Sample records for eosinophilic leukemia eol-1

  1. Leukemia -- Eosinophilic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Leukemia - Eosinophilic Leukemia - Eosinophilic This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Leukemia - Eosinophilic. Use the menu below to choose the Overview section to get started. ...

  2. Mechanisms for the proliferation of eosinophilic leukemia cells by FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Kenji; Kitamura, Hajime; Hiraizumi, Kenji; Kaneko, Motoko; Takahashi, Aki [Laboratory of Pathophysiological Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Zee, OkPyo [Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Graduate School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seyama, Toshio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hong, JangJa; Ohuchi, Kazuo [Laboratory of Pathophysiological Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hirasawa, Noriyasu [Laboratory of Pathophysiological Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)], E-mail: hirasawa@mail.pharm.tohoku.ac.jp

    2008-02-22

    The constitutively activated tyrosine kinase Fip1-like 1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha} (PDGFR{alpha}) causes eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells to proliferate. Recently, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors suppressed this proliferation and induced the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils in parallel with a decrease in the level of FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation and whether the suppression of cell proliferation triggers the differentiation into eosinophils. The FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} inhibitor imatinib inhibited the proliferation of EoL-1 cells and decreased the level of the oncoprotein c-Myc as well as the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The proliferation of EoL-1 cells and expression of c-Myc were also inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126 and JNK inhibitor SP600125. The expression of the eosinophilic differentiation marker CCR3 was not induced by imatinib. These findings suggest that FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation of EoL-1 cells through the induction of c-Myc expression via ERK and JNK signaling pathways, but is not involved in the inhibition of differentiation toward mature eosinophils.

  3. Myeloprolipherative disorder type chronic myeloid leukemia--eosinophilic form.

    PubMed

    Arnautovic-Custovic, Aida; Hasic, Samira; Kopic, Emina; Jahic, Azra; Jovic, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a very rare form of leucemia in the western world. Adequate response is seldomly achieved after treatment with corticosteroids, interferon-alfa (INF-alfa) and medications containing hydroxi-urea (Litalir). The study presents a patient with CEL with no initial therapeutic response to the use of corticosteroids, INF-alfa and hydroxy-urea, and with neither clinical nor hematological response. After setting a diagnosis of CEL, patient was ordinated Imatinib (Glivec tabbletes) in a daily dose of 200 mg. Two days afterwards there was an evident withdrawal of subjective and clinical symptoms of disease, and the complete blood count showed significant amendment. PMID:21776882

  4. Murine models of eosinophilic leukemia: a model of FIP1L1-PDGFR? initiated chronic eosinophilic leukemia/systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Cancelas, Jose A; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) was distinguished from hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) in the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Subsequently, the FIP1L1-PDGFR? (F/P) fusion tyrosine kinase was identified in patients with HES and found to be the most common clonal defect in CEL and the second most frequent mutation in systemic mastocytosis (SM). Introduction of F/P into bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors has been used to establish murine models of F/P-myeloproliferative neoplasm and F/P-CEL. IL-5 overexpression and introduction of F/P is required to develop murine CEL. This F/P-CEL model is thought to be an accurate model of the clinical disease. Here we describe the method of F/P-CEL/SM model development and assessment. PMID:24986627

  5. Lipoxin A4 Counterregulates GM-CSF Signaling in Eosinophilic Granulocytes1

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Vitaliy; Pazdrak, Konrad; Boldogh, Istvan; Svider, Tetyana; Kurosky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are granulated leukocytes that are involved in many inflammation-associated pathologies including airway inflammation in asthma. Resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and return to homeostasis is in part due to endogenous chemical mediators, for example, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins. Lipoxins are endogenous eicosanoids that demonstrate antiinflammatory activity and are synthesized locally at sites of inflammation. In view of the importance of lipoxins (LXs) in resolving inflammation, we investigated the molecular basis of LXA4 action on eosinophilic granulocytes stimulated with GM-CSF employing the eosinophilic leukemia cell line EoL-1 as well as peripheral blood eosinophils. We report herein that LXA4 (1–100 nM) decreased protein tyrosine phosphorylation in EoL-1 cells stimulated with GM-CSF. Additionally, the expression of a number of GM-CSF-induced cytokines was inhibited by LXA4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, using a proteomics approach involving mass spectrometry and immunoblot analysis we identified 11 proteins that were tyrosine phosphorylated after GM-CSF stimulation and whose phosphorylation was significantly inhibited by LXA4 pretreatment. Included among these 11 proteins were ?-fodrin (non-erythroid spectrin) and actin. Microscopic imaging showed that treatment of EoL-1 cells or blood eosinophils with GM-CSF resulted in the reorganization of actin and the translocation of ?-fodrin from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. Importantly, ?-fodrin translocation was prevented by LXA4 but actin reorganization was not. Thus, the mechanism of LXA4 action likely involves prevention of activation of eosinophilic granulocytes by GM-CSF through inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and modification of some cytoskeletal components. PMID:19050289

  6. Periodic oscillation of blood leukocytes, platelets, and hemoglobin in a patient with chronic eosinophilic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhijian; Hao, Yushu; Qin, Tiejun; Han, Zhongchao

    2003-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a rare myeloproliferative disease in which autonomous, clonal proliferation of eosinophilic precursors results in persistent increase of eosinophils in the blood and bone marrow. A case of CEL spontaneous oscillation of white blood cell (WBC) count is presented. The cycle of WBC variation comprised about 60 days. Similar cyclic variations were noted in his platelet count, hemoglobin level and bone marrow cellularity, as well as in the spleen size, which was directly correlated with the WBC count. The numbers of bone marrow erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E), granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) and the serum level of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) were also regularly changed during the oscillation of WBC. Bone marrow hyperplasia was accompanied with the increase in peripheral WBC count, suggesting that the variation of cell production caused the cyclic oscillation. PMID:12479858

  7. Glucocorticoid regulation of human eosinophil gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sanjay; Leach, Craig H; Kunz, Susan; Bloom, John W; Miesfeld, Roger L

    2003-03-01

    Molecular analysis of steroid-regulated gene expression in freshly isolated human eosinophils is difficult due to the inherent high rate of spontaneous apoptosis and elevated levels of endogenous ribonucleases. To circumvent these limitations, we determined if the human eosinophilic cell line EoL-1 could serve as an in vitro model of glucocorticoid signaling. We found by optimizing growth conditions in low serum-containing media that dexamethasone (Dex) treatment of EoL-1 cells induced an apoptotic pathway that was inhibited by interleukin-5 (IL-5). Moreover, gene expression profiling using RNA from untreated EoL-1 cells and from freshly isolated human eosinophils identified 380 commonly expressed genes, including the eosinophil markers granule major basic protein, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 and arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase. Expression profiling was performed using EoL-1 cells that had been treated with dexamethasone for 0, 4, 12, 24 and 48h identifying 162 genes as differentially expressed. Two of the most highly upregulated genes based on expression profiling were the transcription factor Ets-2 and the MHC Class II genes (Q, R, and P). Expression of these genes in EoL-1 cells was shown to be dexamethasone-induced at the RNA and protein levels which is consistent with the known function of Ets-2 in controlling cell cycle progression and the role of MHC Class II antigens in mediating eosinophil functions. PMID:12732289

  8. Identification of Ponatinib as a potent inhibitor of growth, migration and activation of neoplastic eosinophils carrying FIP1L1-PDGFRA

    PubMed Central

    Sadovnik, Irina; Lierman, Els; Peter, Barbara; Herrmann, Harald; Suppan, Verena; Stefanzl, Gabriele; Haas, Oskar; Lion, Thomas; Pickl, Winfried; Cools, Jan; Vandenberghe, Peter; Valent, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), the transforming oncoprotein FIP1L1-PDGFRA is a major target of therapy. In most patients, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib induces complete remission. For patients who are intolerant or resistant, novel TKI have been proposed. We examined the in vitro effects of 14 kinase blockers on growth and function of EOL-1 cells, a FIP1L1-PDGFRA+ eosinophil cell line. Major growth-inhibitory effects were seen with all PDGFR-blocking agents, with IC50 values in the low nM-range: ponatinib: 0.1-0.2 nM, sorafenib: 0.1-0.2 nM, masitinib: 0.2-0.5 nM, nilotinib: 0.2-1 nM, dasatinib: 0.5-2 nM, sunitinib: 1-2 nM, midostaurin: 5-10 nM. These drugs were also found to block activation of PDGFR-downstream signaling molecules, including Akt, S6, and STAT5 in EOL-1 cells. All effective TKI produced apoptosis in EOL-1 cells as determined by microscopy, Annexin-V/PI, and caspase-3-staining. In addition, PDGFR-targeting TKI were found to inhibit cytokine-induced migration of EOL-1 cells. In all bioassays employed, ponatinib was found to be the most potent compound in EOL-1 cells. In addition, ponatinib was found to downregulate expression of the activation-linked surface antigen CD63 on EOL-1 cells, and to suppress growth of primary neoplastic eosinophils. We also examined drug effects on Ba/F3 cells expressing two clinically relevant imatinib-resistant mutant-forms of FIP1L1-PDGFRA, namely T674I and D842V. Strong inhibitory effects on both mutants were only seen with ponatinib. In summary, novel PDGFR-targeting TKI may be alternative agents for the treatment of patients with imatinib-resistant CEL. Although several different PDGFR-targeting agents are effective, the most potent drug appears to be ponatinib. PMID:24407160

  9. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia with t(6;11)(q27;q23) translocation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Chiba, K; Toyoshima, N; Kurosawa, M; Hashino, S; Musashi, M; Asaka, M

    2001-09-01

    We report a rare case of chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) with a chromosomal abnormality of t(6;11)(q27;q23). The patient was diagnosed as having thyroid cancer with metastases to the lung and cervical lymph nodes in 1993. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT), total thyroidectomy, and radiotherapy were performed. The patient was also diagnosed as having prostatic cancer with bone metastasis in July 1999, and hormonal therapy was performed. At the time of the diagnosis of prostatic cancer, leukocytosis with eosinophilia was also revealed. Thereafter, cytogenetical analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of bone marrow showed t(6;11)(q27;q23) translocation and MLL/AF6 fusion products, respectively. No transcripts of the BCR/ABL chimeric gene were found by RT-PCR in bone marrow. Analysis of serum cytokines revealed a slight elevation of GM-CSF but no elevation of IL-3 or IL-5. Tissue damage due to infiltration of eosinophils was not observed throughout the clinical course. On the basis of the cytogenetic and molecular abnormality, the patient was diagnosed as having CEL, rather than reactive eosinophilia due to thyroid or prostatic cancer or other reactive inflammation. This is the first case report of CEL with t(6;11)(q27;q23) translocation. PMID:11669308

  10. FIP1L1-PDGFRA in chronic eosinophilic leukemia and BCR-ABL1 in chronic myeloid leukemia affect different leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Crescenzi, B; Chase, A; Starza, R La; Beacci, D; Rosti, V; Gallì, A; Specchia, G; Martelli, M F; Vandenberghe, P; Cools, J; Jones, A V; Cross, N C P; Marynen, P; Mecucci, C

    2007-03-01

    We investigated genetically affected leukemic cells in FIP1L1-PDGFRA+ chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) and in BCR-ABL1+ chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), two myeloproliferative disorders responsive to imatinib. Fluorescence in situ hybridization specific for BCR-ABL1 and for FIP1L1-PDGFRA was combined with cytomorphology or with lineage-restricted monoclonal antibodies and applied in CML and CEL, respectively. In CEL the amount of FIP1L1-PDGFRA+ cells among CD34+ and CD133+ cells, B and T lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes were within normal ranges. Positivity was found in eosinophils, granulo-monocytes and varying percentages of erythrocytes. In vitro assays with imatinib showed reduced survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells but no reduction in colony-forming unit growth medium (CFU-GM) growth. In CML the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene was detected in CD34+/CD133+ cells, granulo-monocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes, megakaryocytes and B-lymphocytes. Growth of both peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CFU-GM was inhibited by imatinib. This study provided evidence for marked differences in the leukemic masses which are targeted by imatinib in CEL or CML, as harboring FIP1L1-PDGFRA or BCR-ABL1. PMID:17215855

  11. Effect of Platelet-Activating Factor and Platelet Factor 4 on Eosinophil Adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobana Hayashi; Junichi Chihara; Yohnosuke Kobayashi; Tomokazu Kakazu; Dai Kurachi; Takahiro Yamamoto; Shigenori Nakajima

    1994-01-01

    The effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) on the adhesion of isolated human eosinophils or eosinophilic cell lines (EoL-1, EoL-3) was examined. Both PAF and PF4 augmented eosinophil adhesion to plates coated with AB plasma or recombinant soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (r-sICAM-1). These findings suggest that PAF and PF4 not only modulate chemotactic activity of eosinophils

  12. Analysis of Wilms tumor gene (WT1) expression in acute leukemia patients with special reference to the differential diagnosis between eosinophilic leukemia and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Menssen, H D; Schmidt, A; Bartelt, S; Arjomand, A; Thomsen, H; Leben, R; Kath, R; Thiel, E

    2000-01-01

    Continuous Wilms' tumor gene (WT1) expression is a typical feature of leukemic blasts in AML, ALL, and blast crisis CML patients. It is easily detectable by a variety of RT-PCR protocols, which differ mainly in their sensitivity. The nuclear WT1 protein can be found in blasts of approximately 50-60% of acute leukemia patients at diagnosis. Conversely, WT1 is only transiently expressed in normal hemopoiesis. Early CD34+ hemopoietic progenitors express WT1, whereas no WT1 mRNA transcripts can be found in mature blood cells and differentiation-induced committed CD34- progenitors. As a powerful complementary diagnostic tool, testing for WT1 expression can be helpful to discriminate between eosinophilic leukemia (EoL) patients and patients with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes. Conflicting data about the usefulness of testing for WT1 expression to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) in treated leukemia patients will be discussed. Finally, research strategies to circumvent shortcomings in detecting leukemia-associated WT1 expression will be outlined. PMID:10674900

  13. The FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene cooperates with IL5 to induce murine hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES)\\/chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL)-like disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiyuki Yamada; Marc E. Rothenberg; Andrew W. Lee; Hiroko Saito Akei; Eric B. Brandt; David A. Williams; Jose A. Cancelas

    Dysregulated tyrosine kinase activity by the Fip1-like1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) (F\\/P) fusion gene has been identified as a cause of clonal hypereosinophilic syn- drome (HES), called F\\/P-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) in humans. However, transplantation of F\\/P-trans- duced hematopoietic stem cells\\/progeni- tors (F\\/P HSCs\\/Ps) into mice results in a chronic myelogenous leukemia-like dis- ease, which does not

  14. WT1 transcript amount discriminates secondary or reactive eosinophilia from idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome or chronic eosinophilic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cilloni, D; Messa, F; Martinelli, G; Gottardi, E; Arruga, F; Defilippi, I; Carturan, S; Messa, E; Fava, M; Giugliano, E; Rosso, V; Catalano, R; Merante, S; Nicoli, P; Rondoni, M; Ottaviani, E; Soverini, S; Tiribelli, M; Pane, F; Baccarani, M; Saglio, G

    2007-07-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) comprise a spectrum of indolent to aggressive diseases characterized by persistent hypereosinophilia. Hypereosinophilia can result from the presence of a defect in the hematopoietic stem cell giving rise to eosinophilia, it can be present in many myeloproliferative disorders or alternatively it may be a reactive form, secondary to many clinical conditions. The hybrid gene FIP1L1-PDGRFalpha was identified in a subset of patients presenting with HES or chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL). In spite of this, the majority of HES patients do not present detectable molecular lesions and for many of them the diagnosis is based on exclusion criteria and sometimes it remains doubt. In this study we explored the possibility to distinguish between HES/CEL and reactive hypereosinophilia based on WT1 transcript amount. For this purpose, 312 patients with hypereosinophilia were characterized at the molecular and cytogenetic level and analyzed for WT1 expression at diagnosis and during follow-up. This study clearly demonstrates that WT1 quantitative assessment allows to discriminate between HES/CEL and reactive eosinophilia and represents a useful tool for disease monitoring especially in the patients lacking a marker of clonality. PMID:17508006

  15. The Spectrum of FIP1L1-PDGFRA-Associated Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia: New Insights Based on a Survey of 44 Cases.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fanny; Renneville, Aline; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Mastrilli, Samuel; Ackermann, Felix; Cayuela, Jean Michel; Rousselot, Philippe; Schmidt-Tanguy, Aline; Fain, Olivier; Michel, Marc; de Jaureguiberry, Jean-Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Cony-Makhoul, Pascale; Lefranc, Didier; Sène, Damien; Cottin, Vincent; Hamidou, Mohamed; Lidove, Olivier; Baruchel, André; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Bletry, Olivier; Preudhomme, Claude; Capron, Monique; Prin, Lionel; Kahn, Jean Emmanuel

    2013-08-26

    Imatinib is the treatment of choice for FIP1L1/PDGFRA (F/P)-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia (F/P CEL), but its optimal dosing, duration, and possibility of discontinuation are still a matter of debate. A retrospective multicenter study was conducted with 44 F/P CEL patients identified in the French Eosinophil Network and treated with imatinib. The most frequently involved systems were skin (57%), spleen (52%), and lung (45%), and eosinophilic heart disease was observed in 15 patients (34%). Complete hematologic response (CHR) was obtained in all patients, and complete molecular response (CMR) in 95% of patients (average initial imatinib dose, 165 mg/d). For 29 patients the imatinib dose was tapered with a maintenance dose of 58 mg/d (±34 mg/d), allowing sustained CHR and CMR. None of the patients developed resistance during a median follow-up of 52.3 months (range, 1.4-97.4 mo). Imatinib was stopped in 11 patients; 6 of the patients subsequently relapsed, but 5 remained in persistent CHR or CMR (range, 9-88 mo). These results confirm that an initial low-dose regimen of imatinib (100 mg/d) followed by a lower maintenance dose can be efficient for obtaining long-term CHR and CMR. Our data also suggest that imatinib can be stopped in some patients without molecular relapse. PMID:23982058

  16. Identification of JAK2 as a mediator of FIP1L1-PDGFRA-induced eosinophil growth and function in CEL.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Guangsen; Li, Cui; He, Dan; Li, Xinying; Zhang, Chunfang; Tang, Faqing; Deng, Xiyun; Lu, Jingchen; Tang, Youhong; Li, Ruijuan; Chen, Zhuchu; Duan, Chaojun

    2012-01-01

    The Fip1-like1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha fusion gene (F/P) arising in the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC),causes 14% to 60% of patients with hypereosinophilia syndrome (HES). These patients, classified as having F/P (+) chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), present with clonal eosinophilia and display a more aggressive disease phenotype than patients with F/P (-) HES patients. The mechanisms underlying predominant eosinophil lineage targeting and the cytotoxicity of eosinophils in this leukemia remain unclear. Given that the Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) signaling pathway is key to cytokine receptor-mediated eosinophil development and activated Stat3 and Stat5 regulate the expression of genes involved in F/P malignant transformation, we investigated whether and how JAK proteins were involved in the pathogenesis of F/P-induced CEL. F/P activation of JAK2, Stat3 and Stat5, were confirmed in all the 11 F/P (+) CEL patients examined. In vitro inhibition of JAK2 in EOL-1, primary F/P(+) CEL cells (PC) and T674I F/P Imatinib resistant cells(IR) by either JAK2-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) or the tryphostin derivative AG490(AG490), significantly reduced cellular proliferation and induced cellular apoptosis. The F/P can enhance the IL-5-induced JAK2 activation, and further results indicated that JAK2 inhibition blocked IL-5-induced cellular migration and activation of the EOL-1 and PC cells in vitro. F/P-stimulation of the JAK2 suppressed cells led to a significantly reduction in Stat3 activation, but relatively normal induction of Stat5 activation. Interestingly, JAK2 inhibition also reduced PI3K, Akt and NF-?B activity in a dose-dependent manner, and suppressed expression levels of c-Myc and Survivin. These results strongly suggest that JAK2 is activated by F/P and is required for F/P stimulation of cellular proliferation and infiltration, possibly through induction of c-Myc and Survivin expression via activation of multiple signaling pathways, including NF-?B, Stat3, and PI3K/Akt. PMID:22523564

  17. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia-not otherwise specified has a poor prognosis with unresponsiveness to conventional treatment and high risk of acute transformation.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Grzegorz; Soja, Anna; Bartkowska-Chrobok, Aleksandra; Kyrcz-Krzemie?, S?awomira

    2012-06-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia-not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS) is a rare disorder with hypereosinophilia and an increased number of blood or marrow blast (<20%) or an evidence of eosinophil clonality.We evaluated the clinical outcome of 10 patients with CEL-NOS. Seven males and three females at a median age of 62 years (range, 23–73) were included. The median leukocyte count at diagnosis was 33.4 3109/l (range, 9.3–175.0) with a median eosinophil count of 15.6 3 109/l (range, 1.5–136.0). Median hemoglobin and platelets were 11.0 g/dl (range, 8.3–13.3) and 158 3 109/l (range, 31.0–891.0), respectively. Clinical manifestations included splenomegaly (n 5 7), hepatomegaly (n 56), cardiac failure (n 5 2), and lung infiltrations (n 5 1). Median survival from diagnosis to death for entire cohort was 22.2 months (range,2.2–186.2). Five of the 10 studied patients developed acute transformation(AT) after median of 20 months from diagnosis (range, 1.6–41.9).None of patients with AT is alive at the time of last follow-up. Median time from AT to death was 2 months (range, 1.0–6.1). Among five patients who did not develop AT, three died in active disease. Two patients are alive in complete remission; first underwent allogeneic stem-cell transplantation preceding by intensive induction chemotherapy;the second remains on imatinib with hydroxyurea. Except the latter patient, imatinib was ineffective in our study population. CEL-NOS is a rare and aggressive disease with high rate of AT and resistance to conventional treatment. PMID:22473587

  18. The FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene cooperates with IL-5 to induce murine hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES)/chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL)-like disease.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Rothenberg, Marc E; Lee, Andrew W; Akei, Hiroko Saito; Brandt, Eric B; Williams, David A; Cancelas, Jose A

    2006-05-15

    Dysregulated tyrosine kinase activity by the Fip1-like1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) (F/P) fusion gene has been identified as a cause of clonal hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), called F/P-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) in humans. However, transplantation of F/P-transduced hematopoietic stem cells/progenitors (F/P(+) HSCs/Ps) into mice results in a chronic myelogenous leukemia-like disease, which does not resemble HES. Because a subgroup of patients with HES show T-cell-dependent interleukin-5 (IL-5) overexpression, we determined if expression of the F/P fusion gene in the presence of transgenic T-cell IL-5 overexpression in mice induces HES-like disease. Mice that received a transplant of CD2-IL-5-transgenic F/P(+) HSC/Ps (IL-5Tg-F/P) developed intense leukocytosis, strikingly high eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of nonhematopoietic as well as hematopoietic tissues, a phenotype resembling human HES. The disease phenotype was transferable to secondary transplant recipients of a high cell dose, suggesting involvement of a short-term repopulating stem cell or an early myeloid progenitor. Induction of significant eosinophilia was specific for F/P since expression of another fusion oncogene, p210-BCR/ABL, in the presence of IL-5 overexpression was characterized by a significantly lower eosinophilia than IL-5Tg-F/P recipients. These results suggest that F/P is not sufficient to induce a HES/CEL-like disease but requires a second event associated with IL-5 overexpression. PMID:16418325

  19. FIP1L1-PDGFRA-Positive Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia: A Low-Burden Disease with Dramatic Response to Imatinib - A Report of 5 Cases from South India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, An?l N.; Sathyanarayanan, Vishwanath; Devi, Visweswariah Lakshmi; Rajkumar, Namratha N.; Das, Umesh; Dutt, Sarjana; Chinnagiriyappa, Lakshmaiah K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Eosinophilia associated with FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement represents a subset of chronic eosinophilic leukemia and affected patients are sensitive to imatinib treatment. This study was undertaken to learn the prevalence and associated clinicopathologic and genetic features of FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement in a cohort of 26 adult patients presenting with profound eosinophilia (>1.5x109/L). Materials and Methods: Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and gel electrophoresis were used for the detection of FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement. Results: Five male patients with splenomegaly carried the FIP1L1-PDGFRA gene rearrangement. All patients achieved complete hematological response within 4 weeks of starting imatinib. One patient had previous deep vein thrombosis and 1 patient had cardiomyopathy, which improved with steroids and imatinib. Conventional cytogenetics was normal in all these patients. No primary resistance to imatinib was noted. Conclusion: This study indicates the need to do the FIP1L1-PDGFRA assay in patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome. Prompt treatment of this condition with imatinib can lead to complete hematological response and resolution of the organ damage that can be seen in this setting. PMID:24764730

  20. Eosinophilic Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Akuthota, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Summary: This review starts with discussions of several infectious causes of eosinophilic pneumonia, which are almost exclusively parasitic in nature. Pulmonary infections due specifically to Ascaris, hookworms, Strongyloides, Paragonimus, filariasis, and Toxocara are considered in detail. The discussion then moves to noninfectious causes of eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration, including allergic sensitization to Aspergillus, acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonias, Churg-Strauss syndrome, hypereosinophilic syndromes, and pulmonary eosinophilia due to exposure to specific medications or toxins. PMID:23034324

  1. Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A-Z > Leukemia: What Is Leukemia? In This Topic What Is Leukemia? Who Is at Risk? Symptoms ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Life After Cancer Other Cancer Topics The information ...

  2. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Google+ LinkedIn Merck Manuals Consumer Version Blood Disorders White Blood Cell Disorders Eosinophilic Disorders Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome Resources In This Article Drugs Mentioned In This ...

  3. FIP1L1/PDGFRalpha synergizes with SCF to induce systemic mastocytosis in a murine model of chronic eosinophilic leukemia/hypereosinophilic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Sanchez-Aguilera, Abel; Brandt, Eric B; McBride, Melissa; Al-Moamen, Nabeel J H; Finkelman, Fred D; Williams, David A; Cancelas, Jose A; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2008-09-15

    Expression of the fusion gene FIP1-like 1/platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (FIP1L1/PDGFRalpha, F/P) and dysregulated c-kit tyrosine kinase activity are associated with systemic mastocytosis (SM) and chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL)/hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). We analyzed SM development and pathogenesis in a murine CEL model induced by F/P in hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors (HSCs/Ps) and T-cell overexpression of IL-5 (F/P-positive CEL mice). These mice had more mast cell (MC) infiltration in the bone marrow (BM), spleen, skin, and small intestine than control mice that received a transplant of IL-5 transgenic HSCs/Ps. Moreover, intestinal MC infiltration induced by F/P expression was severely diminished, but not abolished, in mice injected with neutralizing anti-c-kit antibody, suggesting that endogenous stem cell factor (SCF)/c-kit interaction synergizes with F/P expression to induce SM. F/P-expressing BM HSCs/Ps showed proliferation and MC differentiation in vitro in the absence of cytokines. SCF stimulated greater migration of F/P-expressing MCs than mock vector-transduced MCs. F/P-expressing bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) survived longer than mock vector control BMMCs in cytokine-deprived conditions. The increased proliferation and survival correlated with increased SCF-induced Akt activation. In summary, F/P synergistically promotes MC development, activation, and survival in vivo and in vitro in response to SCF. PMID:18539901

  4. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... produce more of them in response to Allergic disorders Skin conditions Parasitic and fungal infections Autoimmune diseases Some cancers Bone marrow disorders In some conditions, the eosinophils can move outside ...

  5. [Eosinophilic esophagitis].

    PubMed

    Kusunose, Hiroaki; Ohara, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic condition of increasing recognition and prevalence. Because of elevated total IgE levels and high rates of concurrent allergic diseases compared with the general population, EoE appears to be an antigen-driven immunologic process that caused by allergens like food or aeroallergens. EoE is a disease that features dense intraepithelial infiltration by eosinophils which cause excessive mucosal immunologic reactions which cause several symptoms that mostly involve dysphagia. For establishment of the diagnosis, infiltration of eosinophils (? 20 eosinophils/HPF) should be identified in an esophageal mucosal biopsy specimen. In treatment of patients have a possibility of EoE, proton-pump inhibitors(PPIs) must be tried as first choice. Other proved therapeutic options include topical or systemic corticosteroids, chronic dietary elimination, and esophageal dilation, but local administration of glucocorticoids has recently been reported as useful therapy for EoE. PMID:26165084

  6. Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  7. Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... FR. The acute leukemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ... Brien S. The chronic leukemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

  8. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allergic or chemical reactions and certain infections. Eosinophilic Pneumonia Eosinophilic pneumonia describes a category of pneumonias that ... low oxygen in the bloodstream. Acute Idiopathic Eosinophilic Pneumonia Acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia is a more sudden ...

  9. Idarubicin and Cytarabine With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  10. Tipifarnib and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Blast Phase

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-14

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Blastic Phase; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Disease; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  11. Leukemia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains what leukemia is and reviews the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  12. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia with the FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha fusion gene in a patient with a history of combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Kurata, Masayuki; Togami, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Haruyuki; Watanabe, Naoko; Matsushita, Akiko; Maeda, Akinori; Nagai, Kenichi; Sada, Akiko; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Takayuki

    2006-02-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was diagnosed in December 2000 in a 43-year-old man on the basis of persistent eosinophilia (11.7 x 10(9)/L) and a normal karyotype of the bone marrow cells. He had developed intra-abdominal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and in 1992 had received 3 courses of combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine, methotrexate, bleomycin, and prednisolone. The patient was orally given prednisolone (10 mg/day) and cyclophosphamide (50 mg/day) as HES treatment without a subsequent improvement of the eosinophilia. In May 2003, anemia (hemoglobin, 7.9 g/dL) and thrombocytopenia (65 x 10(9)/L) manifested with progressive eosinophilia (21.0 x 10(9)/L) and a small number of blasts. The patient became febrile and was admitted in July 2003. Cytogenetic reexamination of the bone marrow cells disclosed the deletion of 4q12, indicating the presence of a fusion of the Fip1-like 1 (FIP1L1) gene to the plateletderived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha) gene and consequently the clonal nature of his hematopoietic cells. DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that the breakpoints of the FIP1L1 and PDGFRalpha genes were present in exon 9 and exon 12, respectively. Treatment with imatinib mesylate (300 mg/day) promptly brought about complete remission. Although a number of similar eosinophilic cases have been reported, our patient may be the first such patient with a history of chemotherapy. PMID:16513534

  13. Tanespimycin and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  14. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Down Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-10

    Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  15. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions. ... to show up as orange-red granules. The technician then counts how ... white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count.

  16. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A subset of eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris A. Liacouras; Jonathan E. Markowitz

    1999-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) was first described over 50 years ago. Despite its long history, it remains an ill-defined\\u000a and poorly understood entity. EG can present in a number of ways, none of which are exclusive to the disorder. EG has features\\u000a of allergy and immune dysregulation but does not clearly fit into the category of allergic or immune disorder. While

  17. [Eosinophilic esophagitis diagnostic features].

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of other causes of tissue eosinophilia. The clinical course of EoE like gastroesophageal reflux disease with eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. EoE widely diagnosed abroad in children and adults, whereas in Russia the disease is almost never diagnosed. Upon detection of eosinophilia in the biopsy of the esophagus should exclude other causes. The correct clinical diagnosis in combination with the study of biopsy tissue of the esophagus and other laboratory methods (including allergic testing) is crucial in achieving the effectiveness of therapy EoE. PMID:25993874

  18. Recent Advances in Eosinophil Biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon P. Hogan

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophils are pleiotropic multi-functional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of diverse inflammatory responses. Recent studies examining eosinophil biology have focused on delineating the molecular basis of FIP1L1\\/PDGRF?-fusion gene induced HES, the molecular steps involved in eosinophil recruitment in tumor-associated eosinophilia and EGID, and the role of eosinophils in asthma. In this review, these studies are summarized, focusing on the

  19. Radiographic abnormalities in eosinophilic esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Feczko; Robert D. Halpert; Martin Zonca

    1985-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an unusual condition of unknown cause in which there is eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract usually accompanied by a peripheral eosinophilia. Rarely, it can also involve the esophagus. Recently, the authors have encountered 3 cases of eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. All patients had a strong history of allergies. Two of our patients have had upper

  20. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Strictures, Impactions, Dysphagia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seema Khan; Susan R. Orenstein; Carlo Di Lorenzo; Samuel A. Kocoshis; Philip E. Putnam; Luther Sigurdsson; Theresa M. Shalaby

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, long known to be a feature of acid reflux, has recently been described in patients with food allergies and macroscopically furrowed esophagus. The pathophysiology and optimal management of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis is unclear. We describe our clinical experience related to eosinophilic esophagitis and obstructive symptoms in children and propose etiopathogenesis and management guidelines. Twelve children with obstructive

  1. Equine eosinophilic enterocolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Kostiuk, D

    2000-01-01

    A 4-year-old Morgan stallion was presented with a 9-week history of diarrhea. Biopsy of nodules in the rectal mucosa yielded a diagnosis of eosinophilic enterocolitis. Treatment with steroids was instituted and the feces firmed within 2 days. Continued treatment with oral prednisone kept the feces at a normal consistency for 4 months. PMID:11126494

  2. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a severe and rapidly progressive lung disease that can cause fatal respiratory failure. Since this disease exhibits totally different clinical features to other eosinophilic lung diseases (ELD), it is not difficult to distinguish it among other ELDs. However, this can be similar to other diseases causing acute respiratory distress syndrome or severe community-acquired pneumonia, so the diagnosis can be delayed. The cause of this disease in the majority of patients is unknown, even though some cases may be caused by smoke, other patients inhaled dust or drugs. The diagnosis is established by bronchoalveolar lavage. Treatment with corticosteroids shows a rapid and dramatic positive response without recurrence. PMID:23483613

  3. Eosinophil Purification from Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Akuthota, Praveen; Capron, Kelsey; Weller, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are granulocytes integral to allergic inflammation and parasitic responses and comprise 1–4% of the circulating leukocytes in human beings under normal conditions. Isolation of human eosinophils allows for ex vivo and in vitro experimentation, providing a valuable tool for the study of allergic mechanisms. Here, we describe a technique for the isolation of human eosinophils by negative selection from whole blood obtained by venipuncture. PMID:24986603

  4. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A.; Prado, Carla M.; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma. PMID:23616768

  5. ?-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis.

    PubMed

    Mogilevski, Tamara; Nickless, David; Hume, Sam

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man with a history of childhood asthma presented with a 2-week history of watery diarrhoea and marked peripheral eosinophilia in the setting of recent use of cephalexin. His colonoscopy revealed patchy colitis. Biopsies were consistent with eosinophilic colitis. Two months later he received a course of amoxicillin resulting in recurrence of peripheral eosinophilia. Given the time-frame of ?-lactam administration to symptom onset and elimination of all other precipitating causes, he was diagnosed with ?-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis. The patient's symptoms resolved and peripheral eosinophil count decreased with no specific treatment. Eosinophilic colitis is a rare heterogeneous condition, the pathogenesis of which is likely to be an interplay between environmental and genetic factors. It can be secondary to a helminthic infection or a drug reaction and has been associated with ulcerative colitis. If secondary causes of eosinophilic colitis have been excluded, the mainstay of treatment is with corticosteroids. PMID:26106168

  6. Eosinophilic esophagitis in children.

    PubMed

    Trivedy, Prerna; Teitelbaum, Jonathan E

    2015-06-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively common chronic immune-mediated disease of the esophagus characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction that vary by age. Histologically, EoE results in marked esophageal eosinophilia despite treatment with high-dose proton pump inhibition. The cornerstone of treatment is dietary restriction and/or pharmacologic therapy, mainly with topical steroids. This review briefly describes dietary therapy, but focuses on the various medical options in the treatment of EoE, with an emphasis on steroid-based therapy. Numerous landmark studies are reviewed describing the symptomatic and histologic endpoints as well as safety data. The literature strongly supports the use of topical steroid therapy as a means of significantly decreasing eosinophilic mucosal disease. Specifically, high-dose fluticasone propionate appears to be very effective, and has been shown to result in the resolution of mucosal eosinophilia in a large percentage of treated patients. Long-term studies over many years will need to determine whether mucosal healing will change the natural history of this stricture-causing disease. In addition to topical therapy, various other drug-based therapies are reported, including newer immune-based monoclonal antibodies. PMID:25792526

  7. Immunohistochemical artifact for nitrotyrosine in eosinophils or eosinophil containing tissue.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Keiki; Nakajima, Madoka; Kodama, Norio; Kubo, Masayuki; Kimura, Shingo; Nagase, Hirohumi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2002-11-01

    Immunohistochemical artifacts for nitrotyrosine were investigated in eosinophils with regard to fixatives. Immunoreactivity for nitrotyrosine was revealed in separated eosinophils and in gastric mucosa fixed with periodate, lysine-paraformaldehyde (PLP). The increase in immunoreactivity by PLP was due to periodate itself, a component of PLP. Nitrotyrosine formed by peroxidase using NO2- and H2O2 or by peroxynitrite was not completely inhibited by 100 mM dithionite but the immunoreactivity for nitrotyrosine antibodies by PLP was completely inhibited by 5.7 mM dithionite. Although untreated eosinophils or ovalbumin (OVA) did not show protein tyrosine nitration in a standard Western blot, the treatment of the blotted membrane with PLP increased the reactivities of proteins from eosinophils with anti-nitrotyrosine antibodies. The increase in immunoreactivity of OVA with anti-nitrotyrosine antibodies by PLP did not change with pre-treatment with dithionite but was abolished by treatment with dithionite after PLP fixation. In HPLC assays, periodate did not generate nitrotyrosine from L-tyrosine and aminotyrosine. These results suggest that the treatment of eosinophils or eosinophil-containing tissues with PLP fixative augments the immunoreactivity of nitrotyrosine antibodies with eosinophils due to the formation of epitopes similar to nitrotyrosine by an oxidation reaction of periodate, which evokes an artifact in nitrotyrosine immunohistochemistry. PMID:12592668

  8. An Overview of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyojin

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease affecting both children and adults. The condition is characterized by an eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. Symptoms of esophageal dysfunction include dysphagia, food impaction and symptoms mimicking gastroesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic examination typically reveals mucosal fragility, ring or corrugated mucosa, longitudinal furrows, whitish plaques or a small caliber esophagus. Histologic findings of >15 eosinophils per high-power field is the diagnostic hallmark of EoE. An elimination diet, topical corticosteroids or endoscopic dilation for fibrostenotic disease serve as effective therapeutic option. PMID:25368745

  9. Pathogenesis, classification, and therapy of eosinophilia and eosinophil disorders.

    PubMed

    Valent, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Eosinophilia is a recurrent feature and diagnostic clue in several hematologic malignancies. In stem cell- and myelopoietic neoplasms, eosinophils are derived from the malignant clone, whereas in lymphoid neoplasms and reactive states, eosinophilia is usually triggered by eosinopoietic cytokines. Myeloid neoplasms typically presenting with eosinophilia include chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), other myeloproliferative neoplasms, some acute leukemias, advanced mast cell disorders, and rare forms of myelodysplastic syndromes. Diagnostic evaluations in unexplained eosinophilia have to take these diagnoses into account. In such patients, a thorough hematologic work-up including bone marrow histology and immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, molecular markers, and a complete staging of potentially affected organ systems has to be initiated. Endomyocardial fibrosis, the most dangerous cardiovascular complication of the hypereosinophilic state, is frequently detected in PDGFR-mutated neoplasms, specifically in FIP1L1/PDGFRA+ CEL, but is usually not seen in other myeloid neoplasms or reactive eosinophilia, even if eosinophilia is recorded for many years. Treatment of hypereosinophilic patients depends on the variant of disease, presence of end organ damage, molecular targets, and the overall situation in each case. In a group of patients, oncogenic tyrosine kinases (TK) such as FIP1L1/PDGFRA, can be employed as therapeutic targets by using imatinib or other TK-blocking agents. PMID:19246139

  10. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Associated with Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Yuko; Mizutani, Yoko; Shu, En; Kanoh, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Seishima, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is clinically characterized by symmetrical scleroderma-like indurations of the skin with pain. The histological features are fascial inflammation with lymphocytes and eosinophils as well as thickened and fibrotic fascia. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of the underlying muscle are rarely observed. We report a 69-year-old Japanese woman who presented with multiple areas of glossy induration and painful peau d'orange-like lesions on the chest and four extremities. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hyperintense thickening of the fascia of the lower extremities. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen from the induration showed marked fibrinoid degeneration of the fascia and the neighboring muscle with mixed cellular infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils. The predominant CD8+ lymphocytic infiltrates were observed by immunohistological study. A diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis with myositis was made. Oral administration of prednisolone and discontinuation of exercise significantly improved the lesions and pain. PMID:26034478

  11. High Intraepithelial Eosinophil Counts in Esophageal Squamous Epithelium Are Not Specific for Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonali Rodrigo; Gebran Abboud; Daniel Oh; Steven R. DeMeester; Jeffrey Hagen; John Lipham; Tom R. DeMeester; Parakrama Chandrasoma

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVESThe histologic criterion of >20 eosinophils per high power field (hpf) is presently believed to establish the diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis (IEE). This is based on data that the number of intraepithelial eosinophils in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is less than 20\\/hpf. This study tests this belief.METHODSPathology records were searched for patients who had an eosinophil count >20\\/hpf in

  12. Targeting Eosinophils in Allergy, Inflammation and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils can regulate local immune and inflammatory responses, and their accumulation in the blood and tissue is associated with several inflammatory and infectious diseases. As such, therapies aimed at eosinophils may help control diverse diseases, including atopic disorders such as asthma and allergy, and diseases not primarily associated with eosinophils such as autoimmunity and malignancy. Recently, eosinophil-targeted therapeutic agents aimed at blocking specific steps involved in eosinophil development, migration and activation have entered clinical testing and have produced encouraging results and insights into the role of eosinophils. Herein, we describe recent advances in the development of first generation eosinophil-targeted therapies and highlight strategies for using personalized medicine approaches for eosinophilic disorders. PMID:23334207

  13. The management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew; Aceves, Seema S; Spergel, Jonathan M; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic, chronic esophageal inflammatory disease resistant to acid suppressive therapy and is associated with variable symptoms indicative of upper gastrointestinal dysfunction. Per current guidelines established by The International Group of Eosinophil Researchers (TIGERS), the diagnosis is made in symptomatic patients after a biopsy that confirms a peak eosinophil level of ?15 eosinophils/high-powered field (HPF). The esophagus is distinguished by pronounced tissue eosinophilia in which dietary antigens are key inciting factors for disease pathogenesis; EoE being reversed by elimination of triggering food allergens suggests that the disease is mediated in part by allergic sensitization to foods. Moreover, experimental EoE in mice can be induced not only via food exposure but also via aeroallergen exposure. Consistent with an allergic etiology rather than an acid-induced esophagitis, swallowed glucocorticoids are effective for the treatment of EoE. Evaluation by an allergist is a recommended part of the diagnostic workup, especially for management of allergic comorbidities. Clinical practice for the evaluation of patients with EoE mainly relies on prick skin tests due to the ease and validation of these tests in the context of immediate hypersensitivity. However, both atopy patch testing and serum IgE testing have been used in EoE. Herein, we reviewed the basic clinical features of EoE with a focus on the approach to diagnosing causative food allergens and to dietary therapy. PMID:24565538

  14. [Ultrastructural observation of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in eosinophilic pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishida, T; Matsumura, Y; Miyake, A; Amitani, R

    1992-11-01

    To investigate the morphological changes of local eosinophils in the lungs, we observed the ultrastructure of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with eosinophilic pneumonia. We also measured the BALF concentration of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as an index of the activation of eosinophils. The eosinophils in BALF from patients with eosinophilic pneumonia showed various ultrastructural changes compared to eosinophils in BALF of the control patient. Changes included degranulation or disintegration of specific granules, cytoplasmic vacuolation, increased lipid droplets and the appearance of Charcot-Leiden crystals. These changes of BALF eosinophils were more prominent than those of peripheral blood eosinophils. ECP concentration (mean +/- SD) in BALF from patients with eosinophilic pneumonia was 12.2 +/- 7.78 micrograms/l which was significantly higher than the concentrations in patients with bronchial asthma not during an attack (1.36 +/- 2.08 micrograms/l) and in healthy control subjects (2.14 +/- 4.62 micrograms/l). These results suggest that local eosinophils in the lungs are activated and degranulated by various stimuli and undergo structural degeneration in eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:1484434

  15. Dyspnea on daptomycin: eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Wojtaszczyk, Ann; Jankowich, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of drug-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia with characteristic imaging and bronchioloaveolar lavage (BAL) findings. Although not a common diagnosis, it is important to consider in the right clinical scenario, including a patient with presumed pneumonia that does not respond to typical treatment. Diagnosis is confirmed by bronchoscopy with BAL. For drug-induced types, treatment includes removal of the offending agent. Corticosteroids are used if symptoms are severe and can result in rapid clinical improvement. PMID:26020264

  16. The 'skinny' on eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Katzka, David A

    2015-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis--a disease that even most physicians know little about--is becoming increasingly common. Often starting in childhood with eating difficulties and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, it progresses with increasing inflammation, fibrosis, and strictures until the esophagus is visibly narrowed on radiography. Early recognition and treatment with an allergen-avoidance diet and steroids are critical to avoiding or postponing complications. PMID:25897596

  17. Activation states of blood eosinophils in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Mats W.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation rich in eosinophils. Airway eosinophilia is associated with exacerbations and has been suggested to play a role in airway remodeling. Recruitment of eosinophils from the circulation requires that blood eosinophils become activated, leading to their arrest on the endothelium and extravasation. Circulating eosinophils can be envisioned as potentially being in different activation states, including non-activated, pre-activated or “primed”, or fully activated. In addition, the circulation can potentially be deficient of pre-activated or activated eosinophils, because such cells have marginated on activated endothelium or extravasated into the tissue. A number of eosinophil-surface proteins, including CD69, L-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54), CD44, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, CD162), cytokine receptors, Fc receptors, integrins including ?M integrin (CD11b), and activated conformations of Fc receptors and integrins have been proposed to report cell activation. Variation in eosinophil activation states may be associated with asthma activity. Eosinophil-surface proteins proposed to be activation markers, with a particular focus on integrins, and evidence for associations between activation states of blood eosinophils and features of asthma are reviewed here. Partial activation of ?1 and ?2 integrins on blood eosinophils, reported by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) N29 and KIM-127, is associated with impaired pulmonary function and airway eosinophilia, respectively, in non-severe asthma. The association with lung function does not occur in severe asthma, presumably due to greater eosinophil extravasation, specifically of activated or pre-activated cells, in severe disease. PMID:24552191

  18. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    MedlinePLUS

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  19. Pattern-recognition receptors in human eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Kvarnhammar, Anne Månsson; Cardell, Lars Olaf

    2012-01-01

    The pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family includes Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). They recognize various microbial signatures or host-derived danger signals and trigger an immune response. Eosinophils are multifunctional leucocytes involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes, including parasitic helminth infection, allergic diseases, tissue injury and tumour immunity. Human eosinophils express several PRRs, including TLR1–5, TLR7, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, Dectin-1 and RAGE. Receptor stimulation induces survival, oxidative burst, activation of the adhesion system and release of cytokines (interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-? and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor), chemokines (interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-?) and cytotoxic granule proteins (eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein). It is also evident that eosinophils play an immunomodulatory role by interacting with surrounding cells. The presence of a broad range of PRRs in eosinophils indicates that they are not only involved in defence against parasitic helminths, but also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. From a clinical perspective, eosinophilic PRRs seem to be involved in both allergic and malignant diseases by causing exacerbations and affecting tumour growth, respectively. PMID:22242941

  20. Childhood Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  1. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Raheem, Mayumi; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf), lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast-cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with transforming growth factor-? to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE. PMID:24910846

  2. Congenital leukemia.

    PubMed

    Raj, Aishwarya; Talukdar, Sewali; Das, Smita; Gogoi, Pabitra Kumar; Das, Damodar; Bhattacharya, Jina

    2014-09-01

    Congenital leukemia is a rare but a well-documented disease in which leukemic process is detected at birth or very shortly thereafter (Philip McCoy and Roy Overton, Commun Clin Cytom 22:85-88, 1995). These leukemias represent approximately 0.8 % of all childhood leukemias. We present a case of congenital acute myeloid leukemia manifesting from the very first day of birth. Diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia was suspected by the presence of blasts in the peripheral blood smear and was confirmed on bone marrow by flowcytometry. Karyotyping revealed Trisomy 21. PMID:25332567

  3. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the monoclonal antibody 2QD45 specifically immunoprecipitated the {rm M_ R} 67,000 ECF-binding protein from ^{125}{rm I}-labeled mouse, rat, and human eosinophils as assessed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that this ECF-binding protein has a lower PI point than either mouse or bovine albumin.

  4. Eosinophilic oesophagitis: A paediatric update.

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Heine, Ralf G

    2014-11-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a key differential for gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in children. It can be difficult for clinicians to decide which patients need referral for the assessment of EoE, which can only be confirmed by histological analysis of endoscopic biopsies. Recent guidelines recommend that EoE can only be diagnosed following the exclusion of GOR through empiric treatment with proton pump inhibitors prior to endoscopy. Some aspects of history are strongly suggestive of EoE: red flags for referral include poor weight gain in the context of reflux symptoms, choking during eating or food impaction. Therapeutic options include dietary allergen elimination or swallowed aerosolised corticosteroids. Other novel therapies have failed to demonstrate benefit, but novel diagnostic biomarkers to enable non-invasive disease ascertainment and follow-up show some promise. PMID:25363166

  5. Esophageal Microbiome in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. Kirk; Fang, Rui; Wagner, Brandie D.; Choe, Ha Na; Kelly, Caleb J.; Schroeder, Shauna; Moore, Wendy; Stevens, Mark J.; Yeckes, Alyson; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F.; Zalewski, Angelika; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Henry, Lauren N.; Masterson, Joanne C.; Robertson, Charles E.; Leung, Donald Y.; Pace, Norman R.; Ackerman, Steven J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Fillon, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of allergic and inflammatory diseases. The mucosa affected by eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is composed of a stratified squamous epithelia and contains intraepithelial eosinophils. To date, no studies have identified the esophageal microbiome in patients with EoE or the impact of treatment on these organisms. The aim of this study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in EoE and determine whether treatments change this profile. We hypothesized that clinically relevant alterations in bacterial populations are present in different forms of esophagitis. Design In this prospective study, secretions from the esophageal mucosa were collected from children and adults with EoE, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) and normal mucosa using the Esophageal String Test (EST). Bacterial load was determined using quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities, determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing, were compared between health and disease. Results Samples from a total of 70 children and adult subjects were examined. Bacterial load was increased in both EoE and GERD relative to normal subjects. In subjects with EoE, load was increased regardless of treatment status or degree of mucosal eosinophilia compared with normal. Haemophilus was significantly increased in untreated EoE subjects as compared with normal subjects. Streptococcus was decreased in GERD subjects on proton pump inhibition as compared with normal subjects. Conclusions Diseases associated with mucosal eosinophilia are characterized by a different microbiome from that found in the normal mucosa. Microbiota may contribute to esophageal inflammation in EoE and GERD. PMID:26020633

  6. Migratory eosinophilic alveolitis caused by radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jun Hyeok; Kim, Hun Jung; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Park, In-Suh; Cho, Jae Hwa; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Kwak, Seung Min; Lee, Hong Lyeol

    2015-01-01

    Although radiation pneumonitis is usually confined to irradiated areas, some studies have reported that radiation-induced lymphocytic alveolitis can also spread to the non-irradiated lung. However, there have been few reports of radiation-induced eosinophilic alveolitis. We report the case of a 27-year-old female with radiation pneumonitis, occurring 4 months after radiation therapy for cancer of the left breast. Clinical and radiological relapse followed withdrawal of corticosteroids. Examination of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patchy airspace consolidations revealed increased eosinophil counts. Finally, clinical and radiological signs resolved rapidly after reintroduction of corticosteroids. Eosinophilic alveolitis may be promoted by radiation therapy. In the present case report, possible mechanisms for radiation-induced eosinophilic alveolitis are also reviewed.

  7. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) or (EoE)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... These include asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergy. EoE has also been shown to occur in ... often part of the EoE evaluation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Food Allergies Adverse immune responses to food are the main ...

  8. Eosinophil-Mediated Tissue Inflammatory Responses in Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Ah; Min, Duk-Young

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic leukocytes function in host protection against parasitic worms. In turn, helminthic parasites harbor specific molecules to evade or paralyze eosinophil-associated host immune responses; these molecules facilitate the migration and survival of parasitic helminths in vivo. This competition between eosinophil and worm leads to stable equilibria between them. An understanding of such dynamic host-eosinophil interactions will help us to uncover mechanisms of cross talk between host and parasite in helminth infection. In this review, we examine recent findings regarding the innate immune responses of eosinophils to helminthic parasites, and discuss the implications of these findings in terms of eosinophil-mediated tissue inflammation in helminth infection. PMID:19885328

  9. [Chronic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Shibata, A; Narita, M

    1989-05-01

    As compared with advances in the treatment of acute leukemia, we have made little progress in chronic leukemia. Recently we have attempted some new treatments for chronic phase of CML, and confirmed those effectiveness. But for blastic crisis, we still grope in the dark. In this paper, we review the chemotherapy of CML and CLL including new treatments except bone marrow transplantation. PMID:2658837

  10. Eosinophilic fasciitis with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    de Boysson, Hubert; Chèze, Stéphane; Chapon, Françoise; Le Mauff, Brigitte; Auzary, Christophe; Geffray, Loïk

    2013-03-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare connective tissue disorder, which can be associated with hematological complications in 10% of cases, such as aplastic anemia or acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria had never been described in a patient suffering from eosinophilic fasciitis. We report an original case of a 59-year-old patient who developed a moderate aplastic pancytopenia while he was treated for a biopsy-proven eosinophilic fasciitis. A complete set of investigations was carried out and was found to be negative, including a first research of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Two years after disease onset, while pancytopenia remained stable, occurrence of morning dark urine led to found a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone. We discuss a potential link between the two conditions and hypothesize that paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria blood cells may pre-exist for a long time and take a survival advantage in the setting of marrow injury, as observed in eosinophilic fasciitis with hematological complications. We finally suggest that paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria should be included as a hematological complication of eosinophilic fasciitis. PMID:22999899

  11. Clinical features of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Miehlke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) may affect individuals at any age with a predominance for Caucasian males. The clinical manifestation of EoE is strongly age dependent. While dysphagia and food impaction are typical lead symptoms in adults and adolescents, infants often present with unspecific symptoms such as feeding problems, abdominal pain and vomiting. Some EoE patients may also experience heartburn. Therefore, EoE should always be considered in cases of heartburn refractory to antireflux therapy. Concomitant allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis and eczema are prevalent. Peripheral eosinophilia and elevated total serum IgE values are found in up to 50 and 70% of cases, respectively. Endoscopic features of EoE are variable and none of them is pathognomonic. Frequent findings are mucosal edema, furrows, exudates and corrugated rings. These endoscopic abnormalities have high specificities (90-95%), but low sensitivities (15-48%). A novel grading and classification system for the endoscopic assessment of EoE has been proposed which includes fixed rings, exudates, furrows and edema as major features. This classification system demonstrated good interobserver agreement among pediatric and adult gastroenterologists, and presents a useful tool to standardize endoscopic assessments and to further investigate the relation between endoscopic manifestation, clinical activity and response to treatment in EoE. Long-term follow-up studies have shown that EoE is a chronic disease causing recurrent dysphagia in the majority of cases. The prevalence of strictures significantly increases with the duration of disease, which stresses the importance of early diagnosis and consequent treatment of EoE. PMID:24603382

  12. Indomethacin inhibits eosinophil migration to prostaglandin D2: therapeutic potential of CRTH2 desensitization for eosinophilic pustular folliculitis

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Naoko; Satoh, Takahiro; Hirai, Aiko; Saeki, Kazumi; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Indomethacin is a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, and shows therapeutic potential for various eosinophilic skin diseases, particularly eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. One of the unique characteristics of indomethacin is that, unlike other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, it is a potent agonist of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 cells (CRTH2), a receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). This study investigated the pharmacological actions of indomethacin on eosinophil migration to clarify the actual mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of indomethacin on eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. Eosinophils exhibited chemokinetic and chemotactic responses to both PGD2 and indomethacin through CRTH2 receptors. Pre-treatment of eosinophils with indomethacin greatly inhibited eosinophil migration to PGD2 and, to a much lesser extent, to eotaxin (CCL11); these effects could be mediated by homologous and heterologous desensitization of eosinophil CRTH2 and CCR3, respectively, by agonistic effects of indomethacin on CRTH2. Indomethacin also cancelled a priming effect of ?12-PGJ2, a plasma metabolite of PGD2, on eosinophil chemotaxis to eotaxin. Indomethacin down-modulated cell surface expression of both CRTH2 and CCR3. Hair follicle epithelium and epidermal keratinocytes around eosinophilic pustules together with the eccrine apparatus of palmoplantar lesions of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis were immunohistochemically positive for lipocalin-type PGD synthase. Indomethacin may exert therapeutic effects against eosinophilic skin diseases in which PGD2-CRTH2 signals play major roles by reducing eosinophil responses to PGD2. PMID:23582181

  13. Eosinophilic granuloma - x-ray of the skull (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... x-ray of the skull shows an eosinophilic granuloma (a lesion made-up of a type of ... This condition can range from a single eosinophilic granuloma to massive infiltration of skin, bone, and body ...

  14. Dissection of the Hyperadhesive Phenotype of Airway Eosinophils in Asthma

    E-print Network

    Mosher, Deane F.

    Dissection of the Hyperadhesive Phenotype of Airway Eosinophils in Asthma Steven R. Barthel, Nizar, and Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin­Madison, Madison, Wisconsin Asthma is characterized. Keywords: adhesion molecules; cell trafficking; eosinophils; human Asthma is an inflammatory syndrome

  15. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, formerly Churg-Strauss Syndrome (EGPA)

    MedlinePLUS

    You are here: Home / Types of Vasculitis / Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, formerly Churg-Strauss Syndrome (EGPA) Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, formerly Churg-Strauss Syndrome (EGPA) First Description Who gets ...

  16. Increased plasma histamine level in eosinophilic fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Falanga, V; Soter, N A; Kerdel, F A

    1989-06-01

    In a patient with eosinophilic fasciitis, a biopsy specimen obtained within 4 weeks of the onset of symptoms showed infiltration of the subcutis and fascia with mast cells, and there was up to a 19-fold increase in plasma histamine levels. The patient improved and experienced softening of the skin when treated with systemic corticosteroids and a histamine2-receptor antagonist, and her plasma histamine level returned to normal. Tissue mast cell infiltration and excessive plasma histamine levels were not present in two otherwise similar patients with eosinophilic fasciitis who were studied 7 months after disease onset. It is possible that mast cells play a pathogenic role in some patients with eosinophilic fasciitis. PMID:2730101

  17. Natural Killer Cells Induce Eosinophil Activation and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Ali; Yassine, Hanane; Barrier, Mathieu; Vorng, Han; Marquillies, Philippe; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Duez, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are potent inflammatory cells with numerous immune functions, including antigen presentation and exacerbation of inflammatory responses through their capacity to release a range of largely preformed cytokines and lipid mediators. Thus, timely regulation of eosinophil activation and apoptosis is crucial to develop beneficial immune response and to avoid tissue damage and induce resolution of inflammation. Natural Killer (NK) cells have been reported to influence innate and adaptive immune responses by multiple mechanisms including cytotoxicity against other immune cells. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the interaction between NK cells and eosinophils. Co-culture experiments revealed that human NK cells could trigger autologous eosinophil activation, as shown by up-regulation of CD69 and down-regulation of CD62L, as well as degranulation, evidenced by increased CD63 surface expression, secretion of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN). Moreover, NK cells significantly and dose dependently increased eosinophil apoptosis as shown by annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Direct contact was necessary for eosinophil degranulation and apoptosis. Increased expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in cocultured eosinophils and inhibition of eosinophil CD63 expression by pharmacologic inhibitors suggest that MAPK and PI3K pathways are involved in NK cell-induced eosinophil degranulation. Finally, we showed that NK cells increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression by eosinophils in co-culture and that mitochondrial inhibitors (rotenone and antimycin) partially diminished NK cell-induced eosinophil apoptosis, suggesting the implication of mitochondrial ROS in NK cell-induced eosinophil apoptosis. Pan-caspase inhibitor (ZVAD-FMK) only slightly decreased eosinophil apoptosis in coculture. Altogether, our results suggest that NK cells regulate eosinophil functions by inducing their activation and their apoptosis. PMID:24727794

  18. What Is Childhood Leukemia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... key statistics for childhood leukemia? What is childhood leukemia? Cancer starts when cells start to grow out ... start making antibodies to fight them. Types of leukemia in children Leukemia is often described as being ...

  19. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Leukemia This page lists cancer drugs ... Hairy Cell Leukemia Drugs Approved for Meningeal Leukemia Drugs Approved for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Abitrexate (Methotrexate) ...

  20. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Institute), www.leukemia-lymphoma.org (Leukemia and Lymphoma Society) or www.mayoclinic.com (Mayo Clinic). Type the keywords acute lymphoblastic leukemia or leukemia into the search box. Healing ...

  1. Eosinophil Adhesion to Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Regulation by Cytokines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Sato; Hajime Takizawa; Tadashi Kohyama; Takayuki Ohtoshi; Shigeru Takafuji; Shin Kawasaki; Shigeto Tohma; Akira Ishii; Shunsuke Shoji; Koji Ito

    1997-01-01

    Background: Eosinophil infiltration into the airways and interaction with bronchial epithelial cells are important in the pathogenesis of asthma. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of eosinophil adhesion to human bronchial epithelial cells. Methods: We cultured a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, on a collagen-coated glass slide. Highly purified human eosinophils were added

  2. Localization of DNA and RNA in Eosinophil Secretory Granules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali R. Behzad; David C. Walker; Thomas Abraham; John McDonough; Salahadin Mahmudi-Azer; Fanny Chu; Furquan Shaheen; James C. Hogg; Peter D. Paré

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although the accepted paradigm is that the proteins stored in eosinophil crystalloid granules are translated from messenger RNA transcribed in the cell nucleus, recent ultrastructural evidence suggests that protein synthesis may also take place within eosinophilic granules. Methods: We used 2 different methods to detect the presence of DNA and RNA in eosinophil secretory granules. Using bromodeoxyuridine, a thymidine

  3. Acute eosinophilic ascites: an unusual form of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Kodan, Parul; Shetty, Meenakshi A; Pavan, M R; Kariappa, Ahalya; Mahabala, Chakrapani

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is an uncommon disease characterised by eosinophilic infiltration in the gastrointestinal tract. EGE may involve more than one layer of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical features depend on the layer and location which is involved. We report an unusual case of eosinophilic ascites associated with antinuclear antibody positivity, which is an unusual variety of serosal form of EGE. PMID:25315240

  4. EOSINOPHILS: MULTIFACETED BIOLOGIC PROPERTIES AND ROLES IN HEALTH AND DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Hirohito

    2011-01-01

    Summary Eosinophils are leukocytes resident in mucosal tissues. During Th2-type inflammation, eosinophils are recruited from bone marrow and blood to the sites of immune response. While eosinophils have been considered end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasite infection and immunopathology in hypersensitivity disease, recent studies changed this perspective. Eosinophils are now considered multifunctional leukocytes involved in tissue homeostasis, modulation of adaptive immune responses, and innate immunity to certain microbes. Eosinophils are capable of producing immunoregulatory cytokines and are actively involved in regulation of Th2-type immune responses. However, such new information does not preclude earlier observations showing that eosinophils, in particular human eosinophils, are also effector cells with pro-inflammatory and destructive capabilities. Eosinophils with activation phenotypes are observed in biological specimens from patients with disease, and deposition of eosinophil products is readily seen in the affected tissues from these patients. Therefore, it would be reasonable to consider the eosinophil a multifaceted leukocyte that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. This review summarizes the emerging concept of the multifaceted immunobiology of eosinophils and discusses the roles of eosinophils in health and disease and the challenges and perspectives in the field. PMID:21682744

  5. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Red on Microscopy, White on Endoscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Straumann; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Kathleen A. Bucher; Pius Heer; Hans-Uwe Simon

    2004-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The presenting symptom of eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic TH2-type inflammatory disease, is uniform dysphagia attacks. Histology reveals a dense mucosal infiltration with eosinophils. Unfortunately, endoscopic findings are often unremarkable or misleading. This study characterizes the endoscopic manifestations of eosinophilic esophagitis and analyzes the nature and clinical features of the frequently observed white alterations. Methods: Thirty adult patients (22 males,

  6. High-resolution EUS in children with eosinophilic “allergic” esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor L. Fox; Samuel Nurko; Jonathan E. Teitelbaum; Kamran Badizadegan; Glenn T. Furuta

    2003-01-01

    Background: The pathophysiology of dysphagia associated with eosinophilic esophagitis is unknown. This study investigated possible anatomic alterations in children with eosinophilic esophagitis in comparison with healthy children by using high-resolution EUS to precisely measure individual tissue layers of the esophagus. Methods: Children with eosinophilic esophagitis (n = 11) and control children (n = 8) without esophagitis were prospectively evaluated by

  7. Eosinophils as a Direct Target of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Salmeterol: Demonstration with Indium111-Labeled Eosinophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. I. Ezeamuzie; G. Ziada; M. Mathew; E. Philips; S. Gopinath; A. Owunwanne

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The ?2-adrenoceptor agonist salmeterol inhibits the accumulation of eosinophils at the site of allergic inflammation, but the cellular target is uncertain. This study was undertaken to determine whether eosinophils themselves are the target of this inhibitory action. Methods: Purified guinea pig peritoneal eosinophils were labeled with indium-111 oxine, pre-incubated with salmeterol or drug vehicle before being injected intravenously into

  8. Mechanism of nitrite oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase: implications for oxidant production and nitration by eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    van Dalen, Christine J.; Winterbourn, Christine C.; Kettle, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    Eosinophil peroxidase is a haem enzyme of eosinophils that is implicated in oxidative tissue injury in asthma. It uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize thiocyanate and bromide to their respective hypohalous acids. Nitrite is also a substrate for eosinophil peroxidase. We have investigated the mechanisms by which the enzyme oxidizes nitrite. Nitrite was very effective at inhibiting hypothiocyanous acid (‘cyanosulphenic acid’) and hypobromous acid production. Spectral studies showed that nitrite reduced the enzyme to its compound II form, which is a redox intermediate containing FeIV in the haem active site. Compound II does not oxidize thiocyanate or bromide. These results demonstrate that nitrite is readily oxidized by compound I, which contains FeV at the active site. However, it reacts more slowly with compound II. The observed rate constant for reduction of compound II by nitrite was determined to be 5.6×103 M?1·s?1. Eosinophils were at least 4-fold more effective at promoting nitration of a heptapeptide than neutrophils. This result is explained by our finding that nitrite reacts 10-fold faster with compound II of eosinophil peroxidase than with the analogous redox intermediate of myeloperoxidase. Nitration by eosinophils was increased 3-fold by superoxide dismutase, which indicates that superoxide interferes with nitration. We propose that at sites of eosinophilic inflammation, low concentrations of nitrite will retard oxidant production by eosinophil peroxidase, whereas at higher concentrations nitrogen dioxide will be a major oxidant formed by these cells. The efficiency of protein nitration will be decreased by the diffusion-controlled reaction of superoxide with nitrogen dioxide. PMID:16336215

  9. CT findings in nonmucosal eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Van Hoe, L; Vanghillewe, K; Baert, A L; Ponette, E; Geboes, K; Stevens, E

    1994-01-01

    A 22-year-old patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis with predominantly submucosal and muscular involvement is presented. The benefits of CT, using water as an orally administered contrast agent, are stressed, because CT enabled the authors to suggest a full thickness biopsy, after mucosal biopsies had remained repeatedly negative. PMID:8089335

  10. Multiple myeloma presenting as eosinophilic pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Asmita A; Venkatakrishnan, Rajesh; Jose, Wesley; Palaniappan, Muthu; Pavithran, Keechilat

    2010-12-01

    An elderly man, with no comorbidity, presented with rapidly accumulating left pleural effusion. He also had generalized adenopathy. Pleural fluid cytology showed exudative pleural effusion with eosinophilia. Supraclavicular lymph node biopsy was reported as amyloid. On further investigation he was found to have kappa-light chain multiple myeloma. The final diagnosis was eosinophilic pleural effusion in a patient with multiple myeloma. PMID:21114774

  11. Eosinophilic esophagitis: asthma of the esophagus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMINDRA S. ARORA; Kiyoshi Yamazaki

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is rapidly emerging as a distinct disease entity in both pediatric and adult gastroenterology. The typical clinical presentation includes solid food dysphagia in young men who have an atopic predisposition. Food impaction necessitating endoscopic intervention is common. EE should be suspected, in particular, in patients with unexplained dysphagia or those with no response to antacid or anti-acid

  12. Leukotriene B4 amplifies eosinophil accumulation in response to nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Patnode, Michael L.; Bando, Jennifer K.; Krummel, Matthew F.; Locksley, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophil accumulation is a defining feature of the immune response to parasitic worm infection. Tissue-resident cells, such as epithelial cells, are thought to initiate eosinophil recruitment. However, direct recognition of worms by eosinophils has not been explored as a mechanism for amplifying eosinophil accumulation. Here, we report that eosinophils rapidly migrate toward diverse nematode species in three-dimensional culture. These include the mammalian parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Surprisingly, collective migration toward worms requires paracrine leukotriene B4 signaling between eosinophils. In contrast, neutrophils show a minimal response to nematodes, yet are able to undergo robust leukotriene-dependent migration toward IgG-coated beads. We further demonstrate that eosinophils accumulate around C. elegans in the lungs of mice. This response is not dependent on bacterial products, CCR3, or complement activation. However, mice deficient in leukotriene signaling show markedly attenuated eosinophil accumulation after injection of C. elegans or N. brasiliensis. Our findings establish that nematode-derived signals can directly induce leukotriene production by eosinophils and that leukotriene signaling is a major contributor to nematode-induced eosinophil accumulation in the lung. The similarity of the eosinophil responses to diverse nematode species suggests that conserved features of nematodes are recognized during parasite infection. PMID:24889202

  13. An etiological role for aeroallergens and eosinophils in experimental esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Anil; Hogan, Simon P.; Brandt, Eric B.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2001-01-01

    Eosinophil infiltration into the esophagus is observed in diverse diseases including gastroesophageal reflux and allergic gastroenteritis, but the processes involved are largely unknown. We now report an original model of experimental esophagitis induced by exposure of mice to respiratory allergen. Allergen-challenged mice develop marked levels of esophageal eosinophils, free eosinophil granules, and epithelial cell hyperplasia, features that mimic the human disorders. Interestingly, exposure of mice to oral or intragastric allergen does not promote eosinophilic esophagitis, indicating that hypersensitivity in the esophagus occurs with simultaneous development of pulmonary inflammation. Furthermore, in the absence of eotaxin, eosinophil recruitment is attenuated, whereas in the absence of IL-5, eosinophil accumulation and epithelial hyperplasia are ablated. These results establish a pathophysiological connection between allergic hypersensitivity responses in the lung and esophagus and demonstrate an etiologic role for inhaled allergens and eosinophils in gastrointestinal inflammation. PMID:11134183

  14. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gioffredi, Andrea; Maritati, Federica; Oliva, Elena; Buzio, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, defined as an eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplotype of the IL-10 promoter gene are the most studied genetic determinants. Among the acquired pathogenetic factors, the exposure to different allergens, infections, vaccinations, drugs, and silica exposure have been involved. Eosinophils are the most characteristic cells in EGPA and different studies have demonstrated their role as effector and immunoregulatory cells. EGPA is considered as a disease with a prevalent activation of the Th-2 cellular-mediated inflammatory response and also humoral immunity plays an important role. A link between B and T inflammatory responses may explain different disease features. EGPA typically develops into three sequential phases: the allergic phase, distinguished by the occurrence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis, the eosinophilic phase, in which the main pathological finding is the eosinophilic organ infiltrations (e.g., lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal system), and the vasculitic phase, characterized by purpura, peripheral neuropathy, and constitutional symptoms. ANCA (especially pANCA anti-myeloperoxidase) are present in 40–60% of the patients. An elevation of IgG4 is frequently found. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide are classically used for remission induction, while azathioprine and methotrexate are the therapeutic options for remission maintenance. B-cell depletion with rituximab has shown promising results for remission induction. PMID:25404930

  15. Eosinophil extracellular DNA trap cell death mediates lytic release of free secretion-competent eosinophil granules in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Ghiran, Ionita; Spencer, Lisa A.; Dvorak, Ann M.; Weller, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils release their granule proteins extracellularly through exocytosis, piecemeal degranulation, or cytolytic degranulation. Findings in diverse human eosinophilic diseases of intact extracellular eosinophil granules, either free or clustered, indicate that eosinophil cytolysis occurs in vivo, but the mechanisms and consequences of lytic eosinophil degranulation are poorly understood. We demonstrate that activated human eosinophils can undergo extracellular DNA trap cell death (ETosis) that cytolytically releases free eosinophil granules. Eosinophil ETosis (EETosis), in response to immobilized immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA), cytokines with platelet activating factor, calcium ionophore, or phorbol myristate acetate, develops within 120 minutes in a reduced NADP (NADPH) oxidase-dependent manner. Initially, nuclear lobular formation is lost and some granules are released by budding off from the cell as plasma membrane–enveloped clusters. Following nuclear chromatolysis, plasma membrane lysis liberates DNA that forms weblike extracellular DNA nets and releases free intact granules. EETosis-released eosinophil granules, still retaining eosinophil cationic granule proteins, can be activated to secrete when stimulated with CC chemokine ligand 11 (eotaxin-1). Our results indicate that an active NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism of cytolytic, nonapoptotic eosinophil death initiates nuclear chromatolysis that eventuates in the release of intact secretion-competent granules and the formation of extracellular DNA nets. PMID:23303825

  16. MOTION PICTURE STUDIES ON DEGRANULATION OF HORSE EOSINOPHILS DURING PHAGOCYTOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Gordon T.; Hirsch, James G.

    1963-01-01

    Horse eosinophil function has been studied in vitro by means of phase contrast cinemicrophotography. Locomotion of horse eosinophils was inhibited by serum factors reacting with glass surfaces. Under appropriate conditions which eliminated this inhibitory effect, eosinophils moved about and ingested some particles as rapidly as did neutrophils. Eosinophils were attracted to and readily engulfed such diverse materials as yeast cell walls, foreign erythrocytes, and antigen-antibody precipitates. Specific antibody was required for phagocytosis of red cells, and greatly accelerated the uptake of yeast cell walls. Horse eosinophil granules situated adjacent to material being engulfed disrupted with discharge of granule contents into or alongside the phagocytic vacuole. Granule disruption resulted in a clear zone and deposition of amorphous, phase-dense material. A heat-labile serum factor was required for degranulation of eosinophils ingesting foreign red cells, but not for degranulation during engulfment of yeast cell walls or antigen-antibody precipitates. Horse eosinophils were incapable under these conditions of engulfing an entire human red cell. The eosinophil commonly put out a large pseudopod to surround about half the red cell, and then appeared to constrict this pseudopod distally to cut the erythrocyte in half. It is concluded that eosinophils are phagocytic cells, resembling neutrophils in many of their properties. Any specific functions of eosinophils, distinguishing them from other phagocytes, remain to be discovered. PMID:14074392

  17. MOTION PICTURE STUDIES ON DEGRANULATION OF HORSE EOSINOPHILS DURING PHAGOCYTOSIS.

    PubMed

    ARCHER, G T; HIRSCH, J G

    1963-08-01

    Horse eosinophil function has been studied in vitro by means of phase contrast cinemicrophotography. Locomotion of horse eosinophils was inhibited by serum factors reacting with glass surfaces. Under appropriate conditions which eliminated this inhibitory effect, eosinophils moved about and ingested some particles as rapidly as did neutrophils. Eosinophils were attracted to and readily engulfed such diverse materials as yeast cell walls, foreign erythrocytes, and antigen-antibody precipitates. Specific antibody was required for phagocytosis of red cells, and greatly accelerated the uptake of yeast cell walls. Horse eosinophil granules situated adjacent to material being engulfed disrupted with discharge of granule contents into or alongside the phagocytic vacuole. Granule disruption resulted in a clear zone and deposition of amorphous, phase-dense material. A heat-labile serum factor was required for degranulation of eosinophils ingesting foreign red cells, but not for degranulation during engulfment of yeast cell walls or antigen-antibody precipitates. Horse eosinophils were incapable under these conditions of engulfing an entire human red cell. The eosinophil commonly put out a large pseudopod to surround about half the red cell, and then appeared to constrict this pseudopod distally to cut the erythrocyte in half. It is concluded that eosinophils are phagocytic cells, resembling neutrophils in many of their properties. Any specific functions of eosinophils, distinguishing them from other phagocytes, remain to be discovered. PMID:14074392

  18. Age-related Changes in Eosinophil Function in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sameer K.; Schwantes, Elizabeth A.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Busse, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Aging results in changes in immune cell function which have been described for T-cells, macrophage, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, but not yet for eosinophils. We sought to define age-related changes in eosinophil function and their potential implications for asthma. Methods. We recruited human subjects with asthma in two age groups, a younger group (20–40 years old) and older group (55–80 years old). Lung function, induced sputum, and peripheral blood were obtained from each subject. Eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood were examined for in vitro functional activities including degranulation, superoxide anion production, adhesion, and chemotaxis. Results Eosinophil degranulation in response to IL-5 stimulation was significantly decreased in the older group (p=0.025). Eosinophil production of superoxide anions in response to phorbol myristate acetate was lower in the older group, but did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.097). Eosinophil adhesion, eosinophil chemotaxis, lung function, and the percentage of sputum eosinophils were similar in the two groups. Conclusion Airway eosinophilia is comparable in younger and older asthma subjects. However, there are age-related changes in peripheral blood eosinophil “effector” functions. Diseases such as asthma, in which eosinophils are thought to play a pathophysiological role, may exhibit important clinical differences in the elderly due to age-related changes in inflammatory cell function that affect the manifestations of the disease and/or responsiveness to specific classes of medications. PMID:18252914

  19. Integrin Activation States and Eosinophil Recruitment in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Mats W.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophil arrest and recruitment to the airway in asthma are mediated, at least in part, by integrins. Eosinophils express ?4?1, ?6?1, ?L?2, ?M?2, ?X?2, ?D?2, and ?4?7 integrins, which interact with counter-receptors on other cells or ligands in the extracellular matrix. Whether a given integrin-ligand pair mediates cell adhesion and migration depends on the activation state of the integrin. Integrins exist in an inactive bent, an intermediate-activity extended closed, and a high-activity extended open conformation. Integrin activation states can be monitored by conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Studies in mice indicate that both ?1 and ?2 integrins mediate eosinophil recruitment to the lung. In vitro studies indicate that ?4?1 and ?M?2 are the principal integrins mediating eosinophil adhesion, including to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and the novel ?M?2 ligand periostin. In vivo, blood eosinophils have intermediate-activity ?1 integrins, as judged by mAb N29, apparently resulting from eosinophil binding of P-selectin on the surface of activated platelets, and have a proportion of their ?2 integrins in the intermediate conformation, as judged by mAb KIM-127, apparently due to exposure to low concentrations of interleukin-5 (IL-5). Airway eosinophils recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after segmental antigen challenge have high-activity ?1 integrins and high-activity ?M?2 that does not require IL-5. Here we review information on how the activation states of eosinophil ?1 and ?2 integrins correlate with measurements of eosinophil recruitment and pulmonary function in asthma. Blood eosinophil N29 reactivity is associated with decreased lung function under various circumstances in non-severe asthma and KIM-127 with BAL eosinophil numbers, indicating that intermediate-activity ?4?1 and ?M?2 of blood eosinophils are important for eosinophil arrest and consequently for recruitment and aspects of asthma. PMID:23554594

  20. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: An emerging problem with unique esophageal features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon W Potter; Kia Saeian; Benson T Massey; Richard A Komorowski; Reza Shaker; Walter J Hogan

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundEosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition in which there is dense eosinophilic infiltration of the surface lining of the esophagus. Reports of eosinophilic esophagitis pertain almost exclusively to pediatric populations. However, eosinophilic esophagitis is emerging as a clinical affliction of adults. This report describes the clinical and endoscopic findings of eosinophilic esophagitis in the largest cohort of adult patients reported

  1. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Brazilian Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Mayra Isabel Correia; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Honório, Rodrigo Schuler; de Alencar Moreno, Luís Hélder; Fortes, Mayara Carvalho; da Silva, Carlos Antônio Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We examined 11 pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis with a tardy diagnosis. The symptoms were initially thought to be related to other diseases, leading to the use of inadequate therapeutic approaches. The patients were between 3 and 17 years old (mean 7.8 ± 3.8 years), and 8 of the patients were male. Common symptoms included abdominal pain, regurgitation, difficulty in gaining weight, vomiting, dysphagia, and coughing. The mean age for the onset of symptoms was 4.3 ± 2.9 years. Endoscopic findings included normal mucosa in five (45%) patients, thickening of the mucosa with longitudinal grooves in three (27%), erosive esophagitis in two (18%), and a whitish stippling in one (9%) patient. Treatment included the use of a topical corticosteroid for 10 patients. In eight (73%) cases, the treatment made the symptoms disappear. Ten patients underwent histopathological management after treatment, with a decrease in the number of eosinophils. PMID:24106430

  2. Significance of feeding dysfunction in eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Menard-Katcher, Calies; Henry, Michelle; Furuta, Glenn T; Atkins, Dan; Maune, Nancy Creskoff; Haas, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Feeding dysfunction is a frequent presenting symptom of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Here we present 3 children of various ages whose manifestations of EoE associated feeding dysfunction led to significant and life altering impact on their growth and development. Early identification of presenting symptoms of EoE will allow for prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatments. Recognition of salient features of dysfunction and treatment by feeding therapists and nutritionists led to symptom resolution and growth. PMID:25152606

  3. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Infants and Toddlers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott P. Pentiuk; Claire Kane Miller; Ajay Kaul

    2007-01-01

    Feeding refusal is often described in conjunction with the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) in pediatric patients;\\u000a however, there are little data regarding the specific clinical manifestations and effective management of this condition in\\u000a very young children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presentation of EE in infants and toddlers referred to the\\u000a Interdisciplinary Feeding Team Clinic

  4. Understanding Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I 800.955.4572 I www.LLS.org Tracking Your Leukemia Tests These tips may help you ... Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). A drug that blocks cell growth. Gleevec®, Sprycel® and Tasigna® are TKIs that ... team consists of master’s level oncology professionals who are available by phone Monday through Friday, 9 am to 6 pm ( ...

  5. Eosinophilic esophagitis -- clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lucendo Villarín, A J

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a chronic inflammatory, immunoallergic disease of the esophagus that represents the most common eosinophilic gut disease. Understanding and diagnosis regarding this condition have greatly increased in recent years, particularly in Europe and North America, in parallel with other allergic disorders. It consists of dense esophageal infiltration with eosinophils in the absence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). It involves individuals at all ages, and is particularly common in males during childhood and up to the 5th decade of life. It manifests with chronic, intermittent esophageal symptoms that predominantly include dysphagia, food impaction episodes, and GER-attributable complaints that do not respond to antisecretory therapy. Endoscopically, EE is a polymorphous disease that presents with various changes in esophageal caliber, and subtle changes in mucosal appearance, which lead to biopsy collection as a key procedure for diagnosis. Management must be multidisciplinary, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, allergologists, and also nutrition specialists in pediatric cases. Regarding therapy, dietary food restrictions are especially useful in the management of pediatric EE, but effectiveness is lower in the adult, maybe because of a greater involvement of air allergens. Drug use is standard, particularly involving topical steroids, which may revert manifestations and histological lesions, even though recurrence following discontinuation is common. PMID:19335033

  6. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: An unusual type of gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge (Ingle), Chitra R

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall with various gastrointestinal manifestations. Till date only 280 cases have been described in the literature. A high index of suspicion, by excluding other causes of peripheral eosinophilia, is a pre requisite for accurate diagnosis. EGE is an uncommon gastrointestinal disease affecting both children and adults. It was first described by Kaijser in 1937. Presentation may vary depending on location as well as depth and extent of bowel wall involvement and usually runs a chronic relapsing course. This condition can respond to low dose steroid therapy, thereby preventing grave complications like ascites and intestinal obstruction that might need surgical intervention. The natural history of EGE has not been well documented. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a chronic, waxing and waning condition. Mild and sporadic symptoms can be managed with reassurance and observation, whereas disabling gastrointestinal (GI) symptom flare-ups can often be controlled with oral corticosteroids. When the disease manifests in infancy and specific food sensitization can be identified, the likelihood of disease remission by late childhood is high. GI obstruction is the most common complication. Fatal outcomes are rare. PMID:23964139

  7. Association of eosinophilic fasciitis with morphea.

    PubMed

    Zisova, Lilia G; Abadjieva, Cvetana I; Obreshkova, Elena V; Chernev, Georgi K; Vutova, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, described for the first time by Shulman in 1974. The disease presents with induration of the skin, connective tissue and the underlying muscle fascia, sometimes accompanied by myalgia, most commonly in the lower extremities. Unlike scleroderma, it presents with absence of visceral organ involvement and Raynaud's phenomenon. Hypergammaglobulinemia and eosinophilia have been reported. Eosinophilic fasciitis is often associated with hematological disorders--there are reports of combinations with other autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Sjogren syndrome, vitiligo, etc. Occurrence of morphea, in the course of eosinophil fasciitis is considered a rarity. We have observed such a case with the simultaneous presence of both types of lesions. A 20-year-old female patient is reported, wherein the clinical picture developed for 6 months. The initial erythematous edema and subsequently the livedo-like painful plaques in both lower legs gradually swell, thicken and hyperpigment. Almost simultaneously with these complaints small brown livid body plaques emerged. The patient was diagnosed based on history, clinical picture, peripheral eosinophilia and histological findings from the affected areas. There was no systemic involvement and accompanying hematologic or other disease. Therapeutic management and significant clinical improvement were achieved using systemic corticosteroid therapy combined with methotrexate. PMID:25434081

  8. Association of eosinophilic fasciitis with morphea.

    PubMed

    Zisova, Lilia G; Abadjieva, Cvetana I; Obreshkova, Elena V; Chernev, Georgi K; Vutova, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, described for the first time by Shulman in 1974. The disease presents with induration of the skin, connective tissue and the underlying muscle fascia, sometimes accompanied by myalgia, most commonly in the lower extremities. Unlike scleroderma, it presents with absence of visceral organ involvement and Raynaud's phenomenon. Hypergammaglobulinemia and eosinophilia have been reported. Eosinophilic fasciitis is often associated with hematological disorders--there are reports of combinations with other autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Sjogren syndrome, vitiligo, etc. Occurrence of morphea, in the course of eosinophil fasciitis is considered a rarity. We have observed such a case with the simultaneous presence of both types of lesions. A 20-year-old female patient is reported, wherein the clinical picture developed for 6 months. The initial erythematous edema and subsequently the livedo-like painful plaques in both lower legs gradually swell, thicken and hyperpigment. Almost simultaneously with these complaints small brown livid body plaques emerged. The patient was diagnosed based on history, clinical picture, peripheral eosinophilia and histological findings from the affected areas. There was no systemic involvement and accompanying hematologic or other disease. Therapeutic management and significant clinical improvement were achieved using systemic corticosteroid therapy combined with methotrexate. PMID:25507679

  9. What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get acute myeloid leukemia? What is acute myeloid leukemia? Leukemia is a type of cancer that starts ... person to bleed or bruise easily. Acute myeloid leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) goes by many names, ...

  10. What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about chronic myeloid leukemia? What is chronic myeloid leukemia? Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), also known as chronic ... is the same as for adults. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts in the ...

  11. Relationships Between Eosinophilic Inflammation, Tissue Remodeling and Fibrosis in Eosinophilic Esophagitis*

    PubMed Central

    Aceves, Seema S.; Ackerman, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The clinical and pathologic features of Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) include extensive tissue remodeling. Increasing evidence supports a key role for the eosinophil in multiple aspects of the esophageal remodeling and fibrosis seen in this allergic disease, including epithelial hyperplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, smooth muscle hyperplasia, and angiogenesis. These structural changes contribute to the endoscopic findings of esophageal thickening, luminal narrowing, furrowing, transient and fixed rings (trachealization) and stricture, as well as the clinical features of dysmotility, dysphagia and food impactions in pediatric and adult EE. This chapter reviews the clinical implications of esophageal remodeling and fibrosis in EE and discusses the possible pathogenic mechanisms inducing and regulating these responses. We focus specifically on eosinophil and cytokine interactions with the esophageal epithelium, vascular endothelium, resident fibroblasts, and smooth muscle. Current and potential therapeutic interventions are discussed that may impact the development or resolution of chronic esophageal remodeling and fibrosis in EE. PMID:19141355

  12. The effects of phototherapy on eosinophil and eosinophilic cationic protein in newborns with hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Beken, Serdar; Aydin, Banu; Zenciro??lu, Aysegül; Dilli, Dilek; Özkan, Elif; Dursun, Arzu; Okumus, Nurullah

    2014-06-01

    Newborns with jaundice requiring or not requiring phototherapy (PT) are at greater risk of developing asthma later in life. In this study, we investigated the effect of PT treatment on eosinophil and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) levels in newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia. Thirty newborns diagnosed with severe hyperbilirubinemia and exposed to light-emitting diode (LED) PT were enrolled into the study. Total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels, complete blood count and serum ECP concentrations were measured before and after PT. TSB and hemoglobin (Hb) counts were lower after PT (p = 0.001). There was no difference between leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil and platelet count before and after PT. Eosinophil levels were increased after PT, although not significantly. ECP levels were higher after PT (p = 0.006). It may be speculated that newborns treated with LED PT, increased ECP might play a role in developing allergic diseases later in life. PMID:24527832

  13. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page Print this page Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a fast-growing cancer of a type ... that your body needs. Tweet Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) How transplant can treat ALL Transplant outcomes for ...

  14. Schistosoma mansoni infection in eosinophil lineage–ablated mice

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Jonathan M.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Cheever, Allen W.; Ramalingam, Thirumalai; Pesnicak, Lesley; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Lee, James J.; Lee, Nancy A.; Foster, Paul S.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the controversial issue of the role of eosinophils in host defense against helminthic parasites using the established Schistosoma mansoni infection model in 2 novel mouse models of eosinophil lineage ablation (?dblGATA and TgPHIL). No eosinophils were detected in bone marrow of infected ?dblGATA or TgPHIL mice, despite the fact that serum IL-5 levels in these infected mice exceeded those in infected wild type by approximately 4-fold. Liver granulomata from infected ?dblGATA and TgPHIL mice were likewise depleted of eosinophils compared with those from their respective wild types. No eosinophil-dependent differences in granuloma number, size, or fibrosis were detected at weeks 8 or 12 of infection, and differential accumulation of mast cells was observed among the ?dblGATA mice only at week 12. Likewise, serum levels of liver transaminases, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased in all mice in response to S mansoni infection, with no eosinophil-dependent differences in hepatocellular damage observed. Finally, eosinophil ablation had no effect on worm burden or on egg deposition. Overall, our data indicate that eosinophil ablation has no impact on traditional measures of disease in the S mansoni infection model in mice. However, eosinophils may have unexplored immunomodulatory contributions to this disease process. PMID:16772607

  15. Eosinophils generate brominating oxidants in allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weijia; Samoszuk, Michael K.; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Farver, Carol F.; Dweik, Raed A.; Kavuru, Mani S.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophils promote tissue injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of allergen-triggered diseases like asthma, but the chemical basis of damage to eosinophil targets is unknown. We now demonstrate that eosinophil activation in vivo results in oxidative damage of proteins through bromination of tyrosine residues, a heretofore unrecognized pathway for covalent modification of biologic targets in human tissues. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrated that 3-bromotyrosine serves as a specific “molecular fingerprint” for proteins modified through the eosinophil peroxidase-H2O2 system in the presence of plasma levels of halides. We applied a localized allergen challenge to model the effects of eosinophils and brominating oxidants in human lung injury. Endobronchial biopsy specimens from allergen-challenged lung segments of asthmatic, but not healthy control, subjects demonstrated significant enrichments in eosinophils and eosinophil peroxidase. Baseline levels of 3-bromotyrosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins from mildly allergic asthmatic individuals were modestly but not statistically significantly elevated over those in control subjects. After exposure to segmental allergen challenge, lung segments of asthmatics, but not healthy control subjects, exhibited a >10-fold increase in BAL 3-bromotyrosine content, but only two- to threefold increases in 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific oxidation product formed by neutrophil- and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase. These results identify reactive brominating species produced by eosinophils as a distinct class of oxidants formed in vivo. They also reveal eosinophil peroxidase as a potential therapeutic target for allergen-triggered inflammatory tissue injury in humans. PMID:10811853

  16. Diagnosing Eosinophilic Colitis: Histopathological Pattern or Nosological Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Alan W. H.

    2012-01-01

    Reports of ?“eosinophilic colitis”—raised colonic mucosal eosinophil density in patients with lower gastrointestinal symptoms—have increased markedly over the last fifteen years, though it remains a rarity. There is no consensus over its diagnosis and management, and uncertainty is compounded by the use of the same term to describe an idiopathic increase in colonic eosinophils and an eosinophilic inflammatory reaction to known aetiological agents such as parasites or drugs. In patients with histologically proven colonic eosinophilia, it is important to seek out underlying causes and careful clinicopathological correlation is advised. Because of the variability of eosinophil density in the normal colon, it is recommended that histological reports of colonic eosinophilia include a quantitative morphometric assessment of eosinophil density, preferably across several sites. Few reported cases of “eosinophilic colitis” meet these criteria. As no correlation has been shown between colonic eosinophil density and symptoms in older children or adults, it is suggested that treatment should be directed towards alleviation of symptoms and response to treatment assessed clinically rather than by histological estimates of intramucosal eosinophils. PMID:24278727

  17. Eosinophils in the Esophagus—Peptic or Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis? Case Series of Three Patients with Esophageal Eosinophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Ngo; Glenn T. Furuta; Donald A. Antonioli; Victor L. Fox

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Scattered eosinophils in the distal esophagus traditionally provide the hallmark for peptic esophagitis, but the upper limit of eosinophils and the longitudinal extent of peptic inflammation along the esophagus are unknown. Recently, adults and children with upper intestinal symptoms and >20 eosinophils\\/high-power field (eos\\/HPF) have been given the diagnosis of allergic esophagitis. Standardized diagnostic criteria for allergic esophagitis are lacking

  18. Understanding Leukemias

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Braun, Mark

    This tutorial is designed to aid medical students at all levels understand the laboratory diagnosis of leukemias. It includes introductory material on the basic laboratory tests specific to diagnoses, their general application and pitfalls in interpretation. The introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating the major categories of leukemia. This tutorial focuses on diagnosis and relative little on treatment is included. QuickTime movie player, Flash player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/ . Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun; braunm@indiana.edu.Annotated: falseDisease diagnosis: neoplastic

  19. Emerging Therapeutic Options for Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Timothy; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that often occurs in atopic persons. Management strategies include pharmacotherapy, dietary modification, and endoscopic therapy, although patients will often have a relapsing and remitting course. Currently, the primary pharmacotherapy for EoE consists of corticosteroids. Immuno-modulators, leukotriene antagonists, biologies, and monoclonal antibodies are currently under study for treatment of EoE. The role of immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reactions has been well documented and may provide insight into the etiology and effective therapy of EoE. PMID:24803874

  20. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Parmley, R.T.; Crist, W.M.; Roper, M.; Takagi, M.; Austin, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multiple microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment.

  1. Lymphocyte and Eosinophil Influx into Alveolar Tissue in Nocturnal Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MONICA KRAFT; RICHARD J. MARTIN; SUSAN WILSON; RATKO DJUKANOVIC; STEPHEN T. HOLGATE

    1999-01-01

    We have shown in nocturnal asthma that alveolar tissue eosinophils are increased at night as com- pared with the proximal airway, and that they correlate with the overnight decrement in lung func- tion. As the CD4 1 cell is thought to be the principal orchestrating cell in eosinophil recruitment, we evaluated its presence in the proximal and distal airways in

  2. Eosinophil Degranulation in the Presence of Lung Fibroblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeru Takafuji; Shunsuke Shoji; Koji Ito; Kazuhiko Yamamoto; Takemasa Nakagawa

    1998-01-01

    Background: Although eosinophils (Eos) and fibroblasts (Fb) are closely approximated in the bronchial submucosae of asthmatics, and are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, the interaction between Eos and Fb has not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we have examined eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) release from human Eos cultured in the presence of human

  3. Mechanisms of eosinophil adhesion to endothelial cells under flow conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Ulfman

    2002-01-01

    Eosinophils play an important role in allergic inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. Infiltrates of these cells are present in the interstitium and the lumen of the bronchi of asthmatic patients. Eosinophils must pass the endothelium to enter this site of inflammation. A widely accepted paradigm for leukocyte extravasation is\\u000athe multistep model. In this model selectins mediate rolling interactions

  4. Clinical and immunopathologic effects of swallowed fluticasone for eosinophilic esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J Noel; Philip E Putnam; Margaret H Collins; Amal H Assa’ad; Jesus R Guajardo; Sean C Jameson; Marc E Rothenberg

    2004-01-01

    Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently recognized clinical disorder that is understood poorly. We aimed to determine the efficacy of swallowed fluticasone propionate on the immunopathologic features associated with EE. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 20 pediatric patients with EE. Inclusion criteria specified a peak eosinophil density of ?24 cells per 400× field in the

  5. Endoscopy in eosinophilic esophagitis: “feline” esophagus and perforation risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell Kaplan; Ece A. Mutlu; Shriram Jakate; Keith Bruninga; John Losurdo; Joseph Losurdo; Ali Keshavarzian

    2003-01-01

    Background & Aims: Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis is an underdiagnosed disease with typical endoscopic findings, which have not been well described. Methods: Charts and pathology reports at two tertiary care centers from June 1993 to April 2002 were reviewed to describe the endoscopic findings of this disease and to correlate them with clinical characteristics. Eight patients were identified as having eosinophilic

  6. An Audit of Endoscopic Complications in Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew S. Cohen; Adam B. Kaufman; Juan P. Palazzo; Daniel Nevin; Anthony J. DiMarino; Sidney Cohen

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in adults, characterized by the triad of dysphagia, a ringed esophagus, and mucosal eosinophilic infiltration, has asso- ciated complications that include vertical mucosal lacera- tions, instrumental perforation, and emesis-induced rup- ture. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features can be used to predict the risk for development

  7. Clinical and Endoscopic Features of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Croese; Stephen K. Fairley; John W. Masson; André K. H. Chong; David A. Whitaker; Peter A. Kanowski; Neal I. Walker

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundEosinophilic esophagitis in adults is regarded as unusual, being diagnosed mostly in young men presenting with dysphagia. Mucosal furrows are a sentinel endoscopic feature. This study examined the demographic and clinical profile of adults with eosinophilic esophagitis seen from 1981 to 2002.

  8. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Martillo, Miguel; Abed, Jean; Herman, Michael; Abed, Elie; Shi, Wenjing; Munot, Khushboo; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Gurunathan, Rajan; Ionescu, Gabriel; Kotler, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration. PMID:26078733

  9. Gastrointestinal eosinophils in health, disease and functional disorders.

    PubMed

    Powell, Nicholas; Walker, Marjorie M; Talley, Nicholas J

    2010-03-01

    Eosinophils are potent innate immune cells that home to the gastrointestinal tract where they participate in host immunity to luminal pathogens, and help to maintain intestinal epithelial homeostasis. However, these cells are now recognized to have key functions in the pathogenesis of numerous other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, including primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease, common functional conditions, such as dyspepsia, and also in gastrointestinal disorders in patients with allergic disease. We are just beginning to understand the potential pathological role of eosinophils in gastrointestinal disease, and it is increasingly likely that gastroenterologists and histopathologists will need to account for the presence of gastrointestinal eosinophils and relate their presence to gastrointestinal symptoms. This Review discusses the role of gastrointestinal eosinophils in health and disease, including their associations with functional and allergic disorders. PMID:20125092

  10. Eosinophils and their Interactions with Respiratory Virus Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Helene F.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Domachowske, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are implicated in the pathophysiology of respiratory virus infection, most typically in negative roles, such as promoting wheezing and bronchoconstriction in conjunction with virus-induced exacerbations of reactive airways disease and in association with aberrant hypersensitivity responses to antiviral vaccines. However, experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo suggest positive roles for eosinophils, as they have been shown to reduce virus infectivity in tissue culture and promote clearance of the human pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a mouse challenge model. The related natural rodent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) is highly virulent in mice, and is not readily cleared by eosinophils in vivo. Interestingly, PVM replicates in eosinophils and promotes cytokine release. The molecular basis of virus infection in eosinophils and its relationship to disease outcome is currently under study. PMID:18818885

  11. The enhancement of eosinophil function by lymphocyte supernatants.

    PubMed Central

    Sher, R; Wadee, A; Joffe, M

    1983-01-01

    Supernatants obtained from non-stimulated lymphocytes, lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin and lymphocytes from patients with schistosomiasis that were stimulated with Schistosomiasis haematobium ova were shown to enhance a number of eosinophil functions. Eosinophil chemotaxis, phagocytosis, microbicidal activity, Nitro blue tetrazolium reduction, hexose monophosphate shunt activity and glycolysis were increased. Eosinophil iodination was not affected. Only those supernatants obtained from phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes and lymphocytes from patients with schistosomiasis that were stimulated with S. haematobium ova showed eosinophil chemotactic activity. The active factor was found to be heat stable, and had no effect on cAMP and cGMP metabolism. The most likely mechanism of enhanced eosinophil function is through the increased activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt activity and glycolysis. PMID:6303654

  12. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a type ...

  13. RECOGNITION OF FUNGAL PROTEASE ACTIVITIES INDUCES CELLULAR ACTIVATION AND EOSINOPHIL-DERIVED NEUROTOXIN RELEASE IN HUMAN EOSINOPHILS1

    PubMed Central

    Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Wada, Kota; White, Thomas A.; Benson, Linda M.; Charlesworth, M. Cristine; Checkel, James L.; Inoue, Yoshinari; Hotta, Kyoko; Ponikau, Jens U; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Kita, Hirohito

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and in immunity to certain organisms. Associations between exposure to an environmental fungus, such as Alternaria, and asthma have been recognized clinically. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are G protein-coupled receptors that are cleaved and activated by serine proteases, but their roles in innate immunity remain unknown. We previously found that human eosinophils respond vigorously to Alternaria organisms and to the secretory product(s) of Alternaria with eosinophils releasing their pro-inflammatory mediators. Herein, we investigated the roles of protease(s) produced by Alternaria and of PARs expressed on eosinophils in their immune responses against fungal organisms. We found that Alternaria alternata produces aspartate protease(s) and that human peripheral blood eosinophils degranulate in response to the cell-free extract of A. alternata. Eosinophils showed an increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in response to Alternaria that was desensitized by peptide and protease ligands for PAR-2 and inhibited by a PAR-2 antagonistic peptide. Alternaria-derived aspartate protease(s) cleaved PAR-2 to expose “neo-ligands”; these neo-ligands activated eosinophil degranulation in the absence of proteases. Finally, treatment of Alternaria extract with aspartate protease inhibitors, which are conventionally used for HIV-1 and other microbes, attenuated the eosinophils’ responses to Alternaria. Thus, fungal aspartate protease and eosinophil PAR-2 appear critical for the eosinophils’ innate immune response to certain fungi, suggesting a novel mechanism for pathologic inflammation in asthma and for host-pathogen interaction. PMID:19864598

  14. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: distinguishing features from gastroesophageal reflux disease: a study of 41 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy R Parfitt; James C Gregor; Neville G Suskin; Hani A Jawa; David K Driman

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults is a recently described entity occurring in young males with dysphagia, in whom esophageal biopsies show eosinophilic infiltration. This study defines the clinical and histological features of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, distinguishing it from gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal biopsies from patients with dysphagia or esophagitis were reviewed blindly, and assessed for: epithelial eosinophil counts, presence of

  15. Childhood Cancer: Leukemia (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    About Leukemia The term leukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells (also called leukocytes or WBCs). When ... the disease without it coming back. Types of Leukemia In general, leukemias are classified into acute (rapidly ...

  16. Thrombomodulin inhibits the activation of eosinophils and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Roeen, Ziaurahman; Toda, Masaaki; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Onishi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Yasuma, Taro; Urawa, Masahito; Taguchi, Osamu; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils and mast cells play critical roles in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Activation of both cells leads to the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in the airway of asthmatic patients. Recently, we have shown that inhaled thrombomodulin inhibits allergic bronchial asthma in a mouse model. In the present study, we hypothesize that thrombomodulin can inhibit the activation of eosinophils and mast cells. The effect of thrombomodulin on the activation and release of inflammatory mediators from eosinophils and mast cells was evaluated. Thrombomodulin inhibited the eotaxin-induced chemotaxis, upregulation of CD11b and degranulation of eosinophils. Treatment with thrombomodulin also significantly suppressed the degranulation and synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in eosinophils and mast cells. Mice treated with a low-dose of inhaled thrombomodulin have decreased number of eosinophils and activated mast cells and Th2 cytokines in the lungs compared to untreated mice. The results of this study suggest that thrombomodulin may modulate allergic responses by inhibiting the activation of both eosinophils and mast cells. PMID:25497974

  17. Eosinophilic colitis: epidemiology, clinical features, and current management

    PubMed Central

    Alfadda, Abdulrahman A.; Storr, Martin A.; Shaffer, Eldon A.

    2011-01-01

    Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) represent a spectrum of inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders in which eosinophils infiltrate the gut in the absence of known causes for such tissue eosinophilia. EGIDs can be subgrouped as eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG), and eosinophilic colitis (EC). The least frequent manifestation of EGIDs is EC. EC is a heterogeneous entity with a bimodal age distribution, presenting with either an acute self-limited bloody diarrhea in otherwise healthy infants or as a more chronic relapsing colitis in young adults. The pathophysiology of primary EC appears related to altered hypersensitivity, principally as a food allergy in infants and T lymphocyte-mediated (i.e. non-IgE associated) in young adults. In adults, symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Endoscopic changes are generally modest, featuring edema and patchy granularity. Although standardized criteria are not yet established, the diagnosis of EC depends on histopathology that identifies an excess of eosinophils. Therapeutic approaches are based on case reports and small case series, as prospective randomized controlled trials are lacking. Eosinophilic colitis in infants is a rather benign, frequently food-related entity and dietary elimination of the aggressor often resolves the disorder within days. Adolescent or older patients require more aggressive medical management including: glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, leukotriene receptors antagonists as well as novel approaches employing biologics that target interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IgE. This review article summarizes the current knowledge of EC, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:21922029

  18. Advances in clinical management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Dellon, Evan S; Liacouras, Chris A

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsy specimens, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histological features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (with a current incidence of 1 new case per 10,000 per year and prevalence of 0.5 to 1 case per 1000 per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids, such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and nondirected empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenotic complications of EoE. There are a number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment end points, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines; EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

  19. Immunohistochemical detection of deposits of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil peroxidase in the myocardium of patients with Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Molina, H A; Kierszenbaum, F

    1988-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of eosinophil distribution in the inflammatory cell infiltrates of four different types of myocardial lesions associated with Chagas' disease--caused by Trypanosoma cruzi--showed larger numbers of these cells in areas presenting tissue necrosis and degeneration, most notably in patients with the most severe myocarditis from a histopathological stand-point. Using antisera specific for human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin or eosinophil peroxidase, we detected deposits of these secretion products on myofibres and in the interstitium of chagasic myocardium displaying necrosis and degeneration but rarely in other types of lesions. These deposits were not detectable in the myocardium of non-chagasic patients who had died from myocardial infarction (acute or in the scarring stage) or myocarditis secondary to bacterial endocarditis. When human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin was incubated with myoblast monolayers there was a significant cell injury, detachment and lysis. These effects were abrogated by yeast RNA, added as a competitive ribonuclease substrate, and inhibited by the ribonuclease inhibitor RNasin, suggesting that the ribonuclease activity of the eosinophil-derived neurotoxin was involved in the effect. These results suggest a link between eosinophil infiltration and necrosis in chagasic myocardial lesions and point to EDN, and perhaps other toxic eosinophil secretion products, as possible mediators of tissue damage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3049321

  20. Generation of eosinophils from unselected bone marrow progenitors: wild-type, TLR- and eosinophil-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Kimberly D.; Percopo, Caroline M.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently devised a culture method that generates large numbers of eosinophils at high purity from unselected BALB/c mouse bone marrow progenitors [Dyer et al., 2008. J. Immunol. 181: 4004–9]. Here we present the extended scope of this approach, as we have used this method successfully to generate eosinophil cultures of virtually 100% purity from bone marrow from C57BL/6 mice, and from TLR2, TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9-gene-deleted mouse strains on the C57BL/6 background. Both wild-type and TLR3 gene-deleted bone marrow eosinophils (bmEos) are functional, releasing peroxidase in response to the secretogogue, platelet activating factor. We have also used this method to re-evaluate production of eosinophils in bone marrow cultures from ?dblGATA mice, a strain that is eosinophil-deficient in vivo. Interestingly, bmEos can be detected in the ?dblGATA cultures (5% of total cells at day 10), although ~80-fold fewer bmEos are detected in ?dblGATA than in parallel wild-type (BALB/c) bone marrow cultures. Overall, we find that generation of large numbers of eosinophils at high purity from unselected bone marrow progenitors proceeds efficiently in a variety of wild-type and gene-deleted strains, and as such this approach shows promise as a universal method for the study of eosinophil structure and function. PMID:20228959

  1. Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun; Son, Hyun-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized. PMID:23807936

  2. UNUSUAL EOSINOPHILIC GRANULE CELL PROLIFERATION IN COHO SALMON (ONCHORHYNCHUS KISUTCH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proliferative lesions comprised of eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs) extended throughout the gastrointestinal tract of several mature, spawning coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum). istological examination of the tumour showed extensive proliferation and infiltration of EGC...

  3. Esophageal Rupture in a Patient With Idiopathic Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J Riou; Andrew G Nicholson; Ugo Pastorino

    1996-01-01

    Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis is an extremely rare condition with fewer than 20 cases described in the literature. We present a case presenting as an emergency with esophageal perforation that eventually required subtotal esophagectomy.

  4. Induction of Eosinophil Apoptosis by the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor AT7519 Promotes the Resolution of Eosinophil-Dominant Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Leitch, Andrew E.; Lucas, Christopher D.; Sheldrake, Tara A.; Dorward, David A.; Hirani, Nik; Pinho, Vanessa; de Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Lyons, John F.; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Eosinophils not only defend the body against parasitic infection but are also involved in pathological inflammatory allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and contact dermatitis. Clearance of apoptotic eosinophils by macrophages is a key process responsible for driving the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and can be defective in allergic diseases. However, enhanced resolution of eosinophilic inflammation by deliberate induction of eosinophil apoptosis using pharmacological agents has not been previously demonstrated. Here we investigated the effect of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor drug, AT7519, on human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis and examined whether it could enhance the resolution of a murine model of eosinophil-dominant inflammation in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Eosinophils from blood of healthy donors were treated with AT7519 and apoptosis assessed morphologically and by flow-cytometric detection of annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. AT7519 induced eosinophil apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. Therapeutic administration of AT7519 in eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation was investigated using an established ovalbumin-sensitised mouse model of allergic pleurisy. Following ovalbumin challenge AT7519 was administered systemically at the peak of pleural inflammation and inflammatory cell infiltrate, apoptosis and evidence of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils assessed at appropriate time points. Administration of AT7519 dramatically enhanced the resolution of allergic pleurisy via direct induction of eosinophil apoptosis without detriment to macrophage clearance of these cells. This enhanced resolution of inflammation was shown to be caspase-dependent as the effects of AT7519 were reduced by treatment with a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor (z-vad-fmk). Conclusions Our data show that AT7519 induces human eosinophil apoptosis and enhances the resolution of a murine model of allergic pleurisy by inducing caspase-dependent eosinophil apoptosis and enhancing macrophage ingestion of apoptotic eosinophils. These findings demonstrate the utility of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors such as AT7519 as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of eosinophil dominant allergic disorders. PMID:21984938

  5. Essential and Instructive Roles of GATA Factors in Eosinophil Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryutaro Hirasawa; Ritsuko Shimizu; Satoru Takahashi; Mitsujiro Osawa; Shu Takayanagi; Yuko Kato; Masafumi Onodera; Naoko Minegishi; Masayuki Yamamoto; Katashi Fukao; Hideki Taniguchi; Hiromitsu Nakauchi; Atsushi Iwama

    2002-01-01

    GATA transcription factors are major regulators of hematopoietic and immune system. Among GATA factors, GATA-1, GATA-2, and GATA-3 play crucial roles in the development of erythroid cells, hematopoietic stem, and progenitor cells, and T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, re- spectively. A high level of GATA-1 and GATA-2 expression has been observed in eosinophils, but their roles in eosinophil development

  6. Co-existent eosinophilic gastroenteritis and hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Haeney, M. R.; Wilson, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    A case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 42-year-old man is described. The patient had diarrhoea, faecal blood loss, a protein-losing enteropathy, malabsorption of fat, xylose and vitamin B12. Co-existent hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus and hypothalamic dysfunction was demonstrated. Complete clinical recovery occurred with pituitary replacement therapy alone. The association of this endocrine abnormality with the picture of eosinophilic gastroenteritis has not previously been described. Images Fig. 1 PMID:882484

  7. [Eosinophilic gastroenteritis and colitis in pediatric patients: Increasingly frequent diseases].

    PubMed

    Lemale, J; Dainese, L; Tounian, P

    2015-07-01

    Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by no specific digestive symptoms associated with dense eosinophilic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of known causes for such tissue eosinophilia. Among these diseases, eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) and colitis (EC) are less common than esophagitis, but their incidence and prevalence have been increasing over the past decade due in part to increased disease recognition. The exact pathophysiology is not clear: EGE and EC are immune-mediated diseases implicating adaptive T-helper cell type 2 immunity. According to the site of eosinophilic infiltration, there is a wide spectrum of digestive symptoms ranging from food refusal, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding (anemia), protein loosing enteropathy, ascites, bowel obstruction or perforation for EGE and diarrhea±bleeding for CE. Endoscopic lesions are not specific: friability, erythematous mucosa with superficial erosions, or ulceration is often observed. Histologically, markedly increased numbers of mucosal eosinophils are seen in biopsy specimens. However, no standards for the diagnosis of EGE or CE exist and few findings support the diagnosis: intraepithelial eosinophils, eosinophil crypt abscesses, and eosinophils in muscularis mucosa and/or submucosa. Other organs are not involved. The other causes of tissue eosinophilia (infections, inflammatory bowel diseases) should be excluded. Food allergy appears to play a central role in driving inflammation in EGE and CE, as evidenced by symptomatic improvement with initiation of food exclusion or elemental diets. Dietary treatment should be the first therapeutic option in children. If the elimination diet fails, corticosteroids are currently the best characterized treatment but appropriate duration is unknown and relapses are frequent. In severe forms, immunomodulators or biologic agents (anti-IL5, anti-IgE, or anti-TNFa) can potentially play a role in the treatment of EGE and CE. PMID:26051270

  8. Variability in Diagnostic Criteria for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan S. Dellon; Ademola Aderoju; John T. Woosley; Robert S. Sandler; Nicholas J. Shaheen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging clinicopathologic entity defined by abnormal esophageal eosinophilic infiltration. Our understanding of this disease is hampered by the lack of a uniform diagnostic standard. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the range of diagnostic strategies and histologic criteria in the EoE literature.METHODS:The MEDLINE-indexed literature from 1950 through December 31, 2006 was independently

  9. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  10. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  11. Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood ...

  12. Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... myeloblasts or myeloid blasts. These cells do not mature into healthy blood cells. Instead, they develop into ... types of leukemia cells or help leukemia cells mature into white blood cells. These drugs are used ...

  13. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  14. A Snapshot of Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CML ). Although leukemia occurs most often in older adults, it is among the most common childhood cancers. ... contrast, the most common types of leukemia in adults are AML and CLL, followed by ALL and ...

  15. Fluorescent staining for leukocyte chemotaxis. Eosinophil-specific fluorescence with aniline blue.

    PubMed

    McCrone, E L; Lucey, D R; Weller, P F

    1988-11-10

    To overcome problems associated with the quantitation of human eosinophil chemotaxis in micropore filters, we have developed a fluorescent method of specifically staining eosinophils in chemotactic filters. A neutral solution of aniline blue yielded bright green fluorescent staining of the cytoplasmic granules of eosinophils. Other leukocytes and contaminating neutrophils potentially present with eosinophils did not fluoresce with aniline blue. The fluorescent staining eosinophils within filters provided bright, non-fading images that facilitated visual microscopic counting and were of sufficiently high contrast, unlike those with conventional eosinophil stains, to allow image analyzer based enumeration of eosinophil chemotactic responses at levels through the filters. Although not cell type-specific, congo red and ethidium bromide also provided high contrast, fluorescent images of all leukocyte types within chemotactic filters. Fluorescent staining with aniline blue constitutes a rapid, stable and eosinophil-specific stain that facilitates the visual or image analyzer-based quantitation of eosinophil chemotaxis. PMID:2460564

  16. Diesel exhaust particulates enhance eosinophil adhesion to nasal epithelial cells and cause degranulation.

    PubMed

    Terada, N; Maesako, K; Hiruma, K; Hamano, N; Houki, G; Konno, A; Ikeda, T; Sai, M

    1997-10-01

    Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) are a common air pollutant from diesel-engine-powered car exhaust and are thought to cause chronic airway diseases. On the other hand, eosinophils are major components of allergic inflammatory disorders such as asthma, nasal allergy and atopic dermatitis. We examined the effects of DEP and DEP extract (extract of polyaromatic hydrocarbons) on eosinophil adhesion, survival rate and degranulation. Eosinophils, human mucosal microvascular endothelial cells (HMMECs) and human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) were preincubated in the presence or absence of DEP and DEP extract. 35S-labeled eosinophils were allowed to adhere to monolayers of HMMECs and HNECs. After washing, 35S radioactivity was determined and numbers of adherent eosinophils were calculated using each standard curve. The effects of DEP and DEP extract on eosinophil survival rate and degranulation were also determined. Although neither DEP nor DEP extract affected the adhesiveness of HMMECs and HNECs to eosinophils, 5 ng/ml of DEP extract and 50 ng/ml of DEP extract each significancy increased eosinophil adhesiveness to HNECs (134+/-9 and 143+/-8%, respectively; p<0.01 vs. control), but neither effected eosinophil adhesiveness to HMMECs. DEP extract also induced eosinophil degranulation without changing the eosinophil survival rate. Given that eosinophil-derived lipid mediators and toxic proteins play important roles in the development of nasal allergy, the above findings strongly suggest that DEP plays an important role in promoting the nasal hypersensitivity induced by enhanced eosinophil infiltration of epithelium and eosinophil degranulation. PMID:9338611

  17. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Interactions with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Edaire; Souza, Rhonda F.; Spechler, Stuart Jon

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Early authorities on eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) deemed it crucial to distinguish this disorder from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, it has become clear that GERD and EoE are not mutually exclusive disorders, and that their interactions can be complex. The notion that GERD and EoE can be distinguished by the response to PPI treatment is based on the assumption that gastric acid suppression is the only important therapeutic effect of PPIs, and therefore only GERD can respond to PPIs. This assumption appears to be incorrect for two major reasons. First, there are multiple mechanisms whereby PPI-induced acid reduction might benefit patients with EoE. Second, PPIs have acid-independent, anti-inflammatory effects that might be beneficial both for GERD and for EoE. Since the PPIs have multiple effects that might benefit both diseases, for patients who have esophageal symptoms and esophageal eosinophilia, we feel that a clinical and/or histological response to PPIs does not rule in GERD, and does not rule out EoE. However, we do recommend a trial of PPI therapy for patients with symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia, even if the diagnosis of EoE seems clear-cut. PMID:24813513

  18. Clavicular eosinophilic granuloma causing adult shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Michelle T.; Fedenko, Alexander N.; Menendez, Lawrence R.; Allison, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Though rarely reported, neoplasms of the clavicle occur, and their symptoms can be mistaken for more common shoulder conditions. We present the case of a benign clavicular neoplasm, rarely seen in adults, presenting with pain, and eventual pathologic fracture in a 49 year-old. A 49 year-old male firefighter underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for shoulder pain after magnetic resonance imaging revealed supraspinatus tendon tear. The patient's pain persisted after surgery, and was described as routine until he developed severe pain after minor blunt trauma. A local Emergency Room performed the first x-rays, which revealed a pathologic fracture of the distal clavicle through a destructive lesion. The patient was referred to an orthopedic oncologist, who performed incisional biopsy, which initially diagnosed osteomyelitis. The patient was subsequently taken to surgery for debridement. Pathology then yielded the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. The patient was taken back to surgery for formal curettage with open reduction and internal fixation. The patient's pain resolved, the pathologic fracture fully healed, and the patient returned to full time work as a firefighter. Though workup for common shoulder conditions often identifies incidental benign lesions of bone, the converse can be true. Persistent pain despite intervention should raise concern for further investigation. An x-ray alone can reveal a destructive bone lesion as the source of shoulder pain. PMID:23772307

  19. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with eosinophilic cystitis: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shu-Gao; Chen, Ying; Qian, Zi-Hua; Yang, Li; Yu, Ri-Sheng; Zhu, Xiu-Liang; Li, Qing-Hai; Chen, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare, distinct clinical entity, and EG associated with eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is extremely rare and has not been well documented. Here, we report two cases of EG and coexistent EC along with findings from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An 18-year-old male with a history of hematuria, urgency and occasional urodynia for two weeks and a 34-year-old male with a history of abdominal distention for one week were admitted to our hospital. Abdominal contrast-enhanced CT in both patients revealed wall thickening in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract with inhomogeneous reinforcement, coexistent with local or diffuse bladder wall thickening with progressive enhancement, and also showed that the bladder mucosal lining was nondestructive. Pelvic MRI showed that the local or diffuse thickened bladder wall was iso-intense on T1-weighted images, hypo-intense on T2-weighted images, and slightly restricted on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in one case. After therapy, the thickened wall of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder had improved markedly in the two cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the radiological imaging of EG and coexistent EC by both CT and MRI and the first with DWI findings. PMID:25780317

  20. Hydroxycarbamide reduces eosinophil adhesion and degranulation in sickle cell anaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Pallis, Flavia Rubia; Conran, Nicola; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Olalla Saad, Sara Terezinha; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation, leucocyte and red cell adhesion to the endothelium contribute to the pathogenesis of sickle cell anaemia. Neutrophils appear to be important for vaso-occlusion, however, eosinophils may also participate in this phenomenon. The role of eosinophils in the pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and the effect of hydroxycarbamide (HC) therapy on the functional properties of these cells are not understood. Patients with SCA and those on HC therapy (SCAHC) were included in the study. SCAHC individuals presented significantly lower absolute numbers of eosinophils than SCA. Furthermore, SCAHC eosinophils demonstrated significantly lower adhesive properties, compared to SCA eosinophils. SCA and SCAHC eosinophils presented greater spontaneous migration when compared with control eosinophils. Baseline eosinophil peroxidase and reactive oxygen species release was higher for SCA individuals than for control individuals, as were plasma levels of eosinophil derived neurotoxin. SCAHC eosinophil degranulation was lower than that of SCA eosinophil degranulation. Eotaxin-1 and RANTES levels were higher in the plasma of SCA and SCAHC individuals, when compared with controls. These data suggest that eosinophils exist in an activated state in SCA and indicate that these cells play a role in the vaso-occlusive process. The exact mechanism by which HC may alter SCA eosinophil properties is not clear. PMID:24383847

  1. Unusual presentations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Leal, Regina; Fayad, Leonardo; Vieira, Daniella; Figueiredo, Teresa; Lopes, Aldemae; Carvalho, Roberta; Dantas-Corrêa, Esther; Schiavon, Leonardo; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína

    2014-06-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease that is characterized by eosinophil infiltration in one or multiple segments of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology of this condition remains unknown. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis has heterogeneous clinical manifestations that depend upon the location and depth of infiltration in the gastrointestinal tract, and eosinophilia may or may not be present. This article reports two cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. The first is that of a 49-year-old woman with abdominal pain, ascites, eosinophilia, and a history of asthma. The second case is that of a 69-year-old male with a history of loss of appetite, belching, postprandial fullness, heartburn, and a 5-kilogram weight loss over a period of 9 months; ultimately, the patient was diagnosed with a gastric outlet obstruction due to pyloric stenosis. The rare character of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and its varied clinical presentations often lead to delayed diagnoses and complications. Case reports may help to disseminate knowledge about the disease, thereby increasing the likelihood of early diagnosis and intervention to prevent complications. PMID:25141324

  2. Fecal microbiota transplantation and prednisone for severe eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yi-Xuan; Shi, Chuan-Bing; Cui, Bo-Ta; Wang, Min; Ji, Guo-Zhong; Zhang, Fa-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by patchy or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall to a variable depth and various gastrointestinal manifestations. We describe a case of severe eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting as frequent bowel obstruction and diarrhea in a 35-year-old man. The patient was misdiagnosed and underwent surgery because of intestinal obstruction when he was first admitted to a local hospital. Then he was misdiagnosed as having Crohn’s disease in another university teaching hospital. Finally, the patient asked for further treatment from our hospital because of the on-going clinical trial for treating refractory Crohn’s disease by fecal microbiota transplantation. Physical examination revealed a slight distended abdomen with diffuse tenderness. Laboratory investigation showed the total number of normal leukocytes with neutrophilia as 90.5%, as well as eosinopenia, monocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Barium radiography and sigmoidoscopy confirmed inflammatory stenosis of the sigmoid colon. We diagnosed the patient as having eosinophilic gastroenteritis by multi-examinations. The patient was treated by fecal microbiota transplantation combined with oral prednisone, and was free from gastrointestinal symptoms at the time when we reported his disease. This case highlights the importance of awareness of manifestations of a rare disease like eosinophilic gastroenteritis. PMID:25473198

  3. Eosinophils in Fungus-Associated Allergic Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sumit; Hoselton, Scott A.; Dorsam, Glenn P.; Schuh, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease. PMID:23378838

  4. Recent advances in the recognition and management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Eustace, Gregory; Gui, Xianyong; Iacucci, Marietta

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and recognition of eosinophilic esophagitis is increasing. Pathophysiological understanding of eosinophilic esophagitis is improving and an immunological reaction to ingested food is likely to play a significant role. Patients present with dysphagia and food bolus obstruction. Both histological and endoscopic criteria have been developed and validated. Dietary therapy, topical steroid therapy, proton pump inhibitors and endoscopic dilation are the main approaches to therapy; however, novel targeted therapies are being developed. Among the food items commonly implicated are wheat, dairy, nuts, soy, shellfish and eggs. A multidisciplinary approach to management in dedicated clinics may yield the best results. PMID:26076223

  5. A case of eosinophilic esophagitis caused by a cedar ball.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Keiko; Izumi, Toshinobu; Yaku, Hiroaki; Okada, Hirokazu; Tsubosaka, Mako; Okada, Yuki; Ikemura, Takahiro; Kawase, Yoshito

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented to our hospital with chief complaints of a strange sensation in her pharynx, dysphagia, and odynophagia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed multiple aphthae in the esophagus and she was diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis based on the results of biopsy. Swallowing therapy with fluticasone was scheduled; however, she subsequently developed urticaria. She was treated with systemic steroid therapy at another hospital, which improved her symptoms and endoscopic images. A detailed history revealed that she had experienced significant facial edema after making a cedar ball. It was considered that the eosinophilic esophagitis was possibly caused by cedar pollen. PMID:26050724

  6. Eosinophilic esophagitis as paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with ganglioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Prader, S; Spalinger, J; Caduff, J; Hürlimann, S; Rischewski, J

    2015-05-01

    A 16-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive despite sufficient caloric intake, hypersalivation, abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea and blepharitis. An eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was diagnosed by esophageal biopsy. Dietary restrictions and topical steroid treatment lead to no improvement. Further diagnostic work-up revealed an intrathoracal, paraspinal ganglioneuroblastoma. After operative extirpation of the tumour, all initial symptoms resolved. An esophageal control biopsy 4 weeks after tumour resection was normal. This is the first report of eosinophilic esophagitis as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with a malignant disease other than a carcinoma. PMID:25985452

  7. Eosinophil Activities Modulate the Immune/Inflammatory Character of Allergic Respiratory Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; LeSuer, William E.; Willetts, Lian; Zellner, Katie R.; Mazzolini, Kirea; Antonios, Nathalie; Beck, Brandon; Protheroe, Cheryl; Ochkur, Sergei I.; Colbert, Dana; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Appleton, Judith; Lee, Nancy A.; Lee, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance and specific role(s) of eosinophils in modulating the immune/inflammatory phenotype of allergic pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Established animals models assessing the role(s) of eosinophils as contributors and/or causative agents of disease have relied on congenitally deficient mice where the developmental consequences of eosinophil depletion are unknown. Methods We developed a novel conditional eosinophil-deficient strain of mice (iPHIL) through a gene knock-in strategy inserting the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor (DTR) into the endogenous eosinophil peroxidase genomic locus. Results Expression of DTR rendered resistant mouse eosinophil progenitors sensitive to DT without affecting any other cell types. The presence of eosinophils was shown to be unnecessary during the sensitization phase of either ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM) acute asthma models. However, eosinophil ablation during airway challenge led to a predominantly neutrophilic phenotype (>15% neutrophils) accompanied by allergen-induced histopathologies and airway hyperresponsiveness in response to methacholine indistinguishable from eosinophilic wild type mice. Moreover, the iPHIL neutrophilic airway phenotype was shown to be a steroid-resistant allergic respiratory variant that was reversible upon restoration of peripheral eosinophils. Conclusions Eosinophil contributions to allergic immune/inflammatory responses appear to be limited to the airway challenge and not the sensitization phase of allergen provocation models. The reversible steroid-resistant character of the iPHIL neutrophilic airway variant suggests underappreciated mechanisms by which eosinophils shape the character of allergic respiratory responses. PMID:24266710

  8. Up-regulation of human eosinophil leukotriene C 4 generation through contact with bronchial epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Dent; E. Rühlmann; K. Bodtke; H. Magnussen; K. F. Rabe

    2000-01-01

    Objective and Design: We studied the effect of contact with bronchial epithelial cells on the functional activity of human eosinophils, measured as the production of a bronchoconstrictor lipid mediator, leukotriene C4 (LTC4) to determine the role of cell-cell interaction in activation of air- way eosinophils. Materials and Methods: Eosinophils were isolated from peri- pheral blood of atopic donors. Epithelial cells

  9. Mast Cell Tryptase Activates Peripheral Blood Eosinophils to Release Granule-Associated Enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harissios Vliagoftis; Paige Lacy; Betty Luy; Darryl Adamko; Morley Hollenberg; Dean Befus; Redwan Moqbel

    2004-01-01

    Background: Mast cells and eosinophils are important effector cells in asthma. Understanding their interactions is essential for studying asthma pathophysiology. Inflammatory mediators released from mast cells, such as arachidonic acid metabolites, TNF and IL-5, are important in eosinophil biology. However, little is known about the effects of mast cell-specific mediators, such as tryptase, on eosinophils. Our objective was to investigate

  10. Thoughts on the Complex Relationship Between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Jon Spechler; Robert M. Genta; Rhonda F. Souza

    2007-01-01

    Recent data suggest that the interaction between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic esophagitis can be complex, and that the notion of establishing a clear distinction between the two disorders may be too simplistic. There are at least four situations in which GERD might be associated with esophageal eosinophils: (a) GERD causes esophageal injury that results in a mild eosinophilic

  11. Nilotinib and Imatinib Mesylate After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-09

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  12. Human Surfactant Protein D Alters Oxidative Stress and HMGA1 Expression to Induce p53 Apoptotic Pathway in Eosinophil Leukemic Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Lakshna; Pandit, Hrishikesh; Madan, Taruna; Gautam, Poonam; Yadav, Ajit K.; Warke, Himangi; Sundaram, Curam S.; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Sarma, P. Usha; Kishore, Uday; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D), an innate immune molecule, has an indispensable role in host defense and regulation of inflammation. Immune related functions regulated by SP-D include agglutination of pathogens, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, antigen presentation, T lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine secretion, induction of apoptosis and clearance of apoptotic cells. The present study unravels a novel ability of SP-D to reduce the viability of leukemic cells (eosinophilic leukemic cell line, AML14.3D10; acute myeloid leukemia cell line, THP-1; acute lymphoid leukemia cell lines, Jurkat, Raji; and human breast epithelial cell line, MCF-7), and explains the underlying mechanisms. SP-D and a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rhSP-D) induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, and dose and time-dependent apoptosis in the AML14.3D10 eosinophilic leukemia cell line. Levels of various apoptotic markers viz. activated p53, cleaved caspase-9 and PARP, along with G2/M checkpoints (p21 and Tyr15 phosphorylation of cdc2) showed significant increase in these cells. We further attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of rhSP-D induced apoptosis using proteomic analysis. This approach identified large scale molecular changes initiated by SP-D in a human cell for the first time. Among others, the proteomics analysis highlighted a decreased expression of survival related proteins such as HMGA1, overexpression of proteins to protect the cells from oxidative burst, while a drastic decrease in mitochondrial antioxidant defense system. rhSP-D mediated enhanced oxidative burst in AML14.3D10 cells was confirmed, while antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, abrogated the rhSP-D induced apoptosis. The rhSP-D mediated reduced viability was specific to the cancer cell lines and viability of human PBMCs from healthy controls was not affected. The study suggests involvement of SP-D in host’s immunosurveillance and therapeutic potential of rhSP-D in the eosinophilic leukemia and cancers of other origins. PMID:24391984

  13. Eosinophils Adhere to Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 via Podosomes

    E-print Network

    Mosher, Deane F.

    counter-receptors on the surface of cultured endothelial (Received in original form March 19, 2004Eosinophils Adhere to Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 via Podosomes Mats W. Johansson, Ming H of Medicine and Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin Vascular cell adhesion

  14. Hepatic eosinophil granulocytopoiesis in murine experimental Schistosomiasis mansoni.

    PubMed Central

    Borojevic, R.; Stocker, S.; Grimaud, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    In livers of mice with acute schistosomiasis eosinophil granulocytopoietic folliculi are described. Exogen stem cells were observed in hepatic sinusoids. Their proliferation and progressive maturation are described. Specific reactions to the presence of worms and their eggs, and Kupffer-cell stimulation and hyperplasia are considered to be responsible for this extramedullary granulocytopoiesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7295543

  15. Chronic asthma is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, fibrosis,

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Chronic asthma is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, fibrosis, airway remodelling for the treatment of chronic asthma. Olive Leavy ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER Shen, Z.-J. et al. Pin1 regulates TGF-1. Invest. 118, 479­490 (2008) Allergy And AsthmA Regulation of TGF1 PINned down ReseaRch highlights NATURE

  16. The Family Leukemia Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Eleanor

    1976-01-01

    An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

  17. ACUTE LEUKEMIAS ACUTE MYELOGENOUS

    E-print Network

    Trisomy 8(+8), t(9;22), t(6;9) 90% myeloblasts AML-M2 Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia with Maturation Black B, & Choloacetate Esterase t(8;21) #12;9/16/2013 4 AML-M3 Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia between chromosomes 8 and 21 AML with a translocation or inversion in chromosome 16 AML with changes

  18. Targeted Ablation of miR-21 Decreases Murine Eosinophil Progenitor Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas X.; Lim, Eun-Jin; Itskovich, Svetlana; Besse, John A.; Plassard, Andrew J.; Mingler, Melissa K.; Rothenberg, Joelle A.; Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2013-01-01

    MiR-21 is one of the most up-regulated miRNAs in multiple allergic diseases associated with eosinophilia and has been shown to positively correlate with eosinophil levels. Herein, we show that miR-21 is up-regulated during IL-5-driven eosinophil differentiation from progenitor cells in vitro. Targeted ablation of miR-21 leads to reduced eosinophil progenitor cell growth. Furthermore, miR-21?/? eosinophil progenitor cells have increased apoptosis as indicated by increased levels of annexin V positivity compared to miR-21+/+ eosinophil progenitor cells. Indeed, miR-21?/? mice have reduced blood eosinophil levels in vivo and reduced eosinophil colony forming unit capacity in the bone marrow. Using gene expression microarray analysis, we identified dysregulation of genes involved in cell proliferation (e,g, Ms4a3, Grb7), cell cycle and immune response as the most significant pathways affected by miR-21 in eosinophil progenitors. These results demonstrate that miR-21 can regulate the development of eosinophils by influencing eosinophil progenitor cell growth. Our findings have identified one of the first miRNAs with a role in regulating eosinophil development. PMID:23533623

  19. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-08

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  20. Eosinophil-associated lung diseases. A cry for surfactant proteins A and D help?

    PubMed

    Ledford, Julie G; Addison, Kenneth J; Foster, Matthew W; Que, Loretta G

    2014-11-01

    Surfactant proteins (SP)-A and SP-D (SP-A/-D) play important roles in numerous eosinophil-dominated diseases, including asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and allergic rhinitis. In these settings, SP-A/-D have been shown to modulate eosinophil chemotaxis, inhibit eosinophil mediator release, and mediate macrophage clearance of apoptotic eosinophils. Dysregulation of SP-A/-D function in eosinophil-dominated diseases is also not uncommon. Alterations in serum SP-A/-D levels are associated with disease severity in allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Furthermore, oligimerization of SP-A/-D, necessary for their proper function, can be perturbed by reactive nitrogen species, which are increased in eosinophilic disease. In this review, we highlight the associations of eosinophilic lung diseases with SP-A and SP-D levels and functions. PMID:24960334

  1. Human eosinophil lysophospholipase: the sole protein component of Charcot-Leyden crystals.

    PubMed

    Weller, P F; Bach, D; Austen, K F

    1982-03-01

    Charcot-Leyden crystals (CLC), formed in vitro from human eosinophils, were recently shown to contain a protein identical in physicochemical characteristics to human eosinophil lysophospholipase. Monospecific antisera, prepared against homogeneous, chromatographically purified eosinophil lysophospholipase and against CLC formed in vitro, yielded precipitin lines fusing in a pattern of immunochemical identity on Ouchterlony analysis with disrupted eosinophils, purified lysophospholipase, and solubilized CLC protein. With antisera to the purified lysophospholipase, CLC present in vivo in human feces were demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence to contain eosinophil lysophospholipase. Fecal CLC, purified by sequential gradient centrifugation, contained a single protein migrating identically to eosinophil lysophospholipase on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Solubilized fecal CLC were recrystallized to form characteristically-shaped CLC. Thus, naturally occurring CLC are formed solely of human eosinophil lysophospholipase. PMID:6173432

  2. Value of an Additional Review for Eosinophil Quantification in Esophageal Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Stucke, Emily M; Clarridge, Katherine E; Collins, Margaret H; Henderson, Carol J; Martin, Lisa J; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2015-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) requires a peak count of 15 eosinophils per high-power field (hpf). Herein, the peak eosinophil count specified by a pathologist was compared with the second review of a research assistant. Of 477 biopsies, 106 had a peak count between 1 and 14 eosinophils/hpf cited in the pathology report, and 23/106 (22%) had ?15 eosinophils/hpf on second review. The pathology report detected potential EoE with 99% specificity, but 80% sensitivity. As such, an additional review of esophageal biopsies yields higher eosinophil counts in ?5% of cases. We propose that biopsies with a count between 1 and 14 eosinophils/hpf require further investigation because ?22% may yield a potential EoE diagnosis. PMID:25633495

  3. Inflammatory bowel disease and leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seid Hossein Mir Madjlessi; Richard G. Farmer; James K. Weick

    1986-01-01

    In a review of a large number of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, leukemia was observed in five patients with chronic ulcerative colitis and in two patients with Crohn's disease. In ulcerative colitis patients, there were three cases of acute myelocytic leukemia and one case each of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia. In Crohn's disease patients, there was

  4. Once–Daily Theophylline Reduces Serum Eosinophil Cationic Protein and Eosinophil Levels in Induced Sputum of Asthmatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Aizawa; T. Iwanaga; H. Inoue; S. Takata; K. Matsumoto; N. Takahashi; M. Yoshida; N. Hara

    2000-01-01

    Background: Because eosinophilic airway inflammation is a characteristic feature of bronchial asthma, the treatment of airway inflammation is important in the management of asthma. Theophylline has been reported to reduce airway inflammation, in addition to its well–known bronchodilating effect. Objective: In order to evaluate the effects of theophylline on airway inflammation, we investigated 48 subjects with mild and moderate asthma.

  5. Transforming growth factor beta abrogates the effects of hematopoietins on eosinophils and induces their apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Hematopoietins, interleukin (IL)-3, IL-5, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have previously been shown to prolong eosinophil survival and abrogate apoptosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) on eosinophil survival and apoptosis. Eosinophils from peripheral blood of mildly eosinophilic donors were isolated to > 97% purity using discontinuous Percoll density gradient. Eosinophils were cultured with hematopoietins with or without TGF-beta for 4 d and their viability was assessed. We confirmed previous observations that hematopoietins prolonged eosinophil survival and inhibited apoptosis. TGF-beta at concentrations > or = 10(-12) M abrogated the survival- prolonging effects of hematopoietins in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis as determined by DNA fragmentation in agarose gels. The effect of TGF-beta was blocked by an anti-TGF-beta antibody. The anti-TGF-beta antibody also prolonged eosinophil survival on its own. The culture of eosinophils with IL-3 and GM-CSF stimulated the synthesis of GM-CSF and IL-5, respectively, suggesting an autocrine mechanism of growth factor production. TGF-beta inhibited the synthesis of GM-CSF and IL-5 by eosinophils. TGF-beta did not have any effect on the expression of GM-CSF receptors on eosinophils. We also studied the effect of TGF-beta on eosinophil function and found that TGF-beta inhibited the release of eosinophil peroxidase. Thus, TGF-beta seems to inhibit eosinophil survival and function. The inhibition of endogenous synthesis of hematopoietins may be one mechanism by which TGF-beta blocks eosinophil survival and induces apoptosis. PMID:8113672

  6. What targeting the eosinophil has taught us about their role in diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bochner, Bruce S.; Gleich, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophil-associated disease is a term used to encompass a range of disorders from hypereosinophilic syndrome to asthma. Despite the longstanding belief that eosinophils can be primary contributors to disease pathophysiology, it is only in recent years that direct and selective reduction or elimination of eosinophils can be achieved in animals or in humans. These developments have been made possible in mice through clever targeting of eosinophil production. Use of antibodies and other agents that target soluble eosinophil-related molecules such as interleukin-5 (IL-5) or cell surface structures such as CCR3 has also proved useful in reducing blood and tissue eosinophils. In humans, the only eosinophil-selective agents tested in clinical trials so far are neutralizing antibodies to IL-5, with promising but mixed results. At the very least, such forms of pharmacologic hypothesis testing of the role of eosinophils in certain airway, gastrointestinal and hematologic diseases has finally provided us with new insights into disease pathogenesis. At its optimistic best, these and other targeted agents may someday become available for those afflicted with eosinophil-associated disorders. This review summarizes what has been learned in vivo in both preclinical and clinical studies of eosinophil-directed therapies, with an emphasis on recent advances. PMID:20434203

  7. Neutrophils but not eosinophils are involved in growth suppression of IL-4-secreting tumors.

    PubMed

    Noffz, G; Qin, Z; Kopf, M; Blankenstein, T

    1998-01-01

    Local expression of IL-4 by gene-modified tumor cells increases their immunogenicity by inducing an inflammatory response that is dominated by eosinophils. Eosinophils have been implicated as antitumor effector cells because the application of a granulocyte-depleting Ab inhibited rejection of IL-4 transfected tumors. This Ab did not discriminate between eosinophils and neutrophils and, therefore, this experiment could not exclude neutrophils as primary effector cells, whereas eosinophils were innocent bystander cells in IL-4 transfected tumors. We analyzed tumor growth suppression and granulocyte infiltration in IL-5-deficient (IL-5(-/-)) mice that had a deficiency of eosinophils, using two tumor lines (B16-F10 and MCA205) transfected to secrete IL-4. IL-4-expressing tumors were at least as efficiently rejected in IL-5(-/-) mice as in wild-type mice, despite an almost complete absence of tumor-infiltrating eosinophils. However, neutrophils were present in undiminished amounts and their depletion partially restored tumor growth. Furthermore, the growth of IL-5-secreting tumors was not impaired in either wild-type or IL-5(-/-) mice, even though it induced eosinophilia in both mouse strains. These findings demonstrate that eosinophils can be induced in IL-5(-/-) mice by exogenous IL-5 and argue against a compensatory effect of neutrophils in the absence of eosinophils. We conclude that 1) infiltration of IL-4 transfected tumors by eosinophils is completely IL-5 dependent, 2) eosinophils have no tumoricidal activity, and 3) neutrophils are responsible, at least in part, for tumor suppression. PMID:9551990

  8. How Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Found?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How is acute lymphocytic leukemia classified? How is acute lymphocytic leukemia found? At this time there are no special ... oncologist (doctor who treats cancer). Tests to find acute lymphocytic leukemia Most of the symptoms seen in leukemia can ...

  9. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... document focuses on acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in adults. For information on ALL in children, please see ... Leukemia . Chronic leukemias and acute myeloid leukemia of adults are discussed in other American Cancer Society documents. ...

  10. T-helper 2 Cytokines, Transforming Growth Factor ?1, and Eosinophil Products Induce Fibrogenesis and Alter Muscle Motility in Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Nonevski, Ilche; Ma, Jie; Ouyang, Zhufeng; West, Gail; Protheroe, Cheryl; DePetris, Giovanni; Schirbel, Anja; Lapinski, James; Goldblum, John; Bonfield, Tracey; Lopez, Rocio; Harnett, Karen; Lee, James; Hirano, Ikuo; Falk, Gary; Biancani, Piero; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) often become dysphagic from the combination of organ fibrosis and motor abnormalities. We investigated mechanisms of dysphagia, assessing the response of human esophageal fibroblasts (HEF), muscle cells (HEMC), and esophageal muscle strips to eosinophil-derived products. METHODS Biopsies were collected via endoscopy from the upper, middle and lower thirds of the esophagus of 18 patients with EoE and 21 individuals undergoing endoscopy for other reasons (controls). Primary cultures of esophageal fibroblasts and muscle cells were derived from 12 freshly resected human esophagectomy specimens. Eosinophil distribution was investigated by histologic analyses of full-thickness esophageal tissue. Active secretion of EoE-related mediators was assessed from medium underlying mucosal biopsy cultures. We quantified production of fibronectin and collagen I by HEF and HEMC in response to eosinophil products. We also measured expression of ICAM1 and VCAM1 by, and adhesion of human eosinophils to, HEF and HEMC. Eosinophil products were tested in an esophageal muscle contraction assay. RESULTS Activated eosinophils were present in all esophageal layers. Significantly higher concentrations of eosinophil-related mediators were spontaneously secreted in mucosal biopsies from patients with EoE than controls. Exposure of HEF and HEMC to increasing concentrations of eosinophil products or co-culture with eosinophils caused HEF and HEMC to increase secretion of fibronectin and collagen I; this was inhibited by blocking transforming growth factor (TGF)?1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAKP) signaling. Eosinophil binding to HEF and HEMC increased following incubation of mesenchymal cells with eosinophil-derived products, and decreased following blockade of TGF?1 and p38MAPK blockade. Eosinophil products reduced electrical field-induced contraction of esophageal muscle strips, but not acetylcholine-induced contraction. CONCLUSION In an analysis of tissues samples from patients with EoE, we linked the presence and activation state of eosinophils in EoE with altered fibrogenesis and motility of esophageal fibroblasts and muscle cells. This process might contribute to the development of dysphagia. PMID:24486052

  11. Eosinophilic/T-cell Chorionic Vasculitis: Histological and Clinical Correlations.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Bradley; Heinrich, Stephen; Ward, Kenneth; Craver, Randall

    2015-04-01

    Eosinophilic T-cell chorionic vasculitis (E/TCV) is composed of eosinophils and T-lymphocytes originating within chorionic vessels, radiating toward the intervillous space and away from the amnion in a fashion different from the fetal vascular response seen in amnionitis. Clinical significance and risk factors are not well established. We report four pregnancies (five infants, one triplet was spared) with E/TCV, gestational ranging from 23 weeks to term. All had concurrent acute chorioamnionitis, three had the typical acute fetal inflammatory response. One had placental fetal obstructive vasculopathy and an upper extremity reduction defect (radio-ulnar synostosis), the mother had pre-eclampsia. A second case involved 2 of 3 23 week previable triplets. Our third case had a metatarsus varus resistant to casting, the mother had gestational diabetes. The last case was a normal infant. We review the literature, discuss the clinical findings and present the histologic characteristics of this infrequently recognized lesion. PMID:25338020

  12. Postpartum onset and subsequent relapse of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark Hiley; Curtis, Elizabeth Mary; Ledingham, Joanna Mary

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) can affect women of childbearing age. However, reports of the disease in the postpartum period are limited. We present a case of postpartum-onset EGPA that went into clinical remission before relapsing in the subsequent postpartum period. Our patient presented with dyspnoea, arthralgia and rash, shown to be eosinophilic vasculitis, 3?days following the birth of her second child. CT of the thorax showed alveolar shadowing and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. She was treated successfully for EGPA with glucocorticoid therapy. She declined maintenance treatment during remission. Off treatment, she remained disease free throughout her next pregnancy. In the postpartum period she relapsed in an almost identical manner, requiring prolonged glucocorticoid therapy, cyclophosphamide and rituximab. This case highlights the importance of maintenance therapy around pregnancy in individuals with EGPA, and the need for careful monitoring of women with a history of EGPA in the postpartum period. PMID:26106182

  13. Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-16

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  14. Exploring the role of mast cells in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Wershil, Barry K

    2009-02-01

    The mast cell plays a critical role in allergic responses in the gastrointestinal tract and other sites. Emerging evidence indicates that mast cells also participate in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis, although their precise role has not been defined. This article reviews the biology of mast cells and examines the potential involvement of the cell as an effector of the inflammatory response and tissue remodeling, and as a cell that has the potential to function as an immunomodulator and limit inflammation. PMID:19141354

  15. IgE, Mast Cells, and Eosinophils in Atopic Dermatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu-Tong Liu; Heidi Goodarzi; Huan-Yuan Chen

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with specific immune and inflammatory mechanisms. Atopy is among\\u000a the major features of the diagnosis criteria for AD but is not an essential feature. Thus, patients diagnosed with AD can\\u000a be atopic or non-atopic. This review focuses on the role of IgE, mast cells, and eosinophils in the pathogenesis of AD.

  16. A case of eosinophilic orbital myositis associated with CSS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoko Fujii; Masataro Norizuki; Tatsuo Kobayashi; Makiko Yamamoto; Mitsumasa Kishimoto

    2010-01-01

    We report a novel case of eosinophilic orbital myositis associated with Churg–Strauss syndrome. A 56-year-old man with a 20-year\\u000a history of chronic sinusitis and seasonal allergic rhinitis was admitted because of fever, swelling of cheeks and extremities,\\u000a diplopia, and eosinophilia. With findings from gadolinium-enhanced FST1WI of the orbits and a muscle biopsy of the skeletal\\u000a muscle, the diagnosis was made.

  17. Exhaled nitric oxide correlates with airway eosinophils in childhood asthma

    PubMed Central

    Warke, T; Fitch, P; Brown, V; Taylor, R; Lyons, J; Ennis, M; Shields, M

    2002-01-01

    Background: Exhaled nitric oxide has been proposed as a marker for airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study was to compare exhaled nitric oxide levels with inflammatory cells and mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from asthmatic and normal children. Methods: Children were recruited from elective surgical lists and a non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed after induction of anaesthesia. Exhaled nitric oxide (parts per billion) was measured by two techniques: tidal breathing and restricted breath. Results: Median (interquartile range) exhaled nitric oxide measured by restricted breath was increased in asthmatics compared with normal children (24.3 (10.5–66.5) v 9.7 (6.5–16.5), difference between medians 14.6 (95% CI 5.1 to 29.9), p=0.001). In asthmatic children exhaled nitric oxide correlated significantly with percentage eosinophils (r=0.78, p<0.001 (tidal breathing) and r=0.78, p<0.001 (restricted breath)) and with eosinophilic cationic protein (r=0.53, p<0.01 (restricted breath)), but not with other inflammatory cells in the BAL fluid. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curves for the prediction of the presence of eosinophilic airways inflammation by exhaled nitric oxide (tidal and restricted) was 0.80 and 0.87, respectively. Conclusions: Exhaled nitric oxide correlates closely with percentage eosinophils in BAL fluid in asthmatic children and is therefore likely to be a useful non-invasive marker of airway inflammation. PMID:11978911

  18. Linkage of Circulating Eosinophils to Markers on Chromosome 5q

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FERNANDO D. MARTINEZ; SUSAN SOLOMON; CATHARINE J. HOLBERG; PENELOPE E. GRAVES; MAURO BALDINI; ROBERT P. ERICKSON

    1998-01-01

    Although peripheral blood eosinophilia is strongly associated with the risk of developing asthma, ge- netic determinants of eosinophilia have not been extensively studied. We used sib-pair analysis to as- sess linkage of circulating eosinophils (as a percent of total white blood cells (WBC)) to nine markers located in chromosome 5q31-33. The study was divided into two phases. Of 246 sib

  19. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  20. Leukemia & Lymphoma Society

    MedlinePLUS

    ... daily chemotherapy that followed his diagnosis with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Though his treatments continue (3-1/2 years in total), ... Lymphoma Survivor The Woodlands, TX I was diagnosed with ...

  1. Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... daily chemotherapy that followed his diagnosis with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Though his treatments continue (3-1/2 years in total), ... Lymphoma Survivor The Woodlands, TX I was diagnosed with ...

  2. Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Gil Soon; OAK, Chulho; CHUN, Bong-Kwon; WILSON, Donald; JANG, Tae Won; KIM, Hee-Kyoo; JUNG, Mannhong; TUTKUN, Engin; PARK, Eun-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24705802

  3. Biodegradation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Eosinophil Peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Andón, Fernando T.; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Yanamala, Naveena; Feng, Weihong; Baygan, Arjang; Chambers, Benedict J.; Hultenby, Kjell; Ye, Fei; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Brandner, Birgit D.; Fornara, Andrea; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Kotchey, Gregg P.; Star, Alexander; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is one of the major oxidant-producing enzymes during inflammatory states in the human lung. The degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) upon incubation with human EPO and H2O2 is reported. Biodegradation of SWCNTs is higher in the presence of NaBr, but neither EPO alone nor H2O2 alone caused the degradation of nanotubes. Molecular modeling reveals two binding sites for SWCNTs on EPO, one located at the proximal side (same side as the catalytic site) and the other on the distal side of EPO. The oxidized groups on SWCNTs in both cases are stabilized by electrostatic interactions with positively charged residues. Biodegradation of SWCNTs can also be executed in an ex vivo culture system using primary murine eosinophils stimulated to undergo degranulation. Biodegradation is proven by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible-NIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal Raman imaging. Thus, human EPO (in vitro) and ex vivo activated eosinophils mediate biodegradation of SWCNTs: an observation that is relevant to pulmonary responses to these materials. PMID:23447468

  4. Eosinophilic airway inflammation induced by repeated exposure to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, K; Aizawa, H; Inoue, H; Koto, H; Takata, S; Shigyo, M; Nakano, H; Hara, N

    1998-08-01

    Acute exposure to cigarette smoke causes airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in guinea-pigs, which resolves within a few hours. Repeated exposure may have a different effect on the airways. To address this question, guinea-pigs were repeatedly exposed to cigarette smoke (six cigarettes for 1 h x day(-1)) for 14 consecutive days. Airway responsiveness to inhaled histamine and differential cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated 1 day after the last exposure. Significant neutrophilia in BALF was observed after 3 days of smoke exposure. Significant eosinophilia in BALF and AHR were observed after 14 days of smoke exposure, but not after 3 or 7 days of smoke exposure. These changes persisted until 3 days after the last exposure and resolved 7 days afterwards. Histologically, the recruited eosinophils were observed predominantly in the airways, but not in the alveoli. Treatment with E-6123, a specific platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist (1 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) p.o. during smoke exposure) significantly inhibited the eosinophil influx and AHR. Repeated exposure to cigarette smoke may induce prolonged airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea-pigs. Platelet-activating factor or platelet-activating factor-like lipids may play a key role in airway hyperresponsiveness, presumably by the induction of eosinophilic airway inflammation. PMID:9727790

  5. Do We Know What Causes Eosinophilic Esophagitis? A Mechanistic Update.

    PubMed

    Runge, Thomas M; Dellon, Evan S

    2015-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have been intensely investigated, and significant advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of EoE. EoE is defined as a chronic immune/antigen-mediated disease, characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histologically by an esophageal eosinophilic infiltrate. In this paper, we will review the current knowledge of EoE pathophysiology based on both animal and human data and discuss possible etiologic mechanisms from the genetic and environmental perspectives. EoE is a Th2-predominant inflammatory process triggered by allergens. Proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines recruit eosinophils and other effector cells, such as mast cells, into the esophageal epithelium, where they cause direct damage and promote esophageal remodeling. The genetic expression profile of EoE has been described, and several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified and associated with EoE. While this genetic contribution is important, it is difficult to postulate that EoE is primarily a genetic disease. Given the rapid epidemiologic changes in the incidence and prevalence of EoE over the past two decades, environmental factors may be the driving force. While it is not known what causes EoE in an individual patient at a specific time, the current hypothesis is that there is a complex interaction between genetic factors and environmental exposures that remains to be elucidated. PMID:26205715

  6. Distinguishing GERD from eosinophilic oesophagitis: concepts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Kia, Leila; Hirano, Ikuo

    2015-07-01

    Over the past three decades, the detection of oesophageal mucosal eosinophils has transitioned from a biomarker of GERD to a diagnostic criterion for eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). In GERD, oesophageal eosinophils are considered part of the chronic inflammatory response to acid reflux, whereas the marked eosinophilia in EoE is viewed as a central feature of the immune response to ingested food and/or environmental antigen stimulation. Descriptions of a considerable subset of patients with symptomatic, endoscopic and histological findings of EoE that resolve with PPI therapy has led to confusion and controversy regarding the distinction of EoE from GERD. Study findings indicate that PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) more closely resembles EoE than GERD, both from a clinical and immunological aspect. Although responsiveness to PPI therapy should not be utilized to exclude EoE, PPI therapy is effective at reducing oesophageal eosinophilia in ?40% of patients, and PPI therapy is both a safe and practical initial step in the management of patients with oesophageal eosinophilia. Ongoing studies elucidating the mechanism behind PPI-REE will improve our understanding and management of EoE. In this Review, the mechanisms and evidence that underlie the controversy in the distinction between GERD and EoE are evaluated. PMID:25986303

  7. Eosinophils: offenders or general bystanders in allergic airway disease and pulmonary immunity?

    PubMed

    Akuthota, Praveen; Xenakis, Jason J; Weller, Peter F

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophils have long been noted to be present in asthma and other forms of pulmonary inflammation, but whether they act as true offenders or merely as bystanders has been a point of uncertainty. However, in recent years, there has been increasing evidence suggesting that eosinophils are not passive cells in the respiratory system, acting only as markers of allergic inflammation. This review discusses key evidence from animal models and human clinical trials that support the importance of eosinophils as active and necessary, rather than passive and unnecessary, to the pathogenesis of allergic airway disease. Analyses that are supportive of important immunoregulatory roles of eosinophils in allergic pulmonary inflammation are also reviewed. Data indicating that eosinophils contribute to viral, bacterial, and mycobacterial defense and clearance are detailed. Continually increasing evidence has supported a new conception of eosinophils as being multifaceted immune cells with complex interactions with other immune cells and their local environment. PMID:21228563

  8. Cutting edge: STAT6 signaling in eosinophils is necessary for development of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Kindra; LaMarche, Nelson M; Islam, Nasif; Wood, Amie; Huang, Weishan; August, Avery

    2015-03-15

    Eosinophils are critical cellular mediators in allergic asthma and inflammation; however, the signals that regulate their functions are unclear. The transcription factor STAT6 regulates Th2 cytokine responses, acting downstream of IL-4 and IL-13. We showed previously that eosinophil-derived IL-13 plays an important role in the recruitment of T cells to the lung and the subsequent development of allergic asthma. However, whether eosinophils respond to Th2 signals to control allergic airway inflammation is unclear. In this report, we show that STAT6(-/-) eosinophils are unable to induce the development of allergic lung inflammation, including recruitment of CD4(+) T cells, mucus production, and development of airways hyperresponsiveness. This is likely due to the reduced migration of STAT6(-/-) eosinophils to the lung and in response to eotaxin. These data indicate that, like Th cells, eosinophils need to respond to Th2 cytokines via STAT6 during the development of allergic airway inflammation. PMID:25681342

  9. Thrombosis and acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Solís, Erick

    2012-04-01

    Thrombosis is a common complication in patients with acute leukemia. While the presence of central venous lines, concomitant steroids, the use of Escherichia coli asparaginase and hereditary thrombophilic abnormalities are known risk factors for thrombosis in children, information on the pathogenesis, risk factors, and clinical outcome of thrombosis in adult patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still scarce. Expert consensus and guidelines regarding leukemia-specific risk factors, thrombosis prevention, and treatment strategies, as well as optimal type of central venous catheter in acute leukemia patients are required. It is likely that each subtype of acute leukemia represents a different setting for the development of thrombosis and the risk of bleeding. This is perhaps due to a combination of different disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms of thrombosis, including the type of chemotherapy protocol chosen, the underlying patients health, associated risk factors, as well as the biology of the disease itself. The risk of thrombosis may also vary according to ethnicity and prevalence of hereditary risk factors for thrombosis; thus, it is advisable for Latin American, Asian, and African countries to report on their specific patient population. PMID:22507812

  10. Genes and childhood leukemia.

    PubMed

    K?sy, Julita; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia is a heterogeneous hematologic malignancy originating from a multipotent hematopoietic stem cell. It ranks among the commonest cancers in childhood and is characterized by excessive proliferation and differentiation block. The process of leukemogenesis is governed by genetic changes at both the cytogenetic and molecular level. According to numerous analyses, a large spectrum of mutations and rearrangements underlying the disease affect essential cellular transduction pathways, genes ensuring proper course of hematopoiesis, oncogenes, tumor suppressors and apoptosis regulators. Common lesions include translocations to T cell receptor (TCR) loci in T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), mutations of transcription factors regulating B-lineage development and cell maturation in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) (PAX5, TCF3, EBF1, etc.), aberrational disruption of genes coding for transcription factors and coactivators in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (e.g. CBF) or BCR-ABL1 fusion and activation of multiple kinases in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). These alterations severely impair cell function. Broadening knowledge of the genetic background gives an insight into the pathobiology of a disease and allows for a better understanding of it. An appropriate investigation of genomic events yields diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications. Broadening knowledge of the pathogenesis of leukemia seems to be a promising contribution to precise stratification of patients, reducing the toxicity and adverse effects caused by medical intervention, treatment personalization and introduction of targeted therapy accessible to a wide range of patients. PMID:25748621

  11. Induction of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) Expression in Normal Human Eosinophils by Inflammatory Cytokines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Czech; Jean Krutmann; Anne Budnik; Erwin Schöpf; Alexander Kapp

    1993-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) functions as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and thereby plays a crucial role in mediating cell-cell interactions in inflammatory reactions. Human eosinophils represent important effector cells in allergic skin diseases. To gain more insight into the capacity of eosinophils to physically interact with LFA-1-positive inflammatory leukocytes, in the present study ICAM-1 expression in eosinophils

  12. Organ-specific eosinophilic disorders of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Dagmar; Wardlaw, Andrew; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that increase in various tissues in a variety of disorders. Locally, they can be involved in the initiation and propagation of diverse inflammatory responses. In this review, the clinical association of eosinophils with diseases of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract is summarized. An approach to determining the causal role of eosinophils in these diseases is presented. Recent findings concerning molecular diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed. PMID:20392477

  13. Priming and induction of eosinophil trafficking in guinea-pig cutaneous inflammation by tumour necrosis factor ?

    PubMed Central

    Macari, David M T; Teixeira, Mauro M; Ansari, Tareq; Jeffery, Peter K; Hellewell, Paul G

    1998-01-01

    Tissue eosinophilia is a hallmark of allergic and parasitic diseases. Priming mechanisms may play an important role in mediating the process of eosinophil accumulation in these conditions. We have previously shown that blockade of tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) inhibited the capacity of lipopolysaccharide to prime skin sites for chemoattractant-induced eosinophil recruitment. The present study was carried out to investigate the capacity of TNF? to prime an inflammatory site for enhanced eosinophil accumulation.Initial experiments investigated the capacity of TNF? itself to induce eosinophil accumulation. Intradermal injection of murine TNF? (10–300?ng per site) in the guinea-pig induced significant accumulation of 111In-eosinophils. Kinetic studies showed the response to be delayed in onset and inhibited by cycloheximide, consistent with a dependency on protein synthesis. Trafficking of 111In-eosinophils to sites treated for 2?h with TNF? (10–100?ng per site) was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against ?2 or ?4 integrins.Intradermal injection of a low dose (3?ng) of TNF? (which by itself had no significant effect on eosinophil trafficking) prior to chemoattractants or antigen in sensitized skin sites, induced significant priming of eosinophil accumulation. Recruitment of both 111In-eosinophils and endogenous eosinophils was enhanced. Trafficking to TNF?-primed responses was dependent on protein synthesis and ?2 integrins. In contrast, the ?4 integrin mAb failed to inhibit the TNF? primed response.Thus, TNF? can induce and also prime eosinophil recruitment in guinea-pig skin. Our results provide further evidence that this cytokine may be an important mediator of allergic- or parasite-induced eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:9863651

  14. C3a is a chemotaxin for human eosinophils but not for neutrophils. I. C3a stimulation of neutrophils is secondary to eosinophil activation

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Inflammatory action of the potent chemotaxin C5a has been well characterized on a variety of human cell types, including neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils. The cellular effects of C3a are less well defined. Contradictory reports have been published for C3a activation of neutrophils. Recent reports that C3a activates both basophils and eosinophils prompted us to reinvestigate the effects of C3a stimulation on eosinophils. We hypothesized that C3a activation of eosinophils, cells that are present in most neutrophil preparations, might lead to neutrophil activation. Using neutrophils of 98% purity, we observed no evidence of cellular activation after stimulation with either C3a, recombinant human C3a (rhC3a), or the synthetic C3a analogue C3a 57-77, Y57. Eosinophils purified to > 98% purity displayed concentration-dependent polarization, chemotaxis, and enzyme release by stimulation with C3a, rhC3a, and the synthetic C3a analogue. An inactive form of C3a, C3adesArg, failed to stimulate either eosinophils or neutrophils. Using neutrophil preparations containing 5-9% eosinophils, up to 20% of neutrophils became polarized after exposure to C3a. Likewise, we demonstrated that supernatant from C3a-stimulated eosinophils promotes neutrophil chemotaxis. Eosinophil polarization experiments were repeated in the presence of antibody to the C5a receptor (C5aR) to show that C3a and C5a interact with different receptors. C3a activates eosinophils in the presence of anti-C5aR antibody at concentrations that fully block C5a activation. We conclude that eosinophils are directly activated by either C3a or C5a, whereas C3a failed to activate neutrophils. C3a acts on eosinophils via a receptor that is distinct from C5aR. Since neutrophils are indirectly stimulated by C3a, eosinophils contaminating neutrophil preparations may explain earlier reports that C3a activates human neutrophils. PMID:7760001

  15. Pathogen induced chemo-attractant hepoxilin A3 drives neutrophils, but not eosinophils across epithelial barriers.

    PubMed

    Kubala, S A; Patil, S U; Shreffler, W G; Hurley, B P

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen induced migration of neutrophils across mucosal epithelial barriers requires epithelial production of the chemotactic lipid mediator, hepoxilin A3 (HXA3). HXA3 is an eicosanoid derived from arachidonic acid. Although eosinophils are also capable of penetrating mucosal surfaces, eosinophilic infiltration occurs mainly during allergic processes whereas neutrophils dominate mucosal infection. Both neutrophils and eosinophils can respond to chemotactic gradients of certain eicosanoids, however, it is not known whether eosinophils respond to pathogen induced lipid mediators such as HXA3. In this study, neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from human blood and placed on the basolateral side of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable Transwell filters and challenged by various chemotactic gradients of distinct lipid mediators. We observed that both cell populations migrated across epithelial monolayers in response to a leukotriene B4 (LTB4) gradient, whereas only eosinophils migrated toward a prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) gradient. Interestingly, while pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration was substantial, pathogen induced eosinophil trans-epithelial migration was not observed. Further, gradients of chemotactic lipids derived from pathogen infected epithelial cells known to be enriched for HXA3 as well as purified HXA3 drove significant numbers of neutrophils across epithelial barriers, whereas eosinophils failed to respond to these gradients. These data suggest that although the eicosanoid HXA3 serves as an important neutrophil chemo-attractant at mucosal surfaces during pathogenic infection, HXA3 does not appear to exhibit chemotactic activity toward eosinophils. PMID:24315875

  16. Pathogen Induced Chemo-attractant Hepoxilin A3 Drives Neutrophils, but not Eosinophils across Epithelial Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Kubala, S. A.; Patil, S. U.; Shreffler, W. G.; Hurley, B. P.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen induced migration of neutrophils across mucosal epithelial barriers requires epithelial production of the chemotactic lipid mediator, hepoxilin A3 (HXA3). HXA3 is an eicosanoid derived from arachidonic acid. Although eosinophils are also capable of penetrating mucosal surfaces, eosinophilic infiltration occurs mainly during allergic processes whereas neutrophils dominate mucosal infection. Both neutrophils and eosinophils can respond to chemotactic gradients of certain eicosanoids, however, it is not known whether eosinophils respond to pathogen induced lipid mediators such as HXA3. In this study, neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from human blood and placed on the basolateral side of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable Transwell filters and challenged by various chemotactic gradients of distinct lipid mediators. We observed that both cell populations migrated across epithelial monolayers in response to a leukotriene B4 (LTB4) gradient, whereas only eosinophils migrated towards a prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) gradient. Interestingly, while pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration was substantial, pathogen induced eosinophil trans-epithelial migration was not observed. Further, gradients of chemotactic lipids derived from pathogen infected epithelial cells known to be enriched for HXA3 as well as purified HXA3 drove significant numbers of neutrophils across epithelial barriers, whereas eosinophils failed to respond to these gradients. These data suggest that although the eicosanoid HXA3 serves as an important neutrophil chemo-attractant at mucosal surfaces during pathogenic infection, HXA3 does not appear to exhibit chemotactic activity towards eosinophils. PMID:24315875

  17. Eosinophil granulocytopoiesis in hepatic periovular granulomas during the chronic phase of experimental murine Schistosomiasis mansoni.

    PubMed

    Geuskens, M; Borojevic, R; Van Gansen, P

    1991-01-01

    We have observed in hepatic periovular granulomas of C3H mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni, in the chronic phase of the disease (12-19 weeks of infection), groups of early precursors and immature eosinophil granulocytes corresponding, at the ultrastructural level, to promyelocytes and myelocytes. Mitosis was also seen in eosinophil myelocytes. These eosinophil myeloid foci were observed in close contact with macrophages and epithelioid cells, and they were surrounded by an extracellular matrix, rich in collagen fibres. These morphological observations give support to the concept of a peripheral proliferation of eosinophils in chronic schistosomiasis, mediated by a factor secreted by macrophages present in granulomas. PMID:1912951

  18. SDA, a DNA Aptamer Inhibiting E- and P-Selectin Mediated Adhesion of Cancer and Leukemia Cells, the First and Pivotal Step in Transendothelial Migration during Metastasis Formation

    PubMed Central

    Faryammanesh, Rassa; Lange, Tobias; Magbanua, Eileen; Haas, Sina; Meyer, Cindy; Wicklein, Daniel; Schumacher, Udo; Hahn, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial (E-) and platelet (P-) selectin mediated adhesion of tumor cells to vascular endothelium is a pivotal step of hematogenous metastasis formation. Recent studies have demonstrated that selectin deficiency significantly reduces metastasis formation in vivo. We selected an E- and P-Selectin specific DNA Aptamer (SDA) via SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) with a Kd value of approximately 100 nM and the capability of inhibiting the interaction between selectin and its ligands. Employing human colorectal cancer (HT29) and leukemia (EOL-1) cell lines we could demonstrate an anti-adhesive effect for SDA in vitro. Under physiological shear stress conditions in a laminar flow adhesion assay, SDA inhibited dynamic tumor cell adhesion to immobilized E- or P-selectin. The stability of SDA for more than two hours allowed its application in cell-cell adhesion assays in cell culture medium. When adhesion of HT29 cells to TNF?-stimulated E-selectin presenting human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells was analyzed, inhibition via SDA could be demonstrated as well. In conclusion, SDA is a potential new therapeutic agent that antagonizes selectin-mediated adhesion during metastasis formation in human malignancies. PMID:24699049

  19. Stages of Hairy Cell Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer ... Search Home Cancer Types Leukemia Patient Leukemia Patient Adult ALL Treatment Adult AML Treatment CLL Treatment CML ...

  20. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this document focuses mainly on CLL in adults, with some limited information on hairy cell leukemia. For information on other types of leukemia in adults and children, please see our separate documents on ...

  1. ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA FALLON, NEVADA

    E-print Network

    1 ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA FALLON, NEVADA REVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE EXPERT PANEL the state health department's investigation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases that had been of a hazardous chemical contaminant. However, the absence of cases of acute myeloid leukemia, the type

  2. COPD exacerbation severity and frequency is associated with impaired macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic airway inflammation is observed in 10-30% of COPD subjects. Whether increased eosinophils or impairment in their clearance by macrophages is associated with the severity and frequency of exacerbations is unknown. Methods We categorised 103 COPD subjects into 4 groups determined by the upper limit of normal for their cytoplasmic macrophage red hue (<6%), an indirect measure of macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils, and area under the curve sputum eosinophil count (?3%/year). Eosinophil efferocytosis by monocyte-derived macrophages was studied in 17 COPD subjects and 8 normal controls. Results There were no differences in baseline lung function, health status or exacerbation frequency between the groups: A-low red hue, high sputum eosinophils (n?=?10), B-high red hue, high sputum eosinophils (n?=?16), C-low red hue, low sputum eosinophils (n?=?19) and D- high red hue, low sputum eosinophils (n?=?58). Positive bacterial culture was lower in groups A (10%) and B (6%) compared to C (44%) and D (21%) (p?=?0.01). The fall in FEV1 from stable to exacerbation was greatest in group A (?FEV1 [95 % CI] -0.41 L [-0.65 to -0.17]) versus group B (-0.16 L [-0.32 to -0.011]), C (-0.11 L [-0.23 to -0.002]) and D (-0.16 L [-0.22 to -0.10]; p?=?0.02). Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils was impaired in COPD versus controls (86 [75 to 92]% versus 93 [88 to 96]%; p?=?0.028); was most marked in group A (71 [70 to 84]%; p?=?0.0295) and was inversely correlated with exacerbation frequency (r?=?-0.63; p?=?0.006). Conclusions Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils is impaired in COPD and is related to the severity and frequency of COPD exacerbations. PMID:25007795

  3. White specks in the esophageal mucosa: an endoscopic manifestation of non-reflux eosinophilic esophagitis in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel R Lim; Sandeep K Gupta; Joseph M Croffie; Marian D Pfefferkorn; Jean P Molleston; Mark R Corkins; Mary M Davis; Philip P Faught; Steven J Steiner; Joseph F Fitzgerald

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundWhite specks in the esophageal mucosa have been observed in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between white specks in the esophageal mucosa and allergic (non-reflux) eosinophilic esophagitis.

  4. Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome) caused by a temporary henna tattoo.

    PubMed

    Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Celegen, Mehmet; Kark?ner, Canan Sule Unsal; Günay, Ilker; Diniz, Güllden; Can, Demet

    2014-10-01

    Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome) is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology. Wells' syndrome is usually seen in adulthood but very rare in childhood. Although pathogenesis of the disease is not very clear, it is a hypersensitivity reaction developing against a variety of exogenous and endogenous antigenic stimuli. Paraphenylenediamine is a strong allergen frequently used as a temporary henna tattoo, which makes the color darker. Here, a 9-year-old male patient with Wells' syndrome is presented, which developed following a temporary henna tattoo and shown by the patch test sensitivity to paraphenylenediamine. PMID:25395929

  5. Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells’ syndrome) caused by a temporary henna tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Celegen, Mehmet; Kark?ner, Canan Sule Unsal; Günay, Ilker; Diniz, Güllden; Can, Demet

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells’ syndrome) is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology. Wells’ syndrome is usually seen in adulthood but very rare in childhood. Although pathogenesis of the disease is not very clear, it is a hypersensitivity reaction developing against a variety of exogenous and endogenous antigenic stimuli. Paraphenylenediamine is a strong allergen frequently used as a temporary henna tattoo, which makes the color darker. Here, a 9-year-old male patient with Wells’ syndrome is presented, which developed following a temporary henna tattoo and shown by the patch test sensitivity to paraphenylenediamine. PMID:25395929

  6. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis and diffuse gastrointestinal involvement.

    PubMed

    Franco, Diana L; Ruff, Kevin; Mertz, Lester; Lam-Himlin, Dora M; Heigh, Russell

    2014-09-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly named Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare systemic small- and medium-sized-vessel vasculitis, characterized by the presence of severe asthma as well as blood and tissue eosinophilia. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, like diarrhea and abdominal pain, are common; however, there are few reports of histologic evidence of GI involvement. We report the case of a patient on treatment for EGPA who presented with recurrent small bowel obstruction and choledocholithiasis. Biopsies of the esophagus, small bowel and common bile duct showed diffuse eosinophilia, with clear EGPA in the GI tract. Improved awareness of GI EGPA may allow for timely management of this disorder. PMID:25473392

  7. Laser irradiation of centrosomes in newt eosinophils: evidence of centriole role in motility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Koonce; R. A. Cloney; M. W. Berns

    1984-01-01

    Newt eosinophils are motile granulated leukocytes that uniquely display a highly visible centrosomal area. Electron microscope and tubulin antibody fluorescence confirms the presence of centrioles, pericentriolar material, and radiating microtubules within this visible area. Actin antibodies intensely stain the advancing cell edges and tail but only weakly stain pseudopods being withdrawn into the cell. Randomly activated eosinophils follow a roughly

  8. Detection of a new type of mouse eosinophil colony by Luxol-fast-blue staining.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G R; Metcalf, D

    1980-05-01

    Staining with Luxol-fast-blue was shown to be a satisfactory method for identifying mouse eosinophils. IN agar cultures of mouse marrow stimulated by pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen conditioned medium (SCM), 2-10 compact Luxol-fast-blue positive eosinophil colonies varied according to the batch of human plasma used in the culture medium. Similar colony-forming cells were detected in the spleen and peripheral blood but not in the thymus or lymph nodes. Some Luxol-fast-blue positive eosinophil colonies were stimulated to develop by crude mouse lung conditioned medium and by high concentrations of GM-CSF purified from this source. The cells forming Luxol-fast-blue positive eosinophil colonies sedimented more rapidly (5.5-6.5 mm/h) than the cells forming dispersed-eosinophil colonies 94.5 mm/h). Transfer studies using intact colonies or redispersed colony cells failed to demonstrate an interrelationship between the two types of eosinophil colonies and the cells forming Luxol-fast-blue positive eosinophil colonies appear to be a distinct subset of eosinophil percursors. PMID:6161833

  9. Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 3 Is a Most Effective Basophil and Eosinophil-activating Chemokine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clemens A. Dahinden; Thomas Geiser; Thomas Brunner; Daniel Caput; Pascual Ferrara; Adrian Minty; Marco BaggioliniS

    1994-01-01

    Summary CC chemokines constitute a novel class of cytokines that attract and activate monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as basophil and eosinophil lenkocytes, with distinct target cell profiles, and are believed to be involved in the regulation of different types of inflammation. The action of the recently identified monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) on human basophil and eosinophil function was

  10. Pivotal Advance: eosinophil infiltration of solid tumors is an early and persistent inflammatory host response.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Stephania A; Taranova, Anna G; Bedient, Carrie; Nguyen, Thanh; Protheroe, Cheryl; Pero, Ralph; Dimina, Dawn; Ochkur, Sergei I; O'Neill, Katie; Colbert, Dana; Lombari, Theresa R; Constant, Stephanie; McGarry, Michael P; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A

    2006-06-01

    Tumor-associated eosinophilia has been observed in numerous human cancers and several tumor models in animals; however, the details surrounding this eosinophilia remain largely undefined and anecdotal. We used a B16-F10 melanoma cell injection model to demonstrate that eosinophil infiltration of tumors occurred from the earliest palpable stages with significant accumulations only in the necrotic and capsule regions. Furthermore, the presence of diffuse extracellular matrix staining for eosinophil major basic protein was restricted to the necrotic areas of tumors, indicating that eosinophil degranulation was limited to this region. Antibody-mediated depletion of CD4+ T cells and adoptive transfer of eosinophils suggested, respectively, that the accumulation of eosinophils is not associated with T helper cell type 2-dependent immune responses and that recruitment is a dynamic, ongoing process, occurring throughout tumor growth. Ex vivo migration studies have identified what appears to be a novel chemotactic factor(s) released by stressed/dying melanoma cells, suggesting that the accumulation of eosinophils in tumors occurs, in part, through a unique mechanism dependent on a signal(s) released from areas of necrosis. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the infiltration of tumors by eosinophils is an early and persistent response that is spatial-restricted. It is more important that these data also show that the mechanism(s) that elicit this host response occur, independent of immune surveillance, suggesting that eosinophils are part of an early inflammatory reaction at the site of tumorigenesis. PMID:16617160

  11. Correlation between exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils, and methacholine responsiveness in patients with mild asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jatakanon; S. Lim; S. A. Kharitonov; K. F. Chung; P. J. Barnes

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eosinophils in induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are currently used as non-invasive markers in the assessment of airway inflammation in asthma. As both sputum eosinophils (%) and exhaled NO are raised in asthmatic subjects not receiving inhaled steroids and decreased following corticosteroid therapy, a relationship between them is plausible. METHODS: Exhaled NO was measured by chemiluminescence analyser,

  12. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Modulates Airway Eosinophil Adhesion in Asthma

    E-print Network

    Bertics, Paul J.

    Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Modulates Airway Eosinophil Adhesion in Asthma Anne M. Brooks during asthma exacerbations. While the mechanism(s) of this process is not known, the expressionPA, enhance eosinophil adhesion in patients with asthma. Patients with allergic asthma underwent segmental

  13. Involvement of Eosinophils in the Early-Phase Allergic Reaction in a Guinea Pig Rhinitis Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Imai; Atsushi Miyahara; Yuji Yamazaki; Reiko Homma; Yoshitaka Ino; Masateru Kurumi

    2000-01-01

    Background: Eosinophils are found in the nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and nasal biopsies of patients with allergic rhinitis after a nasal antigen challenge, and associated not only with a late-phase allergic reaction (LPR) but also an early phase allergic reaction (EPR). Numerous studies have been carried out to clarify the participation of eosinophils in LPR or airway hyperresponsiveness. However, there

  14. Development and functional analysis of eosinophils from murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi-Tsuru, Emi; Nobumoto, Atsuya; Hirose, Noriyuki; Kataoka, Sayo; Fujikawa-Adachi, Kiyomi; Furuya, Masato; Tominaga, Akira

    2004-03-01

    We have established a culture system for the development of eosinophils from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. After transferring ES cells from embryonic fibroblast cells onto macrophage colony-stimulating factor-deficient stromal cells, OP9, ES cells were cultured in the presence of interleukin (IL)-5 with either IL-3 or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for 20 d to obtain approximately 50% eosinophils. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of crystallized major basic protein (MBP) in the granules of some of these cells. Neither IL-5, IL-3, GM-CSF nor eotaxin alone could induce eosinophils as efficiently as the conditions described above. Eotaxin induced eosinophil development in combination with either IL-3 or IL-5. Levels of GATA-1, Friend of GATA (FOG)-1, PU.1, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)alpha, C/EBPbeta, IL-3 receptor alpha (IL-3Ralpha), GM-CSF receptor alpha (GM-CSFRalpha), and MBP mRNAs were increased in ES cells 10 d after transfer onto OP9 cells. In contrast, C/EBPepsilon, IL-5Ralpha, and eosinophil peroxidase mRNAs were induced in response to IL-3 and IL-5 after transfer onto OP9 cells. Eosinophils that developed in this system expressed Gr-1, F4/80, B220, CCR3, IL-3Ralpha, IL-5Ralpha, and DX5. Finally, eosinophils developed from ES cells produced reactive oxygen species in response to Leishmania as do peripheral blood eosinophils. PMID:15009071

  15. Role of CCL11 in Eosinophilic Lung Disease during Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen P. Matthews; John S. Tregoning; Anthony J. Coyle; Tracy Hussell; Peter J. M. Openshaw

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major viral pathogen of infants and the elderly. Significant morbidity is caused by an overexuberant mixed lung cell infiltrate, which is thought to be driven by chemokines. One of the main chemotactic mediators responsible for the movement of eosinophils is CCL11 (eotaxin). Using a mouse model of eosinophilic bronchiolitis induced by RSV, we show

  16. Eosinophils Increase Neuron Branching in Human and Murine Skin and In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin L. Foster; Eric L. Simpson; Lorna J. Fredrikson; James J. Lee; Nancy A. Lee; Allison D. Fryer; David B. Jacoby

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous nerves are increased in atopic dermatitis, and itch is a prominent symptom. We studied the functional interactions between eosinophils and nerves in human and mouse skin and in culture. We demonstrated that human atopic dermatitis skin has eosinophil granule proteins present in the same region as increased nerves. Transgenic mice in which interleukin-5 (IL-5) expression is driven by a

  17. IL-1? in eosinophil-mediated small intestinal homeostasis and IgA production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Y; Wen, T; Mingler, M K; Caldwell, J M; Wang, Y H; Chaplin, D D; Lee, E H; Jang, M H; Woo, S Y; Seoh, J Y; Miyasaka, M; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-07-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that reside in the gastrointestinal (GI) lamina propria, where their basal function remains largely unexplored. In this study, by examining mice with a selective deficiency of systemic eosinophils (by lineage ablation) or GI eosinophils (eotaxin-1/2 double deficient or CC chemokine receptor 3 deficient), we show that eosinophils support immunoglobulin A (IgA) class switching, maintain intestinal mucus secretions, affect intestinal microbial composition, and promote the development of Peyer's patches. Eosinophil-deficient mice showed reduced expression of mediators of secretory IgA production, including intestinal interleukin 1? (IL-1?), inducible nitric oxide synthase, lymphotoxin (LT) ?, and LT-?, and reduced levels of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t-positive (ROR-?t(+)) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), while maintaining normal levels of APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand), BAFF (B cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family), and TGF-? (transforming growth factor ?). GI eosinophils expressed a relatively high level of IL-1?, and IL-1?-deficient mice manifested the altered gene expression profiles observed in eosinophil-deficient mice and decreased levels of IgA(+) cells and ROR-?t(+) ILCs. On the basis of these collective data, we propose that eosinophils are required for homeostatic intestinal immune responses including IgA production and that their affect is mediated via IL-1? in the small intestine. PMID:25563499

  18. Platelet-activating factor. A potent chemotactic and chemokinetic factor for human eosinophils.

    PubMed Central

    Wardlaw, A J; Moqbel, R; Cromwell, O; Kay, A B

    1986-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether), an inflammatory mediator with a wide range of biological activities including neutrophil aggregation and chemotaxis, was studied for its effect on human eosinophil locomotion (chemotaxis and chemokinesis). Human eosinophils (25-95% purity) were obtained from donors with a variety of diseases associated with hypereosinophilia. PAF-acether elicited directional locomotion of eosinophils, in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, at concentrations from 10(-5) to 10(-8) M; lyso-PAF had minimal activity over the same dose range. Compared with PAF-acether, the eosinophil locomotory responsiveness of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), histamine, and the valyl- and alanyl-eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (ECF-A) tetrapeptides was negligible. Conversely, neutrophil responsiveness to PAF-acether (optimum 10(-6) M) was comparable in effect to LTB4 (optimum dose 10(-8) M). It was shown that PAF-acether elicited both chemotaxis and chemokinesis of eosinophils. Comparison of normal density and light density eosinophils revealed no qualitative difference in the response to PAF-acether and the other chemoattractants, although the light density cells seemed to demonstrate a greater degree of locomotion to PAF-acether and LTB4. Thus, PAF-acether appears to be a potent eosinophilotactic agent which may play a role in inflammatory reactions characterized by eosinophil infiltration. PMID:3023451

  19. Increased S-Nitrosothiol Levels in Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis Compared with Cough Variant Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-Jae Lee; Yun-Jin Jeung; Jin-Young Lee; Dong-Chull Choi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) and cough variant asthma (CVA) are common causes of chronic cough. Both are characterized by eosinophilic inflammation in the airways. However, airway hyperresponsiveness, which is a characteristic feature of CVA, is not observed in NAEB. We hypothesized that endogenous bronchodilator S-nitrosothiol (SNO) levels are different between patients with NAEB and CVA. Methods: SNO concentrations in

  20. Fragility of the esophageal mucosa: A pathognomonic endoscopic sign of primary eosinophilic esophagitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Straumann; Livio Rossi; Hans-Uwe Simon; Pius Heer; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Christoph Beglinger

    2003-01-01

    Background: Primary eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus, evokes recurrent dysphagia. Endoscopy is often unremarkable, and no consensus exists regarding management of resultant dysphagia. The response of a series of patients with primary eosinophilic esophagitis to dilation is reported together with a description of a possibly pathognomonic sign: fragile esophageal mucosa, for which the term “crêpe-paper” mucosa

  1. The use of skin prick tests and patch tests to identify causative foods in eosinophilic esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Spergel; Janet L. Beausoleil; Maria Mascarenhas; Chris A. Liacouras

    2002-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis is a disease entity in which patients have (1) elevated eosinophils on esophageal biopsy and (2) symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. The symptoms do not improve on aggressive acid blockade but do improve on elimination diet or corticosteroid treatment, which tentatively links food allergies to this disorder. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify potential food

  2. Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis is associated with a T H2-type allergic inflammatory response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Straumann; Madeleine Bauer; Barbra Fischer; Kurt Blaser; Hans-Uwe Simon

    2001-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis (IEE) is a chronic-inflammatory disorder of the esophagus of unknown origin. The established cornerstone of diagnosis is a dense infiltration of the esophagus with eosinophils, but neither the precise pattern of inflammatory cell infiltration nor the mechanisms that likely contribute to induction and maintenance of the inflammatory response have been described. Objective: The intention of this

  3. Eosinophils orchestrate cancer rejection by normalizing tumor vessels and enhancing infiltration of CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Rafael; Sektioglu, Ibrahim M; Garbi, Natalio; Salgado, Oscar C; Beckhove, Philipp; Hämmerling, Günter J

    2015-06-01

    Tumor-associated eosinophilia is frequently observed in cancer. However, despite numerous studies of patients with cancer and mouse models of cancer, it has remained uncertain if eosinophils contribute to tumor immunity or are mere bystander cells. Here we report that activated eosinophils were essential for tumor rejection in the presence of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells. Tumor-homing eosinophils secreted chemoattractants that guided T cells into the tumor, which resulted in tumor eradication and survival. Activated eosinophils initiated substantial changes in the tumor microenvironment, including macrophage polarization and normalization of the tumor vasculature, which are known to promote tumor rejection. Thus, our study presents a new concept for eosinophils in cancer that may lead to novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25915731

  4. Leukemia diagnostics with ow G. Ciuperca1

    E-print Network

    Louvet, Violaine

    Leukemia diagnostics with ow cytometry G. Ciuperca1 , M. Mafouz1 , C. Dumontet2 , V. Louvet1 , A'exposé Hematopoiesis and leukemias Flow cytometry Leukemias classication and Medical diagnosis Mathematical Models for diagnosis and classication of acute myeloid leukemia #12;Leukemia diagnostics with ow cytometry G. Ciuperca

  5. Anti-Siglec-F Antibody Reduces Allergen-Induced Eosinophilic Inflammation and Airway Remodeling1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dae Jin; Cho, Jae Youn; Lee, Sang Yeub; Miller, Marina; Rosenthal, Peter; Soroosh, Pejman; Croft, Michael; Zhang, Mai; Varki, Ajit; Broide, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Siglec-F is a sialic acid-binding Ig superfamily receptor that is highly expressed on eosinophils. We have investigated whether administration of an anti-Siglec-F Ab to OVA-challenged wild-type mice would reduce levels of eosinophilic inflammation and levels of airway remodeling. Mice sensitized to OVA and challenged repetitively with OVA for 1 mo who were administered an anti-Siglec-F Ab had significantly reduced levels of peribronchial eosinophilic inflammation and significantly reduced levels of subepithelial fibrosis as assessed by either trichrome staining or lung collagen levels. The anti-Siglec-F Ab reduced the number of bone marrow, blood, and tissue eosinophils, suggesting that the anti-Siglec-F Ab was reducing the production of eosinophils. Administration of a F(ab?)2 fragment of an anti-Siglec-F Ab also significantly reduced levels of eosinophilic inflammation in the lung and blood. FACS analysis demonstrated increased numbers of apoptotic cells (annexin V+/CCR3+ bronchoalveolar lavage and bone marrow cells) in anti-Siglec-F Ab-treated mice challenged with OVA. The anti-Siglec-F Ab significantly reduced the number of peribronchial major basic protein+/TGF-?+ cells, suggesting that reduced levels of eosinophil-derived TGF-? in anti-Siglec-F Ab-treated mice contributed to reduced levels of peribronchial fibrosis. Administration of the anti-Siglec-F Ab modestly reduced levels of periodic acid-Schiff-positive mucus cells and the thickness of the smooth muscle layer. Overall, these studies suggest that administration of an anti-Siglec-F Ab can significantly reduce levels of allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation and features of airway remodeling, in particular subepithelial fibrosis, by reducing the production of eosinophils and increasing the number of apoptotic eosinophils in lung and bone marrow. PMID:19783675

  6. CD14+CD33+ myeloid cell-CCL11-eosinophil signature in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lampinen, Maria; Waddell, Amanda; Ahrens, Richard; Carlson, Marie; Hogan, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that eotaxins (CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26) and IL-5 contribute to eosinophil recruitment to the intestine in UC and that intestinal macrophages are important producers of CCL11 in this disease. Peripheral blood and rectal biopsy samples were obtained from patients with active (n=18) and quiescent UC (n=9), and control patients (n=7). Eosinophil and macrophage levels and activation were analyzed by flow cytometry. Rectal mRNA levels of CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, and IL-5 were determined by qRT-PCR. The cellular source of CCL11 was visualized by immunofluorescence analyses. Eosinophil numbers were elevated in the blood and rectum of active and quiescent UC patients compared with controls. Levels of activated eosinophils (CD66bhigh) correlated with disease severity. Rectal CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 mRNA levels were increased in active UC, whereas only CCL11 was elevated in quiescent UC. Levels of CCL11, but not CCL24 and CCL26, positively correlated with eosinophil numbers. Numbers of CD14+CD33+ cells correlated with CCL11 and eosinophil levels. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed the presence of CD14+CCL11+ mononuclear cells in colonic biopsies in UC. These results support the hypothesis that CCL11 contributes to eosinophil recruitment in UC and that intestinal myeloid cells are a source of CCL11. Interestingly, rectal levels of CCL24, CCL26, and IL-5 only increase during active UC, coinciding with further elevation of eosinophil numbers and with the activation of rectal eosinophils. In conclusion, there is a link among CD14+CD33+ myeloid cells, CCL11, and eosinophils in adult UC. PMID:23904440

  7. Anti-IL-5 Therapy Reduces Mast Cells and IL-9 Cells in Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Iris M.; Anilkumar, A. Andrew; Newbury, Robert O.; Bhagat, Monica; Beppu, Lisa Y.; Dohil, Ranjan; Broide, David H.; Aceves, Seema S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic entity of increasing worldwide prevalence. IL-5 is essential for eosinophil trafficking and anti-IL-5 therapy decreases esophageal eosinophilia. EoE is associated with a prominent mast cell infiltration. Objective We investigated whether anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab) treatment reduced esophageal mast cell accumulation in pediatric EoE biopsy specimens from a previous randomized anti-IL-5 trial. Methods A sub-analysis was completed for children treated with 0.55, 2.5, or 10mg/kg of mepolizumab monthly for 12 weeks followed by no treatment until week 24. Quantitative immunochemistry was used to assess eosinophils, tryptase-positive mast cells, IL-9+ cells, and mast cell-eosinophil couplets prior to and following treatment. Results 43 patient biopsies had adequate tissue for paired analysis. 40% of subjects responded to anti-IL-5 (defined as <15 eosinophils per hpf following mepolizumab therapy) and 77% of all subjects had decreased numbers of mast cells following anti-IL-5. In responders, epithelial mast cells decreased from 62 to 19 per hpf (p<0.001), were significantly lower than in non-responders following therapy (p<0.05), and correlated with eosinophil numbers (r=0.75, p<0.0001). Mast cells and eosinophils were found in couplets prior to therapy and these were significantly decreased only in responders following anti-IL-5 (p<0.001). Esophageal eosinophils comprised the majority of cells that made the mast cell growth factor IL-9. IL-9+ cells decreased from 102 to 71 per hpf (p<0.001) following anti-IL-5. Conclusions Pediatric EoE patients had significantly fewer mast cells, IL-9+ cells, and mast cell-eosinophil couplets in the esophageal epithelium following anti-IL-5 therapy. Since eosinophils were one source of IL-9, they may support esophageal mastocytosis. PMID:23623266

  8. Emerging management concepts for eosinophilic esophagitis in children.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G; Nethercote, Mark; Rosenbaum, Jeremy; Allen, Katrina J

    2011-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a newly recognized condition that appears to be increasing in incidence for as yet unknown reasons. It can occur at any age and presents both to gastroenterologists and allergists. Clinical manifestations range from gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, feeding difficulties, dysphagia or food bolus impaction) to co-existing atopic conditions (asthma, allergic rhinitis or eczema). The diagnosis requires demonstration of at least 15 eosinophils per high power field on esophageal histology, usually in the context of resistance to proton pump inhibitor treatment or a normal 24-h esophageal pH monitoring study. The differential diagnosis between EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be problematic as there is significant clinical overlap between both conditions. Although difficult-to-manage esophageal strictures are well recognized in patients with long-standing EoE, little is known about risk factors for the development of this complication. There is a paucity of data on both the natural history and optimal long-term management of EoE. Current treatment options include food allergen elimination diets, use of topical aerosolized corticosteroids, or a combination of the two. Pediatric case studies have been provided to illustrate the complexity of decision points that often arise in the management of these patients. This paper aims to discuss the various strategies currently available to clinicians in the management of EoE and highlights gaps in the current evidence base that urgently require further research. PMID:21545525

  9. Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia in children: the French experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia is extremely rare in children and adults. We present herein the first series describing the specificities of idiopathic chronic (ICEP) and acute (IAEP) eosinophilic pneumonia in children. Methods We retrospectively analyzed all cases of ICEP and IAEP in children that were retrieved from French Reference Centers for rare pediatric lung diseases. Results Five cases of pediatric ICEP were identified. Corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy dramatically improved the outcome in three cases. The remaining two cases had a persistent interstitial pattern with progressive development of cystic airspace lesions. Three cases of IAEP in adolescents were reported, with one requiring four days of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Conclusion ICEP is a rare disease with a polymorphic clinical presentation in children. We identified patients with persistent interstitial patterns progressing to cystic airspace regions, for which the boundaries with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are difficult to establish. We therefore propose a specific pediatric definition and classification algorithm. IAEP in children remains an inflammatory reaction of the lung to an acute toxic exposure, mainly tobacco, as in adults. International studies are required to comprehensively assess the various clinical forms of the disease as well as the appropriate therapeutic regimens. PMID:24555756

  10. Severe eosinophilic pneumonia presenting during gemcitabine adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Gemcitabine is widely accepted as the standard treatment for pancreatic cancer, but it can cause unpredictable side effects. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a rare complication with gemcitabine, but is sometimes fatal. We describe a cured case of acute, severe gemcitabine-induced pulmonary toxicity. The patient was a 76-year-old man with pancreatic cancer who was receiving adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy after surgery. The patient received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 for three 4-week cycles, with intervals of 1 week. He developed severe general fatigue on day 1 of the third cycle. Computed tomography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity with pleural effusion. There was no increase in ?-D-glucan, and cytomegalovirus antigenemia assays were negative. No bacteria or acid-fast bacilli were found. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased. Considering these data, we diagnosed eosinophilic pneumonia induced by gemcitabine. The patient was immediately treated with a steroid and neutrophil elastase inhibitor under respiratory supportive therapy. After 4 weeks, his pulmonary symptoms were markedly improved. Physicians should be cognizant of the possible association of serious pulmonary toxicity with gemcitabine treatment. A delay in diagnosis and treatment could lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:23883337

  11. Severe eosinophilic pneumonia presenting during gemcitabine adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yakabe, Tomomi; Kitahara, Kenji; Komiya, Kazutoshi; Sueoka-Aragane, Naoko; Kimura, Shinya; Sugioka, Takashi; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Gemcitabine is widely accepted as the standard treatment for pancreatic cancer, but it can cause unpredictable side effects. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a rare complication with gemcitabine, but is sometimes fatal. We describe a cured case of acute, severe gemcitabine-induced pulmonary toxicity. The patient was a 76-year-old man with pancreatic cancer who was receiving adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy after surgery. The patient received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 for three 4-week cycles, with intervals of 1 week. He developed severe general fatigue on day 1 of the third cycle. Computed tomography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity with pleural effusion. There was no increase in ?-D-glucan, and cytomegalovirus antigenemia assays were negative. No bacteria or acid-fast bacilli were found. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased. Considering these data, we diagnosed eosinophilic pneumonia induced by gemcitabine. The patient was immediately treated with a steroid and neutrophil elastase inhibitor under respiratory supportive therapy. After 4 weeks, his pulmonary symptoms were markedly improved. Physicians should be cognizant of the possible association of serious pulmonary toxicity with gemcitabine treatment. A delay in diagnosis and treatment could lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:23883337

  12. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Schwartz, Sally; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24920928

  13. Fungi in chronic hyperplastic eosinophilic sinusitis: reasonable doubt.

    PubMed

    Borish, Larry; Rosenwasser, Lanny; Steinke, John W

    2006-06-01

    Chronic hyperplastic eosinophilic sinusitis (CHES) is a T-helper (Th)2-like, lymphocyteinitiated, eosinophil-rich inflammatory disease. The complex immune interactions required to orchestrate these processes begin with the presentation of antigen by mature dendritic cells to Th lymphocytes that display the appropriate antigen-specific T-cell receptor. The objective of sinus research must be to identify and target that antigen; this will lead to the cure for this condition. This article reviews numerous models that may be responsible for the pathophysiology of this disorder, including putative roles for allergens, bacteria, and bacterial-derived superantigens, as well as recent interest in fungal-derived antigens. Additionally, we speculate that whatever the inciting cause of CHES may be, it is plausible that once initiated, cellular differentiation pathways may lead to the development of an antigen-independent permanent phase. More than one of these may be valid in different subjects and, furthermore, this list almost assuredly does not explain all cases of CHES. The concept that fungal antigens colonizing the sinuses are responsible for CHES represents an intriguing, but unproven, hypothesis. Presently, the case for the fungus remains circumstantial. The case for fungi will be proved only with definitive proof that T-cells within the sinuses are actively responding to fungal antigens present in the sinus and with the further demonstration that removal of those fungal antigens ameliorates the disease. PMID:16785590

  14. Molecular, genetic, and cellular bases for treating eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Marc E

    2015-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was historically distinguished from gastroesophageal reflux disease on the basis of histology and lack of responsiveness to acid suppressive therapy, but it is now appreciated that esophageal eosinophilia can respond to proton pump inhibitors. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to risk for EoE, particularly early-life events. Disease pathogenesis involves activation of epithelial inflammatory pathways (production of eotaxin-3 [encoded by CCL26]), impaired barrier function (mediated by loss of desmoglein-1), increased production and/or activity of transforming growth factor-?, and induction of allergic inflammation by eosinophils and mast cells. Susceptibility has been associated with variants at 5q22 (TSLP) and 2p23 (CAPN14), indicating roles for allergic sensitization and esophageal specific protease pathways. We propose that EoE is a unique disease characterized by food hypersensitivity; strong hereditability influenced by early-life exposures and esophageal-specific genetic risk variants; and allergic inflammation and that the disease is remitted by disrupting inflammatory and T-helper type 2 cytokine-mediated responses and through dietary elimination therapy. PMID:25666870

  15. -Arrestin2 mediates the initiation and progression of myeloid leukemia

    E-print Network

    -Arrestin2 mediates the initiation and progression of myeloid leukemia Mark Fereshteha leukemia (CML). These defects are linked to a re- duced frequency, as well as defective self maintenance. chronic myeloid leukemia | leukemia stem cell | hematopoiesis Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML

  16. Leukemia and Benzene

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Excessive exposure to benzene has been known for more than a century to damage the bone marrow resulting in decreases in the numbers of circulating blood cells, and ultimately, aplastic anemia. Of more recent vintage has been the appreciation that an alternative outcome of benzene exposure has been the development of one or more types of leukemia. While many investigators agree that the array of toxic metabolites, generated in the liver or in the bone marrow, can lead to traumatic bone marrow injury, the more subtle mechanisms leading to leukemia have yet to be critically dissected. This problem appears to have more general interest because of the recognition that so-called “second cancer” that results from prior treatment with alkylating agents to yield tumor remissions, often results in a type of leukemia reminiscent of benzene-induced leukemia. Furthermore, there is a growing literature attempting to characterize the fine structure of the marrow and the identification of so called “niches” that house a variety of stem cells and other types of cells. Some of these “niches” may harbor cells capable of initiating leukemias. The control of stem cell differentiation and proliferation via both inter- and intra-cellular signaling will ultimately determine the fate of these transformed stem cells. The ability of these cells to avoid checkpoints that would prevent them from contributing to the leukemogenic response is an additional area for study. Much of the study of benzene-induced bone marrow damage has concentrated on determining which of the benzene metabolites lead to leukemogenesis. The emphasis now should be directed to understanding how benzene metabolites alter bone marrow cell biology. PMID:23066403

  17. Novel CLC3 transcript variants in blood eosinophils and increased CLC3 expression in nasal lavage and blood eosinophils of asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Gaurav, Rohit; Bewtra, Againdra K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilia is a characteristic feature of allergic airway inflammation and remodeling. Chloride channel-3 (CLC3) in eosinophils has been associated with superoxide generation and respiratory burst. The CLC3 gene may produce multiple transcript variants through alternative splicing. However, the presence of CLC3 variants in human eosinophils is unknown. We examined the expression of CLC3 transcript variants in peripheral blood eosinophils of allergic asthmatics and healthy individuals. Potential of these obligatory dimers to form homo- or hetero-dimers was examined in HEK293 cells co-transfected with CLC3b-GFP and CLC3e-RFP. Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood by negative selection. Expression of CLC3 and CLC3 transcript variants was examined by qPCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Confocal micrographs were analyzed with Image J software. Higher levels of novel transcript variants of CLC3 (CLC3b and CLC3e) were found in peripheral blood eosinophils of asthmatics compared to healthy non-atopic subjects. We also found higher CLC3 protein expression in the blood and nasal lavage eosinophils of asthmatics than healthy subjects. Both membranous and intracellular CLC3 expression were observed. Also, we found the presence of both homodimers and heterodimers of CLC3b-GFP and CLC3e-RFP in HEK293 cells. Higher and differential expression of novel CLC3 transcript variants in mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe asthmatic eosinophils suggest their critical role in allergic asthma. Membranous and intracellular (granular) expression of CLC3 in nasal lavage and peripheral blood eosinophils suggest their involvement in the activation and migration of eosinophils in allergic asthma. Moreover, homo- and hetero-dimerization of these transcript variants may change the channel properties to exhibit these states. Presence of CLC3 variants may serve as a biomarker in allergic asthma and additional knowledge of interaction between CLC3 transcript variants and their specific role in the activation and migration of eosinophils will allow to explore novel therapeutic approach in allergic asthma. PMID:25866628

  18. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-18

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  19. Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Cancer & Tumors > Juvenile ... Causes Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping About Leukemia Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Acute promyelocytic leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Acute promyelocytic leukemia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed April 2011 What is acute promyelocytic leukemia? Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a form of acute ...

  1. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Causes Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping About Leukemia Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the ... and protect the body against disease. But in leukemia, WBCs turn cancerous and multiply when they shouldn' ...

  2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Causes Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping About Leukemia Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the ... and protect the body against disease. But in leukemia, WBCs turn cancerous and multiply when they shouldn' ...

  3. Phase I Dose-Escalation Trial of Clofarabine Followed by Escalating Doses of Fractionated Cyclophosphamide in Children With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemias

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-09-21

    Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Myeloproliferative Disorders; Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia; Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia; Acute Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Myelofibrosis; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

  4. Imatinib Mesylate and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-22

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  5. Eosinophils develop in distinct stages and are recruited to peripheral sites by alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Voehringer, David; van Rooijen, N; Locksley, Richard M

    2007-06-01

    Eosinophils are associated with allergic diseases and helminth infections. Development of these cells and recruitment to peripheral tissues are only partially understood. Distinct stages of eosinophil development in fetal liver, bone marrow, and blood could be identified using IL-4 reporter mice and mAb against FIRE, Siglec-F, and CCR3. Immature eosinophils were present in the fetal liver and could reconstitute the eosinophil compartment in irradiated recipient mice. In adult mice, eosinophil maturation proceeded from CCR3(-) to CCR3(+) cells in the bone marrow and was accompanied with changes in the transcriptional profile. Eosinophils appeared as activated cells in lung, thymus, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches but remained in a resting state in bone marrow, blood, and spleen. Mixed bone marrow chimeras revealed that recruitment to lung and peritoneum was dependent on Stat6 expression in noneosinophils. Alternatively activated macrophages contributed substantially to tissue recruitment of eosinophils, providing a novel basis for development of therapeutic approaches to lower tissue eosinophilia. PMID:17339609

  6. Semaphorin 7A is expressed on airway eosinophils and upregulated by IL-5 family cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Esnault, Stephane; Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Johansson, Mats W.; Liu, Lin Ying; Han, Shih-Tsung; Akhtar, Moneeb; Sandbo, Nathan; Mosher, Deane F.; Denlinger, Loren C.; Mathur, Sameer K.; Malter, James S.; Jarjour, Nizar N.

    2013-01-01

    Semaphorin 7A (Sema7A) plays a major role in TGF-?1-induced lung fibrosis. Based on the accumulating evidence that eosinophils contribute to fibrosis/remodeling in the airway, we hypothesized that airway eosinophils may be a significant source of sema7A. In vivo, sema7A was expressed on the surface of circulating eosinophils and upregulated on bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils obtained after segmental bronchoprovocation with allergen. Based on mRNA levels in unfractionated and isolated bronchoalveolar cells, eosinophils are the predominant source of sema7A. In vitro, among the members of the IL-5-family cytokines, sema7A protein on the surface of blood eosinophils was increased more by IL-3 than by GM-CSF or IL-5. Cytokine-induced expression of cell surface sema7A required translation of newly synthetized protein. Finally, a recombinant sema7A induced alpha-smooth muscle actin production in human bronchial fibroblasts. Semaphorin 7A is a potentially important modulator of eosinophil profibrotic functions in the airway remodeling of patients with chronic asthma. PMID:24333536

  7. Semaphorin 7A is expressed on airway eosinophils and upregulated by IL-5 family cytokines.

    PubMed

    Esnault, Stephane; Kelly, Elizabeth A; Johansson, Mats W; Liu, Lin Ying; Han, Shih-Tsung; Akhtar, Moneeb; Sandbo, Nathan; Mosher, Deane F; Denlinger, Loren C; Mathur, Sameer K; Malter, James S; Jarjour, Nizar N

    2014-01-01

    Semaphorin 7A (sema7a) plays a major role in TGF-?1-induced lung fibrosis. Based on the accumulating evidence that eosinophils contribute to fibrosis/remodeling in the airway, we hypothesized that airway eosinophils may be a significant source of sema7a. In vivo, sema7a was expressed on the surface of circulating eosinophils and upregulated on bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils obtained after segmental bronchoprovocation with allergen. Based on mRNA levels in unfractionated and isolated bronchoalveolar cells, eosinophils are the predominant source of sema7a. In vitro, among the members of the IL-5-family cytokines, sema7a protein on the surface of blood eosinophils was increased more by IL-3 than by GM-CSF or IL-5. Cytokine-induced expression of cell surface sema7a required translation of newly synthesized protein. Finally, a recombinant sema7a induced alpha-smooth muscle actin production in human bronchial fibroblasts. semaphorin 7A is a potentially important modulator of eosinophil profibrotic functions in the airway remodeling of patients with chronic asthma. PMID:24333536

  8. Two subtypes of Churg-Strauss syndrome with neuropathy: the roles of eosinophils and ANCA.

    PubMed

    Oka, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Teruaki; Matsui, Masaru; Shigematsu, Kazuo; Unuma, Tsuneo; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in the pathogenesis of neuropathy between myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-positive and -negative patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). Eight MPO-ANCA-positive and 14 MPO-ANCA-negative patients were included. In addition to the standard histology, nerve biopsies were examined, employing immunohistochemistry for eosinophil major basic protein and electron microscopy. The groups did not differ significantly in clinical profiles, including the peak disability score and number of blood eosinophils. In nerve biopsies, necrotizing vasculitis was found in 63% (5/8) of the ANCA-positive and 21% (3/14) of the ANCA-negative patients. Fibrinoid necrosis of vessel walls was noted in 4 ANCA-positive patients (50%), and in one ANCA-negative patient (p = 0039). In contrast, a large number of eosinophilic infiltrations in the epineurium was shown in 36% (5/14) of the ANCA-negative patients, with no eosinophilic infiltrations shown in ANCA-positive patients. In 3 ANCA-negative patients, endoneurial eosinophils were seen where focal axonal loss and capillary dilatation were occasionally noted. There may be 2 pathogenetic mechanisms of neuropathy with CSS: ANCA-related vascular fibrinoid necrosis, and a toxic eosinophilic effect on nerve fibers which is independent of ANCA. Therapy targeting activated eosinophils may be a possible treatment for intractable neuropathy of CSS. PMID:21188447

  9. Novel basophil- or eosinophil-depleted mouse models for functional analyses of allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Kunie; Shitara, Hiroshi; Taya, Choji; Kohno, Kenji; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Yonekawa, Hiromichi

    2013-01-01

    Basophils and eosinophils play important roles in various host defense mechanisms but also act as harmful effectors in allergic disorders. We generated novel basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models by introducing the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor gene under the control of the mouse CD203c and the eosinophil peroxidase promoter, respectively, to study the critical roles of these cells in the immunological response. These mice exhibited selective depletion of the target cells upon DT administration. In the basophil-depletion model, DT administration attenuated a drop in body temperature in IgG-mediated systemic anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner and almost completely abolished the development of ear swelling in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation (IgE-CAI), a typical skin swelling reaction with massive eosinophil infiltration. In contrast, in the eosinophil-depletion model, DT administration ameliorated the ear swelling in IgE-CAI whether DT was administered before, simultaneously, or after, antigen challenge, with significantly lower numbers of eosinophils infiltrating into the swelling site. These results confirm that basophils and eosinophils act as the initiator and the effector, respectively, in IgE-CAI. In addition, antibody array analysis suggested that eotaxin-2 is a principal chemokine that attracts proinflammatory cells, leading to chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, the two mouse models established in this study are potentially useful and powerful tools for studying the in vivo roles of basophils and eosinophils. The combination of basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models provides a new approach to understanding the complicated mechanism of allergic inflammation in conditions such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. PMID:23577180

  10. Phase 1 Study of Terameprocol (EM-1421) in Patients With Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2009-01-29

    Leukemias; Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML); Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL); Adult T Cell Leukemia (ATL); Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML-BP); Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL); Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML)

  11. Oxidative requirement for degranulation of human peripheral blood eosinophils.

    PubMed Central

    Baskar, P; Pincus, S H

    1988-01-01

    Eosinophils possess both oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent mechanisms for damaging helminthic parasites such as schistosomula. We have studied the release of the granular enzymes beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase to evaluate the oxidative requirement for degranulation. Both ionophore-mediated and immunoglobulin G-mediated release of granular enzymes were enhanced in the presence of oxygen (P less than or equal to 0.05). Calcium ionophore-mediated degranulation under aerobic conditions was reduced by the addition of the degradative enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase, suggesting that active oxygen products enhance degranulation. In contrast, oxygen products did not appear to contribute to degranulation induced by immunoglobulin G-coated beads. PMID:2840397

  12. Microscopic colitis (lymphocytic and collagenous), eosinophilic colitis, and celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, M Sophia; Alimi, Yewande

    2015-06-01

    Multiple tests are needed to diagnose a patient with noninfectious diarrhea. Some patients will be mistakenly labeled as diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) because of nonspecific computed tomographic scans and grossly normal endoscopic findings. It is crucial to understand other less common pathologies to avoid these instances of misdiagnosis. This article focuses on microscopic colitis (MC), eosinophilic colitis (EC), and celiac disease. MC is an inflammatory condition of the colon that presents with two subtypes, only to be differentiated by histology. EC is a rare chronic inflammatory process. Depending on the extent of the disease, it can present with mild diarrhea, malabsorption, or at its worst, cause obstruction and perforation. Celiac disease affects the small bowel, but interestingly can present similarly to colitis. Both MC and EC respond to oral budesonide. Patients with celiac disease improve on gluten-free diets. These treatments are distinctly different from typical IBS-D care plans. PMID:26034409

  13. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a practical approach to diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2014-11-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has emerged as a common cause of dysphagia and food impaction in children and adults. A trial of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is a mandatory diagnostic first step, given that at least one third of patients with suspected EoE will have PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. Once EoE is diagnosed, short-and long-term therapeutic decision making may rely on patient symptoms, phenotype (inflammatory vs fibrostenotic) and preferences. Currently, the most reliable therapeutic targets are mucosal healing and caliber abnormalities resolution. Topical steroids followed by endoscopic dilation are recommended in symptomatic narrow caliber esophagus/strictures, whereas either topical steroids or dietary therapy are good short-term options for mucosal inflammation. Maintenance anti-inflammatory therapy is necessary to prevent esophageal fibrotic remodeling and stricture formation. PMID:24830679

  14. Eosinophilic pneumonia presenting as life-threatening ARDS.

    PubMed

    Maia, José Miguel; Guedes, Fernando; Aragão, Irene; Cardoso, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 25-year-old woman with sudden onset of shortness of breath, cough and malaise, 24?h after discharge from a psychiatric hospital. She had been there for 2?weeks after a suicide attempt with lye, and started treatment with paroxetin, alprazolam and valproic acid. She also started smoking 20 cigarettes/day during that hospital admission. Brought to the emergency department, she evolved in the first 24?h with respiratory failure and shock needing intensive care unit (ICU) admission, with mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support. Empiric antibiotic therapy was started (piperacillin-tazobactam and azithromycin) suspecting healthcare-associated pneumonia. The patient's chest radiography progressed with bilateral infiltrates. Peripheral blood eosinophilia was seen on the second day. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and had 50% of eosinophils. She was started on treatment with steroids and the next day no longer needed vasopressors; 4?days later she was extubated. PMID:26150613

  15. Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal atresia and chronic dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Kassabian, Sirvart; Baez-Socorro, Virginia; Sferra, Thomas; Garcia, Reinaldo

    2014-12-21

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE. PMID:25548504

  16. Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea M. Sheehan

    \\u000a This chapter covers T and B lymphoblastic neoplasms, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphoma\\u000a (LBL). Morphologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic features are discussed along with the parameters of various modalities\\u000a used in their diagnosis. The techniques and utility of minimum residual disease (MRD) measurement after therapy is discussed,\\u000a as are new insights into the molecular biology of leukemogenesis gleaned

  17. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lubomir Sokol; Thomas P. Loughran

    2007-01-01

    Clonal diseases of large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) represent a spectrum of clinically rare lymphoproliferative malignancies\\u000a arising from either mature T-cell (CD3+) or natural killer (NK)-cell (CD3?) lineages. The clinical behavior of these disorders ranges from indolent to very aggressive. Patients with symptomatic indolent\\u000a T-cell or NK-cell LGL leukemia are usually treated with immunosuppressive therapies; in contrast, aggressive T-cell or NK-cell

  18. Anti-IL-5 attenuates activation and surface density of ?2-integrins on circulating eosinophils after segmental antigen challenge

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Mats W.; Gunderson, Kristin A.; Kelly, Elizabeth A. B.; Denlinger, Loren C.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2013-01-01

    Background IL-5 activates ?M?2 integrin on blood eosinophils in vitro. Eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) following segmental antigen challenge have activated ?2-integrins. Objective To identify roles for IL-5 in regulating human eosinophil integrins in vivo. Methods Blood and BAL eosinophils were analyzed by flow cytometry in ten subjects with allergic asthma who underwent a segmental antigen challenge protocol before and after anti-IL-5 administration. Results Blood eosinophil reactivity with monoclonal antibody (mAb) KIM-127, which recognizes partially activated ?2-integrins, was decreased after anti-IL-5. Before anti-IL-5, surface densities of blood eosinophil ?2, ?M, and ?L integrin subunits increased modestly post-challenge. After anti-IL-5, such increases did not occur. Before or after anti-IL-5, surface densities of ?2,?M, ?L, and ?D and reactivity with KIM-127 and mAb CBRM1/5, which recognizes high-activity ?M?2, were similarly high on BAL eosinophils 48 h post-challenge. Density and activation state of ?1-integrins on blood and BAL eosinophils were not impacted by anti-IL-5, even though anti-IL-5 ablated a modest post-challenge increase on blood or BAL eosinophils of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a receptor for P-selectin that causes activation of ?1-integrins. Forward scatter of blood eosinophils post-challenge was less heterogeneous and on the average decreased after anti-IL-5; however, anti-IL-5 had no effect on the decreased forward scatter of eosinophils in post-challenge BAL compared to eosinophils in blood. Blood eosinophil KIM-127 reactivity at the time of challenge correlated with the percentage of eosinophils in BAL post-challenge. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance IL-5 supports a heterogeneous population of circulating eosinophils with partially activated ?2-integrins and is responsible for upregulation of ?2-integrins and PSGL-1 on circulating eosinophils following segmental antigen challenge but has minimal effects on properties of eosinophils in BAL. Dampening of ?2-integrin function of eosinophils in transit to inflamed airway may contribute to the decrease in lung inflammation caused by anti-IL-5. PMID:23414537

  19. EOSINOPHIL INFLUX TO THE NASAL AIRWAY FOLLOWING LOCAL, LOW-LEVEL LPS CHALLENGE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recent obervations show that atopic asthmatic subjects have increased sensitivity to respirable endotoxin (or LPS) compared with normal persons. In vitro studies demonstrate that LPS enchances eosinophil survival. These obervations suggest that the effects of inhal...

  20. [Determining asthma treatment in children by monitoring fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene B?].

    PubMed

    Vizmanos-Lamotte, G; Cruz, M J; Gómez-Ollés, S; Muñoz, X; de Mir Messa, I; Moreno-Galdó, A

    2015-01-01

    Sputum eosinophils and exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FENO) are markers of airway inflammation in asthma. Cytokines, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are responsible for this inflammation. The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of these markers in monitoring asthma treatment in children. FENO, sputum eosinophils, and LTB4 in induced sputum were performed in 10 children (9-15 years old). These determinations were repeated four months later, after the beginning or an increase in the treatment. FENO values tended to decrease (P=.15), pulmonary function tended to improve (P=.10), and sputum eosinophils decreased (P=.003) compared to the first determination. There were no differences in LTB4 concentrations (P=.88). Sputum eosinophils seem to be more precise than FENO in the monitoring of inflammation in asthmatic children. PMID:24857428

  1. Eosinophilic ascites in a patient with toxocara canis infection. A case report.

    PubMed

    Chira, Olimpia; Badea, Radu; Dumitrascu, Diana; Serban, Alexandru; Branda, Horatiu; al Hajjar, Nadim; Chiorean, Erica; Cruciat, Carmen

    2005-12-01

    We report the case of a young female patient, admitted for a recent ascites of unknown origin. The acute onset was with colicky abdominal pain and peritoneal effusion, which led to the suspicion of perforated ulcer. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed which showed free peritoneal fluid and normal abdominal viscera. At upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy, performed a few days later, patchy erythema in the antral region and duodenal edema were revealed. Duodenal biopsies showed marked eosinophilic infiltration. The ascitic fluid was straw coloured, sterile with 90% eosinophils. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was suspected, but differential diagnosis required the exclusion of migrant parasites. The stool exams were negative but serology for Toxocara antibodies was positive. The treatment with albendazole (Zentel 400 mg twice a day for 5 days) led to the disappearance of signs and symptoms. The eosinophilic infiltrate of the gut was absent in duodenal biopsies taken two months later. PMID:16400358

  2. ROLE OF MONOCYTES AND EOSINOPHILS IN RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS (RSV) INFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Role of Monocytes and Eosinophils in Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection Joleen M. Soukup and Susanne Becker US Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; ...

  3. Prostaglandin D2 receptor D-type prostanoid receptor 2 mediates eosinophil trafficking into the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Wu, X; Yu, S

    2014-08-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by eosinophil-predominant inflammation in the esophagus. How eosinophils migrate and infiltrate into the esophagus, however, is less clear. Our previous study demonstrated that mast cell activation led to eosinophil infiltration in the esophagus. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is an important mediator released from activated mast cells. The present study aims to determine whether PGD2 induces eosinophil infiltration into the esophagus via a d-type prostanoid receptor 2 (DP2) receptor-dependent mechanism. Using an in vivo guinea pig model, PGD2, d-type prostanoid receptor 1 (DP1) agonist, or DP2 agonist were injected into the esophagus. Esophageal tissues were removed 2 hours after injections and proceeded to either hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining or immunofluorescent staining of eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) to compare each treatment-induced eosinophil infiltration in the esophagus. In a separate study, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pigs were pretreated with either DP2 or DP1 antagonists, followed by inhalation of OVA to induce mast cell activation. Esophageal tissues were then processed for immunofluorescent staining of MBP. PGD2 injection in the esophagus led to an increase of eosinophil infiltration in esophageal epithelium at the injection site as revealed by HE staining. Increased infiltration of eosinophils was further confirmed by the increased presence of MBP-labeled immunopositive (MBP-LI) cells in esophageal epithelium. Injection with DP2 agonist 15(R)-PGD2, but not DP1 agonist BW 245C, mimicked the PGD2-induced response. In OVA-sensitized animals, antigen inhalation increased MBP-LI cells in esophageal epithelium. Pretreatment with DP2 antagonist BAY-u3405, but not DP1 antagonist BW 868C, inhibited the antigen inhalation-induced increase of MBP-LI cells in esophageal epithelium. These data support the hypothesis that PGD2 induces eosinophil trafficking into the esophageal epithelium via a DP2-mediated pathway, suggesting a role of DP2 antagonist in the prevention of eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24165271

  4. Developmental Outcome of Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniglio, Susan J.; Blackman, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on developmental and psychosocial outcomes of childhood leukemia is reviewed, focusing on preschool-age children. Studies are categorized in terms of outcome measures: intelligence/achievement, neuropsychological, memory/attention, and psychosocial tests. Evidence suggests that preschool children with leukemia are at high risk for…

  5. Eosinophilic cystitis with giant cells. A light microscopic and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Antonakopoulos, G N; Newman, J

    1984-09-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis. The wall of the urinary bladder was infiltrated by abundant eosinophils, numerous mast cells, neutrophils, and dispersed giant cells. Electron microscopic examination showed that the giant cells were macrophage polykaryocytes. We discuss their possible relationship to an allergic reaction, as well as to the previous use of radiation therapy 23 years ago. Granulomas were not observed. PMID:6547825

  6. Nerve growth factor is preformed in and activates human peripheral blood eosinophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abraham Solomon; Luigi Aloe; Jacob Pe’er; Joseph Frucht-Pery; Stefano Bonini; Sergio Bonini; Francesca Levi-Schaffer

    1998-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) is produced by and can act on several immune-inflammatory cells.Objectives: The objective of this study was to study the effects of NGF on human peripheral blood eosinophils and assess whether these cells produce and store NGF.Methods: Eosinophils were purified by negative immunoselection (magnetic cell sorting systems, purity 98% to 100%)

  7. Eosinophil activation status, cytokines and liver fibrosis in Schistosoma mansoni infected patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Silveira-Lemos; Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho; Olindo Assis Martins-Filho; Lúcia Fraga Alves Oliveira; Matheus Fernandes Costa-Silva; Leonardo Ferreira Matoso; Lorena Júnia de Souza; Andréa Gazzinelli; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    We have been investigating whether human eosinophils play an important role in schistosomiasis mansoni morbidity. Our main focus has been on the activation-related cell surface markers (CD23\\/CD69\\/CD25\\/HLA-DR\\/CD28\\/CD80) and the detection of TNF-?, IL-4 and IL-5 in peripheral blood eosinophils from chronic Schistosoma mansoni-infected patients. Our studies compare both, intestinal (INT) and individuals with periportal fibrosis (FIB). Our major findings, point

  8. A Functional Study on CysLT1 Receptors in Human Eosinophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuharu Ohshima; Hiroyuki Nagase; Takeshi Koshino; Misato Miyamasu; Masao Yamaguchi; Koichi Hirai; Kazuhiko Yamamoto; Takao Fujisawa; Naoki Nakagawa; Katsuya Kishikawa; Yutaka Morita

    2002-01-01

    Background: The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) mediate their biological actions through two receptors: CysLT1 receptor and CysLT2 receptor. Objective: This study was undertaken to examine the direct effects of CysLTs on eosinophils, such as chemotaxis and degranulation, focusing on CysLT1. Methods: Eosinophils were isolated from venous blood from normal volunteers who had no history of allergy (purity >99%). They were subjected

  9. Elemental Diet Is an Effective Treatment for Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan E. Markowitz; Jonathan M. Spergel; Eduardo Ruchelli; Chris A. Liacouras

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa, has been defined in large part through published case reports and series leading to ambiguity in both diagnostic and treatment options. Corticosteroids, cromolyn, and elemental diet have all been reported as successful treatments for EoE. In this study, we sought to accurately define a population of patients

  10. Elemental diet is an effective treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan E Markowitz; Jonathan M Spergel; Eduardo Ruchelli; Chris A Liacouras

    2003-01-01

    ObjectiveEosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa, has been defined in large part through published case reports and series leading to ambiguity in both diagnostic and treatment options. Corticosteroids, cromolyn, and elemental diet have all been reported as successful treatments for EoE. In this study, we sought to accurately define a population of patients

  11. Bendamustine Plus Alemtuzumab for Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-08-20

    Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  12. Correlation analysis of STAT3 and VEGF expression and eosinophil infiltration in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qingsong; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Jie

    2015-08-01

    The expression and distribution of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as well as eosinophil infiltration in nasal polyps was detected to examine their roles and correlations in the nasal polyp pathogenesis. Using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase (SP) method, immunohistochemistry was performed on conventional paraffin sections of 30 surgery-resected polypous specimens and 10 inferior turbinate tissues that were resected during nasal septum deflection correction to detect the expression of STAT3, p-STAT3, and VEGF, as well as eosinophil infiltration. The rates of STAT3-, p-STAT3-, and VEGF-positive expression in the mucosal epithelium and glands of nasal polyps were 66.67, 56.67, and 76.67 %, respectively, values that were significantly higher than those in the inferior turbinate group. The number of eosinophils in the nasal polyps was significantly higher than in the inferior turbinate group. Expression of p-STAT3 and VEGF in nasal polyps and eosinophil infiltration was increased significantly and positively correlated, indicating that VEGF and eosinophil infiltration might be regulated by p-STAT3. Therefore, the expression of STAT3, p-STAT3, and VEGF, and eosinophil infiltration might be important factors in nasal polyp pathogenesis. PMID:25253546

  13. Toxicity of eosinophil MBP is repressed by intracellular crystallization and promoted by extracellular aggregation.

    PubMed

    Soragni, Alice; Yousefi, Shida; Stoeckle, Christina; Soriaga, Angela B; Sawaya, Michael R; Kozlowski, Evelyne; Schmid, Inès; Radonjic-Hoesli, Susanne; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth J; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M Marvin; Cascio, Duilio; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Riek, Roland; Eisenberg, David S; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2015-03-19

    Eosinophils are white blood cells that function in innate immunity and participate in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. Their secretory granules contain four cytotoxic proteins, including the eosinophil major basic protein (MBP-1). How MBP-1 toxicity is controlled within the eosinophil itself and activated upon extracellular release is unknown. Here we show how intragranular MBP-1 nanocrystals restrain toxicity, enabling its safe storage, and characterize them with an X-ray-free electron laser. Following eosinophil activation, MBP-1 toxicity is triggered by granule acidification, followed by extracellular aggregation, which mediates the damage to pathogens and host cells. Larger non-toxic amyloid plaques are also present in tissues of eosinophilic patients in a feedback mechanism that likely limits tissue damage under pathological conditions of MBP-1 oversecretion. Our results suggest that MBP-1 aggregation is important for innate immunity and immunopathology mediated by eosinophils and clarify how its polymorphic self-association pathways regulate toxicity intra- and extracellularly. PMID:25728769

  14. c-FLIP Protects Eosinophils from TNF-?-Mediated Cell Death In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gordy, Claire; Liang, Jie; Pua, Heather; He, You-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the signals that regulate eosinophil survival and death is critical to developing new treatments for asthma, atopy, and gastrointestinal disease. Previous studies suggest that TNF-? stimulation protects eosinophils from apoptosis, and this TNF-?-mediated protection is mediated by the upregulation of an unknown protein by NF-?B. Here, we show for the first time that eosinophils express the caspase 8-inhibitory protein c-FLIP, and c-FLIP expression is upregulated upon TNF-? stimulation. Considering that c-FLIP expression is regulated by NF-?B, we hypothesized that c-FLIP might serve as the “molecular switch” that converts TNFRI activation to a pro-survival signal in eosinophils. Indeed, we found that one c-FLIP isoform, c-FLIPL, is required for mouse eosinophil survival in the presence of TNF-? both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, our results suggest c-FLIP as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of eosinophil-mediated disease. PMID:25333625

  15. Expression of interleukin-13 receptor ? 1-subunit on peripheral blood eosinophils is regulated by cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Myrtek, Daniel; Knoll, Mathias; Matthiesen, Timm; Krause, Sebastian; Lohrmann, Jens; Schillinger, Dirk; Idzko, Marco; Virchow, J Christian; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Luttmann, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is critical for the development of allergic asthma and is involved in the activation of eosinophils within the airways. IL-13 exerts its activity on target cells via the dimeric IL-13 receptor (IL-13R), which comprises the IL-13 receptor ?1-chain (IL-13R?1) as a specific component. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the IL-13R?1-chain on primary human eosinophilic granulocytes. Furthermore, it addresses the regulatory influence of cytokines on the level of surface abundance of this receptor subunit. Expression of IL-13- and IL-4-receptor subunits in purified primary human eosinophils was monitored at the messenger RNA level by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and at the protein level by flow cytometry. For the analysis of IL-13R?1 surface expression, a new monoclonal antibody, which was generated using genetic immunization, was employed. Different cytokines with established activity on eosinophils were studied with regard to their influence on IL-13R?1 in vitro by flow cytometry. Whereas IL-13 and IL-4 had inhibitory effects on IL-13R?1 expression on eosinophils, interferon-?, tumour necrosis factor-?, and, to the largest extent, transforming growth factor-?, enhanced the expression of this receptor subunit. A positive regulatory response evoked by transforming growth factor-? and interferon-? does not prevent inhibitory effects caused by IL-13. These findings suggest a regulatory cytokine network influencing the reactivity of eosinophils to IL-13. PMID:15270731

  16. Human eosinophils - potential pharmacological model applied in human histamine h4 receptor research.

    PubMed

    Grosicki, Marek; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Histamine and histamine receptors are well known for their immunomodulatory role in inflammation. In this review we describe the role of histamine and histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils. In the first part of article we provide short summary of histamine and histamine receptors role in physiology and histamine related therapeutics used in clinics. We briefly describe the human histamine receptor H4 and its ligands, as well as human eosinophils. In the second part of the review we provide detailed description of known histamine effects on eosinophils including: intracellular calcium concentration flux, actin polymerization, cellular shape change, upregulation of adhesion proteins and cellular chemotaxis. We provide proofs that these effects are mainly connected with the activation of histamine H4 receptor. When examining experimental data we discuss the controversial results and limitations of the studies performed on isolated eosinophils. In conclusion we believe that studies on histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils can provide interesting new biomarkers that can be used in clinical studies of histamine receptors, that in future might result in the development of new strategies in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions like asthma or allergy, in which eosinophils are involved. PMID:25760088

  17. Eosinophilic myocarditis in CBA/J mice infected with Toxocara canis.

    PubMed Central

    Cookston, M.; Stober, M.; Kayes, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    In humans, chronic eosinophilia has been associated clinically with endomyocardial fibrosis and myocardial damage. Mice infected with Toxocara canis have a marked eosinophilia, and develop eosinophil-rich granulomatous lesions in the soft tissues of the body, especially the lungs, liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. Few reports have described myocardial lesions associated with T. canis infections in mice. We examined the hearts of CBA/J mice killed at weekly intervals over an 8-week period for evidence of myocardial damage that might be attributable to eosinophils. Total white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were obtained during this period, and revealed a peak white blood cell count of approximately 28,000 cells/mm3 at day 7 after infection and a peak eosinophil count of approximately 4,000 cells/mm3 at day 14 after infection. Myocardial lesions in the ventricular wall began as focal infiltrates of eosinophils and histiocytes, then progressed into granulomata containing necrotic debris. Collagen deposition was noted by day 21 after infection. By day 42 after infection, the lesions had contracted greatly because of a loss of cellularity, and consisted mainly of fibroblasts and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Myocyte damage, characterized by increased eosinophilia and necrosis, was observed. T. canis-infected CBA/J mice thus offer a useful model to study eosinophil-dependent myocardial damage. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2349964

  18. [Molecular targeted therapy in lymphoid leukemias].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kensuke; Ando, Toshihiko; Kimura, Shinya

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in the treatment of lymphoid leukemias have incorporated molecular targeted drugs (CD20-targeting rituximab and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors) into the traditional chemotherapeutic agents. This article reviews novel molecular targeted therapies for patients with lymphoid leukemias including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hairly cell leukemia and HTLV-I-related adult T-cell leukemia. Investigational agents that will be discussed in this review include inotuzumab, blinatumomab, alemtuzumab, ofatumumab, ibrutinib, idelalisib, bafetinib, lenalidomide, ABT-199 and mogamulizumab. Novel approaches warrant continued research to improve outcomes for patients with lymphoid leukemias. PMID:25016810

  19. Eosinophilic myositis as first manifestation in a patient with type 2 myotonic dystrophy CCTG expansion mutation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Alain; Lannes, Béatrice; Carapito, Raphaël; Bahram, Seiamak; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Geny, Bernard; Sibilia, Jean; Gottenberg, Jacques Eric

    2015-02-01

    Eosinophilic myositis is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of skeletal muscles. In the absence of an identifiable causative factor or source (including parasitic infection, intake of drugs or L-tryptophan, certain systemic disorders as well as malignant diseases), the diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic myositis is usually retained. However, some muscular dystrophies have been recently identified in this subset of eosinophilic myositis. Here, we report a patient with an 8?kb CCTG expansion in intron 1 of the CNBP gene, a mutation characteristic of myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2), whose first manifestation was "idiopathic" eosinophilic myositis. This report suggests that in "idiopathic" eosinophilic myositis, clinicians should consider muscular dystrophies, including DM2. PMID:25443993

  20. Inhibitory Role of Eosinophils on Cell Surface Plasmin Generation by Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Inhibitory Effects of Transforming Growth Factor ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hara; T. Hasegawa; H. Ooi; T. Koya; Y. Tanabe; H. Tsukada; K. Igarashi; E. Suzuki; M. Arakawa; F. Gejyo

    2001-01-01

    .   Eosinophilic bronchitis is an essential component of bronchial asthma, and eosinophils play an important role. We studied\\u000a the effect of eosinophils on cell surface plasmin generation by bronchial epithelial cells, because plasmin is thought to\\u000a be involved in bronchial tissue repair\\/remodeling by means of fibrinolysis and the activation of proteases such as matrix\\u000a metalloproteases. Plasmin was generated from exogenous

  1. Update on topical steroid therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2015-01-01

    This review aims to summarize evolving evidence on topical steroid (TS) therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Currently, we still use "off-label" TS, originally designed for bronchial or intranasal delivery. Direct oral administration (i.e., oral viscous budesonide) achieves better histological results than the aerosolized swallowed route, due to longer mucosal contact time. High-dose fluticasone (880?g bid) has recently shown higher cure rates in children and adults. Steroid resistance is present in around 25-40% of patients. Nonetheless, novel steroid formulations specifically designed for EoE have exhibited outstanding preliminary results (cure rates around 100%). Narrow caliber esophagus (<13mm) might explain persistent dysphagia despite histological remission on TS therapy and endoscopic dilation should be considered. TS are currently considered safe drugs, but we lack long-term safety data. Maintenance anti-inflammatory therapy is recommended in all patients to prevent disease recurrence and esophageal fibrotic remodeling, although this strategy is yet to be defined. PMID:25630928

  2. What's New in Childhood Leukemia Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resources for childhood leukemia What’s new in childhood leukemia research and treatment? Researchers are now studying the ... chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)? Immunotherapy to treat childhood leukemia are treatments that boost a child’s own immune ...

  3. Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML) and Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... attack the disease (graft-versus-leukemia effect). The theory being tested with a reduced-intensity transplant is ... syndrome. These typically include heart malformation, short stature, learning disabilities, indentation of the chest, impaired blood clotting ...

  4. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-25

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  5. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-23

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  6. Vaccine Therapy Plus Immune Adjuvant in Treating Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  7. Risk-Based Classification System of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-31

    Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  8. Nitric oxide and protein nitration are eosinophil dependent in allergen-challenged mice.

    PubMed

    Iijima, H; Duguet, A; Eum, S Y; Hamid, Q; Eidelman, D H

    2001-04-01

    To explore the possible role of eosinophils in NO-mediated tissue injury, we studied a murine model of allergic asthma. Male A/J mice were sensitized and challenged intranasally with ovalbumin (OVA). Following challenge, the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) increased from 0.4% of total cells at baseline (0.02 x 10(4) cells/ml) to 60.2% at 48 h after the challenge (9.34 x 10(4) cells/ml). The rise in eosinophil count was accompanied by a 40.3% increase in total NO(2-) plus NO(3-) (NO(x)) in BALF. This in turn was accompanied by expression of inducible NO synthase (NOS II) in airway epithelial and inflammatory cells, as well as by evidence of staining for 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT) in peribronchial inflammatory cells and at the epithelial surface. Both NO(x) production and 3NT were significantly reduced by pretreatment of the challenged mice with the highly specific NOS II inhibitor N-3-aminomethyl-benzyl-acetamidine-dihydrochloride (1400W), as well as by the nonselective NOS inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). L-NAME and 1400W also reduced the number of BALF eosinophils (37.2% and 61.5%, respectively, as compared with the control value), suggesting that NO production by NOS II contributes to eosinophil recruitment. To further examine the role of eosinophils, we pretreated additional mice with an anti-interleukin (IL)-5 antibody, which reduced BALF eosinophilia following OVA challenge by 90.1%. In concert with the decrease in eosinophils, the anti-IL-5 antibody reduced NO(x) in BALF almost to the baseline value, and decreased the number of 3NT-positive cells in the peribronchial region by 74.4%. Western blot analysis of protein extracted from whole lung confirmed the reduction in tyrosine nitration by anti-IL-5 antibody. These findings indicate that NO and eosinophilic inflammation are closely coupled, and suggest that eosinophils are an important source of tyrosine nitration. PMID:11316664

  9. Genetic predispositions to childhood leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Stieglitz, Elliot

    2013-01-01

    While the majority of leukemia cases occur in the absence of any known predisposing factor, there are germline mutations that significantly increase the risk of developing hematopoietic malignancies in childhood. In this review article, we describe a number of these mutations and their clinical features. These predispositions can be broadly classified as those leading to bone marrow failure, those involving tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair defects, immunodeficiencies or other congenital syndromes associated with transient myeloid disorders. While leukemia can develop as a secondary event in the aforementioned syndromes, there are also several syndromes that specifically lead to the development of leukemia as their primary phenotype. Many of the genes discussed in this review can also be somatically mutated in other cancers, highlighting the importance of understanding shared alterations and mechanisms underpinning syndromic and sporadic leukemia. PMID:23926459

  10. Emergencies in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Frankfurt; Martin S. Tallman

    The clinical presentation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may range from nonspecific symptoms such as progressive malaise,\\u000a fever, and fatigue to severe life-threatening manifestations, requiring immediate medical intervention.

  11. How Is Childhood Leukemia Classified?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in immature forms of cells that make platelets. World Health Organization (WHO) classification of AML The FAB ... phases, but a common system (proposed by the World Health Organization) is described below. If the leukemia ...

  12. Management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ghia, Paolo; Hallek, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia has undergone profound changes that have been driven by an improved understanding of the biology of the disease and the approval of several new drugs. Moreover, many novel drugs are currently under evaluation for rapid approval or have been approved by regulatory agencies, further broadening the available therapeutic armamentarium for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The use of novel biological and genetic parameters combined with a careful clinical evaluation allows us to dissect some of the heterogeneity of the disease and to distinguish patients with a very mild onset and course, who often will not need any treatment, from those with an intermediate prognosis and a third group with a very aggressive course (high-risk leukemia). On this background, it becomes increasingly challenging to select the right treatment strategy. In this paper, we describe our own approach to the management of different patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:24881042

  13. Unusual presentation of eosinophilic fasciitis: two case reports and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon disorder with unknown etiology and a poorly understood pathogenesis. We present the cases of two patients with eosinophilic fasciitis with unusual presentation, and describe the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings related to them. Case presentation The first case involves a 29-year-old Turkish man admitted with pain, edema and induration of his right-upper and left-lower limbs. Unilateral edema and stiffness with prominent pretibial edema was noted upon physical examination. A high eosinophil count was found on the peripheral smear. The second case involves a 63-year-old Turkish man who had pain, edema, erythema, and itching on his upper and lower extremities, which developed after strenuous physical activity. He had cervical lymphadenopathy and polyarthritis upon physical examination, and rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody upon laboratory examination. Conclusion Eosinophilic fasciitis can present with various symptoms. When patients exhibit eosinophilia, arthralgia and myalgia, eosinophilic fasciitis should be considered as a possible diagnosis. PMID:20181119

  14. Reference ranges for induced sputum eosinophil counts in Korean adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Tae-Wan; Hur, Gyu-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Bum; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Park, Hae-Sim; Min, Kyung-Up

    2014-01-01

    Background Induced sputum analyses are widely utilized to evaluate airway inflammation in asthmatics. However, the values have not been examined in Korean adults. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine reference ranges for induced sputum eosinophils and their influencing factors in Korean adults. Methods A total of 208 healthy nonasthmatic adults were recruited. Sputum induction and processing followed the international standard protocols. Results Adequate sputum samples were successfully collected from 81 subjects (38.9%). The upper 90 percentile for sputum eosinophil was calculated as 3.5%. The median value of eosinophil count percentage was significantly higher in subjects with atopy than those without atopy (median, 1.6%; range, 0-11.0% vs. median, 0%; range 0-3.6%, p=0.030). However, no significant correlations were found with age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, blood eosinophil, or fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels. Conclusion Current study was the first attempt to determine the reference ranges of induced sputum eosinophils in Korean adults. The cutoff value for sputum eosinophilia was 3.5%, and was significantly associated with atopy. PMID:25097850

  15. Progress in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kadia, Tapan M; Ravandi, Farhad; O'Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2015-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Steady gains in clinical research and a renaissance of genomics in leukemia have led to improved outcomes. The recognition of tremendous heterogeneity in AML has allowed individualized treatments of specific disease entities within the context of patient age, cytogenetics, and mutational analysis. The following is a comprehensive review of the current state of AML therapy and a roadmap of our approach to these distinct disease entities. PMID:25441110

  16. Anti-IL5 decreases the number of eosinophils but not the severity of dermatitis in SHARPIN-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Renninger, Matthew L.; Seymour, Rosemarie E.; Whiteley, Laurence O.; Sundberg, John P.; HogenEsch, Harm

    2010-01-01

    Sharpin-deficient (Sharpincpdm) mutant mice develop a chronic eosinophilic dermatitis. To determine the efficacy of eosinophil-depletion in chronic inflammation, Sharpincpdm mice were treated with anti-IL5 antibodies. Mice treated with anti-IL5 had a 90% reduction of circulating eosinophils and a 50% decrease in cutaneous eosinophils after ten days compared to sham-treated littermates. Reducing the number of eosinophils resulted in increased severity of alopecia and erythema and a significant increase in epidermal thickness. Skin homogenates from mice treated with anti-IL5 had decreased mRNA expression of arylsulfatase B (Arsb), diamine oxidase (amiloride binding protein 1, also called histaminase) (Abp1), and Il10, which are mediators that eosinophils may release to quench inflammation. Skin homogenates from mice treated with anti-IL5 also had decreased mRNA expression of Il4, Il5, Ccl11, kit ligand (Kitl), and Tgfa; and increased mRNA expression of Tgfb1, Mmp12, and tenascin C (Tnc). In order to further decrease the accumulation of eosinophils, Sharpincpdm mice were crossed with IL5null mice. IL5?/?, Sharpincpdm/Sharpincpdm mice had a 98% reduction of circulating eosinophils and a 95% decrease in cutaneous eosinophils compared to IL5-sufficient Sharpincpdm mice. The severity of the lesions was similar between IL5-sufficient and IL5-deficient mice. Double mutant mice had a significant decrease in Abp1, and a significant increase in Tgfb1, Mmp12, and Tnc mRNA compared to controls. These data indicate that eosinophils are not essential for the development of dermatitis in Sharpincpdm mice and suggest that eosinophils have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles in the skin of these mice. PMID:19650867

  17. Identification of messenger RNA for IL-4 in human eosinophils with granule localization and release of the translated product.

    PubMed

    Moqbel, R; Ying, S; Barkans, J; Newman, T M; Kimmitt, P; Wakelin, M; Taborda-Barata, L; Meng, Q; Corrigan, C J; Durham, S R; Kay, A B

    1995-11-15

    Human eosinophils are cytokine-producing cells that are prominent in IgE-dependent allergic tissue reactions. IL-4 promotes the development of the Th2-type phenotype in T cells and is an essential cofactor for IgE production by B cells. We detected mRNA for IL-4 by reverse transcription-PCR in blood eosinophils from atopic asthmatics. By specific ELISA, 108 +/- 20 pg of IL-4 protein/10(6) cells could be extracted from whole cells, and approximately 30% of the IL-4 was released after incubation with serum-coated particles. Using immunocytochemistry, eosinophils from atopic asthmatics and nonatopic controls showed IL-4 immunoreactivity using an anti-IL-4 mAb. IL-4 was located predominantly in the eosinophil granules, as shown by both immunogold electron microscopy and a cell fractionation technique that dissociated cell granules from membrane and cytosolic components. IL-4 mRNA colocalized with eosinophils (using sequential immunocytochemistry with an eosinophil-specific (EG2) mAb and in situ hybridization using an IL-4-specific antisense riboprobe) in both cell cytospins from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from asthmatics as well as skin biopsies obtained from allergen-induced late phase (6-h) reactions in atopic subjects. Using double immunocytochemistry on skin biopsies with eosinophil- and IL-4-specific mAb, 83.5 +/- 3.5% of eosinophils were IL-4+. Conversely, eosinophils accounted for 46.5 +/- 3.9% of the total cells expressing IL-4 immunoreactivity. Thus, human eosinophils express mRNA for IL-4, and the translated product is contained within the crystalloid granule from which it is released after stimulation with serum-coated particles. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that eosinophils contribute to the development of the Th2 phenotype by T cells infiltrating atopic allergic reactions as well as to IgE synthesis. PMID:7594499

  18. Molecular diagnosis of lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Goud, Kalal Iravathy; Dayakar, Seetha; Prasad, S V S S; Rao, Koteshwar N; Shaik, Amina; Vanjakshi, S

    2013-01-01

    The mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene at chromosome band 11q23 is commonly involved in reciprocal translocations that is detected in acute leukemia. The MLL gene, commonly known as mixed lineage leukemia or myeloid lymphoid leukemia, has been independently identified and cloned from the 11q23 breakpoint of acute leukemia. We describe a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia whose cells had shown reciprocal translocation between short arm (p21) of chromosome 2 and long arm (q23) of chromosome number 11 [t(2;11) (p21;q23)] by cytogenetic analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) was also performed for reconfirmation with a probe for MLL which showed split signals, hybridizing to both the derivative 2 and 11 chromosomes. Our study confirmed FISH as the most suitable assay for detecting MLL rearrangements because of its sensitivity and speed. It recommended that FISH should be used as complementary to conventional cytogenetic analysis. In conclusion, evaluation of the t(2;11)(p21;q23) was done by molecular clarification and flow cytometry. PMID:24125990

  19. [Acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Döhner, K; Paschka, P; Döhner, H

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the development of novel molecular techniques has been instrumental in deciphering the genetic heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as well as in gaining important insights into the pathomechanisms of AML. Genetic diagnostics has become an essential component in the initial work-up for disease classification, prognostication, and genotype-specific therapies. A major prerequisite for such individualized treatment strategies is a rapid pretherapeutic genetic analysis, which includes screening for the recurrent AML-associated gene fusions as well as mutations in the genes NPM1, FLT3, and CEBPA. Some of these molecular markers can be used for monitoring minimal residual disease and therefore provide clinically relevant information. There is an increasing number of promising molecularly targeted therapies in clinical development for distinct genetic AML subgroups. Solid data exist for the combination of all-trans retinoic acid and arsentrioxid in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia; the addition of the immunoconjugate gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) to induction therapy has been shown to improve outcome in cytogenetic low- and intermediate-risk AML. Furthermore, there are encouraging data on the combination of intensive chemotherapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with AML harboring FLT3 mutations or with core-binding factor AML. Other novel therapeutic approaches address mutations or alterations in epigenetic regulators, such as IDH or DOT1L inhibitors. The comprehensive characterization of the underlying genetic mechanisms is essential for the development of novel target-specific compounds with the aim of improving outcome in AML patients. PMID:25787321

  20. [Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemias].

    PubMed

    Lachenaud, Julie; Strullu, Marion; Baruchel, André; Cavé, Hélène

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemias (JMML) are rare but severe myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms of infancy. They represent about 10 new cases per year in France and preferentially affect males. JMML are all stem cell diseases the common denominator of which is RAS pathway dysregulation, due to mutations in RAS (NRAS, KRAS) or RAS regulatory components (PTPN11, NF1 or CBL). This leads to an hypersensivity of myeloid progenitors to GM-CSF (granulo-macrophagic colony stimulating factor) which induces in turn excessive monocytic and macrophagic proliferation in blood and bone marrow. All organs can be infiltrated by this monocytic proliferation leading to multisystemic failure. Blast crisis with transformation into acute myeloid leukemia occurs in one third of patients. A salient feature of JMML is their frequent association with predisposition syndromes such as Noonan syndrome, neurofibromatosis and CBL syndrome, which are developmental diseases associated with a constitutional RAS pathway deregulation, now grouped under the name RASopathies. Clinical heterogeneity makes JMML diagnosis difficult. Splenomagaly is the most constant sign. Palor, adenopathy, respiratory or cutaneous symptoms can also be present. Blood smear shows monocytosis (>1×10(9)/L) presence of myeloid progenitors and abnormal basophils. The demonstration of an endogeneous in vitro growth of myeloid progenitors although not very specific can help JMML diagnosis. Nowadays, genetic typing has to be included in the workup of JMML diagnosis and allows to evidence a mutation in more than 90% of cases. JMML have a poor prognosis. The only curative treatment is bone marrow transplantation but approximately 35% of patients relapse. JMML clinical course is highly heterogeneous and unpredictable. Some rare patients have an indolent evolution or even spontaneous remission. Age over two years, thrombopenia below 33×10(9)/L and high foetal hemoglobin (HbF) level for age are poor prognosis criteria but hardly predict individual outcome. Several research directions are currently being explored to improve prognosis prediction and provide more effective targeted treatments. PMID:24691193

  1. Tipifarnib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-19

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  2. Risk-Adapted Chemotherapy in Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Standard-Risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-01

    B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  3. Eosinophils and mast cells as therapeutic targets in pediatric functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Craig A; Schurman, Jennifer V; Colombo, Jennifer M; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M

    2013-11-01

    There is an increasing appreciation for the importance of inflammation as a pathophysiologic entity that contributes to functional gastrointestinal disorders including functional dyspepsia (FD). Importantly, inflammation may serve as a mediator between psychologic and physiologic functions. This manuscript reviews the literature implicating two inflammatory cell types, mast cells and eosinophils, in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms and explores their potential as targets for the treatment of FD. There are a number of inciting events which may initiate an inflammatory response, and the subsequent recruitment and activation of mast cells and eosinophils. These include internal triggers such as stress and anxiety, as well as external triggers such as microbes and allergens. Previous studies suggest that there may be efficacy in utilizing medications directed at mast cells and eosinophils. Evidence exists to suggest that combining "anti-inflammatory" medications with other treatments targeting stress can improve the rate of symptom resolution in pediatric FD. PMID:24199024

  4. Omalizumab as a steroid-sparing agent in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Hatice; Gümü?, Seyfettin; Uçar, Ergun; Aydo?an, Mehmet; Mu?abak, U?ur; Tozkoparan, Ergun; Bilgiç, Hayati

    2012-08-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an idiopathic eosinophilic pulmonary disease characterized by an abnormal and marked accumulation of eosinophils in the lung. Common presenting complaints include cough, fever, dyspnea, wheezing, and night sweats. Common laboratory abnormalities are peripheral blood and BAL eosinophilia. The pathognomonic radiographic finding is bilateral peripheral infiltrates. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy, and dramatic improvement follows treatment. Relapses are common, and most patients require prolonged therapy. Side effects associated with chronic corticosteroid therapy must be monitored. Our case was that of a 36-year-old woman who had characteristic clinical and radiologic features. She was treated with corticosteroids but she needed prolonged therapy, and side effects occurred. Because the patient had high IgE levels and a positive skin prick test result, we used omalizumab for the treatment. The patient responded well. To our knowledge, this is the first CEP case in the literature successfully treated with omalizumab. PMID:22871762

  5. Treatment of eosinophilic meningitis with a combination of prednisolone and mebendazole.

    PubMed

    Chotmongkol, Verajit; Sawadpanitch, Kookwan; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Louhawilai, Sitichoke; Limpawattana, Panita

    2006-06-01

    To study the efficacy of the combination of prednisolone and mebendazole for the treatment of eosinophilic meningitis, we conducted a pilot study among Thai patients with eosinophilic meningitis. Patients were given a two-week course of prednisolone, 60 mg/day, and mebendazole, 10 mg/kg/day. The primary observation parameter was the number of patients who still had headaches after the two-week course of treatment. Forty-one patients were enrolled in the study. Four (10%) patients still had headaches after the two-week course of treatment and the median length of time until complete disappearance of headaches was three days. Serious side effects were not detected. Treatment for two weeks with the combination regimen of prednisolone and mebendazole is safe and beneficial in relieving headaches in patients with eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:16760531

  6. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Cancer & Tumors > Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Print A A A Text Size What's in ... child will develop acute lymphoblastic, or lymphoid, leukemia (ALL). This is the most common type of childhood ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abnormal myeloblasts (a type of white blood cell), red blood cells, or platelets. Adult acute myeloid leukemia ( ... is made mostly of fat. Leukemia may affect red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Normally, ...

  8. General Information about Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer ... Search Home Cancer Types Leukemia Patient Leukemia Patient Adult ALL Treatment Adult AML Treatment CLL Treatment CML ...

  9. General Information about Hairy Cell Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer ... Search Home Cancer Types Leukemia Patient Leukemia Patient Adult ALL Treatment Adult AML Treatment CLL Treatment CML ...

  10. General Information about Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer ... Search Home Cancer Types Leukemia Patient Leukemia Patient Adult ALL Treatment Adult AML Treatment CLL Treatment CML ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer ... Search Home Cancer Types Leukemia Patient Leukemia Patient Adult ALL Treatment Adult AML Treatment CLL Treatment CML ...

  12. [Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) with involvement of para-articular muscles and fascia].

    PubMed

    Zloczower, M; Zur Nedden, D; Helweg, G; Knapp, R; Fritsch, P

    1994-08-01

    A 62-year-old woman developed eosinophilic cellulitis of her right arm, accompanied by systemic signs (fever, leucocytosis) and massive restriction of the motility of her right shoulder joint. Sonography and computed tomography revealed massive cutaneous and subcutaneous oedema, and accumulations of fluid around the deep muscular fasciae, interstices and (less severe) within the joint. High-dose systemic corticosteroid treatment led to rapid clearing of the skin lesions, and joint motility was restored several weeks later. This is the first case of eosinophilic cellulitis in which involvement of deep structures adjacent to joints has been demonstrated by modern imaging techniques. PMID:7960756

  13. Eosinophilic meningitis - an immunophenotyping recording of a very rare clinical entity - brief Report.

    PubMed

    Adam, P; Sobek, O; Hybel'ová, M; Dolezil, D; Kasík, J; Hajduková, L; Adam, D; Svatonová, J

    2009-01-01

    A very rare clinical entity, so-called eosinophilic meningitis, classified by prevalence of eosinophils in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with the presence of pleiocytosis, has been recorded in our laboratory four times only in the last 24 years. A low glucose level, elevation of total protein and lactic acid in CSF were detected in all the clinical cases. The last two cases were made possible by using flow cytometry method; surprisingly, the presence was found in mature T-cells in CSF, predominantly helpers (CD3+, CD4+) and, practically, none is B-cells (CD19+), plasma cells (CD138+) and NK-cells. PMID:19649744

  14. Anisakis infestation: a case of acute abdomen mimicking Crohn's disease and eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Montalto, M; Miele, L; Marcheggiano, A; Santoro, L; Curigliano, V; Vastola, M; Gasbarrini, G

    2005-01-01

    Anisakiasis is a rare parasitic disease transmitted to humans by the ingestion of raw fish, which can initially present with acute abdomen. We report the case of a man, a habitual consumer of raw fish, who underwent surgery for acute abdomen, initially attributed to Crohn's disease and then later interpreted as eosinophilic enteritis. Only the subsequent careful histological examination of the surgical specimen, revealing full thickness eosinophilic infiltrate, generally typical of infestation, led to the detection of Anisakis simplex larva. In cases of acute abdomen, in the presence of a positive history of raw fish ingestion, it is therefore reasonable to consider the possibility of anisakiasis. PMID:15702862

  15. Eosinophilic Fasciitis: What Matters in Management in a Developing Country—A Case Report with Two and a Half-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Ariful; Abdal, Syed Jamil; Azad, Mohammad Abul Kalam; Ahmedullah, Abul Khair; Haq, Syed Atiqul

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon disorder of unknown aetiology and poorly-understood pathogenesis. Since 1974, over 250 cases of eosinophilic fasciitis have been reported worldwide. The first case of eosinophilic fasciitis from Bangladesh is reported here. The challenges of diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up, including family and social support, are discussed. PMID:22524129

  16. Natural history of primary eosinophilic esophagitis: a follow-up of 30 adult patients for up to 11.5 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Straumann; Hans-peter Spichtin; Leticia Grize; Kathleen A Bucher; Christoph Beglinger; Hans-uwe Simon

    2003-01-01

    Background & Aims: Primary eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic, increasingly recognized, interleukin 5-driven inflammatory disorder of the esophagus. The leading symptom in adults is uniform attacks of dysphagia, and the established histologic sign is a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. Before this study, the natural course of eosinophilic esophagitis had not been defined and information regarding potential long-term

  17. Childhood leukemia in Woburn, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, J.J.; Parker, G.S.; Rosen, S.; Prenney, B.; Healey, R.; Caldwell, G.G.

    1986-03-01

    Possible associations between environmental hazards and the occurrence of childhood leukemia were investigated in Woburn, MA, for the period 1969-79. Residents of Woburn were concerned over what they perceived to be a large number of childhood leukemia cases; at the same time there was extensive publicity about uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in Woburn, which resulted in its being placed on the Superfund list. Many believed that the elevated rate of childhood leukemia was related to these sites or to two city water wells that had been closed in 1979 when they were found to be contaminated by organic chemicals. An occurrence was defined as childhood leukemia when it was diagnosed in a Woburn resident less than 20 years old between 1969 and 1979 and confirmed by review of hospital and pathology records. This investigation confirmed an increase in incidence which was distributed uniformly over the 11-year period. Six of the persons with leukemia were located close to each other in one census tract, 7.5 times the expected number. Parents of the children and of two matched control groups were interviewed about medical history, mother's pregnancy history, school history, and environmental exposures. There were no significant differences between the leukemia victims and persons in the control groups. No leukemia sufferer had contact with a hazardous waste site. While the contaminants of Wells G and H, which had been closed, are not known leukemogens, it is not possible to rule out exposure to this water as a factor, particularly in the eastern Woburn residents.

  18. The Childhood Leukemia International Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Clavel, Jacqueline; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Petridou, Eleni; Taylor, Malcolm; Schüz, Joachim; Spector, Logan G.; Dockerty, John D.; Magnani, Corrado; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Sinnett, Daniel; Murphy, Michael; Roman, Eve; Monge, Patricia; Ezzat, Sameera; Mueller, Beth A.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Birch, Jill; Kaatsch, Peter; Koifman, Sergio; Lightfoot, Tracy; Bhatti, Parveen; Bondy, Melissa L.; Rudant, Jérémie; O’Neill, Kate; Miligi, Lucia; Dessypris, Nick; Kang, Alice Y.; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute leukemia is the most common cancer in children under 15 years of age; 80% are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 17% are acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Childhood leukemia shows further diversity based on cytogenetic and molecular characteristics, which may relate to distinct etiologies. Case–control studies conducted worldwide, particularly of ALL, have collected a wealth of data on potential risk factors and in some studies, biospecimens. There is growing evidence for the role of infectious/immunologic factors, fetal growth, and several environmental factors in the etiology of childhood ALL. The risk of childhood leukemia, like other complex diseases, is likely to be influenced both by independent and interactive effects of genes and environmental exposures. While some studies have analyzed the role of genetic variants, few have been sufficiently powered to investigate gene–environment interactions. Objectives The Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC) was established in 2007 to promote investigations of rarer exposures, gene–environment interactions and subtype-specific associations through the pooling of data from independent studies. Methods By September 2012, CLIC included 22 studies (recruitment period: 1962–present) from 12 countries, totaling approximately 31 000 cases and 50 000 controls. Of these, 19 case–control studies have collected detailed epidemiologic data, and DNA samples have been collected from children and child–parent trios in 15 and 13 of these studies, respectively. Two registry-based studies and one study comprising hospital records routinely obtained at birth and/or diagnosis have limited interview data or biospecimens. Conclusions CLIC provides a unique opportunity to fill gaps in knowledge about the role of environmental and genetic risk factors, critical windows of exposure, the effects of gene–environment interactions and associations among specific leukemia subtypes in different ethnic groups. PMID:23403126

  19. Rapidly progressive myelomonocytic leukemia (juvenile CML).

    PubMed

    Bacon, D R; Mosijczuk, A D; Humberd, Q A

    1986-01-01

    A rare type of rapidly fatal childhood leukemia, generally called juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia, is characterized by absence of the Philadelphia chromosome and a predominantly monocytic proliferation, among other features. Unlike Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukemia, this disease is neither chronic nor principally a disorder of granulocytic cell lines. A case is presented, with several clinical and laboratory parameters useful in establishing the correct diagnosis, and a change in terminology to "rapidly progressive juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia" is proposed. PMID:3473455

  20. A morphometric study of normodense and hypodense human eosinophils that are derived in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, J. P.; Hein, A.; Rothenberg, M. E.; Owen, W. F.; Soberman, R. J.; Stevens, R. L.; Austen, K. F.

    1990-01-01

    Hypodense eosinophils were obtained from two patients with the idiopathic hyperosinophilic syndrome (IHES), and hypodense eosinophils were derived by culturing normodense human eosinophils from control donors in the presence of endothelial cells alone, granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) alone, or GM-CSF and fibroblasts. These eosinophils were examined ultrastructurally and stereologically for alterations in the volume density (Vv) of their electron-dense granules, the Vv of their lucent granules, the Vv of their lipid droplets, the numerical density of their granules with respect to cytoplasm (Nv), and the plasma membrane surface area-to-cell volume ratio (Sv) that might account for their decreased sedimentation density. The hypodense eosinophils that were obtained from the two patients with IHES exhibited a one-third reduction in granule Vv relative to normodense eosinophils from control donors, primarily because of a decrease in granule size. The culture-derived hypodense eosinophils exhibited 10% to 16% decreases in their granule Vv, significant increases in their lucent granules, and a approximately 7.5% decrease in their Sv. Calculation of the cell volume from cross-sectional area measurements showed that the eosinophils that had been cocultured with fibroblasts in the presence of GM-CSF increased their volume by approximately 15%. The eosinophils that had been cocultured with endothelial cells exocytosed some of their granules. In conclusion, a composite of factors including cell swelling, a decrease in the volume of the cytoplasm occupied by granules, and an increase in granule lucency contributes to the hypodense phenotype in vitro, but only cell swelling and hypogranulation are seen in cells from patients with IHES. The latter could reflect the response of 'primed' hypodense eosinophils in vivo to pertinent tissue ligands. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:2196816

  1. Human eosinophils constitutively express multiple Th1, Th2, and immunoregulatory cytokines that are secreted rapidly and differentially

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Lisa A.; Szela, Craig T.; Perez, Sandra A. C.; Kirchhoffer, Casey L.; Neves, Josiane S.; Radke, Amy L.; Weller, Peter F.

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are innate immune leukocytes implicated in the initiation and maintenance of type 2 immune responses, including asthma and allergy. The ability to store and rapidly secrete preformed cytokines distinguishes eosinophils from most lymphocytes, which must synthesize cytokine proteins prior to secretion and may be a factor in the apparent Th2 bias of eosinophils. Multiple studies confirm that human eosinophils from atopic or hypereosinophilic donors can secrete over 30 cytokines with a varying and often opposing immune-polarizing potential. However, it remains unclear whether all of these cytokines are constitutively preformed and available for rapid secretion from eosinophils in the circulation of healthy individuals or are restricted to eosinophils from atopic donors. Likewise, the relative concentrations of cytokines stored within eosinophils have not been studied. Here, we demonstrate that human blood eosinophils are not singularly outfitted with Th2-associated cytokines but rather, constitutively store a cache of cytokines with nominal Th1, Th2, and regulatory capacities, including IL-4, IL-13, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-?, and TNF-?. We demonstrate further rapid and differential release of each cytokine in response to specific stimuli. As agonists, strong Th1 and inflammatory cytokines elicited release of Th2-promoting IL-4 but not Th1-inducing IL-12. Moreover, a large quantity of IFN-? was secreted in response to Th1, Th2, and inflammatory stimuli. Delineations of the multifarious nature of preformed eosinophil cytokines and the varied stimulus-dependent profiles of rapid cytokine secretion provide insights into the functions of human eosinophils in mediating inflammation and initiation of specific immunity. PMID:18840671

  2. [Chronic lymphatic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Manuela; Wendtner, Clemens-Martin

    2015-04-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of leukemia in the Western world. Median age at diagnosis is around 70 years. To confirm the diagnosis more than 5000 B-lymphocytes/µl need to be present. The expression of the typical surface markers CD5, CD19, CD20 and CD23 has to be confirmed by flow cytometry. A bone marrow biopsy is not mandatory for the diagnosis. Before start of treatment the assessment of 17?p deletion and/or TP53-mutational status is recommended. Treatment indications include stage Binet C or signs of an active disease as rapidly progressive lymphadenopathy or organomegaly together with physical limitation, B symptoms that cannot be tolerated, rapidly deteriorating blood values, or rapidly increasing leukocyte counts (Lymphocyte doubling time less than 6 months). The patient's physical condition has major impact on the treatment decision. Currently immunochemotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and the CD20-antibody rituximab (FCR) is the standard of care in previously untreated and physically fit patients. An alternative regimen is the combination of bendamustine and rituximab (BR) or ofatumumab. Physically compromised patients can be treated with the oral drug chlorambucil in combination with an anti-CD20 antibody. Due to high morbidity and mortality, allogeneic stem cell transplantation is limited to a small group of patients and should be discussed in a high-risk situation, such as 17?p deletion and/or TP53-mutation, lack of response to standard therapy or early relapse. Recently several new chemo-free treatment options have been introduced within clinical trials. Among them are monoclonal antibodies, most of them targeting the CD20 molecule: besides the licensed drugs rituximab and ofatumumab, obinutuzumab, in combination with chemotherapy, has recently shown high clinical efficacy in front-line treatment of elderly patients with CLL. Novel agents have been designed to block aberrant signaling from the B-cell receptor. Ibrutinib acts by inhibiting the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) while idelalisib represents a first-in-class specific inhibitor of the phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) delta isoform. Another class of drugs with potential impact for chemo-free treatment strategies in CLL is the BH3-mimetic inhibitor of the Bcl-2 family of pro-survival proteins, ABT-199. Given all these novel agents and targets, chemo-free or at least chemo-reduced concepts may become reality in the near future for our patients suffering from CLL. PMID:25826029

  3. LEADING ARTICLE Proteomic analysis of childhood leukemia

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    LEADING ARTICLE Proteomic analysis of childhood leukemia CM Hegedus1 , L Gunn1 , CF Skibola1 , L of Hematology-Oncology, Stanford, CA, USA Childhood acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemias are stratified expression profiles can discriminate between leukemia sub- types. Thus, proteome analysis similarly holds

  4. Review article Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Review article Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus I Schwartz D Lévy URA-INRA d-Alfort cedex, France (Received 16 March 1994; accepted 25 July 1994) Summary ― Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus similar to the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV). Most BLV infected animals (70

  5. Deterministic Model for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Classification

    E-print Network

    Chronopoulos, Anthony T.

    Deterministic Model for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Classification Monica Madhukar-- Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the blood and the bone marrow. Manual data analysis is time that the proposed system robustly segments and classifies Acute Myelogenous Leukemia based on complete microscopic

  6. PLASMA CELL LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    de Larrea, Carlos Fernandez; Kyle, Robert A.; Durie, Brian GM; Ludwig, Heinz; Usmani, Saad; Vesole, David H.; Hajek, Roman; Miguel, Jésus San; Sezer, Orhan; Sonneveld, Pieter; Kumar, Shaji K.; Mahindra, Anuj; Comenzo, Ray; Palumbo, Antonio; Mazumber, Amitabha; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Richardson, Paul G.; Badros, Ashraf Z.; Caers, Jo; Cavo, Michele; LeLeu, Xavier; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Chim, CS; Schots, Rik; Noeul, Amara; Fantl, Dorotea; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Landgren, Ola; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Moreau, Philippe; Fonseca, Rafael; Merlini, Giampaolo; Lahuerta, JJ; Bladé, Joan; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Shah, Jatin J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic-pathologic entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (? 20%) and absolute number (? 2 × 10 9/L) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds for diagnosis be reexamined and consensus recommendations are made for diagnosis, as well as, response and progression criteria. Induction therapy needs to begin promptly and have high clinical activity leading to rapid disease control in an effort to minimize the risk of early death. Intensive chemotherapy regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding of the pathogenesis of PCL. PMID:23288300

  7. [Chronic myelogenous leukemia].

    PubMed

    Hochhaus, A; La Rosée, P; Eigendorff, E; Ernst, T

    2015-04-01

    The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has improved the prognosis and outcome of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) considerably. Compared with imatinib, the first-line use of second-generation inhibitors nilotinib and dasatinib has led to faster and deeper molecular remissions accompanied by a differential adverse effect profile. An essential part of the management of CML patients is the guideline-based application of cytogenetics and standardized polymerase chain reaction techniques to regularly assess the remission status. Long-lasting treatment-free remission in a minority of patients led to hopes for the curability of CML in a significant minority of patients. The use of interferon alpha combined with or after TKI therapy is associated with the induction of an immune response toward the leukemic clone. This innovative treatment approach is currently under prospective investigation to improve long-term response. The coordinated cooperation of academic and regional hospitals, office-based hematologists, laboratories, and patient representatives allows for up-to-date patient care and the early use of new therapeutic options in patients at risk. PMID:25860113

  8. [Hypocellular acute leukemia].

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, M

    1995-05-01

    To establish diagnostic criteria for hypocellular acute leukemia (HL) 32 cases (mean age 67) with 40% or less bone marrow cellularity were analysed and compared with 40 cases of MDS, 27 cases of AML in the elderly (60 > or = ) and 39 cases of AML in the young (60 <). The mean bone marrow cellularity was 30% in HL, 85% in MDS, 87% in elderly AML and 95% in young AML, respectively. Thus hypocellularity was evident in HL. Blast % in bone marrow of HL patients was 17-70% in all nucleated cells including lymphocytes (ANC), 36-93% in non-lymphocytic cells (NLC) and 50% or more in all cases in non-erythroid/non-lymphocytic cells (NENLC). Thus maturation arrest of blast cells was evident in HL, which corresponds to that of overt AML. Out of 20 cases treated with low-dose ara-C 13 cases (65%) achieved complete remission, but most of them relapsed early by manifesting hypocellular bone marrow again. In conclusion HL is a distinct clinical subtype of AML in the elderly, which can be clearly defined by 40% or less cellularity and 30% or more blasts in bone marrow. PMID:7783351

  9. Decitabine With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-02

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Decitabine With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-27

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  11. Gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-like immunoreactivity in blood cells of human eosinophilic patients.

    PubMed

    Johansson, O; Virtanen, M; Hilliges, M; Hansson, L O

    1991-01-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of the peptide gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) within human polymorphonuclear leucocytes of blood from eosinophilic patients is described. The gamma-MSH immunoreactivity was observed only in neutrophilic granulocytes leaving all other cell types immuno-negative. PMID:1805488

  12. Best On-Farm Food Safety Practices: Risks Associated with Rat Lungworm and Human Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent cases of eosinophilic meningitis in Hawai’i have drawn attention to a food-borne parasitic infection that occurs in Hawai‘i, the Pacific Islands, southern and eastern Asia, and elsewhere. In late 2008, the Hawai‘i Department of Health reported that four people on the island of Hawai‘i had bee...

  13. Histamine 1 Receptor Blockade Enhances Eosinophil-Mediated Clearance of Adult Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Ellen Mueller; Morris, Christopher P.; Hübner, Marc P.; Mitre, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Filariae are tissue-invasive nematodes that cause diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. The goal of this study was to characterize the role of histamine during Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of BALB/c mice, a murine model of filariasis. Time course studies demonstrated that while expression of histidine decarboxylase mRNA increases throughout 12 weeks of infection, serum levels of histamine exhibit two peaks—one 30 minutes after primary infection and one 8 weeks later. Interestingly, mice treated with fexofenadine, a histamine receptor 1 inhibitor, demonstrated significantly reduced worm burden in infected mice compared to untreated infected controls. Although fexofenadine-treated mice had decreased antigen-specific IgE levels as well as lower splenocyte IL-5 and IFN? production, they exhibited a greater than fourfold rise in eosinophil numbers at the tissue site where adult L. sigmodontis worms reside. Fexofenadine-mediated clearance of L. sigmodontis worms was dependent on host eosinophils, as fexofenadine did not decrease worm burdens in eosinophil-deficient dblGATA mice. These findings suggest that histamine release induced by tissue invasive helminths may aid parasite survival by diminishing eosinophilic responses. Further, these results raise the possibility that combining H1 receptor inhibitors with current anthelmintics may improve treatment efficacy for filariae and other tissue-invasive helminths. PMID:26204515

  14. [Change in the production of key cytokines for regulation eosinophilic granulocytes in Opisthorchis felineus invasion].

    PubMed

    Novitski?, V V; Riazantseva, N V; Litvinova, L S; Tkachenko, S B; Kolobovnikova, Iu V; Lepekhin, A V; Chernyshova, N P; Grigor'eva, E S; Suvorova, E V; Zima, A P

    2008-02-01

    Opisthorchis invasion is accompanied by the imbalanced lymphocytic subpopulational composition manifested itself as induction of the B-link and, on the contrary, depression of T-lymphocytic populations (CD4+, CD8+), with their weaker helper-suppressor association. The immunocompetent cells were ascertained to show a higher production of TH2 cytokines that had an eosinophil-stumulating effect. PMID:18354920

  15. A PRESUMPTIVE CASE OF TOXOCARIASIS ASSOCIATED WITH EOSINOPHILIC PLEURAL EFFUSION: CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAHI LAKSHMI ASHWATH; DONALD R. ROBINSON; HAROLD P. KATNER

    Human toxocariasis is a helminthozoonosis caused by Toxocara sp. Larval migration of the organism through the tissues can result in eosinophila associated with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. We report a case of eosinophilic pleural effusion and CD8 cell deficiency associated with Toxocara sp. The symptoms of this patient responded promptly to a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication (naproxen). This is

  16. Transcriptional regulation of human eosinophil RNases by an evolutionary- conserved sequence motif in primate genome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiu-Yu; Chang, Hao-Teng; Pai, Tun-Wen; Wu, Chung-I; Lee, Yuan-Hung; Chang, Yen-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Ling; Tang, Chuan-Yi; Chou, Wei-Yao; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2007-01-01

    Background Human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (edn) and eosinophil cationic protein (ecp) are members of a subfamily of primate ribonuclease (rnase) genes. Although they are generated by gene duplication event, distinct edn and ecp expression profile in various tissues have been reported. Results In this study, we obtained the upstream promoter sequences of several representative primate eosinophil rnases. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of a shared 34-nucleotide (nt) sequence stretch located at -81 to -48 in all edn promoters and macaque ecp promoter. Such a unique sequence motif constituted a region essential for transactivation of human edn in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay, transient transfection and scanning mutagenesis experiments allowed us to identify binding sites for two transcription factors, Myc-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ) and SV-40 protein-1 (Sp1), within the 34-nt segment. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo binding assays demonstrated a direct molecular interaction between this 34-nt region and MAZ and Sp1. Interestingly, overexpression of MAZ and Sp1 respectively repressed and enhanced edn promoter activity. The regulatory transactivation motif was mapped to the evolutionarily conserved -74/-65 region of the edn promoter, which was guanidine-rich and critical for recognition by both transcription factors. Conclusion Our results provide the first direct evidence that MAZ and Sp1 play important roles on the transcriptional activation of the human edn promoter through specific binding to a 34-nt segment present in representative primate eosinophil rnase promoters. PMID:17927842

  17. Unusual Larva in the CSF and Unique MRI Findings in a Case of Eosinophilic Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Santosh; Madi, Deepak; Pai, Shivanand; Baliga, Shrikala

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis may be caused by non-infectious and infectious agents. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the commonest causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. Rats are the primary hosts of this parasite. Humans get infected by ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked hosts (snails or monitor lizard) or food contaminated with the infective third-stage larvae. A 16-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital with history of fever, headache, and altered sensorium. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed unique findings. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed eosinophilia and the CSF wet mount identified a larva. Patient history revealed ingestion of monitor lizard 2 weeks prior to onset of symptoms. Hence, a diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis was made. He was treated with oral albendazole and steroids, resulting in gradual improvement. A. cantonensis as a cause of eosinophilic meningitis is a possibility in patients who present with headache and vomiting after eating raw meat (monitor lizard). To the best of our knowledge, this is a very rare case being reported from India where the larva was identified during the microscopic examination of the CSF. PMID:25806134

  18. Procaterol Potentiates the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Budesonide on Eosinophil Adhesion to Lung Fibroblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norihiro Yoshida; Masahiro Muraguchi; Masayuki Kamata; Katsumi Ikezono; Toyoki Mori

    2009-01-01

    Background: The interaction between leukocytes and various parenchymal cells is the first step of inflammation. Therefore, the adhesion of eosinophils to lung fibroblasts is thought to be a crucial step in the inflammatory process of asthma. Procaterol, a ?2-selective full agonist, is currently prescribed for patients with asthma. In addition to its potent bronchodilatory action, the agonist has been reported

  19. Pyodermitis of Genital Areas: An Atypical Manifestation of Eosinophilic Pustulosis of Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Plantin; H. Mairesse; Ph. Milochau; J. P. Leroy

    1998-01-01

    Eosinophilic pustulosis of the scalp was first described in 1984. It has also been described in other sites than the scalp. We report a case in which the lesions exclusively involved the genitals. A 4-month-old boy presented with papulopustular lesions of the genitals in the form of pyodermitis with a favourable course over several days but which subsequently recurred. A

  20. The glucocorticoid RU24858 does not distinguish between transrepression and transactivation in primary human eosinophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirkka Janka-Junttila; Eeva Moilanen; Hannele Hasala; Xianzhi Zhang; Ian Adcock; Hannu Kankaanranta

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids are used to treat chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Induction of eosinophil apoptosis is considered to be one of the main mechanisms behind the anti-asthmatic effect of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid binding to its receptor (GR) can have a dual effect on gene transcription. Activated GR can activate transcription (transactivation), or by interacting with other transcription factors such as

  1. Acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity associated with interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Nkanyezi N; Asarch, Adam; VanBeek, Marta; Swick, Brian L

    2013-06-01

    Acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity is not classically associated with prominent tissue eosinophilia. We present a case of acute methotrexate toxicity associated with pancytopenia and mucocutaneous erosion with interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils. A 79-year-old male, with a history of psoriasis vulgaris on methotrexate therapy, presented with blisters of the oral mucosa, groin, sacrum, and extremities after daily consumption of methotrexate. Examination revealed blisters and erosions localized to psoriatic plaques, the perineum, and the oral mucosa. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated pancytopenia, megaloblastic anemia, and elevated liver function tests. A skin biopsy of an eroded plaque revealed psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia with epidermal erosion, parakeratosis, and loss of the granular cell layer. There was an underlying band-like lymphoid infiltrate with interface dermatitis, dyskeratotic keratinocytes, and numerous eosinophils. Direct immunofluorescence studies were negative for the deposition of immunoreactants. Methotrexate was held, and the patient received leucovorin resulting in improvement of blood counts and cutaneous lesions. The histopathologic changes associated with acute mucocutaneous toxicity have been described as pauci-inflammatory erosions associated with dyskeratotic keratinocytes to interface dermatitis with necrotic keratinocytes and occasionally associated eosinophils. Although these changes are most often superimposed on psoriatic plaques, they have been reported to occur on normal skin. Therefore, the differential diagnosis may include lichen planus, a lichenoid drug eruption, or a fixed drug eruption, and given the presence of mucosal ulceration, incipient pemphigus vulgaris or paraneoplastic pemphigus vulgaris. This case illustrates that acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity may be associated with both interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils. PMID:23221488

  2. Gene transcription abnormalities in canine atopic dermatitis and related human eosinophilic allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plager, Douglas A.; Torres, Sheila M.F.; Koch, Sandra N.; Kita, Hirohito

    2015-01-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is clinically similar to human AD, implicating it as a useful model of human eosinophilic allergic disease. To identify cutaneous gene transcription changes in relatively early inflammation of canine AD, microarrays were used to monitor transcription in normal skin (n = 13) and in acute lesional AD (ALAD) and nearby visibly nonlesional AD (NLAD) skin (n = 13) from dogs. Scanning the putative abnormally transcribed genes, several potentially relevant genes, some abnormally transcribed in both NLAD and ALAD (e.g. IL6, NFAM1, MSRA, and SYK), were observed. Comparison for abnormally transcribed genes common to two related human diseases, human AD and asthmatic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (aCRSwNP), further identified genes or gene sets likely relevant to eosinophilic allergic inflammation. These included: (1) genes associated with alternatively activated monocyte-derived cells, including members of the monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) gene cluster, (2) members of the IL1 family gene cluster, (3) eosinophil-associated seven transmembrane receptor EMR1 and EMR3 genes, (4) interferon-inducible genes, and (5) keratin genes associated with hair and nail formation. Overall, numerous abnormally transcribed genes were observed only in canine AD; however, many others are common to related human eosinophilic allergic diseases and represent therapeutic targets testable in dogs with AD. PMID:22749291

  3. Gastrointestinal, Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Pathology CD34 Is Required for Infiltration of Eosinophils

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    .2353/ajpath.2010.100191) The two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative­5 Eosinophils also respond to a number of cyto- kines associated with inflammatory bowel disease, including eotaxin, which is increased in the serum of patients with inflammatory bowel disease,6 and interleu

  4. Failed Nissen fundoplication in two patients who had persistent vomiting and eosinophilic esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris A Liacouras

    1997-01-01

    The following report describes two patients who had chronic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux and persistent histological esophagitis, despite aggressive medical antireflux therapy, who continued to have esophagitis and remained symptomatic post antireflux surgery (Nissen fundoplication). Both patients demonstrated a severe eosinophilic esophagitis with normal gastric and duodenal histology before and after surgery. Postoperatively, each received the diagnosis of allergic enteritis

  5. Infection and childhood leukemia: review of evidence

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Raquel da Rocha Paiva; Wünsch, Victor

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze studies that evaluated the role of infections as well as indirect measures of exposure to infection in the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS A search in Medline, Lilacs, and SciELO scientific publication databases initially using the descriptors "childhood leukemia" and "infection" and later searching for the words "childhood leukemia" and "maternal infection or disease" or "breastfeeding" or "daycare attendance" or "vaccination" resulted in 62 publications that met the following inclusion criteria: subject aged ? 15 years; specific analysis of cases diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or total leukemia; exposure assessment of mothers' or infants' to infections (or proxy of infection), and risk of leukemia. RESULTS Overall, 23 studies that assessed infections in children support the hypothesis that occurrence of infection during early childhood reduces the risk of leukemia, but there are disagreements within and between studies. The evaluation of exposure to infection by indirect measures showed evidence of reduced risk of leukemia associated mainly with daycare attendance. More than 50.0% of the 16 studies that assessed maternal exposure to infection observed increased risk of leukemia associated with episodes of influenza, pneumonia, chickenpox, herpes zoster, lower genital tract infection, skin disease, sexually transmitted diseases, Epstein-Barr virus, and Helicobacter pylori. CONCLUSIONS Although no specific infectious agent has been identified, scientific evidence suggests that exposure to infections has some effect on childhood leukemia etiology. PMID:24626555

  6. Pomalidomide After Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-06

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  7. Leukemia cutis presenting as a scrotal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Zax, R H; Kulp-Shorten, C L; Callen, J P

    1989-08-01

    A patient with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia developed a painful scrotal ulcer thought initially to be caused by infection. The lesion failed to heal with oral antibiotic therapy and local wound care. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen revealed an infiltrate of leukemic cells. This cutaneous lesion heralded the relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia. A review of the literature indicates that acute nonlymphocytic leukemia rarely presents as an ulcer or on the genitalia, thus emphasizing the uniqueness of this case regarding morphology, and site of presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of leukemia cutis presenting as a scrotal ulcer. Therefore leukemia cutis should be added to the differential diagnosis of chronic genital ulcers. Also, because a variety of skin lesions may signify the relapse of leukemia, any skin lesion in a patient with leukemia should be examined by biopsy. PMID:2754075

  8. Tethered confocal endomicroscopy capsule for diagnosis and monitoring of eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Kang, DongKyun; Wu, Tao; Kim, Minkyu; Carruth, Robert W.; Leung, John; Sauk, Jenny S; Shreffler, Wayne; Yuan, Qian; Katz, Aubrey; Nishioka, Norman S; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic condition that is characterized by eosinophils infiltrating the esophageal wall. The treatment of the disease may require multiple follow up sedated endoscopies and biopsies to confirm elimination of eosinophils. These procedures are expensive, time consuming, and may be difficult for patients to tolerate. Here we report on the development of a confocal microscopy capsule for diagnosis and monitoring of EoE. The swallowable capsule implements a high-speed fiber-based reflectance confocal microscopy technique termed Spectrally Encoded Confocal Microscopy (SECM). SECM scans the sample in one dimension without moving parts by using wavelength swept source illumination and a diffraction grating at the back plane of the objective lens. As the wavelength of the source is tuned, the SECM optics within the 7 x 30 mm capsule are rotated using a driveshaft enclosed in a 0.8 mm flexible tether. A single rotation of the optics covered a field of view of 22 mm x 223 µm. The lateral and axial resolutions of the device were measured to be 2.1 and 14 µm, respectively. Images of Acetic Acid stained swine esophagus obtained with the capsule ex vivo and in vivo clearly showed squamous epithelial nuclei, which are smaller and less reflective than eosinophils. Imaging of esophageal biopsies from EoE patients ex vivo demonstrated the capability of this technology to visualize individual eosinophils. Based on the results of this study, we believe that this capsule will be a simpler and more effective device for diagnosing EoE and monitoring the therapeutic response of this disease. PMID:24466487

  9. Plasma cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Flavio; Fonseca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare, yet aggressive plasma cell (PC) neoplasm, variant of multiple myeloma (MM), characterized by high levels of PCs circulating in the peripheral blood. PCL can either originate de novo (primary PCL) or as a secondary leukemic transformation of MM (secondary PCL). Presenting signs and symptoms are similar to those seen in MM such as renal insufficiency, hypercalcemia, lytic bone lesions, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, but can also include hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. The diagnostic evaluation of a patient with suspected PCL should include a review of the peripheral blood smear, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) with immunofixation, and protein electrophoresis of an aliquot from a 24h urine collection (UPEP). The diagnosis is made when a monoclonal population of PCs is present in the peripheral blood with an absolute PC count exceeding 2000/?L and PC comprising 20% or more of the peripheral blood white cells. The prognosis of PCL is poor with a median survival of 7 to 11 months. Survival is even shorter (2 to 7 months) when PCL occurs in the context of refractory or relapsing MM. There have been no prospective randomized trials investigating the treatment of PCL. Recommendations are primarily based upon data from small retrospective series, case reports, and extrapolation of data from patients with MM. In general, patients are treated with induction therapy followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in those who are appropriate candidates for this approach. The best induction regimen for PCL is not known and there is great variability in clinical practice. Newer agents that are being incorporated into frontline and salvage therapy for MM have also demonstrated activity in PCL such as Immunomodulatory agents and the use of bortezomib with different combinations. PMID:21295388

  10. Donor Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant With or Without Ex-Vivo Expanded Cord Blood Progenitor Cells in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-19

    Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Pancytopenia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  11. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-01

    Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1; Adult L1 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult L2 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  12. Alemtuzumab and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Untreated Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-20

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L1 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L1 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  13. Aberrant cytokine signaling in leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R A Van Etten; RA Van Etten

    2007-01-01

    Abnormalities of cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways are characteristic of all forms of leukemia: lymphoid and myeloid, acute and chronic. In normal hematopoietic cells, cytokines provide the stimulus for proliferation, survival, self-renewal, differentiation and functional activation. In leukemic cells, these pathways are usurped to subserve critical parts of the malignant program. In this review, our current knowledge of leukemic

  14. Bortezomib and Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-08

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroid Leukemia; Childhood Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Myeloid Neoplasm

  15. Studying Biomarkers in Samples From Younger Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-05

    Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4)

  16. ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xun

    ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia and mouse brain the experimental-wise false discovery rate. A human acute leukemia dataset corrected from 38 leukemia patients

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA On this page: Description Genetic ... Reviewed May 2012 What is familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA? Familial acute myeloid leukemia with ...

  18. New Decision Support Tool for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Classification

    E-print Network

    Chronopoulos, Anthony T.

    New Decision Support Tool for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Classification Monica Madhukar affected by Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. The results show that the proposed system robustly segments and classifies acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on complete microscopic blood images. Keywords: Classification

  19. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... leukemia? What should you ask your doctor about acute lymphocytic leukemia? It is important to have frank, honest discussions ... answer many of your questions. What kind of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) do I have? Do I have any ...

  20. Prognostic Factors in Childhood Leukemia (ALL or AML)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for childhood leukemias Prognostic factors in childhood leukemia (ALL or AML) Certain factors that can affect a ... myelogenous leukemia (AML). Prognostic factors for children with ALL Children with ALL are often divided into risk ...

  1. What's New in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Additional resources for chronic lymphocytic leukemia What`s new in chronic lymphocytic leukemia research and treatment? Many ... person's outlook and whether they will need treatment. New drugs for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Dozens of new ...

  2. Total Marrow and Lymphoid Irradiation and Chemotherapy Before Donor Transplant in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome or Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-08

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  3. Total Marrow and Lymphoid Irradiation and Chemotherapy Before Donor Transplant in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome or Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-14

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  4. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Lymphocytic Lymphoma, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  5. Antagonism of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2 attenuates asthma pathology in mouse eosinophilic airway inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Uller; Jesper Mosolff Mathiesen; Lisa Alenmyr; Magnus Korsgren; Trond Ulven; Thomas Högberg; Gunnar Andersson; Carl GA Persson; Evi Kostenis

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mast cell-derived prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), may contribute to eosinophilic inflammation and mucus production in allergic asthma. Chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells (CRTH2), a high affinity receptor for prostaglandin D2, mediates trafficking of TH2-cells, mast cells, and eosinophils to inflammatory sites, and has recently attracted interest as target for treatment of allergic airway diseases. The present study

  6. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of anti-interleukin-5 treatment in the management of refractory eosinophilic asthma.

    PubMed

    Hilvering, Bart; Xue, Luzheng; Pavord, Ian D

    2015-08-01

    Two recent phase III trials in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma have shown that anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) therapy with mepolizumab reduces the frequency of asthma attacks, improves symptoms and allows patients to reduce oral glucocorticoid use without loss of control of asthma. An earlier large 616 patient Dose Ranging Efficacy And safety with Mepolizumab in severe asthma (DREAM) study had shown that the only variables associated with treatment efficacy were a prior history of asthma attacks and the peripheral blood eosinophil count. The link between blood eosinophil counts and treatment efficacy is biologically obvious given that IL-5 has a pivotal role in eosinophil production, proliferation and chemotaxis. It is also clinically relevant as the blood eosinophil count is routinely measured and thus readily available in patients with asthma. Recognition of the link between airway or blood eosinophilia and treatment response was also important in the clinical testing of the alternative IL-5 blocker, such as reslizumab, which is currently being evaluated in a phase III randomized controlled trial (RCT) after having shown to improve lung function, improve symptom score and reduce sputum eosinophilia in a smaller phase IIb study. In addition, benralizumab, an IL-5? receptor blocker, has shown good effects in a phase IIb RCT with patients with severe asthma that had sputum eosinophilia and more recently in a phase IIa trial with patients with eosinophilic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Therefore anti-IL-5 treatment seems generally effective in eosinophilic asthma, either assessed by blood or airway eosinophilia. This factor together with the impressive clinical efficacy and good safety profile make anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab, reslizumab) and benralizumab (anti-IL-5 receptor ?) very promising drugs for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, a subgroup that is in desperate need of better treatments. PMID:25900924

  7. Serial Changes in Serum Eosinophil-associated Mediators between Atopic and Non-atopic Children after Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo-Hwa; Cho, Tae-shik; Moon, Jin-Hwa; Kim, Chang-Ryul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MP) is associated with the exacerbation, timing, and onset of asthma. The goal of this study was to elucidate the impact of MP on eosinophil-related hyper-reactive amplification in atopic children. Methods We studied 48 patients with MP (26 atopic, 22 non-atopic), between 3 and 12 years of age. Serial changes in blood eosinophil counts, serum interleukin-5 (IL-5), and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels were measured in atopic and non-atopic children with MP upon admission, recovery, and at 2 months post-recovery. Serum IL-5 and ECP levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays; eosinophil counts were measured using an autoanalyzer. Results Serial changes in serum IL-5, ECP, and total eosinophil counts were significantly higher in atopic patients, relative to non-atopic controls (P?0.001). Serum IL-5 and ECP levels were significantly higher in atopic patients at all three time points tested, while eosinophil counts were higher in the clinical recovery and follow-up phases, but not in the acute phase. Furthermore, among atopic patients, serum ECP levels were significantly higher in the recovery and follow-up phases than in the acute phase. Conclusions The present study demonstrated significant differences in eosinophil counts, serum IL-5, and serum ECP levels between atopic and non-atopic children with MP at admission, recovery, and 2 months after clinical recovery. These outcomes are suggestive of eosinophil-related hyperreactivity in atopic children, with this status maintained for at least 2 months after MP. PMID:25229000

  8. Recognizing familial myeloid leukemia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Nickels, Eric M.; Soodalter, Jesse; Churpek, Jane E.

    2013-01-01

    Germline testing for familial cases of myeloid leukemia in adults is becoming more common with the recognition of multiple genetic syndromes predisposing people to bone marrow disease. Currently, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments approved testing exists for several myeloid leukemia predisposition syndromes: familial platelet disorder with propensity to acute myeloid leukemia (FPD/AML), caused by mutations in RUNX1; familial AML with mutated CEBPA; familial myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia with mutated GATA2; and the inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, including dyskeratosis congenita, a disease of abnormal telomere maintenance. With the recognition of additional families with a genetic component to their leukemia, new predisposition alleles will likely be identified. We highlight how to recognize and manage these cases as well as outline the characteristics of the major known syndromes. We look forward to future research increasing our understanding of the scope of inherited myeloid leukemia syndromes. PMID:23926458

  9. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-03

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  10. A triple stain technique to evaluate monocyte, neutrophil, and eosinophil proliferation in soft agar cultures.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P G; Chikkappa, G; Brinson, P S

    1983-01-01

    A useful cytochemical technique has been developed which facilitates the identification of the types of cell aggregates which proliferate in soft agar cultures of hematopoietic stem cells. Staining of fixed agar discs for alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE), naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase (CAE) and with Luxol fast blue (LFB) in sequence results in permanent preparations in which monocytic, neutrophilic and eosinophilic aggregates can readily be distinguished on the same slide. This represents an improvement over the currently used technique which relies on the removal of a representative sample of aggregates from the agar discs for cell typing. Whole plate staining results in more accurate estimates of eosinophil growth since the frequency of occurrence of these cell aggregates is low under many of the culturing conditions used. The technique provides a useful tool for studying normal and abnormal hematopoiesis. PMID:6187590

  11. Omalizumab treatment in patient with severe asthma and Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis . A case report.

    PubMed

    Graziani, A; Quercia, O; Girelli, F; Martelli, A; Mirici Cappa, F; Stefanini, G F

    2014-11-01

    Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly named Churg Strauss Syndrome, is a multisystem disorder characterized by chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, and prominent peripheral blood eosinophilia; it is classified as a vasculitis of the small and medium sized arteries, although the vasculitis is often not clinically apparent in the initial phases of the disease. We present the case of a woman with EGPA who was frequently treated with high dose steroid therapy during hospital admission for refractory asthma. After December 2008, the date when we started Omalizumab, we observed a significative reduction of circulating eosinophils and IgE serum level, and the patient was no more hospitalized for respiratory failure or asthma attacks. PMID:25398166

  12. Endoscopic findings in patients with Schatzki rings: Evidence for an association with eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Michaela; Eckardt, Alexander J; Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette; Haas, Susanne; Gockel, Ines; Wehrmann, Till

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate endoscopic findings in patients with Schatzki rings (SRs) with a focus on evidence for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). METHODS: We consecutively approached all adult patients scheduled for elective outpatient upper endoscopy for a variety of indications at the German Diagnostic Clinic, Wiesbaden, Germany between July 2007 and July 2010. All patients with endoscopically diagnosed SRs, defined as thin, symmetrical, mucosal structures located at the esophagogastric junction, were prospectively registered. Additional endoscopic findings, clinical information and histopathological findings with a focus on esophageal eosinophilia (? 20 eosinophils/high power field) were recorded. The criteria for active EoE were defined as: (1) eosinophilic tissue infiltration ? 20 eosinophils/hpf; (2) symptoms of esophageal dysfunction; and (3) exclusion of other causes of esophageal eosinophilia. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was excluded by proton pump inhibitor treatment prior to endoscopy. The presence of ? 20 eosinophils/hpf in esophageal biopsies in patients that did not fulfil the criteria of EoE was defined as esophageal hypereosinophilia. RESULTS: A SR was diagnosed in 171 (3.3%; 128 males, 43 females, mean age 66 ± 12.9 years) of the 5163 patients that underwent upper gastrointestinal-endoscopy. Twenty of the 116 patients (17%) from whom esophageal biopsies were obtained showed histological hypereosinophilia (? 20 eosinophils/hpf). Nine of these patients (8 males, 1 female, mean age 49 ± 10 years) did not fulfill all diagnostic criteria of EoE, whereas in 11 (9%) patients with ? 20 eosinophils/hpf, a definite diagnosis of EoE was made. Three of the 11 patients (27%) with definite EoE had no suspicious endoscopic features of EoE. In contrast, in the 25 patients in whom EoE was suspected by endoscopic features, EoE was only confirmed in 7 (28%) patients. Patients with EoE were younger (mean age 41.5 ± 6.5 vs 50.5 ± 11.5 years, P = 0.012), were more likely to have a history of allergies (73% vs 29%, P = 0.007) and complained more often of dysphagia (91% vs 34%, P = 0.004) and food impaction (36% vs 6%, P = 0.007) than patients without EoE. Endoscopically, additional webs were found significantly more often in patients with EoE than in patients without EoE (36% vs 11%, P = 0.04). Furthermore, the SR had a tendency to be narrower in patients with EoE than in those without EoE (36% vs 18%, P = 0.22). The percentage of males (73% vs 72%, P = 1.0) and frequency of heartburn (27% vs 27%, P = 1.0) were not significantly different in both groups. The 9 patients with esophageal hypereosinophilia that did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria of EoE were younger (mean age 49 ± 10 years vs 58 ± 6 years, P = 0.0008) and were more likely to have a history of allergies (78% vs 24%, P = 0.003) than patients with < 20 eosinophils/hpf. Predictors of EoE were younger age, presence of dysphagia or food impaction and a history of allergies. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of patients with SRs also have EoE, which may not always be suspected according to other endoscopic features. PMID:23322994

  13. Three cases of idiopathic eosinophilic enteritis with chronic obstinate diarrhea in Japanese Black fattening cattle

    PubMed Central

    FUSHIMI, Yasuo; TAKAGI, Mitsuhiro; KAWAGUCHI, Hiroaki; MIYOSHI, Noriaki; TSUKA, Takeshi; DEGUCHI, Eisaburo

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis (EOE) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease and is characterized clinically by chronic obstinate diarrhea. Three Japanese Black (JB) fattening cattle (2 males and 1 female) on different cattle farms presented with chronic episodic diarrhea without fever or dehydration. Soft reddish spherical carneous tissues (1?3 cm) were occasionally excreted within the diarrheic feces. Administration of antibiotics, antidiarrheal drugs and vermicides had no therapeutic effect, but dexamethasone improved the fecal characteristics. The symptoms persisted until the animals were slaughtered at 27–30 months of age. Histopathological examination of the intestines revealed marked eosinophilic infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa. From these findings, we diagnosed these cattle as the first cases of EOE in JB cattle. PMID:25391396

  14. Kimura's disease with eosinophilic panniculitis - treated with cyclosporine: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Kimura's disease is a rare, benign, slow growing chronic inflammatory swelling with a predilection for the head and neck region and almost always with peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE levels. Here, we report a 25-year-old male patient with asthma, Reynaud phenomenon, eosinophilic panniculitis, bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy and peripheral blood eosinophilia. He responded initially to oral prednisolone with the subsidence of peripheral blood eosinophilia, asthma and the Reynaud phenomenon. But with tapering of prednisolone symptoms reappeared and hereby he was treated with cyclosporine. He has been symptom free for 6 months of follow up while taking cyclosporine 25 mg orally per day. Eosinophilia has resolved. This case shows that in addition to previously reported associations, Kimura disease may be associated with eosinophilic panniculitis and that cyclosporine could be effective in its treatment. PMID:20236545

  15. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: Case Report and Review in Search for Diagnostic Key Points

    PubMed Central

    López-Medina, Guillermo; Gallo, Manuel; Prado, Alejandro; Vicuña-Honorato, Iliana; Castillo Díaz de León, Roxana

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is considered an uncommon disease with a low incidence rate that remains as a diagnostic challenge for the clinician, in spite of the fact that seventy years have passed since its original description. Hereby we present the case of a 29-year-old male without history of allergies who was evaluated for unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, without relevant findings on physical examination and presenting an initial complete blood count (CBC) with severe eosinophilia. The patient was evaluated and the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed by histopathological findings. The relevance of the case resides in highlighting the lack of guidelines or consensus for histological diagnosis being virtually the only one available. To a similar extent, treatment evidence is based on case series with a reasonable number of patients and case reports.

  16. Can esophageal dilation be avoided in the treatment of severe esophageal stricture caused by eosinophilic esophagitis?

    PubMed

    Silva, D; Santos, F; Piedade, S; Morais-Almeida, M

    2015-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory immune-mediated disease with predominant eosinophilic inflammation characterized by the presence of esophageal dysfunction symptoms. Treatment delay can be associated with disease complications, like esophageal strictures, that can justify the use of invasive procedures which are not deprived of side effects. We present a case report of a 14 year old child with severe esophageal stricture secondary to EoE, that was treated with topical and systemic corticosteroid before any invasive procedure was considered. After 26 weeks of medical treatment, significant improvement of esophageal dysfunction occurred with histological remission and stricture resolution. In patients with severe esophageal strictures secondary to EoE, the need for esophageal dilation procedures should be considered only after anti-inflammatory treatment. PMID:26159479

  17. Hes1 upregulation contributes to the development of FIP1L1-PDGRA-positive leukemia in blast crisis.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Tomoyuki; Kitaura, Jiro; Nakahara, Fumio; Togami, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Daichi; Maehara, Akie; Nishimura, Koutarou; Kawabata, Kimihito C; Doki, Noriko; Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Yoshioka, Kosuke; Izawa, Kumi; Oki, Toshihiko; Sada, Akiko; Harada, Yuka; Ohashi, Kazuteru; Katayama, Yoshio; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Harada, Hironori; Kitamura, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    We have previously shown that elevated expression of Hairy enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) contributes to blast crisis transition in Bcr-Abl-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. Here we investigate whether Hes1 is involved in the development of other myeloid neoplasms. Notably, Hes1 expression was elevated in only a few cases of 65 samples with different types of myeloid neoplasms. Interestingly, elevated expression of Hes1 was found in two of five samples of Fip1-like1 platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (FIP1L1-PDGFA)-positive myeloid neoplasms associated with eosinophilia. Whereas FIP1L1-PDGFR? alone induced acute T-cell leukemia or myeloproliferative neoplasms in mouse bone marrow transplantation models, mice transplanted with bone marrow cells expressing both Hes1 and FIP1L1-PDGFR? developed acute leukemia characterized by an expansion of myeloid blasts and leukemic cells without eosinophilic granules. FIP1L1-PDGFR? conferred cytokine-independent growth to Hes1-transduced common myeloid progenitors, interleukin-3-dependent cells. Imatinib inhibited the growth of common myeloid progenitors expressing Hes1 with FIP1L1-PDGFR?, but not with imatinib-resistant FIP1L1-PDGFR? mutants harboring T674I or D842V. In contrast, ponatinib efficiently eradicated leukemic cells expressing Hes1 and the imatinib-resistant FLP1L1-PDGFR? mutant in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we have established mouse models of FIP1L1-PDGFRA-positive leukemia in myeloid blast crisis, which will help elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease and develop a new treatment for it. PMID:24486648

  18. Requirement of macrophages and eosinophils and their cytokines\\/chemokines for mammary gland development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valérie Gouon-Evans; Elaine Y Lin; Jeffrey W Pollard

    2002-01-01

    Epithelial\\/mesenchymal cell interactions are necessary for proper ductal morphogenesis throughout all stages of mammary gland development. Besides the well-established stromal components, such as adipocytes and fibroblasts, the mammary stroma is also infiltrated with migrating blood cells, mostly macrophages and eosinophils. The focus of this review is on the role of macrophages and their growth factor colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) in

  19. Phosphodiesterase IV inhibitors as therapy for eosinophil-induced lung injury in asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Torphy, T J; Barnette, M S; Hay, D W; Underwood, D C

    1994-01-01

    Asthma is a complex, multifactorial disease that is underpinned by airway inflammation. A variety of cytotoxic substances are released into the airway from infiltrating inflammatory cells, especially the eosinophil. These cytotoxic substances, including reactive oxygen metabolites, produce damage to the airway epithelium, a histologic feature of chronic asthma. Damage to the airway epithelium, in turn, is thought to be a major factor responsible for the development of airway hyperreactivity, a hallmark of asthma. One notable molecular target for novel antiasthmatic drugs is the cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) or PDE IV. This isozyme is the predominant form of cyclic nucleotide PDE activity in inflammatory cells. Thus, in view of the putative role of cyclic AMP as an inhibitory second messenger in these cells, PDE IV inhibitors have been shown to suppress inflammatory cell activity. The purpose of the present experiments was to examine the effect of the PDE IV inhibitor, R-rolipram, on three key functions of the guinea pig eosinophil: a) superoxide anion (O2-) production, b) adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and c) infiltration into the airway. R-rolipram-elevated eosinophil cyclic AMP content (EC50 = 1.7 microM) and inhibited fMLP-induced O2- production in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.3 microM). In contrast, neither siguazodan, a PDE III inhibitor, nor zaprinast, a PDE V inhibitor, had an appreciable effect. R-rolipram (30 microM) also reduced by 25 to 40% the adhesion of eosinophils to HUVECs stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or tumor necrosis factor-alpha, particularly under conditions in which both cell types were simultaneously exposed to the PDE IV inhibitor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7705312

  20. Fungal extracts detected in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis induced cytokines from the nasal polyp cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirotsu, Mikio; Shiozawa, Akihito; Ono, Noritsugu; Miwa, Masato; Kikuchi, Ken; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The role of fungi in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is still controversial. The present study was conducted to detect and identify fungal species from the nasal polyp tissues of eosinophilic and noneosinophilic CRS, and to determine the role of fungal antigens in cytokine production. Study Design Prospective study. Methods Thirty-five specimens of nasal polyps were collected from patients with CRS and examined for fungus using culture, histology, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. The secretion of 14 cytokines stimulated by fungal extracts using dispersed nasal polyp cells (DNPCs) was determined by multiplex immunoassay. Results There was no microbiological growth (including fungus) in the cultures of homogenized nasal polyps. Furthermore, Grocott methanamine silver staining for all nasal polyps showed no fungal bodies. Sixteen of 35 samples of the nasal polyps showed amplification of fungal DNA. In none of the mucosa of the sphenoid sinus was fungal DNA detected. The number of eosinophils in the nasal polyps in which fungal DNA was detected was significantly higher than in the nasal polyps in which fungal DNA was not detected (P?eosinophil-associated cytokines such as interleukine (IL)-5, IL-13, IL-17A, and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted), and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-?, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor from DNPCs. Conclusions The present study offers direct evidence supporting that fungal elements modify the inflammatory response in the nasal polyps of eosinophilic CRS. Level of Evidence: NA PMID:24615892

  1. Frequency of eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal symptoms: a single-center Turkish experience.

    PubMed

    Altun, R; Akbas, E; Y?ld?r?m, A E; Öcal, S; Korkmaz, M; Selcuk, H

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized with symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and eosinophil-predominant inflammation. There has been a dramatic increase in the diagnosis of this disease in recent years. The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency of EoE in adult patients who were evaluated by gastroenterologists in our clinic with esophageal symptoms. Between November 2010 and May 2011, 311 adult patients who were evaluated in our clinic with esophageal symptoms were enrolled prospectively. All patients underwent endoscopy and had biopsies taken. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was excluded by either proton pump inhibitory treatment or 24-hour ambulatory pH monitorization. The diagnosis was confirmed by one independent pathologist. Frequency of EoE in patients with esophageal symptoms was 2.6% (n = 8; four men and four women). Mean age at diagnosis was 40.2 ± 8 years. Heartburn was the predominant symptom in patients (75% of the patients), and 87.5% (n = 7) of patients had more than one symptom at diagnosis. Nearly 38% of the patients (n = 3) had a history of allergic disease. Endoscopic findings were as follows: transient/fixed esophageal rings (25%), white exudates (25%), and normal appearance (50%). Median number of circulating eosinophils was 208 (93-659)/mm(3) . Median number of intraepithelial eosinophils in proximal-middle 1/3 part and distal 1/3 part of esophagus were 0 (0-50)/hpf and 37 (16-50)/hpf, respectively. In conclusion, EoE is not rare in Turkey, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with esophageal symptoms. PMID:22925366

  2. Clinical characteristics and sensitivity to food and inhalants among children with eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To understand the clinical characteristics and the diagnostic procedures in pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis and to evaluate the sensitivity of the patients to food and inhalant allergens. A cross-sectional study was performed in 35 children with eosinophilic esophagitis during the time period from January 2010 to January 2011. The clinical and epidemiological data were obtained using a questionnaire and medical chart analysis. The body mass index for age was used for the nutritional evaluation (via the Z score). The sensitivity to foods and inhalants was evaluated by performing a skin prick test and atopy patch test. Results Patients (35 in total, median age 10 years) with a diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis were evaluated. The most prevalent symptoms in the patients were vomiting (71.4%) and abdominal pain (51.4%). Endoscopic alterations were observed in 97.2% of the patients. A good nutritional state was observed in 82.8% of the children. The tests demonstrated the presence of food sensitivities and/or aeroallergens in 27 (77.1%) patients, whereas 8 (22.9%) patients did not test positive in any of the tests performed. Among the patients with positive tests, 24 (68.5%) exhibited sensitivity to aeroallergens and 16 (45.7%) were sensitive to foods. The comparison between the sensitive and insensitive groups displayed statistically significant results with respect to sex, symptom prevalence, and 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Conclusions The patients evaluated in this study displayed clinical characteristics of eosinophilic esophagitis similar to those reported in the literature. The sensitivity to foods determined by the tests was less than that observed in prior studies; however, a marked sensitivity to aeroallergens was observed. The different allergen sensitivity profiles observed in this study suggests that, similar to asthma, the eosinophiic esophagitis disease may exhibit several phenotypes. PMID:24443803

  3. Sinonasal Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis: A Report of Four Cases and Review of Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reena Jain; Jennifer V. Robblee; Emerald O’Sullivan-Mejia; Jane Lea; Andrew Heller; William C. Faquin; Celeste N. Powers

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare, benign condition of unknown etiology involving the sinonasal tract and\\u000a the upper respiratory airways, and rarely, larynx, and orbit. We report four cases of EAF identified, in three women and one\\u000a man, aged 31, 57, 27, and 51 years, respectively. The patients complained of sinonasal obstructive symptoms of long duration,\\u000a nasal masses, epiphora, and\\/or

  4. Dalmeny Disease in an Alpaca ( Lama pacos ): Sarcocystosis, Eosinophilic Myositis and Abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. D La Perle; F Silveria; D. E Anderson; E. A. G Blomme

    1999-01-01

    Disseminated eosinophilic myositis was diagnosed in an alpaca that had been imported to the USA from Peru 5 years earlier. The myositis was associated with macroscopically visible large sarcocysts that were characterized histologically by septate compartments containing bradyzoites, and ultraÍstructurally by cyst walls composed of anastomosing villous protrusions. Two hours before death, the alpaca aborted an 8-month-gestation fetus, but no

  5. A randomised controlled trial of small particle inhaled steroids in refractory eosinophilic asthma (SPIRA)

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, David; Anderson, John; Reynolds, Catherine; Meakin, Garry; Bailey, Helen; Pavord, Ian; Shaw, Dominick; Harrison, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients with refractory asthma have evidence of uncontrolled eosinophilic inflammation in the distal airways. While traditional formulations of inhaled steroids settle predominantly in the large airways, newer formulations with an extra-fine particle size have a more peripheral pattern of deposition. Specifically treating distal airway inflammation may improve asthma control. Methods 30 patients with refractory asthma despite high dose inhaled corticosteroids were identified as having persistent airway eosinophilia. Following 2?weeks of prednisolone 30?mg, patients demonstrating an improvement in asthma control were randomised to receive either ciclesonide 320?µg twice daily or placebo in addition to usual maintenance therapy for 8?weeks. The primary outcome measure was sputum eosinophil count at week 8. Alveolar nitric oxide was measured as a marker of distal airway inflammation. Results There was continued suppression of differential sputum eosinophil counts with ciclesonide (median 2.3%) but not placebo (median 4.5%) though the between-group difference was not significant. When patients who had changed their maintenance prednisolone dose during the trial were excluded the difference between groups was significant (1.4% vs 4.5%, p=0.028). Though alveolar nitric oxide decreased with ciclesonide the value did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions These data demonstrate that patients with ongoing eosinophilic inflammation are not truly refractory, and that suppression of airway eosinophilia may be maintained with additional inhaled corticosteroid. Further work is needed with a focus on patient-orientated outcome measures such as exacerbation rate, with additional tests of small airway function. Trial registration number NCT01171365. Protocol available at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:25858909

  6. Activated eosinophils in upper gastrointestinal tract of patients with graft-versus-host disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjan Daneshpouy; Gerard Socie; Marc Lemann; Jacqueline Rivet; Eliane Gluckman; Anne Janin

    2010-01-01

    Digestive tract damage during graft-ver- sus-host reaction (GVHR) causes high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is of- ten late because biopsies are performed when clinical signs are severe and patho- logic markers of early inflammatory le- sions are lacking. Eosinophils are inflam- matory cells, cytotoxic in vitro to digestive epithelium; they are found in biopsy speci- mens taken during acute flare-ups

  7. Fluorescence of the natural dye saffron: Selective reaction with eosinophil leucocyte granules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara Isabel Trigoso; Juan Carlos Stockert

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of methanol-fixed chicken, rat, horse and human blood smears with saturated solutions of saffron in borate buffer at pH 10 results in a bright yellow-green fluorescence reaction of the acidophilic cytoplasm granules in mammalian eosinophils and chicken heterophils under violet-blue exciting light. Spectral characteristics of saffron (emission peak at 543 nm under 436 nm excitation) and its selective fluorescence

  8. Human Eosinophils Produce Biologically Active IL12: Implications for Control of T Cell Responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Grewe; Wolfgang Czech; Akimichi Morita; Thomas Werfel; Michaela Klammer; Alexander Kapp; Thomas Ruzicka; Erwin Schopf; Jean Krutmann

    The present study assessed the capacity of eosinophils (EOS) to synthesize the cytokine IL-12. Blood-derived, highly purified human EOS from six atopic patients and two nonatopic individuals were treated in culture with IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-mac- rophage CSF, IFN-g, TNF-a, IL-1a, RANTES, and complement 5a, respectively. The expression of both IL-12 protein and mRNAs for the p35 and p40 IL-12 subunits

  9. Kimura's disease with eosinophilic panniculitis - treated with cyclosporine: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davood Maleki; Alireza Sayyah; Mohammad Hossein Rahimi-Rad; Nasrin Gholami

    2010-01-01

    Kimura's disease is a rare, benign, slow growing chronic inflammatory swelling with a predilection for the head and neck region and almost always with peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE levels. Here, we report a 25-year-old male patient with asthma, Reynaud phenomenon, eosinophilic panniculitis, bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy and peripheral blood eosinophilia. He responded initially to oral prednisolone with the

  10. The spectrum of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis beyond infancy: a clinical series of 30 children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan R. Orenstein; Theresa M. Shalaby; Carlo Di Lorenzo; Philip E. Putnam; Luther Sigurdsson; Samuel A. Kocoshis

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Eosinophilic esophagitis, previously confused with esophageal inflammation due to gastroesophageal reflux, has recently begun to be distinguished from it. We undertook this analysis of our large series of children with the condition to clarify its spectrum: its presenting symptoms; its relation to allergy, respiratory disease, and reflux; its endoscopic and histological findings; and its diagnosis and therapy.METHODS:We analyzed the details

  11. Asian sand dust enhances ovalbumin-induced eosinophil recruitment in the alveoli and airway of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hiyoshi, Kyoko [Major of Human Care Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ichinose, Takamichi [Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Notsuharu, Oita (Japan); Sadakane, Kaori [Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Notsuharu, Oita (Japan); Takano, Hirohisa [Pathophysiology Research Team, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki Japan (Japan); Nishikawa, Masataka [Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki Japan (Japan); Mori, Ikuko [Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki Japan (Japan); Yanagisawa, Rie [Pathophysiology Research Team, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki Japan (Japan); Yoshida, Seiichi [Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Notsuharu, Oita (Japan); Kumagai, Yoshito [Major of Social and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tomura, Shigeo [Major of Human Care Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibamoto, Takayuki [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: tshibamoto@ucdavis.edu

    2005-11-15

    Asian sand dust (ASD) containing sulfate (SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}) reportedly causes adverse respiratory health effects but there is no experimental study showing the effect of ASD toward allergic respiratory diseases. The effects of ASD and ASD plus SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} toward allergic lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA) were investigated in this study. ICR mice were administered intratracheally with saline; ASD alone (sample from Shapotou desert); and ASD plus SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} (ASD-SO{sub 4}); OVA+ASD; OVA+ASD-SO{sub 4}. ASD or ASD-SO{sub 4} alone caused mild nutrophilic inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli. ASD and ASD-SO{sub 4} increased pro-inflammatory mediators, such as Keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). ASD and ASD-SO{sub 4} enhanced eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the alveoli and in the submucosa of the airway, which has a goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium. However, a further increase of eosinophils by addition of SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} was not observed. The two sand dusts synergistically increased interleukin-5 (IL-5) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), which were associated with OVA, in BALF. However, the increased levels of IL-5 were lower in the OVA+ASD-SO{sub 4} group than in the OVA+ASD group. ASD caused the adjuvant effects to specific-IgG1 production by OVA, but not to specific-IgE. These results suggest that the enhancement of eosinophil recruitment in the lung is mediated by synergistically increased IL-5 and MCP-1. IgG1 antibodies may play an important role in the enhancement of allergic reaction caused by OVA and sand dust. However, extra sulfate may not contribute to an increase of eosinophils.

  12. Oral Viscous Budesonide: A Potential New Therapy for Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seema S. Aceves; John F. Bastian; Robert O. Newbury; Ranjan Dohil

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a disorder characterized typically by pan-esophageal eosinophilia. We evaluate a palatable, long-acting topical corticosteroid preparation for the treatment of EE.STUDY DESIGN:This is a retrospective analysis of symptoms, endoscopic and histologic findings, efficacy, and safety of treatment in children with EE receiving oral viscous budesonide. Response to therapy was determined histologically by the number of eos\\/hpf. Patients

  13. Prevalence and Predictive Factors of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Patients Presenting With Dysphagia: A Prospective Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ganapathy A. Prasad; Nicholas J. Talley; Yvonne Romero; Amindra S. Arora; Lori A. Kryzer; Thomas C. Smyrk; Jeffery A. Alexander

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an increasingly recognized cause of dysphagia. We prospectively assessed the prevalence of EE using midesophageal biopsies in patients presenting with no endoscopically evident cause of dysphagia. We also aimed to determine the clinical and endoscopic factors predictive of EE in outpatients undergoing endoscopy for dysphagia.METHODS:Outpatients (18–60 yr of age) undergoing endoscopy for dysphagia at Mayo Clinic,

  14. Allergen-Specific In Vitro Cytokine Production in Adult Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Yamazaki; Joseph A. Murray; Amindra S. Arora; Jeffery A. Alexander; Thomas C. Smyrk; Joseph H. Butterfield; Hirohito Kita

    2006-01-01

    Although the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) likely involves hypersensitivity reactions against exogenous allergens, allergen-specific cellular immune responses have not been studied. We investigated allergen-induced cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in adult patients with EE (n=15) and healthy controls (HC; n=9). PBMCs were incubated with nine common food and environmental allergens or a nonspecific mitogen, and the

  15. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moraes de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Mendes, Diego da [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Melo, Christianne Bandeira [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Martins, Marco Aurélio [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Dias, Celidarque da [Laboratório de Fitoquímica, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Piuvezam, Márcia Regina, E-mail: mrpiuvezam@ltf.ufpb.br [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-15

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca{sup ++} influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine mechanisms involve inhibition of Ca{sup 2+} influx, and IL-13 and eotaxin secretion. • No significant toxicity was observed in mice orally treated with curine for 7 days. • Curine has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs.

  16. Topography Studies on the Membrane Interaction Mechanism of the Eosinophil Cationic Protein †

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Torrent; Elisabet Cuyás; Esther Carreras; Susanna Navarro; Olga López; Alfons de la Maza; M. Victòria Nogués; Yana K. Reshetnyak; Ester Boix

    2007-01-01

    The eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is an antipathogen protein involved in the host defense system. ECP displays bactericidal and membrane lytic capacities (Carreras et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 6636-6644). We have now characterized in detail the protein-membrane interaction process. All observed fluorescent parameters of the wild type and single-tryptophan-containing mutants, as well as the results of decomposition analysis of protein

  17. Rituximab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    James, Danelle F; Kipps, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    Rituximab (Rituxan; iogen Idec, San Diego, CA, USA) is a human-mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for CD20, a surface glycoprotein expressed on B lymphocytes. Administration of rituximab as a single agent to patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has limited clinical activity, but generally does not eradicate leukemia from the marrow. However, when administered in combination with chemotherapy, rituximab can improve the survival of patients relative to those treated with chemotherapy alone. As a result of this, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of rituximab in previously untreated and previously treated CD20-positive CLL in combination with fludarabine monophosphate and cyclophosphamide. The results of clinical studies evaluating the activity of rituximab when used alone or in combination with other antileukemia agents for the treatment of this disease are reviewed here. PMID:21725721

  18. [A case of repeated shunt malfunctions with eosinophilic meningitis caused by silicone allergy].

    PubMed

    Kambara, Mizuki; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Yoshikane, Tsutomu; Sugimoto, Keiji; Akiyama, Yasuhiko

    2014-12-01

    The ventricular-peritoneal shunt for hydrocephalus is a well-known and established method but is sometimes complicated by shunt malfunction due to several causes. Eosinophilic meningitis is a rare disease, but has occasionally been reported as a cause of shunt malfunction. Here, we report the case of a 74-year-old woman with repeated shunt malfunction and eosinophilic meningitis due to a silicone allergy. Originally, the patient received a ventricular-peritoneal shunt for normal pressure hydrocephalus secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, shunt malfunction was identified 6 weeks later, and the first shunt revision was performed using a new shunt system from a different company. Further evaluation to identify the cause of the shunt malfunction revealed no abnormal findings, except for eosinophilia in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. A second shunt malfunction was identified 16 weeks after the first shunt revision. We therefore concluded that eosinophilic meningitis caused by a silicone allergy might be the real culprit and a second shunt revision was performed using a silicone "extracted" tube. Since then, the patient's course has been free from shunt malfunction. In this case, the serum and cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia were useful markers for identifying the cause of repeated shunt malfunctions. The silicone "extracted" tube may be helpful for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25433060

  19. Effect of eosinophil cationic protein on human oral squamous carcinoma cell viability

    PubMed Central

    DE LIMA, PRISCILA OLIVEIRA; DOS SANTOS, FÁBIO VIEIRA; OLIVEIRA, DENISE TOSTES; DE FIGUEIREDO, ROBERTA CARVALHO; PEREIRA, MICHELE CONCEIÇÃO

    2015-01-01

    The exact function of eosinophils in cancer, particularly in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), has not yet been elucidated and the possible antitumor effect of these leukocytes is associated with the release of cytotoxic proteins, particularly eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ECP on human OSCC lines and to provide novel insights into the role of eosinophils in these tumors. The viability of the SCC-4 and SCC-25 OSCC cell lines was assessed by colorimetric assay using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The cells were plated into 96-well plates in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/Ham's nutrient mixture F12 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. After 24 h, the indicated concentration of ECP (0–10 µ M) was added to each sample. The plate was read using a microplate reader at a wavelength of 570 nm. The association between variables was estimated by linear regression analysis. There was a significant inverse association between ECP concentrations with SCC-4 (?=0.16, P=0.019) and SCC-25 cell viability (?=0.24, P=0.006). To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to investigate the effects of ECP on OSCCs and to demonstrate a significant inverse association between ECP concentrations with SCC-4 and SCC-25 cell viability. PMID:25798266

  20. [A case of eosinophilic esophagogastroenteritis which developed after rush oral immunotherapy for egg allergy].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoshihisa; Kurihara, Kazuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Rush oral immunotherapy was provided to a 9 year old boy suffering from egg allergy. The patient reached the goal of one boiled egg daily on day 22 of treatment. He was discharged from the hospital the following day, with the maintenance dose of one whole egg to be taken daily. However, the patient began to experience abdominal pain and vomiting after ingestion of egg approximately one day after discharge. Blood tests revealed a remarkable increase in eosinophils in peripheral blood, and we reduced the patient's intake of egg. The patient's condition did not improve, and he gradually started to lose weight. Maintenance dosing was stopped completely on day 38. An endoscopic biopsy of the mucosa lining from the esophagus to the duodenum was performed on day 45. The results confirmed prominent diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the entire upper gastrointestinal tract. The patient was finally diagnosed with eosinophil esophagogastroenteritis. While this condition is rare, it should be considered in future cases of persistent gastrointestinal symptoms during food allergy immunotherapy. PMID:25779063

  1. Essential role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma in eosinophil chemotaxis within acute pulmonary inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Matthew; Edwards, Matthew J; Sawicka, Elzbieta; Duggan, Nicholas; Hirsch, Emilio; Wymann, Matthias P; Owen, Charles; Trifilieff, Alexandre; Walker, Christoph; Westwick, John; Finan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We and others have established an important role for phosphoinositide-3 kinase gamma (PI3K?) in the chemotactic responses of macrophages and neutrophils. The involvement of this lipid kinase in allergic inflammatory responses is, however, yet to be fully determined. Here we compare wild-type (WT) and PI3K??/? (KO) mice within a model of ovalbumin (OVA) -specific pulmonary inflammation. Upon OVA aerosol challenge, cell influx into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid consisted of neutrophils, macrophages and, more significantly, eosinophils – which are key effector cells in allergic inflammation. Each population was reduced by up to 80% in KO mice, demonstrating a role for PI3K? in cell infiltration into the airways. The mechanism of reduced eosinophilia was analysed within both development and effector stages of the immune response. Comparable levels of OVA-specific T-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production were established in both strains. Furthermore, no significant differences between WT and KO chemokine production were observed. Having identified the critical point of PI3K? involvement, KO eosinophil chemotactic dysfunction was confirmed in vitro. These data are the first to demonstrate the vital role of PI3K? in acute allergic inflammation. The profound dependency of eosinophils on PI3K? for pulmonary influx identifies this lipid kinase as an attractive target for the pharmacological intervention of asthma. PMID:18754810

  2. Essential role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma in eosinophil chemotaxis within acute pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Matthew; Edwards, Matthew J; Sawicka, Elzbieta; Duggan, Nicholas; Hirsch, Emilio; Wymann, Matthias P; Owen, Charles; Trifilieff, Alexandre; Walker, Christoph; Westwick, John; Finan, Peter

    2009-03-01

    We and others have established an important role for phosphoinositide-3 kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma) in the chemotactic responses of macrophages and neutrophils. The involvement of this lipid kinase in allergic inflammatory responses is, however, yet to be fully determined. Here we compare wild-type (WT) and PI3Kgamma(-/-) (KO) mice within a model of ovalbumin (OVA) -specific pulmonary inflammation. Upon OVA aerosol challenge, cell influx into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid consisted of neutrophils, macrophages and, more significantly, eosinophils - which are key effector cells in allergic inflammation. Each population was reduced by up to 80% in KO mice, demonstrating a role for PI3Kgamma in cell infiltration into the airways. The mechanism of reduced eosinophilia was analysed within both development and effector stages of the immune response. Comparable levels of OVA-specific T-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production were established in both strains. Furthermore, no significant differences between WT and KO chemokine production were observed. Having identified the critical point of PI3Kgamma involvement, KO eosinophil chemotactic dysfunction was confirmed in vitro. These data are the first to demonstrate the vital role of PI3Kgamma in acute allergic inflammation. The profound dependency of eosinophils on PI3Kgamma for pulmonary influx identifies this lipid kinase as an attractive target for the pharmacological intervention of asthma. PMID:18754810

  3. A case of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia associated with phycomycetes.

    PubMed

    Grau-Roma, L; Galindo-Cardiel, I; Isidoro-Ayza, M; Fernandez, M; Majó, N

    2014-11-01

    Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia (FGESF) is a recently described inflammatory condition of domestic cats with unknown aetiology. A proportion of cases of FGESF are associated with bacteria, but antibiotic treatment is ineffective. It has been hypothesized that genetically predisposed cats may develop FGESF in response to the introduction of bacteria or other antigens into the intestinal wall. A 9- month-old male Persian cat presented with a history of marked acute haematemesis. A mass (10 cm diameter) was detected within the pylorus and proximal duodenum and this was not surgically accessible. On necropsy examination the duodenal wall was seen to be markedly thickened with extensive mucosal ulceration. Microscopically, there were haphazardly oriented trabecular bands of dense eosinophilic collagen, separated by wide, clear areas containing variable numbers of fibroblasts, eosinophils, mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Numerous pleomorphic, non-parallel walled, sparsely septate hyphae, characteristic of phycomycetes, were present within the collagen matrix. Colonies of gram-positive and gram-negative rods were also present within the lesion. This is the first description of FGESF with intralesional fungi. PMID:25444079

  4. Diagnosis of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maher Albitar; Francis J. Giles; Hagop Kantarjian

    The diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is dependent on the identification and characterization of blast cells\\u000a in peripheral blood or bone marrow. Although it is not clear why blasts have a tendency to circulate in some patients and\\u000a not in others, ALL can be reliably diagnosed using peripheral blood or bone marrow blasts when blasts are in circulation [79].

  5. Expression of mRNA for the GATA-Binding Proteins in Human Eosinophils and Basophils: Potential Role in Gene Transcription

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard I. Zon; Yuji Yamaguchi; Karen Yee; Edward A. Albee; Akira Kimura; Joshua C. Bennett; Stuart H. Orkin; Steven J. Ackerman

    1993-01-01

    The expression of the hematopoietic transcription factors GATA-1, GATA-2, and GATA-3 was studied in eosinophils and basophils. Eosinophils express mRNA for GATA-1, GATA-2, and GATA-3. Basophils express GATA-2 and GATA-3. Treatment of HL-60 eosinophilic sublines with either interleukin-5 or butyric acid increased the expres- sion of GATA-1 mRNA concomitant with the expression of OSlNOPHlLS and basophils are terminally differen- E

  6. Increased CCL24/eotaxin-2 with postnatal ozone exposure in allergen-sensitized infant monkeys is not associated with recruitment of eosinophils to airway mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Debbie L.; Gerriets, Joan E. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)] [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States) [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Miller, Lisa A., E-mail: lmiller@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Epidemiology supports a causal link between air pollutant exposure and childhood asthma, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have previously reported that ozone exposure can alter the anatomic distribution of CD25+ lymphocytes in airways of allergen-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Here, we hypothesized that ozone may also affect eosinophil trafficking to allergen-sensitized infant airways. To test this hypothesis, we measured blood, lavage, and airway mucosa eosinophils in 3-month old monkeys following cyclical ozone and house dust mite (HDM) aerosol exposures. We also determined if eotaxin family members (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) are associated with eosinophil location in response to exposures. In lavage, eosinophil numbers increased in animals exposed to ozone and/or HDM. Ozone + HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 was independent of eosinophil number for all exposure groups. In airway mucosa, eosinophils increased with exposure to HDM alone; comparatively, ozone and ozone + HDM resulted in reduced eosinophils. CCL26 mRNA and immunofluorescence staining increased in airway mucosa of HDM alone animals and correlated with eosinophil volume. In ozone + HDM animal groups, CCL24 mRNA and immunofluorescence increased along with CCR3 mRNA, but did not correlate with airway mucosa eosinophils. Cumulatively, our data indicate that ozone exposure results in a profile of airway eosinophil migration that is distinct from HDM mediated pathways. CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence of eosinophils within the airway mucosa. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ozone can modulate the localization of eosinophils in infant allergic airways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of eotaxins within the lung is affected by ozone and allergen exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCL24 induction by ozone and allergen exposure is not linked to eosinophilia.

  7. Development of a Novel Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Blood and Urinary Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin: A Preliminary Study in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junichiro Morioka; Motohiro Kurosawa; Hiroaki Inamura; Rieko Nakagami; Yutaka Mizushima; Junichi Chihara; Tatsuki Yokoseki; Sinobu Kitamura; Yoshiaki Omura; Masao Shibata

    2000-01-01

    Background: Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), also called eosinophil protein X (EPX), has been suggested to be a useful marker of eosinophilic inflammation. However, no commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for EDN is available yet. Methods: EDN was purified from pooled urine from healthy male volunteers. Polyclonal and monoclonal anti-EDN antibodies were subsequently raised, and a sandwich ELISA for EDN was

  8. Cancer-Related Symptom Clusters, Eosinophils, and Survival in Hepatobiliary Cancer: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Jennifer; Kim, Kevin H.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Unruh, Mark; Antoni, Michael; Olek, Marion C.; Geller, David A.; Carr, Brian I.; Butterfield, Lisa H.; Gamblin, T. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Context The study of symptom clusters is gaining increased attention in the field of oncology in an attempt to improve the quality of life of patients diagnosed with cancer. Objectives The aims of the present study were to: (1) determine the prevalence and distribution of pain, fatigue, and symptoms of depression and their covariation as a cluster in people with hepatobiliary carcinoma; (2) characterize how variation in each individual symptom and/or their covariation as a cluster are associated with changes in immunity; and (3) determine if the symptom clusters, and associated biomarkers, are related to survival in people diagnosed with hepatobiliary carcinoma. Methods Two hundred and six participants diagnosed with hepatobiliary carcinoma completed a battery of standardized questionnaire measuring cancer-related symptoms. Peripheral blood leukocytes were measured at diagnosis, three- and six-month follow-ups. Survival was measured from the date of diagnosis to death. Results Cancer-related symptoms were prevalent and two-step hierarchical cluster analyses yielded three clusters. High levels of pain, fatigue, and depression were found to be associated with elevated eosinophil percentages (F[1,78]=3.1, P=0.05) at three-month and six-month follow-ups using repeated measures ANOVA. Using multivariate latent growth curve modeling, pain was the primary symptom associated with elevated eosinophil percentages between diagnosis and six months (z=2.24, P=0.05). Using Cox regression, vascular invasion and age were negatively associated with survival (Chi-square=21.6, P=0.03). While stratifying for vascular invasion, Kaplan Meier survival analysis was performed and eosinophil levels above the median for the sample were found to be related to increased survival in patients with and without vascular invasion (Breslow Chi-square=4.9, P=0.03). Symptom clusters did not mediate the relationship between eosinophils and survival. Conclusion Cancer-related symptoms, particularly pain and depression, were associated with increased percentages of eosinophils. The presence of symptoms may reflect tumor cell death and be indicative of response to treatment, or other processes, in patients with hepatobiliary carcinoma. PMID:20471546

  9. Increased prevalence of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) in pediatric PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS)

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Carol J.; Ngeow, Joanne; Collins, Margaret H.; Martin, Lisa J.; Putnam, Philip E.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Marsolo, Keith; Eng, Charis; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS) are a collection of disorders caused by germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN. Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) are rare diseases characterized by food-induced, eosinophil-dominant inflammation in various segments of the gastrointestinal tract. On the basis of our clinical observations of several patients with EGID-PHTS, we investigated whether there is an association between these two disorders. Methods: Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC) Informatics for Integrating Biology & the Bedside (i2b2) warehouse was queried for the years 2007-2012 using ICD 9 codes for PTEN-related diseases; the results were cross-referenced with participants enrolled in the Cincinnati Center for Eosinophilic Disorder’s EGID database to identify patients with both disorders. Similarly, the Cleveland Clinic Genomic Medicine Institute PTEN database was queried for cases between 2005 and 2012. Inclusion criteria were age ?18 years, history of PHTS, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and/or colonoscopy with at least one histologic EGID diagnosis confirmed by a CCHMC pathologist. Pearson’s Chi-square was used to determine the odds of EGID enrichment in PHTS. Results: Of the 1,058,260 CCHMC distinct patients identified by the i2b2 search, 53 had clinical diagnoses suggestive of PHTS. Thirteen of the 53 had PTEN mutations, with 8/13 (62%) having had an EGD and/or colonoscopy. Five of the 8 had confirmed EGID. At the Cleveland Clinic, 3/75 patients with PHTS had confirmed EGID. CCHMC i2b2 query data showed a substantial enrichment of EGID in PHTS (OR=272; CI 89-831, p<0.0001). An EGID prevalence estimate from the i2b2 query supported a marked enrichment of EGID in PHTS in the Cleveland Clinic database (p<0.0001). Among the 8 subjects with EGID and PHTS, the age at EGID and PHTS diagnosis was 7.6 ± 3.2 and 7.9 ± 5.8 years, respectively. Patients with EGID-PHTS had excess eosinophils in biopsies of the esophagus (75%), stomach (38%), and colon (13%) with a notable presence of eosinophil-rich gastrointestinal polyposis (88%). Conclusion: EGID is a previously unrecognized comorbid disease in pediatric patients with PHTS. These data suggest a potential role of PTEN in contributing to EGID susceptibility. PMID:24345843

  10. Cholesterol selectively regulates IL-5 induced mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Mandy E; Esnault, Stephane; Roti Roti, Elon C; Bates, Mary E; Bertics, Paul J; Denlinger, Loren C

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils function contributes to human allergic and autoimmune diseases, many of which currently lack curative treatment. Development of more effective treatments for eosinophil-related diseases requires expanded understanding of eosinophil signaling and biology. Cell signaling requires integration of extracellular signals with intracellular responses, and is organized in part by cholesterol rich membrane microdomains (CRMMs), commonly referred to as lipid rafts. Formation of these organizational membrane domains is in turn dependent upon the amount of available cholesterol, which can fluctuate widely with a variety of disease states. We tested the hypothesis that manipulating membrane cholesterol content in primary human peripheral blood eosinophils (PBEos) would selectively alter signaling pathways that depend upon membrane-anchored signaling proteins localized within CRMMs (e.g., mitogen activated protein kinase [MAPK] pathway), while not affecting pathways that signal through soluble proteins, like the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription [JAK/STAT] pathway. Cholesterol levels were increased or decreased utilizing cholesterol-chelating methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD), which can either extract membrane cholesterol or add exogenous membrane cholesterol depending on whether M?CD is preloaded with cholesterol. Human PBEos were pretreated with M?CD (cholesterol removal) or M?CD+Cholesterol (M?CD+Chol; cholesterol delivery); subsequent IL-5-stimulated signaling and physiological endpoints were assessed. M?CD reduced membrane cholesterol in PBEos, and attenuated an IL-5-stimulated p38 and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation (p-p38, p-ERK1/2), and an IL-5-dependent increase in interleukin-1? (IL-1?) mRNA levels. In contrast, M?CD+Chol treatment elevated PBEos membrane cholesterol levels and basal p-p38, but did not alter IL-5-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, STAT5, or STAT3. Furthermore, M?CD+Chol pretreatment attenuated an IL-5-induced increase in cell survival at 48 hours, measured as total cellular metabolism. The reduction in cell survival following cholesterol addition despite unaltered STAT phosphorylation contradicts the current dogma in which JAK/STAT activation is sufficient to promote eosinophil survival, and suggests an additional, unidentified mechanism critically regulates IL-5-mediated human PBEos survival. PMID:25121926

  11. Cholesterol Selectively Regulates IL-5 Induced Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Signaling in Human Eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Mandy E.; Esnault, Stephane; Roti Roti, Elon C.; Bates, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils function contributes to human allergic and autoimmune diseases, many of which currently lack curative treatment. Development of more effective treatments for eosinophil-related diseases requires expanded understanding of eosinophil signaling and biology. Cell signaling requires integration of extracellular signals with intracellular responses, and is organized in part by cholesterol rich membrane microdomains (CRMMs), commonly referred to as lipid rafts. Formation of these organizational membrane domains is in turn dependent upon the amount of available cholesterol, which can fluctuate widely with a variety of disease states. We tested the hypothesis that manipulating membrane cholesterol content in primary human peripheral blood eosinophils (PBEos) would selectively alter signaling pathways that depend upon membrane-anchored signaling proteins localized within CRMMs (e.g., mitogen activated protein kinase [MAPK] pathway), while not affecting pathways that signal through soluble proteins, like the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription [JAK/STAT] pathway. Cholesterol levels were increased or decreased utilizing cholesterol-chelating methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD), which can either extract membrane cholesterol or add exogenous membrane cholesterol depending on whether M?CD is preloaded with cholesterol. Human PBEos were pretreated with M?CD (cholesterol removal) or M?CD+Cholesterol (M?CD+Chol; cholesterol delivery); subsequent IL-5-stimulated signaling and physiological endpoints were assessed. M?CD reduced membrane cholesterol in PBEos, and attenuated an IL-5-stimulated p38 and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation (p-p38, p-ERK1/2), and an IL-5-dependent increase in interleukin-1? (IL-1?) mRNA levels. In contrast, M?CD+Chol treatment elevated PBEos membrane cholesterol levels and basal p-p38, but did not alter IL-5-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, STAT5, or STAT3. Furthermore, M?CD+Chol pretreatment attenuated an IL-5-induced increase in cell survival at 48 hours, measured as total cellular metabolism. The reduction in cell survival following cholesterol addition despite unaltered STAT phosphorylation contradicts the current dogma in which JAK/STAT activation is sufficient to promote eosinophil survival, and suggests an additional, unidentified mechanism critically regulates IL-5-mediated human PBEos survival. PMID:25121926

  12. [Two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis in Yunann (China) clinical, epidemiological and therapeutical issues].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Barennes, H; Zhou, N; Ding, L; Zhu, Y H; Strobel, M

    2009-05-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is an uncommon clinical entity, which is mostly caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a nematode which parasitizes rat's lungs. Humans represent a dead-end in the parasite's lifecycle and become infected by ingesting snails, slugs or transport hosts. Due to uncontrolled proliferation and circulation of snails and rats, human angiostrongyliasis has emerged in new foci in continental China. The treatment, which relies upon a combination of albendazole and corticosteroids, is still a matter of debate. In order to assess the epidemiological features of two outbreaks which occurred in Kunming, capital of the Yunnan province, 2003 and 2005, along with the clinical and treatment issues, a retro-prospective study was carried out among thirty-four clinical cases of eosinophilic meningitis. Furthermore, a parasitological survey was carried out on randomized samples of snails sold in the markets of the city On admission, all cases were found to have acute headaches and an eosinophilic pleocytosis rate > 5% in the cerebro spinal fluid (CSF). All patients reported the consumption of raw snails Pomacea canaliculata, 14 days on average before the onset of headaches (range 1-30 days). Hyperesthesia due to radiculitis was observed in 68% of the cases and the meningitis syndrome was present in 41%. The average value of blood eosinophil count in CSF and in peripheral blood was 38% and 900/ml, respectively. Two treatment schedules were used (without randomization): one with progressive doses over 4 weeks; the other with immediate high doses for 10 days with 3 sessions separated by 14-day intervals. The results were compared by the Kaplan Meier log rank test. All the cases had a favorable evolution. The analysis suggested better effectiveness and tolerance of the albendazole - dexamethasone combination used at the highest dosage, namely 20mglkg daily and 10mg daily respectively. Eosinophilic meningitis appeared to be recently emerging or re-emerging in Kunming. Deep-rooted culinary habits of eating raw food, and large amount of snails sold on local markets (about one ton per day) provide ideal conditions for the outbreak, or occurrence of this disease. According to the resdjlts of this study Chinese local authorities should be urged to improve information to the population about the risks of eating raw snails, in order to strengthen the control of both rat and snail populations and reinforce the supervision of local food markets. PMID:19583024

  13. The Neurotrophins Nerve Growth Factor, Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, Neurotrophin-3, and Neurotrophin-4 Are Survival and Activation Factors for Eosinophils in Patients with Allergic Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Nassenstein, Christina; Braun, Armin; Erpenbeck, Veit Johannes; Lommatzsch, Marek; Schmidt, Stephanie; Krug, Norbert; Luttmann, Werner; Renz, Harald; Virchow, Johann Christian

    2003-01-01

    Neurotrophins (nerve growth factor [NGF], brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], neurotrophin [NT]-3, and NT-4) have been observed in elevated concentrations in allergic diseases. Neurotrophin levels are up-regulated endobronchially after allergen challenge. This coincides with an influx of activated eosinophils into the bronchial lumen. These eosinophils have an increased viability and CD69 expression 18 h after segmental allergen provocation (SAP) which is not present in peripheral blood. To investigate whether these observations are related we studied the influence of neurotrophins on eosinophil function in allergic asthma. Incubation with NGF, BDNF, NT-3, or NT-4 caused a significant increase in the viability and CD69 expression of isolated eosinophils from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) but not from peripheral blood, suggesting a unique sensitivity of endobronchial eosinophils to neurotrophins. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms expression of the neurotrophin receptors p75NTR, trkA, trkB, and trkC on eosinophils was analyzed by RT-PCR and immunocytology. After SAP expression of all neurotrophin receptors was markedly elevated on eosinophils from BALF. Our findings suggest that neurotrophin-mediated activation of bronchial eosinophils might play a role in the regulation of eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma. PMID:12900521

  14. Dasatinib, Cytarabine, and Idarubicin in Treating Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-08

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Intestinal CCL11 and eosinophilic inflammation is regulated by myeloid cell-specific RelA/p65 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Amanda; Ahrens, Richard; Tsai, Yi Ting; Sherrill, Joseph D.; Denson, Lee A.; Steinbrecher, Kris A.; Hogan, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    In inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), particularly ulcerative colitis (UC), intestinal macrophages (M?s), eosinophils and the eosinophil-selective chemokine CCL11 have been associated with disease pathogenesis. M?s, a source of CCL11, have been reported to be of a mixed classical (NF-?B-mediated) and alternatively activated (STAT-6-mediated) phenotype. The importance of NF-?B and STAT-6 pathways to the intestinal M?/CCL11 response and eosinophilic inflammation in the histopathology of experimental colitis is not yet understood. Our gene array analyses demonstrated elevated STAT-6- and NF-?B-dependent genes in pediatric UC colonic biopsies. Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) exposure induced STAT-6 and NF-?B activation in mouse intestinal F4/80+CD11b+Ly6Chi (inflammatory) M?s. DSS-induced CCL11 expression, eosinophilic inflammation and histopathology were attenuated in RelA/p65?mye mice but not in the absence of STAT-6. Deletion of p65 in myeloid cells did not affect inflammatory M? recruitment or alter apoptosis, but did attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production (IL-6) and Ccl11 expression in purified F4/80+CD11b+Ly6Chi inflammatory M?s. Molecular and cellular analyses revealed a link between expression of calprotectin (S100a8/S100a9), Ccl11 expression and eosinophil numbers in the DSS-treated colon. In vitro studies of bone marrow-derived M?s showed calprotectin-induced CCL11 production via a p65-dependent mechanism. Our results indicate that myeloid cell-specific NF-?B-dependent pathways play an unexpected role in CCL11 expression and maintenance of eosinophilic inflammation in experimental colitis. These data indicate that targeting myeloid cells and NF-?B-dependent pathways may be of therapeutic benefit for the treatment of eosinophilic inflammation and histopathology in IBD. PMID:23562811

  16. Elevated peripheral eosinophils are associated with new onset and persistent wheeze and airflow obstruction in World Trade Center exposed individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kazeros, Angeliki; Maa, Ming-Tyh; Patrawalla, Paru; Liu, Mengling; Shao, Yongzhao; Turetz, Meredith; Parsia, Sam; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee; Rogers, Linda; Reibman, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to World Trade Center (WTC) dust and fumes is associated with onset of asthma-like respiratory symptoms in rescue and recovery workers and exposed community members. Eosinophilic inflammation with increased lung and peripheral eosinophils has been described in subpopulations with asthma. We hypothesized that persistent asthma-like symptoms in WTC-exposed individuals would be associated with systemic inflammation characterized by peripheral eosinophils. Methods The WTC Environmental Health Center (EHC) is a treatment program for local residents, local workers, and clean-up workers with presumed WTC-related symptoms. Patients undergo a standardized evaluation including questionnaires and complete blood count. Between 9/2005–3/2009, 2461 individuals enrolled in the program and were available for analysis. Individuals with pre-existing respiratory symptoms or lung disease diagnoses prior to 9/11/2001 and current or significant tobacco use were excluded. Results 1508 individuals met inclusion criteria. These patients had a mean age of 47 years, were mostly female (51%) and had a diverse race/ethnicity. Respiratory symptoms that developed after WTC dust/fume exposure and remained persistent included dyspnea on exertion (68%), cough (57%), chest tightness (46%), and wheeze (33%). A larger percentage of those with wheeze had elevated peripheral eosinophils compared to those without wheeze (21% vs. 13%, p<0.0001). Individuals with elevated peripheral eosinophils were more likely to have airflow obstruction on spirometry (16% vs. 7%, p = 0.0003). Conclusions Peripheral eosinophils were associated with wheeze and reduced lung function in a diverse WTC-exposed population. These data suggest that eosinophils may participate in lung inflammation in this population with symptoms consistent with WTC-related asthma. PMID:23227974

  17. Mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of tachykinin receptor antagonists on eosinophil recruitment in an allergic pleurisy model in mice

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Ana Letícia; Pinho, Vanessa; Souza, Danielle G; Castro, Maria Salete de A; Klein, André; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2003-01-01

    The activation of tachykinin NK receptors by neuropeptides may induce the recruitment of eosinophils in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanism(s) of the action of tachykinin receptor antagonists on eosinophil recruitment in a model of allergic pleurisy in mice. Pretreatment of immunized mice with capsaicin partially prevented the recruitment of eosinophils after antigen challenge, suggesting the potential contribution of sensory nerves for the recruitment of eosinophils Local (10–50 nmol per pleural cavity) or systemic (100–300 nmol per animal) pretreatment with the tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist SR140333 prevented the recruitment of eosinophils induced by antigen challenge of immunized mice. Neither tachykinin NK2 nor NK3 receptor antagonists suppressed eosinophil recruitment. Pretreatment with SR140333 failed to prevent the antigen-induced increase of interleukin-5 concentrations in the pleural cavity. Similarly, SR140333 failed to affect the bone marrow eosinophilia observed at 48 h after antigen challenge of immunized mice. SR140333 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of antigen-induced eotaxin at 6 h after challenge. Antigen challenge of immunized mice induced a significant increase of Leucotriene B4 (LTB4) concentrations at 6 h after challenge. Pretreatment with SR140333 prevented the antigen-induced increase of LTB4 concentrations. Our data suggest an important role for NK1 receptor activation with consequent LTB4 release and eosinophil recruitment in a model of allergic pleurisy in the mouse. Tachykinins appear to be released mainly from peripheral endings of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons and may act on mast cells to facilitate antigen-driven release of LTB4. PMID:14585802

  18. Two Critical Hits for Promyelocytic Leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Zhen He; Mantu Bhaumik; Carla Tribioli; Eduardo M Rego; Sarah Ivins; Arthur Zelent; Pier Paolo Pandolfi

    2000-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is associated with chromosomal translocations that always involve the RAR? gene, which variably fuses to one of several distinct loci, including PML or PLZF (X genes). Due to the reciprocity of the translocation, X-RAR ? and RAR ?-X fusion proteins coexist in APL blasts. PLZF-RAR? transgenic mice (TM) develop leukemia that lacks the differentiation block at

  19. Advances in treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tausch, Eugen; Mertens, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent type of leukemia, affects mostly elderly CLL patients, and is incurable without allogeneic transplantation. Although classic chemo(immuno)therapy is still the standard of care for patients in need of treatment, this paradigm might change in the near future with the advent of new therapeutic agents targeting major pathogenic pathways in CLL. PMID:25165564

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Molecular recognition of acute myeloid leukemia using aptamers

    E-print Network

    Tan, Weihong

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Molecular recognition of acute myeloid leukemia using aptamers K Sefah1,2 , ZW live acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells to select a group of DNA aptamers, which can recognize AML molecular analysis of leukemia and its subcategories. Leukemia (2009) 23, 235­244; doi:10.1038/leu.2008

  1. Trisomy 13: A New Recurring Chromosome Abnormality in Acute Leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmut Dohner; Diane C. Arthur; Edward D. Ball; Robert E. Sobol; Frederick R. Davey; David Lawrence; Lawrence Gordon; Shivanand R. Patil; Rawatmal B. Surana; Joseph R. Testa; Ram S. Verma; Charles A. Schiffer; Doris H. Wurster-Hill; Clara D. Bloomfield

    1990-01-01

    A new recurring chromosome abnormality was identified in 8 of 621 consecutive successfully karyotyped adults with de novo acute leukemia. These eight patients had trisomy 13 as the sole cytogenetic abnormality. On central morpho- logic review, five cases were classified as subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia, one as acute mixed lymphoid and my- eloid leukemia, one as acute lymphoid leukemia,

  2. Veliparib and Temozolomide in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-22

    Accelerated Phase of Disease; Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA; Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Blastic Phase; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Disease; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  3. Biosampling Case Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Myelocytic Leukemia) and a Reference Population in Sierra Vista, Arizona

    E-print Network

    Biosampling Case Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Myelocytic Leukemia) and a Reference. Statistical methods E. Investigation Protocol, Biosampling of case Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Acute Myelocytic Leukemia) and a Reference Population in Sierra Vista, Arizona 2 #12;Tables 1. Selected

  4. [Dysregulation of cooperative interactions of immunocytes and eosinophils in the mechanism of development of eosinophilia in Opisthorhis felineus invasion].

    PubMed

    Litvinova, L S; Riazantseva, N V; Novitski?, V V

    2008-01-01

    The authors studied the levels of mononuclear cell production of eosinophil-specific cytokines (IL-3, IL-5), the serum levels of eotaxin by enzyme immunoassay; the expression of the eosinophilic cell receptor apparatus by flow cytofluorometry in patients with acute and chronic Opisthorchis invasion. Eosinophilia-associated Opisthorchis invasion was found to be accompanied by a pronounced change in the serum production of the key cytokine regulators of eosinophilic homeostasis (elevated IL-3 and IL-5 levels) and eotaxin by peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. There was an increase in the number of receptor structures to eosinophil-specific cytokines (IL-5R-, IL-3R-, and CCR3-positive cells) in patients with opisthorchiasis. In vitro incubation of the eosinophils, obtained from patients with opisthorchiasis, with the recombinant forms of cytokines (IL-5, IL-3, and eotaxin) demonstrated the decreased expression of IL-5 and IL-3 receptors with the normal presentation of CCR3. With the developed acute helminthiasis, the revealed changes were more pronounced than those observed in chronic Opisthorchis invasion. PMID:18819423

  5. White blood cell counts, leukocyte ratios, and eosinophils as inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. The leukocyte count has emerged as a marker of inflammation that is widely available in clinical practice. Since inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its end results, discovering new biomarkers of inflammation becomes important in order to help diagnostic accuracy and provide prognostic information about coronary cardiac disease. In acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention, elevated levels of almost all subtypes of white blood cell counts, including eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio constitute independent predictors of adverse outcomes. Eosinophil count and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio, in particular, emerge as novel biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. Since the presence of eosinophils denotes hypersensitivity inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with Kounis syndrome, this reality is essential for elucidating the etiology of inflammation in order to consider predictive and preventive measures and to apply the appropriate therapeutic methods. PMID:24770327

  6. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, CNS Tumors, Lymphoma, or T-Cell Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-04

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Gonadotroph Adenoma; Pituitary Basophilic Adenoma; Pituitary Chromophobe Adenoma; Pituitary Eosinophilic Adenoma; Prolactin Secreting Adenoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Pituitary Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; TSH Secreting Adenoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  7. Asparaginase in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kawedia, Jitesh D; Rytting, Michael E

    2014-09-01

    Cure rates in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have significantly improved over the past decades. Now, almost 90% of children will survive the disease. The cure rates in adolescents, young adults, and adults have not kept pace with the improvements in younger patients, even though almost an equal proportion of adult patients achieve complete remission as their pediatric counterparts. Differences in treatment regimens might be important. Intensive use of asparaginase has been a key component of successful pediatric therapy. In this review, we focus on the use of asparaginase and the potential of optimizing asparaginase use via monitoring to minimize adverse drug events and improve efficacy of the drug. PMID:25486949

  8. 7-Hydroxystaurosporine and Perifosine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia or High Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  9. Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Bjornsdottir, Unnur S; Halapi, Eva; Helgadottir, Anna; Sulem, Patrick; Jonsdottir, Gudrun M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Williams, Carolyn; Hui, Jennie; Beilby, John; Warrington, Nicole M; James, Alan; Palmer, Lyle J; Koppelman, Gerard H; Heinzmann, Andrea; Krueger, Marcus; Boezen, H Marike; Wheatley, Amanda; Altmuller, Janine; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Uh, Soo-Taek; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Jonsdottir, Brynja; Gislason, David; Park, Choon-Sik; Rasmussen, Linda M; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Hansen, Jakob W; Backer, Vibeke; Werge, Thomas; Janson, Christer; Jönsson, Ulla-Britt; Ng, Maggie C Y; Chan, Juliana; So, Wing Yee; Ma, Ronald; Shah, Svati H; Granger, Christopher B; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Levey, Allan I; Vaccarino, Viola; Reilly, Muredach P; Rader, Daniel J; Williams, Michael J A; van Rij, Andre M; Jones, Gregory T; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Malerba, Giovanni; Pignatti, Pier Franco; Boner, Attilio; Pescollderungg, Lydia; Girelli, Domenico; Olivieri, Oliviero; Martinelli, Nicola; Ludviksson, Bjorn R; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I; Arnar, David; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Deichmann, Klaus; Thompson, Philip J; Wjst, Matthias; Hall, Ian P; Postma, Dirkje S; Gislason, Thorarinn; Gulcher, Jeffrey; Kong, Augustine; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari

    2009-03-01

    Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses and thus have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we describe a genome-wide association scan for sequence variants affecting eosinophil counts in blood of 9,392 Icelanders. The most significant SNPs were studied further in 12,118 Europeans and 5,212 East Asians. SNPs at 2q12 (rs1420101), 2q13 (rs12619285), 3q21 (rs4857855), 5q31 (rs4143832) and 12q24 (rs3184504) reached genome-wide significance (P = 5.3 x 10(-14), 5.4 x 10(-10), 8.6 x 10(-17), 1.2 x 10(-10) and 6.5 x 10(-19), respectively). A SNP at IL1RL1 associated with asthma (P = 5.5 x 10(-12)) in a collection of ten different populations (7,996 cases and 44,890 controls). SNPs at WDR36, IL33 and MYB that showed suggestive association with eosinophil counts were also associated with atopic asthma (P = 4.2 x 10(-6), 2.2 x 10(-5) and 2.4 x 10(-4), respectively). We also found that a nonsynonymous SNP at 12q24, in SH2B3, associated significantly (P = 8.6 x 10(-8)) with myocardial infarction in six different populations (6,650 cases and 40,621 controls). PMID:19198610

  10. Distinction of eosinophilic leukaemia from idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome by analysis of Wilms' tumour gene expression.

    PubMed

    Menssen, H D; Renkl, H J; Rieder, H; Bartelt, S; Schmidt, A; Notter, M; Thiel, E

    1998-05-01

    In patients presenting with immature eosinophilic precursors it is notoriously difficult to distinguish acute eosinophilic leukaemia (EoL) from the benign idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), based on morphological, cytochemical and immunophenotyping criteria, alone. Cytogenetic analysis or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can help in discriminating between these rare haematological disorders, but often treatment decisions cannot wait for the results of these time-consuming techniques. Recently, we and others found Wilms' tumour (WT1) gene expression to be increased in virtually all patients with acute leukaemias, whereas normal haemopoietic progenitors express the WT1 gene at much lower levels or not at all. To determine whether detection of WT1 gene expression is useful to distinguish EoL from HES patients, we analysed, by RT-PCR, bone marrow or blood mononuclear cells from EoL (n=3), HES (n=3) and reactive eosinophilia patients (n = 4) for WT1 gene expression. Using our WT1-RT-PCR protocol, we found WT1 gene expression to be restricted to EoL patients. By detecting WT1 mRNA transcripts in the cerebrospinal fluid using RT-PCR, we were also able to diagnose isolated CNS-relapsed leukaemia, initially confused with bacterial meningitis, in an EoL patient. In conclusion, we show that WT1-RT-PCR is a powerful complementary diagnostic tool to distinguish acute eosinophilic leukaemia from the hypereosinophilic syndromes. This observation needs confirmation in a larger series of EoL and HES patients. PMID:9609529

  11. Solitary eosinophilic granuloma of mandibular condyle: literature review and report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Chauhan, Dinesh Singh

    2015-03-01

    Solitary eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is traditionally included as 1 of the 3 clinical manifestations of the histiocytosis-X group of diseases, which also encompasses Hand-Schuller-Christian disease and Letterer-Siwe disease. EG is the most common lesion in the spectrum of disorders under the classification of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. EG represents the monostotic form of the disease with the head and neck region representing the most common site of initial presentation. We report a rare case of solitary EG involving mandibular condyle in a 49-year-old male patient, which is the first reported case in Indian literature. PMID:25861187

  12. Stereospecificity of rolipram actions on eosinophil cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Souness, J E; Scott, L C

    1993-04-15

    The stereospecificity of rolipram inhibition of particulate cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE IV) from guinea-pig eosinophils has been investigated. (-)-Rolipram (IC50 = 0.22 +/- 0.08 microM) was 2.5-fold more potent than (+)-rolipram (IC50 = 0.58 +/- 0.05 microM) in inhibiting membrane-bound PDE IV. Solubilization of PDE IV with deoxycholate (0.5%) and NaCl (100 mM) increased rolipram stereospecificity [IC50 (-)-rolipram = 0.020 +/- 0.002 microM; IC50 (+)-rolipram = 0.33 +/- 0.07 microM]. Partial purification of this solubilized PDE IV by DEAE-trisacryl anion-exchange chromatography reduced the enantiomeric potency difference compared with the pre-chromatographed activity, with (-)-rolipram (IC50 = 0.20 +/- 0.02 microM) being only 2.9-fold more potent than (+)-rolipram (IC50 = 0.57 +/- 0.14 microM). Vanadate-glutathione complex (V-GSH) stimulated membrane-bound PDE IV activity and increased the potency of (-)-rolipram (IC50 = 0.014 +/- 0.006 microM) but not (+)-rolipram (IC50 = 0.32 +/- 0.07 microM). In intact eosinophils, (-)-rolipram (EC50 = 0.19 +/- 0.02 microM) was 10-fold more potent than (+)-rolipram (EC50 = 1.87 +/- 0.09 microM) in enhancing isoprenaline (10 microM)-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation. Strong correlations were demonstrated for displacement of [3H]rolipram binding to brain membranes by several PDE inhibitors and their inhibition of solubilized PDE IV (r = 0.98, P < 0.001, n = 7) and stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation in intact cells (r = 0.98, P < 0.001, n = 6). Rolipram was a relatively weak inhibitor of partially purified pig aortic PDE IV and only slight stereospecificity was exhibited [IC50 (-)-rolipram = 1.47 +/- 0.09 microM; IC50 (+)-rolipram = 2.73 +/- 0.38 microM]. The results indicate the presence of a partially concealed stereospecific site (Sr) on eosinophil PDE IV possibly similar to the high-affinity rolipram-binding site in brain through which rolipram can potently inhibit enzyme activity. This site, which apparently is not present on partially purified pig aortic PDE IV, is concealed in freshly prepared eosinophil membranes but is exposed by solubilization or V-GSH treatment and is important in regulating intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation in intact cells. PMID:8387267

  13. Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia purpura and eosinophilic fasciitis: a long relapsing and remitting course.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Uzair B; Eberwine, Stephen F; Hege, Kristen M

    2004-03-01

    Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia purpura (AATP) is a rare disorder of unclear etiology characterized by severe thrombocytopenia, preservation of erythroid and myeloid cell lines, and absence of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. We report herein a patient who developed eosinophilic fasciitis preceding a diagnosis of AATP. Longitudinal follow-up and treatment of this individual show a relapsing and remitting disease course which appears closely related to the dosing of cyclosporine. Later in the treatment course, dosing of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) appeared to have important beneficial contributions in the management of this patient's disease. PMID:14978695

  14. Two cases of esophageal eosinophilia: eosinophilic esophagitis or gastro-esophageal reflux disease?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Karagol, Hacer Ilbilge Ertoy; Topal, Erdem; Unlusoy, Aysel Aksu; Egritas, Odul; Gonul, Ipek Isik; Bakirtas, Arzu

    2014-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and gastroesophageal reflux disease are among the major causes of isolated esophageal eosinophilia. Isolated esophageal eosinophilia meeting criteria for EoE may respond to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. This entity is termed proton pumps inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). Gastro-esophageal reflux is thought to comprise a subgroup of patients with PPI-REE. According to the latest guidelines, PPI responsiveness distinguishes people with PPI-REE from patients having EoE (non-responders). In this report, two unusual cases with findings belonging to both EoE and PPI-REE are discussed with known and unknown facts. PMID:24987510

  15. Eosinophilic esophagitis: an emerging disease in childhood - review of diagnostic and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Alexandra; Dias, Jorge Amil

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immune/antigen mediated inflammatory disease of the esophagus. It comprises a separate entity of increasing incidence and prevalence in children and adults. The disease is characterized by histological evidence of dense esophageal tissue eosinophilia in the presence of a variety of upper GI symptoms including vomiting, dysphagia, food impaction, and odynophagia. Cornerstone of treatment is dietary intervention and/or the off-label use of swallowed topical corticosteroids. New drug therapies are under investigation. In this review, we focus on the diagnostic approach and the currently available treatment strategies. PMID:25485261

  16. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: An Emerging Disease in Childhood – Review of Diagnostic and Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, Alexandra; Dias, Jorge Amil

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immune/antigen mediated inflammatory disease of the esophagus. It comprises a separate entity of increasing incidence and prevalence in children and adults. The disease is characterized by histological evidence of dense esophageal tissue eosinophilia in the presence of a variety of upper GI symptoms including vomiting, dysphagia, food impaction, and odynophagia. Cornerstone of treatment is dietary intervention and/or the off-label use of swallowed topical corticosteroids. New drug therapies are under investigation. In this review, we focus on the diagnostic approach and the currently available treatment strategies. PMID:25485261

  17. Factors contributing to adherence to dietary treatment of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Henry, Michelle L; Atkins, Dan; Fleischer, David; Pan, Zhaoxing; Ruybal, Joseph; Furuta, Glenn T

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify barriers to dietary adherence found in the treatment of children with eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) and food allergy. A prospective study using a self-administered survey to parents of children with EGIDs at a national advocacy meeting was completed. Responses from 45 participants describing children ages 1 to 18 years (69% boys) identified that 63% were adherent to food restrictions. Physicians provided dietary instructions more often than dietitians. Nonadherence was associated with lack of school support (P?

  18. Loeffler's endocarditis and bicavity eosinophilic effusions in a dog with visceral mast cell tumour and hypereosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Harris, B J; Constantino-Casas, F; Archer, J; Herrtage, M E

    2013-11-01

    A 9-year-old crossbred dog was presented with a 2-week history of diarrhoea and tachypnoea. Marked circulating eosinophilia was identified. Pleural and abdominal effusions were detected by radiography and ultrasonography and cytological examination of these fluids revealed a predominance of eosinophils. Splenic and hepatic cytology revealed mast cell neoplasia, which was confirmed as visceral mast cell tumour on post-mortem examination. Histological changes of myocardial inflammation, necrosis and fibrosis were found. These findings are consistent with Loeffler's endocarditis. PMID:23809908

  19. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-01-01

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature. PMID:22605801

  20. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-01-01

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature. PMID:22605801

  1. Fatal acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis temporally related to use of adalimumab in a patient with relapsing polychondritis.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Rosemary; Yazici, Yusuf; Katz, Edward S; Greisman, Stewart G; Steiger, David

    2013-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) antagonists are being increasingly used as maintenance therapies for rheumatic diseases, and therefore knowledge of their adverse effects is important. We report a case of fatal acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis temporally related to use of a second course of the TNF-? antagonist, adalimumab. A 51-year-old woman with relapsing polychondritis took adalimumab 2 weeks before presenting with acute myocarditis. Within hours of presentation to the emergency department, she had cardiac arrest due to fulminant heart failure. Autopsy demonstrated necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis. This is a rare cause of fulminant heart failure. This is the first report of a TNF-? antagonist potentially associated with acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis. PMID:24048108

  2. The effects of a soluble factor released by sensitized mononuclear cells incubated with S. haematobium ova on eosinophil migration.

    PubMed Central

    Wadee, A A; Sher, R

    1980-01-01

    Incubation of sensitized mononuclear cells from patients with schistosomiasis with specific antigen containing a suspension of viable Schistosoma haematobium ova resulted in the release of a soluble factor which was chemotactic for eosinophils. Production of this substance was detectable at 24 h and demonstrated peak chemotactic activity after 2 days in culture. The chemotactic potential was dose-dependent and attracted eosinophils obtained from patients with schistosomiasis or allergic diathesis. Human neutrophil motility was unaffected by this chemoattractant. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the chemotactic factor is a heat-stable substance with peak activity associated with a molecular weight of approximately 42,000. These findings may reflect an in vitro correlate of cell-mediated immunity and may indicate a role played by the lymphocyte in the control of eosinophil function in human biology. PMID:7461720

  3. Immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jurcic, Joseph G

    2005-09-01

    Immunotherapeutic strategies have become part of standard cancer treatment. Chimeric and humanized antibodies have demonstrated activity against a variety of tumors. Although the humanized anti-CD33 antibody HuM195 has only modest activity against overt acute myeloid leukemia (AML), it can eliminate minimal residual disease in acute promyelocytic leukemia. High-dose radioimmunotherapy with b-particle-emitting isotopes targeting CD33, CD45, and CD66 can potentially allow intensification of antileukemic therapy before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Conversely, a-particle immunotherapy with isotopes such as bismuth-213 or actinium-225 offers the possibility of selective tumor cell kill while sparing surrounding normal tissues. Targeted chemotherapy with the anti-CD33- calicheamicin construct gemtuzumab ozogamicin has produced remissions in relapsed AML and appears promising when used in combination with standard chemotherapy for newly diagnosed AML. T-cell recognition of peptide antigens presented on the cell surface in combination with major histocompatibility complex antigen provides another potentially promising approach for the treatment of AML. PMID:16091194

  4. Murine eosinophils labeled with indium-111 oxine: localization to delayed hypersensitivity reactions against a schistosomal antigen and to lymphokine in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Runge, V.; English, D.; Colley, D.G.

    1983-04-01

    We have evaluated a method for quantitation of eosinophil migration to stimuli in vivo. Upon transfusion into normal syngeneic mice, 111In-labeled eosinophils had an intravascular half-life of 9.5 hr and distributed predominantly into spleen, bone marrow, and liver. In either Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice or recipients of lymphoid cells from infected mice, intradermal (ear pinna) injection of the schistosomal egg antigenic preparation (SEA) elicited time-dependent accumulation of 111In-labeled eosinophils detectable by either gamma scintillation counting of tissue samples or by nuclear medicine external imaging. Intradermal administration of a lymphokine fraction (containing eosinophil stimulation promoter activity) similarly caused accumulation of 111In-labeled eosinophils. Both reactions depended on the concentration of stimulus (SEA or lymphokine). 111In-labeled neutrophils or macrophages or 125I-albumin did not preferentially accumulate at the reactions examined to the extent found with 111In-labeled eosinophils, indicating that localization of label depends on an active process and is due to eosinophils rather than a contaminating cell type. The method was used to estimate how long eosinotactic lymphokine remained at dermal sites: 60% of initial activity was present 12 hr after injection. The model is discussed with regard to the role of lymphokines in hypersensitivity reactions with eosinophil involvement, such as the granulomatous response to S. mansoni eggs.

  5. Eosinophils control the resolution of inflammation and draining lymph node hypertrophy through the proresolving mediators and CXCL13 pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Tani, Yukako; Isobe, Yosuke; Imoto, Yuki; Segi-Nishida, Eri; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Arai, Hiroyuki; Arita, Makoto

    2014-09-01

    Resolution of inflammation is critical to restoration of tissue function after an inflammatory response. We previously demonstrated that 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX)-expressing eosinophils contribute to this process in murine zymosan-induced peritonitis. In this study, eosinophils promoted resolution by regulating expression of macrophage CXCL13. Microarray analysis revealed that eosinophils significantly increased (?3-fold) the expression of macrophage CXCL13 by a 12/15-LOX-dependent mechanism. CXCL13 depletion caused a resolution defect, with the reduced appearance of phagocytes carrying engulfed zymosan in the draining lymph nodes. Inflamed lymph node hypertrophy, a critical feature of the resolution process, was reduced by ?60% in eosinophil-deficient mice, and adoptive transfer of eosinophils or administration of CXCL13 corrected this defect. Administration of the 12/15-LOX-derived mediator lipoxin A4 (LXA4) increased the expression of CXCL13 and restored the defect of lymph node hypertrophy in eosinophil-deficient mice. These results demonstrate that eosinophils control the resolution of inflammation and draining lymph node hypertrophy through proresolving lipid mediators and the CXCL13 pathway in mice.-Tani, Y., Isobe, Y., Imoto, Y., Segi-Nishida, E., Sugimoto, Y., Arai, H., Arita, M. Eosinophils control the resolution of inflammation and draining lymph node hypertrophy through the proresolving mediators and CXCL13 pathway in mice. PMID:24891522

  6. Alvocidib, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-29

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  7. Tipifarnib and Etoposide in Treating Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed, Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  8. Small Molecule that Reverses Dexamethasone Resistance in Tcell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL)

    E-print Network

    Stockwell, Brent R.

    Small Molecule that Reverses Dexamethasone Resistance in Tcell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T are one of the most utilized and effective therapies in treating T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia lymphoblastic leukemia, dexamethasone, glucocorticoid resistance, NOTCH1 Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL

  9. S0432 Tipifarnib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-14

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-25

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  11. Omacetaxine Mepesuccinate, Cytarabine, and Decitabine in Treating Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-25

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  12. 5-Fluoro-2'-Deoxycytidine and Tetrahydrouridine in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-09

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  13. S1312, Inotuzumab Ozogamicin and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-05

    Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma

  14. Decitabine and Midostaurin in Treating Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-14

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. IgE-activated basophils regulate eosinophil tissue entry by modulating endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Laurence E; Sullivan, Brandon M; Retana, Lizett E; Allen, Christopher D C; Liang, Hong-Erh; Locksley, Richard M

    2015-04-01

    Vertebrate immunity has evolved a modular architecture in response to perturbations. Allergic inflammation represents such a module, with signature features of antigen-specific IgE and tissue eosinophilia, although the cellular and molecular circuitry coupling these responses remains unclear. Here, we use genetic and imaging approaches in models of IgE-dependent eosinophilic dermatitis to demonstrate a requisite role for basophils. After antigenic inflammation, basophils initiate transmigration like other granulocytes but, upon activation via their high-affinity IgE receptor, alter their migratory kinetics to persist at the endothelium. Prolonged basophil-endothelial interactions, in part dependent on activation of focal adhesion kinases, promote delivery of basophil-derived IL-4 to the endothelium and subsequent induction of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which is required for eosinophil accumulation. Thus, basophils are gatekeepers that link adaptive immunity with innate effector programs by altering access to tissue sites by activation-induced interactions with the endothelium. PMID:25779634

  16. Practical approach to implementing dietary therapy in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis: the Chicago experience.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, B; Bryce, P; Hirano, I; Gonsalves, N

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized by esophageal dysfunction and esophageal mucosal eosinophilia. Diet therapy is effective in the treatment of EoE in both children and adults. The role of food allergens is well established in the pathogenesis and treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis. Empiric elimination with a six-food elimination diet (avoiding milk, wheat, egg, soy, peanuts/tree nuts, and fish/shellfish) demonstrates remission in over 70% of adults with this disease. Dietary therapy in adult EoE is becoming more accepted by both patients and clinicians. Dietary therapy can be effectively implemented in clinical practice with appropriate dietary education, patient resources, and close communication with physician and clinical staff. The ability to identify specific food triggers to help tailor dietary therapy for long-term management allows for a return to consumption of most table foods. Furthermore, the diet approach avoids the need for chronic topical corticosteroid use and possible long-term side effects of these medications. The decision to proceed with dietary therapy should be decided by patient preference and available resources. A collaborative and multidisciplinary approach including gastroenterologists, allergists, nurses, and dietitians is essential in the success of this approach. PMID:24602224

  17. Involvement of interleukin-18 in the pathogenesis of human eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, Rituraj; Rajavelu, Priya; Ventateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Shukla, Jai Shankar; Zaidi, Asifa; Mariswamy, Siddesha Jalahalli; Mattner, Jochen; Fortgang, Ilana; Kowalczyk, Monika; Balart, Luis; Shukla, Anshi; Mishra, Anil

    2015-04-01

    IL-18 is induced in food allergy and EoE is food allergen-induced disease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether IL-18 is involved in food allergen-induced EoE pathogenesis. Accordingly, we examined normal SPT+ and SPT- EoE patient blood and biopsy samples for IL-18, IL-18R?, ICAM and VCAM expression. Herein, we show increased IL-18 level is highly significant in food allergen SPT+ compared to SPT- EoE patients. We also report that IL-18R?+ cells and mRNA levels are induced in the esophageal biopsies of EoE patients and blood IL-18 levels correlate with esophageal eosinophilia (P<0.01). Additionally, we report that the levels of esophageal eosinophil and mast cells correlate with ICAM expression in human EoE. Mechanistically, we show that IL-18 in vitro stimulates iNKT cells and endothelial cells and induce eosinophil active cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. We provide the evidence that IL-18 is critical cytokine involved in activation of iNKT cells and ICAM in promoting human EoE. PMID:25638412

  18. Empowering Preadolescent and Adolescent Leukemia Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kathy

    1988-01-01

    Describes effects of leukemia diagnosis and treatment for preadolescents and adolescents. Discusses strategies for social workers to assist these cancer patients in participating actively in the day-to-day management of their own care. (ABL)

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  20. Risk Groups for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... genetic conditions affect the risk of having childhood ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  1. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2 treatment phases of adult AML are: Remission induction therapy : This is the first phase of treatment. ... adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) during the remission induction phase depends on the subtype of AML and ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is made mostly of fat. Leukemia may affect red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Normally, ... one of three types of mature blood cells: Red blood cells that carry oxygen and other substances ...

  3. Treatment Options for Hairy Cell Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is made mostly of fat. Leukemia may affect red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Normally, ... one of three types of mature blood cells: Red blood cells that carry oxygen and other substances ...

  4. Treatment Options for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is made mostly of fat. Leukemia may affect red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Normally, ... one of three types of mature blood cells: Red blood cells that carry oxygen and other substances ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... type of cancer in children. Leukemia may affect red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. In ... one of three types of mature blood cells: Red blood cells that carry oxygen and other substances ...

  6. Therapeutically Targetable ALK Mutations in Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Maxson, Julia E; Davare, Monika A; Luty, Samuel B; Eide, Christopher A; Chang, Bill H; Loriaux, Marc M; Tognon, Cristina E; Bottomly, Daniel; Wilmot, Beth; McWeeney, Shannon K; Druker, Brian J; Tyner, Jeffrey W

    2015-06-01

    Genome sequencing is revealing a vast mutational landscape in leukemia, offering new opportunities for treatment with targeted therapy. Here, we identify two patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia whose tumors harbor point mutations in the ALK kinase. The mutations reside in the extracellular domain of ALK and are potently transforming in cytokine-independent cellular assays and primary mouse bone marrow colony formation studies. Strikingly, both mutations conferred sensitivity to ALK kinase inhibitors, including the FDA-approved drug crizotinib. On the basis of our results, we propose that tumors harboring ALK mutations may be therapeutically tractable for personalized treatment of certain aggressive leukemias with ALK inhibitors. Cancer Res; 75(11); 2146-50. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26032424

  7. Childhood Leukemia--A Look at the Past, the Present and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findeisen, Regina; Barber, William H.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of childhood leukemia. The causes, the survival period, different types (acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and hairy cell leukemia), symptoms, treatment, side effects of treatment (including learning problems), and the expected future direction of…

  8. Ofatumumab, Pentostatin, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-30

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  9. Bortezomib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-30

    B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  10. Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Version 2.2013

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Margaret R.; Tallman, Martin S.; Abboud, Camille N.; Altman, Jessica K.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Arber, Daniel A.; Attar, Eyal; Borate, Uma; Coutre, Steven E.; Damon, Lloyd E.; Lancet, Jeffrey; Maness, Lori J.; Marcucci, Guido; Martin, Michael G.; Millenson, Michael M.; Moore, Joseph O.; Ravandi, Farhad; Shami, Paul J.; Smith, B. Douglas; Stone, Richard M.; Strickland, Stephen A.; Wang, Eunice S.; Gregory, Kristina M.; Naganuma, Maoko

    2014-01-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize several key updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Acute Myeloid Leukemia and discuss the clinical evidence that support the recommendations. The updates described in this article focus on the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) section, featuring recommendations for additional induction/consolidation regimens in patients with low- or intermediate-risk APL, and providing guidance on maintenance strategies for APL. PMID:24029121

  11. Acute Myeloid Leukemia | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer that originates in the bone marrow from immature white blood cells known as myeloblasts. About 25% of all children with leukemia have AML. Although survival rates have increased since the 1970s, approximately half of all childhood AML cases relapse despite intensive treatment. Additional therapies following relapse are often unsuccessful and can be especially difficult and damaging for children. These patients would clearly benefit from targeted therapeutic approaches.

  12. Acute myeloid leukemia, version 2.2013.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Margaret R; Tallman, Martin S; Abboud, Camille N; Altman, Jessica K; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Arber, Daniel A; Attar, Eyal; Borate, Uma; Coutre, Steven E; Damon, Lloyd E; Lancet, Jeffrey; Maness, Lori J; Marcucci, Guido; Martin, Michael G; Millenson, Michael M; Moore, Joseph O; Ravandi, Farhad; Shami, Paul J; Smith, B Douglas; Stone, Richard M; Strickland, Stephen A; Wang, Eunice S; Gregory, Kristina M; Naganuma, Maoko

    2013-09-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize several key updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Acute Myeloid Leukemia and discuss the clinical evidence that support the recommendations. The updates described in this article focus on the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) section, featuring recommendations for additional induction/consolidation regimens in patients with low- or intermediate-risk APL, and providing guidance on maintenance strategies for APL. PMID:24029121

  13. Orbital involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Skinnider, L F; Romanchuk, K G

    1984-04-01

    In a 68-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia diagnosed on the basis of peripheral lymphocytosis, marked bilateral exophthalmos developed owing to massive orbital involvement by the disease. At the time there was no lymphadenopathy or evidence of organ infiltration. The response to radiotherapy was excellent. Orbital involvement is rare as an early clinical feature of chronic lymphocytic leukemia but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral exophthalmos in adults. PMID:6733581

  14. Cannabis Extract Treatment for Terminal Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with a Philadelphia Chromosome Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Yadvinder; Bali, Chamandeep

    2013-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the white blood cells and is typically well treated with combination chemotherapy, with a remission state after 5 years of 94% in children and 30–40% in adults. To establish how aggressive the disease is, further chromosome testing is required to determine whether the cancer is myeloblastic and involves neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils, or lymphoblastic involving B or T lymphocytes. This case study is on a 14-year-old patient diagnosed with a very aggressive form of ALL (positive for the Philadelphia chromosome mutation). A standard bone marrow transplant, aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy were revoked, with treatment being deemed a failure after 34 months. Without any other solutions provided by conventional approaches aside from palliation, the family administered cannabinoid extracts orally to the patient. Cannabinoid resin extract is used as an effective treatment for ALL with a positive Philadelphia chromosome mutation and indications of dose-dependent disease control. The clinical observation in this study revealed a rapid dose-dependent correlation. PMID:24474921

  15. Work-related leukemia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leukemia is a complex disease, which only became better understood during the last decades following the development of new laboratory techniques and diagnostic methods. Despite our improved understanding of the physiology of the disease, little is yet known about the causes of leukemia. A variety of potential risk factors have been suggested so far, including personal habits and lifestyle, and a wide range of occupational or environmental exposures. A causal association with leukemia has only been documented to date for ionizing radiation, benzene and treatment with cytostatic drugs, but there is an ongoing scientific debate on the possible association of leukemia with a number of other work-related hazards. In this article, we have reviewed scientific studies, published over the past 5 years, which investigated potential associations between leukemia and exposure to occupational risk factors. The systematic literature review took place via electronic databases, using specific search criteria, and independent reviewers have further filtered the search results to identify the number of articles, presented in our paper. A large number of studies included in the review referred to the effects of ionizing radiation, where new data suggest that the effects of exposure to small doses of ionizing radiation should probably be reevaluated. Some other works appear to substantiate a potential association of the disease with certain pesticides. Further research is also suggested regarding the role of infectious agents or exposure to certain chemicals like formaldehyde or butadiene in the pathogenesis of leukemia. PMID:23697536

  16. Trametinib and Akt Inhibitor GSK2141795 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  17. Idarubicin, Cytarabine, and Pravastatin Sodium in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-03

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. Trebananib With or Without Low-Dose Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-15

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  19. Leukemia

    Cancer.gov

    Treatment of Adolescents and Treatment of Adolescents and Young Adults with ALL Young Adults with ALL with an Asparaginase with an Asparaginase - -Intensive Intensive Pediatric Regimen Pediatric Regimen Lewis Silverman, M.D. Lewis Silverman, M.D. Dana

  20. Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... increases seen in other allergic disorders such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Estimated occurrences of this condition in adults ... EoE. A history of allergic conditions such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, eczema or food allergy has been seen in ...