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1

Anti-proliferative and differentiation-inducing activities of the green tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach for the treatment of leukemia is the differentiation therapy in which immature leukemia cells are induced to attain a mature phenotype when exposed to differentiation inducers, either alone or in combinations with other chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive drugs. Over the past decade, numerous studies indicated that green tea catechins (GTC) could suppress the growth and induce apoptosis on

H. L Lung; W. K Ip; C. K Wong; N. K Mak; Z. Y Chen; K. N Leung

2002-01-01

2

Differentiation of a human eosinophilic leukemic cell line, EoL-1: characterization by the expression of cytokine receptors, adhesion molecules, CD95 and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification of enough eosinophils for the study of allergic inflammation is difficult because eosinophils comprise only a small percentage of circulating leucocytes. A human eosinophilic leukemic cell line, EoL-1, has been considered to be an in vitro eosinophilic model. In the present study, the suitability of EoL-1 cells as an eosinophilic model was further investigated. EoL-1 cells were induced to

C. K Wong; C. Y Ho; C. W. K Lam; J. P Zhang; N. M Hjelm

1999-01-01

3

Mechanisms for the proliferation of eosinophilic leukemia cells by FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}  

SciTech Connect

The constitutively activated tyrosine kinase Fip1-like 1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha} (PDGFR{alpha}) causes eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells to proliferate. Recently, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors suppressed this proliferation and induced the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils in parallel with a decrease in the level of FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation and whether the suppression of cell proliferation triggers the differentiation into eosinophils. The FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} inhibitor imatinib inhibited the proliferation of EoL-1 cells and decreased the level of the oncoprotein c-Myc as well as the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The proliferation of EoL-1 cells and expression of c-Myc were also inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126 and JNK inhibitor SP600125. The expression of the eosinophilic differentiation marker CCR3 was not induced by imatinib. These findings suggest that FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation of EoL-1 cells through the induction of c-Myc expression via ERK and JNK signaling pathways, but is not involved in the inhibition of differentiation toward mature eosinophils.

Ishihara, Kenji; Kitamura, Hajime; Hiraizumi, Kenji; Kaneko, Motoko; Takahashi, Aki [Laboratory of Pathophysiological Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Zee, OkPyo [Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Graduate School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seyama, Toshio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hong, JangJa; Ohuchi, Kazuo [Laboratory of Pathophysiological Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hirasawa, Noriyasu [Laboratory of Pathophysiological Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)], E-mail: hirasawa@mail.pharm.tohoku.ac.jp

2008-02-22

4

Nilotinib and Imatinib Are Comparably Effective in Reducing Growth of Human Eosinophil Leukemia Cells in a Newly Established Xenograft Model  

PubMed Central

We developed a xenograft model of human Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL) to study disease progression and remission-induction under therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors using imatinib and nilotinib as examples. The FIP1L1/PDGFRA+ human CEL cell lineEOL-1 was injected intravenously into scid mice, and MR imaging and FACS analysis of mouse blood samples were performed to monitor disease development and the effects of imatinib and nilotinib. Organ infiltration was analyzed in detail by immunohistochemistry after sacrifice. All animals developed CEL and within one week of therapy, complete remissions were seen with both imatinib and nilotinib, resulting in reduced total tumor volumes by MR-imaging and almost complete disappearance of EOL-1 cells in the peripheral blood and in tissues. The new model system is feasible for the evaluation of new tyrosine kinase inhibitors and our data suggest that nilotinib may be a valuable additional targeted drug active in patients with FIP1L1/PDGFRA+ CEL.

Salamon, Johannes; Thamer, Mohammed; Herrmann, Harald; Valent, Peter; Schumacher, Udo; Ullrich, Sebastian

2012-01-01

5

Nilotinib and imatinib are comparably effective in reducing growth of human eosinophil leukemia cells in a newly established xenograft model.  

PubMed

We developed a xenograft model of human Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL) to study disease progression and remission-induction under therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors using imatinib and nilotinib as examples. The FIP1L1/PDGFRA+ human CEL cell lineEOL-1 was injected intravenously into scid mice, and MR imaging and FACS analysis of mouse blood samples were performed to monitor disease development and the effects of imatinib and nilotinib. Organ infiltration was analyzed in detail by immunohistochemistry after sacrifice. All animals developed CEL and within one week of therapy, complete remissions were seen with both imatinib and nilotinib, resulting in reduced total tumor volumes by MR-imaging and almost complete disappearance of EOL-1 cells in the peripheral blood and in tissues. The new model system is feasible for the evaluation of new tyrosine kinase inhibitors and our data suggest that nilotinib may be a valuable additional targeted drug active in patients with FIP1L1/PDGFRA+ CEL. PMID:22348015

Wicklein, Daniel; Ramos Leal, Nuno; Salamon, Johannes; Thamer, Mohammed; Herrmann, Harald; Valent, Peter; Schumacher, Udo; Ullrich, Sebastian

2012-02-14

6

Troglitazone Suppresses Cell Growth of Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines by Induction of p21WAF1\\/CIP1 Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a human eosinophilic leukemia cell line, EoL-1, cell proliferation was suppressed by 2-day treatment with troglitazone. EoL-1 cells treated with troglitazone were arrested and maintained in the G0\\/G1 phase in the cell cycle. This suppression correlated with the up-regulation of mRNA for p21WAF1\\/CIP1 cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor. The inhibitory effects of troglitazone on cell proliferation and expression of p21

Atsushi Sugimura; Yoshimitsu Kiriyama; Hiromi Nochi; Hiroyuki Tsuchiya; Kouichi Tamoto; Yuhsuke Sakurada; Michio Ui; Yukiko Tokumitsu

1999-01-01

7

Myeloprolipherative disorder type chronic myeloid leukemia--eosinophilic form.  

PubMed

Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a very rare form of leucemia in the western world. Adequate response is seldomly achieved after treatment with corticosteroids, interferon-alfa (INF-alfa) and medications containing hydroxi-urea (Litalir). The study presents a patient with CEL with no initial therapeutic response to the use of corticosteroids, INF-alfa and hydroxy-urea, and with neither clinical nor hematological response. After setting a diagnosis of CEL, patient was ordinated Imatinib (Glivec tabbletes) in a daily dose of 200 mg. Two days afterwards there was an evident withdrawal of subjective and clinical symptoms of disease, and the complete blood count showed significant amendment. PMID:21776882

Arnautovic-Custovic, Aida; Hasic, Samira; Kopic, Emina; Jahic, Azra; Jovic, Svetlana

2011-01-01

8

Fatal diffuse alveolar damage complicating acute myeloid leukemia with abnormal eosinophils and trisomy X  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We describe a case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with abnormal eosinophils in a 44-year-old Chinese woman that was complicated by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) shortly after induction chemotherapy. Cytogenetic study of bone marrow cells at diagnosis showed a rare aberration of trisomy X (+X) as the sole acquired karyotypic abnormality. We speculate that tissue

T. S. K. Wan; S. Yip; Y. Yeung; L. Chan; S. Ma

2002-01-01

9

Ultrastructural characteristics of developingeosinophil leukocytes in human bone marrow during acute leukemia. Evidence for extracellular granule release from human eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing eosinophils from the bone marrow of a patient with acute “eosinophilicleukemia were characterized by electron microscopy. It was suggested that the first sequential step in granule formation occurred at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum without actual participation of the Golgi complex. Progressive densification of the former profiles, presumably mediated by Golgi vesicles, resulted in the formation of

A. Anteunis; A. Astesano; R. Robineaux

1977-01-01

10

Complete molecular remission of chronic eosinophilic leukemia complicated by CNS disease after targeted therapy with imatinib  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many cases of hypereosinophilia, formerly classified as hypereosinophilic syndrome, can now be characterized as chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) based on the demonstration of characteristic genetic markers indicating clonality of hematopoiesis. Here we report on a 33-year-old male patient with central nervous system manifestations of CEL and an excellent response to low-dose imatinib (Glivec). Molecular analysis demonstrated a constitutive activation of

Norbert Frickhofen; Elisabeth Märker-Hermann; Andreas Reiter; Christoph Walz; Bernd Jung; Heidi Bauer; Andreas Hochhaus

2004-01-01

11

Characterization of interleukin 5 receptors on eosinophilic sublines from human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells  

PubMed Central

The T cell product interleukin 5 (IL-5) has been shown to be a key factor in the development and the maturation of the eosinophilic cell lineage. We report here on the detection of human IL-5 receptors on eosinophilic sublines of the promyelocytic leukemia HL-60. Sodium butyrate, which initiates differentiation to mature eosinophils, also induces the appearance of high affinity (Kd 1-5 X 10(-11) M) IL-5 binding sites on these cells. The receptors are specific for IL-5, since binding of radiolabeled ligand can only be inhibited with homologous or murine IL-5 and not by other cytokines. We further show that the receptors are functional, since IL-5 can stimulate the proliferation of these cells. Affinity crosslinking of surface-bound 125I human IL-5 or 35S mouse IL-5 identified two membrane polypeptides of approximately 60 and approximately 130 kD to which IL-5 is closely associated. The presence of granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor or tumor necrosis factor during butyrate induction decreased the expression of IL-5 binding sites compared with control cultures. The identification and characterization of human IL-5 receptors on HL-60 sublines should provide new insight into the role of this cytokine in eosinophil differentiation.

1990-01-01

12

IFN-? and TNF-? potentiate prostaglandin D2-induced human eosinophil chemotaxis through up-regulation of CRTH2 surface receptor.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptor CRTH2, is a pro-inflammatory molecule involved in eosinophil recruitment to the allergic airway. We investigated the expression of CRTH2 in eosinophil from allergic rhinitis patients (AR) and tested the modulatory role of several TH1 and TH2 cytokines closely related to the allergic immunological response, on the expression of CRTH2 receptor, utilizing human eosinophil cell line (Eol-1).The expression of CRTH2 was tested by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry (FACS). Chemotaxis was performed in micro-chemotaxis chambers. It is shown that the expression of CRTH2 by eosinophils was significantly higher in the nasal tissue and peripheral blood of AR patients, when compared to control subjects. PGD2 exhibited a typical bell shape dose response in attracting eosinophil from AR patients with optimal activity at 10(-7) M. Eol-1 cell surface expression of CRTH2 was significantly up-regulated by 10 ng/ml IFN-? and TNF-?. The percentage of Eol-1 cells expressing the receptor increased by IFN-? and TNF-? from 12.74%±2.66 to 55%±8 and 33.8%±9.4, respectively. PGD2-induced Eol-1 chemotaxis was not blocked by SB203580, H-89 Dihydrochloride, Bisindo-lylmaleimide, or Genistein. PGD2-induced Eol-1 chemotaxis was potentiated by IFN-? and TNF-? without changing the signal transduction pathway. Correlation of our results to peripheral blood eosinophils from allergic rhinitis patients confirmed that 3 hour pretreatment of eosinophils by 10 ng/ml IFN-? and TNF-?, increased the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CRTH2 from 8.23 to 9.68 and 9.38, respectively, and potentiated PGD2-induced eosinophil chemotaxis. Our results demonstrate a novel synergism between PGD2, IFN-? and TNF-?, in eosinophil chemotaxis. PMID:21835268

El-Shazly, A E; Moonen, V; Mawet, M; Begon, D; Henket, M; Arafa, M; Louis, R; Delvenne, P; Lefebvre, P P

2011-08-09

13

Molecular cloning and characterization of ETHYLENE OVERPRODUCER 1-LIKE 1 gene, LeEOL1, from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit.  

PubMed

Recently, ETHYLENE OVERPRODUCER 1 (ETO1) had been cloned and identified as a negative post-transcriptional regulator in the ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. However, little was known about the role of ETO1 in other species, especially in tomato, which was an ideal model for studying the biosynthesis of ethylene during tomato fruit ripening. In this study, a tomato ETHYLENE OVERPRODUCER 1-LIKE 1 (LeEOL1) was cloned. The LeEOL1 cDNA was 3,515 bp long and carried an ORF that putatively encoded a polypeptide of 886 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 95 kDa. It shared 74% identity in amino acid sequence with Arabidopsis EOL1 and had one BTB (Broad-complex, Tramtrack, Bric-à-brac) domain and two TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains, which were also conserved domains in AtEOL1. RT-PCR analysis of the temporal expression of LeEOL1 showed that its transcript decreased companied with increase of ethylene production in tomato ripening. The level of LeEOL1 transcripts in wild type tomato fruit at mature green stage did not distinctively change when treated with exogenous ethylene. PMID:17364824

Zhu, Hong-Liang; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Shao, Yi; Lin, Xi-Jin; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Gao, Hong-Yan; Xie, Yun-Hong; Li, Ying-Cong; Luo, Yun-Bo

2007-04-01

14

The FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene cooperates with IL5 to induce murine hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES)\\/chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL)-like disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysregulated tyrosine kinase activity by the Fip1-like1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) (F\\/P) fusion gene has been identified as a cause of clonal hypereosinophilic syn- drome (HES), called F\\/P-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) in humans. However, transplantation of F\\/P-trans- duced hematopoietic stem cells\\/progeni- tors (F\\/P HSCs\\/Ps) into mice results in a chronic myelogenous leukemia-like dis- ease, which does not

Yoshiyuki Yamada; Marc E. Rothenberg; Andrew W. Lee; Hiroko Saito Akei; Eric B. Brandt; David A. Williams; Jose A. Cancelas

15

Systemic mastocytosis (SM) associated with chronic eosinophilic leukemia (SM-CEL): Detection of FIP1L1\\/PDGFR?, classification by WHO criteria, and response to therapy with imatinib  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on generally accepted criteria and the WHO-classification, a subset of patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) have (or develop) an associated clonal hematologic non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD). We describe a case of SM with coexisting chronic eosinophilic leukemia (SM-CEL). The patient, a 51-year-old male, was first seen in 1992 with small-sized infiltrates of spindle-shaped mast cells in his marrow,

Stefan Florian; Harald Esterbauer; Thomas Binder; Leonhard Müllauer; Oskar A. Haas; Wolfgang R. Sperr; Christian Sillaber; Peter Valent

2006-01-01

16

Identification of JAK2 as a Mediator of FIP1L1-PDGFRA-Induced Eosinophil Growth and Function in CEL  

PubMed Central

The Fip1-like1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha fusion gene (F/P) arising in the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC),causes 14% to 60% of patients with hypereosinophilia syndrome (HES). These patients, classified as having F/P (+) chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), present with clonal eosinophilia and display a more aggressive disease phenotype than patients with F/P (–) HES patients. The mechanisms underlying predominant eosinophil lineage targeting and the cytotoxicity of eosinophils in this leukemia remain unclear. Given that the Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) signaling pathway is key to cytokine receptor-mediated eosinophil development and activated Stat3 and Stat5 regulate the expression of genes involved in F/P malignant transformation, we investigated whether and how JAK proteins were involved in the pathogenesis of F/P-induced CEL. F/P activation of JAK2, Stat3 and Stat5, were confirmed in all the 11 F/P (+) CEL patients examined. In vitro inhibition of JAK2 in EOL-1, primary F/P(+) CEL cells (PC) and T674I F/P Imatinib resistant cells(IR) by either JAK2-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) or the tryphostin derivative AG490(AG490), significantly reduced cellular proliferation and induced cellular apoptosis. The F/P can enhance the IL-5-induced JAK2 activation, and further results indicated that JAK2 inhibition blocked IL-5-induced cellular migration and activation of the EOL-1 and PC cells in vitro. F/P-stimulation of the JAK2 suppressed cells led to a significantly reduction in Stat3 activation, but relatively normal induction of Stat5 activation. Interestingly, JAK2 inhibition also reduced PI3K, Akt and NF-?B activity in a dose-dependent manner, and suppressed expression levels of c-Myc and Survivin. These results strongly suggest that JAK2 is activated by F/P and is required for F/P stimulation of cellular proliferation and infiltration, possibly through induction of c-Myc and Survivin expression via activation of multiple signaling pathways, including NF-?B, Stat3, and PI3K/Akt.

Li, Bin; Zhang, Guangsen; Li, Cui; He, Dan; Li, Xinying; Zhang, Chunfang; Tang, Faqing; Deng, Xiyun; Lu, Jingchen; Tang, Youhong; Li, Ruijuan; Chen, Zhuchu; Duan, Chaojun

2012-01-01

17

The BTB ubiquitin ligases ETO1, EOL1 and EOL2 act collectively to regulate ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis by controlling type-2 ACC synthase levels.  

PubMed

Ethylene biosynthesis is directed by a family of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthases (ACS) that convert S-adenosyl-l-methionine to the immediate precursor ACC. Members of the type-2 ACS subfamily are strongly regulated by proteolysis with various signals stabilizing the proteins to increase ethylene production. In Arabidopsis, this turnover is mediated by the ubiquitin/26 S proteasome system, using a broad complex/tramtrack/bric-a-brac (BTB) E3 assembled with the ETHYLENE OVERPRODUCER 1 (ETO1) BTB protein for target recognition. Here, we show that two Arabidopsis BTB proteins closely related to ETO1, designated ETO1-like (EOL1) and EOL2, also negatively regulate ethylene synthesis via their ability to target ACSs for breakdown. Like ETO1, EOL1 interacts with type-2 ACSs (ACS4, ACS5 and ACS9), but not with type-1 or type-3 ACSs, or with type-2 ACS mutants that stabilize the corresponding proteins in planta. Whereas single and double mutants affecting EOL1 and EOL2 do not show an ethylene-related phenotype, they exaggerate the effects caused by inactivation of ETO1, and further increase ethylene production and the accumulation of ACS5 in eto1 plants. The triple eto1 eol1 eol2 mutant phenotype can be effectively rescued by the ACS inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine, and by silver, which antagonizes ethylene perception. Together with hypocotyl growth assays showing that the sensitivity and response kinetics to ethylene are normal, it appears that ethylene synthesis, but not signaling, is compromised in the triple mutant. Collectively, the data indicate that the Arabidopsis BTB E3s assembled with ETO1, EOL1 and EOL2 work together to negatively regulate ethylene synthesis by directing the degradation of type-2 ACS proteins. PMID:18808454

Christians, Matthew J; Gingerich, Derek J; Hansen, Maureen; Binder, Brad M; Kieber, Joseph J; Vierstra, Richard D

2008-10-30

18

Eosinophilic colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with a bimodal peak of prevalence in neonates and young adults. EC remains a little understood condition in contrast to the increasingly recognized eosinophilic esophagitis. Clinical presentation of EC is highly variable according to mucosal, transmural, or serosal predominance of inflammation. EC has a broad differential diagnosis because

Nnenna Okpara; Bassam Aswad; Gyorgy Baffy

2009-01-01

19

Eosinophilic Pneumonias  

PubMed Central

Summary: This review starts with discussions of several infectious causes of eosinophilic pneumonia, which are almost exclusively parasitic in nature. Pulmonary infections due specifically to Ascaris, hookworms, Strongyloides, Paragonimus, filariasis, and Toxocara are considered in detail. The discussion then moves to noninfectious causes of eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration, including allergic sensitization to Aspergillus, acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonias, Churg-Strauss syndrome, hypereosinophilic syndromes, and pulmonary eosinophilia due to exposure to specific medications or toxins.

Akuthota, Praveen

2012-01-01

20

Eosinophilic colitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with a bimodal peak of prevalence in neonates and young adults. EC remains a little understood condition in contrast to the increasingly recognized eosinophilic esophagitis. Clinical presentation of EC is highly variable according to mucosal, transmural, or serosal predominance of inflammation. EC has a broad differential diagnosis because colon tissue eosinophilia often occurs in parasitic infection, drug-induced allergic reactions, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders, which require thorough searching for secondary causes that may be specifically treated with antibiotics or dietary and drug elimination. Like eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease involving other segments of the gastrointestinal tract, EC responds very well to steroids that may be spared by using antihistamines, leukotriene inhibitors and biologics.

Okpara, Nnenna; Aswad, Bassam; Baffy, Gyorgy

2009-01-01

21

Eosinophilic Fasciitis  

MedlinePLUS

... hydroxychloroquine Some Trade Names PLAQUENIL or the immunosuppressants methotrexate Some Trade Names TREXALL , azathioprine Some Trade Names ... atrophy azathioprine corticosteroid cyclosporine eosinophil fasciitis hydroxychloroquine lymphoma ... systemic sclerosis Back to Top Previous: ...

22

Eosinophilic Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

... us against invasion by bacteria, viruses and other particles which get into our bodies. Eosinophils can amount ... Neutrophils, which can remove and kill bacteria and particles of foreign material. Lymphocytes, are the cells help ...

23

Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal\\u000a mucosa. The pathogenesis is incompletely understood and food allergies and aeroallergens have been implicated. The most common\\u000a clinical presentation in adults is dysphagia to solids. Its associated endoscopic findings are distinct and include concentric\\u000a rings and longitudinal furrows, although endoscopy may be unremarkable in a

Fouad J. Moawad; Ganesh R. Veerappan; Roy K. Wong

2009-01-01

24

Eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. The pathogenesis is incompletely understood and food allergies and aeroallergens have been implicated. The most common clinical presentation in adults is dysphagia to solids. Its associated endoscopic findings are distinct and include concentric rings and longitudinal furrows, although endoscopy may be unremarkable in a minority of patients. A number of management strategies exist; however, data are limited in adults, and only a few are based on randomized controlled trials. Management options include dietary modifications, pharmacological therapy, and endoscopic dilation. PMID:19554448

Moawad, Fouad J; Veerappan, Ganesh R; Wong, Roy K

2009-06-25

25

Eosinophilic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Cell Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders Leukemias Lymphomas Myeloproliferative Disorders Spleen Disorders Topics in White Blood Cell ... Trade Names GLEEVEC , a drug used to treat cancer. If these drugs fail, various other drugs may ...

26

Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... leukemia /DS00351 ">Leukemia Guidelines for sites linking to MayoClinic.com Advertisement Mayo Clinic Store Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. Try Mayo Clinic Health Letter ... answers to live stronger, longer and healthier at any age ...

27

Eosinophils and Disease Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are granulocytic innate immune cells whose presence is conspicuous in a variety of disease states, including eosinophilic hyperproliferative and infiltrative processes, as well as conditions associated with maladaptive Th2 inflammation. This review discusses the role of eosinophils in disease pathogenesis, including a consideration of relevant eosinophil biology. Eosinophilic disease patterns of tissue infiltration are also detailed, as are candidate mechanisms by which eosinophils cause fibrosis and hypercoagulability and the importance of eosinophils in allergic inflammation. Eosinophils are unique cells in their spectrum of associated disease, with the promise of future discoveries in delineating the manner in which they contribute to disease pathogenesis.

Akuthota, Praveen; Weller, Peter F.

2013-01-01

28

Idiopathic Eosinophilic Pneumonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic lung diseases constitute a broad array of disorders of various origin. Beside infectious, drug-induced, and allergic diseases, 4 idiopathic eosinophilic disorders have been identified. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is characterized by progressive cough, dyspnea, fever and weight loss, with moderate blood eosinophilia, multiple alveolar opacities at imaging, and eosinophilic alveolitis. It responds well to corticosteroids, but relapses are frequent

R. Lazor; J. Cordier

2007-01-01

29

Idarubicin and Cytarabine With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

2013-01-23

30

Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2013-06-03

31

Decitabine, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-07-09

32

3-AP and Fludarabine in Treating Patients With Myeloproliferative Disorders, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Accelerated Phase or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Polycythemia Vera; Primary Myelofibrosis; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2013-02-19

33

[Eosinophils and related chemokines].  

PubMed

Chemokines such as RANTES, eotaxin, MIP-1 and MCP-4 are considered to be involved in the pathophysiology of allergic inflammation because of their ability to drive eosinophils through their binding sites, chemokine receptors, expressed on eosinophils. Among those chemokines, RANTES and eotaxin are considered to play important roles in the process of the maturation, migration and activation of eosinophils. An overview of the effect of chemokines on eosinophils throughout their migration from bone marrow to the inflammatory focus is described in this paper. Furthermore, our observations on the effects of chemokines on eosinophils such as adherence through beta-2 integrin, the production of reactive oxygen species, intracellular EG2 content and production of RANTES by eosinophils are reported. PMID:11391951

Kayaba, H; Chihara, J

2001-04-01

34

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a clinicopathological disease affecting both children and adults that is characterized by\\u000a patchy or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract with variable resultant clinical gastrointestinal\\u000a manifestations. The eosinophil, eotaxin, and Th-2 cytokines are important in pathogenesis of this disease entity. It may be\\u000a confused with parasitic and bacterial infections (including Helicobacter pylori), inflammatory bowel disease, hypereosinophilic

Hwa Eun Oh; Runjan Chetty

2008-01-01

35

Eosinophilic lung diseases.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic lung diseases comprise eosinophilic pneumonia, which may present with chronic or acute onset, or as Löffler syndrome. The diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia relies on clinical imaging and the demonstration of alveolar eosinophilia. Lung biopsy is generally not necessary. Peripheral blood eosinophilia is common but may be absent at presentation in idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia, which may be misdiagnosed as severe infectious pneumonia. Extra-thoracic manifestations should raise the suspicion of Churg-Strauss syndrome. All possible causes of eosinophilia (especially fungus infection or drug or toxic exposure) must be thoroughly investigated before the diagnosis of idiopathic disease is made. PMID:23102066

Cottin, Vincent; Cordier, Jean-François

2012-11-01

36

Flame figures associated with eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy: is it possible to distinguish the condition from eosinophilic cellulitis in patients with hematoproliferative disease?  

PubMed

Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a multifaceted dermatosis with a wide morphological spectrum, presenting as pruritic, erythematous, papular and occasionally vesicular, urticarial, nodular eruptions. Histopathologically eosinophil infiltration in the super and deep dermis was found. We reported a case of eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy presented as urticarial and vesicular lesions in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A skin biopsy revealed a prominent subepidermal blister and a diffuse infiltrate of eosinophils with flame figures in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Although flame figures associated with eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is rarely reported, we believe that it would not seem unusual to find them in this skin disease. Eosinophilic cellulitis, which share clinical and histological features with eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy, has also been described as showing an association with hematoproliferative diseases. In order to clearly describe eosinophilic dermatosis in patients with hematologic malignancies, the terminology eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy, instead of eosinophilic cellulitis, would be a more suitable term in patients with eosinophilic dermatosis. PMID:23923089

Qiao, Jianjun; Sun, Chang-E; Zhu, Weifang; Zhu, Dingxian; Fang, Hong

2013-07-15

37

[Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia].  

PubMed

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is part of Pulmonary Eosinophilic Syndroms. It is presented a 33-years old man, Asmathic, with dry cough, fever, night sweats and fatigue of several weeks. The chest X-ray showed opacity in the right hemithorax. He was treated with antibiotics without response. A chest TC showed multifocal involvement. The patient refused bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) so treatment antituberculostatic was started. Despite treatment the symptoms worsened. The Chest X-ray showed migration of the infiltrates and the blood smear marked eosinophilia. Finally, bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out and it showed a high percentage of eosinophils (over 50%). The patient was treated with inmmunosuppresive doses of corticosteroids with excellent response. The blood smear in Nonresolving pneumonia is key to consider eosinophilic pneumonia, an uncommon pathology but amenable to treatment. PMID:22917072

Vivero, F; Ciocchini, C; Gandini, M J; Wehbe, L

2012-03-01

38

Bortezomib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2012-12-03

39

Transplantation of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in immunodeficient mice reveals altered cell surface phenotypes and expression of human endothelial markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better characterize acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development in non-obese diabetic (NOD)\\/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, we transplanted samples from patients with AML or KG-1 and EOL-1 cell lines. We found 9\\/12 primary AML samples and both cell lines to engraft within 2–8 weeks, with 5–80% human cells in bone marrow. Compared with freshly isolated AML cells, percentages of human

Reinhard Henschler; Stephan Göttig; Ilse Junghahn; Gesine Bug; Erhard Seifried; Albrecht M. Müller; Iduna Fichtner

2005-01-01

40

Lenalidomide in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-07-02

41

Mepolizumab in eosinophilic disorders  

PubMed Central

Mepolizumab (Bosatria®, GlaxoSmithKline) is a biologic agent developed to treat asthma. It represents a humanized monoclonal antibody of IgG1 ? type, which targets human IL-5 and thus prevents its interaction with the ?-chain of the IL-5 receptor. To date, it has not been approved for use in any eosinophil-related disorder; however, several studies have suggested some therapeutic benefit across a spectrum of eosinophil-related disorders. This article evaluates the currently available preclinical and clinical studies, and the impact of mepolizumab against a variety of eosinophilic disorders.

Abonia, J Pablo; Putnam, Philip E

2011-01-01

42

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: an update.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is characterized by dense eosinophilic inflammation of one or several digestive tract sections. The symptoms include abdominal pain, weight loss, vomiting and diarrhea. Biopsy samples taken during endoscopic examination allows the diagnosis of the disease. An infiltration of >30 eosinophils per high-power field in at least five high-power fields, exhibiting signs of eosinophilic degranulation and extending to the muscularis mucosa or submucosa are all histological indications of EGE. EGE is traditionally classified into three forms depending on the depth of inflammation in the wall (mucosal, muscular or serosal). This, together with the digestive tract segments involved, determines the clinical presentation. The natural history of EGE includes three different evolutionary patterns, since patients may suffer a single outbreak, a recurrent course or even chronic disease. Corticosteroids are the most frequently used therapy for EGE; dietary treatments should be also considered. Surgery has been limited to solving obstruction and small bowel perforation. PMID:23061710

Lucendo, Alfredo J; Arias, Angel

2012-09-01

43

Eosinophil count - absolute  

MedlinePLUS

... a test strip, or into a small container. Cotton or a bandage may be applied to the ... No special preparation is necessary for adults. Certain medicines may cause you to have an increase in eosinophils. Such medicines include: ...

44

Genetics of Eosinophilic Esophagitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an emerging worldwide food allergic disorder associated with polysensitization to multiple food allergens, resulting in greatly restricted diets and chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms in many individuals...

M. E. Rothenberg

2011-01-01

45

Genetics of Eosinophilic Esophagitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an emerging worldwide food allergic disorder associated with polysensitization to multiple food allergens, resulting in greatly restricted diets and chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms in many individuals...

M. Rothenberg

2012-01-01

46

Pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates.  

PubMed

Pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates include an heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the presence of eosinophils in the lungs as detected by bronchoalveolar lavage or tissue biopsy, with or without blood eosinophilia. The disease can be idiopathic (simple pulmonary eosinophilia, acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, hypereosinophilic syndrome), secondary (to drugs, parasites, fungal and mycobacterial infection, irradiation, toxic products) or associated with diffuse lung diseases (connective tissue diseases and some neoplasms). Pathologists faced with eosinophils in the lungs (either on cytology or biopsy) should keep in mind several possibilities, although a diagnosis of certainty is rarely based on morphology alone. Correlation with laboratory tests, imaging studies and clinical presentation has a key role, even if some pulmonary eosinophilic diseases are sufficiently characteristic on clinico-radiologic ground to not require a biopsy (e.g. some drug reactions, parasitic infections, idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis). Nevertheless, pathologists can play a central role because they can be the first to note eosinophils in the lungs of a very sick patient. Knowledge of histologic features and a striking collaboration with other physicians are necessary to achieve correct diagnosis and to establish adequate treatments. PMID:21428117

Rossi, G; Tironi, A; Dore, R; Nannini, N; Mengoli, M C; Bertolani, M; Richeldi, L

2010-12-01

47

Azacitidine, Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride, and Etoposide in Treating Older Patients With Poor-Prognosis Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-09-23

48

Eosinophil-Deficient Transgenic Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technologies described herein are based on the discovery that expression of a toxin gene under control of an eosinophil-specific promoter can cause the ablation of eosinophils in a transgenic animal. Accordingly, the nucleic acid constructs featured i...

J. J. Lee N. A. Lee

2004-01-01

49

Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)  

MedlinePLUS

... Media Copyright © 2013 American Partnership for Eosinophilic Disorders . View our Disclaimer and Privacy Policy for detailed information on our organization and how we use your information. © American Partnership for Eosinophilic Disorders 2005, 2013 All rights ...

50

Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords Disease name and synonyms Definition Diagnosis criteria Frequency Etiology Clinical presentation Diagnostic methods Differential diagnosis Treatment and outcome References Abstract Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia (IAEP) is characterized by acute febrile respiratory failure associated with diffuse radiographic infiltrates and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) in the absence of infection. Patients, who are initially healthy and often young, present with

François Philit; Jean-François Cordier

51

Functional extracellular eosinophil granules: novel implications in eosinophil immunobiology  

PubMed Central

Human eosinophils contain within their cytoplasmic granules multiple preformed proteins, including over three dozen cytokines with nominal Th1, Th2 and immunoregulatory capabilities and four distinctive cationic proteins. The secretion of these granule-derived proteins within eosinophils occurs principally by a mechanism whereby selected proteins are mobilized into vesicles for transport to and release at the cell surface. In contrast, the enigmatic presence of membrane-bound cell free granules extruded from eosinophils has been long recognized in tissues associated with eosinophilia, including allergic diseases and responses to helminths. Functional capabilities for extracellular granules have recently been demonstrated. Eosinophil granules express cytokine receptors on their membranes and function, upon extrusion from eosinophils, as independent secretory organelles releasing granule constituents in response to activating cytokines and chemokines. We provide an update on the processes that mediate selective protein secretion from within eosinophil granules both as intracellular organelles and, as novelty demonstrated, as cell-free extracellular structures.

Neves, Josiane S.; Weller, Peter F.

2009-01-01

52

[Shulman's syndrome (eosinophilic fasciitis)].  

PubMed

Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare disease characterized by edema, painful indurations, and progressive muscle weakness. Mainly the extremities are involved. We report on a 22-year-old woman with eosinophilic fasciitis presenting with progressive muscle weakness of both hands and feet and a reduced general condition. She showed symmetrical and firm swelling of the extremities with painful restriction of joint movement. Systemic treatment with glucocorticosteroids as well as physiotherapy and manual lymphatic drainage led to continuous improvement of her symptoms. The differentiation from other diseases, such as systemic scleroderma, eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, and pseudoscleroderma, might be difficult at the beginning of the disease. The gold standard for diagnosis is--as was done in our case--a deep skin-to-muscle biopsy. Further imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging, can support the diagnostic procedure. PMID:19300913

Akanay-Diesel, S; Richter, J; Schneider, M; Schulte, K W; Reifenberger, J; Hanneken, S

2009-04-01

53

Comparing Three Different Combination Chemotherapy Regimens in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-08-01

54

Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP) is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms,\\u000a alveolar and\\/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most\\u000a cases, usually in excess of 1000\\/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage\\u000a eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated

Eric Marchand; Jean-François Cordier

2006-01-01

55

Causes, evaluation, and consequences of eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

This paper presents commentaries on whether eosinophilic esophagitis is a food allergy; inflammation in the context of eosinophilic esophagitis; whether eosinophilic esophagitis a cause of noncardiac chest pain; the role of endoscopy in the evaluation of eosinophilic esophagitis; and whether response to proton pump inhibitor therapy can distinguish eosinophilic esophagitis from gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:24117638

Chehade, Mirna; Lucendo, Alfredo J; Achem, Sami R; Souza, Rhonda F

2013-10-01

56

Targeting of eosinophils in asthma.  

PubMed

Severe asthma continues to be an important source of morbidity despite the availability of bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Although new treatments are needed, better identification of asthma phenotypes may improve treatment effectiveness. One phenotype that has emerged is eosinophilic asthma. Eosinophils in asthma have been studied for many years, and the evidence suggests they play a major role in some forms of asthma. Eosinophilic asthma can be diagnosed using peripheral blood, sputum eosinophil count or exhaled nitric oxide. Depletion of eosinophils can be achieved by corticosteroids, specific anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) or anti-IL-5-receptor-alpha therapies, or anti-immunoglobulin E approaches. This editorial refers to the approaches that are being taken in eosinophilic asthma with emphasis on the new investigational anti-IL-5-receptor-alpha antibody, benralizumab. PMID:22500988

Molfino, Nestor A

2012-04-16

57

Mechanisms of eosinophil cytokine release  

PubMed Central

Human eosinophils have been demonstrated to contain a multitude of cytokines and chemokines that exist preformed within these cells. This content of pre-formed cytokines, with diverse potential biologic activities, provides eosinophils with capabilities distinct from most other leukocytes. The localization of pre-formed cytokines within eosinophils is both within specific granules and associated with substantial numbers of morphologically distinct cytoplasmic vesicles. Stimulation for release of specific cytokines, such as IL-4, leads to a regulated signal transduction cascade, which is dependent on the formation of leukotriene C4 within eosinophils where it acts as an intracrine mediator. IL-4 release occurs selectively and is by means of vesicular transport. The capabilities of eosinophils not only to rapidly release pre-formed cytokines but also to differentially regulate which cytokines are released endow eosinophils with distinct abilities in innate and acquired immunity.

Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Weller, Peter F

2009-01-01

58

Eosinophil cationic protein- and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin/eosinophil protein X-immunoreactive eosinophils in prurigo nodularis.  

PubMed

It is known that eosinophils are actively involved in allergy and inflammation. The granular components of eosinophils, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin/eosinophil protein X (EDN/EPX), play an important role in such allergic and inflammatory processes. Prurigo nodularis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with obvious cutaneous nervous involvement. To detect ECP and EDN/ EPX expression in the eosinophils and their relation to nerve fibres in prurigo nodularis, ECP and EDN/EPX single-labelling immunofluorescence, and ECP and PGP 9.5 double-labelling immunofluorescence, were performed. In prurigo nodularis lesional skin, the ECP- and EDN/EPX-containing cells, which were mainly distributed in the upper dermis, were significantly increased in number compared to their numbers in uninvolved and normal skin. The immunoreactivity of ECP and EDN/EPX in prurigo lesional skin was stronger than in uninvolved skin or control skin. The PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerves were also increased in number in the areas where there were increased eosinophils. The nerves were in close proximity to eosinophils, and occasionally even seemed to be in contact. The present results indicate that the cutaneous nerves and the ECP- and EDN/EPX-containing eosinophils are possibly involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The close relationship of nerves and eosinophils indicates that the cutaneous nerves may influence eosinophil function in the chronic inflammatory states of prurigo nodularis. ECP and EDN/EPX could thus be released to the local tissue and modulate the inflammation of the prurigo nodularis lesion. PMID:10994770

Johansson, O; Liang, Y; Marcusson, J A; Reimert, C M

2000-08-01

59

Wells Syndrome (Eosinophilic Cellulitis)  

PubMed Central

Objective: To report a case of Wells syndrome (eosinophilic cellulitis) in a patient who was previously hospitalized twice and received several antibiotic treatments. Setting: Inpatient hospital consultation. Participant: One patient diagnosed with Wells Syndrome based on supporting clinical history, histopathological examination, and other laboratory data. Measurement: Change in signs and symptoms over time. Results: Improvement of skin lesions after administration of corticosteroids. Conclusion: Wells syndrome is a clinical condition that mimics bacterial cellulitis. It is characterized as an erythematous, edematous tender plaque with predilection for the lower extremity. The authors report this case to warn clinicians about other primary dermatological disorders that resemble infectious cellulitis in order to avoid misdiagnoses and delayed treatment.

Coloe, Jacquelyn; Peters, Sara; Zirwas, Matthew; Darabi, Kamruz

2011-01-01

60

The pan-B cell marker CD22 is expressed on gastrointestinal eosinophils and negatively regulates tissue eosinophilia¶  

PubMed Central

CD22 is currently recognized as a B cell-specific Siglec and has been exploited therapeutically with humanized anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody having been used against B cell leukemia. Herein, tissue-specific eosinophil mRNA microarray analysis identified that CD22 transcript levels of murine gastrointestinal (GI) eosinophils are 10-fold higher than those of lung eosinophils. In order to confirm the mRNA data at the protein level, we developed a FACS-based protocol designed to phenotype live GI eosinophils isolated from the murine lamina propria. Indeed, we found that jejunum eosinophils expressed remarkably high levels of surface CD22, similar to levels found in B cells across multiple mouse strains. In contrast, CD22 was undetectable on eosinophils from the colon, blood, thymus, spleen, uterus, peritoneal cavity and allergen-challenged lung. Eosinophils isolated from newborn mice did not express CD22 but subsequently upregulated CD22 expression to adult levels within the first 10 days after birth. The GI lamina propria from CD22 gene-targeted mice harbored more eosinophils than wild-type control mice, while the GI eosinophil turnover rate was unaltered in the absence of CD22. Our findings identify a novel expression pattern and tissue eosinophilia-regulating function for the “B cell-specific” inhibitory molecule CD22 on GI eosinophils.

Wen, Ting; Mingler, Melissa K.; Blanchard, Carine; Wahl, Benjamin; Pabst, Oliver; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2011-01-01

61

Vorinostat, Cytarabine, and Etoposide in Treating Patients With Relapsed and/or Refractory Acute Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Myeloproliferative Disorders  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

2013-05-01

62

Eosinophilic pneumonia after administration of fludarabine for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fludarabine is a purine analogue which is effective in the treatment of patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia. While pulmonary toxicity due to cytotoxic drugs is increasingly diagnosed, only few cases of interstitial pneumonitis have been described following fludarabine administration. Here we report the first case in the literature of an acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with peripheral

A. Trojan; R. Meier; A. Licht; C. Taverna

2002-01-01

63

Eosinophilic pneumonia due to duloxetine.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of worsening fever, chills, and cough despite therapy with oral antibiotics. Chest radiographs demonstrated migrating, peripheral upper lobe infiltrates. A CBC count demonstrated significant eosinophilia. At bronchoscopy, eosinophil-rich mucus was seen impacted throughout his bronchi. A transbronchial biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia. Symptoms, eosinophilia, and radiographic abnormalities were reversed with cessation of duloxetine. This case report briefly reviews the diagnosis of drug-induced pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia (PIEs) and eosinophilic pneumonia. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PIEs due to duloxetine. PMID:17356112

Espeleta, Vidal J; Moore, William H; Kane, Philip B; Baram, Daniel

2007-03-01

64

Decitabine Followed By Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride, Etoposide, and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-08-12

65

[Eosinophilic diseases of the lungs].  

PubMed

Pulmonary eosinophilias belong to a heterogenous group of the diseases characterized by pulmonary shadows related to pulmonary tissue and/or peripheral blood eosinophilia. Although the inflammatory infiltrate consists of macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils, a significant marker for the diagnosis and treatment is eosinophilia. By etiology eosinophilic diseases of the lungs fall into primary or idiopathic (common pulmonary eosinophilia, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, hypereosinophilic syndrome), secondary or of known origin (allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillesis, bronchocentric granulematosis, parasitic invasions, drug-induced reactions, fungal and mycobacterial infection, pulmonary diseases caused by radiation or toxins). Pulmonary eosinophilia can be also associated with systemic diseases (Churg-Strauss syndrome) and tumors. Clinicoroentgenological picture of different eosinophilic diseases of the lungs is almost the same. Verification of the diagnosis is based on the presence of bronchial asthma and extrapulmonary manifestations, the level of eosinophilia in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage and total IgE, histological and chest CT findings. This article presents modern classification, clinicoroentgenological and histological characteristics of different, primarily idiopathic, eosinophilic diseases of the lungs. PMID:22708427

2012-01-01

66

What Are Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders (EGID)?  

MedlinePLUS

... affects the stomach and small intestine. Eosinophilic Colitis (EC): describes the occurrence of high numbers of eosinophils ... t we hear more about EG, EGE and EC? Other than a different part of the GI ...

67

Eosinophilic meningitis secondary to intravenous vancomycin.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningitis may be due to infectious or noninfectious etiologies. Parasitic infections cause this entity most frequently and of the noninfectious causes, medications play an important role. We describe a 32-year-old male who developed eosinophilic meningitis while receiving intravenous vancomycin. No other apparent cause of the eosinophilic meningitis was appreciated. This case represents the first description of eosinophilic meningitis due to systemic vancomycin. PMID:22842500

Kazi, Ruchika; Kazi, Haseeb A; Ruggeri, Cara; Ender, Peter T

2012-07-25

68

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: Clinical experience with 15 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the clinic features of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and examine the diagnosis, treatment, long- term outcome of this disease. METHODS: Charts with a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis from 1984 to 2002 at Mackay Memorial Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. There were 15 patients diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis. The diagnosis was established in 13 by histologic evaluation of endoscopic biopsy or

Ming-Jen Chen; Cheng-Hsin Chu; Shee-Chan Lin; Shou-Chuan Shih; Tsang-En Wang

69

LDH Isoenzyme Distribution in Human Eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern has been determined in human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors and patients with parasitic diseases. Almost equal LDH1 and LDH5 values appear to be a characteristic of the eosinophils obtained from healthy subjects. Eosinophilic granulocytes which have been isolated from the peripheral blood of patients with eosinophilia due to parasitic

C. De Simone; M. Ferrari; F. Sorice

1983-01-01

70

Inhibitory Effects of Lodoxamide on Eosinophil Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports describe the beneficial use of lodoxamide, an anti-allergic compound, for the treatment of asthma and allergic conjunctivitis. Lodoxamide is known as a mast cell stabilizer, however, the association of a significant clinical improvement with a specific decrease in eosinophil infiltrate suggested possible direct effects of lodoxamide on eosinophils. The chemotactic response of eosinophils to fMLP as well as

M. Capron; S. Loiseau; J. P. Papin; S. Robertson; A. Capron

1998-01-01

71

A pathological function for eotaxin and eosinophils in eosinophilic gastrointestinal inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although eosinophils have been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disorders, their function has not been established. Using a murine model of oral antigen–induced eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disease, we report the pathological consequences of eosinophilic inflammation and the involvement of eotaxin and eosinophils. Exposure of mice to enteric-coated antigen promotes an extensive T helper 2–associated eosinophilic inflammatory response involving the esophagus,

Simon P. Hogan; Anil Mishra; Eric B. Brandt; Michael P. Royalty; Samuel M. Pope; Nives Zimmermann; Paul S. Foster; Marc E. Rothenberg

2001-01-01

72

Eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) in skin disorders.  

PubMed

Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is exclusively secreted only by the eosinophilic leukocyte. In this study the ECP concentration in the serum was measured in patients (n = 155) with various skin disorders and compared with the number of circulating eosinophils. The presence of activated eosinophils in the skin was also studied immunohistochemically using the monoclonal antibody EG-2, which recognizes both the eosinophil protein X (EPX/EDN) and ECP. EG-2 distinctly revealed these proteins in the eosinophils and their granules. Non-activated eosinophils were studied with the monoclonal antibody EG-1. In most cases this did not disclose any more eosinophils and often it was located more diffusely and not seldom on collagen fibers. Elevated serum ECP but normal numbers of circulating eosinophils were found in half of the patients with progressive plaque psoriasis and long-standing daily chronic urticaria. In patients with prurigo nodularis, papular erythematous eruptions, vasculitis, purpura and toxic drug reactions, Wells' syndrome, porphyria cutanea tarda and persistent light reaction the serum ECP was increased, although in some cases the number of circulating eosinophils was normal. In these disorders an increased number of activated eosinophils was found in the skin. Both serum ECP and the number of activated eosinophils normalized when the patients' condition improved. In atopic dermatitis the serum ECP and the number of activated eosinophils in the skin were increased only during exacerbation of the disease. High serum levels of ECP and activated eosinophils in the skin are frequent findings in many skin disorders in spite of often normal blood eosinophil counts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1685831

Juhlin, L; Venge, P

1991-01-01

73

Human eosinophils express functional CCR7.  

PubMed

Human eosinophils display directed chemotactic activity toward an array of soluble chemokines. Eosinophils have been observed to migrate to draining lymph nodes in experimental models of allergic inflammation, yet it is unknown whether eosinophils express CCR7, a key chemokine receptor in coordinating leukocyte trafficking to lymph nodes. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate expression of CCR7 by human eosinophils and functional responses to CCL19 and CCL21, the known ligands of CCR7. Human eosinophils were purified by negative selection from healthy donors. CCR7 expression of freshly purified, unstimulated eosinophils and of IL-5-primed eosinophils was determined by flow cytometry and Western blot. Chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21 was measured in transwell assays. Shape changes to CCL19 and CCL21 were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Calcium fluxes of fluo-4 AM-loaded eosinophils were recorded by flow cytometry after chemokine stimulation. ERK phosphorylation of CCL19- and CCL21-stimulated eosinophils was measured by Western blot and Luminex assay. Human eosinophils expressed CCR7 as demonstrated by flow cytometry and Western blots. Eosinophils exhibited detectable cell surface expression of CCR7. IL-5-primed eosinophils exhibited chemotaxis toward CCL19 and CCL21 in a dose-dependent fashion. Upon stimulation with CCL19 or CCL21, IL-5-primed eosinophils demonstrated dose-dependent shape changes with polarization of F-actin and exhibited calcium influxes. Finally, primed eosinophils stimulated with CCL19 or CCL21 exhibited increased phosphorylation of ERK in response to both CCR7 ligands. We demonstrate that human eosinophils express CCR7 and have multipotent responses to the known ligands of CCR7. PMID:23449735

Akuthota, Praveen; Ueki, Shigeharu; Estanislau, Jessica; Weller, Peter F

2013-06-01

74

Basics Pathogenesis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a newly recognized disease, which has largely been called idiopathic EE, emphasizing the poor understanding of its pathogenesis. EE is a severe disease of the esophagus characterized by an accumulation of eosinophils in the esophageal mucosa. EE is highly associated with atopic disease and emerging evidence suggests a primary role for food antigen sensitization in disease etiology. Nevertheless, the nomenclature “Eosinophilic esophagitis” describes only the surface of the iceberg of a complex disorder. Epithelial cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and smooth muscles cells are involved in pathologic features of the disease and numerous leukocyte subtypes are recruited (eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes). As such, the pathogenesis of EE involves multiple tissues, cell types, genes and derives from complex genetic and environmental factors. “Pathogenesis” is a fusion of two Greek words pathos (disease) and genesis (development). In this review, we aim to define the fundamental piece of knowledge available today that characterizes the mechanisms by which certain etiological factors cause EE, reviewing human studies, murine models and recent knowledge regarding the involvement of environmental, cellular, molecular and genetic factors in the development of EE.

Blanchard, Carine; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2008-01-01

75

Eosinophil crystalloid granules: structure, function, and beyond  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are granulocytes associated with host defense against parasitic helminths with allergic conditions and more recently, with immunoregulatory responses. Eosinophils are distinguished from leukocytes by their dominant population of cytoplasmic crystalloid (also termed secretory, specific, or secondary) granules that contain robust stores of diverse, preformed cationic proteins. Here, we provide an update on our knowledge about the unique and complex structure of human eosinophil crystalloid granules. We discuss their significance as rich sites of a variety of receptors and review our own recent research findings and those of others that highlight discoveries concerning the function of intracellular receptors and their potential implications in cell signaling. Special focus is provided on how eosinophils might use these intracellular receptors as mechanisms to secrete, selectively and rapidly, cytokines or chemokines and enable cell-free extracellular eosinophil granules to function as independent secretory structures. Potential roles of cell-free eosinophil granules as immune players in the absence of intact eosinophils will also be discussed.

Muniz, Valdirene S.; Weller, Peter F.; Neves, Josiane S.

2012-01-01

76

[Eosinophilic esophagitis: the diagnostic contribution of pathology].  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic, clinically and histologically defined, inflammatory condition of the esophagus. The histological hallmark of eosinophilic esophagitis is a relevant, often patchy infiltration of the esophageal mucosa with eosinophils. In a consensus report a threshold value of approximately 120 eosinophils per mm(2) was arbitrarily fixed as a diagnostic criterion. Noteworthy for the quantification of the eosinophilic infiltration are several technical facts, for instance size and covering extent of the biopsy specimen of the high-power field (hpf) and quality of embedding of biopsy specimens have to be considered. In order to establish the histological diagnosis several additional abnormalities must be included in the assessment and gastrointestinal reflux disease is the main differential diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis. Finally it is emphasized that for an affirmative diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, in addition to the histological findings the clinical facts must be included. PMID:23483314

Bussmann, C; Straumann, A

2013-03-01

77

Laryngospasm and pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Symptoms of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) include dysphagia, emesis, regurgitation and feeding difficulties. This symptom complex has been mistaken for refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Whether EoE and GERD are related is controversial. Recently, EoE has been associated with upper airway manifestations including recurrent sinusitis, cough, wheezing, pneumonia, laryngeal edema, and subglottic stenosis. Laryngospasm secondary to EoE has not

Carrie L. Francis; Troy Gibbons; Gresham T. Richter

2010-01-01

78

The stimulus-dependent release of eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil protein x increases in apoptotic eosinophils.  

PubMed

Apoptotic cells are regarded as inert bodies that turn off intracellular processes and functional abilities. To study the changes in the ability of eosinophils to release their granule proteins while undergoing apoptosis. Eosinophils were cultured for up to 72 h. Living cells were separated from the apoptotic cells and their release of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX) was measured in response to serum-opsonized sephadex particles and phorbol 12-myristate 12-acetate (PMA). Changes in cell structure were examined by electron microscopy, and surface receptor expression of beta1- and beta2-integrins was investigated by flow cytometry. Stimulus-dependent release of the granule proteins ECP and EPX was found to increase in apoptotic eosinophils, whereas surface expression of beta1- and beta2-integrins was downregulated. Ultrastructural examination revealed that the granules of apoptotic eosinophils were translocated to the periphery of the cell, just beneath the plasma membrane. Apoptotic eosinophils are able to release their toxic granule proteins, which is probably because of the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and spontaneous translocation of granules to the membrane. Our results suggest that apoptotic eosinophils are potentially harmful cells that have retained their ability to react to certain extracellular stimuli. The findings point to unexpected consequences of eosinophil apoptosis. PMID:12950677

Seton, K; Håkansson, L; Karawajczyk, M; Venge, P

2003-09-01

79

Eosinophilic fasciitis induced by fire ant bites.  

PubMed

Purpose: To describe a case of eosinophilic fasciitis likely related to proximate fire ant bites and review the literature to summarize the etiology and clinical, laboratory, histopathological, and therapeutic aspects of eosinophilic fasciitis.Methods: Report of a case of eosinophilic fasciitis and review of the English language literature using a Medline search from 1950 to January 2007.Results: We describe the case of a New Orleans woman who developed eosinophilic fasciitis after fire ant bites post-Hurricane Katrina. A careful literature review confirms an association of eosinophilic fasciitis with unaccustomed vigorous exercise, arthropod bites, and borreliosis, among other etiologic agents.Conclusions: Eosinophilic fasciitis, a rare disorder with unclear pathogenic mechanisms, has been associated with arthropod bites and borreliosis. Fire ant bites should be added to the list of etiologic agents for this disorder. PMID:21603462

Mallepalli, Jyothi R; Quinet, Robert J; Sus, Rachana

2008-01-01

80

Eosinophilic Fasciitis Induced by Fire Ant Bites  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To describe a case of eosinophilic fasciitis likely related to proximate fire ant bites and review the literature to summarize the etiology and clinical, laboratory, histopathological, and therapeutic aspects of eosinophilic fasciitis. Methods: Report of a case of eosinophilic fasciitis and review of the English language literature using a Medline search from 1950 to January 2007. Results: We describe the case of a New Orleans woman who developed eosinophilic fasciitis after fire ant bites post-Hurricane Katrina. A careful literature review confirms an association of eosinophilic fasciitis with unaccustomed vigorous exercise, arthropod bites, and borreliosis, among other etiologic agents. Conclusions: Eosinophilic fasciitis, a rare disorder with unclear pathogenic mechanisms, has been associated with arthropod bites and borreliosis. Fire ant bites should be added to the list of etiologic agents for this disorder.

Mallepalli, Jyothi R.; Quinet, Robert J.; Sus, Rachana

2008-01-01

81

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: percutaneous biopsy under ultrasound guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an unusual disorder that is characterized by diffuse or scattered eosinophilic infiltration\\u000a of the digestive tract. The diagnosis is based on histology obtained by capsule, endoscopic, laparoscopic, or laparotomy biopsy.\\u000a The eosinophilic infiltration produces thickening of the small bowel wall that can be observed by using sonography. The appearance\\u000a produces the pseudokidney sign that can

S. F. Marco-Doménech; S. Gil-Sánchez; J. Jornet-Fayos; S. Ambit-Capdevila; M. Gonzalez-Añón

1998-01-01

82

Eosinophilic Fasciitis: A Rare Skin Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic fasciitis (Schulman's syndrome) is a rare disease with specific clinical symptoms such as the groove sign which facilitate diagnosis. We report a typical case of eosinophilic fasciitis in an otherwise healthy 49-year-old man who presented with “prayer and groove signs”. Histological analysis showed sclerosis and eosinophilic infiltration of the fascia. The patient was successfully treated with systemic corticotherapy and Cyclosporine. A short review of the clinicopathological features of the lesions is presented.

Servy, Amandine; Clerici, Thierry; Malines, Caroline; Le Parc, Jean-Marie; Cote, Jean-Francois

2011-01-01

83

Divalproex sodium-induced eosinophilic pleural effusion.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic pleural effusion is defined as an effusion in which eosinophils constitute more than 10% of white blood cells. These effusions can be due to multiple causes with drugs being implicated as one of the etiological agents. We report a case of 48-year-old woman with seizure disorder on divalproex sodium (Depakote) who presented with dyspnea. A chest radiograph demonstrated right pleural effusion. Investigations showed peripheral blood eosinophilia with thoracocentesis revealing eosinophilic exudative pleural effusion. An extensive workup for other causes of eosinophilic pleural effusion was unrevealing. Withdrawal of Depakote resulted in resolution of the effusion. PMID:19512997

Joshi, Prachi; Kasmani, Rahil; Hollingsworth, Jocelyn; Fernandes, Karl; Mahajan, Kewal

84

Eosinophilic enteritis: a rare cause of diarrhoea.  

PubMed

We report a case of a healthy young man presenting with 1-week history of diarrhoea, acute abdominal pain and weight loss. Laboratory investigation showed very high peripheral eosinophils levels. After exclusion of the other causes of eosinophilia, a histological bowel sample analysis revealed marked eosinophilic infiltration of a small bowel mucosal layer which confirmed the suspicion of eosinophilic enteritis. Unlike most of the described cases, this patient did not require any specific treatment. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare and heterogeneous disease that is probably underdiagnosed in clinical practice because it requires a high degree of suspicion and an endoscopic biopsy for definite diagnosis. PMID:24081600

Lladó, Ana; Oliveira, João; Silva, Pedro; Pinheiro, Sofia

2013-09-30

85

The consequences of not having eosinophils.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence suggest that deficiency of eosinophils is not associated with any characteristic abnormality. Patients lacking eosinophils, in the setting of immunodeficiency or as a consequence of IgG-mediated eosinophil precursor destruction, do not display any distinguishing abnormalities related to eosinophil reduction. The observation that eosinophil-deficient mice do not display any distinctive syndrome or failure of their health is evidence that, under ordinary laboratory conditions, the eosinophil does not play a critical role in the well-being of mammals. Observations that monoclonal antibodies to interleukin-5 (IL-5) are well tolerated appear unsurprising in light of these findings. For example, patients with the hypereosinophilic syndrome have received mepolizumab, an anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody, for as long as 6 years and have not developed any characteristic set of adverse events. Safety data for reslizumab, another anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody, and benralizumab, a monoclonal antibody to the IL-5 receptor ?-chain, are comparatively limited, especially for benralizumab, although reports of administration of these antibodies to humans suggest that they are well tolerated. Thus, data to the present suggest that reduction of eosinophils appears to have no characteristic ill effects on normal health, and monoclonal antibodies that deplete eosinophils have the potential to be widely employed in the treatment of eosinophil-associated diseases. PMID:23742015

Gleich, G J; Klion, A D; Lee, J J; Weller, P F

2013-06-06

86

Esophageal functional impairments in experimental eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging chronic esophageal disease. Despite the increasing diagnosis of EoE globally, the causes of EoE and other esophageal eosinophilic disorders are not clearly understood. EoE pathology includes accumulation of inflammatory cells (e.g., eosinophils, mast cells), characteristic endoscopic features (e.g., furrows, the formation of fine concentric mucosal rings, exudates), and functional impairments (e.g., esophageal stricture, dysmotility). We hypothesized that the esophageal structural pathology and functional impairments of EoE develop as a consequence of the effector functions of the accumulated inflammatory cells. We analyzed eosinophils (anti-major basic protein immunostaining), esophageal stricture (X-ray barium swallowing), and esophageal motility (isometric force) in two established transgenic murine models of EoE (CD2-IL-5 and rtTA-CC10-IL-13) and a novel eosinophil-deficient model (?dblGATA/CD2-IL-5). Herein, we show the following: 1) CD2-IL-5 and doxycycline (DOX)-induced rtTA-CC10-IL-13 mice have chronic eosinophilic and mast cell esophageal inflammation; 2) eosinophilic esophageal inflammation promotes esophageal stricture in both transgenic murine models; 3) the eosinophil-deficient ?dblGATA/CD-2-IL-5 mice were protected from the induction of stricture, whereas the eosinophil-competent CD2-IL-5 mice develop esophageal stricture; 4) esophageal stricture is not reversible in DOX-induced rtTA-CC10-IL-13 mice (8 wk DOX followed by 8 wk no-DOX); and 5) IL-5 transgene-induced (CD2-IL-5) EoE evidences esophageal dysmotility (relaxation and contraction) that is independent of the eosinophilic esophageal inflammation: CD2-IL-5 and ?dblGATA/CD2-IL-5 mice have comparable esophageal dysmotility. Collectively, our present study directly implicates chronic eosinophilic inflammation in the development of the esophageal structural impairments of experimental EoE.

Mavi, Parm; Rajavelu, Priya; Rayapudi, Madhavi; Paul, Richard J.

2012-01-01

87

Relapsing acute non-lymphatic leukemia with chaning phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Morphological and cytochemical findings in a case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with 3 relapses are described. The disease began as a subtype M4 with atypical eosinophils according to the French-American-British (FAB)-classification. At the time of the first relapse, the phenotype had converted into an M2-subtype, while the second relapse presented the picture of an M1-type of acute myeloid leukemia

M.-L. Mlynek; H. K. Mahmoud; L.-D. Leder

1985-01-01

88

Eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a nematode parasite that inhabits the pulmonary arteries and heart of rodents. It is one of the causative agents of fatal eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in man. We present five cases of eosinophilic meningitis presumably due to infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis . All the five patients gave history of ingestion of monitor lizard within ten days of onset of symptoms. PMID:16912445

Panackel, C; Cherian, G; Vijayakumar, K; Sharma, R N

2006-07-01

89

Pattern-recognition receptors in human eosinophils  

PubMed Central

The pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family includes Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). They recognize various microbial signatures or host-derived danger signals and trigger an immune response. Eosinophils are multifunctional leucocytes involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes, including parasitic helminth infection, allergic diseases, tissue injury and tumour immunity. Human eosinophils express several PRRs, including TLR1–5, TLR7, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, Dectin-1 and RAGE. Receptor stimulation induces survival, oxidative burst, activation of the adhesion system and release of cytokines (interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-? and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor), chemokines (interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-?) and cytotoxic granule proteins (eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein). It is also evident that eosinophils play an immunomodulatory role by interacting with surrounding cells. The presence of a broad range of PRRs in eosinophils indicates that they are not only involved in defence against parasitic helminths, but also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. From a clinical perspective, eosinophilic PRRs seem to be involved in both allergic and malignant diseases by causing exacerbations and affecting tumour growth, respectively.

Kvarnhammar, Anne Mansson; Cardell, Lars Olaf

2012-01-01

90

Gallium-67 pulmonary uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

Eosinophilic pneumonia is usually diagnosed based on the findings on chest x-ray, white blood count, and transbronchial biopsy. After reporting a case of Ga-67 lung uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia, its histopathology is discussed and the mechanisms of Ga-67 uptake by inflammatory lesions are reviewed.

Morais, J.; Carrier, L.; Gariepy, G.; Le Bel, L.; Chartrand, R.; Picard, D.

1988-01-01

91

Eosinophilic oesophagitis: From physiopathology to treatment.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the oesophageal mucosa. Food and aero-allergens are involved in its pathogenesis. Dysphagia and food impaction are the dominant symptoms in adult with eosinophilic oesophagitis. However, a wide range of symptoms has been noticed such as chest pain or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms. Upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy and oesophageal biopsies are crucial for the diagnosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis. Endoscopy might be normal or reveal typical patterns such as rings, furrows, exudates, oedema, and stricture. Two to four biopsies should be performed both in the distal and in the proximal oesophagus, and 15 eosinophils per high power field within the oesophageal epithelium are the minimal threshold to diagnose eosinophilic oesophagitis. Allergy testing is recommended, although its impact to orient treatment remains to be demonstrated. Eosinophilic oesophagitis treatment includes medical treatment, diet and endoscopic dilation. Proton pump inhibitors are the first-line therapy as some eosinophilic oesophagitis phenotypes respond well to proton pump inhibitors. Topical viscous corticosteroids or diet elimination are the treatment of choice. There is no clear evidence in the literature to prefer one to the other. Finally endoscopic dilation should be considered in case of persistent symptomatic stenosis despite medical therapy. PMID:23545170

Roman, Sabine; Savarino, Edoardo; Savarino, Vincenzo; Mion, François

2013-03-30

92

The selective eosinophil chemotactic activity of histamine  

PubMed Central

Histamine diphosphate was shown to selectively attract human eosinophils from mixed granulocyte populations when over 20% eosinophils were used in a modified Boyden chamber chemotactic assay system. This effect of histamine is abolished by incubation with diamine oxidase (histaminase) and was generated by decarboxylation of L- histidine. A linear dose dependent increase in eosinophil migration was observed between 3 X 10(-7) M and 1.25 X 10(-6) M, while higher concentrations of histamine inhibited the migration of eosinophils. The attractant activity of histamine was not inhibited by H-1 or H-2 receptor antagonists, however, the inhibition of migration observed at higher histamine concentrations was reversed by metiamine, an H-2 receptor antagonist. The effects of histamine upon eosinophil migration were demonstrable using three different assays: (a) counting cells that had traversed 5-mum pore, 12-mum thick polycarbonate filters, (b) counting cells that had migrated various distances into a 3-mum pore, 145-mum cellulose nitrate filters, or (c) measuring the number of cells that had traversed an upper polycarbonate filter and migrated into a lower cellulose nitrate filter using 15Cr-labeled cells. The ability of histamine to enhance eosinophil migration was shown to be dependent upon the presence of a concentration gradient; histamine did not cause a dose-dependent increase in random motility. Furthermore, preincubation of the eosinophils with histamine deactivate the cells to further stimulation by histamine or by C5a. It is concluded that in low doses histamine is a chemoattractant for human eosinophils, while in higher doses histamine inhibits eosinophil migration. These observations may relate to the influx and localization of eosinophils in immediate hypersensitivity reactions.

1975-01-01

93

Mature human eosinophils express functional Notch ligands mediating eosinophil autocrine regulation  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil chemotaxis and survival within tissues are key components in the development of tissue eosinophilia and subsequent effector responses. In this study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism of eosinophil autoregulation affecting migration and survival mediated through Notch signaling. We show for the first time that human blood eosinophils express Notch receptors and Notch ligands, expressions of which are influenced by the presence of eosinophil-activating granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Evidence of Notch receptor activation and subsequent transcription of the Notch-responsive gene HES1 were observed in GM-CSF–stimulated eosinophils, confirming functionality of eosinophil-expressed Notch-signaling components. Moreover, by inhibiting Notch signaling with ?-secretase inhibitors or Notch receptor–specific neutralizing antibodies, we demonstrate that autocrine Notch signaling enhances stimulus-mediated actin rearrangement and eosinophil chemokinesis, and impairs eosinophil viability. Taken together, these data suggest autocrine Notch signaling, enhanced in response to tissue- or inflammatory-derived signals, influences eosinophil activity and longevity, which may ultimately contribute to the development of tissue eosinophilia and exacerbation or remediation of eosinophil effector functions.

Radke, Amy L.; Reynolds, Lauren E.; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Dvorak, Ann M.; Weller, Peter F.

2009-01-01

94

Pathogenesis of esophageal rings in eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteritis is being recognized more frequently among the adult patients. The disease is characterized by massive infiltration of the wall of gastrointestinal tract by sheets of eosinophils. The clinical features depend upon the site of involvement. They include dyspepsia, dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, diarrhea and protein-losing enteropathy. Eosinophilic esophagitis may present as chest pain, dysphagia or dyspepsia. The characteristic endoscopic feature of eosinophilic esophagitis is the formation of fine concentric mucosal rings (corrugated esophagus). Regarding the pathogenesis of these mucosal rings our hypothesis is that mast cells in the esophageal wall in response to allergens release histamine, eosinophilic chemotactic factor and platelet activating factor, etc. which activate eosinophils to release toxic cationic proteins. Activation of acetyl choline by histamine may cause contraction of the muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosae resulting in the formation of esophageal rings. This hypothesis can be tested by demonstrating the contraction of muscle layers of muscularis mucosae with the use of high frequency endoscopic ultrasonic probe introduced via the biopsy channel of an endoscope. PMID:15617859

Mann, N S; Leung, J W

2005-01-01

95

Enhanced adhesion to laminin by apoptotic eosinophils.  

PubMed

Apoptotic cells are regarded as inert bodies that turn off intracellular processes and functional capabilities. The objective was to study adhesion by eosinophils in relation to the apoptotic process. Eosinophils were cultured for up to 72 h. The living cells were separated from the apoptotic cells, and their adhesion to transfected cell lines expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin and laminin was measured. To relate the functional studies with cell structure, the surface receptor expression of beta1- and beta2-integrins was investigated by flow cytometry. Apoptotic eosinophils evidenced an increased expression of the alpha-chain of the laminin receptor and CD49f and an increased ability to adhere to a laminin-coated surface. Adhesion to the endothelial cell adhesion receptors E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 was absent in apoptotic eosinophils and was paralleled by a low expression of CD11b, CD29, CD49d and CD66b. The specifically increased adhesion to laminin and expression of the laminin receptor alpha-chain is a unique feature of apoptotic eosinophils. When an eosinophil goes into apoptosis, it still possesses the ability to interact with its environment. Our results point to new ideas as to how the apoptotic eosinophil behaves in apoptosis. PMID:14507306

Seton, K; Håkansson, L; Venge, P

2003-10-01

96

Effector functions of eosinophils in schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

The dual function of eosinophils is clearly illustrated in schistosomiasis. Well equipped in membrane receptors for immunoglobulins and complement, and due to the presence of granule basic proteins, eosinophils can become cytotoxic for parasite larvae and thus participate to protective immunity. However, mediators can also exert their cytolytic effect on normal cells or tissues, inducing therefore pathology. through ADCC mechanisms against schistosome larvae in vitro involving different antibody isotypes (IgG, IgE and IgA) and also in experiments performed in vivo, eosinophils have been clearly involved in protective immunity. Although no direct evidence of the protective role of eosinophils were brought in humans, the striking association of eosinophil-dependent cytotoxic antibody isotypes with resistance to reinfection (for instance IgE and IgA antibodies), whereas in vitro blocking antibody isotypes (IgG4, IgM) were detected in susceptible subjects, strongly, suggested the participation of eosinophils in antibody-dependent protective immune response. However eosinophils could also participate to granuloma formation around S. mansoni eggs and consequently to the pathological reactions induced by schistosomiasis. PMID:1343889

Capron, M; Capron, A

1992-01-01

97

Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the monoclonal antibody 2QD45 specifically immunoprecipitated the {rm M_ R} 67,000 ECF-binding protein from ^{125}{rm I}-labeled mouse, rat, and human eosinophils as assessed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that this ECF-binding protein has a lower PI point than either mouse or bovine albumin.

Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

98

Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases: Review and Update  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are a progressively more frequent diverse group of intestinal diseases. The intention of this paper is to present the newest developments in the care of patients with EGIDs and to sum up a rising literature defining the clinical features and mechanistic elements of eosinophils and their intricate associations with the gastrointestinal tract. Clinicians ought to stay sensitive to EGIDs as a diagnostic likelihood for patients with general gastrointestinal symptoms. Further research is warranted to establish various methods leading to dysfunction coupled with eosinophilic gastrointestinal inflammation.

Jawairia, Mahreema; Shahzad, Ghulamullah; Mustacchia, Paul

2012-01-01

99

Novel targeted therapies for eosinophilic disorders  

PubMed Central

Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs) are a diverse group of conditions characterized by clinical manifestations attributable to eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration of tissues. HESs are chronic disorders with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the availability of targeted chemotherapeutic agents, including imatinib, has improved quality of life and survival in some patients with HESs, additional agents with increased efficacy and decreased toxicity are sorely needed. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of eosinophil biology with an emphasis on potential targets of pharmacotherapy and to provide a summary of potential eosinophil-targeting agents, including those in development, in clinical trials, or approved for other disorders.

Wechsler, Michael E.; Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Bochner, Bruce S.; Gauvreau, Gail M.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Henkel, Tim; Kolbeck, Roland; Mathur, Sameer K.; Ortega, Hector; Patel, Jatin; Prussin, Calman; Renzi, Paolo; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Roufosse, Florence; Simon, Dagmar; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Wardlaw, Andrew; Weller, Peter F.; Klion, Amy D.

2013-01-01

100

?4 Integrin-induced cytokine production and eosinophil function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eosinophil a4 integrin receptor is likely to play an important role in eosinophil adhesion as well as signal transduction. In vitro studies have shown that triggering eosinophil a4 integrin induces GM-CSF and IL-3 release by eosinophils [5]. In vivo studies have shown that the eosinophil a4 integrin acts not only as a firm adhesion receptor, but also as a

David H. Broide

1995-01-01

101

Developmental, Malignancy-Related, and Cross-Species Analysis of Eosinophil, Mast Cell, and Basophil Siglec-8 Expression  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to determine when during hematopoiesis Siglec-8 gets expressed, whether it is expressed on hematologic malignancies, and if there are other non-human species that express Siglec-8. Methods Siglec-8 mRNA and cell surface expression was monitored during in vitro maturation of human eosinophils and mast cells. Flow cytometry was performed on human blood and bone marrow samples, and on blood samples from dogs, baboons, and rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Results Siglec-8 is a late maturation marker. It is detectable on eosinophils and basophils from subjects with chronic eosinophilic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and on malignant and non-malignant bone marrow mast cells, as well as the HMC-1.2 cell line. None of the Siglec-8 monoclonal antibodies tested recognized leukocytes from dogs, baboons, and rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Conclusions Siglec-8-based therapies should not target immature human leukocytes but should recognize mature and malignant eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils. So far, there is no suitable species for preclinical testing of Siglec-8 monoclonal antibodies.

Hudson, Sherry A.; Herrmann, Harald; Du, Jian; Cox, Paul; Haddad, El-Bdaoui; Butler, Barbara; Crocker, Paul R.; Ackerman, Steven J.; Valent, Peter

2012-01-01

102

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with an obscure etiology, although associations with allergy, the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, and connective tissue disease have been reported. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman with a history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who presented with refractory nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Imaging studies were significant for bowel wall thickening and ascites, while laboratory studies revealed a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA), a positive anti-double stranded (DS) DNA antibody, low complement, and proteinuria. Exploratory laparotomy with gastric and small bowel biopsies established the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. In addition, the patient met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Previous studies have described eosinophilic gastroenteritis in patients with scleroderma, polymyositis, or dermatomyositis. This is the first report to our knowledge of an individual with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:15492606

Barbie, David A; Mangi, Abeel A; Lauwers, Gregory Y

103

Molecules in focus Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ECP (eosinophil cationic protein) was first purified from human myleoid cells in 1971 and identified as an eosinophil granule protein in 1975. ECP is a heterogeneous protein with molecular weights of the variants from 16–24kDa. ECP is extremely basic with a pI of pH 10.8. The gene for ECP is found on chromosome 14 adjacent to other proteins of the

Per Venge; Jonas Byström

1998-01-01

104

Manifestation peculiarities of idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare interstitial lung disorder, which causes diagnostic difficulties. Often the disease\\u000a is diagnosed correctly after several weeks or months following initial presentation. The aim of the study was to prospectively\\u000a evaluate peculiarities of manifestation of idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP), which may allow to improving\\u000a early diagnosis. Twenty patients with ICEP were involved in this

Edvardas Danila; Jolita Nork?nien?; Remigijus Narg?la; Edvardas Žurauskas; Bronislovas Šatkauskas; Regina Aleksonien?

2010-01-01

105

The Promoter Polymorphism in the Eosinophil Cationic Protein Gene and Its Influence on the Serum Eosinophil Cationic Protein Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction and airway ECP is a member of the eosinophil-associated RNase fam- inflammation. Serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) ily, and the gene is located on human chromosome 14q11.2. might reflect eosinophilic airway inflammation and asthma activity. The eosinophil peroxidase and eosinophil-derived neuro- However, serum ECP levels are not elevated in some patients

Emiko Noguchi; Asushi Iwama; Kazunori Takeda; Tetsuya Takeda; Masashi Kamioka; Kunio Ichikawa; Toshiko Akiba; Tadao Arinami; Masanao Shibasaki

106

Eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are a diverse group of disorders whose diagnosis is on the rise and are characterized by symptoms caused by infiltration by eosinophils of the different sections of the digestive tract. Although little is known of their etiology, it seems to be multifactorial. Alteration of the immunological capacity of the digestive mucosa is determined by the exposure of genetically predisposed individuals to potential airborne or food allergens. EGIDs are classified based on the location of the inflammatory response even though their symptoms, prognosis, and treatment vary considerably. Eosinophilic esophagitis is the most widely recognized entity in this family and is characterized by exclusive eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. Breakthroughs in understanding its etiopathogeny have been extrapolated to eosinophilic gastroenteritis, a rare disease identified many years ago commonly involving the stomach and small bowel which should be distinguished from hypereosinophilic syndrome. Eosinophilic colitis, which usually affects children, could be considered a specific non-IgE-mediated allergy to food protein. The physiopathological bases of these entities need to be established in order to define specific treatment aimed at preventing and altering their clinical evolution. PMID:20509820

Lucendo, Alfredo J

2010-09-01

107

MARKED DEPOSITION OF EOSINOPHIL-DERIVED NEUROTOXIN IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH EOSINOPHILIC ESOPHAGITIS  

PubMed Central

Objective Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized by infiltration of eosinophils into esophageal epithelium. Blood levels of an eosinophil granule protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), have been proposed as a biomarker for EoE. However, information regarding localization of EDN in the diseased tissues has not been available. The goal of this study was to evaluate the magnitude and distribution of EDN deposition in tissue specimens from the esophagus of EoE patients. Methods We studied specimens from 10 adult EoE patients and 8 histologically-normal controls (three under age 17). Sections from mid-esophageal biopsy specimens were stained for EDN by immunofluorescence, using a polyclonal rabbit antibody to EDN. Cellular staining (i.e. infiltration of intact eosinophils) and extracellular staining (i.e. deposition of released EDN) were scored in a blinded manner on an established 7-point scale. Results Esophageal biopsy specimens from histologically-normal controls showed no or few intact eosinophils and no or minimal extracellular EDN deposition. In contrast, EDN staining was clearly observed in specimens from all EoE patients. In some EoE patients, marked extracellular EDN deposition was observed despite relatively small numbers of intact eosinophils. Overall, there was no correlation between the eosinophil infiltration and the extracellular EDN staining scores. Conclusions Marked tissue deposition of extracellular EDN is present in the esophagus of EoE patients. Tissue eosinophil counts may underestimate how extensively eosinophils are involved, particularly in individuals with marked eosinophil degranulation. Evaluation of EDN staining in esophageal biopsy specimens may be useful to diagnose and manage patients with EoE.

Kephart, Gail M.; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Arora, Amindra S.; Romero, Yvonne; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Talley, Nicholas J.; Kita, Hirohito

2010-01-01

108

Protein Radical Formation Resulting from Eosinophil Peroxidase-catalyzed Oxidation of Sulfite.  

PubMed

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is an abundant heme protein in eosinophils that catalyzes the formation of cytotoxic oxidants implicated in asthma, allergic inflammatory disorders, and cancer. It is known that some proteins with peroxidase activity (horseradish peroxidase and prostaglandin hydroperoxidase) can catalyze oxidation of bisulfite (hydrated sulfur dioxide), leading to the formation of sulfur trioxide anion radical ((.)SO(3)(-)). This free radical further reacts with oxygen to form peroxymonosulfate anion radical ((-)O(3)SOO(.)) and the very reactive sulfate anion radical (SO(4)()), which is nearly as strong an oxidant as the hydroxyl radical. However, the ability of EPO to generate reactive sulfur radicals has not yet been reported. Here we demonstrate that eosinophil peroxidase/H(2)O(2) is able to oxidize bisulfite, ultimately forming the sulfate anion radical (SO(4)()), and that these reactive intermediates can oxidize target proteins to protein radicals, thereby initiating protein oxidation. We used immuno-spin trapping and confocal microscopy to study protein oxidation by EPO/H(2)O(2) in the presence of bisulfite in a pure enzymatic system and in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 clone 15 cells, maturated to eosinophils. Polyclonal antiserum raised against the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) detected the presence of DMPO covalently attached to the proteins resulting from the DMPO trapping of protein free radicals. We found that sulfite oxidation mediated by EPO/H(2)O(2) induced the formation of radical-derived DMPO spin-trapped human serum albumin and, to a lesser extent, of DMPO-EPO. These studies suggest that EPO-dependent oxidative damage may play a role in tissue injury in bisulfite-exacerbated eosinophilic inflammatory disorders. PMID:20501663

Ranguelova, Kalina; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Ramirez, Dario C; Summers, Fiona A; Kadiiska, Maria B; Mason, Ronald P

2010-05-25

109

Analysing the eosinophil cationic protein - a clue to the function of the eosinophil granulocyte  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil granulocytes reside in respiratory mucosa including lungs, in the gastro-intestinal tract, and in lymphocyte associated organs, the thymus, lymph nodes and the spleen. In parasitic infections, atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma, the numbers of the circulating eosinophils are frequently elevated. In conditions such as Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES) circulating eosinophil levels are even further raised. Although, eosinophils were identified more than hundred years ago, their roles in homeostasis and in disease still remain unclear. The most prominent feature of the eosinophils are their large secondary granules, each containing four basic proteins, the best known being the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). This protein has been developed as a marker for eosinophilic disease and quantified in biological fluids including serum, bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal secretions. Elevated ECP levels are found in T helper lymphocyte type 2 (atopic) diseases such as allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis but also occasionally in other diseases such as bacterial sinusitis. ECP is a ribonuclease which has been attributed with cytotoxic, neurotoxic, fibrosis promoting and immune-regulatory functions. ECP regulates mucosal and immune cells and may directly act against helminth, bacterial and viral infections. The levels of ECP measured in disease in combination with the catalogue of known functions of the protein and its polymorphisms presented here will build a foundation for further speculations of the role of ECP, and ultimately the role of the eosinophil.

2011-01-01

110

An extragranular compartment of blood eosinophils contains eosinophil protein X/eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN).  

PubMed

Serum and plasma profiles of eosinophil protein X (EPX/EDN) and those of other eosinophil proteins differ in various conditions, suggesting a different mobilisation from storage granules. This work studied the subcellular localisation of EPX/EDN in non-primed and in vivo primed blood eosinophils from healthy and allergic subjects, during and out of the pollen season. Primed eosinophils contain easily mobilisable secretory proteins. By fractionation on sucrose density gradients, EPX/EDN localised in the specific granules as well as in a cytoplasmic extra-granular compartment of low equilibrium density that partially overlapped with vesicular structures, cytosolic proteins and plasma membranes. This compartment was clearly separate from the low density peak of ECP that increases during the pollen season. There were no significant differences in the amounts of EPX/EDN present in the low density peak of healthy and allergic subjects. Immuno-gold labelling electron microscopy showed EPX/EDN in specific granules, cytoplasm and associated to plasma membranes. In conclusion, substantial amounts of EPX/EDN localise in an extra-granular, low equilibrium density compartment of human eosinophils. PMID:23053729

Karawajczyk, Malgorzata; Peterson, Christer G B; Venge, Per; Garcia, Rodolfo C

2013-04-01

111

Eosinophilic myocarditis associated with dense deposits of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in endomyocardium with high serum ECP  

PubMed Central

A case of eosinophilic myocarditis following high serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is described. A 27 year old woman was admitted with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III congestive heart failure. A haematological study showed hypereosinophilia with degranulation and vacuoles; the total eosinophil count was 7980/ml and the ECP serum concentration was noticeably high at 150 ng/ml. Endomyocardial biopsy from the right ventricle showed infiltration of eosinophils and dense deposits of ECP in the endocardium as well as the myocardium. Steroid treatment returned the total eosinophil count and serum ECP to normal, with satisfactory improvement in clinical features. Eosinophilia may cause cardiac damage, and this report confirms that eosinophil degranulation is toxic. Thus, serum ECP seems to be a reliable indicator for diagnosis and for determining treatment parameters of eosinophilic myocarditis.???Keywords: eosinophilic myocarditis; eosinophilia; eosinophil cationic protein; endomyocardial biopsy

Arima, M; Kanoh, T

1999-01-01

112

Indomethacin inhibits eosinophil migration to prostaglandin D2 : therapeutic potential of CRTH2 desensitization for eosinophilic pustular folliculitis.  

PubMed

Indomethacin is a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, and shows therapeutic potential for various eosinophilic skin diseases, particularly eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. One of the unique characteristics of indomethacin is that, unlike other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, it is a potent agonist of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 cells (CRTH2), a receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 ). This study investigated the pharmacological actions of indomethacin on eosinophil migration to clarify the actual mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of indomethacin on eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. Eosinophils exhibited chemokinetic and chemotactic responses to both PGD2 and indomethacin through CRTH2 receptors. Pre-treatment of eosinophils with indomethacin greatly inhibited eosinophil migration to PGD2 and, to a much lesser extent, to eotaxin (CCL11); these effects could be mediated by homologous and heterologous desensitization of eosinophil CRTH2 and CCR3, respectively, by agonistic effects of indomethacin on CRTH2. Indomethacin also cancelled a priming effect of ?(12) -PGJ2 , a plasma metabolite of PGD2 , on eosinophil chemotaxis to eotaxin. Indomethacin down-modulated cell surface expression of both CRTH2 and CCR3. Hair follicle epithelium and epidermal keratinocytes around eosinophilic pustules together with the eccrine apparatus of palmoplantar lesions of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis were immunohistochemically positive for lipocalin-type PGD synthase. Indomethacin may exert therapeutic effects against eosinophilic skin diseases in which PGD2 -CRTH2 signals play major roles by reducing eosinophil responses to PGD2 . PMID:23582181

Kataoka, Naoko; Satoh, Takahiro; Hirai, Aiko; Saeki, Kazumi; Yokozeki, Hiroo

2013-09-01

113

Eosinophilic granuloma - x-ray of the skull (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... x-ray of the skull shows an eosinophilic granuloma (a lesion made-up of a type of ... This condition can range from a single eosinophilic granuloma to massive infiltration of skin, bone, and body ...

114

Goodpasture's syndrome associated with pulmonary eosinophilic vasculitis.  

PubMed

Lung hemorrhage and antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody mediated nephritis define Goodpasture's syndrome. We present the case of a 19-year-old Caucasian woman with unique clinical findings of Goodpasture's syndrome. Our patient initially presented with leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the skin followed by the development of nephritis and lung hemorrhage. An open lung biopsy done prior to diagnosing anti-GBM antibody disease demonstrated an intense eosinophilic vasculitis. Skin vasculitis has only been rarely reported, and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of pulmonary eosinophilic vasculitis associated with Goodpasture's syndrome. PMID:3184080

Komadina, K H; Houk, R W; Vicks, S L; Desrosier, K F; Ridley, D J; Boswell, R N

1988-08-01

115

Transdermal nicotine patches for eosinophilic pustular folliculitis.  

PubMed

We previously reported the clinical effectiveness of transdermal nicotine patches for the treatment of skin disorders with eosinophilic infiltration such as Kimura's disease, erythema nodosum and eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF). We assessed the efficacy and safety of transdermal nicotine patches for EPF. We treated eight patients with EPF with transdermal nicotine patches and evaluated the treatment response by performing overall lesional assessment. Excellent 77and good responses were obtained in five and one patient(s), respectively. In the other two patients, the lesions remained unchanged. No severe adverse effects were observed. Our results suggest that transdermal nicotine patches may be useful and safe in the treatment of EPF. PMID:23802575

Yoshifuku, Asuka; Higashi, Yuko; Matsushita, Shigeto; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Kanekura, Takuro

2013-06-27

116

A case of eosinophilic esophagitis with atypical clinical course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a rare chronic disease that mainly occurs in middle-aged males. Treatment with a glucocorticoid\\u000a and\\/or proton pump inhibitor is usually necessary to relieve unpleasant symptoms. An 83-year-old female patient with dysphagia\\u000a and heartburn was diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis based on endoscopic findings, while histological examination identified\\u000a dense infiltration of intraepithelial eosinophils. The symptoms and eosinophil infiltration spontaneously

Yuji Tamagawa; Tatsuya Miyake; Tsuyoshi Mishiro; Shunji Ohara; Kenji Furuta; Hideaki Kazumori; Shunji Ishihara; Yuji Amano; Yoshikazu Kinoshita

117

Immunohistochemically Stained Activated Eosinophils in Sputum in Patients with Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophils play an important role in asthmatic airway inflammation. Monoclonal antibody EG2 has been considered to identify activated eosinophils. Objective: The present study was aimed to investigate whether immunohistochemically stained EG2+ eosinophils in sputum reflect the severity of asthma. Methods: Sputum was obtained in 23 asthmatic patients, of whom 13 patients were examined before and after antiasthma treatment including

An-Soo Jang; Inseon-S Choi; Chang-Soo Park

2000-01-01

118

Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Red on Microscopy, White on Endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The presenting symptom of eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic TH2-type inflammatory disease, is uniform dysphagia attacks. Histology reveals a dense mucosal infiltration with eosinophils. Unfortunately, endoscopic findings are often unremarkable or misleading. This study characterizes the endoscopic manifestations of eosinophilic esophagitis and analyzes the nature and clinical features of the frequently observed white alterations. Methods: Thirty adult patients (22 males,

Alex Straumann; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Kathleen A. Bucher; Pius Heer; Hans-Uwe Simon

2004-01-01

119

EOSINOPHILS: MULTIFACETED BIOLOGIC PROPERTIES AND ROLES IN HEALTH AND DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Summary Eosinophils are leukocytes resident in mucosal tissues. During Th2-type inflammation, eosinophils are recruited from bone marrow and blood to the sites of immune response. While eosinophils have been considered end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasite infection and immunopathology in hypersensitivity disease, recent studies changed this perspective. Eosinophils are now considered multifunctional leukocytes involved in tissue homeostasis, modulation of adaptive immune responses, and innate immunity to certain microbes. Eosinophils are capable of producing immunoregulatory cytokines and are actively involved in regulation of Th2-type immune responses. However, such new information does not preclude earlier observations showing that eosinophils, in particular human eosinophils, are also effector cells with pro-inflammatory and destructive capabilities. Eosinophils with activation phenotypes are observed in biological specimens from patients with disease, and deposition of eosinophil products is readily seen in the affected tissues from these patients. Therefore, it would be reasonable to consider the eosinophil a multifaceted leukocyte that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. This review summarizes the emerging concept of the multifaceted immunobiology of eosinophils and discusses the roles of eosinophils in health and disease and the challenges and perspectives in the field.

Kita, Hirohito

2011-01-01

120

Familial eosinophilic cellulitis, dysmorphic habitus, and mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophilic cellulitis is a polymorphous, chronic disease characterized by eosinophil infiltration and granulomatous inflammation. Objective: Our purpose was to describe the clinical, histologic, and immunohistologic findings in three family members who have had eosinophilic cellulitis since childhood associated with mental retardation and abnormal body habitus. Methods: Family members were evaluated. Multiple skin biopsy specimens were obtained and examined after

Mark D. P. Davis; A. C. Brown; R. Dwain Blackston; Claudia Gaughf; Ellen A. Peterson; Gerald J. Gleich; Kristin M. Leiferman

1998-01-01

121

Localization of DNA and RNA in Eosinophil Secretory Granules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although the accepted paradigm is that the proteins stored in eosinophil crystalloid granules are translated from messenger RNA transcribed in the cell nucleus, recent ultrastructural evidence suggests that protein synthesis may also take place within eosinophilic granules. Methods: We used 2 different methods to detect the presence of DNA and RNA in eosinophil secretory granules. Using bromodeoxyuridine, a thymidine

Ali R. Behzad; David C. Walker; Thomas Abraham; John McDonough; Salahadin Mahmudi-Azer; Fanny Chu; Furquan Shaheen; James C. Hogg; Peter D. Paré

2010-01-01

122

Inhibition of Eosinophil Transepithelial Migration and Downregulation of Adhesion Molecule Expression on Eosinophils and Airway Epithelial Cells Induced by Budesonide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In asthma, eosinophil migration through the bronchial mucosa is mediated by the expression of surface molecules on eosinophils and airway epithelial cells. To characterize the activity of budesonide on eosinophil transepithelial migration, blood eosinophils were isolated from atopic asthmatic subjects and human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) from surgically resected bronchi. In the presence of different concentrations of budesonide (0.1–100 nM),

R Gonzalez Rodriguez; M Silvestri; A Cordone; A Salami; Giovanni A Rossi

2000-01-01

123

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)  

MedlinePLUS

ALL; Acute childhood leukemia; Cancer - acute childhood leukemia (ALL); Leukemia - acute childhood (ALL) ... Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) occurs when the the body produces a large number of immature white blood cells, called ...

124

Eosinophil pathogenicity mechanisms and therapeutics in neuromyelitis optica  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are abundant in inflammatory demyelinating lesions in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). We used cell culture, ex vivo spinal cord slices, and in vivo mouse models of NMO to investigate the role of eosinophils in NMO pathogenesis and the therapeutic potential of eosinophil inhibitors. Eosinophils cultured from mouse bone marrow produced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in cell cultures expressing aquaporin-4 in the presence of NMO autoantibody (NMO-IgG). In the presence of complement, eosinophils greatly increased cell killing by a complement-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CDCC) mechanism. NMO pathology was produced in NMO-IgG–treated spinal cord slice cultures by inclusion of eosinophils or their granule toxins. The second-generation antihistamines cetirizine and ketotifen, which have eosinophil-stabilizing actions, greatly reduced NMO-IgG/eosinophil–dependent cytotoxicity and NMO pathology. In live mice, demyelinating NMO lesions produced by continuous intracerebral injection of NMO-IgG and complement showed marked eosinophil infiltration. Lesion severity was increased in transgenic hypereosinophilic mice. Lesion severity was reduced in mice made hypoeosinophilic by anti–IL-5 antibody or by gene deletion, and in normal mice receiving cetirizine orally. Our results implicate the involvement of eosinophils in NMO pathogenesis by ADCC and CDCC mechanisms and suggest the therapeutic utility of approved eosinophil-stabilizing drugs.

Zhang, Hua; Verkman, A.S.

2013-01-01

125

Origin, regulation and physiological function of intestinal eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are pleiotropic multi-functional leukocytes that are typically associated with the initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses, particularly helminth infection and allergic disease. However, expanding evidence supports a broader role for eosinophils in homeostatic function and organ development and modulation of local immune responses via interaction with other effector cells. In this review, the biology of eosinophils in the healthy gut is summarized. In particular, the molecular steps involved in eosinophil development and trafficking are described, with special attention to the important role of the transcription factor GATA-1, the eosinophil selective cytokine IL-5 and the eotaxin subfamily of chemokines. In addition, the regulation of eosinophil survival by inhibitory and death receptors and the expanding role for eosinophils in health and disease are reviewed.

Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2009-01-01

126

Childhood Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. Your blood cells form in your bone ... in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother or sister with ...

127

Eosinophil extracellular DNA trap cell death mediates lytic release of free secretion-competent eosinophil granules in humans.  

PubMed

Eosinophils release their granule proteins extracellularly through exocytosis, piecemeal degranulation, or cytolytic degranulation. Findings in diverse human eosinophilic diseases of intact extracellular eosinophil granules, either free or clustered, indicate that eosinophil cytolysis occurs in vivo, but the mechanisms and consequences of lytic eosinophil degranulation are poorly understood. We demonstrate that activated human eosinophils can undergo extracellular DNA trap cell death (ETosis) that cytolytically releases free eosinophil granules. Eosinophil ETosis (EETosis), in response to immobilized immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA), cytokines with platelet activating factor, calcium ionophore, or phorbol myristate acetate, develops within 120 minutes in a reduced NADP (NADPH) oxidase-dependent manner. Initially, nuclear lobular formation is lost and some granules are released by budding off from the cell as plasma membrane-enveloped clusters. Following nuclear chromatolysis, plasma membrane lysis liberates DNA that forms weblike extracellular DNA nets and releases free intact granules. EETosis-released eosinophil granules, still retaining eosinophil cationic granule proteins, can be activated to secrete when stimulated with CC chemokine ligand 11 (eotaxin-1). Our results indicate that an active NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism of cytolytic, nonapoptotic eosinophil death initiates nuclear chromatolysis that eventuates in the release of intact secretion-competent granules and the formation of extracellular DNA nets. PMID:23303825

Ueki, Shigeharu; Melo, Rossana C N; Ghiran, Ionita; Spencer, Lisa A; Dvorak, Ann M; Weller, Peter F

2013-01-09

128

Eosinophilic myocarditis associated with dense deposits of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in endomyocardium with high serum ECP.  

PubMed

A case of eosinophilic myocarditis following high serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is described. A 27 year old woman was admitted with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III congestive heart failure. A haematological study showed hypereosinophilia with degranulation and vacuoles; the total eosinophil count was 7980/ml and the ECP serum concentration was noticeably high at 150 ng/ml. Endomyocardial biopsy from the right ventricle showed infiltration of eosinophils and dense deposits of ECP in the endocardium as well as the myocardium. Steroid treatment returned the total eosinophil count and serum ECP to normal, with satisfactory improvement in clinical features. Eosinophilia may cause cardiac damage, and this report confirms that eosinophil degranulation is toxic. Thus, serum ECP seems to be a reliable indicator for diagnosis and for determining treatment parameters of eosinophilic myocarditis. PMID:10336931

Arima, M; Kanoh, T

1999-06-01

129

Eosinophil-Cryptococcus neoformans interactions in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are components of inflammatory responses to a variety of pathogens. Although a variety of beneficial and harmful functions have been ascribed to these cells, their role in protection against infectious agents remains uncertain. Previous studies have reported eosinophilic pneumonia in mice infected intratracheally with Cryptococcus neoformans. We confirmed this observation and studied the inflammatory response in the lung at day 14 by light and electron microscopy. Immunostaining for glucuronoxylomannan showed isolated cryptococci inside the eosinophilic cuffs. Eosinophils were found to be in close association with C. neoformans in vivo. Cryptococci were associated with eosinophils within eosinophilic perivascular cuffs, within granulomas, and lining the alveolar space. To further investigate this phenomenon in vitro, we isolated rat peritoneal eosinophils and studied cryptococcus-eosinophil interactions in the presence and absence of anti-capsular immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgE monoclonal antibody (MAb). Eosinophils phagocytosed C. neoformans only in the presence of specific antibody. Phagocytosis was rapid, and dense rings that appeared to consist of granule contents were formed around the organisms. Mast cells were observed to occasionally phagocytose C. neoformans in vitro in the presence of IgE MAb. Our observations suggest that eosinophils may be effector cells against C. neoformans.

Feldmesser, M; Casadevall, A; Kress, Y; Spira, G; Orlofsky, A

1997-01-01

130

[Eosinophilic esophagitis, a pathology on the rise].  

PubMed

The eosinophilic esofagitis is a pathology that consists of an inflammatory condition of the esophagus, which is characterized for having a high percentage of eosinophils. It is a problem of allergic origin and his diagnosis is increasing in the population, especially in children and adult young persons, throughout last decade. The fisiopathology is not completely established nowadays. The diagnosis is confirmed with endoscopia and capture of biopsies. The differential diagnosis is necessary to be done with the disease for reflux gastroesofágico, gastroenteritis eosinofílica, by Crohn's disease, pathology of connective fabric, syndrome hipereosinofílico, infections and response of hypersensitivity to medicaments. Nowadays there is no a treatment that is definitive. We present a clinical case, which was valued initially for the consultation of Primary care. PMID:24095173

Miranda García, M; Gutiérrez Teira, B

2012-09-13

131

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a paediatric case.  

PubMed

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a rare disorder in children, characterised by respiratory and systemic symptoms, with a generally good prognosis. A 11-year-old asthmatic girl was admitted to our clinic with a 3-month history of progressive cough, dyspnoea, weight loss and asthenia. Peripheral blood eosinophilia, multiple bilateral pulmonary infiltrates to the x-ray, multiple nodules with a surrounding ground-glass halo and peripheral predominance to the chest CT suggested the diagnosis of eosinophilic lung disease (ELD). Further investigations ruled out other ELD and supported diagnosis of CEP. The response to oral corticosteroids was dramatic, no relapses were reported in 2-year follow-up while the patient was under inhaled corticosteroids for pre-existing asthma. PMID:23625667

Tassinari, Davide; Di Silverio Carulli, Chiara; Visciotti, Francesca; Petrucci, Roberta

2013-04-25

132

An interesting case of eosinophilic meningitis.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is one of the causative agents of eosinophilic meningitis. Humans get infected when they ingest raw or partially cooked snails or monitor lizards (Varanus bengalensis). There is a popular belief that the tongue and the liver of the monitor lizard has aphrodisiac properties. A 20-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a history of fever, headache and vomiting. His cerebrospinal fluid revealed eosinophilia. He gave a history of the ingestion of a monitor lizard, ten days prior to the onset of the symptoms. So, a diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis was made. He was treated with oral albendazole and prednisolone. His symptoms improved gradually within two weeks from his admission. PMID:23730662

Pai, Shivanand; Madi, Deepak; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Mahalingam, Soundarya; Kendambadi, Rakshith

2013-04-01

133

An Interesting Case of Eosinophilic Meningitis  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is one of the causative agents of eosinophilic meningitis. Humans get infected when they ingest raw or partially cooked snails or monitor lizards (Varanus bengalensis). There is a popular belief that the tongue and the liver of the monitor lizard has aphrodisiac properties. A 20-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a history of fever, headache and vomiting. His cerebrospinal fluid revealed eosinophilia. He gave a history of the ingestion of a monitor lizard, ten days prior to the onset of the symptoms. So, a diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis was made. He was treated with oral albendazole and prednisolone. His symptoms improved gradually within two weeks from his admission.

Pai, Shivanand; Madi, Deepak; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Mahalingam, Soundarya; Kendambadi, Rakshith

2013-01-01

134

Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Brazilian Pediatric Patients  

PubMed Central

We examined 11 pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis with a tardy diagnosis. The symptoms were initially thought to be related to other diseases, leading to the use of inadequate therapeutic approaches. The patients were between 3 and 17 years old (mean 7.8 ± 3.8 years), and 8 of the patients were male. Common symptoms included abdominal pain, regurgitation, difficulty in gaining weight, vomiting, dysphagia, and coughing. The mean age for the onset of symptoms was 4.3 ± 2.9 years. Endoscopic findings included normal mucosa in five (45%) patients, thickening of the mucosa with longitudinal grooves in three (27%), erosive esophagitis in two (18%), and a whitish stippling in one (9%) patient. Treatment included the use of a topical corticosteroid for 10 patients. In eight (73%) cases, the treatment made the symptoms disappear. Ten patients underwent histopathological management after treatment, with a decrease in the number of eosinophils.

Pinheiro, Mayra Isabel Correia; de Goes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Honorio, Rodrigo Schuler; de Alencar Moreno, Luis Helder; Fortes, Mayara Carvalho; da Silva, Carlos Antonio Bruno

2013-01-01

135

Eosinophilic esophagitis in brazilian pediatric patients.  

PubMed

We examined 11 pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis with a tardy diagnosis. The symptoms were initially thought to be related to other diseases, leading to the use of inadequate therapeutic approaches. The patients were between 3 and 17 years old (mean 7.8 ± 3.8 years), and 8 of the patients were male. Common symptoms included abdominal pain, regurgitation, difficulty in gaining weight, vomiting, dysphagia, and coughing. The mean age for the onset of symptoms was 4.3 ± 2.9 years. Endoscopic findings included normal mucosa in five (45%) patients, thickening of the mucosa with longitudinal grooves in three (27%), erosive esophagitis in two (18%), and a whitish stippling in one (9%) patient. Treatment included the use of a topical corticosteroid for 10 patients. In eight (73%) cases, the treatment made the symptoms disappear. Ten patients underwent histopathological management after treatment, with a decrease in the number of eosinophils. PMID:24106430

Pinheiro, Mayra Isabel Correia; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Honório, Rodrigo Schuler; de Alencar Moreno, Luís Hélder; Fortes, Mayara Carvalho; da Silva, Carlos Antônio Bruno

2013-09-22

136

Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Infants and Toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding refusal is often described in conjunction with the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) in pediatric patients;\\u000a however, there are little data regarding the specific clinical manifestations and effective management of this condition in\\u000a very young children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presentation of EE in infants and toddlers referred to the\\u000a Interdisciplinary Feeding Team Clinic

Scott P. Pentiuk; Claire Kane Miller; Ajay Kaul

2007-01-01

137

Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration and peripheral eosinophilia. It can be seen anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. It is diagnosed in the biopsies taken during endoscopic examination to the patients with abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea. A 40-year-old woman was admitted with abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea. She has not any disease, food, pollen, or drug allergy in her medical history. Leukocyte: 19,400/mm3 (neutrophil: 19.9%, eosinophil: 57.4%, lymphocyte: 16.5%), platelet: 281,000/ mm3, immunoglobulin E: 1721 IU/mL (normal range: 20–100 IU/mL) was counted in her blood examination. The duodenal biopsy was reported as EGE. We applied methylprednisolone 20 mg/day. With this treatment, the patient's symptoms regressed. In this article we present a case of chronic diarrhea diagnosed EGE. The first step in diagnosing is suspecting EGE. It should be borne in mind in patients with chronic diarrhea.

Temiz, Tayfun; Yaylac?, Selcuk; Demir, Mustafa Volkan; Kahyaoglu, Zeynep; Tamer, Ali; Uslan, Mustafa Ihsan

2012-01-01

138

Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum  

PubMed Central

Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion.

Li, Yunchuan; Liu, Honggang; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Hu, Bin

2013-01-01

139

A Japanese case of eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a rarely diagnosed condition involving eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. Here we present a case of EE in a 69-year-old Japanese man, who presented with abdominal pain, appetite loss, and a history of bronchial asthma. Laboratory findings included peripheral eosinophilia and an increased serum immunoglobulin E level. Computed tomography showed diffuse severe thickening of the esophageal wall, and a barium esophagogram revealed a small caliber of the middle and lower portion of the esophagus, without normal peristaltic contractions. Endoscopy of the esophagus showed a pale mucosa, with adherent whitish exudates resembling fungal infection, and prominent ring-like contractions. Histologic examination of a biopsy specimen revealed marked eosinophil infiltration into the esophageal mucosa. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) demonstrated marked circumferential thickening of the esophageal submucosal layer, and an esophageal manometry study showed a high percentage of ineffective esophageal peristalsis and high-amplitude esophageal body contractions. EUS findings showed no change even after oral corticosteroid therapy, although the histological findings were improved. This is thought to be the first documented Japanese case of EE. EE should be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases of esophageal motility disturbance, even if the patients do not complain of dysphagia. PMID:16933010

Furuta, Koichiro; Adachi, Kyoichi; Kowari, Kentaro; Mishima, Yuko; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Kadota, Chikara; Koshino, Kenji; Miyake, Tatsuya; Kadowaki, Yasunori; Furuta, Kenji; Kazumori, Hideaki; Sato, Shuichi; Ishihara, Shunji; Amano, Yuji; Honda, Masaaki; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

2006-07-01

140

Eosinophil recruitment and activation: the role of lipid mediators  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are effector cells that migrate toward several mediators released at inflammatory sites to perform their multiple functions. The mechanisms driving eosinophil selective accumulation in sites of allergic inflammation are well-established and involve several steps controlled by adhesion molecules, priming agents, chemotactic, and surviving factors. Even though the majority of studies focused on role of protein mediators like IL-5 and eotaxins, lipid mediators also participate in eosinophil recruitment and activation. Among the lipid mediators with distinguish eosinophil recruitment and activation capabilities are platelet activating factor and the eicosanoids, including leukotriene B4, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and prostaglandin D2. In this review, we focused on the role of these four lipid mediators in eosinophil recruitment and activation, since they are recognized as key mediators of eosinophilic inflammatory responses.

Luna-Gomes, Tatiana; Bozza, Patricia T.; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne

2013-01-01

141

Equine CCL11 induces eosinophil cytoskeletal reorganization and activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Objectives: To assess the biological effects of purified recombinant equine CCL11 on equine eosinophil function.\\u000a \\u000a Methods: Following stimulation of eosinophils from normal horses, the polymerised form of actin was measured by flow cytometry using\\u000a fluorescently labelled phalloidin. Migration was determined in a 96 well plate chemotaxis assay using 8 ?m pore membranes,\\u000a and adherence of eosinophils to serum-coated plastic was assessed

M. C. Weston; M. E. Collins; F. M. Cunningham

2006-01-01

142

Eosinophils and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Short Review  

PubMed Central

The eosinophil cell has been related as a prognostic indicator for cancers. However, its exact function in tumour behaviour is still not clearly defined. In the oral cavity the presence of eosinophils can be a favourable prognostic indicator as well as it may be associated with a poor prognosis. In this short review, we briefly summarize the role of the eosinophils in the general context of immunoregulation and its relation to oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Martinelli-Klay, C. P.; Mendis, B. R. R. N.; Lombardi, T.

2009-01-01

143

The cellular biology of eosinophil eicosanoid formation and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils are capable of generating eicosanoid derivatives of arachidonic acid by means of cyclooxygenase and the 5- and 15-lipoxygenase (LO) pathways. Moreover, eosinophils, because of their expression of leukotriene (LT) C4 synthase, are a major source of 5-LO-derived cysteinyl LTs, which are potent paracrine mediators of bronchial obstruction and inflammation pertinent to asthma. The regulation of eicosanoid formation within eosinophils

Christianne Bandeira-Melo; Patricia T. Bozza; Peter F. Weller

2002-01-01

144

A Case of Post-zoster Eosinophilic Dermatosis  

PubMed Central

Post-zoster eosinophilic dermatosis is a rare disease that occurs as an isotopic response in the region of previously healed herpes zoster. We report here on a case of post-zoster eosinophilic dermatosis that occurred 13 years after an episode of herpes zoster. A 48-year-old woman presented with several pruritic, brown papules and plaques in the same dermatome where her previous episode of herpes zoster had healed. Histopathologically, there was a dermal inflammatory cell infiltration composed of abundant eosinophils, lymphocytes and histiocytes. Based on these clinicopathologic findings, the patient was diagnosed with post-zoster eosinophilic dermatosis.

Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hei Sung; Kim, Hyung Ok

2009-01-01

145

Eosinophil granules function extracellularly as receptor-mediated secretory organelles  

PubMed Central

Intracellular granules in several types of leukocytes contain preformed proteins whose secretions contribute to immune and inflammatory functions of leukocytes, including eosinophils, cells notably associated with asthma, allergic inflammation, and helminthic infections. Cytokines and chemokines typically elicit extracellular secretion of granule proteins by engaging receptors expressed externally on the plasma membranes of cells, including eosinophils. Eosinophil granules, in addition to being intracellular organelles, are found as intact membrane-bound structures extracellularly in tissue sites of eosinophil-associated diseases. Neither the secretory capacities of cell-free eosinophil granules nor the presence of functional cytokine and chemokine receptors on membranes of leukocyte granules have been recognized. Here, we show that granules of human eosinophils express membrane receptors for a cytokine, IFN-?, and G protein–coupled membrane receptors for a chemokine, eotaxin, and that these receptors function by activating signal-transducing pathways within granules to elicit secretion from within granules. Capacities of intracellular granule organelles to function autonomously outside of eosinophils as independent, ligand-responsive, secretion-competent structures constitute a novel postcytolytic mechanism for regulated secretion of eosinophil granule proteins that may contribute to eosinophil-mediated inflammation and immunomodulation.

Neves, Josiane S.; Perez, Sandra A. C.; Spencer, Lisa A.; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Reynolds, Lauren; Ghiran, Ionita; Mahmudi-Azer, Salahaddin; Odemuyiwa, Solomon O.; Dvorak, Ann M.; Moqbel, Redwan; Weller, Peter F.

2008-01-01

146

MiR-223 deficiency increases eosinophil progenitor proliferation.  

PubMed

Recently, microRNAs have been shown to be involved in hematopoietic cell development, but their role in eosinophilopoiesis has not yet been described. In this article, we show that miR-223 is upregulated during eosinophil differentiation in an ex vivo bone marrow-derived eosinophil culture system. Targeted ablation of miR-223 leads to an increased proliferation of eosinophil progenitors. We found upregulation of a miR-223 target gene, IGF1R, in the eosinophil progenitor cultures derived from miR-223(-/-) mice compared with miR-223(+/+) littermate controls. The increased proliferation of miR-223(-/-) eosinophil progenitors was reversed by treatment with an IGF1R inhibitor (picropodophyllin). Whole-genome microarray analysis of differentially regulated genes between miR-223(+/+) and miR-223(-/-) eosinophil progenitor cultures identified a specific enrichment in genes that regulate hematologic cell development. Indeed, miR-223(-/-) eosinophil progenitors had a delay in differentiation. Our results demonstrate that microRNAs regulate the development of eosinophils by influencing eosinophil progenitor growth and differentiation and identify a contributory role for miR-223 in this process. PMID:23325891

Lu, Thomas X; Lim, Eun-Jin; Besse, John A; Itskovich, Svetlana; Plassard, Andrew J; Fulkerson, Patricia C; Aronow, Bruce J; Rothenberg, Marc E

2013-01-16

147

Protein kinase C (PKC) isotype profile in eosinophils from ponies with sweet itch and role in histamine-induced eosinophil activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the seasonal equine allergic skin disease, sweet itch. Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in regulating eosinophil function and antigen challenge has been reported to alter PKC isotype expression in blood eosinophils from allergic human subjects. Here we have compared the pattern of PKC isotype expression in eosinophils from sweet itch ponies

E. C. Greenaway; M. F. Sepulveda; F. M. Cunningham; N. T. Goode

2003-01-01

148

Plasma eosinophil cationic protein, interleukin-5, and ECP/Eo count ratio in patients with various eosinophilic diseases.  

PubMed

Hypereosinophilia is associated with clonal disorders, reactive conditions, and rarely with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES). We investigated whether measurement of eosinophilic activity using the plasma eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) level, interleukin-5 (IL-5) level, and the ratio of eosinophilic cationic protein/eosinophil count (ECP/Eo) could improve the early differentiation among various eosinophilic diseases: IHES (n = 9), clonal disorder (n = 35), reactive eosinophilia with malignancy (n = 30), and reactive eosinophilia with inflammation (n = 46). The 120 eosinophilic patients had higher plasma ECP and IL-5 levels than the non-eosinophilic control group (p <0.05). The 9 patients with IHES had significantly higher plasma ECP and IL-5 levels than patients with other eosinophilic diseases (p <0.05). The plasma levels of ECP and the ECP/Eo ratio were higher in patients with non-haematologic malignancy than in those with other reactive eosinophilias (p <0.05). This study shows that levels of plasma ECP, IL-5, and ECP/Eo ratio may assist in the clinical differentiation of various eosinophilic diseases. PMID:16951266

Park, Yeon-Joon; Oh, Eun-Jee; Park, Jong-Won; Kim, Myungshin; Han, Kyungja

2006-01-01

149

Homologous recombination into the eosinophil peroxidase locus generates a strain of mice expressing Cre recombinase exclusively in eosinophils.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are generally linked to innate host defense against helminths, as well as the pathologies associated with allergic diseases, such as asthma. Nonetheless, the activities of eosinophils remain poorly understood, which in turn, has prevented detailed definitions of their role(s) in health and disease. Homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells was used to insert a mammalianized Cre recombinase in the ORF encoding Epx. This knock-in strategy overcame previous inefficiencies associated with eosinophil-specific transgenic approaches and led to the development of a knock-in strain of mice (eoCRE), capable of mediating recombination of "floxed" reporter cassettes in >95% of peripheral blood eosinophils. We also showed that this Cre expression was limited exclusively to eosinophil-lineage committed cells with no evidence of Cre-mediated toxicity. The efficiency and specificity of Cre expression in eoCRE mice were demonstrated further in a cross with a knock-in mouse containing a "(flox-stop-flox)" DTA cassette at the ROSA26 locus, generating yet another novel, eosinophil-less strain of mice. The development of eoCRE mice represents a milestone in studies of eosinophil biology, permitting eosinophil-specific gene targeting and overexpression in the mouse as part of next-generation studies attempting to define eosinophil effector functions. PMID:23630390

Doyle, Alfred D; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A; Ochkur, Sergei I; Willetts, Lian; Shim, Kelly; Neely, Joseph; Kloeber, Jake; Lesuer, Will E; Pero, Ralph S; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J

2013-04-29

150

Similarities between human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil cationic protein: homology with ribonuclease  

SciTech Connect

The eosinophil granule contains a series of basic proteins, including eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). EDN and ECP were isolated from eosinophil granules by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. Radioimmunoassay of fractions from heparin-Sepharose showed one peak of EDN activity and two peaks of ECP activity (termed ECP-1 and ECP-2). EDN, ECP-1, and ECP-2 each exhibited heterogeneity in charge and molecular weight when analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Digestion of EDN and both ECP's with endoglycosidase-F decreased their molecular weights indicating that their heterogeneity is due in part to n-linked oligosaccharides. Amino acid sequence analyses showed that ECP-1 and ECP-2 were identical from residues 1 through 59 and that EDN and ECP sequences were highly homologous (37 of 55 residues identical). Both EDN and ECP NH/sub 2/-terminal sequences showed significant homology to RNase, especially in regions of the RNase molecule involved in ligand binding. EDN, ECP-1 and ECP-2 had neurotoxic activity, causing the Gordon phenomenon at doses down 0.15 microgram; the proteins were comparable in their activities. These results indicate that EDN and ECP are related proteins and suggest that they derived from genes associated with the RNase family.

Gleich, G.J.; Loegering, D.A.; Bell, M.P.; Checkel, J.L.; Ackerman, S.J.; McKean, D.J.

1986-03-05

151

Eosinophilic esophagitis: review of nonsurgical treatment modalities.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathological condition characterized by the combination of upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as dysphagia and even food impaction in association with histological findings of >15 eosinophils/high-powered field found in endoscopic biopsy specimens. EoE is considered an atopic disease with food and aeroallergen sensitivity. Current treatment options include elemental and elimination diets and topical corticosteroids. This study was designed to provide a review of the literature on the nonsurgical treatment modalities for EoE to understand the therapeutic challenges. A Medline and PubMed search was conducted using the key words eosinophilic esophagitis and treatment. EoE guidelines, randomized controlled trials, case studies, and evidence-based treatment articles in the English literature were selected. EoE patients can have symptomatic and pathological resolutions with dietary modifications and topical swallowed corticosteroids with continued therapy. However, these effects are not long-lasting and adverse reactions, both local and systemic, are possible. Newer targeted therapies using monoclonal antibodies against interleukin-5 (IL-5) appear to be well tolerated but various studies have not consistently shown symptomatic or histological improvement. Current therapies for EoE including specific diets and topical corticosteroids have shown only short-term symptomatic relief. Biological therapies such as anti-IL-5 agents are still under investigation. Long-term effects of treatments are not known and studies regarding safety of these therapies and specific dosing regimens are needed. Therapies targeting the molecules involved in the pathogenesis of EoE may be future options. Treatment should be individualized with careful consideration of patient's age, allergen sensitivity, lifestyle, and compliance. PMID:23998238

Reddy, Vinitha; Ghaffari, Gisoo

152

Degranulated eosinophils, eosinophil granule basic proteins and humoral factors in Nigerians with endomyocardial fibrosis.  

PubMed

The frequency of eosinophilia, degranulated eosinophils, and raised serum levels of eosinophil granule basic proteins was determined in ten Nigerians with EMF and fifteen normal controls matched for age and sex, and from the same environment and social background as the patients. Sera from the patients and control subjects were also examined for auto-antibodies, immune complexes, filaria antibodies and immunoglobulins. A mild eosinophilia was observed in four of the patients. The mean direct eosinophil count in the patients (0.407 +/- 0.14 X 10(9)/l) was, however, not significantly different from that of the control subjects (0.399 +/- 0.07 x 10(9)/l). Degranulated eosinophils were absent in the blood and bone marrow aspirates of the patients, and peripheral blood of the controls. It was also found that the mean concentration of eosinophil granule basic proteins (ECP/EPX) in the patients (0.278 +/- 0.1 micrograms/ml) was not significantly different from the mean value for the control subjects (0.371 +/- 0.1 micrograms/ml, P greater than 0.5). Serological studies using Brugia pahangi antigens failed to demonstrate filaria antibodies in the patients and the control subjects. Microfilaria were also absent in their peripheral blood films. Using the indirect immunofluorescent technique, anti-heart antibodies were not demonstrated in the sera of the EMF patients and control subjects. Five (50%) of the patients and four (30.7%) of the normal controls had immune complexes levels far in excess of the upper limit of normal. However, the mean concentration of immune complexes in the patients (16.35%) was not significantly different from the value for control subjects (12.13%, P greater than 0.5).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2829606

Urhoghide, G E; Falase, A O

1987-09-01

153

Anti-inflammatory effects of limonene from yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) essential oil on eosinophils.  

PubMed

Yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) has been used as a traditional medicine in Japan. We investigated in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of limonene from yuzu peel on human eosinophilic leukemia HL-60 clone 15 cells. To examine anti-inflammatory effects of limonene on the cells, we measured the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), nuclear factor (NF) kappa B, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We found that low concentration of limonene (7.34 mmol/L) inhibited the production of ROS for eotaxin-stimulated HL-60 clone 15 cells. 14.68 mmol/L concentration of limonene diminished MCP-1 production via NF-kappa B activation comparable to the addition of the proteasomal inhibitor MG132. In addition, it inhibited cell chemotaxis in a p38 MAPK dependent manner similar to the adding of SB203580. These results suggest that limonene may have potential anti-inflammatory efficacy for the treatment of bronchial asthma by inhibiting cytokines, ROS production, and inactivating eosinophil migration. PMID:20492298

Hirota, Ryoji; Roger, Ngatu Nlandu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Song, Hee-Sun; Sawamura, Masayoshi; Suganuma, Narufumi

2010-04-01

154

Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Involving the Distal Small Intestine and Proximal Colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an unusual disorder. It is characterized by eosinophil infiltration of the gut wall histologically and is manifested by gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms clinically. This disease entity preferentially affects the stomach and proxi- mal small intestine. Mucosal layer disease is the most common form of this uncommon dis- ease. We present a case of EG with transmural distal

Guan-Yeow Ong; Chia-Chang Hsu; Chi-Sin Changchien; Sheng-Nan Lu; Shun-Chen Huang

155

Endoscopy in eosinophilic esophagitis: “feline” esophagus and perforation risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis is an underdiagnosed disease with typical endoscopic findings, which have not been well described. Methods: Charts and pathology reports at two tertiary care centers from June 1993 to April 2002 were reviewed to describe the endoscopic findings of this disease and to correlate them with clinical characteristics. Eight patients were identified as having eosinophilic

Mitchell Kaplan; Ece A. Mutlu; Shriram Jakate; Keith Bruninga; John Losurdo; Joseph Losurdo; Ali Keshavarzian

2003-01-01

156

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia accompanied by mediastinal lymphadenopathy and thrombocytopenia.  

PubMed Central

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia, which was described in 1989, is thought to represent a hypersensitivity reaction to unidentified inhaled antigens. Here, we present a case of a marble mine worker with acute eosinophilic pneumonia complicated with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Esme, Hidir; Sahin, Onder; Sezer, Murat; Fidan, Fatma; Unlu, Mehmet

2006-01-01

157

Dosputum eosinophils and ECP relate to the severity of asthma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: There is much ,evidence that eosinophils play an important ,role in bronchial epithelial damage in asthma by releasing cationic proteins. However, the extent to which ,eosinophil inflammation relates to indices of asthma ,severity in chronic stable asthma is still a matter ,of debate. We studied 46 clinically stable patients with mild to severe chronic asthma (forced expiratory volume in

M. c. Ronchi; C. Piragino; E. Rosi; L. Stendardi; A. Tanini; G. galli; R. Duranti; G. Scano

158

Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in human eosinophils: Mechanisms of action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prominent blood and tissue eosinophilia is clinically manifested in a number of inflammatory states, particularly in allergic diseases. Corticosteroids are the most effective anti-inflammatory drugs used in the treatment of eosinophilic disorders, including bronchial asthma. Their beneficial effects result, among others, from (i) the suppression of the synthesis and the effects of eosinophil survival factors, (ii) the direct induction of

A. Druilhe; S. Létuvé; M. Pretolani

2003-01-01

159

Staphylococcus aureus Induces Eosinophil Cell Death Mediated by ?-hemolysin  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen, exacerbates allergic disorders, including atopic dermatitis, nasal polyps and asthma, which are characterized by tissue eosinophilia. Eosinophils, via their destructive granule contents, can cause significant tissue damage, resulting in inflammation and further recruitment of inflammatory cells. We hypothesised that the relationship between S. aureus and eosinophils may contribute to disease pathology. We found that supernatants from S. aureus (SH1000 strain) cultures cause rapid and profound eosinophil necrosis, resulting in dramatic cell loss within 2 hours. This is in marked contrast to neutrophil granulocytes where no significant cell death was observed (at equivalent dilutions). Supernatants prepared from a strain deficient in the accessory gene regulator (agr) that produces reduced levels of many important virulence factors, including the abundantly produced ?-hemolysin (Hla), failed to induce eosinophil death. The role of Hla in mediating eosinophil death was investigated using both an Hla deficient SH1000-modified strain, which did not induce eosinophil death, and purified Hla, which induced concentration-dependent eosinophil death via both apoptosis and necrosis. We conclude that S. aureus Hla induces aberrant eosinophil cell death in vitro and that this may increase tissue injury in allergic disease.

Prince, Lynne R.; Graham, Kirstie J.; Connolly, John; Anwar, Sadia; Ridley, Robert; Sabroe, Ian; Foster, Simon J.; Whyte, Moira K. B.

2012-01-01

160

Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is independent of eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils have been shown to in- crease in tissues during many fibrotic conditions and consequently have been suggested to contrib- ute to the development of fibrosis. This study tested the hypothesis that eosinophils are essential in the development of lung fibrosis in mice in response to bleomycin (BLM). Anti-IL-5 antibody was adminis- tered intraperitoneally into mice 2 h prior to

Huiqing Hao; Donald A. Cohen; Darrell Jennings; J. Scott Bryson; Alan M. Kaplan

161

Steroid-refractory Neonatal Eosinophilic Pneumonia Responsive to Cyclosporin A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic neonatal eosinophilic pneumonia is extremely rare. We report an infant who presented with tachypnea and interstitial infiltrates on chest radiograph at age 2 wk. Lung biopsy revealed perivascular and interstitial eosinophils. Despite initial improvement, the patient's condition became resistant to corticosteroids, cromolyn, and intravenous gamma globulin. After treatment with cy- closporin A his symptoms resolved. Morton RL, Shoemaker LR,

RONALD L. MORTON; LAWRENCE R. SHOEMAKER; NEMR S. EID

162

Lymphocyte and Eosinophil Influx into Alveolar Tissue in Nocturnal Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown in nocturnal asthma that alveolar tissue eosinophils are increased at night as com- pared with the proximal airway, and that they correlate with the overnight decrement in lung func- tion. As the CD4 1 cell is thought to be the principal orchestrating cell in eosinophil recruitment, we evaluated its presence in the proximal and distal airways in

MONICA KRAFT; RICHARD J. MARTIN; SUSAN WILSON; RATKO DJUKANOVIC; STEPHEN T. HOLGATE

1999-01-01

163

EOSINOPHILIC MYOSITIS DUE TO SARCOCYSTIS HOMINIS IN A BEEF COW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A case of eosinophilic myositis in an eight-year-old beef cow was investigated. The cow originated from a herd that had a high incidence of eosinophilic myositis in slaughtered adult females during a period of two years. Histologically, the lesions in the muscles were characterized as granulomas wit...

164

Idiopathic Eosinophilic Pneumonia and Pregnancy: Report of a Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and pregnancy is reported. In 1989, a 24-year-old woman with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia became pregnant. We decided not to stop steroid therapy. Except for premature preterm rupture of the membrane she had a uneventful pregnancy and a male infant with no distress syndrome.Copyright © 1995 S. Karger AG, Basel

Cinzia Tosoni; David Faden; Roberto Cattaneo; Andrea Lojacono; Paola Tanzi; Mariateresa Franzini; Fabio Lodi Rizzini

1995-01-01

165

Clinical and immunopathologic effects of swallowed fluticasone for eosinophilic esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently recognized clinical disorder that is understood poorly. We aimed to determine the efficacy of swallowed fluticasone propionate on the immunopathologic features associated with EE. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 20 pediatric patients with EE. Inclusion criteria specified a peak eosinophil density of ?24 cells per 400× field in the

Richard J Noel; Philip E Putnam; Margaret H Collins; Amal H Assa’ad; Jesus R Guajardo; Sean C Jameson; Marc E Rothenberg

2004-01-01

166

Eosinophilic colitis associated with larvae of the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various helmintic parasites, most of which are uncommon in economically developed countries, can cause abdominal pain and eosinophilic inflammation of the bowel. A homosexual man presented with severe abdominal pain and haemorrhagic colitis, eosinophilic inflammation of the ileum and colon, and numerous unidentifiable larval nematodes in diarrhoeal stool. His symptoms resolved with anthelmintic treatment alone. Using comparative morphology and molecular

L. X. Liu; J. Chi; M. P. Upton; L. R. Ash

1995-01-01

167

Eosinophil Survival and Apoptosis in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilia is common feature of many disorders, including allergic diseases. There are many factors that influence the production, migration, survival and death of the eosinophil. Apoptosis is the most common form of physiological cell death and a necessary process to maintain but limit cell numbers in humans and other species. It has been directly demonstrated that eosinophil apoptosis is delayed in allergic inflammatory sites, and that this mechanism contributes to the expansion of eosinophil numbers within tissues. Among the proteins known to influence hematopoiesis and survival, expression of the cytokine interleukin-5 appears to be uniquely important and specific for eosinophils. In contrast, eosinophil death can result from withdrawal of survival factors, but also by activation of pro-apoptotic pathways via death factors. Recent observations suggest a role for cell surface death receptors and mitochondria in facilitating eosinophil apoptosis, although the mechanisms that trigger each of these death pathways remain incompletely delineated. Ultimately, the control of eosinophil apoptosis may someday become another therapeutic strategy for treating allergic diseases and other eosinophil-associated disorders.

Park, Yong Mean

2010-01-01

168

2013 Update on Celiac Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder, characterized by small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy after the ingestion of gluten by genetically susceptible individuals. Several extraintestinal manifestations have been associated to celiac disease. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a primary disorder of the esophagus characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms, absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field in biopsy specimens. Both celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are caused by aberrant, but distinct, immune responses to ingested antigens and can be responsive to restricted food intake. The aim of this review is to assess whether there is an association between these two pathologies. In the majority of the studies examined, including the studies in pediatric population, the prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in subjects with celiac disease was about 10-times that of the general population. We suggest searching for eosinophilic esophagitis in all children undergoing endoscopy for suspicious celiac disease.

Pellicano, Rinaldo; De Angelis, Claudio; Ribaldone, Davide Giuseppe; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Astegiano, Marco

2013-01-01

169

The enhancement of eosinophil function by lymphocyte supernatants.  

PubMed Central

Supernatants obtained from non-stimulated lymphocytes, lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin and lymphocytes from patients with schistosomiasis that were stimulated with Schistosomiasis haematobium ova were shown to enhance a number of eosinophil functions. Eosinophil chemotaxis, phagocytosis, microbicidal activity, Nitro blue tetrazolium reduction, hexose monophosphate shunt activity and glycolysis were increased. Eosinophil iodination was not affected. Only those supernatants obtained from phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes and lymphocytes from patients with schistosomiasis that were stimulated with S. haematobium ova showed eosinophil chemotactic activity. The active factor was found to be heat stable, and had no effect on cAMP and cGMP metabolism. The most likely mechanism of enhanced eosinophil function is through the increased activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt activity and glycolysis.

Sher, R; Wadee, A; Joffe, M

1983-01-01

170

2013 update on celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Celiac disease is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder, characterized by small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy after the ingestion of gluten by genetically susceptible individuals. Several extraintestinal manifestations have been associated to celiac disease. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a primary disorder of the esophagus characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms, absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field in biopsy specimens. Both celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are caused by aberrant, but distinct, immune responses to ingested antigens and can be responsive to restricted food intake. The aim of this review is to assess whether there is an association between these two pathologies. In the majority of the studies examined, including the studies in pediatric population, the prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in subjects with celiac disease was about 10-times that of the general population. We suggest searching for eosinophilic esophagitis in all children undergoing endoscopy for suspicious celiac disease. PMID:23974065

Pellicano, Rinaldo; De Angelis, Claudio; Ribaldone, Davide Giuseppe; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Astegiano, Marco

2013-08-22

171

Human vs. Mouse Eosinophils: "That which we call an eosinophil, by any other name would stain as red"  

PubMed Central

The respective life histories of humans and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiological pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages of both species are invariantly maintained, each with identifiable eosinophils. This canonical presence nonetheless does not preclude disparities between human and mouse eosinophils and/or their effector functions. Indeed, many books and reviews dogmatically highlight differences, providing a rationale to discount the use of mouse models of human eosinophilic diseases. We suggest that this perspective is parochial and ignores the wealth of available studies and the consensus of the literature that overwhelming similarities (and not differences) exist between human and mouse eosinophils. The goal of this review is to summarize this literature and in some cases provide the experimental details, comparing and contrasting eosinophils and eosinophil effector functions in humans vs. mice. In particular, our review will provide a summation and an easy to use reference guide to important studies demonstrating that while differences exist, more often than not their consequences are unknown and do not necessarily reflect inherent disparities in eosinophil function, but instead, species-specific variations. The conclusion from this overview is that despite nominal differences, the vast similarities between human and mouse eosinophils provide important insights as to their roles in health and disease and, in turn, demonstrate the unique utility of mouse-based studies with an expectation of valid extrapolation to the understanding and treatment of patients.

Lee, James J.; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Ochkur, Sergei I; McGarry, Michael P.; Condjella, Rachel M.; Doyle, Alfred D.; Luo, Huijun; Zellner, Katie R.; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Willetts, Lian; LeSuer, William E.; Colbert, Dana C.; Helmers, Richard A.; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A.

2012-01-01

172

Eosinophils in human oral squamous carcinoma; role of prostaglandin D2  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are often predominant inflammatory leukocytes infiltrating oral squamous carcinoma (OSC) sites. Prostaglandins are secreted by oral carcinomas and may be involved in eosinophil infiltration. The objective of this study was to determine the factors contributing to eosinophil migration and potential anti-neoplastic effects on OSC. Eosinophil degranulation was evaluated by measuring release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Eosinophil chemotaxis towards OSC cells was assessed using artificial basement membrane. Eosinophil infiltration was prominent within the tissue surrounding the OSC tumor mass. We observed growth inhibition of the OSC cell line, SCC-9, during co-culture with human eosinophils, in vitro, which correlated with EPO activity that possesses growth inhibitory activity. The PGD2 synthase inhibitor, HQL-79, abrogated migration towards SCC-9. Our data suggest that OSC-derived PGD2 may play an important role via CRTH2 (the PGD2 receptor on eosinophils) in eosinophil recruitment and subsequent anti-tumor activity through the action of eosinophil cationic proteins.

2013-01-01

173

RECOGNITION OF FUNGAL PROTEASE ACTIVITIES INDUCES CELLULAR ACTIVATION AND EOSINOPHIL-DERIVED NEUROTOXIN RELEASE IN HUMAN EOSINOPHILS1  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and in immunity to certain organisms. Associations between exposure to an environmental fungus, such as Alternaria, and asthma have been recognized clinically. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are G protein-coupled receptors that are cleaved and activated by serine proteases, but their roles in innate immunity remain unknown. We previously found that human eosinophils respond vigorously to Alternaria organisms and to the secretory product(s) of Alternaria with eosinophils releasing their pro-inflammatory mediators. Herein, we investigated the roles of protease(s) produced by Alternaria and of PARs expressed on eosinophils in their immune responses against fungal organisms. We found that Alternaria alternata produces aspartate protease(s) and that human peripheral blood eosinophils degranulate in response to the cell-free extract of A. alternata. Eosinophils showed an increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in response to Alternaria that was desensitized by peptide and protease ligands for PAR-2 and inhibited by a PAR-2 antagonistic peptide. Alternaria-derived aspartate protease(s) cleaved PAR-2 to expose “neo-ligands”; these neo-ligands activated eosinophil degranulation in the absence of proteases. Finally, treatment of Alternaria extract with aspartate protease inhibitors, which are conventionally used for HIV-1 and other microbes, attenuated the eosinophils’ responses to Alternaria. Thus, fungal aspartate protease and eosinophil PAR-2 appear critical for the eosinophils’ innate immune response to certain fungi, suggesting a novel mechanism for pathologic inflammation in asthma and for host-pathogen interaction.

Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Wada, Kota; White, Thomas A.; Benson, Linda M.; Charlesworth, M. Cristine; Checkel, James L.; Inoue, Yoshinari; Hotta, Kyoko; Ponikau, Jens U; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Kita, Hirohito

2010-01-01

174

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophil homeostasis.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are specialized myeloid cells associated with allergy and helminth infections. Blood eosinophils demonstrate circadian cycling, as described over 80?years ago, and are abundant in the healthy gastrointestinal tract. Although a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-5, and chemokines such as eotaxins mediate eosinophil development and survival, and tissue recruitment, respectively, the processes underlying the basal regulation of these signals remain unknown. Here we show that serum IL-5 levels are maintained by long-lived type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) resident in peripheral tissues. ILC2 cells secrete IL-5 constitutively and are induced to co-express IL-13 during type 2 inflammation, resulting in localized eotaxin production and eosinophil accumulation. In the small intestine where eosinophils and eotaxin are constitutive, ILC2 cells co-express IL-5 and IL-13; this co-expression is enhanced after caloric intake. The circadian synchronizer vasoactive intestinal peptide also stimulates ILC2 cells through the VPAC2 receptor to release IL-5, linking eosinophil levels with metabolic cycling. Tissue ILC2 cells regulate basal eosinophilopoiesis and tissue eosinophil accumulation through constitutive and stimulated cytokine expression, and this dissociated regulation can be tuned by nutrient intake and central circadian rhythms. PMID:24037376

Nussbaum, Jesse C; Van Dyken, Steven J; von Moltke, Jakob; Cheng, Laurence E; Mohapatra, Alexander; Molofsky, Ari B; Thornton, Emily E; Krummel, Matthew F; Chawla, Ajay; Liang, Hong-Erh; Locksley, Richard M

2013-09-15

175

Inhibition of interleukin-5 for the treatment of eosinophilic diseases.  

PubMed

Elevated numbers of blood and tissue eosinophils are present in allergic diseases and experimental evidence suggests that eosinophils play an important pathogenic role in these conditions. Regulation of eosinophil maturation, recruitment, and survival is under the control of a small group of factors, including interleukin-5 (IL-5). Given the probable importance of eosinophils to allergy and other associated disorders, IL-5 has been proposed as a potential molecular target in the treatment of these diseases. IL-5 antagonist therapies in current development include two monoclonal anti-IL-5 antibodies (mepolizumab, reslizumab), a monoclonal antibody directed at the IL-5 receptor (benralizumab), and anti-sense oligonucleotide therapy (TPI ASM8). Anti-IL5 antibody therapy has been the most extensively studied of these agents, and trials have been performed in patients with bronchial asthma, nasal polyposis, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. In studies of asthmatics, anti-IL-5 showed minimal efficacy in patients with moderate, controlled asthma. In patients with severe, refractory asthma associated with eosinophilia, however, clinical trials have demonstrated significant reductions in asthma exacerbations. Clinical studies in other disorders, particularly eosinophilic esophagitis and hypereosinophilic syndrome, have also shown significant improvements in blood and/or tissue eosinophilia and variable alterations in clinical disease activity. Strategies aimed at the inhibition of IL-5 may hold great promise in the treatment of eosinophilic diseases. PMID:22541618

Corren, Jonathan

2012-04-01

176

The childhood leukemias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in treatment and prognosis of childhood leukemia are considered a remarkable success of modern medicine. Childhood leukemia, once considered a universally fatal disease, now boasts overall cure rates ranging from 75% to 85% for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and cure rates approaching 40% to 50% for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Inherent to this success is the expertise nurses provide

Mary Faye Colby-Graham; Christine Chordas

2003-01-01

177

Eosinophilic fasciitis in association with chronic vasculitic-like leg ulcerations.  

PubMed

Vasculitic lesions are not generally associated with eosinophilic fasciitis. Eosinophilic fasciitis is reported to be a syndrome distinct from progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). More recent studies, however, note overlapping features in the clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings of eosinophilic fasciitis and scleroderma. We report a typical presentation of eosinophilic fasciitis that developed vasculitic-like leg ulcerations as seen in scleroderma. PMID:8467618

Wong, A L; Anderson-Wilms, N; Mortensen, S E; Colburn, K K

1993-03-01

178

TNF-? Mediates Eosinophil Cationic Protein-induced Apoptosis in BEAS-2B Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic granulocytes are important for the human immune system. Many cationic proteins with cytotoxic activities, such as eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), are released from activated eosinophils. ECP, with low RNase activity, is widely used as a biomarker for asthma. ECP inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis to cells. However, the specific pathway underlying the mechanisms

Kun-Che Chang; Chih-Wei Lo; Tan-chi Fan; Margaret Dah-Tsyr Chang; Chih-Wen Shu; Chuan-Hsin Chang; Cheng-Ta Chung; Shun-lung Fang; Chih-Chung Chao; Jaw-Ji Tsai; Yiu-Kay Lai

2010-01-01

179

Pathways for eosinophil lipid body induction: differing signal transduction in cells from normal and hypereosinophilic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although lipid bodies, inducible cyto- plasmic inclusions active in arachidonic acid me- tabolism, are abundant in activated leukocytes, including eosinophils, mechanisms for eosinophil lipid body formation are not certain. Eosinophils from hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) donors contained about twice (D18\\/cell) as many lipid bodies as eosinophils from normal donors (D10\\/ cell). By immunocytochemistry both 5- and 15- lipoxygenases were localized at

Patricia T. Bozza; Wengui Yu; Jessica Cassara; Peter F. Weller

180

Human Eosinophil Innate Response to Alternaria Fungus through Protease-Activated Receptor2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. An association between eosinophilic inflammation and infection or colonization by fungi has also been long recognized. However, the mechanisms underlying how eosinophils are activated and how they release proinflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators such as major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin remain largely unknown. We used a fungus, i.e.

Yoshinori Matsuwaki; Kota Wada; Hiroshi Moriyama; Hirohito Kita

2011-01-01

181

Steroid utilization in eosinophilic jejunitis: beneficial or harmful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Eosinophilic jejunitis is a rare disorder of undetermined origin, which is characterized by infiltration of eosinophils in\\u000a the intestine. The aim of this study is to evaluate steroid therapy effect in patient treated for eosinophilic jejunitis to\\u000a share our experience with other colleagues.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We report a patient with symptoms of small bowel obstruction whose diagnosis was confirmed by previous operation

Cemil Caliskan; Ozgur F?rat; Avni Can Karaca; Erhan Akgun

2010-01-01

182

A Case of Feline Gastrointestinal Eosinophilic Sclerosing Fibroplasia  

PubMed Central

Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia was diagnosed in an 8-month-old Scottish fold that had a primary gastrointestinal mass involving the stomach, duodenum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Histopathologically, the most characteristic feature of this mass was granulation tissue with eosinophil infiltration and hyperplasia of sclerosing collagen fiber. Immunohistochemically, large spindle-shaped cells were positive for smooth muscle actin and vimentin. This case emphasizes the importance of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia as a differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal neoplastic lesions such as osteosarcoma and mast cell tumor in cats.

Suzuki, Manabu; Onchi, Miyako; Ozaki, Masakazu

2013-01-01

183

Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn with eosinophilic granules.  

PubMed

Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SFN) of the newborn is a variant of lobular panniculitis characterized by focal areas of fat necrosis and a granulomatous infiltrate composed of lymphocytes, histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells. Lipocytes and histiocytes contain needle-shaped clefts in a radial arrangement. Needle-shaped clefts may also be seen within the cytoplasm of multinucleated giant cells.(1-3) We present an unusual example of SFN showing multinucleated giant cells laced with eosinophilic granules. These eosinophilic granules are believed to be released from surrounding degranulating eosinophils. PMID:17576341

Tajirian, Ani; Ross, Rustin; Zeikus, Priya; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

2007-07-01

184

Eosinophilic Myelitis in the Cervical Cord Mimicking Intramedullary Cord Tumor  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic myelitis (EM) or atopic myelitis is a rare disease characterized by a myelitic condition in the spinal cord combined with allergic process. This disease has specific features of elevated serum IgE level, active reaction to mite specific antigen and stepwise progression of mostly the sensory symptoms. Toxocariasis can be related with a form of EM. This report describes two cases of cervical eosinophilic myelitis initially considered as intramedullary tumors. When a differential diagnosis of the intramedullary spinal cord lesion is in doubt, evaluation for eosinophilic myelitis and toxocariasis would be beneficial.

Park, Cheon Wook; Chun, Young Il

2012-01-01

185

Eosinophil granule cationic proteins regulate the classical pathway of complement.  

PubMed Central

Major basic protein, the primary constituent of eosinophil granules, regulates the alternative and classical pathways of complement. Major basic protein and other eosinophil granule cationic proteins, which are important in mediating tissue damage in allergic disease, regulate the alternative pathway by interfering with C3b interaction with factor B to assemble an alternative pathway C3 convertase. In the present study, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, as well as major basic protein, were examined for capacity to regulate the classical pathway. Eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and major basic protein inhibited formation of cell-bound classical pathway C3 convertase (EAC1,4b,2a), causing 50% inhibition of complement-mediated lysis at about 0.19, 0.75 and 0.5 micrograms/10(7) cellular intermediates, respectively. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin had no activity on this pathway of complement. The eosinophil granule proteins were examined for activity on the formation of the membrane attack complex. Major basic protein and eosinophil cationic protein had no activity on terminal lysis. In contrast, eosinophil peroxidase inhibited lysis of EAC1,4b,2a,3b,5b, but had only minimal activity on later events in complement lysis. These polycations were then examined to determine the site(s) at which they regulated the early classical pathway. Eosinophil granule polycationic proteins: (1) reduced the Zmax at all time points but had only minimal effect on the Tmax during the formation of the classical pathway C3 convertase (EAC1,4b,2a); (2) inhibited formation of EAC1,4b,2a proportional to C4 but independent of C2 concentration; (3) inhibited fluid phase formation of C1,4b,2a, as reflected by a decrease in C1-induced consumption of C2 over time; and (4) inhibited C1 activity over time without a direct effect on either C4 or C2. These observations suggest that polycations regulate the early classical pathway by interfering with C1 and may exert this activity in vivo.

Weiler, J M; Edens, R E; Bell, C S; Gleich, G J

1995-01-01

186

Fascioliasis in Eosinophilic Patients in the Isparta Region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Background: The aim of this study was to investigate fascioliasis in a group of eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic patients in the Isparta\\u000a region of Turkey.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods: All cases were examined for antibodies against Fasciola hepatica by the modified ES-ELISA method. Seropositive patients with fascioliasis were investigated by radiological and laboratory\\u000a evaluations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: Of the 756 eosinophilic patients, 6.1%

M. Demirci; M. Korkmaz; S. Kaya; A. Kuman

2003-01-01

187

Eosinophilic myelitis in the cervical cord mimicking intramedullary cord tumor.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic myelitis (EM) or atopic myelitis is a rare disease characterized by a myelitic condition in the spinal cord combined with allergic process. This disease has specific features of elevated serum IgE level, active reaction to mite specific antigen and stepwise progression of mostly the sensory symptoms. Toxocariasis can be related with a form of EM. This report describes two cases of cervical eosinophilic myelitis initially considered as intramedullary tumors. When a differential diagnosis of the intramedullary spinal cord lesion is in doubt, evaluation for eosinophilic myelitis and toxocariasis would be beneficial. PMID:23133734

Park, Cheon Wook; Choe, Woo Jin; Chun, Young Il

2012-10-22

188

Eosinophilic cystitis: treatment with intravesical steroids and oral antihistamines.  

PubMed

This is a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 56-year-old indigenous Australian woman who presented with urosepsis on the background of a urinary tract infection unresponsive to oral antibiotics. After resolution of the urosepsis, she had persisting urinary retention and a cystoscopy/bladder biopsy suggested eosinophilic cystitis. After 1 month of intravesical hydrocortisone and oral loratadine, repeat cystoscopy showed vast improvement in the bladder lesions. This case further strengthens the use of intravesical steroids and oral antihistamines for the management of eosinophilic cystitis. PMID:24014555

Zaman, Shahriar Raj; Vermeulen, Tersia L; Parry, Jeremy

2013-09-06

189

CR3-dependent negative regulation of human eosinophils by Mycobacterium bovis BCG lipoarabinomannan.  

PubMed

Eosinophils have recently been shown to participate in innate immune responses against mycobacteria. We have investigated whether Mycobacterium bovis BCG regulate the human eosinophil immune response. A negative correlation between mycobacteria internalization and eosinophil activation was observed. In addition, mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan from M. bovis BCG (ManLAM) failed to induce a significant release of eosinophil peroxidase and TNF-?. Noteworthy, ManLAM exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on eosinophil peroxidase release by TLR2-activated eosinophils involving the complement receptor-3 molecule and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway. ManLAM, generally present in pathogenic mycobacteria, plays an important role in modulating eosinophil-dependent immune response. PMID:22391042

Driss, Virginie; Hermann, Emmanuel; Legrand, Fanny; Loiseau, Sylvie; Delbeke, Marie; Kremer, Laurent; Guerardel, Yann; Dombrowicz, David; Capron, Monique

2012-02-25

190

Leukemia revisited  

SciTech Connect

Selected features of the historical development of our knowledge of leukemia are discussed. The use of different methodologies for study of the nature of leukemic cell proliferation are analyzed. The differences between older cell kinetic data using tritiated thymidine and autoradiography and the newer cell culture methods are more apparent than real. It is suggested that tritiated thymidine and extracorporeal irradiation of the blood may be useful for therapeutic agents that have not been given an adequate trial. Radiation leukemogenesis presents an opportunity for study of the nature of leukemogenesis that has not been exploited adequately.

Cronkite, E P

1980-01-01

191

The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects  

SciTech Connect

Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

Linet, M.S.

1984-01-01

192

Decitabine in Treating Children With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-01-22

193

Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun; Son, Hyun-Jin

2013-01-01

194

Guide to Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... LP and TAP Pharmaceutical Products Inc. What is TIGER? The International Gastrointestinal Eosinophilic Researchers (TIGER) are a ... NUTRITION FOUNDATION For More Information Go To: www.TIGER-EGID.CDHNF.org Furrows Rings White plaques Images ...

195

Solitary eosinophilic granuloma of the third metacarpal at pediatric age.  

PubMed

Langerhans cell histiocytosis involves disorders previously referred to as "histiocytosis X" (including eosinophilic granuloma of bone, Letterer-Siwe, and Hand-Schüller-Christian syndrome). Eosinophilic granuloma of the hand, especially if solitary, is extremely rare. This is the third pediatric case reported in the literature with solitary eosinophilic granuloma of the hand and the second with metacarpal involvement. The patient's lesion was curetted and the histologic examination showed eosinophilic granuloma. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy because of continuing mild functional impairment and fracture risk. At 12-month follow-up near complete recovery of the lesion was observed. Radiologically, there was sclerosis and remodeling of the third metacarpal. The patient is disease-free at 26 months. PMID:14578028

Demiral, Ayse N; Ozdemir, Oguz; Coskunol, Erhan; Bacakoglu, Abdülkadir; Cevikol, Can; Basdemir, Gülçin

2003-12-01

196

Genes Associated with Food Allergy and Eosinophilic Esophagitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ingestion of food antigens plays an essential role in the development of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) as total removal of dietary antigens by using an amino acid based oral formula improves clinical symptoms and esophageal histology in 98% of patient...

D. Broide

2011-01-01

197

A novel cause of eosinophilic pneumonia: recreational marijuana exposure.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic pneumonia is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates visible on radiography, eosinophilic infiltration into the lung parenchyma, and frequent peripheral eosinophilia. The etiology may be idiopathic or secondary to identifiable causes, including drugs, parasites, toxins, infections, or systemic diseases such as hypereosinophilic syndrome. A 60-year-old man was seen in pulmonary clinic with 4 weeks of cough and wheeze. He was found to have pulmonary infiltrates, a peripheral eosinophilia, and bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated numerous eosinophils. Careful review of history revealed that the symptoms had started after a recreational exposure to marijuana from a different source than usual. Eosinophilic pneumonia from marijuana has been described once in conjunction with tobacco smoke in the pediatric literature, but to our knowledge this is the first report in the adult literature. PMID:23609259

Liebling, Peter D; Siu, Stanton

2013-04-01

198

UNUSUAL EOSINOPHILIC GRANULE CELL PROLIFERATION IN COHO SALMON (ONCHORHYNCHUS KISUTCH)  

EPA Science Inventory

Proliferative lesions comprised of eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs) extended throughout the gastrointestinal tract of several mature, spawning coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum). istological examination of the tumour showed extensive proliferation and infiltration of EGC...

199

Adenosine A3 receptor stimulation inhibits migration of human eosinophils.  

PubMed

Activation of adenosine A3 receptors (A3-R) produced a dose-dependent reduction in the chemotaxis of human eosinophils to platelet-activating factor (PAF), RANTES, and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) to a maximum of 58, 48, and 52%, respectively (P < 0.02). This effect was completely reversed by selective A3-R antagonists. In contrast, activation of A1 or A2a-R did not affect PAF-induced eosinophil chemotaxis. PAF up-regulated the expression of CDllb/CD18, down-regulated L-selectin, and also increased F-actin assembly in eosinophils. The expression of these activation markers was not influenced by A3-R, A2a, or A1-R stimulation. Activation of A3-R may play an important role in inflammation by inhibiting eosinophil migration. PMID:9335316

Knight, D; Zheng, X; Rocchini, C; Jacobson, M; Bai, T; Walker, B

1997-10-01

200

Interleukin-5 Potentiates Sulfidopeptide Leukotriene Production by Human Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-5 (IL-5) has been shown to be a selective eosinophil growth and differentiation factor. In the present study, the effect of recombinant human IL-5 on human eosinophil sulfidopeptide leukotriene production was investigated. IL-5 did not affect leukotriene synthesis in unstimulated eosinophils. However, IL-5 potentiated leukotriene synthesis by eosinophils stimulated with serum treated zymosan (STZ) or the calcium ionophore A23187 by 69% and 135%, respectively. The priming effect of IL-5 was dose dependent, with significant stimulation occurring at 1 000 U/ml for STZ and 100-1 000 U/ml for A23187. Pre-incubation with IL-5 did not increase leukotriene synthesis further.

Van Der Poel, A.; Koenderman, L.; Roos, D.; Nijkamp, F. P.

1994-01-01

201

CCL11 elicits secretion of RNases from mouse eosinophils and their cell-free granules  

PubMed Central

Rapid secretion of eosinophil-associated RNases (EARs), such as the human eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), from intracellular granules is central to the role of eosinophils in allergic diseases and host immunity. Our knowledge regarding allergic inflammation has advanced based on mouse experimental models. However, unlike human eosinophils, capacities of mouse eosinophils to secrete granule proteins have been controversial. To study mechanisms of mouse eosinophil secretion and EAR release, we combined an RNase assay of mouse EARs with ultrastructural studies. In vitro, mouse eosinophils stimulated with the chemokine eotaxin-1 (CCL11) secreted enzymatically active EARs (EC50 5 nM) by piecemeal degranulation. In vivo, in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation, increased airway eosinophil infiltration (24-fold) correlated with secretion of active RNases (3-fold). Moreover, we found that eosinophilic inflammation in mice can involve eosinophil cytolysis and release of cell-free granules. Cell-free mouse eosinophil granules expressed functional CCR3 receptors and secreted their granule proteins, including EAR and eosinophil peroxidase in response to CCL11. Collectively, these data demonstrate chemokine-dependent secretion of EARs from both intact mouse eosinophils and their cell-free granules, findings pertinent to understanding the pathogenesis of eosinophil-associated diseases, in which EARs are key factors.—Shamri, R., Melo, R. C. N., Young, K. M., B.-B, M., Xenakis, J. J., Spencer, L. A., Weller, P. F. CCL11 elicits secretion of RNases from mouse eosinophils and their cell-free granules.

Shamri, Revital; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Young, Kristen M.; Bivas-Benita, Maytal; Xenakis, Jason J.; Spencer, Lisa A.; Weller, Peter F.

2012-01-01

202

Concomitant herpetic and eosinophilic esophagitis--a causality dilemma.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic and herpetic esophagitis are listed as independent causes of dysphagia, especially in young adult males. However, herpetic esophagitis rarely affects immunocompetent individuals. We report the case of a young, not immunocompromised patient, admitted because of severe dysphagia secondary to herpes simplex virus esophagitis. After complete resolution, an endoscopic and histologic reevaluation established the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis. The potential association between the two conditions is discussed. PMID:23082710

Monsanto, P; Almeida, N; Cipriano, M A; Gouveia, H; Sofia, C

2012-09-01

203

[Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: report of a case].  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disease. The most typical symptoms are recurrent dysphagia and episodes of food impactions. This pathology is quite frequently associated with atopy. We report the case of a 39-year-old patient, suffering from allergic asthma, admitted to hospital for an episode of food impaction. Clinical, endoscopic and histological findings lead to the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis. From data of the litterature, we discuss the diagnosis, the pathogeny and the treatment of this pathology. PMID:18575072

Marting, A; Leclercq, Ph; Gast, P; Scagnol, I; Belaiche, J

2008-04-01

204

Acute Eosinophilic Myocarditis with Dramatic Response to Steroid Therapy  

PubMed Central

Acute eosinophilic myocarditis is a rare cause of acute heart failure. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman who had presumptive eosinophilic myocarditis as part of a generalized hypersensitivity reaction (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms [DRESS] syndrome) that exhibited a dramatic response to steroid therapy. We highlight the central role of 2-dimensional and tissue-Doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis of myocarditis and the serial evaluation of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in this setting.

Eppenberger, Manuela; Hack, Dietrich; Ammann, Peter; Rickli, Hans; Maeder, Micha T.

2013-01-01

205

CCR3 Blockade Attenuates Eosinophilic Ileitis and Associated Remodeling  

PubMed Central

Intestinal remodeling and stricture formation is a complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that often requires surgical intervention. Although eosinophils are associated with mucosal remodeling in other organs and are increased in IBD tissues, their role in IBD-associated remodeling is unclear. Histological and molecular features of ileitis and remodeling were assessed using immunohistochemical, histomorphometric, flow cytometric, and molecular analysis (real-time RT-PCR) techniques in a murine model of chronic eosinophilic ileitis. Collagen protein was assessed by Sircol assay. Using a spontaneous eosinophilic Crohn's-like mouse model SAMP1/SkuSlc, we demonstrate an association between ileitis progression and remodeling over the course of 40 weeks. Mucosal and submucosal eosinophilia increased over the time course and correlated with increased histological inflammatory indices. Ileitis and remodeling increased over the 40 weeks, as did expression of fibronectin. CCR3-specific antibody-mediated reduction of eosinophils resulted in significant decrease in goblet cell hyperplasia, muscularis propria hypertrophy, villus blunting, and expression of inflammatory and remodeling genes, including fibronectin. Cellularity of local mesenteric lymph nodes, including T- and B-lymphocytes, was also significantly reduced. Thus, eosinophils participate in intestinal remodeling, supporting eosinophils as a novel therapeutic target.

Masterson, Joanne C.; McNamee, Eoin N.; Jedlicka, Paul; Fillon, Sophie; Ruybal, Joseph; Hosford, Lindsay; Rivera-Nieves, Jesus; Lee, James J.; Furuta, Glenn T.

2011-01-01

206

Anti–IL5 (mepolizumab) therapy induces bone marrow eosinophil maturational arrest and decreases eosinophil progenitors in the bronchial mucosa of atopic asthmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophils develop from CD34+ progenitors under the influence of IL-5. Atopic asthmatic individuals have increased numbers of mature eosinophils and eosinophil pro-genitors within their bone marrow and bronchial mucosa. We have previously reported that anti–IL-5 monoclonal antibody treatment decreases total bone marrow and bronchial mucosal eosinophil numbers in asthma. Objective: Using an anti–IL-5 monoclonal antibody, we examined the role

Andrew Menzies-Gow; Patrick Flood-Page; Roma Sehmi; John Burman; Qutayba Hamid; Douglas S. Robinson; A. Barry Kay; Judah Denburg

2003-01-01

207

Induction of Eosinophil Apoptosis by the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor AT7519 Promotes the Resolution of Eosinophil-Dominant Allergic Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophils not only defend the body against parasitic infection but are also involved in pathological inflammatory allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and contact dermatitis. Clearance of apoptotic eosinophils by macrophages is a key process responsible for driving the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and can be defective in allergic diseases. However, enhanced resolution of eosinophilic inflammation by deliberate induction of eosinophil apoptosis using pharmacological agents has not been previously demonstrated. Here we investigated the effect of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor drug, AT7519, on human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis and examined whether it could enhance the resolution of a murine model of eosinophil-dominant inflammation in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Eosinophils from blood of healthy donors were treated with AT7519 and apoptosis assessed morphologically and by flow-cytometric detection of annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. AT7519 induced eosinophil apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. Therapeutic administration of AT7519 in eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation was investigated using an established ovalbumin-sensitised mouse model of allergic pleurisy. Following ovalbumin challenge AT7519 was administered systemically at the peak of pleural inflammation and inflammatory cell infiltrate, apoptosis and evidence of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils assessed at appropriate time points. Administration of AT7519 dramatically enhanced the resolution of allergic pleurisy via direct induction of eosinophil apoptosis without detriment to macrophage clearance of these cells. This enhanced resolution of inflammation was shown to be caspase-dependent as the effects of AT7519 were reduced by treatment with a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor (z-vad-fmk). Conclusions Our data show that AT7519 induces human eosinophil apoptosis and enhances the resolution of a murine model of allergic pleurisy by inducing caspase-dependent eosinophil apoptosis and enhancing macrophage ingestion of apoptotic eosinophils. These findings demonstrate the utility of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors such as AT7519 as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of eosinophil dominant allergic disorders.

Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Leitch, Andrew E.; Lucas, Christopher D.; Sheldrake, Tara A.; Dorward, David A.; Hirani, Nik; Pinho, Vanessa; de Sousa, Lirlandia Pires; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Lyons, John F.; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

2011-01-01

208

Urinary eosinophil protein X and serum eosinophil cationic protein in infants and young children with atopic dermatitis: Correlation with disease activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX) or eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) are released by eosinophil granulocytes in allergic diseases. Serum ECP (s-ECP) levels have been correlated with disease activity in atopic dermatitis (AD) in adults and young patients, and high urinary EPX (u-EPX) levels in asthmatic patients seem to reflect active disease. A relationship between AD severity

Neri Pucci; Enrico Lombardi; Elio Novembre; Silvia Farina; Roberto Bernardini; Elisabetta Rossi; Tania Favilli; Alberto Vierucci

2000-01-01

209

Radiogenic leukemia revisited  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced leukemia is considered to be similar to the de novo disease. However, following an analysis of clinical and hematological findings in leukemia occurring in irradiated cervical cancer patients, adult Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, and spondylitics treated with x-ray, striking differences were noted. Acute leukemias in cervical cancer patients and Japanese survivors were similar in type to acute de novo leukemias in adults. Cell types among spondylitics were very dissimilar; rare forms, eg, acute erythromyelocytic leukemia (AEL) and acute megakaryocytic leukemia, were increased. Pancytopenia occurred in 25 of 35 cases and erythromyelodysplastic disorders were noted in seven of 35 acute cases. The leukemias and myelodysplastic disorders closely resembled those occurring in patients treated with alkylating agents. This similarity suggests a common pathogenesis involving marrow stem cell injury and extra-medullary mediators of hematopoiesis. Investigation of early acute leukemias and myelodysplastic disorders with newer techniques may provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of leukemia in humans.

Moloney, W.C.

1987-10-01

210

[A case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis with extra-vascular granuloma and eosinophilic vasculitis diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy].  

PubMed

A 62-year-old man was suffering from bronchial asthma and referred to our institution with dry cough and dyspnea on exertion in November, 2010. He was diagnosed with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EPGA, formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) by chest radiographic findings, blood eosinophilia, mononeuritis multiplex and cardiomyopathy. Steroid therapy was started and he was rapidly improved. Steroid therapy had been tapered off by May, 2012. After 2 months, however, progressive dyspnea, neural symptoms, deafness, re-elevation of blood eosinophils and bilateral multifocal infiltrations appeared. He was re-admitted to our institution. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) specimens revealed extra-vascular granuloma, eosinophilic vasculitis and eosinophilic pneumonia and we diagnosed him with the reccurence of EGPA. He was improved by steroid pulse therapy, then tapered. This case was the antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies negative EGPA. The case of EGPA with granuloma and vasculitis diagnosed by TBLB was rare. PMID:23760204

Hara, Yu; Kanoh, Soichiro; Fujikura, Yuji; Kawano, Shuichi; Misawa, Kazuhisa; Kawana, Akihiko

2013-05-01

211

Human versus mouse eosinophils: "that which we call an eosinophil, by any other name would stain as red".  

PubMed

The respective life histories of human subjects and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiologic pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages of both species are invariantly maintained, each with identifiable eosinophils. This canonical presence nonetheless does not preclude disparities between human and mouse eosinophils, their effector functions, or both. Indeed, many books and reviews dogmatically highlight differences, providing a rationale to discount the use of mouse models of human eosinophilic diseases. We suggest that this perspective is parochial and ignores the wealth of available studies and the consensus of the literature that overwhelming similarities (and not differences) exist between human and mouse eosinophils. The goal of this review is to summarize this literature and in some cases provide experimental details comparing and contrasting eosinophils and eosinophil effector functions in human subjects versus mice. In particular, our review will provide a summation and an easy-to-use reference guide to important studies demonstrating that although differences exist, more often than not, their consequences are unknown and do not necessarily reflect inherent disparities in eosinophil function but instead species-specific variations. The conclusion from this overview is that despite nominal differences, the vast similarities between human and mouse eosinophils provide important insights as to their roles in health and disease and, in turn, demonstrate the unique utility of mouse-based studies with an expectation of valid extrapolation to the understanding and treatment of patients. PMID:22935586

Lee, James J; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A; Ochkur, Sergei I; McGarry, Michael P; Condjella, Rachel M; Doyle, Alfred D; Luo, Huijun; Zellner, Katie R; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Willetts, Lian; Lesuer, William E; Colbert, Dana C; Helmers, Richard A; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A

2012-09-01

212

Clavicular eosinophilic granuloma causing adult shoulder pain.  

PubMed

Though rarely reported, neoplasms of the clavicle occur, and their symptoms can be mistaken for more common shoulder conditions. We present the case of a benign clavicular neoplasm, rarely seen in adults, presenting with pain, and eventual pathologic fracture in a 49 year-old. A 49 year-old male firefighter underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for shoulder pain after magnetic resonance imaging revealed supraspinatus tendon tear. The patient's pain persisted after surgery, and was described as routine until he developed severe pain after minor blunt trauma. A local Emergency Room performed the first x-rays, which revealed a pathologic fracture of the distal clavicle through a destructive lesion. The patient was referred to an orthopedic oncologist, who performed incisional biopsy, which initially diagnosed osteomyelitis. The patient was subsequently taken to surgery for debridement. Pathology then yielded the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. The patient was taken back to surgery for formal curettage with open reduction and internal fixation. The patient's pain resolved, the pathologic fracture fully healed, and the patient returned to full time work as a firefighter. Though workup for common shoulder conditions often identifies incidental benign lesions of bone, the converse can be true. Persistent pain despite intervention should raise concern for further investigation. An x-ray alone can reveal a destructive bone lesion as the source of shoulder pain. PMID:23772307

Sugi, Michelle T; Fedenko, Alexander N; Menendez, Lawrence R; Allison, Daniel C

2013-03-01

213

Possible mechanism of action of the histone deacetylase inhibitors for the induction of differentiation of HL-60 clone 15 cells into eosinophils  

PubMed Central

We have examined the effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitors apicidin, trichostatin A (TSA) and n-butyrate on the histone acetylation and the differentiation of human eosinophilic leukemia HL-60 clone 15 cells into eosinophils. Viability of the cells incubated with apicidin (100 nM), TSA (30 nM) or n-butyrate (500 ?M) did not change significantly, but higher concentrations of apicidin (?300 nM) or TSA (?100 nM) decreased the viability when examined at day 1. Apicidin (100 nM) as well as n-butyrate (500 ?M) induced continuous acetylations of histone H4 and lysine14 residue on histone H3, while TSA (30 nM) induced transient acetylations. After 6 days incubation, eosinophilic cells stained by Luxol-fast-blue were generated by apicidin (100 nM) and n-butyrate (500 ?M) but not by TSA (30 nM). Other markers for differentiation into eosinophils such as changes in intracellular structure, and expressions of integrin ?7 and major basic protein, and the inhibition of cell proliferation were also induced by apicidin and n-butyrate but not by TSA. Continuous acetylation of histone H4 achieved by repeated treatment with TSA (30 nM) at an interval of 12 h for more than three times induced such changes when examined on day 6. In addition, the induction was impaired by shortening the period of incubation with apicidin (100 nM) or n-butyrate (500 ?M). CCAAT/enhancer binding protein was continuously activated by apicidin (100 nM) and n-butyrate (500 ?M), but was transiently activated by TSA (30 nM). These findings suggest that the continuous acetylation of histones H3 and H4 is necessary for the differentiation of HL-60 clone 15 cells into eosinophils.

Ishihara, Kenji; Hong, JangJa; Zee, OkPyo; Ohuchi, Kazuo

2004-01-01

214

Diesel exhaust particulates enhance eosinophil adhesion to nasal epithelial cells and cause degranulation.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) are a common air pollutant from diesel-engine-powered car exhaust and are thought to cause chronic airway diseases. On the other hand, eosinophils are major components of allergic inflammatory disorders such as asthma, nasal allergy and atopic dermatitis. We examined the effects of DEP and DEP extract (extract of polyaromatic hydrocarbons) on eosinophil adhesion, survival rate and degranulation. Eosinophils, human mucosal microvascular endothelial cells (HMMECs) and human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) were preincubated in the presence or absence of DEP and DEP extract. 35S-labeled eosinophils were allowed to adhere to monolayers of HMMECs and HNECs. After washing, 35S radioactivity was determined and numbers of adherent eosinophils were calculated using each standard curve. The effects of DEP and DEP extract on eosinophil survival rate and degranulation were also determined. Although neither DEP nor DEP extract affected the adhesiveness of HMMECs and HNECs to eosinophils, 5 ng/ml of DEP extract and 50 ng/ml of DEP extract each significancy increased eosinophil adhesiveness to HNECs (134+/-9 and 143+/-8%, respectively; p<0.01 vs. control), but neither effected eosinophil adhesiveness to HMMECs. DEP extract also induced eosinophil degranulation without changing the eosinophil survival rate. Given that eosinophil-derived lipid mediators and toxic proteins play important roles in the development of nasal allergy, the above findings strongly suggest that DEP plays an important role in promoting the nasal hypersensitivity induced by enhanced eosinophil infiltration of epithelium and eosinophil degranulation. PMID:9338611

Terada, N; Maesako, K; Hiruma, K; Hamano, N; Houki, G; Konno, A; Ikeda, T; Sai, M

1997-10-01

215

Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis.  

PubMed

On histopathological examination, nasal polyps and nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis show different forms of pseudostratified respiratory epithelium, whereas the dominant characteristic of lamina propria is an eosinophilic infiltration. The aim of this study was to compare interleukin (IL)-5 and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) levels in the nasal fluid of 42 patients: 12 with allergic rhinitis and nasal septal deviation, 17 non-atopic patients with nasal polyposis, and 13 atopic nasal polyp patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Nasal secretion samples were collected a few days before surgery. The levels of IL-5 were measured using flow cytometry and the ECP using a commercial ELISA kit. In addition, we counted eosinophils in hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections of all nasal polyp and all nasal mucosa samples taken from the inferior nasal turbinates during septoplasty. A significantly higher concentration of IL-5 was found in the nasal fluid of atopic patients with nasal polyposis than in non-atopic nasal polyp patients (p=0.025) and patients with allergic rhinitis (p=0.05). ECP was higher in atopic nasal polyp patients than in patients with allergic rhinitis (p<0.0001) and than in non-atopic nasal polyp patients (p<0.0001). Polyp eosinophils were higher in atopic' than in non-atopic patients (p<0.0001) and higher than in the mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis (p<0.0001). These however had significantly more mucosal eosinophils than was found in the polyps of non-atopic patients' (p=0.025). ECP levels in nasal fluid and eosinophil counts in tissue specimens correlated well in all three groups of patients. Our study has shown that atopic nasal polyp patients have a higher level of eosinophilic inflammation than non-atopic patients with nasal polyps and patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID:22202468

Peri?, Aleksandar; Vojvodi?, Danilo; Vukomanovi?-?ur?evi?, Biserka; Baleti?, Nenad

2011-12-01

216

Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... a third party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cancer: It is estimated that 14,590 men ... 10,370 men and women will die of acute myeloid leukemia in 2013 1 X Close Table I-1 ( ...

217

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Acute lymphocytic leukemia By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/acute-lymphocytic-leukemia/DS00558 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Preparing for ...

218

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... a third party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Cancer: It is estimated that 6,070 men ... 1,430 men and women will die of acute lymphocytic leukemia in 2013 1 X Close Table I-1 ( ...

219

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

220

Adult acute leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Untreated acute leukemia is a uniformly fatal disease with a median survival time shorter than 3 months. Current treatment strategies provide a significant increase in survival time for most patients, some of whom may be cured. The majority of patients with acute leukemia, however, ultimately die of the disease or complications of treatment. The effective treatment of acute leukemia requires

Larry D. Cripe

1997-01-01

221

Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

What is acute myeloid leukemia (AML)? The second most common type of acute leukemia in adults, AML is a cancer of the blood ... cancer.org (American Cancer Society). Type the keywords acute myeloid leukemia into the search box. What kinds of questions ...

222

Dual function of eosinophils in pathogenesis and protective immunity against parasites.  

PubMed

The functional duality of eosinophils, involved in a protective response or in pathogenesis is illustrated in various parasitic infections. In schistosomiasis, eosinophils have been shown to mediate schistosomula killing, in the presence of antibodies. The association of eosinophil-dependent cytotoxic antibody isotypes with resistance of reinfection (IgE and IgA antibodies), whereas in vitro blocking antibody isotypes (IgG4, IgM) were detected in susceptible subjects, suggested a participation of eosinophils in antibody-dependent protective response. However eosinophils could participate to granuloma formation and consequently to the pathological reactions during schistosomiasis. Activation of eosinophils by antibodies, leading to release of granule proteins have been studied in patients with filariasis. Eosinophil peroxidase, EPO was released after IgE-dependent activation whereas Eosinophil Cationic Protein, ECP, was released after IgG- and IgA-dependent activation of eosinophils, results suggesting a process of differential release of mediators. Interactions between eosinophils and interleukins, and specially IL-5 are discussed. Whereas a receptor for IL-5 has been characterized on human eosinophils, recent studies have shown that eosinophils expressed the messenger RNA encoding IL-5. These results associated to data showing the synthesis of other cytokines indicate that eosinophils are not only the source of cytotoxic mediators involved in the effector phase of immunity but also of growth and regulatory factors, participating to immunoregulation. PMID:1342722

Capron, M

1992-01-01

223

Emerging Roles of Eosinophils and Eosinophil-Derived Lipid Mediators in the Resolution of Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Acute inflammation and its resolution are essential processes for tissue protection and homeostasis. Once thought to be a passive process, the resolution of inflammation is now shown to involve active biochemical programs that enable inflamed tissues to return to homeostasis. The mechanisms by which acute inflammation is resolved are of interest, and research in recent years has uncovered new endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators (i.e., lipoxins, resolvins, protectin, and maresin) generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This review presents new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of inflammatory resolution, especially the roles of eosinophils, and a series of omega-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that they generate.

Isobe, Yosuke; Kato, Taiga; Arita, Makoto

2012-01-01

224

Bafetinib inhibits functional responses of human eosinophils in vitro.  

PubMed

Eosinophils play a prominent role in the process of allergic inflammation. Non-receptor associated Lyn tyrosine kinases generate key initial signals in eosinophils. Bafetinib, a specific Abl/Lyn tyrosine kinase inhibitor has shown a potent antiproliferative activity in leukemic cells, but its effects on eosinophils have not been reported. Therefore, we studied the effects of bafetinib on functional and mechanistic responses of isolated human eosinophils. Bafetinib was more potent than non-specific tyrosin kinase comparators genistein and tyrphostin inhibiting superoxide anion triggered by N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF; 100 nM) (-log IC50=7.25 ± 0.04 M; 6.1 ± 0.04 M; and 6.55 ± 0.03 M, respectively). Bafetinib, genistein and tyrphostin did not modify the [Ca(2+)]i responses to fMLF. Bafetinib inhibited the release of EPO induced by fMLF with higher potency than genistein and tyrphostin (-log IC50=7.24 ± 0.09 M; 5.36 ± 0.28 M; and 5.37 ± 0.19 M, respectively), and nearly suppressed LTC4, ECP and chemotaxis. Bafetinib, genistein and tyrphostin did not change constitutive apoptosis. However bafetinib inhibited the ability of granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor to prevent apoptosis. The activation of Lyn tyrosine kinase, p-ERK1/2 and p-38 induced by fMLF was suppressed by bafetinib and attenuated by genistein and tyrphostin. In conclusion, bafetinib inhibits oxidative burst and generation of inflammatory mediators, and reverses the eosinophil survival. Therefore, future anti-allergic therapies based on bafetinib, could help to suppress excessive inflammatory response of eosinophils at inflammatory sites. PMID:23747655

Milara, Javier; Martinez-Losa, Maleles; Sanz, Celia; Almudéver, Patricia; Peiró, Teresa; Serrano, Adela; Morcillo, Esteban Jesus; Zaragozá, Cristóbal; Cortijo, Julio

2013-06-06

225

Comparative study of eosinophil and neutrophil chemotaxis and enzyme release.  

PubMed Central

It has been well documented that both natural and synthetic chemotactic peptides can induce lysosomal enzyme release from neutrophils treated with cytochalasin B. These same peptides are also potent inducers of unidirectional movement, as demonstrated by the chemotactic response in Boyden chambers. In this study, the ability of another family of leukocytes, eosinophils, to release lysosomal enzymes and exhibit a chemotactic response to both natural and synthetic chemotactic peptides was examined. A striking fundamental difference between neutrophil and eosinophil chemotaxis and enzyme release was shown using C5a, formyl met-leu-phe (FMLP), and ala-gly-ser-glu (AGSG) peptides. The 50% effective doses (ED50) for chemotactic responses to C5a, FMLP, or AGSG by neutrophils and eosinophils were 0.05 microgram/ml and 1.0 microgram/ml, 10(-12) M and 10(-10) M, and 10(-7) M and 10(-7) M, respectively. At the same concentrations, these peptides (C5a, f met-leu-phe, and ala-gly-ser-glu) induced the following release of glucosaminidase from neutrophils and eosinophils, respectively: 42% and 2%, 42% and 2%, and 29% and 2%. In striking contrast, immune complexes and opsonized zymosan particles induced the release of 39% and 42% of the total glucosaminidase from neutrophils, while eosinophils released 32% and 43% of the total glucosaminidase from immune complexes and opsonized zymosan particles, respectively. These data indicate fundamental differences between neutrophils and eosinophils in unidirectional movement induced by chemotactic factors and enzyme release mechanism(s). Images Figure 1

Ogawa, H.; Kunkel, S. L.; Fantone, J. C.; Ward, P. A.

1981-01-01

226

?? T Lymphocytes Coordinate Eosinophil Influx during Allergic Responses  

PubMed Central

Tissue eosinophil infiltration, which is a hallmark of allergic and helminthic diseases, is mainly coordinated by T lymphocytes, via the production of eosinophilotactic chemokines. Among T lymphocyte subsets, lymphocytes expressing ?? T cell receptor have been determined as a key factor for eosinophil accumulation via direct and indirect mechanisms. This knowledge is strongly supported by the fact that, in different experimental models of eosinophilic airway inflammation and helminth-induced Th2 lung inflammation, an evident tissue accumulation of ?? T lymphocytes is observed. In addition, the depletion of ?? T lymphocytes is correlated with the impairment of eosinophil accumulation in inflamed tissue. ?? T lymphocytes are non-conventional T lymphocytes, which comprise a minor T lymphocyte subset, mainly distributed in the tissue, and present crucial roles in innate and acquired immune responses. ?? T lymphocytes recognize several danger- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules and stress antigens in a MHC-independent fashion and can provide rapid tissue-specific responses, via the production of a wide range of chemical mediators capable to modulate other cell populations. These mediators include chemoattractant cytokines and chemokines that attract eosinophils into the tissue by either direct recognition (such as IL-5, CCL11/eotaxin), or indirect mechanisms via the modulation of ?? T lymphocytes and macrophages (through the production of interferon-?, IL-4, and CCL2/Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1, for example). The present review presents an overview of how ?? T lymphocytes coordinate eosinophil accumulation in allergy, by focusing on their role in airway inflammation and by discussing the involvement of cytokines and chemokines in this phenomenon.

de Oliveira Henriques, Maria Das Gracas Muller; Penido, Carmen

2012-01-01

227

Expression of soluble proteins in Escherichia coli by linkage with the acidic propiece of eosinophil major basic protein.  

PubMed

An expression method has been developed to produce soluble cationic polypeptides in Escherichia coli while avoiding inclusion body deposition. For this technique the recombinant product is linked through a thrombin or factor Xa susceptible bond to the amino-terminal domain of the precursor of eosinophil major basic protein (MBP). This N-terminal domain is strongly acidic and is apparently able to shield eosinophils from the potentially injurious activities of MBP. It was reasoned that constructs of this acidic domain with small heterologous cationic proteins expressed in E. coli could result in soluble expression while preventing trafficking and packaging into insoluble inclusion bodies. This has been demonstrated using four examples: complement C5a, CCL18, fibroblast growth factor-?, and leukemia inhibitory factor, whose isoelectric points range from 8.93 to 9.59. Further general applicability of this technique has been shown by using two different expression systems, one which encodes an amino-terminal oligo-histidine leash, and another that codes for an amino-terminal glutathione-S-transferase. Thus the utility of coupling MAP to cationic polypeptides for the purpose of soluble heterologous protein expression in E. coli has been demonstrated. PMID:21550406

DiScipio, Richard G; Khaldoyanidi, Sophia K; Schraufstatter, Ingrid U

2011-04-30

228

Classification of acute leukemia.  

PubMed

The classification of acute leukemia has almost invariably been based on the morphologic diagnosis into two broad categories: acute lymphocytic and acute myeloid leukemia. Despite the wide range of morphologic variation in both groups, strict criteria to define the subgroups have only recently been proposed. The conventional markers for B and T cells are now being applied to leukemic cells as are cytochemistry and electron microscopy, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, serum lysozyme, and surface markers, E-rosettes, membrane immunoglobulin, antinull acute lymphocytic leukemia antiserum, and Fc and C3 receptors. The myelodysplastic syndromes may mimic acute leukemia and it is important that they be identified and treated appropriately. The high incidence with which chronic myelomonocytic leukemia terminates in acute leukemia suggests that it is a preleukemic condition, whereas refractory anemia with excess blasts and acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anemia may have long, drawn-out courses. Only a small population of patients with the latter conditions develop acute leukemia. PMID:337870

1977-12-01

229

Leukemia - B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia and Hairy Cell Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... note these links take you to other sections: ASCO Answers Fact Sheet : Read a one-page fact ... Video : View a short video led by an ASCO expert in leukemia that provides basic information and ...

230

Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\u000a   Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia or food impaction in pediatric patients. It has\\u000a a high male predominance and is often associated with a history of allergy or asthma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective\\u000a   To correlate fluoroscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis with the endoscopic and histologic findings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods\\u000a   We retrospectively reviewed the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) findings of

Larry A. Binkovitz; Emily A. Lorenz; Carlo Di Lorenzo; Samir Kahwash

2010-01-01

231

IgE, Mast Cells, Basophils, and Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

IgE, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils are essential components of allergic inflammation. Antigen-specific IgE production, with subsequent fixation of IgE to Fc?RI receptors on mast cells and basophils, is central to the initiation and propagation of immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils are central effector cells in allergic inflammation, as well as in innate and adaptive immunity. This review highlights what is known about these components and their roles in disease pathogenesis.

Stone, Kelly D.; Prussin, Calman; Metcalfe, Dean D.

2010-01-01

232

Comparative immunoreactivity of the eosinophil constituents MBP and ECP in different types of urticaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to elucidate the role of eosinophil constituents in urticaria, we investigated major basic protein expression immunohistologically in comparison with that of eosinophilic cationic protein and the low-affinity IgE receptor in lesional and uninvolved skin of different types of urticaria. Eosinophil activation was studied with the markers EG1 and EG2. Different eosinophil constituents were found in all urticarial lesions

Norbert Haas; Kathrin Motel; Beate M. Czarnetzki

1995-01-01

233

Erythromycin Modulates Eosinophil Chemotactic Cytokine Production by Human Lung Fibroblasts in Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that erythromycin can suppress the production of some cytokines and may be an effective treatment for asthma. Eosinophil chemotactic cytokines have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma by the recruitment of eosinophils. We hypothesized that erythromycin modulates eosinophil chemotactic cytokine production. To test the hypothesis, we evaluated the potential of erythromycin to modulate the

ETSURO SATO; DAN K. NELSON; SEKIYA KOYAMA; JEFFREY C. HOYT; RICHARD A. ROBBINS

2000-01-01

234

Eosinophils Utilize Multiple Chemokine Receptors for Chemotaxis to the Parasitic Nematode Strongyloides stercoralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protective innate immunity to the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis requires eosinophils in the parasite killing process. Experiments were performed to determine if an extract of S. stercoralis would trigger eosinophil chemotaxis, and to then compare the chemotactic migration response, including second messenger signals and receptors, to those mechanisms triggered by host chemoattractants. Eosinophils undergo both chemotaxis and chemokinesis to soluble parasite

Louis H. Stein; Kevin M. Redding; James J. Lee; Thomas J. Nolan; Gerhard A. Schad; James B. Lok; David Abraham

2009-01-01

235

Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia with respiratory failure: a case likely triggered by cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia with respiratory failure: a case likely triggered by cigarette smoking. E. Grossi, G. Poletti, V. Poletti. The authors report a case of acute respiratory failure that fulfils the diagnostic criteria for acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia and eosinophilic lung diseases are also discussed. The pathogenetic events, including the role of IL-5, eotaxin 1 and 2 and

E. Grossi; G. Poletti; V. Poletti

236

Eosinophil peroxidase catalyzes JNK-mediated membrane blebbing in a Rho kinase-dependent manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic influx is characteristic of numerous inflammatory conditions. Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is a major enzyme present in eosinophils and upon degranulation, becomes re- leased into the airways of asthmatics. As a result of its cationic nature and its ability to catalyze the formation of highly toxic oxidants, EPO has signif- icant potential to induce cellular injury. The focus of the

Brian McElhinney; Matthew E. Poynter; Punya Shrivastava; Stanley L. Hazen; Yvonne M. W. Janssen-Heininger

2003-01-01

237

OUTBREAK OF EOSINOPHILIC MENINGITIS ASSOCIATED WITH DRINKING RAW VEGETABLE JUICE IN SOUTHERN TAIWAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis is the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a parasite that is endemic in the southeast Asian and Pacific regions. Outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis associated with drinking raw vegetable juice are rarely reported, even in regions of endemic infection. We performed a cohort study among Taiwanese with eosinophilic meningitis who drank raw vegetable juice within

HUNG-CHIN TSAI; SUSAN SHIN-JUNG LEE; CHUN-KAI HUANG; CHUAN-MIN YEN; ENG-RIN CHEN; YUNG-CHING LIU

238

Defining a Link with Asthma in Mice Congenitally Deficient in Eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils are often dominant inflammatory cells present in the lungs of asthma patients. Nonetheless, the role of these leukocytes remains poorly understood. We have created a transgenic line of mice (PHIL) that are specifically devoid of eosinophils, but otherwise have a full complement of hematopoietically derived cells. Allergen challenge of PHIL mice demonstrated that eosinophils were required for pulmonary mucus

James J. Lee; Dawn Dimina; MiMi P. Macias; Sergei I. Ochkur; Michael P. McGarry; Katie R. O'Neill; Cheryl Protheroe; Ralph Pero; Thanh Nguyen; Stephania A. Cormier; Elizabeth Lenkiewicz; Dana Colbert; Lisa Rinaldi; Steven J. Ackerman; Charles G. Irvin; Nancy A. Lee

2004-01-01

239

Lack of Eosinophil Peroxidase or Major Basic Protein Impairs Defense against Murine Filarial Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils are a hallmark of allergic diseases and helminth infection, yet direct evidence for killing of helminth parasites by their toxic granule products exists only in vitro. We investigated the in vivo roles of the eosinophil granule proteins eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and major basic protein 1 (MBP) during infection with the rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis. Mice deficient for either EPO

Sabine Specht; Michael Saeftel; Manuela Arndt; Elmar Endl; Bettina Dubben; Nancy A. Lee; James J. Lee; Achim Hoerauf

2006-01-01

240

Structural determinants of the eosinophil: chemotactic activity of the acidic tetrapeptides of eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis  

PubMed Central

The acidic tetrapeptides of ECF-A, Ala/Val-Gly-Ser-Glu, exhibit peak in vitro chemotactic activity for human eosinophils at concentrations of 3 X 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M, and rapidly deactivate eosinophils to homologous and other stimuli at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M. The analogue Leu-Gly-Ser-Glu reaches peak activity at 10(-8)M-10(-7)M, while Phe-Gly-Ser-Glu requires 10(-4)M to elicit a peak response. Although inversion of the order of glycine and serine does not alter the eosinophil chemotactic activity of the tetrapeptides, deletion of glycine increases by 10-fold the concentration required for peak chemotactic activity, indicating the critical nature of the spacing between NH2- and COOH-terminal residues. The substituent COOH-terminal tripeptide, which is only marginally chemotactic, irreversibly suppresses eosinophil chemotactic responsiveness at a concentration 10,000-fold higher than concentrations necessary for deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide. The high concentration of tripeptide required for this cell directed effect, which is assumed to be analogous to deactivation, is attributed to the absence of the NH2-terminal residue which would facilitate effective interaction with the eosinophil. A substituent NH2-terminal tripeptide and amides of the NH2-terminal amino acids, which are devoid of chemotactic and deactivating activities, reversibly inhibit the tetrapeptide stimulus in a dose- response fashion. The additional finding that the NH2-terminal tripeptide protects the eosinophil from deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide confirms that the competitive interaction is stimulus specific.

1976-01-01

241

The effect of eosinophils on collagen gel contraction and implications for tissue remodelling  

PubMed Central

Asthma is characterized by an eosinophilic inflammation and a subepithelial fibrosis in the airways. Eosinophils contain several cytotoxic substances, such as eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which can promote inflammation and cause tissue damage. This has generated the hypothesis that eosinophils may drive remodelling of extracellular matrix (ECM). To investigate the role of eosinophils we used an in vitro model for remodelling, the three-dimensional collagen gel contraction assay. Two sources of eosinophils were used in this study, isolated human peripheral eosinophils (purity > 95%) and stimulated [interleukin (IL)-5, IL-3 and granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)] HL-60 clone 15 cells. Human eosinophils or HL-60 cells were cast together with human lung fibroblasts (HFL1) in type I collagen gels. Both types of eosinophils augmented fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction in a time and concentration-dependent manner. At 48 h, the gel area in HFL1/eosinophil co-culture was 46·5% ± 0·5 (mean ± s.e.m.) of initial area and in HFL1 culture 52·3% ± 0·1 (P < 0·001). Respective figures for HFL1/stimulated HL-60 co-culture and HFL1 culture only were 44·1% ± 0·5 and 52·4% ± 0·4 (P < 0·001). The release of ECP was increased when fibroblasts were cultured with eosinophils compared to eosinophils cultured alone. In addition, native ECP added to fibroblast gel cultures also augmented contraction. Our results suggest that eosinophils may interact with mesenchymal cells, promoting remodelling of ECM and that ECP constitutes one potential eosinophil-derived mediator driving this process. We conclude that this may be one important mechanism by which eosinophil–ECM interactions will lead to airway tissue remodelling in asthma.

ZAGAI, U; SKOLD, C M; TRULSON, A; VENGE, P; LUNDAHL, J

2004-01-01

242

An update on the immunopathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic clinicopathological entity characterized by large numbers of intraepithelial eosinophils infiltrating the esophageal mucosa, which is not caused by gastroesophageal reflux. This disease has become widely recognized over the past few years and new methods have been developed to reveal its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Owing to the high prevalence of food and/or airborne allergen sensitization in EoE patients, the allergic nature of the disease had to be defined, which has certain factors in common with other IgE-dependent entities, such as bronchial asthma or allergic rhinitis. Of these, some cytokines and chemokines previously studied in asthma have also been implicated in molecular mechanisms causing eosinophil-rich esophageal inflammation. However, the role played by IgE in relation to the esophageal eosinophilic infiltrate must be clarified, together with the possible function of mast cells in the inflammatory infiltrate and its activation stimuli. A putative role has also been recently suggested for gastroesophageal reflux in the origin of EoE that should be profoundly analyzed, together with the role of specific genes implicated in other digestive inflammatory disorders. This article reviews recent advances in the immunopathogenesis of EoE, which should also consider other pathways to activate the esophageal mucosal immune system. PMID:20350261

Lucendo, Alfredo J; Lucendo, Baltasar

2010-04-01

243

A novel specificity of anticytoplasmic autoantibodies directed against eosinophil peroxidase.  

PubMed Central

Vasculitis associated anticytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) are directed against enzymes in the granules of both neutrophils and monocytes. These autoantibodies can be detected by indirect immunofluorescence technique (IIFT) using ethanol-fixed cytospins. We here report the identification of a novel specificity of autoantibodies, present in the sera of eight patients, that reacted only with eosinophils in the IIFT. By immunoprecipitation and ELISA experiments it was shown that the autoantibodies in these sera were directed against eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). There was no apparent influence on initial substrate conversion rate, but reduced plateau levels suggested increased inactivation of the enzyme in the course of the peroxidase reaction. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated the presence of EPO on the surface of primed eosinophils. Anti-EPO sera and purified anti-EPO immunoglobulins significantly increased the release of reactive oxygen species from primed eosinophils. The patients with anti-EPO antibodies suffered from clinically diverse disorders, with more or less generalized manifestations involving the kidneys, blood vessels, lungs and/or joints. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4

Dolman, K M; Damsma, I; Tool, A T; Sonnenberg, A; von dem Borne, A E; Goldschmeding, R

1993-01-01

244

Eosinophilic cystitis in a female German wire-haired pointer.  

PubMed

A 7-month-old, intact female, German wire-haired pointer presented with a 3-week history of stranguria, pollakiuria, and dysuria that was nonresponsive to antibiotics. Two prior episodes of dysuria-stranguria appeared to respond to antibiotic therapy. Bladder wall biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis and the dog responded well to medical management. PMID:17542370

Evason, Michelle D; Carr, Anthony P

2007-05-01

245

THE EOSINOPHIL LEUCOCYTES AFTER FRACTIONATED SHORT PERIOD WHOLE BODY IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author indicates the blood picture changes by means of average ; values that have been found with 20 rats after undergoing fractionated short-time ; irradiations of the whole body of doses that amounted to 50 r five tlmes, and ; were applied within 14 days. The special sensibility of the eosinophil ; leucocytes, even towards fractionated irradiation, is stressed.

Widmann

1958-01-01

246

Eosinophilic meningitis: cause of a chronic pain syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Three tourists developed eosinophilic meningitis after visiting the Fijian Islands. Two had a severe and long lasting illness with chronic intractable pain. In one patient electrophysiological studies and MRI scan of the brain were abnormal and provided evidence of both radicular and cerebral parenchymal involvement by the most likely causative agent, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Images

Clouston, P D; Corbett, A J; Pryor, D S; Garrick, R

1990-01-01

247

Surgical management of eosinophilic fasciitis of the upper extremity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare inflammatory disease associated with peripheral eosinophilia, hyper-gammaglobulinaemia and contractures of any joint in the upper extremity. Although conservative treatments are generally advocated, this study reports the results of surgical intervention. Four patients aged from 20 to 48 years underwent fasciectomy followed by oral administration of prednisolone. All presented with contractures of digits, wrist, or elbow

G. Suzuki; Y. Itoh; Y. Horiuchi

1997-01-01

248

Eosinophils in human oral squamous carcinoma; role of prostaglandin D2.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are often predominant inflammatory leukocytes infiltrating oral squamous carcinoma (OSC) sites. Prostaglandins are secreted by oral carcinomas and may be involved in eosinophil infiltration. The objective of this study was to determine the factors contributing to eosinophil migration and potential anti-neoplastic effects on OSC. Eosinophil degranulation was evaluated by measuring release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Eosinophil chemotaxis towards OSC cells was assessed using artificial basement membrane. Eosinophil infiltration was prominent within the tissue surrounding the OSC tumor mass. We observed growth inhibition of the OSC cell line, SCC-9, during co-culture with human eosinophils, in vitro, which correlated with EPO activity that possesses growth inhibitory activity. The PGD2 synthase inhibitor, HQL-79, abrogated migration towards SCC-9. Our data suggest that OSC-derived PGD2 may play an important role via CRTH2 (the PGD2 receptor on eosinophils) in eosinophil recruitment and subsequent anti-tumor activity through the action of eosinophil cationic proteins. PMID:23369060

Davoine, Francis; Sim, Adrian; Tang, Charlie; Fisher, Sibina; Ethier, Caroline; Puttagunta, Lakshmi; Wu, Yingqi; McGaw, W Tim; Yu, Donald; Cameron, Lisa; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan

2013-01-31

249

Therapeutic Strategies for Harnessing Human Eosinophils in Allergic Inflammation, Hypereosinophilic Disorders, and Cancer  

PubMed Central

The eosinophil is a multifunctional granulocyte best known for providing host defense against parasites. Paradoxically, eosinophils are also implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, asthma, and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Emerging evidence also supports the potential for harnessing the cytotoxic power of eosinophils and redirecting it to kill solid tumors. Central to eosinophil physiology is interleukin-5 (IL-5) and its receptor (IL-5R) which is composed of a ligand-specific alpha chain (IL-5R?) and the common beta chain (?c). Eosinophil activation can lead to their degranulation, resulting in rapid release of an arsenal of tissue-destructive proinflammatory mediators and cytotoxic proteins that can be both beneficial and detrimental to the host. This review discusses eosinophil immunobiology and therapeutic strategies for targeting of IL-5 and IL-5R, as well as the potential for harnessing eosinophil cytotoxicity as a tumoricide.

Amini-Vaughan, Zhaleh J.; Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita; Huston, David P.

2013-01-01

250

Immunoregulatory roles of eosinophils: a new look at a familiar cell  

PubMed Central

Summary Eosinophils are usually considered as end-stage degranulating effector cells of innate immunity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed additional roles for eosinophils that are immunoregulatory in nature in both the adaptive and innate arms of immunity. Specifically, eosinophils have key immunoregulatory roles as professional antigen-presenting cells and as modulators of CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil functions. This review addresses the emerging immunoregulatory roles of eosinophils with a focus on recent data that support this new paradigm. Recognizing both the effector and immunoregulatory functions of eosinophils will enable a fuller understanding of the roles of eosinophils in allergic airways inflammation and may be pertinent to therapies that target eosinophils both for their acute and ongoing immunomodulatory functions.

Akuthota, P.; Wang, H. B.; Spencer, L. A.; Weller, P. F.

2009-01-01

251

Ascaris suum Infection in Calves II. Circulating and Marrow Eosinophil Responses  

PubMed Central

An increment in the number of circulating eosinophils occurred between the 11th and 14th days after infection with Ascaris suum and this increase was generally greater after a challenge infection. Continual infection with small numbers of A. suum eggs over prolonged periods resulted in circulating eosinophil levels which fluctuated and were dose-dependent. The per cent marrow eosinophils always increased after a primary infection and a greater increase usually followed a challenge infection. The maximum increment of marrow eosinophils occurred between the tenth and 12th days and preceded the rise in circulating eosinophils by 36 hours. Antihistamine therapy did not alter eosinophil responses to A. suum. Circulating eosinophilia was not usually reflected by drastic changes in differential white cell counts. However, an increase in total white cell count often followed infection with A. suum and frequently parallelled changes in eosinophil counts. Hemoglobin and P.C.V. values remained within normal limits in A. summ infected calves.

Greenway, J. A.; McCraw, B. M.

1970-01-01

252

Assessment of Schistosoma mansoni induced intestinal inflammation by means of eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil protein X and myeloperoxidase before and after treatment with praziquantel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faecal concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil protein X (EPX) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in extracts of stool samples obtained from a cohort of people (n=182) living in Bugoigo, a fishing community on the Eastern shore of Lake Albert, Buliisa District, in North Western Uganda where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic. Samples were collected before treatment and 5, 15,

Claus M. Reimert; Edridah M. Tukahebwa; Narcis B. Kabatereine; David W. Dunne; Birgitte J. Vennervald

2008-01-01

253

Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) level and its correlation with eosinophil number or IgE level of peripheral blood in patients with various skin diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a cationic protein derived from eosinophil granulocytes, and has been studied mainly in atopic diseases and considered as a useful marker of disease activity in atopic dermatitis. We measured the serum ECP levels in patients with various skin diseases (n = 875) and in normal healthy controls (n = 79), and evaluated the correlation between

Tae-Yoon Kim; Hong-Jin Park; Chung-Won Kim

1997-01-01

254

Proton channel HVCN1 is required for effector functions of mouse eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Background Proton currents are required for optimal respiratory burst in phagocytes. Recently, HVCN1 was identified as the molecule required for the voltage-gated proton channel activity associated with the respiratory burst in neutrophils. Although there are similarities between eosinophils and neutrophils regarding their mechanism for respiratory burst, the role of proton channels in eosinophil functions has not been fully understood. Results In the present study, we first identified the expression of the proton channel HVCN1 in mouse eosinophils. Furthermore, using HVCN1-deficient eosinophils, we demonstrated important cell-specific effector functions for HVCN1. Similar to HVCN1-deficient neutrophils, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils produced significantly less reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation compared with WT eosinophils. In contrast to HVCN1-deficient neutrophils, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils did not show impaired calcium mobilization or migration ability compared with wild-type (WT) cells. Uniquely, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils underwent significantly increased cell death induced by PMA stimulation compared with WT eosinophils. The increased cell death was dependent on NADPH oxidase activation, and correlated with the failure of HVCN1-deficient cells to maintain membrane polarization and intracellular pH in the physiological range upon activation. Conclusions Eosinophils require proton channel HVCN1 for optimal ROS generation and prevention of activation-induced cell death.

2013-01-01

255

Sudden Death in a Neonate with Idiopathic Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 26-day-old male infant who had been fussy and feeding poorly for a period of several hours died suddenly despite efforts\\u000a at resuscitation. Postmortem examination revealed eosinophilic endomyocarditis unassociated with disease in other organs.\\u000a The etiology remained unexplained after review of the medical and family histories and circumstances of death, extensive light\\u000a and immunofluorescence microscopies, and microbiological, metabolic, and toxicologic

Henry F. Krous; Elisabeth Haas; Amy E. Chadwick; Glenn N. Wagner

2005-01-01

256

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Antibiotics against Eosinophilic Pustular Folliculitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is a chronic intractable pruritic dermatosis. Although indomethacin is generally effective against EPF and considered as a first-line therapy, quite a few patients with indomethacin still suffer from the symptoms. Among other therapeutic options, some antibiotics have been reported to be effective; however, there has been no epidemiological description regarding oral antibiotics use in patients with EPF. In this study, we investigated the frequency of antibiotics use and the effectiveness in patients with EPF.

Ono, Sachiko; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kabashima, Kenji; Miyachi, Yoshiki

2013-01-01

257

IgE, Mast Cells, and Eosinophils in Atopic Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with specific immune and inflammatory mechanisms. Atopy is among\\u000a the major features of the diagnosis criteria for AD but is not an essential feature. Thus, patients diagnosed with AD can\\u000a be atopic or non-atopic. This review focuses on the role of IgE, mast cells, and eosinophils in the pathogenesis of AD.

Fu-Tong Liu; Heidi Goodarzi; Huan-Yuan Chen

258

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Antibiotics against Eosinophilic Pustular Folliculitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is a chronic intractable pruritic dermatosis. Although indomethacin is generally effective against EPF and considered as a first-line therapy, quite a few patients with indomethacin still suffer from the symptoms. Among other therapeutic options, some antibiotics have been reported to be effective; however, there has been no epidemiological description regarding oral antibiotics use in patients with EPF. In this study, we investigated the frequency of antibiotics use and the effectiveness in patients with EPF. PMID:23741214

Ono, Sachiko; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kabashima, Kenji; Miyachi, Yoshiki

2013-05-04

259

Human blood eosinophils produce and secrete interleukin 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin 4 (Il-4) is an immunoregulatory cytokine which induces T-cell proliferation and differentiation into a Th2 phenotype, and is of particular importance for the induction of IgE synthesis. In the present study, the capability of human peripheral blood eosinophils from allergic and non-allergic donors to produce Il-4 was examined. Using reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), it was shown that

T. Bjerke; M. Gaustadnes; S. Nielsen; L. P. Nielsen; P. O. Schiøtz; N. Rudiger; C. M. Reimert; R. Dahl; I. Christensen; L. K. Poulsen

1996-01-01

260

Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with eosinophilic enteritis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder that may present with various symptoms. It may involve the gastrointestinal tract in a variety of ways; some of the most well-known ones are transaminitis, lupus mesenteric vasculitis, lupus enteritis and mesenteric vascular leakage. We describe a case of a patient with SLE who presented with a five-month history of diarrhea caused by eosinophilic enteritis. To the best of our knowledge, there are few cases reported in the literature of patients with SLE who initially present with chronic diarrhea due to eosinophilic enteritis. Case presentation A 38-year-old Persian Iranian woman was admitted with a five-month history of diarrhea and abdominal pain. A physical examination showed nothing abnormal. Initially, she had only lymphopenia and mild eosinophilia. No autoimmune or infectious etiology was detected to justify these abnormalities. A thorough evaluation was not helpful in finding the etiology, until she developed a scalp lesion similar to discoid lupus erythematosus. Computed tomography showed small bowel wall thickening. Briefly, she manifested full-blown SLE, and it was revealed that the diarrhea was caused by eosinophilic enteritis. Conclusion Considering SLE in a patient who presents with chronic diarrhea and lymphopenia may be helpful in earlier diagnosis and therapy. This is an original case report of interest to physicians who practice internal medicine, family medicine and gastroenterology.

2011-01-01

261

Eosinophils secrete IL-4 to facilitate liver regeneration.  

PubMed

The liver is a central organ for the synthesis and storage of nutrients, production of serum proteins and hormones, and breakdown of toxins and metabolites. Because the liver is susceptible to toxin- or pathogen-mediated injury, it maintains a remarkable capacity to regenerate by compensatory growth. Specifically, in response to injury, quiescent hepatocytes enter the cell cycle and undergo DNA replication to promote liver regrowth. Despite the elucidation of a number of regenerative factors, the mechanisms by which liver injury triggers hepatocyte proliferation are incompletely understood. We demonstrate here that eosinophils stimulate liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy and toxin-mediated injury. Liver injury results in rapid recruitment of eosinophils, which secrete IL-4 to promote the proliferation of quiescent hepatocytes. Surprisingly, signaling via the IL-4R? in macrophages, which have been implicated in tissue repair, is dispensable for hepatocyte proliferation and liver regrowth after injury. Instead, IL-4 exerts its proliferative actions via IL-4R? in hepatocytes. Our findings thus provide a unique mechanism by which eosinophil-derived IL-4 stimulates hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating liver. PMID:23716700

Goh, Y P Sharon; Henderson, Neil C; Heredia, Jose E; Red Eagle, Alex; Odegaard, Justin I; Lehwald, Nadja; Nguyen, Khoa D; Sheppard, Dean; Mukundan, Lata; Locksley, Richard M; Chawla, Ajay

2013-05-28

262

Glycomic analysis of human mast cells, eosinophils and basophils  

PubMed Central

In allergic diseases such as asthma, eosinophils, basophils and mast cells, through release of preformed and newly generated mediators, granule proteins and cytokines, are recognized as key effector cells. While their surface protein phenotypes, mediator release profiles, ontogeny, cell trafficking and genomes have been generally explored and compared, there has yet to be any thorough analysis and comparison of their glycomes. Such studies are critical to understand the contribution of carbohydrates to the induction and regulation of allergic inflammatory responses and are now possible using improved technologies for detecting and characterizing cell-derived glycans. We thus report here the application of high-sensitivity mass spectrometric-based glycomics methodologies to the analysis of N-linked glycans derived from isolated populations of human mast cells, eosinophils and basophils. The samples were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) screening analyses and MALDI-TOF/TOF sequencing studies. Results reveal substantive quantities of terminal N-acetylglucosamine containing structures in both the eosinophil and the basophil samples, whereas mast cells display greater relative quantities of sialylated terminal epitopes. For the first time, we characterize the cell surface glycan structures of principal allergic effector cells, which by interaction with glycan-binding proteins (e.g. lectins) have the possibility to dictate cellular functions, and might thus have important implications for the pathogenesis of inflammatory and allergic diseases.

North, Simon J; von Gunten, Stephan; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Trollope, Alana; MacGlashan, Donald W; Jang-Lee, Jihye; Dell, Anne; Metcalfe, Dean D; Kirshenbaum, Arnold S; Bochner, Bruce S; Haslam, Stuart M

2012-01-01

263

Analysis of gene expression in peripheral blood eosinophils from patients with atopic dermatitis and in vitro cytokine-stimulated blood eosinophils.  

PubMed

Investigation of differentially expressed genes in eosinophils of patients with allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD) will provide important information for elucidating possible mechanisms of pathology. To identify novel genes that are expressed in AD, we compared gene expression in samples of peripheral blood eosinophils from AD patients and healthy volunteers. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood eosinophils. The expression of various genes, such as those for cytokine receptors, eosinophil activation marker, platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor, eosinophil-specific granular proteins and apoptosis-related genes, was confirmed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Peripheral blood eosinophils of healthy volunteers were also isolated and stimulated for introduction of various cytokines. RNA was extracted and gene expression was monitored. Several genes, such as those for cytokine receptors (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor alpha and beta chain and interleukin (IL)-3 receptor alpha chain), CD44 and PAF receptor were expressed at significantly higher levels in AD patients than in healthy volunteers. In addition, the anti-apoptotic genes, bcl-2 and bcl-xL, were expressed at increased levels in AD patients. No single gene expression correlated with clinical markers, such as eosinophil count or IgE levels. Expression of GM-CSF receptor beta chain and IL-3 receptor alpha chain in isolated blood eosinophils of healthy volunteers was stimulated by IL-5, IL-4, interferon (IFN)-gamma and GM-CSF. Expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL was also increased after stimulation with IL-5, IL-4 or IFN-gamma. The in vitro enhancement of cytokine-stimulated gene expression correlated well with the enhancement observed in clinical samples of eosinophils, suggesting that cytokines may affect gene expression in vivo in eosinophils of patients with AD. PMID:12605696

Ogawa, K; Hashida, R; Miyagawa, M; Kagaya, S; Sugita, Y; Matsumoto, K; Katsunuma, T; Akasawa, A; Tsujimoto, G; Saito, H

2003-03-01

264

Eosinophils: offenders or general bystanders in allergic airway disease and pulmonary immunity?  

PubMed

Eosinophils have long been noted to be present in asthma and other forms of pulmonary inflammation, but whether they act as true offenders or merely as bystanders has been a point of uncertainty. However, in recent years, there has been increasing evidence suggesting that eosinophils are not passive cells in the respiratory system, acting only as markers of allergic inflammation. This review discusses key evidence from animal models and human clinical trials that support the importance of eosinophils as active and necessary, rather than passive and unnecessary, to the pathogenesis of allergic airway disease. Analyses that are supportive of important immunoregulatory roles of eosinophils in allergic pulmonary inflammation are also reviewed. Data indicating that eosinophils contribute to viral, bacterial, and mycobacterial defense and clearance are detailed. Continually increasing evidence has supported a new conception of eosinophils as being multifaceted immune cells with complex interactions with other immune cells and their local environment. PMID:21228563

Akuthota, Praveen; Xenakis, Jason J; Weller, Peter F

2011-01-01

265

Uterine eosinophils and reproductive performance in interleukin 5-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Interleukin 5 is expressed in type 2 T lymphocytes and has a key role in driving the differentiation, recruitment and activation of eosinophils. Mice with a null mutation in the interleukin 5 gene (IL-5 -/- mice) have altered type 2 immune responses and severely depleted eosinophil populations. In the present study, the effect of interleukin 5 deficiency on the abundant population of eosinophils present in the female reproductive tract was investigated, and the reproductive performance in C57Bl/6 IL-5 -/- mice was measured. Endometrial eosinophils, detected on the basis of their endogenous peroxidase activity, were reduced in number by four-sevenfold during the oestrous cycle and in early pregnancy in IL-5 -/- mice. Eosinophils present in the cervix and decidual tissues at the time of parturition were similarly diminished. The temporal fluctuations in eosinophil recruitment and localization within these tissues were otherwise unchanged, indicating that interleukin 5 is not a necessary chemotactic agent in the female reproductive tract. Oestrous cycles were moderately greater in duration in IL-5 -/- mice (mean +/- SD = 5.6 +/- 1.0 days in IL-5 -/- mice versus 5.0 +/- 0.8 days in IL-5 +/+ mice), owing to an extended period in oestrus (2.7 +/- 0.9 days per cycle in IL-5 -/- mice versus 1.8 +/- 0.7 in IL-5 +/+ mice). The interval between placing females with males and the finding of copulatory plugs was reduced significantly in interleukin 5-deficient mice. Implantation rates and subsequent fetal development were comparable in IL-5 -/- and IL-5 +/+ mice, irrespective of whether pregnancies were sired by syngeneic (C57Bl/6) or allogeneic (CBA or Balb/c) males, apart from a 10% increase in placental size and a 6.5% decrease in placental∶fetal ratio seen on day 17 in pregnancies sired by CBA males. Parturition and post-partum uterine repair were not compromised in interleukin 5-deficient mice, as judged by the length of gestation, and the outcomes of pregnancies initiated at post-partum oestrus. The birth weights and growth trajectories of pups were significantly influenced by interleukin 5 status, with small but significant increases in the weights of IL-5 -/- pups, particularly C57Bl/6 and CBA F(1) animals, remaining evident until adulthood. These data are consistent with the view that eosinophils have a role in endometrial tissue remodelling associated with the oestrous cycle, but indicate that the events of pregnancy and parturition proceed quite normally in the absence of maternal and fetal interleukin 5. However, strain-dependent effects of interleukin 5 deficiency on placental growth and function and subsequent weight gain in the newborn indicate that this cytokine may act through the maternal or fetal immune axis to exert subtle influences on reproductive outcome. PMID:11058459

Robertson, S A; Mau, V J; Young, I G; Matthaei, K I

2000-11-01

266

Allergic Challenge-Elicited Lipid Bodies Compartmentalize In Vivo Leukotriene C4 Synthesis within Eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilsareanimportantsourceofleukotriene(LT)C4,whichcan be synthesized within lipid bodies—cytoplasmic organelles where eicosanoid formation may take place. Allergy-driven lipid body for- mationandfunctionhaveneverbeeninvestigated.Here,westudied the in vivo induction and role of lipid bodies within eosinophils recruitedtositesofallergic inflammation.Usingtwomurinemodels of allergic inflammation (asthma and pleurisy), we verified that parallel to the eosinophil influx, allergic challenge also induced lipid body formation within recruited eosinophils. Neutralizing antibod- ies to eotaxin\\/CCL11,

Adriana Vieira-de-Abreu; Edson F. Assis; Gleice S. Gomes; Hugo C. Castro-Faria-Neto; Peter F. Weller; Christianne Bandeira-Melo; Patricia T. Bozza

2005-01-01

267

Recurrent flank pain caused by eosinophilic ureteritis mimicking urinary stone disease: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flank pain is caused by a variety of pathologies of which urinary stone disease is the most frequent. Eosinophilic ureteritis\\u000a is a rare stenosing condition of the ureter. Eosinophilic ureteritis can cause flank pain and\\/or unilateral hydronephrosis.\\u000a On pathological examination it is characterised by a marked infiltration of the submucosal layers by eosinophils. A relationship\\u000a of this condition with atopy,

G. Sergeant; K. Slabbaert; P. Werbrouck

2003-01-01

268

TLR3 in Human Eosinophils: Functional Effects and Decreased Expression during Allergic Rhinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Viral respiratory infections are increasingly implicated in allergic exacerbations. Virus-induced activation of eosinophils through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) could be involved. The present study was designed to examine TLR3 expression in eosinophils from bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) during symptomatic allergic rhinitis, and to evaluate the functional responsiveness of TLR3 in purified eosinophils. Methods: BM and PB samples

Anne Månsson; Mattias Fransson; Mikael Adner; Mikael Benson; Rolf Uddman; Sven Björnsson; Lars-Olaf Cardell

2010-01-01

269

Asthma therapy modulates priming-associated blood eosinophil responsiveness in allergic asthmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Several pro-inflammatory responses of eosinophils are primed in vivo in this disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether regular antiasthma treatment could modulate priming-sensitive cytotoxic mechanisms of human eosinophils. In a randomized, two-centre, double-blind parallel group study, the effect of 8 weeks of treatment with salmeterol

J. C. Grutters; L. Brinkman; M. M. Aslander; J. M. M. van den Bosch; L. Koenderman; J. W. j Lammers

1999-01-01

270

Catapult-like release of mitochondrial DNA by eosinophils contributes to antibacterial defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although eosinophils are considered useful in defense mechanisms against parasites, their exact function in innate immunity remains unclear. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of eosinophils within the gastrointestinal immune system. We show here that lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria activates interleukin-5 (IL-5)- or interferon-c-primed eosinophils to release mitochondrial DNA in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner,

Jeffrey A Gold; Nicola Andina; James J Lee; Ann M Kelly; Evelyne Kozlowski; Inès Schmid; Alex Straumann; Janine Reichenbach; Gerald J Gleich; Shida Yousefi; Hans-Uwe Simon

2008-01-01

271

Organ-specific eosinophilic disorders of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that increase in various tissues in a variety of disorders. Locally, they can be involved in the initiation and propagation of diverse inflammatory responses. In this review, the clinical association of eosinophils with diseases of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract is summarized. An approach to determining the causal role of eosinophils in these diseases is presented. Recent findings concerning molecular diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed.

Simon, Dagmar; Wardlaw, Andrew; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2010-01-01

272

Can Acute Myeloid Leukemia Be Prevented?  

MedlinePLUS

... Can acute myeloid leukemia be found early? Can acute myeloid leukemia be prevented? It’s not known what causes most cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Since most leukemia patients have no known ...

273

How Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Found?  

MedlinePLUS

... How is acute lymphocytic leukemia classified? How is acute lymphocytic leukemia found? At this time there are no special ... to the doctor right away. Tests to find acute lymphocytic leukemia Most of the symptoms seen in leukemia also ...

274

The dynamics of intestinal eosinophil depletion in rats treated with dexamethasone.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of corticosteroid treatment on eosinophils in the jejunal mucosa of rats previously infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg of dexamethasone. At a light microscopic level, the number of eosinophils with typical nuclei and granules was significantly decreased as early as 3 hours after injection, and had diminished to 17% of starting values at 24 hours. Pyknotic cells containing eosinophilic granules or fragments were observed scattered in the subepithelial interstitial space 3 and 7 hours after injection. By electron microscopy, more than 20% of eosinophils demonstrated nuclear abnormalities. Degenerating eosinophils without granular changes (27 of 127, 14.1%) or with or with granular changes (9 of 127, 7.1%) increased at 3 hours compared with untreated rats (8 of 233, 3.4%; 4 of 233, 1.7%). At 7 hours, 47 of 96 (49.0%) eosinophils were located inside phagocytic vacuoles of macrophages. Single macrophages occasionally engulfed two or more eosinophils. Only a few degeneration eosinophils (7 of 96) were observed outside macrophages. At 13 hours, the percentage of degenerating eosinophils and eosinophils inside macrophages was decreased; at 24 hours, few eosinophils were seen and eosinophil structures could not be identified inside macrophages. The epithelium and lamina propria did not show structural damage typical of an inflammatory reaction at any time. Eosinophil numbers in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleens, and peripheral blood were also reduced by dexamethasone. Similar observations were made in the jejunal mucosa of noninfected rats. We observed the slow restoration of eosinophil numbers in the intestinal wall, finally reaching preinjection numbers after 14 days. We conclude that dexamethasone has important effects on eosinophils causing (a) nuclear degeneration and (b) changes in the granular matrix. Subsequently, these damaged eosinophils are engulfed by macrophages and swiftly disappear from the intestinal mucosa. These effects appear to be due to the induction of apoptosis. Our findings offer an explanation for one of the significant antiinflammatory effects observed with the use of corticosteroids. PMID:1997734

Kawabori, S; Soda, K; Perdue, M H; Bienenstock, J

1991-02-01

275

A case of ANCA-associated vasculitis with glomerular eosinophilic infiltration: a possible pathogenic implication.  

PubMed

We present a 58-year-old male patient with myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. He failed to fulfill the common American College of Rheumatology criteria for eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis and was tentatively diagnosed with microscopic polyangiitis. Kidney biopsy showed pauci-immune crescentic necrotizing glomerulonephritis with neutrophilic and eosinophilic infiltration. Previous reports implicate eosinophils in the pathogenesis of this disease. Therefore, this case suggests that infiltrated eosinophils as well as neutrophils might play roles in the development of tissue injury in systemic vasculitis. PMID:22710834

Suzuki, Hiroko; Fujita, Takayuki; Fuke, Yoshinobu; Yabuki, Minako; Kajiwara, Mamiko; Ishihara, Yuko; Hemmi, Seiichiro; Soma, Masayoshi

2012-06-19

276

Eosinophils Increase Neuron Branching in Human and Murine Skin and In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous nerves are increased in atopic dermatitis, and itch is a prominent symptom. We studied the functional interactions between eosinophils and nerves in human and mouse skin and in culture. We demonstrated that human atopic dermatitis skin has eosinophil granule proteins present in the same region as increased nerves. Transgenic mice in which interleukin-5 (IL-5) expression is driven by a keratin-14 (K14) promoter had many eosinophils in the epidermis, and the number of nerves was also significantly increased in the epidermis. In co-cultures, eosinophils dramatically increased branching of sensory neurons isolated from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of mice. This effect did not occur in DRG neurons co-cultured with mast cells or with dead eosinophils. Physical contact of the eosinophils with the neurons was not required, and the effect was not blocked by an antibody to nerve growth factor. DRG neurons express eotaxin-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, which may be important in the recruitment, binding, and activation of eosinophils in the region of cutaneous nerves. These data indicate a pathophysiological role for eosinophils in cutaneous nerve growth in atopic dermatitis, and suggest they may present a therapeutic target in atopic dermatitis and other eosinophilic skin conditions with neuronal symptoms such as itch.

Foster, Erin L.; Simpson, Eric L.; Fredrikson, Lorna J.; Lee, James J.; Lee, Nancy A.; Fryer, Allison D.; Jacoby, David B.

2011-01-01

277

Inverse association of eosinophil count with colorectal cancer incidence: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic conditions are associated with reduced risk of several malignancies. We hypothesized that blood eosinophil count, a marker for allergic disorders, is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) prospective cohort. To our knowledge, the association between blood eosinophil count and cancer risk has not been investigated before. Methods Relative eosinophil and total leukocyte counts were measured in blood at baseline. Absolute eosinophil counts were calculated by multiplying relative count by the total leukocyte count. Proportional hazards regression provided hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of CRC in relation to eosinophil count. Results From 1987–2006, 242 incident CRC cases (187 colon; 56 rectal) occurred in 10,675 initially cancer-free participants. In a multivariate-adjusted model, HRs were 1.0, 0.70 (95%CI, 0.50;0.98) and 0.58 (95%CI, 0.40;0.83) across tertiles of absolute eosinophil count (P-trend=0.003). A similar inverse association was observed for relative eosinophil count. Age, sex, race, or smoking status did not modify associations. Conclusions and impact We observed an inverse association between blood eosinophil count and CRC risk. This novel finding supports the hypothesis that allergies are protective for colorectal cancer, since an increased eosinophil count correlates with allergy in the developed world.

Prizment, Anna E; Anderson, Kristin E; Visvanathan, Kala; Folsom, Aaron R

2011-01-01

278

Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

1984-02-01

279

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae activates human eosinophils through beta-glucan receptors.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are a characteristic component of the inflammatory response seen in several diseases, including allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. After activation, eosinophil-derived products may exert proinflammatory effects and cause considerable tissue damage. In the present study, we investigated innate interactions between the respiratory tract pathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and human eosinophils. Bacterial binding to eosinophils was dependent on (1-3)-beta-D-glucan receptors, as deduced from blocking experiments using the soluble glucan derivatives laminarin and scleroglucan. In addition, expression of the beta-glucan receptor dectin-1 was shown in eosinophils by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Activation of the beta-glucan receptors by bacteria elicited a time- and dose-dependent respiratory burst in eosinophils. NTHi caused increased expression of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 as measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Incubation of eosinophils in the presence of NTHi for 4.5 h revealed upregulation of 245 different genes as detected by microarray. Signal transduction-related transcripts were most strongly upregulated, followed by cytokine mRNAs. Our findings suggest that NTHi can induce an innate inflammatory response in eosinophils that is mainly mediated via beta-glucan receptors. This points to possible pathophysiologic mechanisms involving innate recognition of NTHi by eosinophils during infection of the airways, thus promoting inflammation in chronic pulmonary disease. PMID:12689921

Ahrén, Irini Lazou; Eriksson, Emily; Egesten, Arne; Riesbeck, Kristian

2003-04-14

280

Successful Treatment of Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia with Anti-IgE Therapy  

PubMed Central

Anti-IgE therapy, using recombinant humanized anti-IgE antibodies, is clinically effective in patients with eosinophil-related disorders such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and chronic urticaria. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia tends to respond promptly to systemic corticosteroid therapy, however; relapses are common following corticosteroid tapering. We treated two patients (17- and 19-yr-old males) of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia whose symptoms were cough and dyspnea on exertion. The symptoms were recurrent while tapering off corticosteroid. They were treated with anti-IgE antibody without recurrence for 2 yr and 15 months. Here, we first describe clinical experience of the 2 cases of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.

Shin, Yoo Seob; Jin, Hyun Jung; Yoo, Hye-Soo; Hwang, Eui-kyung; Nam, Young Hee; Ye, Young-Min

2012-01-01

281

Leukemia blast-induced T-cell anergy demonstrated by leukemia-derived dendritic cells in acute myelogenous leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo elucidate the mechanism of immunologic escape of leukemia cells and establish an effective anti-leukemia immunotherapy, we attempted to generate dendritic cells from leukemia cells in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Using these leukemia-derived dendritic cells, we investigated leukemia cell-associated T-cell anergy.

Miwako Narita; Masuhiro Takahashi; Aichun Liu; Kohji Nikkuni; Tatsuo Furukawa; Ken Toba; Satoru Koyama; Kazue Takai; Masayoshi Sanada; Yoshifusa Aizawa

2001-01-01

282

Biomarkers of Eosinophil Involvement in Allergic and Eosinophilic Diseases: review of phenotypic and serum markers including a novel assay to quantify levels of soluble Siglec-8  

PubMed Central

There remains considerable controversy in the management of eosinophilic disorders, mainly due to a paucity of information regarding the clinical interpretation of total blood eosinophil counts versus surface activation markers versus eosinophil-derived or eosinophil-influencing mediator levels. Regrettably, few tests have been validated that define a unique clinical or prognostic phenotype that is more useful than simply monitoring total blood eosinophil counts. In this manuscript, phenotypic (cell surface) markers, along with serum and tissue-based markers that have been examined in the context of disease activity, are reviewed. We also report the development of a novel assay for detecting soluble Siglec-8 (sSiglec-8), a protein likely derived largely from eosinophils, as a potential serum biomarker. The assay consists of a competitive ELISA using a recombinant Siglec-8-Fc fusion protein. The goal of this preliminary study was to determine if sSiglec-8 is a useful biomarker that differentiates among patients with various eosinophil-associated diseases. In the final analysis, it is fair to say that further research is sorely needed to fully understand and validate the utility of various biomarkers, including sSiglec-8, before their use in clinical practice can be recommended with confidence.

Na, Ho Jeong; Hamilton, Robert G.; Klion, Amy D.

2012-01-01

283

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... as lymphoblasts, which do not mature into normal lymphocytes. Mature lymphocytes help the body fight infection. Instead, the body ... if the leukemia originates from B or T lymphocytes. Making this distinction helps physicians to recommend the ...

284

Leukemia Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Normal hematopoiesis develops hierarchically from a hematopoietic stem cell, which is defined by both extensive self-renewal\\u000a capacity and multi-lineage potential, i.e. the ability to give rise to fully differentiated cells of all hematopoietic lineages.\\u000a Since leukemia can be considered as malignant hematopoiesis, the existence of a developmental hierarchy in leukemia with a\\u000a malignant stem cell at its apex was postulated

Markus Müschen

285

CT findings in leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Review of 84 computed tomographic (CT) scans in leukemic patients demonstrate a wide spectrum of abnormalities. Findings caused by leukemia were lymphadenopathy, visceral enlargement, focal defects, and tissue infiltration. Hemorrhage was by far the most common complication and could usually be characterized on the noncontrast CT scan. The distinction between old hematomas, foci of infection, and leukemia infiltration could not be made with certainty without CT-guided aspiration. Unusual instances of sepsis, such as microabscesses of the liver and typhlitis, were seen.

Heiberg, E.; Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Shields, J.B.

1984-12-01

286

Functional CD137 receptors are expressed by eosinophils from patients with IgE-mediated allergic responses but not by eosinophils from patients with non–IgE-mediated eosinophilic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: CD137 (ILA\\/4-1BB), a member of the TNF\\/nerve growth factor receptor superfamily, has previously been suggested to be involved in T-cell activation and differentiation. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate expression and potential function of CD137 in eosinophils. Methods: Eosinophils were isolated from normal control subjects as well as from patients with bronchial asthma, patients with atopic

Isabelle V. W. M. Heinisch; Christian Bizer; Wolfgang Volgger; Hans-Uwe Simon

2001-01-01

287

Myeloid leukemia after hematotoxins  

SciTech Connect

One of the most serious consequences of cancer therapy is the development of a second cancer, especially leukemia. Several distinct subsets of therapy-related leukemia can now be distinguished. Classic therapy-related myeloid leukemia typically occurs 5 to 7 years after exposure to alkylating agents and/or irradiation, has a myelodysplastic phase with trilineage involvement, and is characterized by abnormalities of the long arms of chromosomes 5 and/or 7. Response to treatment is poor, and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is recommended. Leukemia following treatment with agents that inhibit topoisomerase 11, however, has a shorter latency, no preleukemic phase, a monoblastic, myelomonocytic, or myeloblastic phenotype, and balanced translocations, most commonly involving chromosome bands 11 q23 or 21 q22. The MLL gene at 11 q23 or the AML1 gene at 21 q22 are almost uniformly rearranged. MLL is involved with many fusion gene partners. Therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia also occurs with 1 1 q23 rearrangements. Therapy-related leukemias with 11 q23 or 21 q22 rearrangements, inv(16) or t(15;17), have a more favorable response to treatment and a clinical course similar to their de novo counterparts. 32 refs., 4 tabs.

Larson, R.A.; LeBeau, M.M.; Vardiman, J.W.; Rowley, J.D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-12-01

288

Thrombosis and acute leukemia.  

PubMed

Thrombosis is a common complication in patients with acute leukemia. While the presence of central venous lines, concomitant steroids, the use of Escherichia coli asparaginase and hereditary thrombophilic abnormalities are known risk factors for thrombosis in children, information on the pathogenesis, risk factors, and clinical outcome of thrombosis in adult patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still scarce. Expert consensus and guidelines regarding leukemia-specific risk factors, thrombosis prevention, and treatment strategies, as well as optimal type of central venous catheter in acute leukemia patients are required. It is likely that each subtype of acute leukemia represents a different setting for the development of thrombosis and the risk of bleeding. This is perhaps due to a combination of different disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms of thrombosis, including the type of chemotherapy protocol chosen, the underlying patients health, associated risk factors, as well as the biology of the disease itself. The risk of thrombosis may also vary according to ethnicity and prevalence of hereditary risk factors for thrombosis; thus, it is advisable for Latin American, Asian, and African countries to report on their specific patient population. PMID:22507812

Crespo-Solís, Erick

2012-04-01

289

The role of mast cells in eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus which is characterized by the presence of dense infiltrate of eosinophilic leukocytes restricted to this organ mucosa. Accumulating published evidence suggests a strong role of mast cells in the inflammatory infiltrate in the physiopathology of EE. We have reviewed published articles with relevant information about the presence and possible role of mast cells in EE. Although mast cells have been studied indirectly in EE, reported data allow us to confirm that the number of mast cells infiltrating the esophageal epithelium in adult and child patients with EE is higher with respect to the normal state and in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Mast cells linked to IgE, which are not found in other conditions, have been identified in EE. Despite that fact, an anaphylactic reaction history after exposure to allergens is not common in these patients. Therefore, the mast cells' function in EE could be dependent on T lymphocytes, as suggested by a mast cell gene expression analysis. Bi-directional crosstalk is established between mast cells and eosinophils, hence establishing interesting hypotheses regarding their relationship to EE physiopathology. Mast cells' function as an immune response leader seems to substitute for their effector functions in EE, while at the same time opening new research pathways for consideration of these cells as a therapeutic target in EE. However, the inefficiency of therapies that inhibit mast cell functions while they are effective in other respiratory tract diseases results in the need for specific studies to identify the real function of such complex cells in the physiopathology of EE. There is indirect proof of the role of mast cells in EE, while many doubts exist about their activation mechanism, which does not seem to be IgE-mediated. Specific approach studies are needed to clarify the function of these cells in the physiopathology of EE, which could be a possible therapeutic target. PMID:18681944

Lucendo, Alfredo J; Bellón, Teresa; Lucendo, Baltasar

2008-08-04

290

Comparative Dietary Therapy Effectiveness in Remission of Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disorder that responds to dietary therapy; however, data evaluating the effectiveness of dietary therapeutic strategies is limited. Objective This study compared the effectiveness of three frequently prescribed dietary therapies [elemental, six-food elimination, and skin prick and atopy patch-directed elimination] and assessed the remission predictability of skin tests and their utility in directing dietary planning. Methods A retrospective cohort of proton-pump inhibitor-unresponsive, non-glucocorticoid-treated eosinophilic esophagitis patients who had two consecutive endoscopic biopsies associated with dietary intervention was identified. Biopsy histology and remissions (< 15 eosinophils/high-power field) following dietary therapy and food reintroductions were evaluated. Results Ninety-eight of 513 patients met eligibility criteria. Of these 98, 50% (49), 27% (26), and 23% (23) received elemental, six-food elimination, and directed diets, respectively. Remission occurred in 96%, 81%, and 65% of patients on elemental, six-food elimination, and directed diets, respectively. The odds of post-diet remission vs. non-remission were 5.6-fold higher (P=0.05) on elemental vs. six-food elimination, 12.5-fold higher (P=0.003) on elemental vs. directed, and were not significantly different (P=0.22) on six-food elimination vs. directed diets. Following 116 single-food reintroductions, the negative predictive value of skin testing for remission was 40%–67% (milk 40%, egg 56%, soy 64%, and wheat 67%). Conclusion All three dietary therapies are effective; however, an elemental diet is superior at inducing histologic remission compared with six-food elimination and skin test-directed diets. Notably, an empiric six-food elimination diet is as effective as a skin test-directed diet. The negative predictive values of foods most commonly reintroduced in single-food challenges are not sufficient to support the development of dietary advancement plans solely based on skin tests.

Henderson, Carol J.; Abonia, J. Pablo; King, Eileen C.; Putnam, Philip E.; Collins, Margaret H.; Franciosi, James P.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2012-01-01

291

Potential Contribution of IL-7 to Allergen-Induced Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation in Asthma1  

PubMed Central

The primary function of IL-7 is to promote maturation and survival of T cells. Through microarray expression analysis, we previously observed that human blood eosinophils express mRNA for IL-7R? (CD127) and its common gamma chain (?c, CD132). The purpose of this study was to determine if eosinophils have functional IL-7 receptors and to assess the potential contribution of IL-7 to eosinophilic airway inflammation by evaluating its presence in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of subjects with atopic asthma before and after segmental bronchoprovocation with allergen. Immunoblot analysis revealed that CD127 is present in highly purified human blood eosinophils. Furthermore, eosinophils responded to IL-7 with phosphorylation of STAT5, upregulation of the activation marker CD69, and prolonged survival. Neutralization of GM-CSF, but not IL-5, significantly blunted these functional responses, suggesting that IL-7 mediates its effects by promoting eosinophil release of autologous GM-CSF. Notably, the suppressive effect of anti-GM-CSF on STAT5 phosphorylation occurred within 10 min of eosinophil exposure to IL-7. Thus, IL-7 likely activates eosinophil release of preformed, rather than newly synthesized GM-CSF. The biological relevance of IL-7 to eosinophilia in vivo was implicated in a study of airway allergen challenge in allergic asthmatics. IL-7 concentrations in BAL fluid increased significantly 48 h after segmental allergen challenge and were highly correlated with BAL eosinophils (r=0.7, p<0.001). In conclusion, the airway response to allergen is associated with the generation of IL-7, which may contribute to airway inflammation by promoting enhanced eosinophil activation and survival. Activation of eosinophils is a novel function for IL-7.

Kelly, Elizabeth A. B.; Koziol, Cynthia; Clay, Kathryn J.; Liu, Linying; Bates, Mary Ellen; Bertics, Paul J.; Jarjour, Nizar N.

2010-01-01

292

Subacute Myelogenous Leukemia: A Special Type of Myelogenous Leukemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The clinical course, laboratory findings, cytochemical studies and ultrastructural observations of 22 subacute myelogenous leukemia (SML) cases are reported and compared with those of 28 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cases. There were marked difference...

C. Yang W. Yan S. Qi T. Yang Y. Wang

1982-01-01

293

[Ischemic eosinophilic granuloma and pulmonary histiocytosis with a regressive course].  

PubMed

Langerhans' histiocytosis or histiocytosis X is a rare intrinsically benign disease producing a destructive tumor with a variable clinical presentation and an often unpredictable clinical course. Focal forms such as eosinophilic granuloma of the bone only require minimal care but the gravity of multisystem forms causing organic dysfunction sometimes require aggressive chemotherapy. Bone involvement is generally observed in children mostly boys. Both sporadic and chronic forms are noted. We report a case observed in a 17-year-old adolescent who presented an exceptional association of bony destruction of the pelvis with extended asymptomatic pulmonary involvement. The lung disease led to the initial diagnosis and optimal surgical, pathological and radiological management. PMID:17878842

Gérard, R; Keller, A; Taylor, S; Hoffmeyer, P; Peter, R

2007-09-01

294

HIV associated eosinophilic folliculitis--differential diagnosis and management  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is a chronic, intensely pruritic condition of unknown pathogenesis that causes marked morbidity in those HIV patients whom it affects. There is a wide differential diagnosis of itchy skin conditions in HIV which are amenable to different treatments. It is therefore essential to take a biopsy of each suspected case and examine multiple sections of the biopsy to confirm or refute a diagnosis of EF. Treatment of EF can be difficult but we hope that by suggesting a rational approach to this and considering possible therapeutic options more patients may be helped with this troublesome dermatosis. ???

Simpson-Dent, S.; Fearfield, L. A.; Staughton, R. C.

1999-01-01

295

How Is Childhood Leukemia Classified?  

MedlinePLUS

... the early diagnostic testing. Acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemia (ALL) Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a fast-growing ... 2%-3% T cell 15%-18% B-cell ALL: About 85% of children with ALL have B- ...

296

Anticipation in familial leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Anticipation refers to worsening severity or earlier age at onset with each generation for an inherited disease and primarily has been described for neurodegenerative illnesses resulting from expansion of trinucleotide repeats. We have tested for evidence of anticipation in familial leukemia. Of 49 affected individuals in nine families transmitting autosomal dominant acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the mean age at onset is 57 years in the grandparental generation, 32 years in the parental generation, and 13 years in the youngest generation (P < .001). Of 21 parent-child pairs with AML, 19 show younger ages at onset in the child and demonstrate a mean decline in age at onset of 28 years (P < .001). Of 18 affected individuals from seven pedigrees with autosomal dominant chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the mean age at onset in the parental generation is 66 years versus 51 years in the youngest generation (P = .008). Of nine parent-child pairs with CLL, eight show younger ages at onset in the child and reveal a mean decline in age at onset of 21 years (P = .001). Inspection of rare pedigrees transmitting acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple types of leukemia, and lymphoma is also compatible with anticipation. Sampling bias is unlikely to explain these findings. This suggests that dynamic mutation of unstable DNA sequence repeats could be a common mechanism of inherited hematopoietic malignancy with implications for the role of somatic mutation in the more frequent sporadic cases. We speculate on three possible candidate genes for familial leukemia with anticipation: a locus on 21q22.1-22.2, CBL2 on 11q23.3, and CBFB or a nearby gene on 16q22. 55 refs., 4 figs.

Horwitz, M.; Jarvik, G.P.; Goode, E.L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-11-01

297

Fragility of the esophageal mucosa: A pathognomonic endoscopic sign of primary eosinophilic esophagitis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Primary eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus, evokes recurrent dysphagia. Endoscopy is often unremarkable, and no consensus exists regarding management of resultant dysphagia. The response of a series of patients with primary eosinophilic esophagitis to dilation is reported together with a description of a possibly pathognomonic sign: fragile esophageal mucosa, for which the term “crêpe-paper” mucosa

Alex Straumann; Livio Rossi; Hans-Uwe Simon; Pius Heer; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Christoph Beglinger

2003-01-01

298

Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis is associated with a T H2-type allergic inflammatory response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis (IEE) is a chronic-inflammatory disorder of the esophagus of unknown origin. The established cornerstone of diagnosis is a dense infiltration of the esophagus with eosinophils, but neither the precise pattern of inflammatory cell infiltration nor the mechanisms that likely contribute to induction and maintenance of the inflammatory response have been described. Objective: The intention of this

Alex Straumann; Madeleine Bauer; Barbra Fischer; Kurt Blaser; Hans-Uwe Simon

2001-01-01

299

A Patient with Basophilic-Eosinophilic Myeloprolif erative Disorder Showing Monosomy 7 and Hyperhistaminemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We encountered a male patient with marked basophilia and eosinophilia complicated by anemia, thrombocytopenia, myelofibrosis, and hyperhistaminemia. Since morphological abnormalities were unclear and since chromosome analysis showed 45, XY,-7, a diagnosis of basophilic-eosinophilic myeloproliferative disorder was made. After administration of prednisolone and cytarabine ocfosfate, basophil and eosinophil levels decreased, but blasts transiently appeared in the peripheral blood. Chromosome analysis performed

Yasuo Takimoto; Fumio Imanaka; Yûzo Hayashi; Hazime Shindoh

1997-01-01

300

Monoclonal antibodies distinguish between storage and secreted forms of eosinophil cationic protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic effects of eosinophils on parasites1 and cells2 are due largely to the secretion of various granule proteins, following stimulation3. In order to study this secretory process (degranulation) further, we have raised mouse monoclonal antibodies against both human eosinophil granule extracts and secretion products. From immunocytochemical studies it appears that one antibody, EG1, recognized both the storage and secreted

Po-Chun Tai; Christopher J. F. Spry; Christer Peterson; Per Venge; Inge Olsson

1984-01-01

301

Indomethacin causes prostaglandin D(2)-like and eotaxin-like selective responses in eosinophils and basophils.  

PubMed

We investigated the actions of a panel of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, and monocytes. Indomethacin alone was a potent and selective inducer of eosinophil and basophil shape change. In eosinophils, indomethacin induced chemotaxis, CD11b up-regulation, respiratory burst, and L-selectin shedding but did not cause up-regulation of CD63 expression. Pretreatment of eosinophils with indomethacin also enhanced subsequent eosinophil shape change induced by eotaxin, although treatment with higher concentrations of indomethacin resulted in a decrease in the expression of the major eosinophil chemokine receptor, CCR3. Indomethacin activities and cell selectivity closely resembled those of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)). Eosinophil shape change in response to eotaxin was inhibited by pertussis toxin, but indomethacin- and PGD(2)-induced shape change responses were not. Treatment of eosinophils with specific inhibitors of phospholipase C (U-73122), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (LY-294002), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (SB-202190) revealed roles for these pathways in indomethacin signaling. Indomethacin and its analogues may therefore provide a structural basis from which selective PGD(2) receptor small molecule antagonists may be designed and which may have utility in the treatment of allergic inflammatory disease. PMID:11980903

Stubbs, Victoria E L; Schratl, Petra; Hartnell, Adele; Williams, Timothy J; Peskar, Bernhard A; Heinemann, Akos; Sabroe, Ian

2002-04-29

302

Lamina propria eosinophils and mast cells in ulcerative colitis: comparison between Asians and Caucasians  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the theory of hypersensitivity in the colonic mucosa of Asian patients with ulcerative colitis the rectal biopsy specimens of Asian and Caucasian patients presenting with colitis were selectively stained for both eosinophils and mast cells. Comparisons between ethnic groups were made as well as the correlation to the blood eosinophil count and two variables of active ulcerative colitis--the

G F Benfield; R Bryan; J Crocker

1990-01-01

303

Distribution patterns of stromal eosinophil cells in chick thymus during postnatal development.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are a type of thymic stromal cell that are present in the thymus of both humans and mice. They participate in regulating T-cell development under non-pathological conditions. However, studies are scarce regarding the role of eosinophils in the development of the thymus in chickens. Therefore, this study investigated the distribution of eosinophils in normal chicken thymi at different stages of development. Seven thymi were obtained from chickens at days 1, 21 and 35 of development. The distribution of eosinophils in the thymi was analyzed by histological and immunohistochemical techniques using Lendrum's chromotrope 2R method and an antibody against eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), respectively. Eosinophils were constitutively located in the chick thymus. They were mainly distributed in the thymic corticomedullary junction and medulla, especially around vessels and Hassall's corpuscles, and only a few were in the trabeculae among thymic lobules and around vessels. There were none in the cortex. The number of thymic eosinophils decreased with increasing age (P<0.01). These results indicated that eosinophils comprise a type of thymic stromal cells in the chick, which may regulate thymic development, especially during the early stages of development. PMID:23333191

Huang, Hai-Bo; Liu, Yin-Xue; Hou, Yong; Wen, Le; Ge, Xiao-Hong; Peng, Ke-Mei; Liu, Hua-Zhen

2012-12-28

304

Eosinophilic Inflammation in Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Relationship with Neutrophils and Airway Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number and significance of airway eosinophils in stable COPD is controversial. Aims of this study were to evaluate airway inflammation in patients with stable COPD compared with other groups, and to examine the correlations between inflammatory markers and functional indices of airway ob- struction. Cellular analysis and evaluation of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels in induced spu- tum were

GIOVANNI BALZANO; FRANCESCO STEFANELLI; CARMELA IORIO; ALBERTO DE FELICE; ENRICO M. MELILLO; MICHELE MARTUCCI; GAETANO MELILLO

305

Eosinophillic myocarditis and coronary arteritis in a fatal case of asthma.  

PubMed

Mortality is very unusual in the case of asthma. We recently came across a fatal case of asthma which showed a rare combination of unusual complications like eosinophilic myocarditis, coronary arteritis, biventricular cardiac hypertrophy, eosinophilic pneumonitis and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:21045419

Rupani, Asha; Amonkar, Gayathri; Deshpande, Jaya

306

Deposition of eosinophil cationic protein in vascular lesions in temporal arteritis.  

PubMed Central

The possible role of the eosinophil and its cytotoxic granule proteins in the vascular lesions seen in temporal arteritis was elucidated. Sixteen sections of biopsy specimens from arteria temporalis showing giant cell arteritis were stained for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) by polyclonal antibodies and the immunoperoxidase method. Activated eosinophils were identified by monoclonal antibodies linked to alkaline phosphatase. Activated eosinophils and secreted ECP were seen in all layers of the inflamed vessels and were most evident in necrotic lesions and thrombi. Only a small number of granulocytes seen in the adventitia were immunoreactive for cathepsin G, and no extracellular deposits of this neutrophil granule protein were seen. A few immunoreactive eosinophils were found in the adventitia in two of five negative temporal artery biopsy specimens from patients with polymyalgia rheumatica. All eight coronary artery biopsy specimens with atherosclerotic lesions showed no activated eosinophils or secreted ECP. These findings indicate that eosinophils are involved in the vascular lesion in temporal arteritis and suggest that cytotoxic eosinophil granule proteins may contribute to the necrotic lesions and the development of thrombi. Images

Hallgren, R; Gudbjornsson, B; Larsson, E; Fredens, K

1991-01-01

307

Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 3 Is a Most Effective Basophil and Eosinophil-activating Chemokine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary CC chemokines constitute a novel class of cytokines that attract and activate monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as basophil and eosinophil lenkocytes, with distinct target cell profiles, and are believed to be involved in the regulation of different types of inflammation. The action of the recently identified monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) on human basophil and eosinophil function was

Clemens A. Dahinden; Thomas Geiser; Thomas Brunner; Daniel Caput; Pascual Ferrara; Adrian Minty; Marco BaggioliniS

1994-01-01

308

The distribution of eosinophils and lymphocytes in the large and small airways of asthmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airway inflammation in asthma consists of variably increased num- bers of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, and there is a growing body of evidence to suggest a primary role for lymphocytes and eosinophils in the patho- genesis of asthma. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of lym- phocytes and eosinophils in the bronchial tree of cases of

N. Carroll; C. Cooke; A. James

1997-01-01

309

Diethylcarbamazine and Non-Diethylcarbamazine Related Bancroftian Granuloma: An Immunohistochemical Study of Eosinophil Toxic Proteins  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested, mostly using in vitro experiments, that defenses against parasites involve mainly activated eosinophils and their toxic proteins, such as major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Eosinophil degranulation has been described around degenerating onchocercal microfilariae in patients treated with diethylcarbamazine (DEC). In bancroftian filariasis, traditional histopathologic studies have shown remarkable numbers of eosinophils in granulomatous lesions associated with both DEC-induced and spontaneous death of adult Wuchereria bancrofti parasites. No immunohistochemical study targeting eosinophil degranulation has been previously performed in these granulomas, which are found mainly within intrascrotal lymphatic vessels. This investigation was undertaken in 22 (12 DEC-treated and 10 untreated) male patients in order to determine the immunohistochemical expressions of MBP, EPO and ECP in bancofitian granulomas, using the indirect method. Stained intact esosinophils, as well as granular, extra-cellular material positive for all three proteins, were found in all granulomas. The immunohistochemical patterns were similar in both DEC-treated and untreated cases, irrespective of microfilaremia, blood eosinophilia, and granuloma age. Positive intact cells were observed mostly at the periphery of the granulomas, whereas granular material predominated in central areas around dead or degenerating parasites. These results indicate that eosinophils accumulate in the granulomas and degranulate preferentially in close proximity to degenerating or dead adult parasites. In bancroftian granulomas, influx and degranulation of eosinophils are considered a consequence of parasite death, rather than its cause.

Figueredo-Silva, Jose; Cavalcanti, Carmelita; Montenegro, Luciano Tavares; Noroes, Joaquim; Dreyer, Gerusa

2010-01-01

310

Medical management of eosinophilic meningitis following bovine graft duraplasty for Chiari malformation Type I repair.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningitis is a known complication of duraplasty, including that using bovine tissues. Previous authors have relied on surgical removal of the graft for treatment. Authors of the present report describe a 7-year-old girl with eosinophilic meningitis following duraplasty with a bovine pericardium graft who was successfully treated using corticosteroid therapy alone. PMID:23909615

Ostendorf, Adam P; Connolly, Anne M

2013-08-02

311

Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis and Wegener's granulomatosis: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

This report presents a case of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis in a man with Wegener's granulomatosis, the first report of a possible association between the two conditions. This association suggests a possible mechanism for its pathogenesis. Key Words: Wegener's granulomatosis • eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis • nose

Loane, J; Jaramillo, M; Young, H; Kerr, K

2001-01-01

312

Peyer's patch eosinophils: identification, characterization, and regulation by mucosal allergen exposure, interleukin-5, and eotaxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gastrointestinal immune system is traditionally thought to be composed of lymphocytes located within Peyer's patches and the lamina propria. We have recently reported that eosinophils also reside in the gastrointestinal tract during healthy states, in particular, within the lamina propria, and that these cells sub- stantially increase after oral allergen expo- sure. We now demonstrate the presence of eosinophils

Anil Mishra; Simon P. Hogan; Eric B. Brandt; Marc E. Rothenberg

313

[Eosinophilic esophagitis--pathogenesis, clinical presentation and therapeutic management].  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a relatively new, chronic, TH 2-type allergic inflammation of the esophagus. EE occurs more frequently in men. Allergic diseases such as asthma or atopic dermatitis are present in 50-70 % of patients or their relatives. In adults, the most common presenting symptom of EE is dysphagia, with or without food bolus impaction. Endoscopic findings of EE include mucosal furrows, corrugated or concentric rings or ridges in the esophagus ("feline esophagus"), with or without tiny whitish exudates. The diagnosis is confirmed by the observation of high counts of eosinophils in the esophageal epithelium (at least 24 /HPF). The cornerstones of medical therapy are either topical or systemic corticosteroids. Additional therapies included leukotriene receptor antagonists (montelukast) and IL-5 blockers (Mepolizumab). Complications of EE such as esophageal strictures should be carefully dilated using either bougies or a balloon. Currently it is still not known whether the late complications of EE can be prevented by the use of anti-inflammatory agents and this can only be demonstrated through further long-term follow-up studies. PMID:18080228

von Arnim, U; Mönkemüller, K; Malfertheiner, P; Straumann, A

2007-12-01

314

Localization of Eosinophilic Esophagitis from H&E stained images using multispectral imaging  

PubMed Central

This study is an initial investigation on the capability of multispectral imaging to capture subtle spectral information that would enable the automatic delineation between the eosinophilic esophagitis and other eosin stained tissue components, especially the RBCs. In the method, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the spectral transmittance samples of the different tissue components, excluding however the transmittance samples of the eosinophilic esophagitis. From the average spectral error configuration of the eosinophilic esophagitis transmittance samples, i.e. the difference between the actual transmittance and the estimated transmittance using m PC vectors, we indentified two spectral bands by which we can localize the eosinophils. Initial results show the possibility of automatically localizing the eosinophilic esophagitis by utilizing spectral information.

2011-01-01

315

Pulmonary Embolism in a Patient with Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Causal or Coincidental?  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immune-mediated disease characterized by infiltration of the esophageal mucosa with eosinophils and concomitant esophageal dysfunction. Though there are well-described associations between certain chronic inflammatory conditions and venous thromboembolism, there have been no reports of venous thromboembolism occurring in eosinophilic esophagitis. We report the case of a 33-year-old man with severe eosinophilic esophagitis resulting in recurrent esophageal strictures who was unresponsive to oral viscous budesonide therapy, and who developed an isolated pulmonary embolism in the absence of risk factors for venous thromboembolism. We then discuss potential mechanisms for venous thromboembolism in eosinophilic esophagitis, such as inflammation-mediated hypercoagulability, hypereosinophilia, and immunoglobulin E-mediated platelet activation.

Jones, Patricia D.; Moll, Stephan; Dellon, Evan S.

2013-01-01

316

Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Infected Pulmonary Epithelial Cells Induce Eosinophil Degranulation by a CD18-Mediated Mechanism1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis in infants is characterized by wheezing, respiratory distress, and the histologic findings of necrosis and sloughing of airway epithelium. High concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a cytotoxic protein contained in the granules of eosinophils, have been found in the airways of RSV-infected infants. The mechanisms of eosinophil degranulation in vivo remain largely unknown. Since

Barbara Olszewska-Pazdrak; Konrad Pazdrak; Pearay L. Ogra; Roberto P. Garofalo

317

Selective modulation of chemokinesis, degranulation, and apoptosis in eosinophils through the PGD 2 receptors CRTH2 and DP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: PGD2 is the major prostanoid released by mast cells during an allergic response. Its role in the allergic response, however, remains unclear. Objective: Because the accumulation of eosinophils is a feature of allergic reactions, we investigated the role of PGD2 in the modulation of eosinophil function. Methods: Circulating human eosinophils were isolated and challenged with PGD2. The effects of

Francois G. Gervais; Rani P. G. Cruz; Anne Chateauneuf; Stephen Gale; Nicole Sawyer; Francois Nantel; Kathleen M. Metters; Gary P. O'Neill

2001-01-01

318

Increased intraluminal release of eosinophil granule proteins EPO, ECP, EPX, and cytokines in ulcerative colitis and proctitis in segmental perfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The role of the eosinophil granulocyte in bowel mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease still remains obscure. The present study was performed in order to elucidate the local eosinophil activity and activating cytokines in the inflamed lesions of colon and rectum in patients with ulcerative colitis and proctitis.METHODS: The activity of intestinal eosinophils with respect to the release of granule

Marie Carlson; Yngve Raab; Christer Peterson; Roger Hällgren; Per Venge

1999-01-01

319

Eosinophils Can Function as Antigen-Presenting Cells To Induce Primary and Secondary Immune Responses to Strongyloides stercoralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have demonstrated roles for eosinophils during innate and adaptive immune responses to helminth infections. However, evidence that eosinophils are capable of initiating an immune response to parasite antigens is lacking. The goal of the present in vitro study was to investigate the potential of eosinophils to serve as antigen-presenting cells (APC) and initiate an immune response to parasite

Udaikumar M. Padigel; James J. Lee; Thomas J. Nolan; Gerhard A. Schad; David Abraham

2006-01-01

320

Inhibition effects of Moutan Cortex Radicis on secretion of eotaxin in A549 human epithelial cells and eosinophil migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophils have been implicated in a broad range of diseases, most notably allergic conditions (e.g. asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis) and inflammatory diseases. These diseases are characterized by an accumulation of eosinophils in the tissue. Defining the mechanisms that control eosinophil recruitment is fundamental to understanding how these diseases progress and may identify a novel target for drug therapy. Eotaxin

Jinju Kim; Heekyung Lee; Youngseop Lee; Bang-Gul Oh; Chongwoon Cho; Yangseok Kim; Minkyu Shin; Moochang Hong; Sung-Ki Jung; Hyunsu Bae

2007-01-01

321

Anti-Siglec-F Antibody Reduces Allergen-Induced Eosinophilic Inflammation and Airway Remodeling1  

PubMed Central

Siglec-F is a sialic acid-binding Ig superfamily receptor that is highly expressed on eosinophils. We have investigated whether administration of an anti-Siglec-F Ab to OVA-challenged wild-type mice would reduce levels of eosinophilic inflammation and levels of airway remodeling. Mice sensitized to OVA and challenged repetitively with OVA for 1 mo who were administered an anti-Siglec-F Ab had significantly reduced levels of peribronchial eosinophilic inflammation and significantly reduced levels of subepithelial fibrosis as assessed by either trichrome staining or lung collagen levels. The anti-Siglec-F Ab reduced the number of bone marrow, blood, and tissue eosinophils, suggesting that the anti-Siglec-F Ab was reducing the production of eosinophils. Administration of a F(ab?)2 fragment of an anti-Siglec-F Ab also significantly reduced levels of eosinophilic inflammation in the lung and blood. FACS analysis demonstrated increased numbers of apoptotic cells (annexin V+/CCR3+ bronchoalveolar lavage and bone marrow cells) in anti-Siglec-F Ab-treated mice challenged with OVA. The anti-Siglec-F Ab significantly reduced the number of peribronchial major basic protein+/TGF-?+ cells, suggesting that reduced levels of eosinophil-derived TGF-? in anti-Siglec-F Ab-treated mice contributed to reduced levels of peribronchial fibrosis. Administration of the anti-Siglec-F Ab modestly reduced levels of periodic acid-Schiff-positive mucus cells and the thickness of the smooth muscle layer. Overall, these studies suggest that administration of an anti-Siglec-F Ab can significantly reduce levels of allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation and features of airway remodeling, in particular subepithelial fibrosis, by reducing the production of eosinophils and increasing the number of apoptotic eosinophils in lung and bone marrow.

Song, Dae Jin; Cho, Jae Youn; Lee, Sang Yeub; Miller, Marina; Rosenthal, Peter; Soroosh, Pejman; Croft, Michael; Zhang, Mai; Varki, Ajit; Broide, David H.

2009-01-01

322

Peripheral eosinophil count both before and after liver transplantation predicts acute cellular rejection.  

PubMed

Acute cellular rejection is common after orthotopic liver transplantation and an important cause of graft dysfunction. Eosinophils, potent mediators of tissue damage, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute rejection. We studied 55 patients, all of whom had a protocol biopsy 7 days after transplantation and whose peripheral eosinophil count was monitored daily for 11 days after transplantation. Patients were divided clinicopathologically into two groups: group A, without rejection, group B, with rejection. Group B (36% of patients) developed rejection within the 11-day study period. The pretransplant eosinophil count was significantly higher in group B, compared with group A (0.31 +/- 0.08 v 0.10 +/- 0.01 (x10(9)/L), p < .001). After transplantation, the eosinophil count fell to low levels in both groups. By day 3 there was a statistically significant rise in the eosinophil count in group B compared with group A, with a maximum at day 7 [0.51 +/- 0.06 v 0.26 +/- 0.03 (x10(9)/L) p < .001]. After treatment with steroids, the eosinophil count dropped to values similar to those in group A and remained low thereafter in 16 of 20 patients. Four patients had a second episode of rejection; in each of these, eosinophils were raised again and decreased with resolution of the rejection. An eosinophil count threshold of 0.13 (x10(9)/L) before transplantation and 0.33 (x10(9)/L) on day 7 after transplantation predicted the development of rejection (sensitivity 72/70%, specificity 66/63%, negative predictive value 82/79%). We conclude that a raised eosinophil count is associated with acute rejection. The raised eosinophil count before transplantation in group B suggests that these patients are predisposed to acute rejection, and earlier intervention may be indicated. PMID:9346724

Dollinger, M M; Plevris, J N; Bouchier, I A; Harrison, D J; Hayes, P C

1997-03-01

323

CD14+CD33+ myeloid cell-CCL11-eosinophil signature in ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that eotaxins (CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26) and IL-5 contribute to eosinophil recruitment to the intestine in UC and that intestinal macrophages are important producers of CCL11 in this disease. Peripheral blood and rectal biopsy samples were obtained from patients with active (n=18) and quiescent UC (n=9), and control patients (n=7). Eosinophil and macrophage levels and activation were analyzed by flow cytometry. Rectal mRNA levels of CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, and IL-5 were determined by qRT-PCR. The cellular source of CCL11 was visualized by immunofluorescence analyses. Eosinophil numbers were elevated in the blood and rectum of active and quiescent UC patients compared with controls. Levels of activated eosinophils (CD66b(high)) correlated with disease severity. Rectal CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 mRNA levels were increased in active UC, whereas only CCL11 was elevated in quiescent UC. Levels of CCL11, but not CCL24 and CCL26, positively correlated with eosinophil numbers. Numbers of CD14(+)CD33(+) cells correlated with CCL11 and eosinophil levels. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed the presence of CD14(+)CCL11(+) mononuclear cells in colonic biopsies in UC. These results support the hypothesis that CCL11 contributes to eosinophil recruitment in UC and that intestinal myeloid cells are a source of CCL11. Interestingly, rectal levels of CCL24, CCL26, and IL-5 only increase during active UC, coinciding with further elevation of eosinophil numbers and with the activation of rectal eosinophils. In conclusion, there is a link among CD14(+)CD33(+) myeloid cells, CCL11, and eosinophils in adult UC. PMID:23904440

Lampinen, Maria; Waddell, Amanda; Ahrens, Richard; Carlson, Marie; Hogan, Simon P

2013-07-31

324

MHC Class II and CD9 in Human Eosinophils Localize to Detergent-Resistant Membrane Microdomains  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils function in murine allergic airways inflammation as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In murine professional APC cell types, optimal functioning of MHC Class II depends on its lateral association in plasma membranes and colocalization with the tetraspanin CD9 into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs). With human eosinophils, we evaluated the localization of MHC Class II (HLA-DR) to DRMs and the functional significance of such localization. In granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor–stimulated human eosinophils, antibody cross-linked HLA-DR colocalized by immunofluorescence microscopy focally on plasma membranes with CD9 and the DRM marker ganglioside GM1. In addition, HLA-DR coimmunoprecipitates with CD9 after chemical cross-linking of CD9. HLA-DR and CD9 were localized by Western blotting in eosinophil DRM subcellular fractions. DRM disruption with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-?-cyclodextrin decreased eosinophil surface expression of HLA-DR and CD9. We show that CD9 is abundant on the surface of eosinophils, presenting the first electron microscopy data of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of CD9 in human eosinophils. Disruption of HLA-DR–containing DRMs decreased the ability of superantigen-loaded human eosinophils to stimulate CD4+ T-cell activation (CD69 expression), proliferation, and cytokine production. Our results, which demonstrate that eosinophil MHC Class II localizes to DRMs in association with CD9 in a functionally significant manner, represent a novel insight into the organization of the antigen presentation complex of human eosinophils.

Akuthota, Praveen; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Spencer, Lisa A.

2012-01-01

325

A systematic review and meta-analysis: tailoring asthma treatment on eosinophilic markers (exhaled nitric oxide or sputum eosinophils).  

PubMed

Asthma severity and control can be measured both subjectively and objectively. Traditionally asthma treatments have been individualised using symptoms and spirometry/peak flow. Increasingly treatment tailored in accordance with inflammatory markers (sputum eosinophil counts or fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) data) is advocated as an alternative strategy. The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of tailoring asthma interventions based on inflammatory markers (sputum analysis and FeNO) in comparison with clinical symptoms (with or without spirometry/peak flow) for asthma-related outcomes in children and adults. Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of Trials, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and reference lists of articles were searched. The last searches were in February 2009. All randomised controlled comparisons of adjustment of asthma treatment based on sputum analysis or FeNO compared with traditional methods (primarily clinical symptoms and spirometry/peak flow) were selected. Results of searches were reviewed against predetermined criteria for inclusion. Relevant studies were selected, assessed and data extracted independently by at least two people. The trial authors were contacted for further information. Data were analysed as 'intervention received' and sensitivity analyses performed. Six (2 adults and 4 children/adolescent) studies utilising FeNO and three adult studies utilising sputum eosinophils were included. These studies had a degree of clinical heterogeneity including definition of asthma exacerbations, duration of study and variations in cut-off levels for percentage of sputum eosinophils and FeNO to alter management in each study. Adults who had treatment adjusted according to sputum eosinophils had a reduced number of exacerbations compared with the control group (52 vs. 77 patients with ?1 exacerbation in the study period; p=0.0006). There was no significant difference in exacerbations between groups for FeNO compared with controls. The daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids at the end of the study was decreased in adults whose treatment was based on FeNO in comparison with the control group (mean difference -450.03 ?g, 95% CI -676.73 to -223.34; p<0.0001). However, children who had treatment adjusted according to FeNO had an increase in their mean daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids (mean difference 140.18 ?g, 95% CI 28.94 to 251.42; p=0.014). It was concluded that tailoring of asthma treatment based on sputum eosinophils is effective in decreasing asthma exacerbations. However, tailoring of asthma treatment based on FeNO levels has not been shown to be effective in improving asthma outcomes in children and adults. At present, there is insufficient justification to advocate the routine use of either sputum analysis (due to technical expertise required) or FeNO in everyday clinical practice. PMID:20937641

Petsky, H L; Cates, C J; Lasserson, T J; Li, A M; Turner, C; Kynaston, J A; Chang, A B

2010-10-11

326

Periostin is a systemic biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic airway inflammation is heterogeneous in asthmatic patients. We recently described a distinct subtype of asthma defined by the expression of genes inducible by TH2 cytokines in bronchial epithelium. This gene signature, which includes periostin, is present in approximately half of asthmatic patients and correlates with eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, identification of this subtype depends on invasive airway sampling, and hence noninvasive biomarkers of this phenotype are desirable. Objective We sought to identify systemic biomarkers of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients. Methods We measured fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), peripheral blood eosinophil, periostin, YKL-40, and IgE levels and compared these biomarkers with airway eosinophilia in asthmatic patients. Results We collected sputum, performed bronchoscopy, and matched peripheral blood samples from 67 asthmatic patients who remained symptomatic despite maximal inhaled corticosteroid treatment (mean FEV1, 60% of predicted value; mean Asthma Control Questionnaire [ACQ] score, 2.7). Serum periostin levels are significantly increased in asthmatic patients with evidence of eosinophilic airway inflammation relative to those with minimal eosinophilic airway inflammation. A logistic regression model, including sex, age, body mass index, IgE levels, blood eosinophil numbers, Feno levels, and serum periostin levels, in 59 patients with severe asthma showed that, of these indices, the serum periostin level was the single best predictor of airway eosinophilia (P = .007). Conclusion Periostin is a systemic biomarker of airway eosinophilia in asthmatic patients and has potential utility in patient selection for emerging asthma therapeutics targeting TH2 inflammation.

Jia, Guiquan; Erickson, Richard W.; Choy, David F.; Mosesova, Sofia; Wu, Lawren C.; Solberg, Owen D.; Shikotra, Aarti; Carter, Richard; Audusseau, Severine; Hamid, Qutayba; Bradding, Peter; Fahy, John V.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Harris, Jeffrey M.; Arron, Joseph R.

2012-01-01

327

Two subtypes of Churg-Strauss syndrome with neuropathy: the roles of eosinophils and ANCA.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in the pathogenesis of neuropathy between myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-positive and -negative patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). Eight MPO-ANCA-positive and 14 MPO-ANCA-negative patients were included. In addition to the standard histology, nerve biopsies were examined, employing immunohistochemistry for eosinophil major basic protein and electron microscopy. The groups did not differ significantly in clinical profiles, including the peak disability score and number of blood eosinophils. In nerve biopsies, necrotizing vasculitis was found in 63% (5/8) of the ANCA-positive and 21% (3/14) of the ANCA-negative patients. Fibrinoid necrosis of vessel walls was noted in 4 ANCA-positive patients (50%), and in one ANCA-negative patient (p = 0039). In contrast, a large number of eosinophilic infiltrations in the epineurium was shown in 36% (5/14) of the ANCA-negative patients, with no eosinophilic infiltrations shown in ANCA-positive patients. In 3 ANCA-negative patients, endoneurial eosinophils were seen where focal axonal loss and capillary dilatation were occasionally noted. There may be 2 pathogenetic mechanisms of neuropathy with CSS: ANCA-related vascular fibrinoid necrosis, and a toxic eosinophilic effect on nerve fibers which is independent of ANCA. Therapy targeting activated eosinophils may be a possible treatment for intractable neuropathy of CSS. PMID:21188447

Oka, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Teruaki; Matsui, Masaru; Shigematsu, Kazuo; Unuma, Tsuneo; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

2010-12-29

328

Gene expression accompanied by differentiation of cord blood-derived CD34+ cells to eosinophils.  

PubMed

To clarify the relation between the expression of genes such as eosinophil-specific granular proteins and cytokine receptors and the pathogenesis of allergic disease, cord blood-derived CD34+ cells were cultured and differentiated into eosinophils. Gene expression in the cells during the differentiation was determined by real-time reverse transcription PCR (ABI PRISM 7700). CD34+ mononuclear cells cultured with stem cell factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-3, and IL-5 in Iscove's MEM, and proliferated until the 2nd week, when the cell number reached a plateau. Under these conditions, more than 90% of the cells differentiate into mature eosinophils in 3 weeks. The expression of major basic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin in the treated cells increased until week 2 and decreased between week 2 and 3. However, the expression of membrane receptor genes, such as IL-5 receptor (alpha chain), IL-3 receptor (alpha chain), GM-CSF-alpha receptor, GM-CSF-beta receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3, interferon-gamma receptor, platelet-activating factor receptor and leukotriene D4 receptor, increased until the 3rd week of eosinophil maturation. Our study suggests that the in vitro eosinophil differentiation and maturation model is useful for clarifying the relation between eosinophil-specific gene expression during allergic diseases and the progression of the disease. PMID:11408763

Hashida, R; Ogawa, K; Miyagawa, M; Sugita, Y; Matsumoto, K; Akasawa, A; Saito, H

2001-01-01

329

Severe aplastic anemia associated with eosinophilic fasciitis: report of 4 cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Diffuse eosinophilic fasciitis (Shulman disease) is a rare sclerodermiform syndrome that, in most cases, resolves spontaneously or after corticosteroid therapy. It has been associated with hematologic disorders, such as aplastic anemia. The clinical features and long-term outcomes of patients with eosinophilic fasciitis and associated aplastic anemia have been poorly described. We report the cases of 4 patients with eosinophilic fasciitis and associated severe aplastic anemia. For 3 of these patients, aplastic anemia was refractory to conventional immunosuppressive therapy with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine. One of the patients received rituximab as a second-line therapy with significant efficacy for both the skin and hematologic symptoms. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe rituximab used to treat eosinophilic fasciitis with associated aplastic anemia. In a literature review, we identified 19 additional cases of eosinophilic fasciitis and aplastic anemia. Compared to patients with isolated eosinophilic fasciitis, patients with eosinophilic fasciitis and associated aplastic anemia were more likely to be men (70%) and older (mean age, 56 yr; range, 18-71 yr). Corticosteroid-containing regimens improved skin symptoms in 5 (42%) of 12 cases but were ineffective in the treatment of associated aplastic anemia in all but 1 case. Aplastic anemia was profound in 13 cases (57%) and was the cause of death in 8 cases (35%). Only 5 patients (22%) achieved long-term remission (allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: n = 2; cyclosporine-containing regimen: n = 2; high-dose corticosteroid-based regimen: n = 1). PMID:23429351

de Masson, Adèle; Bouaziz, Jean-David; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Benhamou, Ygal; Moluçon-Chabrot, Cécile; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Laquerrière, Annie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Michonneau, David; Leguy-Seguin, Vanessa; Rybojad, Michel; Bonnotte, Bernard; Jardin, Fabrice; Lévesque, Hervé; Bagot, Martine; Socié, Gérard

2013-03-01

330

Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling 3 Expression in Eosinophils: Regulation by PGE2 and Th2 Cytokines  

PubMed Central

Asthma and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) are respiratory disorders characterized by a predominance of Th2 cells and eosinophilic inflammation. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play an important role in Th2-mediated allergic responses through control of the balance between Th1 and Th2 cells, particularly, SOCS3 and SOCS5. The aim of this study was to analyze SOCS expression in human peripheral blood eosinophils from patients with asthma, NAEB and healthy controls. SOCS expression in eosinophils from subjects was demonstrated by different techniques. Results showed that expression of SOCS3 in eosinophils and CD4 T cells from patients was higher than in healthy subjects. In addition, we demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and Th2 cytokines are able to upregulate SOCS3 production in eosinophils and attenuate its degranulation. In conclusion, eosinophils are able to transcribe and translate SOCS3 protein and can contribute to the regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance through SOCS3 production.

Lopez, Esther; Zafra, Maria Paz; Sastre, Beatriz; Gamez, Cristina; Fernandez-Nieto, Mar; Sastre, Joaquin; Lahoz, Carlos; Quirce, Santiago; Del Pozo, Victoria

2011-01-01

331

The effect of ablation of eosinophils on immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions.  

PubMed Central

The effect of ablation of eosinophils on hypersensitivity reactions in guinea-pigs was tested by administration of rabbit antiserum to the eosinophil (AES) and by administration of glucocorticoids. Both AES and methylprednisolone ablated eosinophils from the blood and peritoneal cavity of test animals. Neither administration of AES nor methylprednisolone, however, altered passive cutaneous or systemic anaphylactic reactions when compared to reactions occurring in control animals treated with normal rabbit serum (NRS). Also there was no consistent effect of AES on the intensity of the Arthus reaction. The effect of ablation of eosinophils on histamine release in the passively sensitized peritoneal cavity of the guinea-pig was also tested. In five experiments a significant reduction in histamine release was seen in AES-treated animals. Ablation of eosinophils by cortisone acetate also resulted in a marked reduction in the quantity of histamine released into the peritoneal cavity following passive sensitization and antigen challenge. Histamine release following intraperitoneal injection of compound 48/80 was not affected by either the prior administration of AES or cortisone acetate, suggesting that the stores of histamine were not depleted by these agents. Overall these results suggest that eosinophils do not play a prominent role in initial expression of immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions where the density of these cells in tissues is low. When present in larger numbers, however, eosinophils may contribute to histamine release in immediate-type reactions.

Gleich, G J; Olson, G M; Loegering, D A

1979-01-01

332

Stimulation of equine eosinophil migration by hydroxyacid metabolites of arachidonic acid.  

PubMed Central

Lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid are important mediators of inflammation, affecting several aspects of cell function. Monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (mono-HETE) and 5,12-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (LTB4) enhance migration of both neutrophils and eosinophils in several species. The relative ability of positional isomers of HETE and of LTB4 to affect migration of equine eosinophils was studied. The 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 15 isomers of HETE were prepared by autooxidation of arachidonic acid, separated by sequential normal phase and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, and their identities verified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Equine eosinophils were isolated to 30-70% purity on discontinuous metrizamide gradients. All isomers of HETE stimulated directed migration (chemotaxis) at concentrations ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-8) M. The relative activities of isomers were 11 greater than 9 = 8 = 5 greater than 12 greater than 15. The dihydroxy acid LTB4 maximally stimulated chemotaxis of equine eosinophils at a concentration of 3 X 10(-7) M. The eosinophil migration that resulted was less than the maximal stimulation observed in response to isomers of HETE. The results of our study suggest that equine eosinophils are excellent indicator cells for assay of arachidonic acid metabolites with chemotactic activity. Equine eosinophils are more sensitive to chemotactic stimulation by HETEs than cells from other animal species but are far less sensitive to stimulation by LTB4.

Potter, K. A.; Leid, R. W.; Kolattukudy, P. E.; Espelie, K. E.

1985-01-01

333

Expression of P-selectin at low site density promotes selective attachment of eosinophils over neutrophils.  

PubMed

The selective interaction of neutrophils with E-selectin and eosinophils with P-selectin has been previously reported, but the relevance of selectin site density and fluid shear has not been studied in detail. We have developed a new approach to examine these interactions in cell suspensions that integrates an on-line cone-plate viscometer with a flow cytometer. We find that eosinophils and neutrophils both use P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 to form stable conjugates with P-selectin Chinese hamster ovary cell transfectants, with a preferential adhesion of eosinophils. Further, the difference in cell adhesion between neutrophils and eosinophils is magnified at P-selectin expression levels below approximately 20 sites/microm2, a range likely to be relevant to endothelial cell expression levels in conditions associated with eosinophilia. The unique behavior is retained over shear rates ranging from 100 to 1500/s but is magnified at low shear. Results from parallel-plate flow chamber assays suggest that preferential eosinophil adhesion reflects an enhanced efficiency of initial PSGL-1 bond formation with P-selectin rather than a unique ability of eosinophils to mediate rolling interactions of longer duration on low-density P-selectin substrates. These differences may account in part for the increase in eosinophil accumulation in allergic diseases. PMID:10861078

Edwards, B S; Curry, M S; Tsuji, H; Brown, D; Larson, R S; Sklar, L A

2000-07-01

334

Workshop Report from the NIH Taskforce on the Research Needs of Eosinophil-Associated Diseases (TREAD)  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophils are blood cells that are often found in high numbers in the tissues of allergic conditions and helminthic parasite infections. The pathophysiological roles that eosinophils may serve in other human ‘eosinophil-associated’ diseases remain obscure. Objective NIH Institutes and the Office of Disease Prevention assembled an international taskforce of clinical and basic scientists with the charge to propose and prioritize unmet research needs in eosinophil-associated diseases. Methods The taskforce used an organ system approach to dissect out the different and common themes of eosinophil cell involvement in these diseases. In early 2012, a draft document was circulated for review. The document was amended and the prioritizations were set at a NIH-organized workshop in June 2012. Results The taskforce identified significant research needs. These needs cross disease entities but some are disease-specific. There are substantial shortcomings to the various preclinical animal models, as well as significant gaps in our epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic knowledge. The taskforce recognized that recent efforts by patient advocacy groups have played instrumental roles in improving the identification and characterization of these disorders. However, communication amongst the eosinophil interested communities, e.g., governmental funding and regulatory agencies, and industry and clinician scientists need to be more comprehensive. Conclusions Significant efforts are required to address our knowledge gaps in order to improve the outcomes of eosinophil-associated diseases. NIH Institutes, other federal agencies, lay organizations and the pharmaceutical industry should consider the taskforce’s recommendations in their future research activities.

Bochner, Bruce S.; Book, Wendy; Busse, William W.; Butterfield, Joseph; Furuta, Glenn T.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Klion, Amy D.; Lee, James J.; Leiferman, Kristin M.; Minnicozzi, Michael; Moqbel, Redwan; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Wechsler, Michael E.; Weller, Peter F.

2012-01-01

335

[Eosinophilic pleural effusion possibly induced by fibrin sealant].  

PubMed

A 74-year-old man underwent right upper lobectomy for the lung cancer and bullectomy of right lower lobe. Fibrin sealant was used for sealing the excision line. The increase of the pleural effusion with increasing C-reactive protein( CRP) and eosinophilia was noted at the 17th day after the operation. The pleural effusion was transparent and yellowish colored suggesting transudatory liquid. The eosinophil in the pleural effusion was as high as 14%. The drainage of the pleural effusion was performed for 2 days resulting in disappearing the abnormal accumulation without any additional treatment. The cause of pleural effusion was supposed to be fibrin sealant by a positive result of the drug lymphocyte stimulation test. PMID:22314171

Kambayashi, Takatoyo; Suzuki, Takashi

2012-02-01

336

Eosinophilic abscesses: a new facet of hepatic visceral larva migrans.  

PubMed

Hepatic visceral larva migrans (VLM) refers to a condition characterized by granulomatous liver lesions containing eosinophils and inflammatory cells associated with migration of second-stage larvae of certain nematodes such as toxocara canis. The typical imaging findings described in the literature include small, ill-defined, oval or elongated, low-attenuating nodules with fuzzy margins, non-spherical shape, and absent or insignificant rim enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT scan. The present series in contrast depicts a new imaging manifestation of hepatic VLM presenting as confluent and clustered complex cystic liver lesions. Pre-treatment imaging studies including contrast-enhanced CT/MRI of three patients are presented. One of the patients underwent liver resection while post-treatment follow-up scan at 6 months in the remaining two displayed regression of the lesions with antihelminthic treatment. PMID:22801750

Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur; Patidar, Yashwant; Mangla, Vivek; Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Sarin, Shiv K

2013-08-01

337

Psychological impact of eosinophilic esophagitis on children and families.  

PubMed

Because eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has only recently been recognized and described, systematic research regarding the natural history of the disease and the short- and long-term effects of treatment is in its infancy. Clinical experience indicates that disease symptoms and treatments can have profound effects on the quality of life of affected children and their families. The responses of children and adolescents are variable, and are dependent on developmental level, temperament, and pre-existing psychological adjustment. Although parents of chronically ill children typically experience increased burden and stress, it is possible that the uncertainties currently associated with EoE contribute to even higher levels of anxiety. Research studies are needed to investigate the impact of EoE symptoms and of current treatments on quality of life and psychological adjustment in children and their families. PMID:19141345

Klinnert, Mary D

2009-02-01

338

Mitochondria in eosinophils: Functional role in apoptosis but not respiration  

PubMed Central

In most eukaryotic cells, mitochondria use the respiratory chain to produce a proton gradient, which is then harnessed for the synthesis of ATP. Recently, mitochondrial roles in regulation of apoptosis have been discovered in many cell types. Eosinophils (Eos) die by apoptosis, but the presence and function of mitochondria in Eos are unknown. This study found that Eos contain mitochondria in small numbers, as shown by labeling with membrane potential-sensitive dyes and in situ PCR for a mitochondrial gene. Eos generate mitochondrial membrane potential from hydrolysis of ATP rather than from respiration, as shown by mitochondrial respiratory inhibitors and mitochondrial uncouplers. The mitochondria provide insignificant respiration but can induce apoptosis, as shown by using the mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase inhibitor oligomycin and translocation of cytochrome c. Thus during differentiation of Eos, although respiration is lost, the other central role of mitochondria, the induction of apoptosis, is retained.

Peachman, Kristina K.; Lyles, Douglas S.; Bass, David A.

2001-01-01

339

Eosinophilic pneumonia associated with concomitant cigarette and marijuana smoking.  

PubMed

A 29-year-old Caucasian man presented for the evaluation of a new onset of shortness of breath associated with cough and wheeze for 1 day. The history was significant for a recent travel of 20 h duration to Houston, a new onset of cigarette smoking for 2 weeks and marijuana smoking. The patient was afebrile and did not have any leg swelling; initial diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia was made and the patient was started on antibiotics. Despite being on antibiotics, his medical condition continued to deteriorate and extensive diagnostic workup for infectious and autoimmune aetiology including bronchoalveolar lavage was completed and was inconclusive. Ultimately, the patient underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy which led to the diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Steroids were started with a good treatment response. The patient was discharged on a tapering dose of steroids; a follow-up chest x ray at 6 weeks was within normal limits. PMID:23645642

Natarajan, Aparna; Shah, Payal; Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Hussain, Nasir

2013-05-02

340

Different Sarcocystis spp. are present in bovine eosinophilic myositis.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that Sarcocystis species are associated with bovine eosinophilic myositis (BEM). To date, parasite identification in this myopathy has been based on morphological techniques. The aim of the present study was to use molecular techniques to identify Sarcocystis species inside lesions of BEM. Histologically, BEM lesions of 97 condemned carcasses were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis species. Intralesional and extralesional cysts were collected using laser capture microdissection and the species was determined with a PCR-based technique based on 18S rDNA. Intralesional sarcocysts or remnants were found in BEM lesions in 28% of the carcasses. The majority (82%) of intralesional Sarcocystis species were found to be S. hominis. However S. cruzi and S. hirsuta were also found, as well as an unidentified species. It can be concluded that Sarcocystis species present in lesions of BEM are not restricted to one species. PMID:23870431

Vangeel, Lieve; Houf, Kurt; Geldhof, Peter; De Preter, Katleen; Vercruysse, Jozef; Ducatelle, Richard; Chiers, Koen

2013-06-10

341

Routine screening for eosinophilic esophagitis in patients presenting with dysphagia  

PubMed Central

Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic disorder first described in 1978 which has gained significant recognition over the past 10 years. Numerous prevalence studies have been performed around the globe, both in pediatric and adult populations documenting a prevalence between 0.002% and 6.5%. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of routinely screening for EoE in patients with dysphagia. Methods: A prospective, observational study in which adult patients with a complaint of esophageal dysphagia were enrolled. Results: Of the 135 patients enrolled, 122 completed the study; 100 patients had nonobstructive dysphagia, while 22 patients had a luminal finding which could explain their dysphagia. The prevalence of EoE in the nonobstructive dysphagia group was 22% (95% CI: 13.9–30.1%); 32.7% of male patients with nonobstructive dysphagia were found to have EoE compared with 8.9% of females (p?=?0.004). The mean age of nonobstructive patients found to have EoE was 37.8 years. White patients with nonobstructive dysphagia were found to have a 25.9% prevalence of EoE, compared with 0% of African Americans, 0% of Asians, and 14.3% of Hispanics. When comparing Whites with non-Whites, the prevalence of EoE was noted to be 25.9% versus 5.3%, respectively (p?=?0.050). Conclusions: EoE is a common cause of nonobstructive dysphagia. We believe that the high prevalence of EoE in patients with nonobstructive dysphagia supports the practice of routine biopsies to screen for the presence of abnormally high numbers of eosinophils in this subgroup.

Ricker, Jonathan; McNear, Scott; Cassidy, Timothy; Plott, Eric; Arnold, Hays; Kendall, Brian; Franklin, Kevin

2011-01-01

342

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)  

MedlinePLUS

... greater risk of AML. Smoking. AML is linked to cigarette smoke, which contains benzene and other known cancer- ... myelogenous leukemia (AML) Guidelines for sites linking to MayoClinic.com Advertisement Mayo Clinic Store Check out these best-sellers ...

343

Demonstration of urinary eosinophils in Schistosoma haematobium: a comparative study among three different stains.  

PubMed

Three stains, Hansel's stain, alkaline erythrocin B (AEB) and naphthalene black (NB), were used to demonstrate eosinophils in the urine of patients infected with Schistosoma haematobium. Hansel's stain was superior to the other two stains; it stained eosinophils bright red and their nuclei faint blue, and they were easily differentiated from neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and epithelial cells. The method using AEB took longer than Hansel's stain and 10% of the specimens were lost during staining with this method. Like eosinophils, the neutrophils took up NB stain and their nuclei stained poorly with the counterstain. PMID:7687881

Eltoum, I A; Suliaman, S M; Ismail, B M; Ali, M M; Homeida, M M

1993-05-01

344

Enhanced therapeutic response with addition of loratadine in subserosal eosinophilic gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

A case of a 45-year-old Caucasian male initially reported with symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction was presented. Diagnostic tests revealed presence of eosinophilic ascites with marked peripheral eosinophilia, a signiicant thickening of stomach and intestinal wall and iniltration of gastric and duodenal mucosa with eosinophiles. Findings were conclusive with subserosal type of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and the patient's treatment started with a combination of parenteral methylprednisolone and oral loratadine. A prompt clinical response was encountered after 5 days of treatment with complete resolution. PMID:23348189

N Salki?, Nermin; Mustedanagi?-Mujanovi?, Jasminka; Jovanovi?, Predrag; Alibegovi?, Ervin

2013-02-01

345

Urinary Eosinophil Protein X in Childhood Asthma: Relation with Changes in Disease Control and Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations between uEPX and other markers of asthma control and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Methods. We measured uEPX at baseline, after 1?year and after 2?years in 205 atopic asthmatic children using inhaled fluticasone. At the same time points, we assessed symptom scores (2 weeks diary card), lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and percentage eosinophils in induced sputum (% eos). Results. We found negative correlations between uEPX and FEV1 at baseline (r = ?0.18, P = 0.01), after 1 year (r = ?0.25, P < 0.01) and after 2 years (r = ?0.21, P = 0.02). Within-patient changes of uEPX showed a negative association with FEV1 changes (at 1?year: r = ?0.24, P = 0.01; at 2?years: r = ?0.21, P = 0.03). Within-patient changes from baseline of uEPX correlated with changes in % eos. No relations were found between uEPX and symptoms. Conclusion. In this population of children with atopic asthma, uEPX correlated with FEV1 and % eos, and within-subjects changes in uEPX correlated with changes in FEV1 and % eos. As the associations were weak and the scatter of uEPX wide, it seems unlikely that uEPX will be useful as a biomarker for monitoring asthma control in the individual child.

Nuijsink, Marianne; Hop, Wim C. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Duiverman, Eric J.; De Jongste, Johan C.

2013-01-01

346

Acute myeloid leukemia: leukemia stem cells write a prognostic signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent interesting article, analysis of gene expression between phenotypically defined acute myeloid leukemia (AML) leukemia\\u000a stem cells (LSCs) and more mature leukemia progenitor cells is used to generate a differentially expressed gene signature\\u000a for LSCs. Through clever bioinformatic weighting analysis, the authors describe a method to convert this signature into a\\u000a single score for any given sample and

Emma J Gudgin; Brian JP Huntly

2011-01-01

347

Treatment of Children with Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... with acute myeloid leukemia Treatment of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia The main treatment for children with acute lymphocytic ... may be increased or prolonged. Treatment of recurrent ALL If the leukemia comes back during or after ...

348

Imatinib Mesylate and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2013-01-22

349

[Eosinophilic esophagitis due to allergy to sheep and goat milk proteins].  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by the presence of high numbers of eosinophils in the esophageal mucosal layer (> 20 high-power field). It is uncommon in adults but in such cases intermittent dysphagia and food impaction are the most common presenting symptoms. We report the case of a male with long-standing intermittent dysphagia after eating selected goat and sheep cheese types, who required medical help following the impaction of an ibuprofen pill in the esophagus. A biopsy demonstrated the presence of eosinophilic inflammation, and allergy testing showed specific IgE against proteins in the milk of goats and sheep. Topical steroid therapy with oral fluticasone, and the elimination of these dairy products from the diet induced complete symptom resolution, and biopsy specimens taken 4 months later showed no eosinophils. PMID:18358063

Armisén, M; Vidal, C; López-Rosés, L; Rodríguez, V; Bartolomé, B

2008-01-01

350

Management of acute promyelocytic leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has become the most potentially curable subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adults.\\u000a With current treatment strategies that incorporate all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), long-term disease-free survival and potential\\u000a cure rates of 70% to 80% can be expected. Such progress reflects what can be accomplished with insights into the molecular\\u000a pathogenesis of leukemia, identification of a

Martin S. Tallman; Chadi Nabhan

2002-01-01

351

Leukemia and radium groundwater contamination  

SciTech Connect

In the August 2, 1985, issue of JAMMA, Lyman et al claim to have shown an association between leukemia incidence in Florida and radium in groundwater supplies. Although cautious in their conclusions, the authors imply that this excess in leukemia was in fact caused by radiation. The authors believe they have not presented a convincing argument for causation. The radiation doses at these levels of exposure could account for only a tiny fraction of the leukemia excess.

Tracy, B.L.; Letourneau, E.G.

1986-06-27

352

Flow cytometry in acute leukemia.  

PubMed

Immunophenotyping of acute leukemia is one of the most important clinical application of Flow cytometery. The aim of this work is to review recent advances in flow cytometery methods, quality control, troubleshooting and its prevention and data analysis of acute leukemia. Multiparameter flow cytometery is a useful adjunct to morphology and cytochemistry and it is an invaluable tool in the diagnosis of acute leukemia. PMID:23100953

Saxena, Renu; Anand, Hema

2009-01-11

353

Accumulation of eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils in the spleen in anaphylactic deaths.  

PubMed

Death in anaphylactic shock cannot be diagnosed by autopsy alone. Morphological diagnosis of anaphylactic death by counting mast cells in the lung and airways have failed to give consistent results. Previously it has been observed that eosinophils seem to accumulate in the spleen in anaphylaxis. The purpose of this study was to investigate if it is possible to safely diagnose anaphylactic deaths by counting eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils in the spleen. In 43 forensic autopsy cases specific antibodies to mast cells, eosinophil-, and basophil granulocytes were used on sections from lung and splenic tissue. The cells were counted in 20 × 40 fields in a Leica photo-microscope. Presumed deaths in anaphylaxis were compared with sudden deaths after intravenous injection of opiates, and sudden cardiac deaths (control group). The main result was that significant (p < 0.05)increases of both eosinophil granulocytes (mean 26.6 ± 17.8/SD/)and mast cells (3.2 ± 2.0/SD/) versus controls (eosinophils mean 7.0 ± 10.5 and mast cells mean 0.9 ± 1.1) were seen in splenic tissue in anaphylactic deaths. Comparing cases with high and low concentrations of mast cell tryptase in serum showed a similar increase in eosinophils and mast cells in the spleen in cases with elevated tryptase, but not in the lung. The numbers of pulmonary mast cells and eosinophils were not different in anaphylactic deaths compared with controls. It is concluded that by quantifying eosinophil granulocytes and mast cells in the spleen in combination with tryptase measurements in serum it is possible to diagnose anaphylaxis with a high degree of certainty. PMID:23839665

Edston, Erik

2013-07-10

354

Detection and quantitation of eosinophils in the murine respiratory tract by flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the identification and quantification of eosinophils in inflammatory tissues and exudates has been primarily based upon morphologic criteria and manual counting. In this study, we describe a new flow cytometry-based assay to enumerate eosinophils present in murine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung parenchyma obtained from the normal\\/non-inflamed respiratory tract, following experimentally-induced allergic pulmonary inflammation, and during experimental infection

Whitney W. Stevens; Taeg S. Kim; Lindsey M. Pujanauski; Xueli Hao; Thomas J. Braciale

2007-01-01

355

Elemental diet is an effective treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveEosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa, has been defined in large part through published case reports and series leading to ambiguity in both diagnostic and treatment options. Corticosteroids, cromolyn, and elemental diet have all been reported as successful treatments for EoE. In this study, we sought to accurately define a population of patients

Jonathan E Markowitz; Jonathan M Spergel; Eduardo Ruchelli; Chris A Liacouras

2003-01-01

356

Elemental Diet Is an Effective Treatment for Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa, has been defined in large part through published case reports and series leading to ambiguity in both diagnostic and treatment options. Corticosteroids, cromolyn, and elemental diet have all been reported as successful treatments for EoE. In this study, we sought to accurately define a population of patients

Jonathan E. Markowitz; Jonathan M. Spergel; Eduardo Ruchelli; Chris A. Liacouras

2003-01-01

357

Human eosinophils regulate T-cell functions through induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleIndoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan catabolism, is inducible by IFN?, resulting in kynurenine production, which inhibits proliferation and induce apoptosis of Th1 cells; an important mechanism of inhibition of T-cell function by regulatory dendritic cells. Eosinophils increase during allergen challenge and may interact with T-cells. We hypothesize that the eosinophil-derived IDO plays an immunomodulatory role in the

S. O. Odemuyiwa; A. G. Ghahary; L. Puttagunta; Y. Li; A. Ghahary; R. Moqbel

2004-01-01

358

High-affinity IgE receptor on eosinophils is involved in defence against parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

PARASITIC infections are often associated with eosinophilia and high levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE). This observation has led to speculation that eosinophils and IgE may act together in the immune response against parasites. In support of this hypothesis, IgE and eosinophils participate in cytotoxic reactions directed against Schistosoma mansoni larvae in vitro 1,2. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown an inverse

Abdelillah Soussi Gounni; Bouchaïb Lamkhioued; Kenichi Ochiai; Yoïchi Tanaka; Emmanuel Delaporte; André Capron; Jean-Pierre Kinet; Monique Capron

1994-01-01

359

Eosinophilic Cellulitis (Wells’ Syndrome): Ultrastructural Study of a Case with Circulating Immune Complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 42-year-old woman was observed during 3 bouts of eosinophilic cellulitis over a 6-year-period. Skin biopsies were taken at each relapse and processed for histological, immunofluorescent and ultrastructural studies. Histologically the eosinophilic infiltrate extended to the deep dermis and the subcutaneous fat. High levels of circulating immune complexes, and complement and IgG deposits around the vessels were detected for as

M. C. Ferrier; A. Janin-Mercier; P. Souteyrand; M. Bourges; C. Hermier

1988-01-01

360

IL5- and eosinophil-mediated inflammation: from discovery to therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-5 was originally defined as a T-cell-derived cytokine that triggers activated B cells for terminal differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells, at least in mice. Concurrently, IL-5 was recognized as the major maturation and differentiation factor for eosinophils in mice and humans. Over-expression of IL-5 significantly increases eosinophil numbers and antibody levels in vivo. Conversely, mice lacking a functional gene for

Taku Kouro; Kiyoshi Takatsu

2009-01-01

361

Eosinophilic pleural effusion and giardiasis: A causal or a casual relationship?  

PubMed

A case of bilateral eosinophilic pleural effusion with coincidental intestinal infestation of giardia lamblia is being reported. After reviewing the possible causes of this type of pleural effusion, no clinical or laboratory data were obtained which could explain this condition except giardiasis. Moreover the clearance of pleural effusion with the treatment of giardia with metronidazole suggests giardia as the probable cause of bilateral eosinophilic pleural effusion. PMID:23661922

Singh, Urvinderpal; Garg, Nishi; Chopra, Vishal

2013-01-01

362

CD34 Is Required for Infiltration of Eosinophils into the Colon and Pathology Associated with DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil migration into the gut and the release of granular mediators plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis. We recently demonstrated that eosinophil migration into the lung requires cell surface expression of the sialomucin CD34 on mast cells and eosinophils in an asthma model. Based on these findings, we investigated a similar role for CD34 in the migration of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells into the colon as well as explored the effects of CD34 ablation on disease development in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced model of ulcerative colitis. Our findings demonstrate decreased disease severity in dextran sulfate sodium-treated Cd34?/? mice, as assessed by weight loss, diarrhea, bleeding, colon shortening and tissue pathology, compared with wild-type controls. CD34 was predominantly expressed on eosinophils within inflamed colon tissues, and Cd34?/? animals exhibited drastically reduced colon eosinophil infiltration. Using chimeric animals, we demonstrated that decreased disease pathology resulted from loss of CD34 from bone marrow-derived cells and that eosinophilia in Cd34?/?IL5Tg animals was sufficient to overcome protection from disease. In addition, we demonstrated a decrease in peripheral blood eosinophil numbers following dextran sulfate sodium treatment. These findings demonstrate that CD34 was expressed on colon-infiltrating eosinophils and played a role in eosinophil migration. Further, our findings suggest CD34 is required for efficient eosinophil migration, but not proliferation or expansion, in the development of ulcerative colitis.

Maltby, Steven; Wohlfarth, Carolin; Gold, Matthew; Zbytnuik, Lori; Hughes, Michael R.; McNagny, Kelly M.

2010-01-01

363

Parental smoking and childhood leukemia.  

PubMed

Childhood leukemia is the most common cancer among children, representing 31% of all cancer cases occurring in children younger than the age of 15 years in the USA. There are only few known risk factors of childhood leukemia (sex, age, race, exposure to ionizing radiation, and certain congenital diseases, such as Down syndrome and neurofibromatosis), which account for only 10% of the childhood leukemia cases. Several lines of evidence suggest that childhood leukemia may be more due to environmental rather than genetic factors, although genes may play modifying roles. Human and animal studies showed that the development of childhood leukemia is a two-step process that requires a prenatal initiating event(s) plus a postnatal promoting event(s). Despite a substantial public health effort to reduce cigarette smoking, a large proportion of the US and world population still smoke. Tobacco smoke contains at least 60 known human or animal carcinogens, with the major chemical classes being volatile hydrocarbons, aldehydes, aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and nitrosamines; among these chemicals, only benzene is an established leukemogen, although other chemicals in the tobacco could interact with one another in a complex way to jointly attain a significant carcinogenic effect on the development of leukemia. Although tobacco smoke is an established risk factor for adult myeloid leukemia, the studies of association between parental smoking and childhood leukemia have produced inconsistent results. The majority of the studies on maternal smoking and childhood leukemia did not find a significant positive association and some even reported an inverse association. In contrast to studies of maternal smoking, studies of paternal smoking and childhood leukemia reported more positive associations but only by less than half of the studies. Future directions to be considered for improving the study of parental smoking and childhood leukemia are: 1) consider all sources of benzene exposure in addition to smoking, including occupational exposure and traffic exhausts; 2) childhood leukemia is a heterogeneous disease and epidemiologic studies of childhood leukemia can be greatly improved by grouping childhood leukemia into more homogeneous groups by molecular techniques (e.g., structural and numerical chromosomal changes); and 3) assess gene-environment interaction. It is hoped that through the continual effort, more will be uncovered regarding the causes of childhood leukemia. In the meantime, more effort should be spent on educating the parents to quit smoking, because parental smoking is known to affect many childhood diseases (e.g., asthma, respiratory tract infection, and otitis media) that are much more prevalent than childhood leukemia. PMID:19107431

Chang, Jeffrey S

2009-01-01

364

Activation of human eosinophils through leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 7.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are implicated prominently in allergic diseases and the host response to parasitic infections. Eosinophils may be activated in vitro by diverse classes of agonists such as immunoglobulins, lipid mediators, and cytokines. The leukocyte Ig-like receptors (LIRs) comprise a family of inhibitory and activating cell-surface receptors. Inhibitory LIRs down-regulate cellular responses through cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. There are limited data on the action of the activating LIRs, which are thought to signal through the Fc receptor gamma chain, which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. We now demonstrate the expression of LIR1 (inhibitory), LIR2 (inhibitory), LIR3 (inhibitory), and LIR7 (activating) on eosinophils from 4, 4, 12, and 11, respectively, of 12 healthy donors. Cross-linking of LIR7 with plate-bound antibody elicited the dose- and time-dependent release of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and leukotriene C(4). Eosinophils activated with antibodies to LIR7 embedded in gel-phase EliCell preparations showed leukotriene C(4) generation at the nuclear envelope and the release of IL-12 but not IL-4 by vesicular transport. Thus, LIR7 is an activating receptor for eosinophils that elicited the release of cytotoxic granule proteins, de novo lipid mediator generation, and cytokine release through vesicular transport. PMID:12529506

Tedla, Nicodemus; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Tassinari, Paolo; Sloane, David E; Samplaski, Mary; Cosman, David; Borges, Luis; Weller, Peter F; Arm, Jonathan P

2003-01-14

365

Eosinophilic myocarditis in CBA/J mice infected with Toxocara canis.  

PubMed Central

In humans, chronic eosinophilia has been associated clinically with endomyocardial fibrosis and myocardial damage. Mice infected with Toxocara canis have a marked eosinophilia, and develop eosinophil-rich granulomatous lesions in the soft tissues of the body, especially the lungs, liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. Few reports have described myocardial lesions associated with T. canis infections in mice. We examined the hearts of CBA/J mice killed at weekly intervals over an 8-week period for evidence of myocardial damage that might be attributable to eosinophils. Total white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were obtained during this period, and revealed a peak white blood cell count of approximately 28,000 cells/mm3 at day 7 after infection and a peak eosinophil count of approximately 4,000 cells/mm3 at day 14 after infection. Myocardial lesions in the ventricular wall began as focal infiltrates of eosinophils and histiocytes, then progressed into granulomata containing necrotic debris. Collagen deposition was noted by day 21 after infection. By day 42 after infection, the lesions had contracted greatly because of a loss of cellularity, and consisted mainly of fibroblasts and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Myocyte damage, characterized by increased eosinophilia and necrosis, was observed. T. canis-infected CBA/J mice thus offer a useful model to study eosinophil-dependent myocardial damage. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8

Cookston, M.; Stober, M.; Kayes, S. G.

1990-01-01

366

Eosinophilic myocarditis in CBA/J mice infected with Toxocara canis.  

PubMed

In humans, chronic eosinophilia has been associated clinically with endomyocardial fibrosis and myocardial damage. Mice infected with Toxocara canis have a marked eosinophilia, and develop eosinophil-rich granulomatous lesions in the soft tissues of the body, especially the lungs, liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. Few reports have described myocardial lesions associated with T. canis infections in mice. We examined the hearts of CBA/J mice killed at weekly intervals over an 8-week period for evidence of myocardial damage that might be attributable to eosinophils. Total white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were obtained during this period, and revealed a peak white blood cell count of approximately 28,000 cells/mm3 at day 7 after infection and a peak eosinophil count of approximately 4,000 cells/mm3 at day 14 after infection. Myocardial lesions in the ventricular wall began as focal infiltrates of eosinophils and histiocytes, then progressed into granulomata containing necrotic debris. Collagen deposition was noted by day 21 after infection. By day 42 after infection, the lesions had contracted greatly because of a loss of cellularity, and consisted mainly of fibroblasts and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Myocyte damage, characterized by increased eosinophilia and necrosis, was observed. T. canis-infected CBA/J mice thus offer a useful model to study eosinophil-dependent myocardial damage. PMID:2349964

Cookston, M; Stober, M; Kayes, S G

1990-05-01

367

Activated Eosinophils in Association with Enteric Nerves in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Enteric neural dysfunction leads to increased mucous production and dysmotility in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Prior studies have shown that tissue eosinophilia is related to disease activity. We hypothesized that interactions between eosinophils and nerves contribute to neural dysfunction in IBD. Tissue from patients with intractable IBD, endoscopic biopsies from patients with steroid responsive IBD, both when active and quiescent, and control tissue were studied. Immunohistochemical studies showed that eosinophils localize to nerves in the mucosal layer of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) (p<0.001) and ulcerative colitis (UC), (p<0.01). Eosinophils localized to substance P and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunostained nerves. Real time PCR of laser capture micro-dissected enteric ganglia demonstrated Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) mRNA was increased 7-fold in UC (n?=?4), (p?=?0.03), and 10-fold in CD (n?=?3), (p?=?0.05). Compared with controls, eotaxin-3 (CCL-26) mRNA was increased 9-fold in UC (p?=?0.04) and 15-fold in CD (p?=?0.06). Eosinophil numbers correlated with disease activity, while deposition of major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil Transforming Growth Factor ? -1 (TGF?-1) expression were seen in therapeutically responsive disease. These data indicate a significant localization of eosinophils to nerves in IBD, mediated through neurally expressed ICAM-1 and eotaxin-3. This cell/neural interaction may influence the function of nerves and contribute to symptoms in IBD.

Smyth, Claire M.; Akasheh, Nadim; Woods, Sara; Kay, Elaine; Morgan, Ross K.; Thornton, Margaret A.; O'Grady, Anthony; Cummins, Robert; Sheils, Orla; Smyth, Peter; Gleich, Gerald J.; Murray, Frank M.; Costello, Richard W.

2013-01-01

368

Fatal Eosinophilic Myocarditis Develops in the Absence of IFN-? and IL-17A.  

PubMed

CD4(+) T cells play a central role in inflammatory heart disease, implicating a cytokine product associated with Th cell effector function as a necessary mediator of this pathophysiology. IFN-?-deficient mice developed severe experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), in which mice are immunized with cardiac myosin peptide, whereas IL-17A-deficient mice were protected from progression to dilated cardiomyopathy. We generated IFN-?(-/-)IL-17A(-/-) mice to assess whether IL-17 signaling was responsible for the severe EAM of IFN-?(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, IFN-?(-/-)IL-17A(-/-) mice developed a rapidly fatal EAM. Eosinophils constituted a third of infiltrating leukocytes, qualifying this disease as eosinophilic myocarditis. We found increased cardiac production of CCL11/eotaxin, as well as Th2 deviation, among heart-infiltrating CD4(+) cells. Ablation of eosinophil development improved survival of IFN-?(-/-)IL-17A(-/-) mice, demonstrating the necessity of eosinophils in fatal heart failure. The severe and rapidly fatal autoimmune inflammation that developed in the combined absence of IFN-? and IL-17A constitutes a novel model of eosinophilic heart disease in humans. This is also, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that eosinophils have the capacity to act as necessary mediators of morbidity in an autoimmune process. PMID:24048893

Barin, Jobert G; Baldeviano, G Christian; Talor, Monica V; Wu, Lei; Ong, Sufey; Fairweather, Delisa; Bedja, Djahida; Stickel, Natalie R; Fontes, Jillian A; Cardamone, Ashley B; Zheng, Dongfeng; Gabrielson, Kathleen L; Rose, Noel R; Ciháková, Daniela

2013-09-18

369

[Blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein in patients with allergic rhinitis. Evolution after treatment with corticoids].  

PubMed

We analyze changes in eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) serum levels after treatment with intranasal corticoids. Fifty-three healthy individuals (control group) and 21 patients diagnosed of allergic rhinitis, with or without bronchial asthma, were enrolled at a time when they had only nasal symptoms. Data were collected from skin Prick tests, forced spirometry, methacholine challenge, and complete blood workups, including IgE measurement, eosinophil counts and ECP serum levels determined by immunofluorescence. The patients received intranasal budesonide at a dose of 200 micrograms/24 h. ECP levels and eosinophil counts were determined before (baseline levels) and during treatment (on days 21 and 60). We found significant differences (p < 0.01) in baseline ECP levels of the controls (9.34 +/- 5.76) and patients (16.47 +/- 15.28). These values were significantly lower than baseline 21 and 60 days after treatment, although the changes between days 21 and 60 were not significant. Eosinophil counts did not fall significantly. We also found that eosinophil counts and ECP levels were correlated (r = 0.53) at baseline but not after treatment (r = 0.25). No patient experienced bronchial symptoms during the study. We conclude that ECP serum levels in patients with symptoms of rhinitis are significantly higher than levels in non symptomatic individuals. These levels fall significantly, possibly due to intranasal corticoid treatment, although eosinophil counts remain constant. ECP levels can therefore be used to monitor inflammatory activity in patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID:9072139

Alvarez Gutiérrez, F J; Valenzuela Mateos, F; Rodríguez Portal, J A; Sánchez Gil, R; Tabernero Huguet, E; Castillo Gómez, J

1997-01-01

370

Catapult-like release of mitochondrial DNA by eosinophils contributes to antibacterial defense.  

PubMed

Although eosinophils are considered useful in defense mechanisms against parasites, their exact function in innate immunity remains unclear. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of eosinophils within the gastrointestinal immune system. We show here that lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria activates interleukin-5 (IL-5)- or interferon-gamma-primed eosinophils to release mitochondrial DNA in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner, but independent of eosinophil death. Notably, the process of DNA release occurs rapidly in a catapult-like manner--in less than one second. In the extracellular space, the mitochondrial DNA and the granule proteins form extracellular structures able to bind and kill bacteria both in vitro and under inflammatory conditions in vivo. Moreover, after cecal ligation and puncture, Il5-transgenic but not wild-type mice show intestinal eosinophil infiltration and extracellular DNA deposition in association with protection against microbial sepsis. These data suggest a previously undescribed mechanism of eosinophil-mediated innate immune responses that might be crucial for maintaining the intestinal barrier function after inflammation-associated epithelial cell damage, preventing the host from uncontrolled invasion of bacteria. PMID:18690244

Yousefi, Shida; Gold, Jeffrey A; Andina, Nicola; Lee, James J; Kelly, Ann M; Kozlowski, Evelyne; Schmid, Inès; Straumann, Alex; Reichenbach, Janine; Gleich, Gerald J; Simon, Hans-Uwe

2008-09-01

371

IL-5- and eosinophil-mediated inflammation: from discovery to therapy.  

PubMed

IL-5 was originally defined as a T-cell-derived cytokine that triggers activated B cells for terminal differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells, at least in mice. Concurrently, IL-5 was recognized as the major maturation and differentiation factor for eosinophils in mice and humans. Over-expression of IL-5 significantly increases eosinophil numbers and antibody levels in vivo. Conversely, mice lacking a functional gene for IL-5 or the IL-5 receptor alpha chain (IL-5Ralpha) display a number of developmental and functional impairments in B-cell and eosinophil lineages. In addition to the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway, the tyrosine kinases Lyn and Btk (Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase) are involved, and Ras GTPase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK) signals are important for IL-5-dependent cell proliferation and survival. IL-5 critically regulates expression of genes involved in proliferation, cell survival and maturation and effector functions of B cells and eosinophils. Thus, IL-5 plays a pivotal role in innate and acquired immune responses and eosinophilia. In humans, the biologic effects of IL-5 are best characterized for eosinophils. The recent expansion in our understanding of the mechanisms of eosinophil development and activation in the context of IL-5 has led to advances in therapeutic options. A new therapy currently in clinical trials uses humanized mAbs against IL-5 or the IL-5R. PMID:19819937

Kouro, Taku; Takatsu, Kiyoshi

2009-10-09

372

Eosinophil as a Protective Cell in S. aureus Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Cell counts of leukocytes subpopulations are demonstrating to have an important value in predicting outcome in severe infections. We evaluated here the render of leukogram counts to predict outcome in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Data from patients admitted to the ICU of Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid from 2006 to 2011 with diagnosis of VAP caused by S. aureus were retrospectively collected for the study (n = 44). Leukocyte counts were collected at ICU admission and also at VAP diagnosis. Our results showed that nonsurvivors had significant lower eosinophil counts at VAP diagnosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis performed by the Wald test for forward selection showed that eosinophil increments from ICU admission to VAP diagnosis and total eosinophil counts at VAP diagnosis were protective factors against mortality in the first 28 days following diagnosis: (HR [CI 95%], P): (0.996 [0.993–0.999], 0.010); (0.370 [0.180–0.750], 0.006). Patients with eosinophil counts <30?cells/mm3 at diagnosis died earlier. Eosinophil counts identified survivors: (AUROC [CI 95%], P): (0.701 [0.519–0.882], 0.042). Eosinophil behaves as a protective cell in patients with VAP caused by S. aureus.

Rodriguez-Fernandez, Ana; Andaluz-Ojeda, David; Almansa, Raquel; Justel, Mar; Eiros, Jose Maria; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raul

2013-01-01

373

Activation of human eosinophils through leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 7  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are implicated prominently in allergic diseases and the host response to parasitic infections. Eosinophils may be activated in vitro by diverse classes of agonists such as immunoglobulins, lipid mediators, and cytokines. The leukocyte Ig-like receptors (LIRs) comprise a family of inhibitory and activating cell-surface receptors. Inhibitory LIRs down-regulate cellular responses through cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. There are limited data on the action of the activating LIRs, which are thought to signal through the Fc receptor ? chain, which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. We now demonstrate the expression of LIR1 (inhibitory), LIR2 (inhibitory), LIR3 (inhibitory), and LIR7 (activating) on eosinophils from 4, 4, 12, and 11, respectively, of 12 healthy donors. Cross-linking of LIR7 with plate-bound antibody elicited the dose- and time-dependent release of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and leukotriene C4. Eosinophils activated with antibodies to LIR7 embedded in gel-phase EliCell preparations showed leukotriene C4 generation at the nuclear envelope and the release of IL-12 but not IL-4 by vesicular transport. Thus, LIR7 is an activating receptor for eosinophils that elicited the release of cytotoxic granule proteins, de novo lipid mediator generation, and cytokine release through vesicular transport.

Tedla, Nicodemus; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Tassinari, Paolo; Sloane, David E.; Samplaski, Mary; Cosman, David; Borges, Luis; Weller, Peter F.; Arm, Jonathan P.

2003-01-01

374

Eosinophil extracellular DNA traps: molecular mechanisms and potential roles in disease.  

PubMed

Eosinophil extracellular traps (EETs) are part of the innate immune response and are seen in multiple infectious, allergic, and autoimmune eosinophilic diseases. EETs are composed of a meshwork of DNA fibers and eosinophil granule proteins, such as major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). Interestingly, the DNA within the EETs appears to have its origin in the mitochondria of eosinophils, which had released most their mitochondrial DNA, but were still viable, exhibiting no evidence of a reduced life span. Multiple eosinophil activation mechanisms are represented, whereby toll-like, cytokine, chemokine, and adhesion receptors can all initiate transmembrane signal transduction processes leading to the formation of EETs. One of the key signaling events required for DNA release is the activation of the NADPH oxidase. Here, we review recent progress made in the understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in DNA and granule protein release, discuss the presence of EETs in disease, speculate on their potential role(s) in pathogenesis, and compare available data on other DNA-releasing cells, particularly neutrophils. PMID:22981682

Yousefi, Shida; Simon, Dagmar; Simon, Hans-Uwe

2012-09-13

375

Prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in children with refractory aerodigestive symptoms.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an increasingly important diagnosis for children; it has a remarkable impact on their quality of life and can present with aerodigestive symptoms commonly evaluated by otolaryngologists. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the prevalence of EoE in children presenting to a pediatric aerodigestive clinic, to describe their presentation, and to review the role of subsequent food allergy evaluation and treatment. DESIGN Review of a prospective database. SETTING Tertiary pediatric multispecialty aerodigestive center. PATIENTS Children with aerodigestive symptoms refractory to medical treatment who underwent direct laryngoscopy with rigid or flexible bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy with or without pH probe study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Diagnosis of EoE. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2012, 376 of 1540 children seen in the center (mean [range] age, 4.54 [0-18.6] years; male to female ratio, 1.72:1) remained symptomatic despite medical therapy and thus underwent triple endoscopic evaluation. Of the 376 children, 14 (3.7%) were eventually diagnosed as having EoE, as defined by 15 or more eosinophils per high-power field on esophageal biopsy and either a negative pH study result or nonresponse to a trial of high-dose proton pump inhibitors. The subpopulation with EoE presented with airway symptoms and diagnoses, most commonly cough (n?=?6; 42.9%). Inflammatory subglottic stenosis due to EoE was identified in 1 patient. Of the 14 children with EoE, 6 presented with gastrointestinal symptomatology, most commonly choking or gagging. Subsequent treatment including food allergy challenge and elimination diet resulted in a clinical improvement in half of the cases identified. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This represents the largest multispecialty clinic epidemiologic study evaluating the prevalence of EoE in children presenting not strictly with gastrointestinal symptoms but rather with aerodigestive symptoms that are frequently evaluated by pediatric otolaryngologists. Although the prevalence is low, EoE should be considered for children with appropriate symptoms in whom other medical therapies fail. PMID:24051745

Hill, Courtney A; Ramakrishna, Jyoti; Fracchia, M Shannon; Sternberg, Daniel; Ojha, Shilpa; Infusino, Scott; Hartnick, Christopher J

2013-09-01

376

Neurologic Complications of Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukemia affects both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurological complications are a consequence of both direct\\u000a leukemic infiltration, as occurs with leukemic meningitis, and complications of either antileukemic treatment (e.g., thrombocytopenic\\u000a or DIC-related intracranial hemorrhage, steroid myopathy, vinca alkaloid peripheral neuropathy, posterior reversible encephalopathy\\u000a syndrome, multifocal necrotizing leuko-encephalopathy) or immune compromise (e.g., Herpes zoster shingles or Aspergillus infection).

Marc C. Chamberlain

377

Large granular lymphocyte leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonal diseases of large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) represent a spectrum of clinically rare lymphoproliferative malignancies\\u000a arising from either mature T-cell (CD3+) or natural killer (NK)-cell (CD3?) lineages. The clinical behavior of these disorders ranges from indolent to very aggressive. Patients with symptomatic indolent\\u000a T-cell or NK-cell LGL leukemia are usually treated with immunosuppressive therapies; in contrast, aggressive T-cell or NK-cell

Lubomir Sokol; Thomas P. Loughran

2007-01-01

378

Hairy cell leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pancytopenia and variable infiltration\\u000a of the reticuloendothelial system with “hairy” lymphocytes. HCL is more common in men than women and has a median age of diagnosis\\u000a of 52 yr. Typically, patients with HCL respond well to purine analog-based therapy. The purpose of this review will be to\\u000a establish

Ronan Swords; Francis Giles

2007-01-01

379

[Eosinophilic esophagogastroenteritis within the spectrum of food allergies].  

PubMed

Under normal conditions, the digestive tube immune system is capable of establishing an effective plan of tolerance to food that is eaten daily by the human beings. However, this tolerance plan sometimes fails and in the final steps of this immunological dysreaction, other cellular elements, usual residents of the digestive mucous, such as eosinophil granulocytes, generally participate, together with the main cells of this system. This is the case, among others, of the so-called EGE-Eos. The authors summarize the spectrum of pathogenic options of these immunological food intolerances that range from those in which "all" depend on a specific IgE (GI food anaphylaxis) and those others in which "nothing" depends on this reagin (celiac sprue). An intermediate position would be occupied by the EGE-Eos in which there seems to be overlapping of immune reactions of cellular character together with a certain role of the IgE. These pathogenic pathways frequently cross a tangle of cellular and molecular events that cannot be untangled with either an image or one thousand words. PMID:16750107

Sánchez-Fayos Calabuig, P; Martín Relloso, M J; Porres Cubero, J C

2006-05-01

380

Eosinophilic Digestive Disease (EDD) and Allergic Bronchial Asthma; Two Diseases or Expression of One Disease in Two Systems?  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic digestive disease (EDD) includes a broad spectrum of clinical presentations due to eosinophilic inflammation involving anywhere from the esophagus to the rectum. The heterogeneity in the clinical presentations of EDD is determined by the site and depth of eosinophilic infiltration. The sites of inflammation determine the nomenclature for EDD. The most well characterized of these, eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG), and eosinophilic colitis or enterocolitis. While the depth of esosinophilic infiltration through the three main layers (mucosa, musculosa and serosa) determines the prominent clinical manifestation. The recent advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy and the increasing awareness and diagnosis of EDD, in my viewpoint, can be of help to add to our understanding of the heterogeneous clinical syndrome under the broad title bronchial asthma. Here I present my viewpoint that EDD and the allergic bronchial asthma can be regarded as two clinical expressions of one disease in two different but related anatomical systems.

2011-01-01

381

Eosinophil viability is increased by acidic pH in a cAMP- and GPR65-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

The microenvironment of the lung in asthma is acidic, yet the effect of acidity on inflammatory cells has not been well established. We now demonstrate that acidity inhibits eosinophil apoptosis and increases cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner between pH 7.5 and 6.0. Notably, acidity induced eosinophil cyclic adenosine 5?-monophosphate (cAMP) production and enhanced cellular viability in an adenylate cyclase–dependent manner. Furthermore, we identify G protein-coupled receptor 65 (GPR65) as the chief acid-sensing receptor expressed by eosinophils, as GPR65-deficient eosinophils were resistant to acid-induced eosinophil cAMP production and enhanced viability. Notably, GPR65?/? mice had attenuated airway eosinophilia and increased apoptosis in 2 distinct models of allergic airway disease. We conclude that eosinophil viability is increased in acidic microenvironments in a cAMP- and GPR65-dependent manner.

Kottyan, Leah C.; Collier, Ann R.; Cao, Khanh H.; Niese, Kathryn A.; Hedgebeth, Megan; Radu, Caius G.; Witte, Owen N.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2009-01-01

382

Childhood leukemia in Woburn, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible associations between environmental hazards and the occurrence of childhood leukemia were investigated in Woburn, MA, for the period 1969-79. Residents of Woburn were concerned over what they perceived to be a large number of childhood leukemia cases; at the same time there was extensive publicity about uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in Woburn, which resulted in its being placed on

J. J. Cutler; G. S. Parker; S. Rosen; B. Prenney; R. Healey; G. G. Caldwell

1986-01-01

383

Detection of IL5 and IL1 receptor antagonist in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in acute eosinophilic pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is an idiopathic cause of respiratory failure, characterized by very high numbers of alveolar eosinophils without significant blood eosinophilia. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine which cytokines are associated with acute eosinophilic pneumonia. METHODS: Soluble IL-1 type II receptor and the cytokines IL-1?, IL-1ra, IL-3, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor-?

James N. Allen; Zhiming Liao; Mark D. Wewers; Elizabeth A. Altenberger; Sherri A. Moore; Elizabeth D. Allen

1996-01-01

384

IL-4 Engagement of the Type I IL-4 Receptor Complex Enhances Mouse Eosinophil Migration to Eotaxin-1 In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that IL-4R? expression on a myeloid cell type was responsible for enhancement of Th2-driven eosinophilic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. Subsequently, we have shown that IL-4 signaling through type I IL-4 receptors on monocytes/macrophages strongly induced activation of the IRS-2 pathway and a subset of genes characteristic of alternatively activated macrophages. The direct effect(s) of IL-4 and IL-13 on mouse eosinophils are not clear. The goal of this study was determine the effect of IL-4 and IL-13 on mouse eosinophil function. Methods Standard Transwell chemotaxis assay was used to assay migration of mouse eosinophils and signal transduction was assessed by Western blotting. Results Here we determined that (i) mouse eosinophils express both type I and type II IL-4 receptors, (ii) in contrast to human eosinophils, mouse eosinophils do not chemotax to IL-4 or IL-13 although (iii) pre-treatment with IL-4 but not IL-13 enhanced migration to eotaxin-1. This IL-4-mediated enhancement was dependent on type I IL-4 receptor expression: ?C-deficient eosinophils did not show enhancement of migratory capacity when pre-treated with IL-4. In addition, mouse eosinophils responded to IL-4 with the robust tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT6 and IRS-2, while IL-13-induced responses were considerably weaker. Conclusions The presence of IL-4 in combination with eotaxin-1 in the allergic inflammatory milieu could potentiate infiltration of eosinophils into the lungs. Therapies that block IL-4 and chemokine receptors on eosinophils might be more effective clinically in reducing eosinophilic lung inflammation.

Heller, Nicola M.; Gwinn, William M.; Donnelly, Raymond P.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Keegan, Achsah D.

2012-01-01

385

Radiation-induced leukemias in ankylosing spondylitis  

SciTech Connect

Three cases of leukemia occurred in patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated by radiotherapy. In each case, the leukemic process exhibited bizarre features suggesting that radiation is likely to induce atypical forms of leukemia possessing unusual attributes not shared by spontaneously developing leukemia. The likely distinctive aspects of radiation-induced leukemia are discussed.

Toolis, F. (Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, UK); Potter, B.; Allan, N.C.; Langlands, A.O.

1981-10-01

386

Interleukin-4 and RANTES expression in maturing eosinophils derived from human cord blood CD34+ progenitors  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils elaborate a number of proinflammatory mediators, including immunoregulatory cytokines and chemokines. Interleukin (IL)-4 and RANTES are important cytokines that have previously been shown to be expressed by mature eosinophils. We hypothesized that de novo synthesis of IL-4 and RANTES occurs in nascent eosinophils, leading to storage of newly produced proteins in crystalloid granule-like structures. Cytokine mRNA and protein expression were examined in cultured eosinophil colonies, which were derived from purified cord blood CD34+ cells and generated in semisolid media (methylcellulose) in the presence of recombinant human (rh)IL-3 and rhIL-5. Cytokine mRNA profiles were analysed by the reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) to determine transcription of IL-4 and RANTES in cells on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of culture. The expression of translated cytokine products and granule major basic protein (MBP) was confirmed, from day 23 onwards, for colonies cultured in semisolid media, by immunofluorescent labelling and confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM). We found that mRNA sequences encoding IL-4 and RANTES were expressed in freshly prepared, non-differentiated CD34+ cells. Furthermore, RANTES mRNA localized to carbol chromotrope 2R-positive colony cells, as assessed using in situ RT–PCR on day 21 of culture in semisolid media, and was found to gradually decrease (relative to ?2-microglobulin) in rhIL-3- and rhIL-5-treated colony cells (comprising > 90% eosinophil-like cells) up to day 28. Immunoreactivity for IL-4 and RANTES co-localized with MBP in maturing colony eosinophils on day 23 of culture in semisolid media, as judged by CLSM. These results suggest that synthesis and storage of immunoregulatory cytokines, essential for processes associated with adaptive immunity, occurs in nascent eosinophils during their growth and differentiation.

Velazquez, J R; Lacy, P; Mahmudi-Azer, S; Bablitz, B; Milne, C D; Denburg, J A; Moqbel, R

2000-01-01

387

Regulation of Arachidonate Remodeling Enzymes Impacts Eosinophil Survival during Allergic Asthma  

PubMed Central

Although the role of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism to eicosanoids has been well established in allergy and asthma, recent studies in neoplastic cells have revealed that AA remodeling through phospholipids impacts cell survival. This study tests the hypothesis that regulation of AA/phospholipid-remodeling enzymes, cytosolic phospholipase A2 ?(cPLA2-?, gIV?PLA2) and CoA-independent transacylase (CoA-IT), provides a mechanism for altered eosinophil survival during allergic asthma. In vitro incubation of human eosinophils (from donors without asthma) with IL-5 markedly increased cell survival, induced gIV?PLA2 phosphorylation, and increased both gIV?PLA2 and CoA-IT activity. Furthermore, treatment of eosinophils with nonselective (ET18-O-CH3) and selective (SK&F 98625) inhibitors of CoA-IT triggered apoptosis, measured by changes in morphology, membrane phosphatidylserine exposure, and caspase activation, completely reversing IL-5–induced eosinophil survival. To determine if similar activation occurs in vivo, human blood eosinophils were isolated from either normal individuals at baseline or from subjects with mild asthma, at both baseline and 24 hours after inhaled allergen challenge. Allergen challenge of subjects with allergic asthma induced a marked increase in cPLA2 phosphorylation, augmented gIV?PLA2 activity, and increased CoA-IT activity. These findings indicate that both in vitro and in vivo challenge of eosinophils activated gIV?PLA2 and CoA-IT, which may play a key role in enhanced eosinophil survival.

Seeds, Michael C.; Peachman, Kristina K.; Bowton, David L.; Sivertson, Kelly L.; Chilton, Floyd H.

2009-01-01

388

Eosinophils adhere to and stimulate replication of lung fibroblasts 'in vitro'.  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils have been implicated in several disorders associated with the development of fibrosis. This led us to investigate the interactions between eosinophils and fibroblasts in vitro. Adhesion between purified guinea pig peritoneal eosinophils and monolayers of human fetal lung fibroblasts was assessed using the rose bengal dye staining assay. Fibroblast replication was assessed using a colorimetric assay based upon the uptake and subsequent release of methylene blue. Addition of phorbol myristate acetate induced a rapid, time-dependent increase in eosinophil adhesion (127% and 328% over basal adhesion after 10 and 30 min, respectively). Phorbol myristate acetate-induced adhesion was inhibited by the peptides RGDS and GRGDS (48% and 42%, respectively using 1 mM peptide) and by nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of the lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism (46% inhibition at 15 microM). In addition, 24 h culture of fibroblast monolayers with interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) or tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) resulted in enhanced adhesion (10 U/ml IL-1 alpha stimulated adhesion by 55% of control, 500 U/ml TNF alpha by 75% of control). Conditioned media from cultured eosinophils stimulated fibroblast replication in a time-dependent fashion with maximal stimulation at 3 h. In contrast, media from guinea pig peritoneal macrophages in culture did not show such an effect. This study indicates that eosinophils are capable of both adhering to and releasing mitogens for fibroblasts in vitro. These observations suggest that eosinophils have the capacity to play a role in the development of fibrosis in disorders where they have been shown to be present.

Shock, A; Rabe, K F; Dent, G; Chambers, R C; Gray, A J; Chung, K F; Barnes, P J; Laurent, G J

1991-01-01

389

Eosinophils adhere to and stimulate replication of lung fibroblasts 'in vitro'.  

PubMed

Eosinophils have been implicated in several disorders associated with the development of fibrosis. This led us to investigate the interactions between eosinophils and fibroblasts in vitro. Adhesion between purified guinea pig peritoneal eosinophils and monolayers of human fetal lung fibroblasts was assessed using the rose bengal dye staining assay. Fibroblast replication was assessed using a colorimetric assay based upon the uptake and subsequent release of methylene blue. Addition of phorbol myristate acetate induced a rapid, time-dependent increase in eosinophil adhesion (127% and 328% over basal adhesion after 10 and 30 min, respectively). Phorbol myristate acetate-induced adhesion was inhibited by the peptides RGDS and GRGDS (48% and 42%, respectively using 1 mM peptide) and by nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of the lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism (46% inhibition at 15 microM). In addition, 24 h culture of fibroblast monolayers with interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) or tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) resulted in enhanced adhesion (10 U/ml IL-1 alpha stimulated adhesion by 55% of control, 500 U/ml TNF alpha by 75% of control). Conditioned media from cultured eosinophils stimulated fibroblast replication in a time-dependent fashion with maximal stimulation at 3 h. In contrast, media from guinea pig peritoneal macrophages in culture did not show such an effect. This study indicates that eosinophils are capable of both adhering to and releasing mitogens for fibroblasts in vitro. These observations suggest that eosinophils have the capacity to play a role in the development of fibrosis in disorders where they have been shown to be present. PMID:1914231

Shock, A; Rabe, K F; Dent, G; Chambers, R C; Gray, A J; Chung, K F; Barnes, P J; Laurent, G J

1991-10-01

390

Effector Caspases and Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Caspases, a family of aspartate-specific cysteine proteases, play a major role in apoptosis and a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Fourteen mammalian caspases have been identified and can be divided into two groups: inflammatory caspases and apoptotic caspases. Based on the structure and function, the apoptotic caspases are further grouped into initiator/apical caspases (caspase-2, -8, -9, and -10) and effector/executioner caspases (caspase-3, -6, and -7). In this paper, we discuss what we have learned about the role of individual effector caspase in mediating both apoptotic and nonapoptotic events, with special emphasis on leukemia-specific oncoproteins in relation to effector caspases.

Lu, Ying; Chen, Guo-Qiang

2011-01-01

391

Safety of dilation in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Esophageal dilation is an effective therapy for dysphagia in patients with stenosing eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Historically, there have been significant concerns of increased perforation rates when dilating EoE patients. More recent studies suggest that improved techniques and increased awareness have decreased complication rates. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of dilation in our population of EoE patients. A retrospective review of all adult EoE patients enrolled in a registry from 2006 to 2010 was performed. All patients who underwent esophageal dilation during this time period were identified and included in the analysis. Our hospital inpatient/outpatient medical records, radiology reports, and endoscopy reports were searched for evidence of any complication following dilation. Perforation, hemorrhage, and hospitalization were identified as a major complication, and chest pain was considered a minor complication. One hundred and ninety-six patients (41 years [12]; mean age [standard deviation], 80% white, 85% male) were identified. In this cohort, 54 patients (28%) underwent 66 total dilations (seven patients underwent two dilations, one patient underwent three dilations, and one patient underwent four dilations). Three dilation techniques were used (Maloney [24], Savary [29] and through-the-scope [13]). There were no major complications encountered. Chest pain was noted in two patients (4%). There were no endoscopic features (rings, furrows, plaques) associated with any complication. Type of dilator, size of dilator, number of prior dilations, and age of patient were also not associated with complications. Endoscopic dilation using a variety of dilators can be safely performed with minimal complications in patients with EoE. PMID:22676406

Ally, M R; Dias, J; Veerappan, G R; Maydonovitch, C L; Wong, R K; Moawad, F J

2012-06-07

392

Interleukin-5 modulates interleukin-8 secretion in eosinophilic inflammation.  

PubMed Central

Serum and BALF (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) IL-8 levels and serum levels were investigated in Toxocara canis infected guinea-pigs and the role of IL-5 as a modulator of cytokine secretion was studied. Serum levels increased early in infected animals, exceeding control levels 4 h after infection, peaked between days 6 and 18, and continued to exceed control levels after 48 days of infection. Serum and BALF IL-8 levels showed the same profile as blood eosinophilia, increasing 6 days post-infection and peaking between days 18 and 24. Treatment of infected animals with anti-IL-5 Ab suppressed eosinophilia with a parallel increase in blood IL-8 levels, whereas no change was found in levels. To support our in vivo observation we carried out experiments in vitro using guinea-pig LPS-stimulated adherent peritoneal cells which release large amounts of IL-8 into the supernatants. When rIL-5 was added to LPS-stimulated cells, 65% inhibition of IL-8 release into the supernatants was observed. Pre-incubation of cells with anti-IL-5 Ab prevented the inhibition of IL-8 release into the supernatants induced by rIL-5. Our results demonstrate for the first time that TNF-alpha and IL-8 are released concomitant with or after IL-5 in the eosinophilic inflammation induced by T. canis. Moreover, in addition to showing that IL-5 is fundamental for the induction of blood eosinophilia, the present results suggest that this cytokine may play a new biological role by acting as modulator of IL-8 secretion.

Faccioli, L H; Medeiros, A I; Malheiro, A; Pietro, R C; Januario, A; Vargaftig, B B

1998-01-01

393

International Survey on Evaluation and Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background Recommendations regarding evaluation and management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) remain incompletely defined. This survey assesses: how providers across the world diagnose, evaluate, and treat EoE and how educational activities affect management. Methods A web-based survey was sent to the members of World Allergy Organization, American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, and American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. A ?2 analysis compared responses based on personal and practice demographics and participation in educational activities. Results Of the 200 respondents, 68.5% were from the United States. The majority were allergists, who require biopsy to diagnose EoE, perform allergy testing, and obtain follow-up biopsy after treatment. The following variables had significant differences: (1) US practitioners were more likely to test for immediate-type hypersensitivity to foods and obtain follow-up endoscopic biopsies after the initial treatment; (2) Practitioners encountering patients with EoE more frequently were more likely to ask about personal and family history of atopy, test for immediate-type hypersensitivity to aeroallergens and foods, and recommend follow-up biopsy after treatment; and (3) Practitioners who participate more often in EoE workshops were more likely to perform patch testing for foods, while attendance at EoE lectures increased EoE management confidence. Conclusions Diagnostic and management strategies differ based on practice location, EoE patient load, and participation in educational activities. Practitioners who attend more EoE lectures are more confident managing EoE.

2012-01-01

394

Potent synergistic effect of IL-3 and TNF on matrix metalloproteinase 9 generation by human eosinophils  

PubMed Central

TNF (designated as TNF-? under previous nomenclature) is the preeminent activator of MMP-9 generation from a variety of cells including eosinophils. We have previously established that TNF strongly synergizes with IFN-? and IL-4 for eosinophil synthesis of Th1- and Th2-type chemokines respectively. Thus, we sought to determine if TNF-induced synthesis of MMP-9 would be enhanced by the presence of Th1, Th2, or the eosinophil-associated common beta chain (?c) cytokines. Human blood eosinophils were cultured with TNF alone or in combination with either IFN-?, IL-4, IL-3, IL-5, or GM-CSF. Concentrations and activities of MMP-9 in eosinophil culture supernates were measured by ELISA and gelatin zymography, mRNA transcription and stabilization by quantitative real-time PCR, and signaling events by immunoblotting and intracellular flow cytometric analysis. Singularly, TNF, GM-CSF, or IL-3, but not IL-4 or IFN-?, induced relatively small (<0.2 ng/ml) but statistically significant quantities of MMP-9. Remarkable synergistic synthesis of MMP-9 (ng/ml levels) occurred in response to TNF plus IL-3, GM-CSF or IL-5, in the order of IL-3>GM-CSF>IL-5. Zymography revealed that eosinophils release MMP-9 in its pro-form. Eosinophil stimulation with the combination of IL-3 plus TNF led to increased steady-state levels of MMP-9 mRNA, prolonged mRNA stabilization, and enhanced activation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Inhibition of NF-?B, MEK kinase, or p38 MAP kinase, but not JNK signaling pathways, diminished IL-3/TNF-induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein production. Thus, the synergistic regulation of eosinophil MMP-9 by IL-3 plus TNF likely involves cooperative interaction of multiple transcription factors downstream from ERK, p38, and NF-?B activation as well as post-transcriptional regulation of MMP-9 mRNA stabilization. Our data indicate that within microenvironments rich in ?c-family cytokines and TNF, eosinophils are an important source of proMMP-9 and highlight a previously unrecognized role for synergistic interaction between TNF and ?c-family cytokines, particularly IL-3, for proMMP-9 synthesis.

Kelly, Elizabeth A. B.; Liu, Lin Ying; Esnault, Stephane; Johnson, Beatriz Helena Quinchia; Jarjour, Nizar N.

2012-01-01

395

Case of Eosinophilic Cystitis Treated with Suplatast Tosilate as Maintenance Therapy  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory lesion of the bladder, characterized by massive eosinophilic infiltration of the bladder wall. Its cause is not known definitely. A 49-year-old man consulted our department with a miction pain, gross hematuria, and frequent micturition. Urinalysis showed combined hematuria and pyuria, but urine culture was sterile. Abnormal findings of laboratory examination included an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count (15,700/?L) and the proportion of eosinophils in the peripheral blood was 12% of the WBCs (normal 0–5%). Cystoscopy revealed a solid mass with severe edematous mucosa. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also indicated marked bladder wall thickening, which was suspected for invasive bladder cancer. Transurethral biopsy of the bladder mass was performed with pathological examination revealing features of eosinophilic cystitis. After administration of a combination of prednisolone and suplatast tosilate, followed by monotherapy with suplatast tosilate, regression of the bladder mass, and normalization of the count of peripheral eosinophils were achieved. Fourteen months after steroid therapy, under treatment with suplatast tosilate, there was no relapse of urinary symptoms and the bladder mass.

Yoshino, Tateki; Moriyama, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

396

Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children from Western Saudi Arabia: Relative Frequency, Clinical, Pathological, Endoscopic, and Immunological Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an evolving allergic disease with an accelerated incidence. The purpose of this study was to delineate the relative frequency and clinicopathological characteristics of EE in children from western Saudi Arabia. Methods. Children with EE were studied retrospectively between October 2002 and December 2011 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital and International Medical Center. Results. The relative frequency of EE was 0.85% of 2127 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed during the study period. Eighteen patients were identified with EE. The median age was 8.6 years (range, 1.5–18 years). Thirteen (72.2%) were males. Dysphagia and vomiting were the most common symptoms. Ten (55.6%) children had history of atopy. Testing for food allergy by skin prick test was positive in 11 (61.1%). The most common endoscopic abnormalities were mucosal longitudinal furrow and loss of vascular pattern followed by patchy specks and strictures. The histopathological findings included increased intraepithelial eosinophils, eosinophilic degranulation, lamina propria fibrosis, and eosinophilic microabscesses. Treatment was initiated by swallowed topical corticosteroids in 12 (66.7%) and oral prednisolone in 6 (33%) patients, followed by low dose of topical corticosteroids and dietary elimination. Conclusions. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an uncommon but evolving problem. A high index of suspicion is required for early identifications and intervention to avoid possible complications.

Saadah, Omar I.; Aburiziza, Abdullah J.; Abu Shakra, Rafat I.

2012-01-01

397

A role for eosinophils in the intestinal immunity against infective Ascaris suum larvae.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae. PMID:23556022

Masure, Dries; Vlaminck, Johnny; Wang, Tao; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

2013-03-21

398

Omalizumab modulates bronchial reticular basement membrane thickness and eosinophil infiltration in severe persistent allergic asthma patients.  

PubMed

Severe persistent asthma causes a substantial morbidity and mortality burden and is frequently not well controlled, despite intensive guideline-based therapy. The unique monoclonal antibody approved for patients with severe allergic asthma is omalizumab: a recombinant humanised murine against IgE antibodies. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of long-term anti-IgE on the thickening of the reticular basement membrane (RBM) and eosinophil infiltration in bronchial biopsies from patients with severe persistent allergic asthma. Biopsies were obtained from 11 patients with severe persistent allergic asthma before and after (12 months) treatment with omalizumab. RBM thickness and eosinophils were measured by using light microscope image analysis. A significant mean reduction in RBM thickness and eosinophil infiltration were measured after one-year omalizumab treatment. No correlation between eosinophil reduction and RBM thickness reduction was found. No correlation between each of the previous two parameters and clinical parameters was detected. In conclusion, our study showed that a substantial proportion of severe asthmatics reduced the original bronchial RBM thickness and eosinophil infiltration after one-year treatment with anti-IgE, thus emphasizing the possible role of omalizumab in affecting airway remodeling in severe persistent allergic asthma. PMID:22697079

Riccio, A M; Dal Negro, R W; Micheletto, C; De Ferrari, L; Folli, C; Chiappori, A; Canonica, G W

399

Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a 14-month-old girl.  

PubMed

Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia (IAEP), characterized by acute febrile respiratory failure associated with diffuse radiographic infiltrates and pulmonary eosinophilia, is rarely reported in children. Diagnosis is based on an association of characteristic features including acute respiratory failure with fever, bilateral infiltrates on the chest X-ray, severe hypoxemia and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid >25% eosinophils or a predominant eosinophilic infiltrate in lung biopsies in the absence of any identifiable etiology. We present a 14-month-old girl who was admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit because of acute respiratory distress. She had a fever, dry cough, and progressive dyspnea for 1 day. Chest X-ray showed multifocal consolidations, increased interstitial markings, parenchymal emphysema and pneumothorax. IAEP was confirmed by marked pulmonary infiltrates of eosinophils in the lung biopsy specimen. Most known causes of acute eosinophilic pneumonia, such as exposure to causative drugs, toxins, second-hand smoking and infections were excluded. Her symptoms were resolved quickly after corticosteroid therapy. PMID:23390444

Park, Ha Neul; Chung, Bo Hyun; Pyun, Jung Eun; Lee, Kwang Chul; Choung, Ji Tae; Lim, Choon Hak; Yoo, Young

2013-01-29

400

Entinostat and Clofarabine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed, Relapsed, or Refractory Poor-Risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Bilineage/Biphenotypic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

2013-09-27

401

Anti-IL5 decreases the number of eosinophils but not the severity of dermatitis in Sharpin-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Sharpin-deficient (Sharpin(cpdm)) mutant mice develop a chronic eosinophilic dermatitis. To determine the efficacy of eosinophil-depletion in chronic inflammation, Sharpin(cpdm) mice were treated with anti-IL5 antibodies. Mice treated with anti-IL5 had a 90% reduction of circulating eosinophils and a 50% decrease in cutaneous eosinophils after 10 days compared with sham-treated littermates. Reducing the number of eosinophils resulted in increased severity of alopecia and erythema and a significant increase in epidermal thickness. Skin homogenates from mice treated with anti-IL5 had decreased mRNA expression of arylsulfatase B (Arsb), diamine oxidase (amiloride-binding protein 1, also called histaminase; Abp1) and Il10, which are mediators that eosinophils may release to quench inflammation. Skin homogenates from mice treated with anti-IL5 also had decreased mRNA expression of Il4, Il5, Ccl11, kit ligand (Kitl) and Tgfa; and increased mRNA expression of Tgfb1, Mmp12 and tenascin C (Tnc). In order to further decrease the accumulation of eosinophils, Sharpin(cpdm) mice were crossed with IL5 null mice. Il5(-/-), Sharpin(cpdm)/Sharpin(cpdm) mice had a 98% reduction of circulating eosinophils and a 95% decrease in cutaneous eosinophils compared with IL5-sufficient Sharpin(cpdm) mice. The severity of the lesions was similar between IL5-sufficient and IL5-deficient mice. Double mutant mice had a significant decrease in Abp1, and a significant increase in Tgfb1, Mmp12 and Tnc mRNA compared with controls. These data indicate that eosinophils are not essential for the development of dermatitis in Sharpin(cpdm) mice and suggest that eosinophils have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles in the skin of these mice. PMID:19650867

Renninger, Matthew L; Seymour, Rosemarie E; Whiteley, Laurence O; Sundberg, John P; Hogenesch, Harm

2009-07-23

402

Anti-IL5 decreases the number of eosinophils but not the severity of dermatitis in SHARPIN-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Sharpin-deficient (Sharpincpdm) mutant mice develop a chronic eosinophilic dermatitis. To determine the efficacy of eosinophil-depletion in chronic inflammation, Sharpincpdm mice were treated with anti-IL5 antibodies. Mice treated with anti-IL5 had a 90% reduction of circulating eosinophils and a 50% decrease in cutaneous eosinophils after ten days compared to sham-treated littermates. Reducing the number of eosinophils resulted in increased severity of alopecia and erythema and a significant increase in epidermal thickness. Skin homogenates from mice treated with anti-IL5 had decreased mRNA expression of arylsulfatase B (Arsb), diamine oxidase (amiloride binding protein 1, also called histaminase) (Abp1), and Il10, which are mediators that eosinophils may release to quench inflammation. Skin homogenates from mice treated with anti-IL5 also had decreased mRNA expression of Il4, Il5, Ccl11, kit ligand (Kitl), and Tgfa; and increased mRNA expression of Tgfb1, Mmp12, and tenascin C (Tnc). In order to further decrease the accumulation of eosinophils, Sharpincpdm mice were crossed with IL5null mice. IL5?/?, Sharpincpdm/Sharpincpdm mice had a 98% reduction of circulating eosinophils and a 95% decrease in cutaneous eosinophils compared to IL5-sufficient Sharpincpdm mice. The severity of the lesions was similar between IL5-sufficient and IL5-deficient mice. Double mutant mice had a significant decrease in Abp1, and a significant increase in Tgfb1, Mmp12, and Tnc mRNA compared to controls. These data indicate that eosinophils are not essential for the development of dermatitis in Sharpincpdm mice and suggest that eosinophils have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles in the skin of these mice.

Renninger, Matthew L.; Seymour, Rosemarie E.; Whiteley, Laurence O.; Sundberg, John P.; HogenEsch, Harm

2010-01-01

403

Marrow transplantation for leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Marrow transplantation for selected patients with leukemia, as for patients with severe combined immunologic deficiency or severe aplastic anemia, has now become an accepted clinical procedure. For patients with acute leukemia who have relapsed after achieving a remission of chemotherapy, marrow grafting from an identical twin or an HLA-identical sibling has now been demonstrated to produce median remissions as long as or longer than any reported for combination chemotherapy. In contrast to chemotherapy, marrow transplantation offers the possibility of cure for a small but significant fraction of these patients. Marrow transplantation for patients with ANL in first remission has now resulted in median survivals much longer than any reported with chemotherapy. Although it now appears that more than 50% of these patients can be cured with marrow transplantation, a much longer follow-up is indicated since some patients who achieve a complete remission with combination chemotherapy are now living for a long time, and some of these patients (less than 20%) may also be cured. Current intensive research with new modalities such as interferon, Acyclovir, Cyclosporin A, and monoclonal antibodies can reasonably be expected to improve the overall results of marrow transplantation.

Thomas, E.D.

1981-07-01

404

Eosinophilic esophagitis after esophageal atresia: is there an association? Case presentation and literature review.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new condition resulting in dysphagia or symptoms resembling gastroesophageal reflux disease, symptoms that also are common in patients with a history of esophageal atresia. We present 2 patients with persistent dysphagia after repair of esophageal atresia that was caused by EoE. Although the exact etiology and pathogenesis of EoE remain unclear, it is now generally accepted that it is the result of a T-helper cell 2-type immune response with a crucial role for the eosinophil-specific chemotaxis factor eotaxin 3 and eosinophils. Because there are genetic similarities between esophageal atresia and EoE, we speculate that patients with esophageal atresia are at increased risk for developing EoE. PMID:22703825

Gorter, Ramon R; Heij, Hugo A; van der Voorn, J Patrick; Kneepkens, C M Frank

2012-06-01

405

Subcellular fractionation of human eosinophils: isolation of functional specific granules on isoosmotic density gradients  

PubMed Central

Subcellular fractionation has been an important tool in investigating human eosinophil structure and function, including localizing of cytokine/chemokines within granules, investigating granule protein translocation and intracellular transport during eosinophil secretion, and studying secretory mechanisms of granules. The resolution of organelles obtained by subcellular fractionation was improved considerably after the introduction of nonionic iodinated density-gradient metrizamide and Nycodenz media that, unlike sucrose, exhibit relatively low tonicity throughout the gradient. However, the structure and membrane preservation of isolated organelles were still compromised due to the lack of gradient isoosmolarity. This paper describes a detailed protocol of subcellular fractionation of nitrogen cavitated eosinophils on an isoosmotic iodinated density gradient (iodixanol ? OptiPrep) and the isolation of well preserved and functional membrane-bound specific granules.

Neves, Josiane S.; Perez, Sandra A. C.; Spencer, Lisa A.; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Weller, Peter F.

2009-01-01

406

Establishment of Experimental Eosinophilic Vasculitis by IgE-Mediated Cutaneous Reverse Passive Arthus Reaction  

PubMed Central

Prominent eosinophil infiltration is a characteristic of some forms of vasculitis, such as Churg-Strauss syndrome, also known as allergic granulomatous vasculitis. In the current study, we established a mouse model of cutaneous eosinophilic vasculitis by the cutaneous reverse passive Arthus reaction using IgE injection instead of IgG. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were injected with IgE anti-trinitrophenyl antibodies, followed immediately by intravenous administration of trinitrophenyl bovine serum albumin. IgE-mediated immune complex challenge induced substantial hemorrhage with marked infiltration of eosinophils in which neutrophils, mast cells, and macrophages were also mixed. This finding contrasted remarkably with the neutrophil-dominant infiltration pattern in IgG-mediated immune complex challenge. In the lesion, the expression level of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 was increased, and anti-monocyte chemotactic protein-3 treatment resulted in a significant but incomplete blockade of eosinophil recruitment. Furthermore, mice lacking E-selectin, P-selectin, L-selectin, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1, as well as wild-type mice that received anti-vascular cell adhesion molecule-1-blocking antibodies were assessed for the IgE-mediated Arthus reaction. After 24 hours, the loss of P-selectin resulted in a significant reduction in eosinophil accumulation compared with both wild-type mice and other mouse mutants. Collectively, the Fc class of immunoglobulins, which forms these immune complexes, critically determines the disease manifestation of vasculitis. The IgE-mediated cutaneous reverse passive Arthus reaction may serve as an experimental model for cutaneous eosinophilic infiltration in vasculitis as well as in other diseases.

Ishii, Takayuki; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Yanaba, Koichi; Hasegawa, Minoru; Nakashima, Hiroko; Ogawa, Fumihide; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Tedder, Thomas F.; Sato, Shinichi; Fujimoto, Manabu

2009-01-01

407

Chronic traffic pollution exposure is associated with eosinophilic, but not neutrophilic inflammation in older adult asthmatics.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Airway inflammatory patterns in older asthmatics are poorly understood despite high asthma-related morbidity and mortality. In this study, we sought to define the relationship between exposure to traffic pollutants, biomarkers in induced sputum, and asthma control in older adults. Methods: Induced sputum was collected from 35 non-smoking adults ?65 years with a physician's diagnosis of asthma and reversibility with a bronchodilator or a positive methacholine challenge. Patients completed the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and Elemental Carbon Attributable to Traffic (ECAT), a surrogate for chronic diesel particulate exposure, was determined. Equal numbers of subjects with high (?0.39?µg/m(3)) versus low (<0.39?µg/m(3)) ECAT were included. Differential cell counts were performed on induced sputum, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) were measured in supernatants. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between sputum findings, ACQ scores, and ECAT. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, subjects with poorly controlled asthma based on ACQ???1.5 (n?=?7) had significantly higher sputum eosinophils (median?=?4.4%) than those with ACQ?eosinophils?=?2.6%; ??=?10.1 [95% CI?=?0.1-21.0]; p?=?0.05). Subjects with ACQ???1.5 also had significantly higher sputum neutrophils (84.2% versus 65.2%; ??=?7.1 [0.2-14.6]; p?=?0.05). Poorly controlled asthma was associated with higher sputum EPO (??=?2.4 [0.2-4.5], p?=?0.04), but not MPO (p?=?0.9). High ECAT was associated with higher eosinophils (??=?10.1 [1.8-18.4], p?=?0.02) but not higher neutrophils (p?=?0.6). Conclusions: Poorly controlled asthma in older adults is associated with eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation. Chronic residential traffic pollution exposure may be associated with eosinophilic, but not neutrophilic inflammation in older asthmatics. PMID:23931679

Epstein, Tolly G; Kesavalu, Banurekha; Bernstein, Cheryl K; Ryan, Patrick H; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Zimmermann, Nives; Lummus, Zana; Villareal, Manuel S; Smith, Andrew M; Lenz, Peter H; Bernstein, David I

2013-10-01

408

Stimulated eosinophils and proteinases augment the transepithelial flux of albumin in bovine bronchial mucosa.  

PubMed Central

1. The apical to basolateral transmucosal flux of albumin has been measured in isolated sheets of bovine bronchial and tracheal mucosa. Under resting conditions the net unidirectional flux in the bronchial mucosa was not significantly different from that measured previously for the basolateral to apical vector. In contrast, the apical to basolateral flux in the tracheal mucosa was significantly lower than that measured in the opposite direction. 2. Addition of guinea-pig peritoneal eosinophils to the apical side of the tissues had no significant effect on the transmucosal flux of albumin in either the bronchial or tracheal mucosa. 3. When eosinophils were stimulated with the ionophore A23187 or by opsonic adherence to tissues treated with a guinea-pig anti-bovine airway epithelium antibody, the bronchial mucosal sheets that had been exposed showed a significant increase in the transmucosal flux of albumin. However, tissues from the tracheal mucosa were resistant to the effects of stimulated eosinophils. 4. Histologically, sheets of mucosa from bovine main bronchi that had been exposed to stimulated eosinophils were characterized by epithelial injury consisting of loss of columnar epithelium from the underlying basal cell layer and biomatrix. Much less evidence of cellular injury was observed in tracheal tissues. 5. Bacterial collagenases applied to the apical side of the sheets were shown to increase the permeability of the bronchial mucosa to albumin and to produce histological changes that had similarities with the pattern of damage produced by stimulated eosinophils. 6. These observations demonstrate that the ability of eosinophils to injure the bronchial mucosa is independent of the side of the tissue on which they are present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Herbert, C. A.; Edwards, D.; Boot, J. R.; Robinson, C.

1993-01-01

409

Time Course of Pharmacological Modulation of Peak Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation after Mite Challenge in Guinea Pigs: A Therapeutic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It is well known that eosinophilic airway inflammation develops after allergen challenge in sensitized humans and animals. However, the detailed time course of suppression of early eosinophilic airway inflammation by pharmacological agents given just after challenge has not been discussed. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the time course relationship of the suppression of peak eosinophilia by anti–cytokines and pharmacological

1999-01-01

410

Role of Eosinophils and Neutrophils in Innate and Adaptive Protective Immunity to Larval Strongyloides stercoralis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to determine the roles of eosinophils and neutrophils in innate and adaptive protective immunity to larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. The experimental approach used was to treat mice with an anti-CCR3 monoclonal antibody to eliminate eosinophils or to use CXCR2\\/ mice, which have a severe neutrophil recruitment defect, and then determine the effect of

Ann Marie Galioto; Jessica A. Hess; Thomas J. Nolan; Gerhard A. Schad; James J. Lee; David Abraham

2006-01-01

411

Effect of Interleukin–3, Interleukin 5 and Hyaluronic Acid on Cultured Eosinophils Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several studies have shown that cultured eosinophils can be generated from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCMC) in the presence of interleukin (IL)–3 and IL–5 in vitro. Other reports have indicated that cellular adhesion to hyaluronic acid (HA) enhances the proliferation of cultured eosinophils derived from CD34+ cells purified from UCMC. The aim of this study was to

Hiroshi Ohashi; Masao Takei; Youichi Ide; Hiromi Ishii; Hirohito Kita; Gerald J. Gleich; Masaharu Ishikawa; Hiromi Fukamachi

1999-01-01

412

Anti-Siglec-F antibody inhibits oral egg allergen induced intestinal eosinophilic inflammation in a mouse model  

PubMed Central

Siglec-F is a sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-superfamily receptor that is highly expressed on eosinophils. We have used a mouse model of oral egg ovalbumin (OVA)-induced eosinophilic inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa associated with diarrhea and weight loss to determine whether administering an anti-Siglec-F antibody would reduce levels of intestinal mucosal eosinophilic inflammation. Mice administered the anti-Siglec-F antibody had significantly lower levels of intestinal eosinophilic inflammation, and this was associated with reduced intestinal permeability changes, normalization of intestinal villous crypt height, and restoration of weight gain. The reduced numbers of intestinal eosinophils in anti-Siglec-F antibody treated mice was associated with significantly reduced numbers of bone marrow and peripheral blood eosinophils, but was not associated with significant changes in the numbers of proliferating or apoptotic jejunal eosinophils. In addition, the anti-Siglec-F Ab reduced Th2 cytokines and IgE levels. Overall, these studies demonstrate that administration of an anti-Siglec-F antibody significantly reduces levels of eosinophilic inflammation in the intestinal mucosa and that this was associated with reduced intestinal permeability changes, normalization of intestinal villous crypt height, and restoration of weight gain.

Song, Dae Jin; Cho, Jae Youn; Miller, Marina; Strangman, Wendy; Zhang, Mai; Varki, Ajit; Broide, David H

2009-01-01

413

IL4 and IL13 Regulation of ICAM-1 Expression and Eosinophil Recruitment in Onchocerca volvulus Keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. The presence of eosinophilic granulocytes in ocular tissue is a hallmark of the host response to environmental and parasite allergens. Using a mouse model of Onchocerca volvu- lus-mediated keratitis (river blindness), the present study ex- amined the role of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 in regulating recruitment of eosinophils to the cornea through expression of intercellular cell adhesion

Ravi B. Berger; Nathan M. Blackwell; Jonathan H. Lass; Eugenia Diaconu; Eric Pearlman

2002-01-01

414

Eosinophils and neutrophils in biopsies from the middle ear of atopic children with otitis media with effusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and Design: The majority of patients with otitis media with effusion (OME) and atopy have been shown to have elevated levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in their middle ear fluid. The mechanism underlying these elevated levels of ECP is not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a quantitative deter- mination of eosinophils

K. Amin; D. S. Hurst; G. M. Roomans; P. Venge; L. Sevéus

1999-01-01

415

Human Ribonuclease A Superfamily Members, Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin and Pancreatic Ribonuclease, Induce Dendritic Cell Maturation and Activation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of mammalian antimicrobial proteins produced by neutrophils and cells of epithelial origin have chemotactic and activating effects on host cells, including cells of the immune system. Eosinophil granules contain an antimicrobial protein known as eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), which belongs to the RNase A superfamily. EDN has antiviral and chemotactic activities in vitro. In this study, we show that

De Yang; Qian Chen; Helene F. Rosenberg; Susanna M. Rybak; Dianne L. Newton; Zhao Yuan Wang; Qin Fu; Velizar T. Tchernev; Minjuan Wang; Barry Schweitzer; Stephen F. Kingsmore; Dhavalkumar D. Patel; Joost J. Oppenheim; O. M. Zack Howard

416

Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-09-23

417

PXD101 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-06-03

418

[Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Report of 6 cases].  

PubMed

Eosinophilic pustulous foliculitis (EPF) is a rare dermatosis which has been reported in association with the human immunodeficiency virus infection. Six patients infected with HIV are reported with advanced disease in whom the diagnosis of EPF was made. All patients has a highly pruritic follicular papular rash. In all cases the pathology study revealed a mixed inflammatory infiltrate with predominance of eosinophils at the infundibulum of the pilous folliculi. Two patients had eosinophilia in peripheral blood. Therapy with antihistaminic agents and topical corticosteroids was ineffective in all cases. A favourable therapeutic response was achieved with phototherapy associated with the topic application of disodium cromoglycate 4%. PMID:7732194

Ferrer, S; Baselga, E; Domingo, P; Puig, M; Ris, J; Barrio, J L; Nolla, J

1995-02-01

419

What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... the key statistics for chronic lymphocytic leukemia? Previous Topic What is cancer? Next Topic What are the key statistics for chronic lymphocytic ... children, please see our separate documents on these topics . Last Medical Review: 07/31/2013 Last Revised: ...

420

Central Nervous System in Leukemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report summarizes the pertinent clinical and pathologic findings in 165 cases of leukemia in atomic bomb exposed victims autopsied during the period 1949 to 1962 at ABCC in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Significant parenchymal hemorrhage occu...

J. P. Phair R. E. Anderson H. Namiki

1964-01-01

421

The European LeukemiaNet: achievements and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only way to cure leukemia is by cooperative research. To optimize research, the European LeukemiaNet integrates 105 national leukemia trial groups and networks, 105 interdisciplinary partner groups and about 1,000 leukemia specialists from 175 institutions. They care for tens of thousands of leukemia patients in 33 countries across Europe. Their ultimate goal is to cure leukemia. Since its inception

R. Hehlmann; D. Grimwade; B. Simonsson; J. Apperley; M. Baccarani; T. Barbui; G. Barosi; R. Bassan; M. C. Bene; U. Berger; T. Buchner; A. Burnett; N. C. Cross; T. J. de. Witte; H. Dohner; H. Dombret; H. Einsele; G. Engelich; R. Foa; C. Fonatsch; N. Gokbuget; E. Gluckman; A. Gratwohl; F. Guilhot; C. Haferlach; T. Haferlach; M. Hallek; J. Hasford; A. Hochhaus; D. Hoelzer; J. J. Kiladjian; B. Labar; P. Ljungman; U. Mansmann; D. Niederwieser; G. Ossenkoppele; J. M. Ribera; H. Rieder; H. Serve; P. Schrotz-King; M. A. Sanz; S. Saussele

2011-01-01

422

Parental Smoking and the Risk of Childhood Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoke has been linked to adult myeloid leukemia; however, the association between parental smoking and childhood leukemia remains unclear. Parental smoking and the risk of childhood leukemia were examined in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, a case-control study, between 1995 and 2002. The present analysis included 327 acute childhood leukemia cases (281 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46

Jeffrey S. Chang; Steve Selvin; Catherine Metayer; Vonda Crouse; Amanda Golembesky; Patricia A. Buffler

423

Treatment of prolymphocytic leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Prolymphocytic leukemia is characterized by marked splenomegaly, distinctive cellular morphologic characteristics, and a poor clinical course. Five patients with typical PL were treated systematically with vincristine/prednisone, chlorambucil/prednisone, splenic irradiation, splenectomy, and other chemotherapy regimens. No patient responded to vincristine/prednisone. Two patients responded to chlorambucil/prednisone, and four patients had brief responses to splenic irradiation. Two patients underwent splenectomy, one of whom had a prolonged clinical remissions. No other chemotherapy combinations were of value. The median survival was 33 months. Recommendations are made to use chlorambucil/prednisone or splenic irradiation as initial treatment. Splenectomy should be considered in patients refractory to these modalities. The course of PL may be more protracted than originally reported.

Hollister, S. Jr.; Coleman, M.

1982-11-01

424

Treatment of prolymphocytic leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Prolymphocytic leukemia is characterized by marked splenomegaly, distinctive cellular morphologic characteristics, and a poor clinical course. Five patients with typical PL were treated systematically with vincristine/prednisone, chlorambucil/prednisone, splenic irradiation, splenectomy, and other chemotherapy regimens. No patient responded to vincristine/prednisone. Two patients responded to chlorambucil/prednisone, and four patients had brief responses to splenic irradiation. Two patients underwent splenectomy, one of whom had a prolonged clinical remission. There were no complete remissions. No other chemotherapy combinations were of value. The median survival was 33 months. Recommendations are made to use chlorambucil/prednisone or splenic irradiation as initial treatment. Splenectomy should be considered in patients refractory to these modalities. The course of PL may be more protracted than originally reported.

Hollister, D. Jr.; Coleman, M.

1982-11-01

425

Curing chronic myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeted against the BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein has proven remarkably successful in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and long-term survival has become a reality. Despite this outstanding progress, detection of minimal residual disease precludes therapy termination in most TKI-receiving patients. CML has thus turned into a chronic illness, raising concerns about long-term safety, medication adherence, and health care costs. Although treatment cessation may be feasible in few selected patients achieving deep molecular responses, a definitive cure remains elusive owing to the discovery that TKIs spare quiescent leukemic stem cells (LSC). Understanding mechanisms underlying LSC behavior in TKI-treated patients may provide important clues to develop an array of strategies that ensure the complete destruction of LSC reservoirs and thereby offer CML patients a definitive cure. PMID:22410764

Rea, Delphine; Rousselot, Philippe; Guilhot, Joelle; Guilhot, François; Mahon, François-Xavier

2012-06-01

426

A Case of Congenital Leukemia Cutis  

PubMed Central

Congenital leukemia is a rare disease that develops from birth to 6 weeks of life. Leukemia cutis involves cutaneous infiltration by leukemic cells and is an unusual manifestation of leukemia, and has been documented in 25~30% of patients with congenital leukemia. The authors report a case of congenital leukemia cutis. A newborn male presented with widespread firm dusky red papules and nodules on almost his entire body surface. Skin biopsy specimens confirmed the presence of leukemic infiltrations, and bone marrow cytology was consistent with acute myeloid leukemia of the FAB M5 type.

Choi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Hee Bong; Park, Chun Wook

2009-01-01

427

Eosinophilic Fasciitis: What Matters in Management in a Developing Country--A Case Report with Two and a Half-year Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon disorder of unknown aetiology and poorly-understood pathogenesis. Since 1974, over 250 cases of eosinophilic fasciitis have been reported worldwide. The first case of eosinophilic fasciitis from Bangladesh is reported here. The challenges of diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up, including family and social support, are discussed.

Islam, Md. Ariful; Abdal, Syed Jamil; Azad, Mohammad Abul Kalam; Ahmedullah, Abul Khair; Haq, Syed Atiqul

2012-01-01

428

The role of calcium in in vitro release of eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (ECF-A) from guinea pig skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that eosinophils migrate into the site of immediate type hypersensitivity reactions by the actions of eosinophil chemotactic factors. The eosinophil may have host defense functions in allergic reactions because it contains enzymes, such as diamine oxidase which degrades histamine [9] and arylsulfatase B which inactivates slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis [7]. In the previous study, we

S. Yamamoto; I. Kimura; K. Takagaki; T. Yamura

1981-01-01

429

Role of the eosinophil in serum-mediated adherence of equine leukocytes to infective larvae of Strongylus vulgaris.  

PubMed

The adherence of equine leukocytes to Strongylus vulgaris infective larvae (L3) in the presence of normal and immune sera was examined in vitro. Immune sera promoted adherence of buffy coat cells from ponies with S. vulgaris-induced eosinophilia (eosinophilic ponies) to S. vulgaris L3. However, eosinophils in the buffy coat cells were the predominant adherent cell type. Studies using leukocyte populations enriched for eosinophils, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells from eosinophilic ponies support the observations using buffy coat cells that eosinophils were the main effector cells. Adherent eosinophils from eosinophilic ponies immobilized L3. Neutrophils were less adherent and did not immobilize L3. Mononuclear cells failed to adhere. Normal eosinophils from strongly-naive ponies did not immobilize S. vulgaris L3 in the presence of immune serum, suggesting the in vivo activation of eosinophils in eosinophilic animals. Immune serum promoted less adherence of buffy coat cells to Strongylus edentatus or mixed species of Cyathostominae L3, suggesting that the serum-mediated cellular adherence phenomenon was species-specific. Normal serum promoted less cellular adherence to S. vulgaris L3 than immune serum. The adherence mediated by normal serum was removed by heat inactivation, suggesting that this nonspecific phenomenon was a complement-mediated reaction. Immune globulins promoted reactions similar to that seen using heat-inactivated immune serum, whereas normal globulins did not promote adherence. Immune globulins absorbed with pieces of S. vulgaris adult worms did not promote the adherence of buffy coat cells to S. vulgaris L3, suggesting that adult and L3 stages share antigens important in this phenomenon that resulted in the removal of specific adherence antibody during absorption. PMID:1597792

Klei, T R; Chapman, M R; Dennis, V A

1992-06-01

430

Human eosinophils constitutively express multiple Th1, Th2, and immunoregulatory cytokines that are secreted rapidly and differentially  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are innate immune leukocytes implicated in the initiation and maintenance of type 2 immune responses, including asthma and allergy. The ability to store and rapidly secrete preformed cytokines distinguishes eosinophils from most lymphocytes, which must synthesize cytokine proteins prior to secretion and may be a factor in the apparent Th2 bias of eosinophils. Multiple studies confirm that human eosinophils from atopic or hypereosinophilic donors can secrete over 30 cytokines with a varying and often opposing immune-polarizing potential. However, it remains unclear whether all of these cytokines are constitutively preformed and available for rapid secretion from eosinophils in the circulation of healthy individuals or are restricted to eosinophils from atopic donors. Likewise, the relative concentrations of cytokines stored within eosinophils have not been studied. Here, we demonstrate that human blood eosinophils are not singularly outfitted with Th2-associated cytokines but rather, constitutively store a cache of cytokines with nominal Th1, Th2, and regulatory capacities, including IL-4, IL-13, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-?, and TNF-?. We demonstrate further rapid and differential release of each cytokine in response to specific stimuli. As agonists, strong Th1 and inflammatory cytokines elicited release of Th2-promoting IL-4 but not Th1-inducing IL-12. Moreover, a large quantity of IFN-? was secreted in response to Th1, Th2, and inflammatory stimuli. Delineations of the multifarious nature of preformed eosinophil cytokines and the varied stimulus-dependent profiles of rapid cytokine secretion provide insights into the functions of human eosinophils in mediating inflammation and initiation of specific immunity.

Spencer, Lisa A.; Szela, Craig T.; Perez, Sandra A. C.; Kirchhoffer, Casey L.; Neves, Josiane S.; Radke, Amy L.; Weller, Peter F.

2009-01-01

431

Tipifarnib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-10-07

432

Dasatinib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia