaglandin EP4 receptors.  

PubMed

Eosinophil extravasation across the endothelium is a key feature of allergic inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of PGE(2) and its receptor, E-type prostanoid receptor (EP)-4, in the regulation of eosinophil interaction with human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. PGE(2) and the EP4 receptor agonist ONO AE1-329 significantly reduced eotaxin-induced eosinophil adhesion to fibronectin, and formation of filamentous actin and gelsolin-rich adhesive structures. These inhibitory effects were reversed by a selective EP4 receptor antagonist, ONO AE3-208. PGE(2) and the EP4 agonist prevented the activation and cell-surface clustering of ?2 integrins, and L-selectin shedding of eosinophils. Under physiological flow conditions, eosinophils that were treated with the EP4 agonist showed reduced adhesion to endothelial monolayers upon stimulation with eotaxin, as well as after TNF-?-induced activation of the endothelial cells. Selective activation of EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors did not alter eosinophil adhesion to endothelial cells, whereas the EP4 antagonist prevented PGE(2) from decreasing eosinophil adhesion. Finally, eosinophil transmigration across thrombin- and TNF-?-activated endothelial cells was effectively reduced by the EP4 agonist. These data suggest that PGE(2) -EP4 signaling might be protective against allergic responses by inhibiting the interaction of eosinophils with the endothelium and might hence be a useful therapeutic option for controlling inappropriate eosinophil infiltration. PMID:21681739

Konya, Viktoria; Philipose, Sonia; Bálint, Zoltán; Olschewski, Andrea; Marsche, Gunther; Sturm, Eva M; Schicho, Rudolf; Peskar, Bernhard A; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

2011-08-01

234

Multifaceted Roles of Cysteinyl Leukotrienes in Eliciting Eosinophil Granule Protein Secretion  

PubMed Central

Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are cell membrane-impermeant lipid mediators that play major roles in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic inflammation and are recognized to act via at least 2 receptors, namely, cysLT1 receptor (cysLT1R) and cysLT2 receptor (cysLT2R). Eosinophils, which are granulocytes classically associated with host defense against parasitic helminthes and allergic conditions, are distinguished from leukocytes by their dominant population of cytoplasmic crystalloid (also termed secretory, specific, or secondary) granules that contain robust stores of diverse preformed proteins. Human eosinophils are the main source of cysLTs and are recognized to express both cysLTs receptors (cysLTRs) on their surface, at the plasma membrane. More recently, we identified the expression of cysLTRs in eosinophil granule membranes and demonstrated that cysLTs, acting via their granule membrane-expressed receptors, elicit secretion from cell-free human eosinophil granules. Herein, we review the multifaceted roles of cysLTs in eliciting eosinophil granule protein secretion. We discuss the intracrine and autocrine/paracrine secretory responses evoked by cysLTs in eosinophils and in cell-free extracellular eosinophil crystalloid granules. We also discuss the importance of this finding in eosinophil immunobiology and speculate on its potential role(s) in eosinophilic diseases. PMID:25866815

Baptista-dos-Reis, Renata; Muniz, Valdirene S.; Neves, Josiane S.

2015-01-01

235

What targeting the eosinophil has taught us about their role in diseases  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil-associated disease is a term used to encompass a range of disorders from hypereosinophilic syndrome to asthma. Despite the longstanding belief that eosinophils can be primary contributors to disease pathophysiology, it is only in recent years that direct and selective reduction or elimination of eosinophils can be achieved in animals or in humans. These developments have been made possible in mice through clever targeting of eosinophil production. Use of antibodies and other agents that target soluble eosinophil-related molecules such as interleukin-5 (IL-5) or cell surface structures such as CCR3 has also proved useful in reducing blood and tissue eosinophils. In humans, the only eosinophil-selective agents tested in clinical trials so far are neutralizing antibodies to IL-5, with promising but mixed results. At the very least, such forms of pharmacologic hypothesis testing of the role of eosinophils in certain airway, gastrointestinal and hematologic diseases has finally provided us with new insights into disease pathogenesis. At its optimistic best, these and other targeted agents may someday become available for those afflicted with eosinophil-associated disorders. This review summarizes what has been learned in vivo in both preclinical and clinical studies of eosinophil-directed therapies, with an emphasis on recent advances. PMID:20434203

Bochner, Bruce S.; Gleich, Gerald J.

2010-01-01

236

Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Standard treatment of ...

237

Treatment Options by Stage (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)  

MedlinePLUS

... for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment of stage 0 chronic lymphocytic leukemia is ...

238

Activation of ?1 Integrins on Blood Eosinophils by P-Selectin  

PubMed Central

Activation of ?1 integrins of blood eosinophils, assessed by mAb N29, correlates inversely with FEV1 in two paradigms for studying control of human asthma. We asked whether P-selectin causes eosinophil ?1 integrin activation and results in increased adhesivity. By dual-label flow cytometry, eosinophils with high levels of surface-associated P-selectin had higher reactivity with the activation-sensitive anti-?1 mAbs N29, 8E3, and 9EG7 than eosinophils with no or with a low-level of surface-associated P-selectin. Among patients with nonsevere asthma, surface P-selectin correlated with N29, 8E3, and 9EG7 signals. By immunofluorescence microscopy, surface-associated P-selectin was present in patches on eosinophils, some of which stained for the platelet marker thrombospondin-1. Activated ?1 and P-selectin partially colocalized on eosinophils. Soluble P-selectin added to whole blood enhanced activation of eosinophil ?1, but not ?2, integrins. In contrast, IL-5 activated eosinophil ?2, but not ?1, integrins. Eosinophils that did not attach to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in a static adhesion assay had a lower N29 signal than the original population. Soluble P-selectin added to whole blood enhanced eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1. These findings are compatible with a scenario whereby P-selectin, on eosinophil-associated activated platelets or acquired from plasma or from prior interactions with endothelial cells or platelets, activates eosinophil ?4?1 integrin and stimulates eosinophils to adhere to VCAM-1 and move to the airway in asthma. PMID:21441381

Mosher, Deane F.

2011-01-01

239

A rare cause of chronic dysphagia: eosinophilic esophagitis†  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is attributable to environmental factors, allergens and several immunological causes. The most typical symptoms include dysphagia and sensation of food impingement in the retrosternal area. Although its clinical features resemble those of gastroesophageal reflux, proton pump inhibitors are not effective for its treatment. The diagnosis of EE is dependent on the pathological detection of eosinophilic infiltration in esophageal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated a patient who applied to our clinic with complaints of long-term difficulty in swallowing, sensation of food sticking while eating and weight loss; the patient was diagnosed with EE, following biochemical, radiological, endoscopic and pathological assessments and was treated with steroids. The results show that EE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with dysphagia and food impingement in the retrosternal area, and the diagnosis should be confirmed through multiple esophageal biopsies. PMID:25249002

Destek, Sebahattin; Gul, Vahit Onur; Ahioglu, Serkan; Tatar, Zeynep; Erbil, Yesim

2014-01-01

240

[Esophageal diseases: GERD, Barrett, achalasia and eosinophilic esophagitis].  

PubMed

At Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2014, developments in esophageal disease were presented. Highlights include: the usefulness of impedancemetry to diagnose reflux disease, or the effectiveness of PPIs for treating non-cardiac chest pain. Concerning Barrett's esophagus, its prevalence is identical in patients with and without reflux symptoms, Barrett segments less than 1cm probably do not require follow-up, and in older patients with long-segment Barrett, initial endoscopies overlooked up to 2% of significant lesions. Regarding achalasia, surgical myotomy is no more effective than endoscopic dilation and may even be less effective than peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). In terms of eosinophilic esophagitis, it is important to systematically take biopsies in patients with dysphagia so that cases of eosinophilic esophagitis are not overlooked. In addition, for this condition, routine endoscopic dilations not only do not seem useful in improving the course of the disease, but could also worsen the response to medical treatment. PMID:25294266

Calvet, Xavier; Villoria, Albert

2014-09-01

241

Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (Ofuji's disease): efficacy of isotretinoin.  

PubMed

The case of a 30-year-old man with a 6-year history of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is reported. Isotretinoin (1 mg/kg/day) led to a dramatic improvement of all the lesions within 2 weeks. The withdrawal of the drug was followed by a recurrence after 10 days of the papulopustular, follicular and pruritic lesions. Reintroduction of isotretinoin was successful. The benefits of isotretinoin in the treatment of EPF have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported previously. The mechanisms underlying this efficacy may involve the inhibition of the eosinophilic chemotactic factors thought to be present in sebaceous lipids and in the stratum corneum of patients suffering from EPF. PMID:2620754

Berbis, P; Jancovici, E; Lebreuil, G; Benderitter, T; Dubertret, L; Privat, Y

1989-01-01

242

Eosinophilic Pleuritis due to Sparganum: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by migrating plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Infection in humans is mainly caused by the ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked flesh of infected frogs, snakes, and chickens. Here, we report a rare case of a 45-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with left lower chest pain. The chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed localized pleural effusion in the left lower lobe; further, peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic pleural effusion were present. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed, which revealed long worm-shaped material that was identified as a sparganum by DNA sequencing. The patient showed clinical improvement after drainage of the sparganum. This study demonstrates the importance of considering parasitic diseases in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusion. PMID:25352705

Oh, Youngmin; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Chang, You-Jin; Eom, Keeseon; Park, Jung-Gi; Lee, Ki-Man; Choe, Kang-Hyeon

2014-01-01

243

Eosinophilic myocarditis-an unusual cause of left ventricular hypertrophy.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic myocarditis is a rare condition in which inflammation of the heart results in an infiltrative cardiomyopathy that is often difficult to diagnose in the acute setting. It sometimes presents as left ventricular hypertrophy. The authors present a case of a 79-year-old woman with a history of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who presented with acute heart failure with marked left ventricular hypertrophy. Echocardiography demonstrated abnormalities consistent with an infiltrative cardiomyopathy, and endomyocardial biopsy showed findings consistent with eosinophilic myocarditis. The patient was managed with diuresis and glucocorticoid therapy, and within 4 weeks of her admission, her clinical status had improved and her echocardiogram normalized. The prompt diagnosis and treatment of this patient's myocarditis likely resulted in her favorable outcome. This illustrates the need for a broad consideration of all the potential causes of hypertrophy and the necessary diagnostic strategies and therapeutic options. PMID:25325192

Coffin, Samuel T; Benton, Stewart M; Lenihan, Daniel J; Naftilan, Allen J; Mendes, Lisa A

2015-04-01

244

Eosinophilic/T-cell Chorionic Vasculitis: Histological and Clinical Correlations.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic T-cell chorionic vasculitis (E/TCV) is composed of eosinophils and T-lymphocytes originating within chorionic vessels, radiating toward the intervillous space and away from the amnion in a fashion different from the fetal vascular response seen in amnionitis. Clinical significance and risk factors are not well established. We report four pregnancies (five infants, one triplet was spared) with E/TCV, gestational ranging from 23 weeks to term. All had concurrent acute chorioamnionitis, three had the typical acute fetal inflammatory response. One had placental fetal obstructive vasculopathy and an upper extremity reduction defect (radio-ulnar synostosis), the mother had pre-eclampsia. A second case involved 2 of 3 23 week previable triplets. Our third case had a metatarsus varus resistant to casting, the mother had gestational diabetes. The last case was a normal infant. We review the literature, discuss the clinical findings and present the histologic characteristics of this infrequently recognized lesion. PMID:25338020

Cheek, Bradley; Heinrich, Stephen; Ward, Kenneth; Craver, Randall

2014-10-22

245

[Differencial diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease -- eosinophilic esophagitis: case report].  

PubMed

We report on a 22-year-old man with dysphagia and repeated bolus impaction in the esophagus for 10 years. Bolus impactions were frequently mobilised using an endoscope. At endoscopy, esophagitis IV degrees was described. After treatment with omeprazol there was no improvement. The patient was submitted to our hospital for fundoplication. pH-metry demonstrated an increased reflux. At endoscopy of the esophagus, we found red stripes which did not show the typical appearance of erosions. Manometry and X-ray films of the esophagus did not reveal any pathological findings. In combination with anamnesis, symptoms, and endoscopy, the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis was documented by histology. After administration of oral corticosteroids a rapid improvement of the clinical symptoms was observed. The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis should be kept in mind in patients with chronic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux persisting despite medical therapy, pathological pH-metry and repeated bolus impactions. PMID:15830305

Franzius, M; Stolte, M; Porschen, R

2005-04-01

246

FGF9-induced proliferative response to eosinophilic inflammation in oesophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Oesophagitis is characterised by basal cell hyperplasia and activated eosinophils, which release mediators including major basic protein (MBP). MBP and its mimetic polyarginine activate the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) on oesophageal epithelium. Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) is implicated in epithelial homeostasis and proliferative response to injury, but has not been characterised in the oesophagus. Objective: To characterise FGF9 in oesophageal epithelium and oesophagitis, as the result of MBP activation of the CaSR. Methods: Human oesophageal epithelial cells (HET-1A) were used to compare affects of calcium, polyarginine and MBP-peptide on FGF9. HET-1A were transfected with interfering RNA (siRNACaSR). FGF9, FGF receptors 2 and 3, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, BMP-4 and noggin mRNA expression were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. FGF9 was measured from HET-1A and from normal, gastro-oesophageal reflux and eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) patient biopsies using ELISA and immunohistochemistry. HET-1A proliferation was studied using bromodeoxyuridine and MTT. Results: FGF9 was secreted by HET-1A cells treated with polyarginine and MBP-peptide, but not calcium. This effect was abrogated by siRNACaSR. FGF9 receptor mRNA was present. HET-1A cells proliferated following rhFGF9, but not MBP-peptide treatment, and rhFGF9 altered transcription of downstream proliferation-related genes (noggin, BMP-2 and BMP-4). FGF9 was increased in biopsies from patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis, which correlated with basal hyperplasia. Conclusion: Eosinophil-released MBP acts on the CaSR to increase FGF9 in oesophageal epithelial cells, leading to proliferation. Increased FGF9 is found in biopsies of EoE patients and may play a role in the pathogenesis of oesophagitis. PMID:18978176

Mulder, D J; Pacheco, I; Hurlbut, D J; Mak, N; Furuta, G T; MacLeod, R J; Justinich, C J

2009-01-01

247

Eosinophilic Pustular Folliculitis (Ofuji’s Disease): Efficacy of Isotretinoin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of a 30-year-old man with a 6-year history of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is reported. Isotretinoin (1 mg\\/kg\\/day) led to a dramatic improvement of all the lesions within 2 weeks. The withdrawal of the drug was followed by a recurrence after 10 days of the papulopustular f ollicular and pruritic lesions. Reintroduction of isotretinoin was successful. The benefits

Philippe Berbis; Eliane Jancovici; Georges Lebreuil; Thierry Benderitter; Louis Dubertret; Yvan Privat

1989-01-01

248

Sudden Death in a Neonate with Idiopathic Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 26-day-old male infant who had been fussy and feeding poorly for a period of several hours died suddenly despite efforts\\u000a at resuscitation. Postmortem examination revealed eosinophilic endomyocarditis unassociated with disease in other organs.\\u000a The etiology remained unexplained after review of the medical and family histories and circumstances of death, extensive light\\u000a and immunofluorescence microscopies, and microbiological, metabolic, and toxicologic

Henry F. Krous; Elisabeth Haas; Amy E. Chadwick; Glenn N. Wagner

2005-01-01

249

Eosinophilic meningitis in a child raising snails as pets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is the principal cause of eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis worldwide. It is endemic in Taiwan and the Asia Pacific area. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy who was referred to us suffering from intermittent headache, low-grade fever and blurred vision of 4–5 days’ duration. He had been treated for gastroenteritis just prior to

Kong-Sang Wan; Wen-Chein Weng

2004-01-01

250

Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in Cuba, caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Five cases of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis presumed to be caused by the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, are reported from localities in or near Havana, Cuba. The first typical case occurred in 1973. Lungworms identified as A. cantonensis were found in rats from the same localities. The clinical picture in the Cuban cases, as in cases from other countries, is that of a self-limiting disease without apparent sequelae. PMID:7283014

Pascual, J E; Bouli, R P; Aguiar, H

1981-09-01

251

Comprehensive multiplexed protein quantitation delineates eosinophilic and neutrophilic experimental asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Improvements in asthma diagnosis and management require deeper understanding of the heterogeneity of the complex airway inflammation. We hypothesise that differences in the two major inflammatory phenotypes of asthma; eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma, will be reflected in the lung protein expression profile of murine asthma models and can be delineated using proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Methods BAL from mice challenged with ovalbumin (OVA/OVA) alone (standard model of asthma, here considered eosinophilic) or OVA in combination with endotoxin (OVA/LPS, model of neutrophilic asthma) was analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compared with steroid-treated animals and healthy controls. In addition, conventional inflammatory markers were analysed using multiplexed ELISA (Bio-Plex™ assay). Multivariate statistics was performed on integrative proteomic fingerprints using principal component analysis. Proteomic data were complemented with lung mechanics and BAL cell counts. Results Several of the analysed proteins displayed significant differences between the controls and either or both of the two models reflecting eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma. Most of the proteins found with mass spectrometry analysis displayed a considerable increase in neutrophilic asthma compared with the other groups. Conversely, the larger number of the inflammatory markers analysed with Bio-Plex™ analysis were found to be increased in the eosinophilic model. In addition, major inflammation markers were correlated to peripheral airway closure, while commonly used asthma biomarkers only reflect central inflammation. Conclusion Our data suggest that the commercial markers we are currently relying on to diagnose asthma subtypes are not giving us comprehensive or specific enough information. The analysed protein profiles allowed to discriminate the two models and may add useful information for characterization of different asthma phenotypes. PMID:24993465

2014-01-01

252

Inwardly rectifying whole cell potassium current in human blood eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Membrane currents were studied in single human blood eosinophils using the whole cell voltage clamp technique. The whole cell current-voltage relationship exhibited rectification about the membrane potential which followed the potassium equilibrium potential when [K+]o was raised. Elevation of [K+]o considerably potentiated inward current amplitude, and in some cells channel activity was discernible in the whole cell membrane current recordings. The single channel conductance was 24 ± 1 pS ([K+]o, 100 mm [K+]i, 140 mm), and eosinophils were found to have as few as three, and on average twenty, inward rectifier channels each. The inward current was inhibited in a voltage-dependent manner by extracellular cations in order of potency Ba2+ > Cs+ > Na+. Intracellular acidification inhibited while alkalization augmented the inward current. Mg2+ contributed to rectification as dialysis with nominally Mg2+-free pipette solution was associated with an increase in the outward current during membrane polarization. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using suitable primers on human eosinophil mRNA, an inward rectifier channel, Kir2.1, was identified, which is known from expression studies to have very similar properties to those found in this study. Superoxide anion production or its stimulation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was not significantly affected by depolarization with 140 mm [K+]o, or by 1 mm BaCl2. It is concluded that the single channel currents and the whole cell current rectification observed in human blood eosinophils resulted from the presence of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, probably Kir2.1. PMID:9490857

Tare, M; Prestwich, S A; Gordienko, D V; Parveen, S; Carver, J E; Robinson, C; Bolton, T B

1998-01-01

253

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis due to egg allergy presenting as acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

We describe a case of a 25-year-old female with newly diagnosed egg allergy, presenting with both peripheral and duodenal eosinophilia suspicious for eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG). The EG was severe enough to have likely caused acute pancreatitis. Cessation of all egg products lead to resolution of all symptoms. This represents the first report of EG manifesting as pancreatitis due to egg ingestion. PMID:25668683

Christiansen, Sandra C.

2015-01-01

254

Eosinophils secrete IL-4 to facilitate liver regeneration  

PubMed Central

The liver is a central organ for the synthesis and storage of nutrients, production of serum proteins and hormones, and breakdown of toxins and metabolites. Because the liver is susceptible to toxin- or pathogen-mediated injury, it maintains a remarkable capacity to regenerate by compensatory growth. Specifically, in response to injury, quiescent hepatocytes enter the cell cycle and undergo DNA replication to promote liver regrowth. Despite the elucidation of a number of regenerative factors, the mechanisms by which liver injury triggers hepatocyte proliferation are incompletely understood. We demonstrate here that eosinophils stimulate liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy and toxin-mediated injury. Liver injury results in rapid recruitment of eosinophils, which secrete IL-4 to promote the proliferation of quiescent hepatocytes. Surprisingly, signaling via the IL-4R? in macrophages, which have been implicated in tissue repair, is dispensable for hepatocyte proliferation and liver regrowth after injury. Instead, IL-4 exerts its proliferative actions via IL-4R? in hepatocytes. Our findings thus provide a unique mechanism by which eosinophil-derived IL-4 stimulates hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating liver. PMID:23716700

Goh, Y. P. Sharon; Henderson, Neil C.; Heredia, Jose E.; Red Eagle, Alex; Odegaard, Justin I.; Lehwald, Nadja; Nguyen, Khoa D.; Sheppard, Dean; Mukundan, Lata; Locksley, Richard M.; Chawla, Ajay

2013-01-01

255

Biodegradation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Eosinophil Peroxidase  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is one of the major oxidant-producing enzymes during inflammatory states in the human lung. The degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) upon incubation with human EPO and H2O2 is reported. Biodegradation of SWCNTs is higher in the presence of NaBr, but neither EPO alone nor H2O2 alone caused the degradation of nanotubes. Molecular modeling reveals two binding sites for SWCNTs on EPO, one located at the proximal side (same side as the catalytic site) and the other on the distal side of EPO. The oxidized groups on SWCNTs in both cases are stabilized by electrostatic interactions with positively charged residues. Biodegradation of SWCNTs can also be executed in an ex vivo culture system using primary murine eosinophils stimulated to undergo degranulation. Biodegradation is proven by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible-NIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal Raman imaging. Thus, human EPO (in vitro) and ex vivo activated eosinophils mediate biodegradation of SWCNTs: an observation that is relevant to pulmonary responses to these materials. PMID:23447468

Andón, Fernando T.; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Yanamala, Naveena; Feng, Weihong; Baygan, Arjang; Chambers, Benedict J.; Hultenby, Kjell; Ye, Fei; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Brandner, Birgit D.; Fornara, Andrea; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Kotchey, Gregg P.; Star, Alexander; Shvedova, Anna A.

2014-01-01

256

A simple and rapid method for isolation of eosinophilic granulocytes from human blood.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid method for the purification of morphologically and functionally intact eosinophils from human blood of both normal and eosinophilic subjects is described. The method is based on a single centrifugation of total blood leukocytes suspended in Percoll with specific gravity 1.0853 g/ml, after erythrocyte removal by dextran sedimentation. The peculiarity of this isolation technique is the maintenance of strictly physiological values of pH and osmolality throughout the entire procedure. Moreover, the cells are not subjected to measures aimed at changing the physical properties of either neutrophils or eosinophils. Because of such characteristics, this isolation method could be usefully exploited for comparative studies of normal and eosinophilic normodense eosinophils and of neutrophils and eosinophils from the same noneosinophilic subject. PMID:1326020

Cramer, R; Dri, P; Zabucchi, G; Patriarca, P

1992-09-01

257

Cutting Edge: STAT6 Signaling in Eosinophils Is Necessary for Development of Allergic Airway Inflammation.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are critical cellular mediators in allergic asthma and inflammation; however, the signals that regulate their functions are unclear. The transcription factor STAT6 regulates Th2 cytokine responses, acting downstream of IL-4 and IL-13. We showed previously that eosinophil-derived IL-13 plays an important role in the recruitment of T cells to the lung and the subsequent development of allergic asthma. However, whether eosinophils respond to Th2 signals to control allergic airway inflammation is unclear. In this report, we show that STAT6(-/-) eosinophils are unable to induce the development of allergic lung inflammation, including recruitment of CD4(+) T cells, mucus production, and development of airways hyperresponsiveness. This is likely due to the reduced migration of STAT6(-/-) eosinophils to the lung and in response to eotaxin. These data indicate that, like Th cells, eosinophils need to respond to Th2 cytokines via STAT6 during the development of allergic airway inflammation. PMID:25681342

Stokes, Kindra; LaMarche, Nelson M; Islam, Nasif; Wood, Amie; Huang, Weishan; August, Avery

2015-03-15

258

Variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins in atopic dermatitis patients from Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is believed to result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. A main feature of AD as well as other allergic disorders is serum and tissue eosinophilia. Human eosinophils contain high amounts of cationic granule proteins, including eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and major basic protein (MBP). Recently, variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders. We therefore genotyped selected single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ECP, EDN, EPO and MBP genes in a cohort of 361 German AD patients and 325 healthy controls. Results Genotype and allele frequencies did not differ between patients and controls for all polymorphisms investigated in this study. Haplotype analysis did not reveal any additional information. Conclusion We did not find evidence to support an influence of variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins for AD pathogenesis in this German cohort. PMID:19014520

Parwez, Qumar; Stemmler, Susanne; Epplen, Jörg T; Hoffjan, Sabine

2008-01-01

259

Theophylline Inhibits TNF-?-Induced CD4 Expression on Human Eosinophils and CD4+ Eosinophil Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increasing evidence regarding asthma suggests that CD4+ cells are preferentially recruited to sites of bronchial inflammation. Interleukin (IL)-16 has been reported as playing an important role in the accumulation of CD4+ cells. We have shown that the CD4 molecule is expressed on normal human eosinophils by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? stimulation. Methods: We evaluated the effects of theophylline, KF19514

Akihiro Tsukadaira; Yoshio Okubo; Shiro Horie; Sekiya Koyama

2001-01-01

260

Expression and role of BAG-1 in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of human eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (ECRSwNP and nECRSwNP) remains undetermined. We aimed to investigate the expression and role of Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in ECRSwNP and nECRSwNP. BAG-1 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of BAG-1 and Hsp70 was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 27 subjects with ECRSwNP, 28 subjects with nECRSwNP, and 23 control subjects. Moreover, the effects of various stimulators with different concentrations and time on BAG-1 were evaluated on a nasal explant culture. Results showed that significant elevations in total visual analog scale (VAS) score, endoscopy score, CT score, and rate of positive skin prick test (SPT) were found in the ECRSwNP group compared with the nECRSwNP group. BAG-1 and Hsp70 were overexpressed in CRSwNP, especially in ECRSwNP, and BAG-1 expression was closely related to Hsp70. BAG-1 mRNA was augmented by IL-4, IL-17A, and IL-1?, but suppressed by IFN-?, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophils triggered a more severe form of inflammation in CRSwNP compared with non-eosinophilic inflammatory cells. The expressions of BAG-1 and Hsp70 were upregulated in CRSwNP, especially in ECRSwNP. IL-4, IL-17A, and IL-1? may be critical for BAG-1 gene expression. PMID:24830325

Lin, Dong; Lin, Hai; Xiong, Xisheng

2014-12-01

261

TLR3 in Human Eosinophils: Functional Effects and Decreased Expression during Allergic Rhinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Viral respiratory infections are increasingly implicated in allergic exacerbations. Virus-induced activation of eosinophils through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) could be involved. The present study was designed to examine TLR3 expression in eosinophils from bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) during symptomatic allergic rhinitis, and to evaluate the functional responsiveness of TLR3 in purified eosinophils. Methods: BM and PB samples

Anne Månsson; Mattias Fransson; Mikael Adner; Mikael Benson; Rolf Uddman; Sven Björnsson; Lars-Olaf Cardell

2010-01-01

262

Leukemia -- Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic  

MedlinePLUS

... Lymphocytic: Overview Print to PDF Leukemia - Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... leukemia (AML) Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) About T-cell leukemia There are also less common types of ...

263

How Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Found?  

MedlinePLUS

... How is acute lymphocytic leukemia classified? How is acute lymphocytic leukemia found? At this time there are no special ... oncologist (doctor who treats cancer). Tests to find acute lymphocytic leukemia Most of the symptoms seen in leukemia can ...

264

Melanoma Differentiation Associated Gene-7/Interleukin-24 Potently Induces Apoptosis in Human Myeloid Leukemia Cells through a Process Regulated by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress  

PubMed Central

Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7)/interleukin-24 (IL-24), a member of the IL-10 cytokine gene family, preferentially induces cell death in neoplastic epithelial cells types while sparing their normal counterparts. The effects of mda-7/IL-24 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells have not been extensively characterized. Treatment with recombinant GST-MDA-7/IL-24 potently induced apoptosis in diverse myeloid leukemia cell types including U937, HL60, MV4-11, EOL-1, and MLL/ENL cells. MDA-7/IL-24 also markedly induced apoptosis in and suppressed the colony-forming capacity of primary AML blasts but exerted minimal toxicity toward normal CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. MDA-7/IL-24 lethality was associated with pronounced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induction in leukemia cell lines and primary AML blasts, manifested by the accumulation of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34), 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78)/BiP, inositol-requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?), and eukaryotic initiation factor 2? phosphorylation. It is noteworthy that short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of IRE1?, GADD34, or GRP78/BiP significantly enhanced MDA-7/IL-24-mediated apoptosis, indicating a protective role for these molecules against MDA-7/IL-24 lethality. MDA-7/IL-24 also down-regulated the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 and sharply increased expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bim and Noxa. Ectopic Mcl-1 expression or shRNA knockdown of Bim or Noxa significantly attenuated MDA-7/IL-24-mediated leukemia cell death. Finally, knockdown of Bax or Bak significantly reduced MDA-7/IL-24 lethality. Together, these findings indicate that MDA-7/IL-24 potently induces apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells through a process regulated by ER stress induction, Mcl-1 down-regulation, and Bim and Noxa up-regulation. They also suggest that MDA-7/IL-24 warrants further investigation in myeloid leukemia. PMID:20858700

Rahmani, Mohamed; Mayo, Mandy; Dash, Rupesh; Sokhi, Upneet Kaur; Dmitriev, Igor P.; Sarkar, Devanand; Dent, Paul; Curiel, David T.; Fisher, Paul B.

2010-01-01

265

Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 potently induces apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells through a process regulated by endoplasmic reticulum stress.  

PubMed

Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7)/interleukin-24 (IL-24), a member of the IL-10 cytokine gene family, preferentially induces cell death in neoplastic epithelial cells types while sparing their normal counterparts. The effects of mda-7/IL-24 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells have not been extensively characterized. Treatment with recombinant GST-MDA-7/IL-24 potently induced apoptosis in diverse myeloid leukemia cell types including U937, HL60, MV4-11, EOL-1, and MLL/ENL cells. MDA-7/IL-24 also markedly induced apoptosis in and suppressed the colony-forming capacity of primary AML blasts but exerted minimal toxicity toward normal CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells. MDA-7/IL-24 lethality was associated with pronounced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induction in leukemia cell lines and primary AML blasts, manifested by the accumulation of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34), 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78)/BiP, inositol-requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?), and eukaryotic initiation factor 2? phosphorylation. It is noteworthy that short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of IRE1?, GADD34, or GRP78/BiP significantly enhanced MDA-7/IL-24-mediated apoptosis, indicating a protective role for these molecules against MDA-7/IL-24 lethality. MDA-7/IL-24 also down-regulated the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 and sharply increased expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bim and Noxa. Ectopic Mcl-1 expression or shRNA knockdown of Bim or Noxa significantly attenuated MDA-7/IL-24-mediated leukemia cell death. Finally, knockdown of Bax or Bak significantly reduced MDA-7/IL-24 lethality. Together, these findings indicate that MDA-7/IL-24 potently induces apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells through a process regulated by ER stress induction, Mcl-1 down-regulation, and Bim and Noxa up-regulation. They also suggest that MDA-7/IL-24 warrants further investigation in myeloid leukemia. PMID:20858700

Rahmani, Mohamed; Mayo, Mandy; Dash, Rupesh; Sokhi, Upneet Kaur; Dmitriev, Igor P; Sarkar, Devanand; Dent, Paul; Curiel, David T; Fisher, Paul B; Grant, Steven

2010-12-01

266

Exogenous Interleukin-17A Inhibits Eosinophil Differentiation and Alleviates Allergic Airway Inflammation.  

PubMed

IL-17 is known to play important roles in immune and inflammatory disease, such as in asthma, but its functions in allergic airway inflammation are still controversial, and the molecular mechanisms mediating these functions remain unclear. Increased production of eosinophils in bone marrow and their emergence in the airway have been linked to the onset and progression of allergic asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous IL-17 on allergic airway inflammation and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms through eosinophil generation. Exogenous IL-17 significantly attenuated the features of allergic inflammation induced by ovalbumin in mice. It inhibited eosinophil differentiation both in vivo and in vitro, accompanied by down-regulated expression of CC chemokine receptor 3, GATA binding protein 1 (GATA-1), and GATA binding protein 2 (GATA-2), as well as reduced formation of common myeloid progenitors and eosinophil progenitors, but without influencing eosinophil apoptosis. IL-17 also significantly decreased the number of eosinophils in IL-5-transgenic mice, although it notably increased the levels of IL-3, IL-5, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In addition, IL-17 had little effect on secretion of the inflammatory cytokines by eosinophils. Neutralization of endogenous IL-17 significantly augmented eosinophil recruitment in the airways. Together, these findings suggest that exogenous IL-17 protects against allergic airway inflammation, most likely through inhibition of the eosinophil differentiation in bone marrow. PMID:25180833

Tian, Bao-Ping; Hua, Wen; Xia, Li-Xia; Jin, Yan; Lan, Fen; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A; Li, Wen; Ying, Song-Min; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao

2015-04-01

267

?M?2 Integrin–Mediated Adhesion and Motility of IL-5–Stimulated Eosinophils on Periostin  

PubMed Central

Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein that is up-regulated by T helper cell type 2 cytokines in the asthmatic airway and implicated in mouse studies as promoting eosinophil recruitment. We asked whether periostin modulates eosinophil adhesion and motility in vitro. Periostin adsorbed to polystyrene supported adhesion of purified human blood eosinophils stimulated by IL-5, IL-3, or granulocyte/macrophage colony–stimulating factor, but did not support adhesion of eosinophils treated with IL-4 or IL-13. The degree of adhesion depended on the concentrations of periostin during coating and activating cytokine during the adhesion assay. Both full-length periostin and alternatively spliced periostin, lacking C-terminal exons 17, 18, 19, and 21, supported adhesion. Adhesion was inhibited by monoclonal antibody to ?M or ?2 integrin subunits, but not by antibodies to other eosinophil integrin subunits. Adsorbed periostin also supported ?M?2-dependent random motility of IL-5–stimulated eosinophils with optimal movement at an intermediate coating concentration. In the presence of IL-5, eosinophils adherent on periostin formed punctate structures positive for filamentous actin, gelsolin, and phosphotyrosine. These structures fit the criteria for podosomes, highly dynamic adhesive contacts that are distinct from classical focal adhesions. The results establish ?M?2 (CD11b/CD18, Mac-1) as an adhesive and promigratory periostin receptor on cytokine-stimulated eosinophils, and suggest that periostin may function as a haptotactic stimulus able to guide eosinophils to areas of high periostin density in the asthmatic airway. PMID:23306834

Annis, Douglas S.; Mosher, Deane F.

2013-01-01

268

Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

1984-02-01

269

Significance of Mouse Models in Dissecting the Mechanism of Human Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases (EGID)  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that eosinophils play a significant role in promoting several gastrointestinal diseases, and animal models are the significant tools to understand the pathogenesis of eosinophil-associatd inflammatory disorders. The focus of this review is on the significance of mouse models that mimic the characteristics of human eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases. Eosinophils are the important leukocytes with diverse functions in the gastrointestinal tract, such as excretion of intestinal parasites and promoting the pathogenesis of a numerous allergic gastrointestinal disorders like food allergy, parasitic infection, allergic gastroenteritis, allergic colitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis. Among these gastrointestinal diseases, the eosinophilic esophagitis is the most recently recognized disease and the mouse models are proven to be an effective tool to understand the pathophysiology of disease and to test novel treatment strategies. Based on patients allergic conditions and the gene overexpressed in human EGID, a number of gene overexpressed and allergen-challenged mouse models of gastrointestinal disorders were developed. These models were utilized to explore the mechanism(s) that promotes the eosinophil-mediated gastrointestinal diseases including the role of the eosinophil responsive cytokines and chemokines. Herein, we have provided a detailed overviews of the mouse models of gastrointestinal disorders that mimic the human eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases and can be utilized as a tool for understanding the diseases pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic targets.

Mishra, Anil

2015-01-01

270

5-Lipoxygenase-Dependent Recruitment of Neutrophils and Macrophages by Eotaxin-Stimulated Murine Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LT)B4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1) were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24?h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24?h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS) mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5-LO is the initial recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin, not the secondary neutrophil accumulation. Eosinophil-dependent recruitment of neutrophils in naive BALB/c mice was associated with increased binding of bacteria. PMID:24723744

Luz, Ricardo Alves; Xavier-Elsas, Pedro; de Luca, Bianca; Masid-de-Brito, Daniela; Cauduro, Priscila Soares; Gondar Arcanjo, Luiz Carlos; Cordeiro Faria dos Santos, Ana Carolina; de Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Maria; Gaspar-Elsas, Maria Ignez Capella

2014-01-01

271

Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have been implicated in metabolic homeostasis and the maintenance of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs). The absence of eosinophils can lead to adiposity and systemic insulin resistance in experimental animals, but what maintains eosinophils in adipose tissue is unknown. We show that interleukin-5 (IL-5) deficiency profoundly impairs VAT eosinophil accumulation and results in increased adiposity and insulin resistance when animals are placed on a high-fat diet. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) are resident in VAT and are the major source of IL-5 and IL-13, which promote the accumulation of eosinophils and AAM. Deletion of ILC2s causes significant reductions in VAT eosinophils and AAMs, and also impairs the expansion of VAT eosinophils after infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, an intestinal parasite associated with increased adipose ILC2 cytokine production and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Further, IL-33, a cytokine previously shown to promote cytokine production by ILC2s, leads to rapid ILC2-dependent increases in VAT eosinophils and AAMs. Thus, ILC2s are resident in VAT and promote eosinophils and AAM implicated in metabolic homeostasis, and this axis is enhanced during Th2-associated immune stimulation. PMID:23420878

Molofsky, Ari B.; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Liang, Hong-Erh; Van Dyken, Steven J.; Cheng, Laurence E.; Mohapatra, Alexander; Chawla, Ajay

2013-01-01

272

SDA, a DNA Aptamer Inhibiting E- and P-Selectin Mediated Adhesion of Cancer and Leukemia Cells, the First and Pivotal Step in Transendothelial Migration during Metastasis Formation  

PubMed Central

Endothelial (E-) and platelet (P-) selectin mediated adhesion of tumor cells to vascular endothelium is a pivotal step of hematogenous metastasis formation. Recent studies have demonstrated that selectin deficiency significantly reduces metastasis formation in vivo. We selected an E- and P-Selectin specific DNA Aptamer (SDA) via SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) with a Kd value of approximately 100 nM and the capability of inhibiting the interaction between selectin and its ligands. Employing human colorectal cancer (HT29) and leukemia (EOL-1) cell lines we could demonstrate an anti-adhesive effect for SDA in vitro. Under physiological shear stress conditions in a laminar flow adhesion assay, SDA inhibited dynamic tumor cell adhesion to immobilized E- or P-selectin. The stability of SDA for more than two hours allowed its application in cell-cell adhesion assays in cell culture medium. When adhesion of HT29 cells to TNF?-stimulated E-selectin presenting human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells was analyzed, inhibition via SDA could be demonstrated as well. In conclusion, SDA is a potential new therapeutic agent that antagonizes selectin-mediated adhesion during metastasis formation in human malignancies. PMID:24699049

Faryammanesh, Rassa; Lange, Tobias; Magbanua, Eileen; Haas, Sina; Meyer, Cindy; Wicklein, Daniel; Schumacher, Udo; Hahn, Ulrich

2014-01-01

273

Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

2013-01-16

274

Leukemia Trial Results  

MedlinePLUS

... a placebo plus rituximab. Combination of Obinutuzumab Plus Chlorambucil Improves Survival in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ... who received a combination of obinutuzumab (Gazyva™) and chlorambucil (Leukeran®) lived longer without their disease getting worse ( ...

275

Acute myeloid leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... of chemotherapy. This decision is determined by several factors, including: Your age and overall health How high your white blood cell count was Certain genetic changes in the leukemia cells The availability of donors

276

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)  

MedlinePLUS

... leukemia is grouped into several phases: Chronic Accelerated Blast crisis The chronic phase can last for months ... a swollen spleen . Untreated CML leads to the blast crisis phase. Bleeding and infection may occur due ...

277

Drugs Approved for Leukemia  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

278

BMS-214662 in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2013-01-22

279

Myeloid leukemia after hematotoxins.  

PubMed Central

One of the most serious consequences of cancer therapy is the development of a second cancer, especially leukemia. Several distinct subsets of therapy-related leukemia can now be distinguished. Classic therapy-related myeloid leukemia typically occurs 5 to 7 years after exposure to alkylating agents and/or irradiation, has a myelodysplastic phase with trilineage involvement, and is characterized by abnormalities of the long arms of chromosomes 5 and/or 7. Response to treatment is poor, and allogenic bone marrow transplantation is recommended. Leukemia following treatment with agents that inhibit topoisomerase II, however, has a shorter latency, no preleukemic phase, a monoblastic, myelomonocytic, or myeloblastic phenotype, and balanced translocations, most commonly involving chromosome bands 11q23 or 21q22. The MLL gene at 11q23 or the AML1 gene at 21q22 are almost uniformly rearranged. MLL is involved with many fusion gene partners. Therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia also occurs with 11q23 rearrangements. Therapy-related leukemias with 11q23 or 21q22 rearrangements, inv(16) or t(15;17), have a more favorable response to treatment and a clinical course similar to their de novo counterparts. PMID:9118910

Larson, R A; LeBeau, M M; Vardiman, J W; Rowley, J D

1996-01-01

280

Myeloid leukemia after hematotoxins  

SciTech Connect

One of the most serious consequences of cancer therapy is the development of a second cancer, especially leukemia. Several distinct subsets of therapy-related leukemia can now be distinguished. Classic therapy-related myeloid leukemia typically occurs 5 to 7 years after exposure to alkylating agents and/or irradiation, has a myelodysplastic phase with trilineage involvement, and is characterized by abnormalities of the long arms of chromosomes 5 and/or 7. Response to treatment is poor, and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is recommended. Leukemia following treatment with agents that inhibit topoisomerase 11, however, has a shorter latency, no preleukemic phase, a monoblastic, myelomonocytic, or myeloblastic phenotype, and balanced translocations, most commonly involving chromosome bands 11 q23 or 21 q22. The MLL gene at 11 q23 or the AML1 gene at 21 q22 are almost uniformly rearranged. MLL is involved with many fusion gene partners. Therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia also occurs with 1 1 q23 rearrangements. Therapy-related leukemias with 11 q23 or 21 q22 rearrangements, inv(16) or t(15;17), have a more favorable response to treatment and a clinical course similar to their de novo counterparts. 32 refs., 4 tabs.

Larson, R.A.; LeBeau, M.M.; Vardiman, J.W.; Rowley, J.D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-12-01

281

Genes and childhood leukemia.  

PubMed

Leukemia is a heterogeneous hematologic malignancy originating from a multipotent hematopoietic stem cell. It ranks among the commonest cancers in childhood and is characterized by excessive proliferation and differentiation block. The process of leukemogenesis is governed by genetic changes at both the cytogenetic and molecular level. According to numerous analyses, a large spectrum of mutations and rearrangements underlying the disease affect essential cellular transduction pathways, genes ensuring proper course of hematopoiesis, oncogenes, tumor suppressors and apoptosis regulators. Common lesions include translocations to T cell receptor (TCR) loci in T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), mutations of transcription factors regulating B-lineage development and cell maturation in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) (PAX5, TCF3, EBF1, etc.), aberrational disruption of genes coding for transcription factors and coactivators in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (e.g. CBF) or BCR-ABL1 fusion and activation of multiple kinases in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). These alterations severely impair cell function. Broadening knowledge of the genetic background gives an insight into the pathobiology of a disease and allows for a better understanding of it. An appropriate investigation of genomic events yields diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications. Broadening knowledge of the pathogenesis of leukemia seems to be a promising contribution to precise stratification of patients, reducing the toxicity and adverse effects caused by medical intervention, treatment personalization and introduction of targeted therapy accessible to a wide range of patients. PMID:25748621

K?sy, Julita; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

2015-01-01

282

Flavopiridol and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia or Refractory Anemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-04-01

283

Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML) and Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)  

MedlinePLUS

... syndromes (MDS) subtypes or atypical chronic myeloid disorders. Published as a public service by The Leukemia & Lymphoma ... LLS.org • Information Resource Center 800.955.4572 Published as a public service by The Leukemia & Lymphoma ...

284

COPD exacerbation severity and frequency is associated with impaired macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic airway inflammation is observed in 10-30% of COPD subjects. Whether increased eosinophils or impairment in their clearance by macrophages is associated with the severity and frequency of exacerbations is unknown. Methods We categorised 103 COPD subjects into 4 groups determined by the upper limit of normal for their cytoplasmic macrophage red hue (<6%), an indirect measure of macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils, and area under the curve sputum eosinophil count (?3%/year). Eosinophil efferocytosis by monocyte-derived macrophages was studied in 17 COPD subjects and 8 normal controls. Results There were no differences in baseline lung function, health status or exacerbation frequency between the groups: A-low red hue, high sputum eosinophils (n?=?10), B-high red hue, high sputum eosinophils (n?=?16), C-low red hue, low sputum eosinophils (n?=?19) and D- high red hue, low sputum eosinophils (n?=?58). Positive bacterial culture was lower in groups A (10%) and B (6%) compared to C (44%) and D (21%) (p?=?0.01). The fall in FEV1 from stable to exacerbation was greatest in group A (?FEV1 [95 % CI] -0.41 L [-0.65 to -0.17]) versus group B (-0.16 L [-0.32 to -0.011]), C (-0.11 L [-0.23 to -0.002]) and D (-0.16 L [-0.22 to -0.10]; p?=?0.02). Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils was impaired in COPD versus controls (86 [75 to 92]% versus 93 [88 to 96]%; p?=?0.028); was most marked in group A (71 [70 to 84]%; p?=?0.0295) and was inversely correlated with exacerbation frequency (r?=?-0.63; p?=?0.006). Conclusions Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils is impaired in COPD and is related to the severity and frequency of COPD exacerbations. PMID:25007795

2014-01-01

285

Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A and B inhibit human and mice eosinophil chemotaxis and adhesion in vitro.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus aggravates the allergic eosinophilic inflammation. We hypothesized that Staphylococcus aureus-derived enterotoxins directly affect eosinophil functions. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of Staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B (SEA and SEB) on human and mice eosinophil chemotaxis and adhesion in vitro, focusing on p38 MAPK phosphorylation and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. Eosinophil chemotaxis was evaluated using a microchemotaxis chamber, whereas adhesion was performed in VCAM-1 and ICAM-1-coated plates. Measurement of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and intracellular Ca(2+) levels were monitored by flow cytometry and fluorogenic calcium-binding dye, respectively. Prior incubation (30 to 240 min) of human blood eosinophils with SEA (0.5 to 3 ng/ml) significantly reduced eotaxin-, PAF- and RANTES-induced chemotaxis (P<0.05). Likewise, SEB (1 ng/ml, 30 min) significantly reduced eotaxin-induced human eosinophil chemotaxis (P<0.05). The reduction of eotaxin-induced human eosinophil chemotaxis by SEA and SEB was prevented by anti-MHC monoclonal antibody (1 ?g/ml). In addition, SEA and SEB nearly suppressed the eotaxin-induced human eosinophil adhesion in ICAM-1- and VCAM-1-coated plates. SEA and SEB prevented the increases of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and Ca(2+) levels in eotaxin-activated human eosinophils. In separate protocols, we evaluated the effects of SEA on chemotaxis and adhesion of eosinophils obtained from mice bone marrow. SEA (10 ng/ml) significantly reduced the eotaxin-induced chemotaxis along with cell adhesion to both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1-coated plates (P<0.05). In conclusion, the inhibition by SEA and SEB of eosinophil functions (chemotaxis and adhesion) are associated with reductions of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. PMID:25445958

Squebola-Cola, Dalize M; De Mello, Glaucia C; Anhê, Gabriel F; Condino-Neto, Antonio; DeSouza, Ivani A; Antunes, Edson

2014-12-01

286

Re-defining the unique roles for eosinophils in allergic respiratory inflammation.  

PubMed

The role of eosinophils in the progression and resolution of allergic respiratory inflammation is poorly defined despite the commonality of their presence and in some cases their use as a biomarker for disease severity and/or symptom control. However, this ambiguity belies the wealth of insights that have recently been gained through the use of eosinophil-deficient/attenuated strains of mice that have demonstrated novel immunoregulatory and remodelling/repair functions for these cells in the lung following allergen provocation. Specifically, studies of eosinophil-deficient mice suggest that eosinophils contribute to events occurring in the lungs following allergen provocation at several key moments: (i) the initiating phase of events leading to Th2-polarized pulmonary inflammation, (ii) the suppression Th1/Th17 pathways in lung-draining lymph nodes, (iii) the recruitment of effector Th2 T cells to the lung, and finally, (iv) mechanisms of inflammatory resolution that re-establish pulmonary homoeostasis. These suggested functions have recently been confirmed and expanded upon using allergen provocation of an inducible eosinophil-deficient strain of mice (iPHIL) that demonstrated an eosinophil-dependent mechanism(s) leading to Th2 dominated immune responses in the presence of eosinophils in contrast to neutrophilic as well as mixed Th1/Th17/Th2 variant phenotypes in the absence of eosinophils. These findings highlighted that eosinophils are not exclusively downstream mediators controlled by T cells, dendritic cells (DC) and/or innate lymphocytic cells (ILC2). Instead, eosinophils appear to be more aptly described as significant contributors in complex interrelated pathways that lead to pulmonary inflammation and subsequently promote resolution and the re-establishment of homoeostatic baseline. In this review, we summarize and put into the context the evolving hypotheses that are now expanding our understanding of the roles eosinophils likely have in the lung following allergen provocation. PMID:24961290

Jacobsen, E A; Lee, N A; Lee, J J

2014-09-01

287

The inflammatory response of eosinophil-related fungal rhinosinusitis varies with inciting fungi.  

PubMed

Earlier studies demonstrated immunological response to Alternaria alternata in patients with eosinophil-related fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS). However, Aspergillus flavus rather than A. alternata is predominantly isolated from such patients in Asia. We compared immunological response to A. flavus and A. alternata in our patients with eosinophil related FRS. Total immunoglobulin E, absolute eosinophil count (AEC), cytokine response, and in vitro eosinophil degranulation in the presence of A. flavus/A. alternata were compared among patients with eosinophil-related FRS, non-eosinophilic rhinosinusitis (NECRS), and healthy individuals. Eosinophil-related FRS patients were subgrouped into: Group A - presence of mucin with fungus in tissues and positive immediate hypersensitivity; group B - presence of mucin with fungus in biopsies and no immediate hypersensitivity; and group C - presence of mucin without fungi and hypersensitivity. A. flavus was the predominant (89%) isolate. Significantly higher major basic protein (MBP) was induced by A. flavus in Group A (279.15 ± 32.29 ng/2.5 × 10(5) cells) compared to Group B (254.9 ± 17.14 ng), Group C (238.33 ± 17.56 ng), NECRS (56.96 ± 10.97 ng), and normal subjects (28.73 ± 7.04 ng). A. alternata - eosinophil interaction failed to induce detectable MBP. AEC and serum cytokines, interleukin (IL)- 2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor ?, and interferon-? were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in eosinophil-related FRS compared to NECRS and control. Thus a mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response was observed in eosinophil-related FRS. In conclusion, immune response in eosinophil-related FRS depends on locally inciting fungi rather than A. alternata in all instances, and the categorization of this group appears to be arbitrary. PMID:25724204

Kale, Pratibha; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Panda, Naresh K; Das, Ashim; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

2015-05-01

288

Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia by Risk Group  

MedlinePLUS

... lymphocytic leukemia treated? Chemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Monoclonal antibodies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Targeted therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Surgery for chronic lymphocytic ...

289

Eosinophil cationic protein--current concepts and controversies.  

PubMed

Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a heterogeneous molecule originating from activated eosinophil granulocytes. Biological activity and the cellular content of ECP are determined by genetic and posttranslational factors. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human ECP gene (RNASE3) have been described so far. ECP is a mediator in host immune response to parasites, bacteria and viruses. By its cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic activity, ECP may also cause side-effects in the host's own tissues. The largest number of clinical studies is focused on the role of ECP in eosinophil-related disorders, particularly in asthma. Although present in numerous body fluids, difficult bioavailability of biological material, invasive sampling methods and complex sample management prior to ECP level determination are the reasons that serum is most commonly used in routine laboratory practice. As numerous biological and methodological preanalytical factors (the type of collection test-tube, temperature and duration of blood clotting, centrifugation, hemolysis) may affect test result, the sample for serum ECP determination should be collected under standardized conditions. Regarding interpretation of results, it is necessary, along with absolute ECP concentration values, to monitor changes in ECP concentration during the duration of disease or after implemented therapy, and interpret ECP test result in combination with other laboratory and clinical findings. Rational approach to selection of new tests is indeed one of important requirements that medical workers meet today. To enable them to determine the clinical significance of ECP with better certainty, further studies on a large number of specific patient groups are needed. PMID:22135850

Topic, Renata Zrinski; Dodig, Slavica

2011-01-01

290

Myopathy and eosinophilic pneumonia coincidentally induced by treatment with daptomycin.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old man with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome) concurrently suffered from myopathy and eosinophilic pneumonia shortly after receiving daptomycin (DAP) for right-sided infective endocarditis. The simultaneous occurrence of these phenomena in relation to DAP therapy has not been previously well described. An allergic reaction was suspected as a possible etiology of these DAP-related complications. This case highlights the need for close observation in order to detect both musculoskeletal and respiratory disorders from the start of DAP therapy. Physicians should pay more attention to this new drug, which is expected to be frequently used in various clinical settings. PMID:25758082

Hagiya, Hideharu; Hasegawa, Kou; Asano, Kikuko; Terasaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Kosuke; Nada, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eri; Waseda, Koichi; Hanayama, Yoshihisa; Otsuka, Fumio

2015-01-01

291

Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis and Diffuse Gastrointestinal Involvement  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly named Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare systemic small- and medium-sized-vessel vasculitis, characterized by the presence of severe asthma as well as blood and tissue eosinophilia. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, like diarrhea and abdominal pain, are common; however, there are few reports of histologic evidence of GI involvement. We report the case of a patient on treatment for EGPA who presented with recurrent small bowel obstruction and choledocholithiasis. Biopsies of the esophagus, small bowel and common bile duct showed diffuse eosinophilia, with clear EGPA in the GI tract. Improved awareness of GI EGPA may allow for timely management of this disorder. PMID:25473392

Franco, Diana L.; Ruff, Kevin; Mertz, Lester; Lam-Himlin, Dora M.; Heigh, Russell

2014-01-01

292

Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells’ syndrome) caused by a temporary henna tattoo  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells’ syndrome) is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology. Wells’ syndrome is usually seen in adulthood but very rare in childhood. Although pathogenesis of the disease is not very clear, it is a hypersensitivity reaction developing against a variety of exogenous and endogenous antigenic stimuli. Paraphenylenediamine is a strong allergen frequently used as a temporary henna tattoo, which makes the color darker. Here, a 9-year-old male patient with Wells’ syndrome is presented, which developed following a temporary henna tattoo and shown by the patch test sensitivity to paraphenylenediamine. PMID:25395929

Celegen, Mehmet; Kark?ner, Canan Sule Unsal; Günay, Ilker; Diniz, Güllden; Can, Demet

2014-01-01

293

Invariant Natural Killer T cells in children with Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an atopic disease characterized by eosinophilic inflammation in which dietary antigens (in particular, milk) play a major role. EoE is most likely a mixed IgE and non-IgE food-mediated reaction in which over-expression of Th2 cytokines, particularly IL-13, play a major role; however, the cells responsible for IL-13 over-expression remain elusive. Th2-cytokines are secreted following the ligation of invariant natural killer T cell receptors to sphingolipids (SL). Sphingolipids (SL) are presented via the CD1d molecule on the INKT cell surface. Cow’s milk-derived SL has been shown to activate iNKTs from children with IgE-mediated food allergies to milk (FA-MA) to produce Th2 cytokines. The role of iNKTs and milk-SL in EoE pathogenesis is currently unknown. Objective To investigate the role of iNKTs and milk-SL in EoE. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 children with active EoE (EoE-A), 10 children with controlled EoE (EoE-C), and 16 healthy controls (Non-EoE) were measured ex-vivo and then incubated with ?-galactosylceramide (?Gal) and milk-SL. INKTs from peripheral blood (PB) and esophageal biopsies were studied. Results EoE-A-children had significantly fewer peripheral blood iNKTs with a greater Th2-response to ?Gal and milk-SM compared to iNKTs of EoE-C and Non-EoE children. Additionally, EoE-A children had increased iNKT levels in esophageal biopsies compared to EoE-C children. Conclusion Milk-SLs are able to activate peripheral blood iNKTs in EoE-A children to produce Th2 cytokines. Additionally, iNKT levels are higher at the site of active esophageal eosinophilic inflammation. Clinical Relevance This study suggests that sphingolipids (SL) contained in milk may drive the development of EoE by promoting an iNKT cell-mediated Th2-type cytokine response that facilitates eosinophil-mediated allergic inflammation. PMID:24118614

Jyonouchi, Soma; Smith, Cara Lea; Saretta, Francesca; Abraham, Valsamma; Ruymann, Kathryn R; Modayur-Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna; Wang, Mei-Lun; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Cianferoni, Antonella

2013-01-01

294

Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome) caused by a temporary henna tattoo.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome) is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology. Wells' syndrome is usually seen in adulthood but very rare in childhood. Although pathogenesis of the disease is not very clear, it is a hypersensitivity reaction developing against a variety of exogenous and endogenous antigenic stimuli. Paraphenylenediamine is a strong allergen frequently used as a temporary henna tattoo, which makes the color darker. Here, a 9-year-old male patient with Wells' syndrome is presented, which developed following a temporary henna tattoo and shown by the patch test sensitivity to paraphenylenediamine. PMID:25395929

Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Celegen, Mehmet; Kark?ner, Canan Sule Unsal; Günay, Ilker; Diniz, Güllden; Can, Demet

2014-10-01

295

Qualitative and quantitative studies of eosinophils in parasitic infections.  

PubMed

Th2 responses such as peripheral and tissue eosinophilia are characteristic features in the host animals infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis and Trichinella spiralis. Th2 responses are characterized by a specific profile of cytokines and chemokines induced during the course of infection. In this chapter, we describe the methodology that is utilized in our laboratories to study the production of cytokine, chemokine, and antibodies related to the eosinophilia seen in mice infected with the parasites. Furthermore, protocols are described for the different methods used to study eosinophil functions in the blood and tissues of these experimental models of parasitic infections. PMID:24986619

Korenaga, Masataka; Bruschi, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

296

Successful Treatment of Steroid-Dependent Eosinophilic Cellulitis With Cyclosporine  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic cellulitis (EC) is a rare idiopathic disorder, first described as a "recurrent granulomatous dermatitis with eosinophilia", that mimics cellulitis of infectious origin. We describe here a previously healthy 11-year-old girl who experienced fever and tender erythematous patch lesions after trauma to her knees. Because of the relapsing cellulitis-like skin lesions, skin biopsies were taken, resulting in a diagnosis of EC. The patient responded well to oral prednisolone but experienced side effects and relapse during dose tapering. She was switched from prednisolone to cyclosporine. Her EC remained under control, and she showed no evidence of relapse after discontinuation of cyclosporine. PMID:23277881

Kim, Su Hee; Kwon, Ji Eun

2013-01-01

297

White specks in the esophageal mucosa: an endoscopic manifestation of non-reflux eosinophilic esophagitis in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWhite specks in the esophageal mucosa have been observed in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between white specks in the esophageal mucosa and allergic (non-reflux) eosinophilic esophagitis.

Joel R Lim; Sandeep K Gupta; Joseph M Croffie; Marian D Pfefferkorn; Jean P Molleston; Mark R Corkins; Mary M Davis; Philip P Faught; Steven J Steiner; Joseph F Fitzgerald

2004-01-01

298

Anticipation in familial leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Anticipation refers to worsening severity or earlier age at onset with each generation for an inherited disease and primarily has been described for neurodegenerative illnesses resulting from expansion of trinucleotide repeats. We have tested for evidence of anticipation in familial leukemia. Of 49 affected individuals in nine families transmitting autosomal dominant acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the mean age at onset is 57 years in the grandparental generation, 32 years in the parental generation, and 13 years in the youngest generation (P < .001). Of 21 parent-child pairs with AML, 19 show younger ages at onset in the child and demonstrate a mean decline in age at onset of 28 years (P < .001). Of 18 affected individuals from seven pedigrees with autosomal dominant chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the mean age at onset in the parental generation is 66 years versus 51 years in the youngest generation (P = .008). Of nine parent-child pairs with CLL, eight show younger ages at onset in the child and reveal a mean decline in age at onset of 21 years (P = .001). Inspection of rare pedigrees transmitting acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple types of leukemia, and lymphoma is also compatible with anticipation. Sampling bias is unlikely to explain these findings. This suggests that dynamic mutation of unstable DNA sequence repeats could be a common mechanism of inherited hematopoietic malignancy with implications for the role of somatic mutation in the more frequent sporadic cases. We speculate on three possible candidate genes for familial leukemia with anticipation: a locus on 21q22.1-22.2, CBL2 on 11q23.3, and CBFB or a nearby gene on 16q22. 55 refs., 4 figs.

Horwitz, M.; Jarvik, G.P.; Goode, E.L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-11-01

299

Eosinophils Increase Neuron Branching in Human and Murine Skin and In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutaneous nerves are increased in atopic dermatitis, and itch is a prominent symptom. We studied the functional interactions between eosinophils and nerves in human and mouse skin and in culture. We demonstrated that human atopic dermatitis skin has eosinophil granule proteins present in the same region as increased nerves. Transgenic mice in which interleukin-5 (IL-5) expression is driven by a

Erin L. Foster; Eric L. Simpson; Lorna J. Fredrikson; James J. Lee; Nancy A. Lee; Allison D. Fryer; David B. Jacoby

2011-01-01

300

The use of skin prick tests and patch tests to identify causative foods in eosinophilic esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis is a disease entity in which patients have (1) elevated eosinophils on esophageal biopsy and (2) symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. The symptoms do not improve on aggressive acid blockade but do improve on elimination diet or corticosteroid treatment, which tentatively links food allergies to this disorder. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify potential food

Jonathan M. Spergel; Janet L. Beausoleil; Maria Mascarenhas; Chris A. Liacouras

2002-01-01

301

Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis is associated with a T H2-type allergic inflammatory response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis (IEE) is a chronic-inflammatory disorder of the esophagus of unknown origin. The established cornerstone of diagnosis is a dense infiltration of the esophagus with eosinophils, but neither the precise pattern of inflammatory cell infiltration nor the mechanisms that likely contribute to induction and maintenance of the inflammatory response have been described. Objective: The intention of this

Alex Straumann; Madeleine Bauer; Barbra Fischer; Kurt Blaser; Hans-Uwe Simon

2001-01-01

302

Fragility of the esophageal mucosa: A pathognomonic endoscopic sign of primary eosinophilic esophagitis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Primary eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus, evokes recurrent dysphagia. Endoscopy is often unremarkable, and no consensus exists regarding management of resultant dysphagia. The response of a series of patients with primary eosinophilic esophagitis to dilation is reported together with a description of a possibly pathognomonic sign: fragile esophageal mucosa, for which the term “crêpe-paper” mucosa

Alex Straumann; Livio Rossi; Hans-Uwe Simon; Pius Heer; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Christoph Beglinger

2003-01-01

303

Eosinophilic airway inflammation and exacerbations of COPD: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that eosinophilic airway inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. The present authors tested the hypothesis that a management strategy that aims to reduce sputum eosinophil counts is associated with a reduction in exacerbations of COPD. A total of 82 patients with COPD were randomised into two groups. One group was

R. Siva; R. H. Green; C. E. Brightling; M. Shelley; B. Hargadon; S. McKenna; W. Monteiro; M. Berry; D. Parker; A. J. Wardlaw; I. D. Pavord

2007-01-01

304

Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Modulates Airway Eosinophil Adhesion in Asthma  

E-print Network

Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Modulates Airway Eosinophil Adhesion in Asthma Anne M. Brooks during asthma exacerbations. While the mechanism(s) of this process is not known, the expressionPA, enhance eosinophil adhesion in patients with asthma. Patients with allergic asthma underwent segmental

Bertics, Paul J.

305

Correlation between exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils, and methacholine responsiveness in patients with mild asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eosinophils in induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are currently used as non-invasive markers in the assessment of airway inflammation in asthma. As both sputum eosinophils (%) and exhaled NO are raised in asthmatic subjects not receiving inhaled steroids and decreased following corticosteroid therapy, a relationship between them is plausible. METHODS: Exhaled NO was measured by chemiluminescence analyser,

A. Jatakanon; S. Lim; S. A. Kharitonov; K. F. Chung; P. J. Barnes

1998-01-01

306

Functional Analysis of Free Fatty Acid Receptor GPR120 in Human Eosinophils: Implications in Metabolic Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence has shown that eosinophils play an important role in metabolic homeostasis through Th2 cytokine production. GPR120 (FFA4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for long-chain fatty acids that functions as a regulator of physiological energy metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether human eosinophils express GPR120 and, if present, whether it possesses a functional capacity on eosinophils. Eosinophils isolated from peripheral venous blood expressed GPR120 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation with a synthetic GPR120 agonist, GW9508, induced rapid down-regulation of cell surface expression of GPR120, suggesting ligand-dependent receptor internalization. Although GPR120 activation did not induce eosinophil chemotactic response and degranulation, we found that GW9508 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and Fas receptor expression. The anti-apoptotic effect was attenuated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and was associated with inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Eosinophil response investigated using ELISpot assay indicated that stimulation with a GPR120 agonist induced IL-4 secretion. These findings demonstrate the novel functional properties of fatty acid sensor GPR120 on human eosinophils and indicate the previously unrecognized link between nutrient metabolism and the immune system. PMID:25790291

Konno, Yasunori; Ueki, Shigeharu; Takeda, Masahide; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Tamaki, Mami; Moritoki, Yuki; Oyamada, Hajime; Itoga, Masamichi; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Omokawa, Ayumi; Hirokawa, Makoto

2015-01-01

307

Monoclonal antibodies distinguish between storage and secreted forms of eosinophil cationic protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic effects of eosinophils on parasites1 and cells2 are due largely to the secretion of various granule proteins, following stimulation3. In order to study this secretory process (degranulation) further, we have raised mouse monoclonal antibodies against both human eosinophil granule extracts and secretion products. From immunocytochemical studies it appears that one antibody, EG1, recognized both the storage and secreted

Po-Chun Tai; Christopher J. F. Spry; Christer Peterson; Per Venge; Inge Olsson

1984-01-01

308

Expression of and functional responses to protease-activated receptors on human eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophil recruitment to airway tissue is a key feature of asthma, and release of a wide variety of toxic mediators from eosinophils leads to the tissue damage that is a hallmark of asthma pathology. Factors that control the release of these toxic mediators are targets for potential therapeu- tic intervention. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a novel class of receptors that

Sarah J. Bolton; Clare A. McNulty; Rebecca J. Thomas; Colin R. A. Hewitt; Andrew J. Wardlaw

2003-01-01

309

Malignant lymphoma presenting with a high eosinophilia, eosinophilic pleurisy, and pericarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of malignant lymphoma with an unusually high eosinophilia are reported. The first patient presented with eosinophilic pleural effusion, developed eosinophilic pericarditis and tamponade, and was found at thoracotomy to have lymphosarcoma. The occurrence in malignant lymphoma of these uncommon features is briefly reviewed. The development of a pleurobronchial fistula is also described as an alarming complication of pleural

A. H. Henderson; G. Mejia

1969-01-01

310

Gastrointestinal, Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Pathology CD34 Is Required for Infiltration of Eosinophils  

E-print Network

of Eosinophils into the Colon and Pathology Associated with DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis Steven Maltby, Carolin bowel diseases, including ulcer- ative colitis. We recently demonstrated that eosinophil migration on disease development in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced model of ulcerative colitis. Our findings

Strynadka, Natalie

311

ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA FALLON, NEVADA  

E-print Network

1 ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA FALLON, NEVADA REVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE EXPERT PANEL the state health department's investigation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases that had been of a hazardous chemical contaminant. However, the absence of cases of acute myeloid leukemia, the type

312

Obatoclax, Fludarabine, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

2013-09-27

313

The lactoferrin receptor may mediate the reduction of eosinophils in the duodenum of pigs consuming milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin is part of the immune system and multiple tissues including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, and lung contain receptors for lactoferrin. Lactoferrin has many functions, including antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and iron binding. Additionally, lactoferrin inhibits the migration of eosinophils, which are constitutively present in the GI tract, and increase during inflammation. Lactoferrin suppresses eosinophil infiltration into the lungs and eosinophil migration in -vitro. Healthy pigs have a large population of eosinophils in their small intestine and like humans, pigs have small intestinal lactoferrin receptors (LFR); thus, pigs were chosen to investigate the effects of consumption of milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF-milk) on small intestinal eosinophils and expression of eosinophilic cytokines. In addition, LFR localization was analyzed in duodenum and circulating eosinophils to determine if the LFR could play a role in lactoferrin's ability to inhibit eosinophil migration. In the duodenum there were significantly fewer eosinophils/unit area in pigs fed rhLF-milk compared to pigs fed control milk (p = 0.025); this was not seen in the ileum (p = 0.669). In the duodenum, no differences were observed in expression of the LFR, or any eosinophil migratory cytokines, and the amount of LFR protein was not different (p = 0.386). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that within the duodenum the LFR localized on the brush border of villi, crypts, and within the lamina propria. Circulating eosinophils also contained LFRs, which may be a mechanism allowing lactoferrin to directly inhibit eosinophil migration. PMID:25085595

Cooper, Caitlin; Nonnecke, Eric; Lönnerdal, Bo; Murray, James

2014-10-01

314

IL-5 in post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusion.  

PubMed Central

Thoracic trauma or pneumothorax can result in pleural fluid eosinophilia. In this study we investigated the role of the eosinophilopoietic cytokine IL-5 in three cases of post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusions (EPE). Using a specific immunoenzymatic assay, significant levels of IL-5 were found in EPE (range 100-3000 pg/ml), while IL-5 was undetectable (< 25 pg/ml) in corresponding serum samples and in non-eosinophilic pleural fluids. IL-5 present in pleural fluids was found bioactive in a proliferative assay using a mouse CTLL-2 cell line transfected with the cDNA corresponding to the alpha chain of the human IL-5 receptor. Using a reverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, we found IL-5 mRNA expression within pleural mononuclear cells from patients with EPE, but not in corresponding peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), confirming that IL-5 is synthesized locally in the pleural cavity. In the two cases in which pleural CD4+ cells were purified, these cells were identified as the major source of IL-5. Taken together, these data indicate that the development of post-traumatic EPE is related to a local secretion of IL-5 by CD4+ cells present in the pleural cavity. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8100745

Schandené, L; Namias, B; Crusiaux, A; Lybin, M; Devos, R; Velu, T; Capel, P; Bellens, R; Goldman, M

1993-01-01

315

Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24920928

Wechsler, Joshua B; Schwartz, Sally; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F

2014-01-01

316

Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24920928

Wechsler, Joshua B; Schwartz, Sally; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F

2014-01-01

317

Usefulness of induced sputum eosinophil count to assess severity and treatment outcome in asthma patients  

PubMed Central

Context: Currently treatment decisions in asthma are governed by clinical assessment and spirometry. Sputum eosinophil, being a marker of airway inflammation, can serve as a tool for assessing severity and response to treatment in asthma patients. Aims: To establish correlation between change in sputum eosinophil count and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)% predicted value of asthma patients in response to treatment. In this study, we also predicted prognosis and treatment outcome of asthma patients from baseline sputum eosinophil count. Settings and Design: A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the treatment outcome among newly diagnosed asthma patients who were classified into A (n = 80) and B (n = 80) groups on the basis of initial sputum eosinophil count (A ? 3% and B < 3%). Materials and Methods: After starting treatment according to Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline, both A and B groups were evaluated every 15 days interval for the 1st month and monthly thereafter for a total duration of 12 months. In each follow-up visit detailed history, induced sputum eosinophil count and spirometry were done to evaluate severity and treatment outcome. Results: FEV1% predicted of group A asthma patients gradually increased and sputum eosinophil count gradually decreased on treatment. Longer time was required to achieve satisfactory improvement (FEV1% predicted) in asthma patients with sputum eosinophil count ?3%. There was statistically significant negative correlation between FEV1% predicted and sputum eosinophil count (%) in of group A patients in each follow-up visit, with most significant negative correlation found in 8th visit (r = ?0.9237 and P = < 0.001). Change in mean FEV1% (predicted) from baseline showed strong positive correlation (r = 0.976) with change in reduction of mean sputum eosinophil count at each follow-up visits in group A patients. Conclusions: Sputum eosinophil count, being an excellent biomarker of airway inflammation, can serve as a useful marker to assess disease severity, treatment outcome, and prognosis in asthma patients. PMID:23741092

Bandyopadhyay, Ankan; Roy, Partha P.; Saha, Kaushik; Chakraborty, Semanti; Jash, Debraj; Saha, Debabrata

2013-01-01

318

Comparison of proton channel, phagocyte oxidase, and respiratory burst levels between human eosinophil and neutrophil granulocytes.  

PubMed

Robust production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by phagocyte NADPH oxidase (phox) during the respiratory burst (RB) is a characteristic feature of eosinophil and neutrophil granulocytes. In these cells the voltage-gated proton channel (Hv1) is now considered as an ancillary subunit of the phox needed for intense ROS production. Multiple sources reported that the expression of phox subunits and RB is more intensive in eosinophils than in neutrophils. In most of these studies the eosinophils were not isolated from healthy individuals, and a comparative analysis of Hv1 expression had never been carried out. We performed a systematic comparison of the levels of essential phox subunits, Hv1 expression and ROS producing capacity between eosinophils and neutrophils of healthy individuals. The expression of phox components was similar, whereas the amount of Hv1 was ? 10-fold greater in eosinophils. Furthermore, Hv1 expression correlated with Nox2 expression only in eosinophils. Additionally, in confocal microscopy experiments co-accumulation of Hv1 and Nox2 at the cell periphery was observed in resting eosinophils but not in neutrophils. While phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced peak extracellular ROS release was ? 1.7-fold greater in eosinophils, oxygen consumption studies indicated that the maximal intensity of the RB is only ? 1.4-fold greater in eosinophils. Our data reinforce that eosinophils, unlike neutrophils, generate ROS predominantly extracellularly. In contrast to previous works we have found that the two granulocyte types display very similar phox subunit expression and RB capacity. The large difference in Hv1 expression suggests that its support to intense ROS production is more important at the cell surface. PMID:24985354

Kovács, I; Horváth, M; Kovács, T; Somogyi, K; Tretter, L; Geiszt, M; Pethe?, G L

2014-10-01

319

Treatment Options for Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, and Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

Treatment Options for Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia, and Myelodysplastic Syndromes Newly Diagnosed Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood acute ...

320

Identification of a lymphokine that stimulates eosinophil differentiation in vitro. Its relationship to interleukin 3, and functional properties of eosinophils produced in cultures  

PubMed Central

Factors stimulating eosinophil differentiation in vitro have been studied by means of a liquid bone marrow culture system in which the number of eosinophils is estimated directly by morphology or indirectly by assay for eosinophil peroxidase. The results show that eosinophil colonies are not formed in agar, emphasizing the importance of the liquid culture system. Three types of evidence identify a novel lymphokine, eosinophil-differentiating factor (EDF). (a) Coordinate analysis of lymphokine activity in media conditioned by a panel of parasite antigen and another panel of alloantigen-reactive T cell clones indicates that EDF is distinct from interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-3, and bone marrow proliferation activity (BMPA). (b) A T hybrid (NIMP- TH1) produces EDF but no IL-2, IL-3, interferon, or colony-stimulating factor. (c) Gel filtration of conditioned media (CM) indicates that NIMP-TH1 and a T clone (NIMP-T2) produce EDF (Mr 46,000). NIMP-T2 also produced IL-3 (Mr 26,000) but this was easily separated from EDF. IL-3 is also shown to have eosinophil differentiation activity (EDA) but this represents a very small proportion of the EDA in T2-CM. Fractionation of WEHI-3-CM indicates that EDA from this source has a similar elution profile to IL-3 (Mr 35-36,000). Furthermore, a comparison of the relative activities in purified IL-3 and WEHI-3-CM indicates that all the EDA can be attributed to the IL-3 in the latter. EDF is shown to stimulate production of eosinophils in long-term bone marrow cultures; the kinetics of eosinophil production suggests that EDF is acting on committed precursors in the bone marrow. The transient nature of eosinophil production suggests that precursors from multipotential stem cells are not produced. The eosinophils produced in these cultures are morphologically normal and functional in that they lysed sheep red blood cells coated with IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b, but not with IgM, IgA, or IgE. In addition, they were capable of adhering to and killing Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula. PMID:3925072

1985-01-01

321

Voltage-activated proton current in eosinophils from human blood.  

PubMed Central

1. The resting membrane potential of freshly purified normodense human eosinophils bathed in and dialysed with quasi-physiological solutions was -63 +/- 2 mV (n = 100). 2. In voltage-clamp mode with quasi-physiological internal and external solutions, voltage steps from the holding potential of -60 mV to levels positive to +20 mV resulted in development of a quasi-instantaneous outward current and a slowly developing outward current. The instantaneous current was absent when the cells were bathed in and dialysed with K(+)-free solution. 3. The slow outward current persisted following simultaneous replacement of K+, Na+ and most of the Cl- with largely impermeant ions (tetraethylammonium, N-methyl-D-glucamine and methanesulphonate) and was augmented when the cell was dialysed with a solution of increased buffering capacity for protons. The observed reversal potential of the current closely followed the hydrogen equilibrium potential over a wide range of internal-external pH combinations, indicating that the conductance underlying the slow outward current was highly selective for H+ ions. 4. Acidification of the pipette solution (increasing [H+]i) augmented the outward H+ current and shifted its activation range negatively, whilst acidification of the external solution had the opposite effect. The voltage dependence of the current is modulated by the transmembrane pH gradient so the only outward current could be activated. However, when the outward current was activated by a voltage step, rapid acidification of external solution produced an inward H+ current which rapidly deactivated. 5. The proton current was reversibly inhibited in a voltage-dependent manner by extracellular application of Zn2+. The apparent dissociation constants were 8 nM (at +40 mV), 36 nM (at +70 mV) and 200 nM (at +100 mV). 6. The proton current was augmented by exposure to 10 microM arachidonic acid. This augmentation consisted of a shift of the voltage dependence of activation to more negative potentials and enhancement of maximum conductance (gH,max). The proton current recorded in eosinophils was significantly augmented under conditions of elevated cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). The threshold level of [Ca2+]i associated with this effect lay between 0.1 and 1 microM and was not measurably affected by cytosolic acidification. 7. Eosinophils from human blood possess a voltage-dependent H+ conductance (gH) which normally allows protons to move outwards only; raising [Ca2+]i was associated with augmentation of gH and intracellular acidification or arachidonate shifted its activation range negatively towards physiological potentials. PMID:8910217

Gordienko, D V; Tare, M; Parveen, S; Fenech, C J; Robinson, C; Bolton, T B

1996-01-01

322

Leukemia diagnostics with ow G. Ciuperca1  

E-print Network

Leukemia diagnostics with ow cytometry G. Ciuperca1 , M. Mafouz1 , C. Dumontet2 , V. Louvet1 , A'exposé Hematopoiesis and leukemias Flow cytometry Leukemias classication and Medical diagnosis Mathematical Models for diagnosis and classication of acute myeloid leukemia #12;Leukemia diagnostics with ow cytometry G. Ciuperca

Louvet, Violaine

323

The expanding role(s) of eosinophils in health and disease  

PubMed Central

Surprisingly, the role(s) of eosinophils in health and disease is often summarized by clinicians and basic research scientists as a pervasive consensus opinion first learned in medical/graduate school. Eosinophils are rare white blood cells whose activities are primarily destructive and are only relevant in parasitic infections and asthma. However, is this consensus correct? This review argues that the wealth of available studies investigating the role(s) of eosinophils in both health and disease demonstrates that the activities of these granulocytes are far more expansive and complex than previously appreciated. In turn, this greater understanding has led to the realization that eosinophils have significant contributory roles in a wide range of diseases. Furthermore, published studies even implicate eosinophil-mediated activities in otherwise healthy persons. We suggest that the collective reports in the literature showing a role for eosinophils in an ever-increasing number of novel settings highlight the true complexity and importance of this granulocyte. Indeed, discussions of eosinophils are no longer simple and more often than not now begin with the question/statement “Did you know …?” PMID:22936660

Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Helmers, Richard A.

2012-01-01

324

Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling 3 Expression in Eosinophils: Regulation by PGE2 and Th2 Cytokines  

PubMed Central

Asthma and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) are respiratory disorders characterized by a predominance of Th2 cells and eosinophilic inflammation. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play an important role in Th2-mediated allergic responses through control of the balance between Th1 and Th2 cells, particularly, SOCS3 and SOCS5. The aim of this study was to analyze SOCS expression in human peripheral blood eosinophils from patients with asthma, NAEB and healthy controls. SOCS expression in eosinophils from subjects was demonstrated by different techniques. Results showed that expression of SOCS3 in eosinophils and CD4 T cells from patients was higher than in healthy subjects. In addition, we demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and Th2 cytokines are able to upregulate SOCS3 production in eosinophils and attenuate its degranulation. In conclusion, eosinophils are able to transcribe and translate SOCS3 protein and can contribute to the regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance through SOCS3 production. PMID:21765854

López, Esther; Zafra, María Paz; Sastre, Beatriz; Gámez, Cristina; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Sastre, Joaquín; Lahoz, Carlos; Quirce, Santiago; Del Pozo, Victoria

2011-01-01

325

Pathogenesis and classification of eosinophil disorders: a review of recent developments in the field.  

PubMed

Eosinophils and their products play an essential role in the pathogenesis of various reactive and neoplastic disorders. Depending on the underlying disease, molecular defect and involved cytokines, hypereosinophilia may develop and may lead to organ damage. In other patients, persistent eosinophilia is accompanied by typical clinical findings, but the causative role and impact of eosinophilia remain uncertain. For patients with eosinophil-mediated organ pathology, early therapeutic intervention with agents reducing eosinophil counts can be effective in limiting or preventing irreversible organ damage. Therefore, it is important to approach eosinophil disorders and related syndromes early by using established criteria, to perform all appropriate staging investigations, and to search for molecular targets of therapy. In this article, we review current concepts in the pathogenesis and evolution of eosinophilia and eosinophil-related organ damage in neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. In addition, we discuss classifications of eosinophil disorders and related syndromes as well as diagnostic algorithms and standard treatment for various eosinophil-related disorders. PMID:22475285

Valent, Peter; Gleich, Gerald J; Reiter, Andreas; Roufosse, Florence; Weller, Peter F; Hellmann, Andrzej; Metzgeroth, Georgia; Leiferman, Kristin M; Arock, Michel; Sotlar, Karl; Butterfield, Joseph H; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Mayerhofer, Matthias; Vandenberghe, Peter; Haferlach, Torsten; Bochner, Bruce S; Gotlib, Jason; Horny, Hans-Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Klion, Amy D

2012-04-01

326

Dusp5 negatively regulates IL-33-mediated eosinophil survival and function.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation controls diverse cellular functions including cellular survival, proliferation, and apoptosis. Tuning of MAPK activation is counter-regulated by a family of dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs). IL-33 is a recently described cytokine that initiates Th2 immune responses through binding to a heterodimeric IL-33R? (ST2L)/IL-1? accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) receptor that coordinates activation of ERK and NF-?B pathways. We demonstrate here that DUSP5 is expressed in eosinophils, is upregulated following IL-33 stimulation and regulates IL-33 signaling. Dusp5(-/-) mice have prolonged eosinophil survival and enhanced eosinophil effector functions following infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. IL-33-activated Dusp5(-/-) eosinophils exhibit increased cellular ERK1/2 activation and BCL-XL expression that results in enhanced eosinophil survival. In addition, Dusp5(-/-) eosinophils demonstrate enhanced IL-33-mediated activation and effector functions. Together, these data support a role for DUSP5 as a novel negative regulator of IL-33-dependent eosinophil function and survival. PMID:25398911

Holmes, Derek A; Yeh, Jung-Hua; Yan, Donghong; Xu, Min; Chan, Andrew C

2015-01-13

327

Pathogenesis and classification of eosinophil disorders: a review of recent developments in the field  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils and their products play an essential role in the pathogenesis of various reactive and neoplastic disorders. Depending on the underlying disease, molecular defect and involved cytokines, hypereosinophilia may develop and may lead to organ damage. In other patients, persistent eosinophilia is accompanied by typical clinical findings, but the causative role and impact of eosinophilia remain uncertain. For patients with eosinophil-mediated organ pathology, early therapeutic intervention with agents reducing eosinophil counts can be effective in limiting or preventing irreversible organ damage. Therefore, it is important to approach eosinophil disorders and related syndromes early by using established criteria, to perform all appropriate staging investigations, and to search for molecular targets of therapy. In this article, we review current concepts in the pathogenesis and evolution of eosinophilia and eosinophil-related organ damage in neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. In addition, we discuss classifications of eosinophil disorders and related syndromes as well as diagnostic algorithms and standard treatment for various eosinophil-related disorders. PMID:22475285

Valent, Peter; Gleich, Gerald J; Reiter, Andreas; Roufosse, Florence; Weller, Peter F; Hellmann, Andrzej; Metzgeroth, Georgia; Leiferman, Kristin M; Arock, Michel; Sotlar, Karl; Butterfield, Joseph H; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Mayerhofer, Matthias; Vandenberghe, Peter; Haferlach, Torsten; Bochner, Bruce S; Gotlib, Jason; Horny, Hans-Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Klion, Amy D

2013-01-01

328

Natural killer cells limit cardiac inflammation and fibrosis by halting eosinophil infiltration.  

PubMed

Myocarditis is a leading cause of sudden cardiac failure in young adults. Natural killer (NK) cells, a subset of the innate lymphoid cell compartment, are protective in viral myocarditis. Herein, we demonstrated that these protective qualities extend to suppressing autoimmune inflammation. Experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) was initiated in BALB/c mice by immunization with myocarditogenic peptide. During EAM, activated cardiac NK cells secreted interferon ?, perforin, and granzyme B, and expressed CD69, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand treatment, and CD27 on their cell surfaces. The depletion of NK cells during EAM with anti-asialo GM1 antibody significantly increased myocarditis severity, and was accompanied by elevated fibrosis and a 10-fold increase in the percentage of cardiac-infiltrating eosinophils. The resultant influx of eosinophils to the heart was directly responsible for the increased disease severity in the absence of NK cells, because treatment with polyclonal antibody asialogangloside GM-1 did not augment myocarditis severity in eosinophil-deficient ?doubleGATA1 mice. We demonstrate that NK cells limit eosinophilic infiltration both indirectly, through altering eosinophil-related chemokine production by cardiac fibroblasts, and directly, by inducing eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. Altogether, we define a new pathway of eosinophilic regulation through interactions with NK cells. PMID:25622543

Ong, SuFey; Ligons, Davinna L; Barin, Jobert G; Wu, Lei; Talor, Monica V; Diny, Nicola; Fontes, Jillian A; Gebremariam, Elizabeth; Kass, David A; Rose, Noel R; ?iháková, Daniela

2015-03-01

329

Novel Basophil- or Eosinophil-Depleted Mouse Models for Functional Analyses of Allergic Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Basophils and eosinophils play important roles in various host defense mechanisms but also act as harmful effectors in allergic disorders. We generated novel basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models by introducing the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor gene under the control of the mouse CD203c and the eosinophil peroxidase promoter, respectively, to study the critical roles of these cells in the immunological response. These mice exhibited selective depletion of the target cells upon DT administration. In the basophil-depletion model, DT administration attenuated a drop in body temperature in IgG-mediated systemic anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner and almost completely abolished the development of ear swelling in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation (IgE-CAI), a typical skin swelling reaction with massive eosinophil infiltration. In contrast, in the eosinophil-depletion model, DT administration ameliorated the ear swelling in IgE-CAI whether DT was administered before, simultaneously, or after, antigen challenge, with significantly lower numbers of eosinophils infiltrating into the swelling site. These results confirm that basophils and eosinophils act as the initiator and the effector, respectively, in IgE-CAI. In addition, antibody array analysis suggested that eotaxin-2 is a principal chemokine that attracts proinflammatory cells, leading to chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, the two mouse models established in this study are potentially useful and powerful tools for studying the in vivo roles of basophils and eosinophils. The combination of basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models provides a new approach to understanding the complicated mechanism of allergic inflammation in conditions such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. PMID:23577180

Matsuoka, Kunie; Shitara, Hiroshi; Taya, Choji; Kohno, Kenji; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Yonekawa, Hiromichi

2013-01-01

330

Histamine induces cytoskeletal changes in human eosinophils via the H(4) receptor.  

PubMed

1. Histamine (0.004-2 microm) induced a concentration-dependent shape change of human eosinophils, but not of neutrophils or basophils, detected as an increase in forward scatter (FSC) in the gated autofluorescence/forward scatter (GAFS) assay. 2. The histamine-induced eosinophil shape change was completely abolished by thioperamide (10 microm), an H3/H4 receptor antagonist, but was not inhibited by pyrilamine or cimetidine (10 microm), H1 and H2 receptor antagonists, respectively. The H4 receptor agonists, clobenpropit and clozapine (0.004-2 microm), which are also H3 receptor antagonists, both induced eosinophil shape change, which was inhibited by thioperamide (10 microm). The H3/H4 receptor agonists, imetit, R-alpha-methyl histamine and N-alpha-methyl histamine (0.004-2 microm) also induced eosinophil shape change. 3. Histamine induced actin polymerisation (0.015-10 microm), intracellular calcium mobilisation (10-100 microm) and a significant upregulation of expression of the cell adhesion molecule CD11b (0.004-10 microm) in eosinophils, all of which were inhibited by thioperamide (10-100 microm). In addition, the H4 receptor agonist/H3 receptor antagonist clozapine (20 microm) stimulated a rise in intracellular calcium in eosinophils. 4. Activation of H4 receptors by histamine (1 microm) primed eosinophils for increased chemotactic responses to eotaxin, but histamine (0.1-10 microm) did not directly induce chemotaxis of eosinophils. 5. Pertussis toxin (1 microg ml-1) inhibited shape change and actin polymerisation responses induced by histamine showing that these effects are mediated by coupling to a Galphai/o G-protein. 6. This study demonstrates that human eosinophils express functional H4 receptors and may provide a novel target for allergic disease therapy. PMID:14530216

Buckland, Karen F; Williams, Timothy J; Conroy, Dolores M

2003-11-01

331

Leukemia in benzene workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the possible association between occupational exposure to benzene and subsequent death from leukemia, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of workers who had been exposed to benzene in the manufacture of rubber hydrochloride at two locations in Ohio. Ascertainment of vital status was accomplished for 98% of the cohort.

Robert A. Rinsky; Ronald J. Young; Alexander B. Smith

1981-01-01

332

Snapshot of Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... leukemia ( T-ALL ), suggesting therapeutic potential in patients. Published January 2014. [ PubMed Abstract ] DNA sequencing of hairy ... MEK1, suggesting potential new treatment strategies targeting MEK1. Published January 2014. [ PubMed Abstract ] A methylation “signature” (chemical ...

333

Leukemia Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The LKSC follows an efficient, cost-effective, science-driven, and transparent process to identify and promote the "Best Science" in clinical research on leukemia and related diseases by addressing the design and prioritization of phase III trials and large phase II studies.

334

Notch signaling in leukemia.  

PubMed

Recent discoveries indicate that gain-of-function mutations in the Notch1 receptor are very common in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma. This review discusses what these mutations have taught us about normal and pathophysiologic Notch1 signaling, and how these insights may lead to new targeted therapies for patients with this aggressive form of cancer. PMID:18039126

Aster, Jon C; Pear, Warren S; Blacklow, Stephen C

2008-01-01

335

Hiccups as a Presenting Symptom of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic esophageal disease increasingly recognized in adults for its gastrointestinal manifestations. This paper discusses a young woman with EoE who presented with persistent hiccups and intermittent dyspepsia. The patient was initially treated with trials of both H2 blocker and proton pump inhibitor. However, her hiccups resolved only after treatment with topical fluticasone. A repeat upper endoscopy while on steroid treatment demonstrated both histologic remission of EoE and resolution of esophageal trachealization. Our patient's clinical course supports an association between hiccups and EoE, suggesting that EoE be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with refractory hiccups. PMID:22740808

Levy, Alexander N.; Rahaman, Soroya M.; Bonis, Peter A.; Javid, Golrokh; Leung, John

2012-01-01

336

Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Due to Rhus Ingestion Presenting with Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Rhus-related illnesses in Korea are mostly caused by ingestion of parts of the Rhus tree. Contact dermatitis occurrence after ingestion of Rhus-related food is very common in Korea. However, Rhus-related gastrointestinal disease is very rare. Herein, we present a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis caused by Rhus ingestion. A 75-year-old woman was admitted with hematemesis and hematochezia after Rhus extract ingestion. Routine laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis without eosinophilia. Endoscopy showed friable and granular mucosal changes with touch bleeding in the second portion of the duodenum. Abdominal computed tomography revealed edematous wall thickening of the duodenum and proximal jejunal loops. Patch testing with Rhus extracts showed a strong positive reaction, suggesting Rhus as the allergen. Her symptoms improved after avoidance of the allergen.

Choi, Wonsuk; Choi, Chan; Cho, Kyuman; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

2015-01-01

337

[Eosinophilic endomyocarditis post partum or pregnancy-related cardiomyopathy].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 28-year old asthmatic female patient, who developed an acute heart failure beginning with diarrhea, fever, and dyspnea 5 weeks after delivery. After improvement of all vital functions and dismissal from hospital care unit a marked blood hypereosinophilia, left ventricular congestive heart failure, pericardium effusion and fever up to 40 degrees C followed. Endomycardial, bone marrow and skeletal muscle biopsies and the pericardial fluid showed a marked eosinophilic infiltration or polymyositis, respectively, which could be treated successfully with steroids and azathioprin. During steroid medication cytomegalovirus-associated myocarditis developed and was diagnosed by in situ hybridization. CMV hyperimmunoglobulin treatment (Cytotect, Biotest) was started (2 ml/kg bw on day 1 and 3, and 1 ml/kg on days 5, 7 and 9), which led to the eradication of the residual infiltrate and CMV-DNA in the myocardium. After discontinuation of all medication, eosinophilia and asthma recurred so that immunosuppressive treatment was continued. PMID:7927130

Gehrke, D; Herzum, M; Schönian, U; Klein, H H; Drude, L; Mennel, H D; Maisch, B

1994-06-01

338

Different Sarcocystis spp. are present in bovine eosinophilic myositis.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that Sarcocystis species are associated with bovine eosinophilic myositis (BEM). To date, parasite identification in this myopathy has been based on morphological techniques. The aim of the present study was to use molecular techniques to identify Sarcocystis species inside lesions of BEM. Histologically, BEM lesions of 97 condemned carcasses were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis species. Intralesional and extralesional cysts were collected using laser capture microdissection and the species was determined with a PCR-based technique based on 18S rDNA. Intralesional sarcocysts or remnants were found in BEM lesions in 28% of the carcasses. The majority (82%) of intralesional Sarcocystis species were found to be S. hominis. However S. cruzi and S. hirsuta were also found, as well as an unidentified species. It can be concluded that Sarcocystis species present in lesions of BEM are not restricted to one species. PMID:23870431

Vangeel, Lieve; Houf, Kurt; Geldhof, Peter; De Preter, Katleen; Vercruysse, Jozef; Ducatelle, Richard; Chiers, Koen

2013-11-01

339

Characterization of eosinophilic esophagitis murine models using optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Pre-clinical studies using murine models are critical for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying immune-mediated disorders such as Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In this study, an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system capable of providing three-dimensional images with axial and transverse resolutions of 5 µm and 10 µm, respectively, was utilized to obtain esophageal images from a murine model of EoE-like disease ex vivo. Structural changes in the esophagus of wild-type (Tslpr+/+) and mutant (Tslpr?/?) mice with EoE-like disease were quantitatively evaluated and food impaction sites in the esophagus of diseased mice were monitored using OCT. Here, the capability of OCT as a label-free imaging tool devoid of tissue-processing artifacts to effectively characterize murine EoE-like disease models has been demonstrated. PMID:24575353

Alex, Aneesh; Noti, Mario; Wojno, Elia D. Tait; Artis, David; Zhou, Chao

2014-01-01

340

-Arrestin2 mediates the initiation and progression of myeloid leukemia  

E-print Network

-Arrestin2 mediates the initiation and progression of myeloid leukemia Mark Fereshteha leukemia (CML). These defects are linked to a re- duced frequency, as well as defective self maintenance. chronic myeloid leukemia | leukemia stem cell | hematopoiesis Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML

341

What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... for chronic myeloid leukemia? Do we know what causes chronic myeloid leukemia? Can chronic myeloid leukemia be prevented? Previous Topic ... myeloid leukemia? Next Topic Do we know what causes chronic myeloid leukemia? What are the risk factors for chronic myeloid ...

342

Mechanical Properties of the Esophagus in Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim This study aimed to analyze the mechanical properties of the esophagus in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) using the functional luminal imaging probe (EndoFLIP®, Crospon Medical Devices, Galway, Ireland). Methods 35 EoE patients (24M, 23-67y) and 15 controls (6M, 21–68y) were included. Subjects were evaluated during endoscopy with the EndoFLIP® probe comprised of a compliant cylindrical bag (maximal diameter 25mm) with 16 impedance planimetry segments. Stepwise bag distensions from 2 to 40mL were conducted and the associated intra-bag pressure and intra-luminal geometry were analyzed. Results The EndoFLIP® clearly displayed the tubular esophageal geometry and detected esophageal narrowing and localized strictures. Stepwise distension progressively opened the esophageal lumen until a distension plateau was reached such that the narrowest cross-sectional area (CSA) of the esophagus maximized despite further increases in intra-bag pressure. The esophageal distensibility (CSA vs. pressure) was reduced in EoE patients (p=0.02) with the distension plateau of EoE patients substantially lower than that of controls (median CSA 267 vs. 438 mm2, p<0.01). Neither mucosal eosinophil count, age, gender, nor current PPI treatment predicted this limiting caliber of the esophagus (p?0.20). Conclusion Esophageal distensibility, defined by the change in the narrowest measurable CSA within the distal esophagus vs. intra-luminal pressure, was significantly reduced in EoE patients compared to controls. Measuring esophageal distensibility may be an important adjunct to the management of EoE as it is capable of providing an objective means to measure the outcome of medical or dilation therapy. PMID:20858491

Kwiatek, Monika A.; Hirano, Ikuo; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Rothe, Jami; Luger, Daniel; Pandolfino, John E.

2010-01-01

343

Esophageal dilations in eosinophilic esophagitis: A single center experience  

PubMed Central

AIM: To diagnose the clinical and histologic features that may be associated with or predictive of the need for dilation and dilation related complications; examine the safety of dilation in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). METHODS: The medical records of all patients diagnosed with EoE between January 2002 and July 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Esophageal biopsies were reexamined by an experienced pathologist to confirm the diagnosis (? 15 eos/hpf per current guidelines). Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients who did not receive dilation therapy and those who did. Demographics, clinical history, the use of pharmacologic therapy, endoscopic and pathology findings, and the number of biopsies and dilations carried out, if any, and their locations were recorded for each patient. The dilation group was further examined based on the interval between diagnosis and dilation, and whether or not a complication occurred. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were identified with EoE and 22 (36%) of them underwent esophageal dilations for stricture/narrowing. The peak eos/hpf was significantly higher in patients who received a dilation (P = 0.04). Four (18% of pts.) minor complications occurred: deep mucosal tear 1, and small mucosal tears 3. There were no cases of esophageal perforations. Higher peak eos/hpf counts were not associated with increased risk of complications. CONCLUSION: Esophageal dilation appears to be a safe procedure in EoE patients, carrying a low complication rate. No correlation was found between the peak of eosinophil count and complication rate. Complications can occur independently of the histologic features. The long-term outcome of EoE treatment, with or without dilation, needs to be determined. PMID:25071351

Ukleja, Andrew; Shiroky, Jennifer; Agarwal, Amitesh; Allende, Daniela

2014-01-01

344

Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal atresia and chronic dysphagia.  

PubMed

Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE. PMID:25548504

Kassabian, Sirvart; Baez-Socorro, Virginia; Sferra, Thomas; Garcia, Reinaldo

2014-12-21

345

Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal atresia and chronic dysphagia  

PubMed Central

Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE. PMID:25548504

Kassabian, Sirvart; Baez-Socorro, Virginia; Sferra, Thomas; Garcia, Reinaldo

2014-01-01

346

Eosinophilic granuloma of the temporal bone in children.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a bony destructive disease that frequently occurs in children; it is a subtype of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The aims of this study were to detect the presenting features of temporal bone lesions in children and to evaluate the efficacy of surgery combined with radiotherapy in treatment of the disease. A retrospective study on 12 children with EG of the temporal bone was done. Computed tomography and hearing assessment were performed for all patients. All patients were treated with cortical mastoidectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy. Follow-up was carried out for at least 2 years. The patients' presenting symptoms were external ear canal mass in 10 patients (83.3%), postauricular swelling in 8 patients (66.7%), and persistent otorrhea in 4 patients (33.3%). Ten patients (83.3%) showed conductive hearing loss, whereas 2 patients (16.7%) showed mixed hearing loss on the affected side. Computed tomography showed osteolytic defects without sclerotic margins filled with soft tissue masses involving the mastoid bone. Histopathologic examination showed eosinophils and Langerhans cells that were immune reactive for CD1 antigen and S-100 protein. Postoperative follow-up showed complete cure of the disease in 10 children (83.3%), with recurrence detected in 2 patients (16.7%) who needed second surgical intervention. We concluded that temporal bone EG in children may present with features that mimic the features of chronic suppurative otitis media. However, computed tomography and histopathologic examination are diagnostic. Cortical mastoidectomy together with postoperative radiotherapy is an achievable treatment in most cases. PMID:24717312

Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; Rashed, Mohammed; Khalifa, Badawi; Talaat, Ahmed; Nassar, Ahmed

2014-05-01

347

Eosinophil-associated Ribonuclease 11 Is a Macrophage Chemoattractant.  

PubMed

RNase A is the prototype of an extensive family of divergent proteins whose members share a unique disulfide-bonded tertiary structure, conserved catalytic motifs, and the ability to hydrolyze polymeric RNA. Several members of this family maintain independent roles as ribonucleases and modulators of innate immunity. Here we characterize mouse eosinophil-associated RNase (Ear) 11, a divergent member of the eosinophil ribonuclease cluster, and the only known RNase A ribonuclease expressed specifically in response to Th2 cytokine stimulation. Mouse Ear 11 is differentially expressed in somatic tissues at baseline (brain ? liver < lung < spleen); systemic stimulation with IL-33 results in 10-5000-fold increased expression in lung and spleen, respectively. Ear 11 is also expressed in response to protective priming of the respiratory mucosa with Lactobacillus plantarum; transcripts are detected both locally in lung as well as systemically in bone marrow and spleen. Mouse Ear 11 is enzymatically active, although substantially less so than mEar 1 and mEar 2; the relative catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of mEar 11 is diminished ?1000-1500-fold. However, in contrast to RNase 2/EDN and mEar 2, which have been characterized as selective chemoattractants for CD11c(+) dendritic cells, mEar 11 has prominent chemoattractant activity for F4/80(+)CD11c(-) tissue macrophages. Chemoattractant activity is not dependent on full enzymatic activity, and requires no interaction with the pattern recognition receptor, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Taken together, this work characterizes a divergent RNase A ribonuclease with a unique expression pattern and function, and highlights the versatility of this family in promoting innate immunity. PMID:25713137

Yamada, Kelsey J; Barker, Tolga; Dyer, Kimberly D; Rice, Tyler A; Percopo, Caroline M; Garcia-Crespo, Katia E; Cho, Soochin; Lee, James J; Druey, Kirk M; Rosenberg, Helene F

2015-04-01

348

Eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration into splenic B-cell high-grade lymphoma in a dog.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old mixed-breed dog showing ascites, anorexia and anemia was found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. The dog died 4 days after initial presentation and was diagnosed with splenic high-grade B-cell lymphoma at necropsy. Remarkable infiltrations of eosinophils were observed in spleen and liver tissues. The eosinophilia and infiltration of eosinophils into the lesions could have been associated with B-cell lymphoma because causes other than lymphoma were excluded. This is the first report of eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltrations into neoplastic lesions in a dog with high-grade B-cell lymphoma. PMID:20467202

Tomiyasu, Hirotaka; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ugai, Jun; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Ide, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Masashi; Ohno, Koichi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayam, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

2010-10-01

349

Missing the beat: arrhythmia as a presenting feature of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.  

PubMed

Palpitations are a common presenting symptom in patients attending the emergency department; however, eosinophilic infiltration of the myocardium is rarely the cause. This case describes a 77-year-old woman who presents with sudden onset palpitations and is later diagnosed with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (previously known as Churg-Strauss syndrome). Cardiac involvement does occur in 50% of cases but heart failure, myocarditis, pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis and myocardial infarction are much more commonly recognised complications. Arrhythmia is less well described. In this report, we propose eosinophilic inflammation as the precipitant for an aberrant conduction pathway. PMID:24811559

Sharpley, Faye Amelia

2014-01-01

350

Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia)  

MedlinePLUS

... killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected ... kill leukemia cells, stop the leukemia cells from dividing, or help the leukemia cells mature into white ...

351

Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-08-18

352

MS-275 and Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2015-03-19

353

Phase I Dose-Escalation Trial of Clofarabine Followed by Escalating Doses of Fractionated Cyclophosphamide in Children With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemias  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Myeloproliferative Disorders; Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia; Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia; Acute Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Myelofibrosis; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

2010-09-21

354

Temsirolimus and Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2013-01-11

355

Imatinib Mesylate and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2013-01-22

356

Urinary Eosinophil Protein X in Childhood Asthma: Relation with Changes in Disease Control and Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations between uEPX and other markers of asthma control and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Methods. We measured uEPX at baseline, after 1?year and after 2?years in 205 atopic asthmatic children using inhaled fluticasone. At the same time points, we assessed symptom scores (2 weeks diary card), lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and percentage eosinophils in induced sputum (% eos). Results. We found negative correlations between uEPX and FEV1 at baseline (r = ?0.18, P = 0.01), after 1 year (r = ?0.25, P < 0.01) and after 2 years (r = ?0.21, P = 0.02). Within-patient changes of uEPX showed a negative association with FEV1 changes (at 1?year: r = ?0.24, P = 0.01; at 2?years: r = ?0.21, P = 0.03). Within-patient changes from baseline of uEPX correlated with changes in % eos. No relations were found between uEPX and symptoms. Conclusion. In this population of children with atopic asthma, uEPX correlated with FEV1 and % eos, and within-subjects changes in uEPX correlated with changes in FEV1 and % eos. As the associations were weak and the scatter of uEPX wide, it seems unlikely that uEPX will be useful as a biomarker for monitoring asthma control in the individual child. PMID:23401643

Nuijsink, Marianne; Hop, Wim C. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Duiverman, Eric J.; De Jongste, Johan C.

2013-01-01

357

Topical corticosteroids do not revert the activated phenotype of eosinophils in eosinophilic esophagitis but decrease surface levels of CD18 resulting in diminished adherence to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Swallowed topical corticosteroids are the standard therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in adults. Eosinophils in the blood of untreated EoE patients have an activated phenotype. Our aim was to determine if corticosteroids restore the phenotype of eosinophils to a healthy phenotype and if certain cell-surface molecules on blood eosinophils correlate with eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. Levels of eight surface markers on eosinophils from treated and untreated EoE patients were determined by flow cytometry and analyzed using multivariate methods of pattern recognition. Corticosteroid-treated EoE patients' eosinophils had decreased levels of CD18 compared to both untreated patients and healthy controls, but maintained their activated phenotype. CD18 expression correlated positively with eosinophil numbers in the esophagus and promoted the adherence of eosinophils to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and to endothelial cells. The diminished expression of CD18 may be one mechanism behind the reduced entry of eosinophils into the esophagus in corticosteroid-treated EoE patients. PMID:24870064

Lingblom, Christine; Bergquist, Henrik; Johnsson, Marianne; Sundström, Patrik; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Bove, Mogens; Wennerås, Christine

2014-12-01

358

Risk Groups for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®) Risk Groups for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Key Points for This Section In childhood ALL, ...

359

Histopathologic study of eosinophilic bronchointerstitial pneumonia caused by Crenosoma striatum in the hedgehog.  

PubMed

Crenosoma striatum is a species of parasitic nematodes from the family Crenosomatidae responsible for pathologic lung lesions in the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Infection with C. striatum can cause weight loss, dry cough, and bronchitis. In the present study, hedgehogs killed by road accidents, or trapped and found dead on farms in different parts of Mazandaran province (Iran), were transferred to the laboratory. After dissection, parasite samples collected from the lung were placed into 70% alcohol. After clarification with lactophenol and subsequent staining, the nematodes were identified as C. striatum according to previously published guidelines. For histopathologic examination, lung samples were collected. The tissues were fixed and following routine processing, sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic diagnoses included hyperemia, eosinophilic bronchointerstitial pneumonia, thickening of the interstitium, and eosinophilic microabscesses in bronchial airways. Eosinophilic pneumonia was characterized by eosinophil and other mononuclear leukocyte infiltration within the lung interstitium. Crenosoma striatum can lead to mortality in hedgehogs. PMID:25000695

Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Mousapour, Aliasghar; Dozouri, Rohollah; Eshkevari, Shahab Ramezanpour; Nikzad, Mohammad; Nikzad, Reza; Omidzahir, Shila

2014-06-01

360

Recovery of Angiostrongylus cantonensis from cerebrospinal fluid of a child with eosinophilic meningitis.  

PubMed Central

Viable Angiostrongylus cantonensis was recovered from the cerebrospinal fluid of a 17-month-old boy with eosinophilic meningitis. Neurological findings were minimal, and the child had an uneventful recovery. PMID:479360

Kuberski, T; Bart, R D; Briley, J M; Rosen, L

1979-01-01

361

Expect the Unexpected: A Case of Isolated Eosinophilic Meningitis in Toxocariasis  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a young police officer suffering from headache without other neurological symptoms caused by isolated eosinophilic meningitis, which resulted from an infection with Toxocara cati, along with a discussion of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25535488

Sick, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G.

2014-01-01

362

ROLE OF MONOCYTES AND EOSINOPHILS IN RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS (RSV) INFECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Role of Monocytes and Eosinophils in Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection Joleen M. Soukup and Susanne Becker US Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; ...

363

Nasal eosinophils and reversibility to the decongestion test in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

Nasal obstruction is sustained by eosinophilic inflammation in allergic rhinitis. The decongestion test consists of spraying an intranasal vasoconstrictor drug to evaluate the reversibility of nasal airflow limitation. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships of both the number of nasal eosinophils and the degree of nasal obstruction symptom with the reversibility of nasal airflow after the decongestion test in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Eighty-three patients with PAR were studied. Total symptom score, sensitization, rhinomanometry, and the decongestion test were performed in all the patients. Using multivariate analysis, the eosinophils number was significantly (and inversely) associated (p < 0.001) with the reversibility of nasal airflow, whereas the nasal obstruction symptom degree was not (p = 0.338). This study provides evidence of a significant association between nasal eosinophils and the reversibility to the decongestion test in patients with PAR. PMID:17619557

Ciprandi, Giorgio; Cirillo, Ignazio; Klersy, Catherine; Tosca, Maria Angela; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

2007-01-01

364

The treatment of eosinophilic granuloma of the humerus with nonvascularized fibular graft and elastic nail.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic granuloma is most common in children. In this paper we describe two children with a history of local swelling and pain in the humeral area who showed pathological fracture of the humerus. Needle biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. Surgical procedures were performed in both patients. Both patients showed total remission after wide resection combined with segmental nonvascularized fibular graft and elastic nail. Both patients are currently free of disease after 4-year follow-up. There are several treatment modalities in eosinophilic granulomas such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, local or systemic steroids, curettage, bone grafting and internal fixation. Although good results have been reported with nonsurgical treatment, surgery is a more effective treatment option in selected cases. In this paper we describe two children with massive solitary eosinophilic granuloma of the humerus who were successfully treated with segment resection and fibular bloc graft. PMID:23748580

Oner, Mithat; Yurdakul, Emre; Guney, Ahmet

2013-07-01

365

Leukemia and radium groundwater contamination  

SciTech Connect

In the August 2, 1985, issue of JAMMA, Lyman et al claim to have shown an association between leukemia incidence in Florida and radium in groundwater supplies. Although cautious in their conclusions, the authors imply that this excess in leukemia was in fact caused by radiation. The authors believe they have not presented a convincing argument for causation. The radiation doses at these levels of exposure could account for only a tiny fraction of the leukemia excess.

Tracy, B.L.; Letourneau, E.G.

1986-06-27

366

Down syndrome preleukemia and leukemia.  

PubMed

Children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute leukemias acute have unique biological, cytogenetic, and intrinsic factors that affect their treatment and outcome. Myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS) is associated with high event-free survival (EFS) rates and frequently preceded by a preleukemia condition, the transient abnormal hematopoiesis (TAM) present at birth. For acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), their EFS and overall survival are poorer than non-DS ALL, it is important to enroll them on therapeutic trials, including relapse trials; investigate new agents that could potentially improve their leukemia-free survival; and strive to maximize the supportive care these patients need. PMID:25435116

Maloney, Kelly W; Taub, Jeffrey W; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Roberts, Irene; Vyas, Paresh

2015-02-01

367

Elemental Diet Is an Effective Treatment for Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa, has been defined in large part through published case reports and series leading to ambiguity in both diagnostic and treatment options. Corticosteroids, cromolyn, and elemental diet have all been reported as successful treatments for EoE. In this study, we sought to accurately define a population of patients

Jonathan E. Markowitz; Jonathan M. Spergel; Eduardo Ruchelli; Chris A. Liacouras

2003-01-01

368

Assessment and Reproducibility of Non-Eosinophilic Asthma Using Induced Sputum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The assessment of eosinophilic airway inflammation using induced sputum identifies a corticosteroid-responsive subtype that can be used to guide anti-inflammatory therapy. The stability of airway inflammation in asthma over time is not known, yet this information is crucial to inflammation-based patient management. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility of non-eosinophilic asthma. Methods: Participants with

Jodie L. Simpson; Patrick McElduff; Peter G. Gibson

2010-01-01

369

Elemental diet is an effective treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveEosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa, has been defined in large part through published case reports and series leading to ambiguity in both diagnostic and treatment options. Corticosteroids, cromolyn, and elemental diet have all been reported as successful treatments for EoE. In this study, we sought to accurately define a population of patients

Jonathan E Markowitz; Jonathan M Spergel; Eduardo Ruchelli; Chris A Liacouras

2003-01-01

370

High-affinity IgE receptor on eosinophils is involved in defence against parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

PARASITIC infections are often associated with eosinophilia and high levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE). This observation has led to speculation that eosinophils and IgE may act together in the immune response against parasites. In support of this hypothesis, IgE and eosinophils participate in cytotoxic reactions directed against Schistosoma mansoni larvae in vitro 1,2. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown an inverse

Abdelillah Soussi Gounni; Bouchaïb Lamkhioued; Kenichi Ochiai; Yoïchi Tanaka; Emmanuel Delaporte; André Capron; Jean-Pierre Kinet; Monique Capron

1994-01-01

371

Eosinophilic Cellulitis (Wells’ Syndrome): Ultrastructural Study of a Case with Circulating Immune Complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 42-year-old woman was observed during 3 bouts of eosinophilic cellulitis over a 6-year-period. Skin biopsies were taken at each relapse and processed for histological, immunofluorescent and ultrastructural studies. Histologically the eosinophilic infiltrate extended to the deep dermis and the subcutaneous fat. High levels of circulating immune complexes, and complement and IgG deposits around the vessels were detected for as

M. C. Ferrier; A. Janin-Mercier; P. Souteyrand; M. Bourges; C. Hermier

1988-01-01

372

Nitric Oxide and Protein Nitration are Eosinophil Dependent in Allergen-Challenged Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the possible role of eosinophils in NO-mediated tissue injury, we studied a murine model of allergic asthma. Male A\\/J mice were sensitized and challenged intranasally with ovalbumin (OVA). Following challenge, the number of eosinophils in bron- choalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) increased from 0.4% of total cells at baseline (0.02 3 10 4 cells\\/ml) to 60.2% at 48 h

HIROAKI IIJIMA; ALEXANDRE DUGUET; SEOK-YONG EUM; QUTAYBA HAMID; DAVID H. EIDELMAN

2001-01-01

373

An unusual cause of terminal hematuria in a child: Eosinophilic cystitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the bladder; it rarely occurs in children. Patients typically show irritative urination symptoms frequently, with a possible need for urgency, alongside dysuria, gross haematuria, suprapubic pain and painful urination. Sometimes bladder mass accumulation with the possibility of malignancy is also observed. We present an 8-year-old male patient who gained admission for terminal hematuria and discuss the management of eosinophilic cystitis. PMID:25485018

Özdo?an, Elif Bahat; Arslansoyu Çamlar, Seçil; Bilen, Sevcan; ?mamo?lu, Mustafa; T?ra?, ?ükran; Cansu, Ay?egül; Özoran, Yavuz

2014-01-01

374

Solitary eosinophilic granuloma of the lumbar spine in an adult. Case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic granuloma of bone is the localised and most benign form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis, previously known as histiocytosis X and is characterised by lytic lesions of one or more bones. It is a disease of children and adolescents, and very rarely affects adults. We report a 34-year-old patient with a solitary eosinophilic granuloma involving the fifth lumbar vertebra which produced

T Bilge; ? Barut; Y Yaymaci; C Alatli

1995-01-01

375

[Eosinophilic esophagitis as a cause of dysphagia with a 10-year history].  

PubMed

A new case of eosinophilic esophagitis is reported in a young male with a 10-year history of dysphagia who did not present manifestations of allergy, reflux or other involvement of the digestive tract by eosinophilic infiltration. A review of the literature up to the present is provided with emphasis on the fact that this is an entity to take into account in the differential diagnosis of dysphagia, especially in young people and that this disease is probably underdiagnosed. PMID:9711012

Bory, F; Vázquez, E; Forcada, P; Viver, J M; Andreu, M

1998-01-01

376

Phase 1 Study of Terameprocol (EM-1421) in Patients With Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Leukemias; Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML); Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL); Adult T Cell Leukemia (ATL); Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML-BP); Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL); Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML)

2009-01-29

377

SB-715992 in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-01-10

378

Uterine type II estrogen-binding sites are not of eosinophil origin  

SciTech Connect

A recent report suggested that nuclear type II sites in the rat uterus are of eosinophil origin and may represent (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding to eosinophil peroxidase. To further evaluate this hypothesis the authors examined the response of nuclear type II sites to estrogen under conditions where eosinophils are not present. Results of the experiments show that physiological levels of estradiol-17..beta.. (10 nM for 72 h) will stimulate nuclear type II sites in highly purified cultures of rat uterine stromal and myometrial cells. The magnitude of the response of type II sites to estradiol in these stromal (4-fold) and myometrial (80-fold) cell cultures was essentially identical to that observed in the uterine cell types following in vivo estrogen treatment. Since these highly purified cultures of uterine cells were prepared from the uterus of a 21-day ovariectomized rat which is devoid of eosinophils, it was concluded that estradiol stimulation of nuclear type II sites is a direct intracellular response to estrogen which occurs independent of eosinophil accumulation. Furthermore, it was found that type II sites in the rat uterus are not peroxidase. Stimulation of cytosol and nuclear type II sites by estrogen in the rat uterus is a direct intracellular response to the hormone unrelated to eosinophil accumulation and/or peroxidase activity.

Not Available

1986-01-05

379

c-FLIP Protects Eosinophils from TNF-?-Mediated Cell Death In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Understanding the signals that regulate eosinophil survival and death is critical to developing new treatments for asthma, atopy, and gastrointestinal disease. Previous studies suggest that TNF-? stimulation protects eosinophils from apoptosis, and this TNF-?-mediated protection is mediated by the upregulation of an unknown protein by NF-?B. Here, we show for the first time that eosinophils express the caspase 8-inhibitory protein c-FLIP, and c-FLIP expression is upregulated upon TNF-? stimulation. Considering that c-FLIP expression is regulated by NF-?B, we hypothesized that c-FLIP might serve as the “molecular switch” that converts TNFRI activation to a pro-survival signal in eosinophils. Indeed, we found that one c-FLIP isoform, c-FLIPL, is required for mouse eosinophil survival in the presence of TNF-? both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, our results suggest c-FLIP as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of eosinophil-mediated disease. PMID:25333625

Gordy, Claire; Liang, Jie; Pua, Heather; He, You-Wen

2014-01-01

380

Activated Eosinophils in Association with Enteric Nerves in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Enteric neural dysfunction leads to increased mucous production and dysmotility in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Prior studies have shown that tissue eosinophilia is related to disease activity. We hypothesized that interactions between eosinophils and nerves contribute to neural dysfunction in IBD. Tissue from patients with intractable IBD, endoscopic biopsies from patients with steroid responsive IBD, both when active and quiescent, and control tissue were studied. Immunohistochemical studies showed that eosinophils localize to nerves in the mucosal layer of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) (p<0.001) and ulcerative colitis (UC), (p<0.01). Eosinophils localized to substance P and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunostained nerves. Real time PCR of laser capture micro-dissected enteric ganglia demonstrated Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) mRNA was increased 7-fold in UC (n?=?4), (p?=?0.03), and 10-fold in CD (n?=?3), (p?=?0.05). Compared with controls, eotaxin-3 (CCL-26) mRNA was increased 9-fold in UC (p?=?0.04) and 15-fold in CD (p?=?0.06). Eosinophil numbers correlated with disease activity, while deposition of major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil Transforming Growth Factor ? -1 (TGF?-1) expression were seen in therapeutically responsive disease. These data indicate a significant localization of eosinophils to nerves in IBD, mediated through neurally expressed ICAM-1 and eotaxin-3. This cell/neural interaction may influence the function of nerves and contribute to symptoms in IBD. PMID:23717571

Smyth, Claire M.; Akasheh, Nadim; Woods, Sara; Kay, Elaine; Morgan, Ross K.; Thornton, Margaret A.; O’Grady, Anthony; Cummins, Robert; Sheils, Orla; Smyth, Peter; Gleich, Gerald J.; Murray, Frank M.; Costello, Richard W.

2013-01-01

381

An experimental study of inner ear injury in an animal model of eosinophilic otitis media  

PubMed Central

Conclusion: As the periods of intratympanic injection of ovalbumin (OVA) to the middle ear became longer, marked eosinophil infiltration in the perilymphatic space was observed. Moreover severe morphological damage of the organ of Corti was observed in the 28-day antigen-stimulation side. These results indicate that eosinophilic inflammation occurred in the inner ear and caused profound hearing loss. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the inner ear damage in a new animal model of eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) which we recently constructed. Methods: We constructed the animal model of EOM by intraperitoneal and intratympanic injection of OVA. Infiltrating cells and the inner ear damage were examined by histological study. Results: In the inner ear, a few eosinophils were seen in the scala tympani of the organ of Corti and the dilation of capillaries of the stria vascularis was observed in the 7-day stimulation side. In the 14-day antigen stimulation side, some eosinophils and macrophages were seen in not only the scala tympani but also the scala vestibule. In the 28-day antigen-stimulation side, severe morphological damage of the organ of Corti and many eosinophils, red blood cells, and plasma cells infiltrating the perilymph were observed. PMID:24359096

Nishizawa, Hisanori; Kurose, Akira; Nakagawa, Takashi; Takahata, Junko; Sasaki, Akira

2014-01-01

382

Toxicity of Eosinophil MBP Is Repressed by Intracellular Crystallization and Promoted by Extracellular Aggregation.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are white blood cells that function in innate immunity and participate in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. Their secretory granules contain four cytotoxic proteins, including the eosinophil major basic protein (MBP-1). How MBP-1 toxicity is controlled within the eosinophil itself and activated upon extracellular release is unknown. Here we show how intragranular MBP-1 nanocrystals restrain toxicity, enabling its safe storage, and characterize them with an X-ray-free electron laser. Following eosinophil activation, MBP-1 toxicity is triggered by granule acidification, followed by extracellular aggregation, which mediates the damage to pathogens and host cells. Larger non-toxic amyloid plaques are also present in tissues of eosinophilic patients in a feedback mechanism that likely limits tissue damage under pathological conditions of MBP-1 oversecretion. Our results suggest that MBP-1 aggregation is important for innate immunity and immunopathology mediated by eosinophils and clarify how its polymorphic self-association pathways regulate toxicity intra- and extracellularly. PMID:25728769

Soragni, Alice; Yousefi, Shida; Stoeckle, Christina; Soriaga, Angela B; Sawaya, Michael R; Kozlowski, Evelyne; Schmid, Inès; Radonjic-Hoesli, Susanne; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth J; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M Marvin; Cascio, Duilio; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Riek, Roland; Eisenberg, David S; Simon, Hans-Uwe

2015-03-19

383

Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter covers T and B lymphoblastic neoplasms, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphoma\\u000a (LBL). Morphologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic features are discussed along with the parameters of various modalities\\u000a used in their diagnosis. The techniques and utility of minimum residual disease (MRD) measurement after therapy is discussed,\\u000a as are new insights into the molecular biology of leukemogenesis gleaned

Andrea M. Sheehan

384

Food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis: what do we do?  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus triggered by foods and possibly environmental allergens. Common conditions that mimic EoE include gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. These need to be excluded before confirming the diagnosis of EoE. Identification of food triggers for EoE using standard allergy tests remains challenging. Dietary therapy for EoE so far consists of test-directed elimination of foods, empiric elimination of common food allergens, or exclusive feeding of amino acid-based formulas, with variable success. No FDA-approved medications yet exist for EoE. Topical corticosteroids to the esophagus are being used. EoE is a chronic disease; therefore, long-term therapy seems to be necessary to avoid potential long-term complications such as esophageal remodeling and strictures. Optimal long-term therapies and follow-ups are still not established; therefore, discussion with patients and families regarding the choice of therapy is important to ensure the best possible outcomes from a medical and social standpoint. In this article, we discuss all the above issues in detail by using a hypothetical case; highlighting in a stepwise manner what is known with respect to diagnosis, work-up, and management of EoE; and discussing gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed in the future. PMID:25577614

Chehade, Mirna; Aceves, Seema S; Furuta, Glenn T; Fleischer, David M

2015-01-01

385

[A case of eosinophilic cystitis mimicking an invasive bladder cancer].  

PubMed

A 60-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of gross hematuria, right lumbar pain and lower abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed hydronephrosis of the right kidney, irregular bladder wall thickening at the right lateral and posterior portion and external iliac lymph node swelling of the right side. Laboratory data revealed disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC) and eosinophilia. Because she developed a high fever that was caused by acute obstructive pyelonephritis of the right kidney, percutaneous nephrostomy was placed and the therapy for DIC was initiated. Pathological examination of transurethral resection of bladder tumor performed twice showed no malignancy but inflammatory infiltration of many eosinocytes, leading to the diagnosis of eosinophilic cystitis (EC). We considered the possibility of allergic reaction to the drugs she was taking as the etiology of EC and discontinued all drugs. Although eosinophilia was resolved afterward, she then developed brain infarction, followed by cerebral hemorrhage. She was transferred to a rehabilitation hospital for long-term care. CT scan that was performed 4 months after the initial presentation showed the resolution of hydronephrosis of the right kidney and external iliac lymph node swelling and the improvement of bladder wall thickness. Hydronephrosis of the right kidney has not recurred after removing the nephrostomy catheter. EC is a rare condition that could mimic an invasive bladder cancer. EC should be considered if bladder tumor is associated with eosinophilia. Therapeutic consideration for thromboembolic events should be made in patients with EC. PMID:25602481

Okazaki, Satoshi; Hori, Jun-Ichi; Kita, Masafumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kawakami, Norihiro; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

2014-12-01

386

Helminthic eosinophilic meningitis: emerging zoonotic diseases in the South.  

PubMed

Today most emerging infectious diseases, such as West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), arise in the natural environment as zoonoses and are often imported into the United States (US). The most common helminthic infections that can cause eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) in the US, neuroangiostrongyliasis and baylisascariasis, share many of the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases. Neuroangiostrongyliasis, a rodent zoonosis caused by the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is now endemic in the US following the importation of infected rats on container ships and African land snails, the parasite's intermediate hosts, as biological controls and exotic pets. Baylisascariasis, a raccoon zoonosis, caused by the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, has extended its US distribution range from suburban neighborhoods in the northern US to the Southeast and West Coast since the 1980s. Both A. cantonensis and B. procyonis are now enzootic in Louisiana and have caused EoM in humans. This review analyzes scientific articles selected by MEDLINE search, 1966-2008, in order to assess the evolving epidemiology of EoM in the US, and specifically in Louisiana; and to alert Louisiana clinicians to populations at increased risk of helminthic EoM as a result of age, ethnicity, lifestyle, food choices, location of permanent residence, or recent travel in the Americas or Caribbean. Most parasitic diseases causing EoM are no longer confined to tropical countries; they are now endemic in the US and in Louisiana and more cases may be anticipated. PMID:19283982

Diaz, James H

2008-01-01

387

Developmental Outcome of Childhood Leukemia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature on developmental and psychosocial outcomes of childhood leukemia is reviewed, focusing on preschool-age children. Studies are categorized in terms of outcome measures: intelligence/achievement, neuropsychological, memory/attention, and psychosocial tests. Evidence suggests that preschool children with leukemia are at high risk for…

Coniglio, Susan J.; Blackman, James A.

1995-01-01

388

Regulation of Surface FcεRI Expression on Human Eosinophils by IL4 and IgE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that eosinophils from allergic patients express low levels of FcεRI on their surface, but the regulatory mechanisms of eosinophil surface FcεRI expression are not fully understood. We investigated whether IL-4 and IgE, which are reported to regulate surface FcεRI expression on human mast cells, are able to affect surface FcεRI expression in normal human eosinophils.

Motoyasu Iikura; Masao Yamaguchi; Koichi Hirai; Misato Miyamasu; Hirokazu Yamada; Toshiharu Nakajima; Takao Fujisawa; Chisei Ra; Yutaka Morita; Kazuhiko Yamamoto

2001-01-01

389

SJG-136 in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

2013-09-27

390

Rebeccamycin Analog in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

2013-01-22

391

Can Acute Myeloid Leukemia Be Prevented?  

MedlinePLUS

... GO » SEE A LIST » What are the risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia? Do we know what causes acute myeloid leukemia? ... What Is Leukemia - Acute Myeloid (AML)? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Leukemia - Acute Myeloid (AML) Talking With Your Doctor After ...

392

Effects of prednisone on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis*,**  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect size of oral corticosteroid treatment on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma, through systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles in the Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. We selected studies meeting the following criteria: comparing at least two groups or time points (prednisone vs. control, prednisone vs. another drug, or pre- vs. post-treatment with prednisone); and evaluating parameters before and after prednisone use, including values for sputum eosinophils, sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and sputum IL-5-with or without values for post-bronchodilator FEV1-with corresponding 95% CIs or with sufficient data for calculation. The independent variables were the use, dose, and duration of prednisone treatment. The outcomes evaluated were sputum eosinophils, IL-5, and ECP, as well as post-bronchodilator FEV1. RESULTS: The pooled analysis of the pre- vs. post-treatment data revealed a significant mean reduction in sputum eosinophils (?8.18%; 95% CI: 7.69-8.67; p < 0.001), sputum IL-5 (?83.64 pg/mL; 95% CI: 52.45-114.83; p < 0.001), and sputum ECP (?267.60 µg/L; 95% CI: 244.57-290.63; p < 0.0001), as well as a significant mean increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1 (?8.09%; 95% CI: 5.35-10.83; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate-to-severe eosinophilic bronchitis, treatment with prednisone caused a significant reduction in sputum eosinophil counts, as well as in the sputum levels of IL-5 and ECP. This reduction in the inflammatory response was accompanied by a significant increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1. PMID:25410844

Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Maurici, Rosemeri; Trevisol, Daisson José; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Pizzichini, Emílio

2014-01-01

393

Intercellular adhesion molecule?1 expression in activated eosinophils is associated with mucosal remodeling in nasal polyps.  

PubMed

Nasal polyposis (NP) is characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation with infiltrating eosinophils. Eosinophil?mediated tissue remodeling may be involved in NP pathogenesis; therefore, improved understanding of tissue remodeling may result the identification of novel pathways and therapeutic strategies. The present study aimed to investigate the pathological changes occurring during tissue remodeling in NP, in order to assess the role of intercellular adhesion molecule?1 (ICAM?1) in localized tissue remodeling and the potential association between ICAM?1 expression and markers of eosinophil activation. A total of 28 eligible patients and 10 healthy controls participated in the current study. Nasal mucosal tissues of these subjects were retrospectively evaluated for mucosal remodeling using histopathological staining. ICAM?1 and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) expression levels were determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Compared with the healthy controls, all the specimens from NP patients presented substantial epithelial damage, skewed cellular distribution with a reduced density of goblet cells, an increased density of subepithelial gland and increased subepithelial collagen deposition. In addition, the NP specimens exhibited significantly higher eosinophil infiltration and ICAM?1 expression compared with the controls. Positive correlations were observed between ICAM?1 and ECP expression levels (P=0.010), as well as between extracellular collagen deposition and ICAM?1 (P=0.010) and ECP (P=0.012) expression levels in the NP specimens, but not in the control specimens. Morphological evidence demonstrated eosinophil?mediated tissue remodeling in NP tissues. ICAM?1 expression in activated eosinophils was associated with NP remodeling, indicating the possibility that ICAM?1 may regulate NP remodeling. PMID:25573100

Xin, Jingwei; Sun, Hui; Kong, Hong; Li, Lin; Zheng, Jun; Yin, Chunxia; Cao, Yang; Jia, Yunxiao; Li, Chaoxu

2015-05-01

394

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in activated eosinophils is associated with mucosal remodeling in nasal polyps  

PubMed Central

Nasal polyposis (NP) is characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation with infiltrating eosinophils. Eosinophil-mediated tissue remodeling may be involved in NP pathogenesis; therefore, improved understanding of tissue remodeling may result the identification of novel pathways and therapeutic strategies. The present study aimed to investigate the pathological changes occurring during tissue remodeling in NP, in order to assess the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in localized tissue remodeling and the potential association between ICAM-1 expression and markers of eosinophil activation. A total of 28 eligible patients and 10 healthy controls participated in the current study. Nasal mucosal tissues of these subjects were retrospectively evaluated for mucosal remodeling using histopathological staining. ICAM-1 and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) expression levels were determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Compared with the healthy controls, all the specimens from NP patients presented substantial epithelial damage, skewed cellular distribution with a reduced density of goblet cells, an increased density of subepithelial gland and increased subepithelial collagen deposition. In addition, the NP specimens exhibited significantly higher eosinophil infiltration and ICAM-1 expression compared with the controls. Positive correlations were observed between ICAM-1 and ECP expression levels (P=0.010), as well as between extracellular collagen deposition and ICAM-1 (P=0.010) and ECP (P=0.012) expression levels in the NP specimens, but not in the control specimens. Morphological evidence demonstrated eosinophil-mediated tissue remodeling in NP tissues. ICAM-1 expression in activated eosinophils was associated with NP remodeling, indicating the possibility that ICAM-1 may regulate NP remodeling. PMID:25573100

XIN, JINGWEI; SUN, HUI; KONG, HONG; LI, LIN; ZHENG, JUN; YIN, CHUNXIA; CAO, YANG; JIA, YUNXIAO; LI, CHAOXU

2015-01-01

395

Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-04-30

396

Tipifarnib in Treating Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Undifferentiated Myeloproliferative Disorders  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase of Disease; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase of Disease; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Recurrent Disease

2015-02-03

397

Entinostat and Clofarabine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed, Relapsed, or Refractory Poor-Risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Bilineage/Biphenotypic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

2014-07-16

398

Human Eosinophils Express the High Affinity IgE Receptor, Fc?RI, in Bullous Pemphigoid  

PubMed Central

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc?RI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n?=?16) with total IgE?400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil Fc?RI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (?, ? and ?) of the Fc?RI. Surface expression of the Fc?RI? was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the ?- and ?-chains of the Fc?RI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the Fc?RI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

Messingham, Kelly N.; Holahan, Heather M.; Frydman, Alexandra S.; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A.

2014-01-01

399

Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) currently requires endoscopic biopsy and histopathologic analysis of the biopsy specimens to count intraepithelial eosinophils. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an endomicroscopy technology that is capable of obtaining high-resolution, optically sectioned images of esophageal mucosa without the administration of exogenous contrast. Objective In this study, we investigated the capability of a high-speed form of RCM, termed spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM), to count intraepithelial esophageal eosinophils and characterize other microscopic findings of EoE. Design A total of 43 biopsy samples from 35 pediatric patients and 8 biopsy samples from 8 adult patients undergoing EGD for EoE were imaged by SECM immediately after their removal and then processed for routine histopathology. Two SECM readers, trained on adult cases, prospectively counted intraepithelial eosinophils and detected the presence of abscess, degranulation, and basal cell hyperplasia on SECM images from the pediatric patients. A pathologist blinded to the SECM data analyzed the same from corresponding slides. Setting The Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital. Results Eosinophils by SECM demonstrated a higher reflectance than the surrounding cells and other inflammatory cells. There was good correlation between SECM and histology maximum eosinophil counts/high-power field (R = 0.76, P < .0001). Intra- and interobserver correlations for SECM counts were very good (R = 0.93 and R = 0.92, respectively; P < .0001). For the commonly used eosinophil count cutoff of 15 per high-power field, the sensitivity and specificity of SECM for EoE were 100%. The sensitivity and specificity for abscess, degranulation, and basal cell hyperplasia were 100% and 82%, 91% and 60%, and 94% and 80%, respectively. Intra- and interobserver agreements for these microscopic features of EoE were very good (? = 0.9/0.9, 0.84/1.0, 0.91/0.81, respectively). Limitation Ex vivo study. Conclusions This study demonstrates that RCM can be used to accurately count intraepithelial eosinophils and identify other microscopic abnormalities associated with EoE on freshly excised biopsy samples. These findings suggest that RCM may be developed into a tool for assessing eosinophilic infiltration in the esophagus in vivo. PMID:21944314

Yoo, Hongki; Kang, DongKyun; Katz, Aubrey J.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Yagi, Yukako; Tanpowpong, Pornthep; Namati, Jacqueline; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

2012-01-01

400

International Survey on Evaluation and Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Recommendations regarding evaluation and management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) remain incompletely defined. This survey assesses: how providers across the world diagnose, evaluate, and treat EoE and how educational activities affect management. METHODS: A web-based survey was sent to the members of World Allergy Organization, American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, and American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. A ¿2 analysis compared responses based on personal and practice demographics and participation in educational activities. RESULTS: Of the 200 respondents, 68.5% were from the United States. The majority were allergists, who require biopsy to diagnose EoE, perform allergy testing, and obtain follow-up biopsy after treatment. The following variables had significant differences: (1) US practitioners were more likely to test for immediate-type hypersensitivity to foods and obtain follow-up endoscopic biopsies after the initial treatment; (2) Practitioners encountering patients with EoE more frequently were more likely to ask about personal and family history of atopy, test for immediate-type hypersensitivity to aeroallergens and foods, and recommend follow-up biopsy after treatment; and (3) Practitioners who participate more often in EoE workshops were more likely to perform patch testing for foods, while attendance at EoE lectures increased EoE management confidence. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic and management strategies differ based on practice location, EoE patient load, and participation in educational activities. Practitioners who attend more EoE lectures are more confident managing EoE. PMID:23663354

2012-09-15

401

The activation of the Jak-STAT 1 signaling pathway by IL-5 in eosinophils.  

PubMed

The intracellular signal transduction of IL-5 in eosinophils is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of the newly discovered Jak-STAT pathway in the IL-5 signal transduction mechanism. Eosinophils were purified from peripheral blood by discontinuous Percoll gradients and stimulated with IL-5. The involvement of Jak 2 was investigated by immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblotting for tyrosine phosphorylation. The activation of Jak 2 was studied by autophosphorylation of the immunoprecipitated kinase. Jak 2 was tyrosine phosphorylated within 1 to 3 min after stimulation of eosinophils with IL-5. Further, the immunoprecipitated Jak 2 obtained from IL-5-stimulated cells underwent autophosphorylation. Jak 2 coprecipitated with the beta-subunit of the IL-5 receptor, suggesting a physical association of the kinase with the receptor. The nuclear factor STAT-1 (p91) was investigated by immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblotting for tyrosine phosphorylation. STAT-1 was tyrosine phosphorylated within 15 min of IL-5 stimulation. The presence of STAT-1 in the nuclear extract was studied by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. IL-5 induced two proteins that bound to the gamma-activating sequence. In the presence of an anti-STAT-1 Ab, the band was supershifted. Thus, we demonstrated that IL-5 activated the Jak 2-STAT 1 signaling pathway in eosinophils. We speculate that the Jak 2-STAT 1 pathway may be involved in the activation of IL-5-inducible genes in eosinophils. PMID:7602114

Pazdrak, K; Stafford, S; Alam, R

1995-07-01

402

Upregulation of MMP-9/TIMP-1 enzymatic system in eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

PubMed Central

Proteolysis depends on the balance between the proteases and their inhibitors. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its specific inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP), contribute to eosinophilic inflammatory reaction in the subarachnoid space of the Angiostrongylus cantonensis-infected mice. The expression of MMP-9 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was significantly increased in mice with eosinophilic meningitis, compared to that in uninfected ones. However, the TIMP-1 levels were unchanged and remained at basal levels at all time points, even in uninfected mice. Elevated MMP-9 mRNA expression coincided with protein levels and proteolytic activity, as demonstrated by means of positive immunoreactivity and gelatin zymography. CSF protein contents correlated significantly with MMP-9 intensity and CSF eosinophilia. In addition, immunohistochemistry demonstrated MMP-9 and TIMP-1 localization in eosinophils and macrophages. When the specific MMP inhibitor, GM6001, was added, MMP-9 enzyme activity was reduced by 45.4%. The percentage of eosinophil increased significantly upon the establishment of infection, but subsided upon inhibition. These results show that MMP-9/TIMP-1 imbalance in angiostrongyliasis may be associated with eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:15810979

Chen, Ke-Min; Lee, Hsiu-Hsiung; Chou, Hui-Lin; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Tsai, Bo-Cyuan; Lai, Shih-Chan

2005-01-01

403

High Fat Diet Causes Depletion of Intestinal Eosinophils Associated with Intestinal Permeability  

PubMed Central

The development of intestinal permeability and the penetration of microbial products are key factors associated with the onset of metabolic disease. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. Here we show that, unlike liver or adipose tissue, high fat diet (HFD)/obesity in mice does not cause monocyte/macrophage infiltration into the intestine or pro-inflammatory changes in gene expression. Rather HFD causes depletion of intestinal eosinophils associated with the onset of intestinal permeability. Intestinal eosinophil numbers were restored by returning HFD fed mice to normal chow and were unchanged in leptin-deficient (Ob/Ob) mice, indicating that eosinophil depletion is caused specifically by a high fat diet and not obesity per se. Analysis of different aspects of intestinal permeability in HFD fed and Ob/Ob mice shows an association between eosinophil depletion and ileal paracelullar permeability, as well as leakage of albumin into the feces, but not overall permeability to FITC dextran. These findings provide the first evidence that a high fat diet causes intestinal eosinophil depletion, rather than inflammation, which may contribute to defective barrier integrity and the onset of metabolic disease. PMID:25837594

Johnson, Andrew M. F.; Costanzo, Anne; Gareau, Melanie G.; Armando, Aaron M.; Quehenberger, Oswald; Jameson, Julie M.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.

2015-01-01

404

Recalcitrant eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of Ofuji with palmoplantar pustulosis: dramatic response to narrowband UVB phototherapy.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of Ofuji is a recalcitrant disease typified by non-infective eosinophilic spongiosis involving the infundibular region of the hair follicle. We present a case of a 49-year-old Chinese man with known palmoplantar pustulosis and acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau which was promptly resolved with methotrexate therapy. He returned with an erythematous papulopustular eruption with coalescence to annular plaques, occurring over the face, chest and back with active palmoplantar pustulation. Histology from skin biopsy of the palmar lesion was in keeping with palmoplantar psoriasis, while biopsy of the facial and truncal lesions revealed florid perifollicular eosinophilic congregation diagnostic of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of Ofuji. Indomethacin was initiated with partial improvement of lesions with cyclical flares. A trial of narrowband ultraviolet-B phototherapy at a frequency of thrice weekly achieved sustained clearance of both eosinophilic pustular folliculitis and palmoplantar lesions. Indomethacin was tailed down and eventually discontinued with maintenance of narrowband ultraviolet-B therapy; this achieved successful control of the disease. PMID:23017177

Lim, Hua Liang; Chong, Wei-Sheng

2012-08-01

405

A Role for Eosinophils in the Intestinal Immunity against Infective Ascaris suum Larvae  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae. PMID:23556022

Masure, Dries; Vlaminck, Johnny; Wang, Tao; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

2013-01-01

406

Anti-IL5 decreases the number of eosinophils but not the severity of dermatitis in SHARPIN-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Sharpin-deficient (Sharpincpdm) mutant mice develop a chronic eosinophilic dermatitis. To determine the efficacy of eosinophil-depletion in chronic inflammation, Sharpincpdm mice were treated with anti-IL5 antibodies. Mice treated with anti-IL5 had a 90% reduction of circulating eosinophils and a 50% decrease in cutaneous eosinophils after ten days compared to sham-treated littermates. Reducing the number of eosinophils resulted in increased severity of alopecia and erythema and a significant increase in epidermal thickness. Skin homogenates from mice treated with anti-IL5 had decreased mRNA expression of arylsulfatase B (Arsb), diamine oxidase (amiloride binding protein 1, also called histaminase) (Abp1), and Il10, which are mediators that eosinophils may release to quench inflammation. Skin homogenates from mice treated with anti-IL5 also had decreased mRNA expression of Il4, Il5, Ccl11, kit ligand (Kitl), and Tgfa; and increased mRNA expression of Tgfb1, Mmp12, and tenascin C (Tnc). In order to further decrease the accumulation of eosinophils, Sharpincpdm mice were crossed with IL5null mice. IL5?/?, Sharpincpdm/Sharpincpdm mice had a 98% reduction of circulating eosinophils and a 95% decrease in cutaneous eosinophils compared to IL5-sufficient Sharpincpdm mice. The severity of the lesions was similar between IL5-sufficient and IL5-deficient mice. Double mutant mice had a significant decrease in Abp1, and a significant increase in Tgfb1, Mmp12, and Tnc mRNA compared to controls. These data indicate that eosinophils are not essential for the development of dermatitis in Sharpincpdm mice and suggest that eosinophils have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles in the skin of these mice. PMID:19650867

Renninger, Matthew L.; Seymour, Rosemarie E.; Whiteley, Laurence O.; Sundberg, John P.; HogenEsch, Harm

2010-01-01

407

CCI-779 in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Blastic Phase  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

2013-01-22

408

Fungal chitin from asthma-associated home environments induces eosinophilic lung infiltration  

PubMed Central

Development of asthma and allergic inflammation involves innate immunity but the environmental contributions remain incompletely defined. Analysis of dust collected from the homes of asthmatic individuals revealed that the polysaccharide chitin is environmentally widespread, and associated with ?-glucans, possibly from ubiquitous fungi. Cell wall preparations of Aspergillus isolated from house dust induced robust recruitment of eosinophils into mouse lung, an effect that was attenuated by enzymatic degradation of cell wall chitinand ?-glucans. Mice expressing constitutively active acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) in the lungs demonstrated a significant reduction in eosinophil infiltration after fungal challenge. Conversely, chitinase inhibition prolonged the duration of tissue eosinophilia. Thus, fungal chitin derived from home environments associated with asthma induces eosinophilic allergic inflammation in the lung, and mammalian chitinases, including AMCase, limit this process. PMID:21824866

Van Dyken, Steven J.; Garcia, Daniel; Porter, Paul; Huang, Xiaozhu; Quinlan, Patricia J.; Blanc, Paul D.; Corry, David B.; Locksley, Richard M.

2011-01-01

409

Eosinophils and mast cells as therapeutic targets in pediatric functional dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing appreciation for the importance of inflammation as a pathophysiologic entity that contributes to functional gastrointestinal disorders including functional dyspepsia (FD). Importantly, inflammation may serve as a mediator between psychologic and physiologic functions. This manuscript reviews the literature implicating two inflammatory cell types, mast cells and eosinophils, in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms and explores their potential as targets for the treatment of FD. There are a number of inciting events which may initiate an inflammatory response, and the subsequent recruitment and activation of mast cells and eosinophils. These include internal triggers such as stress and anxiety, as well as external triggers such as microbes and allergens. Previous studies suggest that there may be efficacy in utilizing medications directed at mast cells and eosinophils. Evidence exists to suggest that combining “anti-inflammatory” medications with other treatments targeting stress can improve the rate of symptom resolution in pediatric FD. PMID:24199024

Friesen, Craig A; Schurman, Jennifer V; Colombo, Jennifer M; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M

2013-01-01

410

Fibronectin changes in eosinophilic meningitis with blood-CSF barrier disruption.  

PubMed

Fibronectin, which is present at relatively low levels in healthy central nervous systems (CNS), shows increased levels in meningitis. In this study, fibronectin processing was correlated with the increased permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier as well as with the formation of eosinophil infiltrates in angiostrongyliasis meningitis. The immunohistochemistry results show matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is localized in the choroid plexus epithelium. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated fibronectin strongly binds MMP-9. Furthermore, treatment with the MMP-9 inhibitor GM6001 significantly inhibited fibronectin processing, reduced the blood-CSF barrier permeability, and decreased the eosinophil counts. The decreased fibronectin processing in CSF implies decreased cellular invasion of the subarachnoid space across the blood-CSF barrier. Therefore, increased fibronectin processing may be associated with barrier disruption and participate in the extravasation and migration of eosinophils into the CNS during experimental parasitic infection. PMID:25660199

Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Hu, Ming-E; Chou, Chun-Hui; Chen, Ke-Min; Chiu, Ping-Sung; Lai, Shih-Chan

2015-01-01

411

Eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue: a rare and confusing clinical entity.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic ulcers are rare, benign, reactive and often self-limiting lesions of the oral cavity. Although the aetiology is not clear, trauma is believed to play a role in their development. Clinically, the lesion manifests as an isolated ulcer, with raised, indurated borders and a yellow fibrinous floor; because of its long duration it often leads to the suspicion of squamous cell carcinoma. Although the ulcer is benign in nature, a biopsy is necessary to rule out malignancy. Histopathologically, the ulcer is characterised by the presence of dense inflammatory infiltrate extending into the deeper muscle layers with sheets of lymphocytes intermixed with eosinophils. This is a case report of a 65-year-old woman with an eosinophilic ulcer on the lateral border of the tongue. The ulcer healed rapidly after an incisional biopsy and topical steroid application. The final diagnosis was achieved following clinical and histopathological examination. PMID:25837658

Lingaraju, Naresh; Besagarahally Gaddelingiah, Yogesh; Shivalingu, Mahesh Mysore; Khanum, Nishath

2015-01-01

412

Eosinophilic meningitis: a suspected case of angiostrongylosis found in Shizuoka Prefecture, Honshu, Japan.  

PubMed

A patient with eosinophilic meningitis in Shizuoka Prefecture, Honshu, Japan had nausea, vomiting and headache on admission; laboratory examinations revealed leukocytosis with eosinophilia. Eight days later neck stiffness appeared. Lumbar puncture showed an increase of the initial pressure in association with eosinophilic pleocytosis in the spinal fluid. The possibility of angiostrongylosis was considered because the patient had eaten raw slugs for 4 years as a remedy for lumbago. Although the serum contained cross-reactive antibodies against Toxocara canis, positive reactions to Angiostrongylus cantonensis antigens were observed in all of the immunological tests made. These observations, together with results of epidemiological studies in Honshu carried out by other investigators, suggest that the present case of eosinophilic meningitis may have been caused by A. cantonensis. One previous case has been reported from Honshu Island, Japan. PMID:434313

Kojima, S; Hata, H; Kobayashi, M; Yokogawa, M; Takahashi, N; Takaso, T; Kaneda, J

1979-01-01

413

PXD101 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-10-08

414

Decitabine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-02-25

415

Decitabine and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-11-06

416

Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-09-23

417

Vaccine Therapy Plus Immune Adjuvant in Treating Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2013-01-04

418

Sputum eosinophils and exhaled nitric oxide during late asthmatic reaction in patients with western red cedar asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of sputum for eosinophils and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide have been proposed as noninvasive methods of assessing airway inflammation in asthma. The use of these tests in the evaluation of patients with occupational asthma has not been reported. This study investigated the changes in sputum eosinophils and exhaled NO before and at intervals after inhalation challenge with plicatic

H. Obata; M. Dittrick; H. Chan; M. Chan-Yeung

1999-01-01

419

Exploring the Link Between Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Esophageal Foreign Bodies in the Pediatric Population A CASE REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) has a clinical presentation similar to gastroesophageal reflux disease but is often refractory to acid suppressing medications and patients often continue to be symptomatic. In addition, acute dysphagia associated with food impaction of the esophagus has been reported to be associated with eosinophilic esophagitis. We report on 61 consecutive patients who presented with acute dysphagia and had

Patrick M. Vannelli; Nader N. Youssef; John J. Oppenheimer; Joel R. Rosh

420

Eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a returned traveler: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is the principal cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide, and the increase in world travel and shipborne dispersal of infected rat vectors has extended this parasite to regions outside of its traditional geographic boundaries. We report a case of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis in a patient who recently returned from a trip in the Pacific. PMID:11568860

Lo Re, V; Gluckman, S J

2001-11-01

421

Eosinophils Modulate CD4(+) T Cell Responses via High Mobility Group Box-1 in the Pathogenesis of Asthma.  

PubMed

Eosinophils have been reported to modulate T cell responses. Previously, we reported that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) played a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma. This study was conducted to test our hypothesis that eosinophils could modulate T cell responses via HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of asthma characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation. We performed in vitro experiments using eosinophils, dendritic cells (DCs), and CD4(+) T cells obtained from a murine model of asthma. The supernatant of the eosinophil culture was found to significantly increase the levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 in the supernatant of CD4(+) T cells co-cultured with DCs. HMGB1 levels increased in the supernatant of the eosinophil culture stimulated with IL-5. Anti-HMGB1 antibodies significantly attenuated increases of IL-4 and IL-5 levels in the supernatant of CD4(+) T cells co-cultured with DCs that were induced by the supernatant of the eosinophil culture. In addition, anti-HMGB1 antibodies significantly attenuated the expressions of activation markers (CD44 and CD69) on CD4(+) T cells. Our data suggest that eosinophils modulate CD4(+) T cell responses via HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of asthma. PMID:25729627

Shim, Eun-Jin; Chun, Eunyoung; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Bang, Bo-Ram; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Park, Heung-Woo

2015-03-01

422

Three-dimensional crystal structure of human eosinophil cationic protein (RNase 3) at 1.75 Å resolution1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP; RNase 3) is a human ribonuclease found only in eosinophil leukocytes that belongs to the RNase A super- family. This enzyme is bactericidal, helminthotoxic and cytotoxic to mam- malian cells and tissues. The protein has been cloned, heterologously overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Its crystal structure has been determined and refined using data up to 1.75 Aresolution.

Goretti Mallorqu??-Fernández; Joan Pous; Rosa Peracaula; Joan Aymam??; Takashi Maeda; Hiroko Tada; Hidenori Yamada; Masaharu Seno; Rafael de Llorens; F. Xavier Gomis-Rüth

2000-01-01

423

Eosinophils in the oesophageal mucosa: clinical, pathological and epidemiological relevance in children: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EO) shows eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa and can present with symptoms indistinguishable from gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GORD). The authors describe the clinical, endoscopic and histopathological features of all cases of histological EO presenting during 2007–2008 with a 2-year follow-up. The incidence of paediatric EO and the features of a subgroup with features of both GORD and EO (‘overlap’ syndrome (OS)) are described. Design Biopsies with an average of 15 eosinophils/high-power field (HPF) were reviewed in the cohort. OS was suggested when there was coexistence of clinical and histological features of EO and GORD (abnormal pH study), which improved with proton pump inhibitors. Setting Tertiary care. Participants All cases with ?15 eosinophils/HPF entered the study. Primary outcome measures Patients with EO had an average of 15 eosinophils/HPF. Secondary outcome measures Other histological features of EO included microabscesses, dilated intercellular spaces, basal cell hyperplasia, papillary elongation, etc. Results 24 cases of EO were identified, 13 men and 11 women. The incidence of paediatric oesophageal eosinophilia in the region was 9/100?000 children. 11 of the 24 patients (46%) presented with some form of allergy, six with poor feeding/food aversion, five with dysphagia and four with vomiting. After follow-up, 56.5% were confirmed to have EO, 30.5% responded to treatment for GORD and were categorised as OS, 9% developed eosinophilic gastroenteritis and 4% did not have further upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis of EO, especially the differentiation from GORD, requires appropriate clinicopathological correlation. A significant proportion of patients with eosinophilia in the mucosa also have GORD (OS). These patients improve after treating the underlying GORD. The study was registered as a Service Evaluation with the Trust (number SE74). PMID:22240650

Rao, Prithviraj; Thomson, Mike; Al-Adnani, Mudher

2012-01-01

424

Quantitative evaluation of duodenal eosinophils and mast cells in adult patients with functional dyspepsia.  

PubMed

The role of duodenal eosinophils and mast cells (MCs) in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia (FD) remains poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the counts and degranulation of duodenal eosinophils and MCs in FD patients to explore the association between FD and both cell types. We recruited 141 FD patients and 39 healthy controls for this study. Biopsy specimens were collected from the duodenal bulb (D1) and the descending part (D2) of the duodenum of all participants. Eosinophil counts and degranulation, and MC counts and degranulation at both sites were quantitatively evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, major basic protein immunostaining, and toluidine blue staining, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was applied to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these parameters in identifying FD cases. We found that the eosinophil counts at D2 were considerably increased in FD patients compared with healthy controls, and that the proportion of cases with eosinophil degranulation at D2 was significantly higher in the FD group. In addition, FD patients showed significantly increased MC counts and degranulation both at D1 and D2, and receiver operating characteristic analysis further demonstrated that these parameters, in particular the degranulation of MCs, appear to be highly sensitive and specific for the identification of FD patients. Our findings suggest that the increased eosinophil counts and degranulation at D2, and the increased MC counts and degranulation at D1 and D2 may be the histologic markers of FD. MC degranulation at D1 and D2 appears to be highly sensitive and specific for FD identification. PMID:25735567

Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaopei; Ge, Wenqing; Huang, Jian; Li, Gaiqin; Cong, Yanqun; Li, Fukang; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Zhiyan; Li, Yanqing; Yuan, Haipeng

2015-04-01

425

Tryptase staining of mast cells may differentiate eosinophilic esophagitis from gastroesophageal reflux disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives Mast cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), but their role in diagnosis is unknown. Our aim was to determine whether tryptase staining of esophageal mast cells differentiates EoE from GERD and has utility for diagnosis of EoE. Methods We performed a case-control study comparing patients with EoE, defined by consensus guidelines, to GERD patients with eosinophils on esophageal biopsy. Immunohistochemistry was performed with mast cell tryptase. The density (mast cells/mm2) and intensity (0–4 scale) of mast cell staining was compared between groups after masking the diagnosis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed, and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated to assess mast cell staining as both a stand-alone diagnostic test and an adjunctive assay with eosinophil counts. Results Fifty-four EoE (mean age: 24; 69% male; mean 146 eos/hpf) and 55 GERD (mean age 34; 60% male; mean 20 eos/hpf) patients were analyzed. The maximum epithelial tryptase density was higher in EoE than in GERD (162 ± 87 mast cells/mm2 vs 67 ± 54; p<0.001). Mast cells were diffusely distributed throughout the biopsy in more EoE than GERD patients (41% vs 7%; p<0.001). Tryptase density and eosinophil count were only weakly correlated (R2=0.09; p=0.002). The AUC was 0.84 for tryptase staining alone, and 0.96 for the combination of mast cells and eosinophils. Conclusions Patients with EoE have higher levels of tryptase positive mast cells compared to GERD patients, improving the diagnostic value of biopsies beyond eosinophil counts alone. Mast cell tryptase may have utility as a diagnostic assay for EoE. PMID:20978486

Dellon, Evan S.; Chen, Xiaoxin; Miller, C. Ryan; Fritchie, Karen J.; Rubinas, Tara C.; Woosley, John T.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

2015-01-01

426

Protein kinase C activation inhibits eosinophil degranulation through stimulation of intracellular cAMP production  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of inhibition of eosinophil degranulation by protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated in complement C5a (C5a)-stimulated degranulation of highly purified human eosinophils using the specific PKC activator – phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). C5a-induced release of eosinophil peroxidase and eosinophil cationic protein was potently inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by PMA (IC50: 3 and 5 nM, respectively). The inhibition by PMA, but not histamine, was significantly reversed by the specific, but isoform nonselective, PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (1 ?M). In the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram (5 ?M), PMA stimulated a pronounced concentration-dependent increase in intracellular cAMP, with a potency 400 times that of histamine (EC50: 55 nM vs 22.5 ?M). The inactive PMA analogue, 4?-PMA, had no such effect. The cAMP production by PMA, but not histamine, was significantly reversed by Ro 31-8220 (1 ?M) and the selective inhibitor of the novel PKC?, rottlerin (1–3 ?M), but not the selective inhibitor of the classical PKC isoforms, Gö 6976 (0.01–0.1 ?M). Western blot analysis revealed the presence of six PKC isoforms (?, ?I, ?II, ?, ? and ?) in isolated eosinophils. Chelation of internal or external calcium had no effect on PMA-induced cAMP response, but abolished that induced by histamine. There was a good correlation between increase in intracellular cAMP and inhibition of degranulation. These results show, for the first time, that in human eosinophils, PMA, via activation of PKC? isoform, can stimulate cAMP production, and that this may be the basis for its potent anti-degranulatory effect. PMID:15504748

Ezeamuzie, Charles I; Taslim, Najla

2004-01-01

427

Frequency, levels, and significance of blood eosinophilia in systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, and eosinophilic fasciitis.  

PubMed

Blood eosinophilia is a common feature of eosinophilic fasciitis and is variably reported in systemic sclerosis and localized scleroderma. Since these diseases share cutaneous fibrosis as the final outcome and have other clinical and pathologic features that are difficult to differentiate, the presence of blood eosinophilia may be a further source of confusion. In this study, we examined the frequency and level of blood eosinophilia in 715 patients with systemic sclerosis, 72 patients with localized scleroderma, and 22 patients with clinically active eosinophilic fasciitis. When defined as greater than 400 cells/mm3, eosinophilia was present in 7% of patients with systemic sclerosis, 31% of patients with localized scleroderma, and 83% of patients with eosinophilic fasciitis. Greater than 1000 eosinophils/mm3 were present less frequently in systemic sclerosis (1%) and localized scleroderma (8%) than in eosinophilic fasciitis (61%). No difference in the frequency of eosinophilia was present in patients with the limited cutaneous CREST syndrome or the diffuse cutaneous variety of systemic sclerosis, and in these patients the presence of eosinophilia did not correlate with the extent of cutaneous or internal organ involvement or with other laboratory abnormalities. Among patients with localized scleroderma, eosinophilia was more common in those with linear scleroderma and generalized morphea than in those with morphea, and both the frequency and level of eosinophilia were greater in individuals with clinically active disease (p less than 0.02). Eosinophilia was a persistent feature in untreated patients with active eosinophilic fasciitis, even up to 30 months of disease duration. PMID:3668010

Falanga, V; Medsger, T A

1987-10-01

428

Risk-Based Classification System of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

2014-09-09

429

Management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia has undergone profound changes that have been driven by an improved understanding of the biology of the disease and the approval of several new drugs. Moreover, many novel drugs are currently under evaluation for rapid approval or have been approved by regulatory agencies, further broadening the available therapeutic armamentarium for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The use of novel biological and genetic parameters combined with a careful clinical evaluation allows us to dissect some of the heterogeneity of the disease and to distinguish patients with a very mild onset and course, who often will not need any treatment, from those with an intermediate prognosis and a third group with a very aggressive course (high-risk leukemia). On this background, it becomes increasingly challenging to select the right treatment strategy. In this paper, we describe our own approach to the management of different patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:24881042

Ghia, Paolo; Hallek, Michael

2014-01-01

430

How Is Childhood Leukemia Classified?  

MedlinePLUS

... mature into megakaryocytes (the cells that make platelets). World Health Organization (WHO) classification of AML The FAB ... phases, but a common system (proposed by the World Health Organization) is described below. If the leukemia ...

431

Genetic predispositions to childhood leukemia  

PubMed Central

While the majority of leukemia cases occur in the absence of any known predisposing factor, there are germline mutations that significantly increase the risk of developing hematopoietic malignancies in childhood. In this review article, we describe a number of these mutations and their clinical features. These predispositions can be broadly classified as those leading to bone marrow failure, those involving tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair defects, immunodeficiencies or other congenital syndromes associated with transient myeloid disorders. While leukemia can develop as a secondary event in the aforementioned syndromes, there are also several syndromes that specifically lead to the development of leukemia as their primary phenotype. Many of the genes discussed in this review can also be somatically mutated in other cancers, highlighting the importance of understanding shared alterations and mechanisms underpinning syndromic and sporadic leukemia. PMID:23926459

Stieglitz, Elliot

2013-01-01

432

Prognostic significance of early molecular response in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old man presented with splenomegaly (10 cm below left costal margin) and leucocytosis (145 × 10(9)/L). Differential showed neutrophilia with increased basophils (2%), eosinophils (1.5%), and left shift including myeloblasts (3%). A diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase was established after marrow cytogenetics demonstrated the Philadelphia chromosome. Molecular studies showed a BCR-ABL1 qPCR result of 65% on the International Scale. Imatinib therapy at 400 mg daily was initiated due to patient preference, with achievement of complete hematological response after 4 weeks of therapy. BCR-ABL1 at 1 and 3 months after starting therapy was 37% and 13%, respectively (all reported on International Scale). Is this considered an adequate molecular response? PMID:25696861

Yeung, David T; Mauro, Michael J

2014-12-01

433

Automated image analysis in the study of lymphocyte subpopulation in eosinophilic oesophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is characterized by the presence of eosinophils in oesophageal mucosa. Other inflammatory cells, mainly lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cells may also play an important role in this disease. The aim of this study is to compare the inflammatory pattern of the mucosa between EoE and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), using automatic image analysis in digital slides, and to assess treatment response after elimination diet and food challenge test. Methods From 2010 to 2013, 35 oesophageal biopsies from EoE and GERD patients were randomly selected. In six EoE biopsies, patients had been treated with selective food exclusion diet. Immunohistochemical study with CD3, CD20, CD4, and CD8 for lymphocyte populations, CD1a for dendritic cells, and CD117/c-kit for mast cells was performed. Slides were scanned using Leica Aperio Scanscope XT with 40× magnification. Immunohistochemical expression was quantified in 245 immunohistochemistry digital slides with Leica Aperio positive pixel count algorithm using two different approaches: whole slide analysis versus selection of a 2 mm2 hot spot area. Results Average eosinophil cell count was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the first biopsy of EoE patients before treatment (30.75 eosinophils per high power field - HPF) than in GERD patients (0.85 eosinophils/HPF) or in EoE patients after treatment with elimination diet (1.60 eosinophils/HPF). In the immunohistochemical study, manual count and automatic image analysis showed a significant increase in the number of CD3 and CD8 cells in EoE patients, compared with GERD patients. However, the increase of CD117/c-kit was only statistically significant when manual counting procedures were used. CD20 positive cell count also showed a non-statistically significant tendency to reduce after elimination diet treatment. Manual eosinophil count correlated much better with CD3 and CD8 count using hot spot approach than with a whole slide approach. Conclusions Positive pixel count algorithm can be a useful tool to quantify the immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory cells in the diagnosis and follow up of eosinophilic oesophagitis. PMID:25565117

2014-01-01

434

Effectiveness of dietary allergen exclusion therapy on eosinophilic colitis in chinese infants and young children ? 3 years of age.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic colitis is a well recognized clinical entity mainly associated with food allergies. Empiric treatment options include dietary allergen exclusion (extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and elimination diet), anti-allergy medications (antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists) and corticosteroids. We evaluated the effectiveness of dietary antigen exclusion on clinical remission of eosinophilic colitis in infants and young children. We retrospectively reviewed charts of all infants and children ?3 years of age who were diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (defined as mucosal eosinophilia ?20 hpf-1) from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 at a tertiary children's hospital in China. Forty-nine children were identified with eosinophilic colitis. Elemental formula, simple elimination diet or combination therapy resulted in clinical improvement in 75%, 88.2% and 80% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic colitis in infants and children ?3 years of age responded well to dietary allergen exclusion. PMID:25768952

Yang, Min; Geng, Lanlan; Chen, Peiyu; Wang, Fenghua; Xu, Zhaohui; Liang, Cuiping; Li, Huiwen; Fang, Tiefu; Friesen, Craig A; Gong, Sitang; Li, Dingyou

2015-01-01

435

EOSINOPHILIC ESOPHAGITIS: FROM PHYSIOPATHOLOGY TO Sabine Roman (1,2), Edoardo Savarino (3), Vincenzo Savarino (4), Franois Mion (1,2).  

E-print Network

EOSINOPHILIC ESOPHAGITIS: FROM PHYSIOPATHOLOGY TO TREATMENT Sabine Roman (1,2), Edoardo Savarino (3;Page 2 of 26 Abstract Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. Food and aero-allergens are involved in its pathogenesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

436

Natural history of primary eosinophilic esophagitis: a follow-up of 30 adult patients for up to 11.5 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Primary eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic, increasingly recognized, interleukin 5-driven inflammatory disorder of the esophagus. The leading symptom in adults is uniform attacks of dysphagia, and the established histologic sign is a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. Before this study, the natural course of eosinophilic esophagitis had not been defined and information regarding potential long-term

Alex Straumann; Hans-peter Spichtin; Leticia Grize; Kathleen A Bucher; Christoph Beglinger; Hans-uwe Simon

2003-01-01

437

Antibody Therapy for Pediatric Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Despite increasing cure rates for pediatric leukemia, relapsed disease still carries a poor prognosis with significant morbidity and mortality. Novel targeted therapies are currently being investigated in an attempt to reduce adverse events and improve survival outcomes. Antibody therapies represent a form of targeted therapy that offers a new treatment paradigm. Monoclonal antibodies are active in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are currently in Phase III trials. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are the next generation of antibodies where a highly potent cytotoxic agent is bound to an antibody by a linker, resulting in selective targeting of leukemia cells. ADCs are currently being tested in clinical trials for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia and ALL. Bispecific T cell engager (BiTE) antibodies are a construct whereby each antibody contains two binding sites, with one designed to engage the patient’s own immune system and the other to target malignant cells. BiTE antibodies show great promise as a novel and effective therapy for childhood leukemia. This review will outline recent developments in targeted agents for pediatric leukemia including monoclonal antibodies, ADCs, and BiTE antibodies. PMID:24795859

Vedi, Aditi; Ziegler, David S.

2014-01-01

438

Molecular diagnosis of lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

The mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene at chromosome band 11q23 is commonly involved in reciprocal translocations that is detected in acute leukemia. The MLL gene, commonly known as mixed lineage leukemia or myeloid lymphoid leukemia, has been independently identified and cloned from the 11q23 breakpoint of acute leukemia. We describe a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia whose cells had shown reciprocal translocation between short arm (p21) of chromosome 2 and long arm (q23) of chromosome number 11 [t(2;11) (p21;q23)] by cytogenetic analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) was also performed for reconfirmation with a probe for MLL which showed split signals, hybridizing to both the derivative 2 and 11 chromosomes. Our study confirmed FISH as the most suitable assay for detecting MLL rearrangements because of its sensitivity and speed. It recommended that FISH should be used as complementary to conventional cytogenetic analysis. In conclusion, evaluation of the t(2;11)(p21;q23) was done by molecular clarification and flow cytometry. PMID:24125990

Goud, Kalal Iravathy; Dayakar, Seetha; Prasad, S V S S; Rao, Koteshwar N; Shaik, Amina; Vanjakshi, S

2013-01-01

439

Human eosinophils constitutively express multiple Th1, Th2, and immunoregulatory cytokines that are secreted rapidly and differentially  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are innate immune leukocytes implicated in the initiation and maintenance of type 2 immune responses, including asthma and allergy. The ability to store and rapidly secrete preformed cytokines distinguishes eosinophils from most lymphocytes, which must synthesize cytokine proteins prior to secretion and may be a factor in the apparent Th2 bias of eosinophils. Multiple studies confirm that human eosinophils from atopic or hypereosinophilic donors can secrete over 30 cytokines with a varying and often opposing immune-polarizing potential. However, it remains unclear whether all of these cytokines are constitutively preformed and available for rapid secretion from eosinophils in the circulation of healthy individuals or are restricted to eosinophils from atopic donors. Likewise, the relative concentrations of cytokines stored within eosinophils have not been studied. Here, we demonstrate that human blood eosinophils are not singularly outfitted with Th2-associated cytokines but rather, constitutively store a cache of cytokines with nominal Th1, Th2, and regulatory capacities, including IL-4, IL-13, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-?, and TNF-?. We demonstrate further rapid and differential release of each cytokine in response to specific stimuli. As agonists, strong Th1 and inflammatory cytokines elicited release of Th2-promoting IL-4 but not Th1-inducing IL-12. Moreover, a large quantity of IFN-? was secreted in response to Th1, Th2, and inflammatory stimuli. Delineations of the multifarious nature of preformed eosinophil cytokines and the varied stimulus-dependent profiles of rapid cytokine secretion provide insights into the functions of human eosinophils in mediating inflammation and initiation of specific immunity. PMID:18840671

Spencer, Lisa A.; Szela, Craig T.; Perez, Sandra A. C.; Kirchhoffer, Casey L.; Neves, Josiane S.; Radke, Amy L.; Weller, Peter F.

2009-01-01

440

A case of eosinophilic pneumonia simultaneously diagnosed in a patient and a tame cat: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is an idiopathic disorder of unknown etiology. Corticosteroid treatment provides a good response but recurrence frequently occurs after tapering of corticosteroid. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia occurs predominantly in middle-aged women and non-cigarette smokers, which leads to the speculation that environmental antigens, particularly in the home, contribute to the etiology. Case presentation A 66-year-old Japanese woman was given a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia for 8 years and was treated with prednisone. She developed respiratory symptoms again with tapering of prednisone (10mg/day). A chest radiograph revealed patchy shadows in her bilateral upper lung fields, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed marked eosinophilia. Based on negative findings for other causes of eosinophilia, the diagnosis of the recurrence of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was established. She was treated with prednisone (20mg/day), which demonstrated rapid improvement. Around the same time, her tame cat developed oral breathing, tachypnea and peripheral eosinophilia. Chest radiography of the cat revealed ground-glass opacity in its bilateral upper lung fields. Eosinophilic pneumonia was also diagnosed in the cat that was treated by prednisone (3mg/day). Since eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed simultaneously in the patient and her tame cat, it can be suggested that inhaled environmental antigens in the home caused the eosinophilic pneumonia. After moving out of her home, she and the cat had no recurrence of eosinophilic pneumonia. Conclusions Although chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is an idiopathic disorder of unknown etiology, our case suggests that inhaled environmental antigens in the home may be associated with the causes of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. A pet’s disease may give us an important clue for the therapeutic approach of the owner’s disease. PMID:24594228

2014-01-01