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Sample records for epidemiology study koges

  1. Neck Circumference and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus over 10 Years in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Nam H.; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lim, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Neck circumference, a proxy for upper-body fat, may be a unique fat depot that indicates metabolic risk beyond whole body fat. We investigated whether neck circumference is associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a subset of data with Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n = 3521, age range = 42–71 years). Nondiabetic subjects at the baseline were categorized into 4 groups (Q1–Q4) according to their neck circumference. Parameters related with β-cell function and insulin resistance including Epworth sleepiness scale and snoring habit were examined. The development of DM was confirmed biannually based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Over the 10 years, 2623 (74.5%) among 3521 subjects were followed-up. Among them, 632 (24.1%) developed DM. The incidence of DM increased from 17.6% in Q1 to 18.2% in Q2, to 25.4% in Q3, and to 36.0% in Q4 (P < 0.001). After adjusting for most risk factors related with DM, the relative risks of DM development were 0.989 (95% confidence interval, 0.638–1.578), 1.660 (1.025–2.687), and 1.746 (1.037–2.942) in men and 0.939 (0.540–1.769), 1.518 (0.808–2.853), and 2.077 (1.068–4.038) in women in Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively when compared to Q1. This finding indicates negative impact from large neck circumference in the development of DM. PMID:26681338

  2. Rice-eating pattern and the risk of metabolic syndrome especially waist circumference in Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome poses a serious health threat in Asian countries. Rice is a staple food in Korea, and carbohydrate intake is associated with the risk of MetS. We hypothesized that various rice-eating patterns in a carbohydrate-based diet would have different effects on the risk of MetS. Methods Participants were 26,006 subjects enrolled in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study between 2004 and 2006. They were classified into four dietary patterns - white rice, rice with beans, rice with multi-grains, and mixed based on their food frequency questionnaire responses. We compared metabolic risk traits according to the rice-eating patterns. Results Nutrients consumption and the presence of MetS risk factors differed according to rice-eating patterns. In men odds ratio(OR) for central obesity was slightly elevated in mixed group(1.18). In women, the risk for central obesity and abnormal fasting glucose were lower in the rice with beans group (adjusted OR =0.79, 0.83 respectively) and central obesity in rice with multi-grains(adjusted OR=0.91) than the white rice group. In postmenopausal women, ORs for central obesity (0.78) and abnormal fasting glucose (0.75) in the rice with beans group and ORs for central obesity (0.83), abnormal HDL-cholesterol (0.87) and MetS(0.85) in the rice with multi-grains group was lower than those in white rice group. In premenopausal women, the risk for central obesity (OR=0.77) was reduced in the rice with beans group. Conclusion The risk for MetS was lower in the rice with beans and rice with multi-grains groups compared with the white rice group, particularly in postmenopausal women. PMID:23339671

  3. Development and evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire for Vietnamese female immigrants in Korea: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hye; Choi, Ha Ney; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Wha Young; Chung, Hye Won

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for Vietnamese female immigrants in Korea and to evaluate the validity of the FFQ. A total of 80 food items were selected in developing the FFQ according to consumption frequency, the contribution of energy and other nutrients, and the cooking methods based on one-day 24 hour recall (24HR) from 918 Vietnamese female immigrants between November 2006 and November 2007. The FFQ was validated by comparison with 24HR of 425 Vietnamese female immigrants between November 2008 and August 2009. The absolute nutrient intake calculated from the FFQ was higher than that estimated by 24HR for most nutrients. The correlation coefficients between 24HR and FFQ ranged from 0.10 (vitamin C) - 0.36 (energy) for crude intake, 0.05 (vitamin E) - 0.32 (calcium) for per 1000 kcal, and 0.08 (zinc) - 0.34 (calcium) for energy-adjusted, respectively. More than 70% of subjects were classified into the same or adjacent agreement groups for nutrients other than fiber, sodium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E, while less than 10% of subjects were classified into complete disagreement groups. We conclude that the FFQ appears to be an acceptable tool for estimating nutrient intake and dietary patterns of Vietnamese female immigrants in Korea. Future studies to validate the FFQ using various biomarkers or other dietary assessment methods are needed. PMID:21779531

  4. Dietary factors related to body weight in adult Vietnamese in the rural area of Haiphong, Vietnam: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hye; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Chung, Hye Won; Nguyet, Tran Thi Phuc

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the association between dietary factors and underweight and overweight adult Vietnamese living in the rural areas of Vietnam. A cross-sectional study of 497 Vietnamese aged 19 to 60 years (204 males, 293 females) was conducted in rural areas of Haiphong, Vietnam. The subjects were classified as underweight, normal weight, and overweight based on BMI. General characteristics, anthropometric parameters, blood profiles, and eating habits were obtained and dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls for 2 consecutive days. A high prevalence of both underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) individuals was observed (14.2% and 21.6% for males and 18.9% and 20.6% for females, respectively). For both genders, the overweight group were older than the under- and normal weight groups (P = 0.0118 for males and P = 0.0002 for females). In female subjects, the overweight group consumed significantly less cereals (P = 0.0033), energy (P = 0.0046), protein (P = 0.0222), and carbohydrate (P = 0.0017) and more fruits (P = 0.0026) than the underweight group; however, no such differences existed in males. The overweight subjects overate more frequently (P = 0.0295) and consumed fish (P = 0.0096) and fruits (P = 0.0083) more often. The prevalence of both underweight and overweight individuals pose serious public health problems in the rural areas of Vietnamese and the overweight group was related to overeating and high fish and fruit consumption. These findings may provide basic data for policymakers and dieticians in order to develop future nutrition and health programs for rural populations in Vietnam. PMID:20607070

  5. Dietary changes in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women: The KoGES follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Hakim; Ko, Ahra; Han, Chan-Jung; Chung, Hye Won

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The immigrant population has grown considerably in South Korea since the early 1990s due to international marriages. Dietary changes in immigrants are an important issue, because they are related to health and disease patterns. This study was conducted to compare changes in dietary intake between baseline and follow-up periods. SUBJECTS/METHODS Two hundreds thirty three Vietnamese female married immigrants. Baseline data were collected during 2006-2009, and the follow-up data were collected during 2008 and 2010. Food consumption was assessed using a 1-day 24-hour recall. RESULTS The amount of the total food consumed (P < 0.001) including that of cereals (P = 0.004), vegetables (P = 0.003), and fruits (P = 0.002) decreased at follow-up compared to that at baseline, whereas consumption of milk and dairy products increased (P = 0.004). Accordingly, the overall energy and nutrient intake decreased at follow-up, including carbohydrates (P = 0.012), protein (P = 0.021), fiber (P = 0.008), iron (P = 0.009), zinc (P = 0.006), and folate (P = 0.002). Among various anthropometric and biochemical variables, mean skeletal muscle mass decreased (P = 0.012), plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased, (P = 0.020) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased at follow-up (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS A long-term follow-up study is needed to investigate the association between changes in food and nutrient intake and anthropometric and biochemical variables in these Vietnamese female marriage immigrants. PMID:24944778

  6. Outdoor artificial light at night, obesity, and sleep health: Cross-sectional analysis in the KoGES study.

    PubMed

    Koo, Yong Seo; Song, Jin-Young; Joo, Eun-Yeon; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Sang-kun; Jung, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a common disorder with many complications. Although chronodisruption plays a role in obesity, few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between artificial light at night (ALAN) and obesity. Since sleep health is related to both obesity and ALAN, we investigated the association between outdoor ALAN and obesity after adjusting for sleep health. We also investigated the association between outdoor ALAN and sleep health. This cross-sectional survey included 8526 adults, 39-70 years of age, who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Outdoor ALAN data were obtained from satellite images provided by the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. We obtained individual data regarding outdoor ALAN; body mass index; depression; and sleep health including sleep duration, mid-sleep time, and insomnia; and other demographic data including age, sex, educational level, type of residential building, monthly household income, alcohol consumption, smoking status and consumption of caffeine or alcohol before sleep. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between outdoor ALAN and obesity. The prevalence of obesity differed significantly according to sex (women 47% versus men 39%, p < 0.001) and outdoor ALAN (high 55% versus low 40%, p < 0.001). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between high outdoor ALAN and obesity (odds ratio [OR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.35, p < 0.001). Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that high outdoor ALAN was significantly associated with obesity after adjusting for age and sex (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.14-1.37, p < 0.001) and even after controlling for various other confounding factors including age, sex, educational level, type of residential building, monthly household income, alcohol consumption, smoking, consumption of caffeine or alcohol before sleep, delayed sleep pattern, short sleep duration and

  7. The effect of dietary antioxidant on the COPD risk: the community-based KoGES (Ansan–Anseong) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pankaj; Kim, Woo Jin; Lee, Sang-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary antioxidants have been suggested to have protective role against chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few prospective studies examined this relationship. The prospective study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antioxidants on COPD risk and lung function in the Korean population. Methods The data were collected from the community-based Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES) cohort. To diagnose COPD, forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured by spirometry. The dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins was estimated from validated Food-Frequency Questionnaire. For the analysis, 325 COPD patients and 6,781 at risk subjects were selected from the cohort of 10,038 subjects. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the odds ratio (OR) after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, income, history of asthma, history of tuberculosis, and smoking. Results The risk of COPD was positively associated with aging, low education, low household income, lower body mass index, and cigarette smoking. The risk of COPD decreased with increase in the dietary vitamin C (ORQ1 vs Q5=0.66, Ptrend=0.03) and vitamin E (ORQ1 vs Q5=0.56, Ptrend=0.05) intake, predominantly, in men (Ptrend=0.01 and 0.05 for vitamins C and E, respectively). In addition, the lung function was significantly improved with increase in vitamins C (FEV1, P=0.04; FVC, P=0.03) and E (FEV1, P=0.03; FVC, P=0.04) intake. No statistically significant interactions were observed between smoking and vitamin C or E intake in relation to COPD risk among men. Conclusion Our results suggest the independent beneficial effect of antioxidants, particularly vitamins C and E, on COPD risk and lung function in men. PMID:26504380

  8. Associations of dietary intake and metabolic syndrome risk parameters in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in South Korea: The KoGES follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyesu; Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Ji-Myung; Chung, Hye Won

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to compare the overall changes in dietary intake and metabolic syndrome risk parameters in Vietnamese marriage-based female immigrants over time. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects of this study were 581 Vietnamese marriage-based female immigrants, who were recruited from local clinical centers in Korea. Baseline data were collected from 2006-2011 and the follow-up data were collected from 2012-2014. Dietary food intake was assessed by a 1-day 24-hour recall method. RESULTS Compared to the baseline, the mean body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased while the fasting blood sugar, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased at follow-up. The total consumption of foods such as vegetables/fruits/seaweeds/mushrooms, oil and fat, and eggs decreased during the follow-up period, whereas the consumption of sugars, beverages and meats increased. Partial correlation between the rate of change [(Follow-up - Baseline) / Baseline × 100] in metabolic syndrome risk parameters and food intake after controlling for confounding factors showed that the waist circumference was positively correlated with either the total plant food intake (r = 0.1042, P = 0.0129) or the total food intake (r = 0.0880, P = 0.0359). The plasma levels of total cholesterol (r = -0.1918, P = 0.0289) and HDL-cholesterol (r = -0.1424, P = 0.0007) were negatively correlated with the percentage of total intake from plant food, and HDL-cholesterol levels were positively correlated with the intake of total animal food (r = 0.0980, P = 0.0217). The serum C-reactive protein levels were positively correlated with the total intake of animal food (r = 0.2374, P < 0.0001) or the percentage of total intake from animal food (r = 0.1346, P = 0.0016). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the change rate of dietary intake such as total plant food

  9. How to assess epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Zaccai, J

    2004-01-01

    Assessing the quality of an epidemiological study equates to assessing whether the inferences drawn from it are warranted when account is taken of the methods, the representativeness of the study sample, and the nature of the population from which it is drawn. Bias, confounding, and chance can threaten the quality of an epidemiological study at all its phases. Nevertheless, their presence does not necessarily imply that a study should be disregarded. The reader must first balance any of these threats or missing information with their potential impact on the conclusions of the report. PMID:15016934

  10. [Lichen striatus. Epidemiologic study].

    PubMed

    Sittart, J A; Pegas, J R; Sant'Ana, L A; Pires, M C

    1989-01-01

    The authors are showing a retrospective study of 53 cases of lichen striatus concerning sex, colour, age, place of lesions, associated diseases and period of the year of occurrence of the dermatosis. There was a larger number of cases in females of white race and age-between 2 and 5 years old. A greater occurrence was observed in the months of September and March which correspond to spring and summer. Adding the fact that there have been more cases in children, at times in brothers and the trend to spontaneous involution, the authors suggest the possibility of a virus as etiology to this entity. PMID:2666785

  11. Epidemiological studies in psychosomatic medicine.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, M R

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiological triad of host, agent and environment used conceptually in infectious disease may serve as a model for psychosomatic disorders, despite the involvement of many more variables. There are major problems with diagnosis and measurement, however, and the term "psychosomatic" has several meanings. The two main senses are "specific" psychosomatic disorders and an ecological view of illness. The association between psychiatric and physical disorder has been examined in a variety of settings and the findings have suggested that there is a positive relationship. Despite considerable methodological and sampling difficulties in epidemiological research into psychosomatic illness, recent efforts have been made to overcome these. The results of ecological studies appear to be more consistent that those dealing with "specific" psychosomatic disorders and suggest that man has a general psychophysical propensity to disease. Although physical and mental illness do seem to be intimately linked, the reasons for "vulnerability" to illness and "clustering" of illness are obscure. The clarification of these areas appears to be the main task ahead for epidemiology in the field of psychosomatic medicine. PMID:773850

  12. [Computerization of data collection in epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Galasso, R; Celentano, E

    1992-01-01

    Data collected in epidemiological studies on large cohorts need to be evaluated through the organization of a specific computer laboratory in order to make all procedures simple and fast. This paper describes the basic elements composing a computer laboratory and discusses its implementation in epidemiological investigations. PMID:1492737

  13. Principles of study design in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, H; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of study design and related methodologic issues in environmental epidemiology. Emphasis is given to studies aimed at evaluating causal hypotheses regarding exposures to suspected health hazards. Following background sections on the quantitative objectives and methods of population-based research, we present the major types of observational designs used in environmental epidemiology: first, the three basic designs involving the individual as the unit of analysis (i.e., cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies) and a brief discussion of genetic studies for assessing gene-environment interactions; second, various ecologic designs involving the group or region as the unit of analysis. Ecologic designs are given special emphasis in this paper because of our lack of resources or inability to accurately measure environmental exposures in large numbers of individuals. The paper concludes with a section highlighting current design issues in environmental epidemiology and several recommendations for future work. PMID:8206038

  14. IMPROVING EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN DBP EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, an EPA expert panel was convened to evaluate epidemiologic studies of adverse reproductive or developmental outcomes that may be associated with drinking water DBPs. The panel recommended that further efforts be made in an existing cohort study, headed by Dr. Waller and ...

  15. Twin Studies: A Unique Epidemiological Tool

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Monalisha; Prasuna, Josyula G

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies are a special type of epidemiological studies designed to measure the contribution of genetics as opposed to the environment, to a given trait. Despite the facts that the classical twin studies are still being guided by assumptions made back in the 1920s and that the inherent limitation lies in the study design itself, the results suggested by earlier twin studies have often been confirmed by molecular genetic studies later. Use of twin registries and various innovative yet complex software packages such as the (SAS) and their extensions (e.g., SAS PROC GENMOD and SAS PROC PHREG) has increased the potential of this epidemiological tool toward contributing significantly to the field of genetics and other life sciences. PMID:27385869

  16. Examination of Different Exposure Metrics in an Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon measurements of ambient concentration from central-site monitoring stations as surrogates of population exposures. However, depending on the epidemiological study design, this approach may introduce exposure...

  17. Psoriasis and comorbidities. Epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Psoriasis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease whose exact aetiology is not fully understood, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the onset and progression of the disease. At the skin level, psoriasis is characterized by localized or widespread thick raised silvery-white scaling and pruritic plaques and studies have shown that psoriasis negatively affects patients' quality of life, and depression occurs more often in patients with psoriasis. However, data have shown that psoriasis is a systemic disease which affects the joints, vasculature, and other tissues as well. Indeed, approximately one-third of patients with psoriasis develop psoriatic arthritis, and patients with severe psoriasis have a shortened life expectancy. Although our knowledge of the pathogenesis of psoriasis has advanced significantly in the past decade, as have the pharmacological treatment options which are now available, several important knowledge gaps remain. Many of the proinflammatory mediators involved in psoriasis have also been implicated in some central nervous system (CNS) diseases. However, studies on associations between psoriasis and CNS diseases are scarce. Based on nationwide registry data from the entire Danish population, the present thesis examined the associations between psoriasis and certain CNS diseases. The specific objectives of this work were to investigate the independent impact of depression on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with psoriasis, the relationship between psoriasis and uveitis, and the risk of incident multiple sclerosis (MS) following the onset of psoriasis, respectively. The main results were a significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and CVD death in patients with psoriasis during stages of acute depression. Moreover, we found a bidirectional relationship between psoriasis and uveitis, where the occurrence of either disease significantly increased the risk of the other

  18. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  19. Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, G.

    1996-12-31

    There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs.

  20. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer: epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Moysich, Kirsten B; Humblet, Olivier; Attfield, Kathleen R; Beehler, Gregory P; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2007-06-15

    Laboratory research has shown that numerous environmental pollutants cause mammary gland tumors in animals; are hormonally active, specifically mimicking estrogen, which is a breast cancer risk factor; or affect susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. An assessment of epidemiologic research on these pollutants identified in toxicologic studies can guide future research and exposure reduction aimed at prevention. The PubMed database was searched for relevant literature and systematic critical reviews were entered in a database available at URL: www.silentspring.org/sciencereview and URL: www.komen.org/environment (accessed April 10, 2007). Based on a relatively small number of studies, the evidence to date generally supports an association between breast cancer and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in conjunction with certain genetic polymorphisms involved in carcinogen activation and steroid hormone metabolism. Evidence regarding dioxins and organic solvents is sparse and methodologically limited but suggestive of an association. Methodologic problems include inadequate exposure assessment, a lack of access to highly exposed and unexposed populations, and a lack of preclinical markers to identify associations that may be obscured by disease latency. Among chemicals identified in toxicologic research as relevant to breast cancer, many have not been investigated in humans. The development of better exposure assessment methods is needed to fill this gap. In the interim, weaknesses in the epidemiologic literature argue for greater reliance on toxicologic studies to develop national policies to reduce chemical exposures that may be associated with breast cancer. Substantial research progress in the last 5 years suggests that the investigation of environmental pollutants will lead to strategies to reduce breast cancer risk. PMID:17503436

  1. NASA Remote Sensing Data for Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.

  2. Epidemiological study of cauda equina syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuso, Fernando Augusto Freitas; Dias, André Luiz Natálio; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Marcon, Raphael Martus; de Barros, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : The primary purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics and outcomes of the patients admitted at our clinics diagnosed with cauda equina syndrome (CES). Secondarily, this study will serve as a basis for other comparative studies aiming at a better understanding of this condition and its epidemiology. METHODS : We conducted a retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of patients diagnosed with CES and neurogenic bladder between 2005 and 2011. The following variables were analyzed: gender, age, etiology, topographic level of the lesion, time between disease onset and diagnosis, presence of neurogenic bladder, time between diagnosis and surgery, neurological damage and neurogenic bladder persistence. RESULTS : Considering that CES is a rare condition, we were not able to establish statistic correlation between the analyzed variables and the outcomes of the disease. However, this study brought to light the inadequacy of our public health system in treating that kind of patient. CONCLUSION : The study shows that despite the well-defined basis for managing CES, we noted a greater number of patients with sequels caused by this condition, than is seen in the literature. The delayed diagnosis and, consequently, delayed treatment, were the main causes for the results observed. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453661

  3. Mandibular Fractures in Iraq: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Bede, Salwan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of the mandibular fractures relating to gender, age, the etiology of injury, and the rendered treatment modalities and complications. The data of the patients who sustained mandibular fractures were retrieved and were analyzed retrospectively, and based on these data a descriptive analysis was conducted. A total of 112 patients were included in this study; the most common cause was road traffic accidents (RTAs) followed by assaults and missile injuries. The most frequently involved age group was 11 to 20 years, treatment modalities included conservative, closed reduction and indirect fixation, and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in 11.6, 79.5, and 8.9% of the cases, respectively. Most of the major complications were injury related. This study showed RTAs to be the most frequent cause followed by assaults, it also showed that a high percentage of assault victims were females mainly of low socioeconomic status. Another distinguishing feature in this study was the high incidence of missile injuries in the form of bullets and blasts. Closed reduction still has an important role in the treatment of fractures of mandible especially when the necessary equipments for ORIF are not readily available. A higher complication rate was observed in patients diagnosed with multiple and comminuted fractures as well as those caused by violence in the form of missile and assault injuries. PMID:25709754

  4. Data sources: use in the epidemiologic study of medical devices.

    PubMed

    Torrence, Mary E

    2002-05-01

    Medical device epidemiology is the study of the prevalence and incidence of use, effectiveness, and adverse events associated with medical devices in a population. The identification of large data sources with medical device data provides a large population for epidemiologic studies. Two challenges in medical device epidemiology are the ability to find data on the specific device and the exposure of a patient to that device. This paper identifies data sources both from the govenment and from the private sector that can be used for epidemiologic studies of medical devices and, to a limited degree, studies of medical devices in women. Each source provides data for different types of devices and in differing specificity. The paper also discusses briefly the strengths and weaknesses of each data source. More data sources are needed to enhance the study of medical device epidemiology. Additional efforts and focus are needed to enhance the ability to study medical devices in women. PMID:12071476

  5. DESIGN OF EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the following items: (1) London daily air pollution and deaths that demonstrate how time series epidemiology can indicate that air pollution caused death; (2) Sophisticated statistical models required to establish this relationship for lower pollut...

  6. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  7. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  8. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF DISINFECTANTS AND DISINFECTANT BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a review of the epidemiologic evidence for human health effects that may be associated with the disinfection of drinking water. An epidemiologic study attempts to link human health effects with exposure to a specific agent (e.g., DBCM), agents (e.g., THMs or...

  10. Time series regression studies in environmental epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Gasparrini, Antonio; Hajat, Shakoor; Smeeth, Liam; Armstrong, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Time series regression studies have been widely used in environmental epidemiology, notably in investigating the short-term associations between exposures such as air pollution, weather variables or pollen, and health outcomes such as mortality, myocardial infarction or disease-specific hospital admissions. Typically, for both exposure and outcome, data are available at regular time intervals (e.g. daily pollution levels and daily mortality counts) and the aim is to explore short-term associations between them. In this article, we describe the general features of time series data, and we outline the analysis process, beginning with descriptive analysis, then focusing on issues in time series regression that differ from other regression methods: modelling short-term fluctuations in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, dealing with time varying confounding factors and modelling delayed (‘lagged’) associations between exposure and outcome. We finish with advice on model checking and sensitivity analysis, and some common extensions to the basic model. PMID:23760528

  11. Time series regression studies in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Gasparrini, Antonio; Hajat, Shakoor; Smeeth, Liam; Armstrong, Ben

    2013-08-01

    Time series regression studies have been widely used in environmental epidemiology, notably in investigating the short-term associations between exposures such as air pollution, weather variables or pollen, and health outcomes such as mortality, myocardial infarction or disease-specific hospital admissions. Typically, for both exposure and outcome, data are available at regular time intervals (e.g. daily pollution levels and daily mortality counts) and the aim is to explore short-term associations between them. In this article, we describe the general features of time series data, and we outline the analysis process, beginning with descriptive analysis, then focusing on issues in time series regression that differ from other regression methods: modelling short-term fluctuations in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, dealing with time varying confounding factors and modelling delayed ('lagged') associations between exposure and outcome. We finish with advice on model checking and sensitivity analysis, and some common extensions to the basic model. PMID:23760528

  12. Choosing an appropriate bacterial typing technique for epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Foxman, Betsy; Zhang, Lixin; Koopman, James S; Manning, Shannon D; Marrs, Carl F

    2005-01-01

    A wide variety of bacterial typing systems are currently in use that vary greatly with respect to the effort required, cost, reliability and ability to discriminate between bacterial strains. No one technique is optimal for all forms of investigation. We discuss the desired level of discrimination and need for a biologic basis for grouping strains of apparently different types when using bacterial typing techniques for different epidemiologic applications: 1) confirming epidemiologic linkage in outbreak investigations, 2) generating hypotheses about epidemiologic relationships between bacterial strains in the absence of epidemiologic information, and 3) describing the distributions of bacterial types and identifying determinants of those distributions. Inferences made from molecular epidemiologic studies of bacteria depend upon both the typing technique selected and the study design used; thus, choice of typing technique is pivotal for increasing our understanding of the pathogenesis and transmission, and eventual disease prevention. PMID:16309556

  13. An epidemiologic approach to studying heterocyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rashmi

    2002-09-30

    Diets containing substantial amounts of red meat may increase the risk of colorectal, pancreatic, breast, prostate, and renal cancer. The association with red meat intake may be due to a combination of factors, such as content of fat, protein, and iron, and/or meat preparation (e.g. cooking or preserving methods). Laboratory results have shown that meats cooked at high temperatures contain heterocyclic amines (HCAs) known to be mutagenic and carcinogenic in animals. Many older epidemiologic studies of colon cancer using surrogates for HCA exposure from meat (for example, doneness level, surface browning, frying, intake of gravy) have produced suggestive but inconsistent results. These discrepancies may have resulted in part from having used dietary questionnaires that combined meat-cooking practices in ways that made the intake of HCAs difficult to estimate. Thus, over the last decade we have taken a multidisciplinary approach to investigating whether the association with red meat intake can be explained by meat-cooking practices that produce mutagens/carcinogens. To estimate intake, a database for HCAs have been developed and used in conjunction with a validated meat-cooking food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). To develop biological markers of internal exposure, a metabolic study was conducted where subjects consumed controlled amounts of meat cooked at low and high temperatures. The role of meat type, cooking methods, doneness levels, and meat-cooking mutagens were examined in case-control studies of colorectal adenomas, lung, and breast cancers using both questionnaire information and biomarkers. In a case-control study of colorectal adenomas, an increased risk was associated with a high intake of red meat. Most of this risk was due to intake of red meat cooked until well/very well done and/or by high-temperature cooking techniques such as grilling. Linking the FFQ information to HCA database, the impact several HCAs on risk was evaluated. An increased risk was

  14. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  15. RETROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A retrospective epidemiological study was carried out on the association between enteric disease incidence and wastewater utilization in 79 kibbutzim (cooperative agricultural settlements) in Israel having a population of 32,672. Medical records on disease incidence were collecte...

  16. DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ON HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papers describes epidemiologic designs and methods in studies of health effects of air pollution, whose implications, however, can be extended to the detection of health effects of other environmental exposures. Recent advances in measurement technology for the assessment of ...

  17. The 20th century Danish facial cleft population--epidemiological and genetic-epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Christensen, K

    1999-03-01

    Since Dr. Fogh-Andersen's legendary 1942 thesis, the Danish facial cleft population has been one of the most extensively studied in terms of epidemiology and genetic-epidemiology. The etiology of cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) is still largely an enigma, and different results concerning environmental and genetic risk factors are obtained in different countries and regions. This may be due to etiological heterogeneity between settings. Therefore, an in-depth studied area with an ethnically homogeneous population, such as Denmark, has provided one of the best opportunities for progress in CLP etiological research. The present review summarizes epidemiological and genetic-epidemiological studies conducted in the 20th century Danish facial cleft population. Furthermore, analyses of sex differences, time trends and seasonality for more than 7000 CLP cases born in Denmark in the period 1936 to 1987 are presented. The review also points toward the excellent opportunities for continued etiological CLP research in Denmark in the 21st century using already established resources and an on-going prospective cohort study of 100,000 pregnant women. PMID:10213053

  18. Epidemiological studies of plague in India

    PubMed Central

    Seal, S. C.

    1960-01-01

    Data from early in the twentieth century up to the present day indicate that Rattus rattus among rodents and Xenopsylla cheopis among fleas are the two most important elements in urban human plague infection in India, R. norvegicus playing a more minor role. The relative numbers of both these species have decreased in recent years in Bombay and Calcutta, while those of Bandicota bengalensis, which is less heavily parasitized by X. cheopis, have risen. This reduction in the numbers of the epidemiologically more important rodents and their fleas has been accompanied by a reduction in the number of human plague cases. PMID:20604076

  19. Field epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Heath, C W

    1983-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies are required for assessing health risks related to toxic waste exposure. Since the settings in which such studies must be performed are extremely diverse, epidemiologic approaches must be versatile. For any particular study, three fundamental requirements are to assess what toxic materials are present, understand how human exposure may occur, and objectively measure possible biologic effects. In assessing links between exposure and disease, epidemiologists must be particularly aware of: expected disease frequencies in relation to the size of populations studied, implications of long or varied disease latencies for study design and competing causes of disease and associated confounding variables. These concepts are illustrated by discussion of epidemiologic studies related to the Love Canal toxic waste dump site in Niagara Falls, NY. PMID:6825633

  20. Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design

    PubMed Central

    Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C; Twisk, Jos WR; Witteveen, Anke B; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Bramsen, Inge; Smidt, Nynke; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bouter, Lex M; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

    2005-01-01

    Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s), and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers. PMID:15921536

  1. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  2. Anthrax in the Gambia: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Heyworth, B; Ropp, M E; Voos, U G; Meinel, H I; Darlow, H M

    1975-01-01

    Epidemiological data on 448 cases of human cutaneous anthrax from the Gambia showed that this particular strain of anthrax bacillus causes widespread morbidity and some mortality with, at the same time, subclinical infection. Analysis also showed that anthrax is not an occupationally related disease in the Gambia. The possibility of human-to-human spread, affecting all age groups and both sexes, by means of a communal toilet article was also shown. The fact that the strain is a good toxin producer but contains a weak antigen may have accounted for the repeated clinical infection and the fact that antibody titres were generally transient. Subclinical infection in animals was also found, particularly in sheep and goats, and also, with an unusually low mortality, in cows. Insect vectors were not excluded, but were unlikely. Vultures may spread the disease from village to village. Some possible public health and immunization procedures are discussed, with a view to containing this difficult problem in this part of west Africa. PMID:810213

  3. Epidemiological studies are like cherries, one draws another.

    PubMed

    Lunet, Nuno

    2009-01-01

    The proverb "Words are like cherries", meaning that when you start talking subjects pop up and you end up with long conversations, just like cherries coming out of the plate in chains when you pick one, may also be applied to epidemiological research. A sequence of epidemiological studies, each being drawn from the previous, is presented as an example of how each investigation may raise new questions to be addressed in following studies. This description stresses the need for appropriate planning and the usefulness of pilot testing to depict inadequacies that can hardly be anticipated without field work. I intend to illustrate how epidemiological research can provide a deep approach to research questions, as long as findings are properly interpreted and suboptimal methodological options are taken into account in future investigations. PMID:19713008

  4. IMPROVING EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS (DBP) EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, an EPA expert panel was convened to evaluate epidemiologic studies of adverse reproductive or developmental outcomes that may be associated with drinking water DBPs. The panel recommended that further efforts be made in an existing cohort study, headed by Dr. Waller and ...

  5. CRITICAL REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES RELATED TO INGESTED ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirteen epidemiologic studies of ingested asbestos conducted in five areas of the U.S. and Canada were reviewed and evaluated for the definitiveness and applicability regarding the development of ambient water quality standards. One or more studies found male or female associati...

  6. CHLORINE DIOXIDE WATER DISINFECTION: A PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An epidemiologic study of 198 persons exposed for 3 months to drinking water disinfected with chlorine dioxide was conducted in a rural village. A control population of 118 nonexposed persons was also studied. Pre-exposure hematologic and serum chemical parameters were compared w...

  7. Standards for epidemiologic studies and surveillance of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Thurman, David J; Beghi, Ettore; Begley, Charles E; Berg, Anne T; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R; Ding, Ding; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Hauser, W Allen; Kazis, Lewis; Kobau, Rosemarie; Kroner, Barbara; Labiner, David; Liow, Kore; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Medina, Marco T; Newton, Charles R; Parko, Karen; Paschal, Angelia; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Sander, Josemir W; Selassie, Anbesaw; Theodore, William; Tomson, Torbjörn; Wiebe, Samuel

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide, about 65 million people are estimated to have epilepsy. Epidemiologic studies are necessary to define the full public health burden of epilepsy; to set public health and health care priorities; to provide information needed for prevention, early detection, and treatment; to identify education and service needs; and to promote effective health care and support programs for people with epilepsy. However, different definitions and epidemiologic methods complicate the tasks of these studies and their interpretations and comparisons. The purpose of this document is to promote consistency in definitions and methods in an effort to enhance future population-based epidemiologic studies, facilitate comparison between populations, and encourage the collection of data useful for the promotion of public health. We discuss: (1) conceptual and operational definitions of epilepsy, (2) data resources and recommended data elements, and (3) methods and analyses appropriate for epidemiologic studies or the surveillance of epilepsy. Variations in these are considered, taking into account differing resource availability and needs among countries and differing purposes among studies. PMID:21899536

  8. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure studies. 159.170 Section 159.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  9. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure studies. 159.170 Section 159.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  10. A nationwide epidemiological study of testicular torsion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sol Min; Huh, Jung-Sik; Baek, Minki; Yoo, Koo Han; Min, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2014-12-01

    Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency in the field of urology. Knowledge of the epidemiology and pathophysiology is significant to an urologist. However, the epidemiology of testicular torsion in Korea has not been studied. We performed a nationwide epidemiological study to improve knowledge of the epidemiology of testicular torsion. From 2006-2011, the Korean Urologic Association began the patient registry service. The annual number of patients with testicular torsion from 2006 to 2011 were 225, 250, 271, 277, 345, and 210, respectively. The overall incidence of testicular torsion in males was 1.1 per 100,000; However, the incidence in men less than 25 yr old was 2.9 per 100,000. Adolescents showed the highest incidence. Total testicular salvage rate was 75.7% in this survey. There was no geographic difference of testicular salvage rate. Minimizing the possibility of orchiectomy for testicular torsion is important to improve public awareness to expedite presentation and provider education to improve diagnosis and surgery. PMID:25469070

  11. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health. PMID:26535754

  12. Myasthenia gravis on the Dutch antilles: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Holtsema, H; Mourik, J; Rico, R E; Falconi, J R; Kuks, J B; Oosterhuis, H J

    2000-12-01

    We carried out an epidemiological study on the prevalence and annual incidence of myasthenia gravis on tropical islands Curaçao and Aruba in the period 1980-1995. Twenty-one patients (seven men and 14 women) were identified. The point prevalence increased from 29 per million in 1980 to about 70 per million in 1990-1995; the annual incidence over the total period was 4.7 per million. The female:male ratio was 2:1; purely ocular cases (2/21) comprised 9.5% and thymomas (4/21), 19%. These data are in accordance with most other epidemiological studies in non-tropical areas. No other studies on myasthenia gravis in tropical areas have been reported. PMID:11154803

  13. Smile line and occlusion: An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Harati, Mahsa; Mostofi, Shahbaz Naser; Jalalian, Ezzatollah; Rezvani, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to discuss some new concepts of the desirable characteristics of smile tooth display. Due to the increasing application of cosmetic dental treatments, there is an increasing need for better understanding of the esthetic principles. Materials and Methods: In the present descriptive study, with 212 participants, included were patients with no history of orthodontic treatment, loss or prosthetic replacement of anterior teeth, extracted teeth, lips with asymmetry or a history of trauma. Chi-square test was used to determine possible significances in the relation of smile line to Angle occlusion class, overbite and overjet and arch form. A P level of <0.05 was set as to be significant. Results: Chi-square test indicated that there was a significant difference between the smile design and overbite, overjet and gender but no statistically significant association was found between the smile design and crossbite, molar Angle classification and arch form. Conclusion: Within the limitations of such studies, it might be concluded that there is a significant and important relation between some occlusal parameters and smile design, which must be considered. PMID:24379858

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CHILDREN DIAPHYSEAL FEMORAL FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Cassiano Ricardo; Traldi, Eduardo Franceschini; Posser, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the personal, fracture, treatment and complication characteristics among patients with pediatric femoral shaft fractures attended at the pediatric orthopedic service of the Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on a population consisting of patients with femoral shaft fractures, aged between birth and 14 years and 11 months, who were divided into four age groups. Information was obtained from medical records and was transferred to a survey questionnaire to present personal, fracture, treatment and complication variables. Results: The study population consisted of 96 patients. Their mean age was 6.8 years. The cases were predominantly among males, comprising closed fractures on the right side, in the middle third with a single line. Regarding fracture etiology, traffic accidents predominated overall in the sample. Most of the patients (74 to 77.1%) presented femoral fractures as their only injury. Conservative treatment predominated in the group younger than six years of age, and surgical treatment in the group aged 6 to 14 years and 11 months. The complications observed until bone union were: discrepancy, infection and movement limitation. The mean time taken for consolidation was 9.6 ± 2.4 weeks, varying with age. Conclusion: The features of these fractures were similar to those described in the literature and the treatment used showed good results. The Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital has used the treatment proposed in the literature for pediatric femoral shaft fractures. PMID:27042619

  15. Epidemiologic studies of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bern, C; Hernandez, B; Lopez, M B; Arrowood, M J; de Mejia, M A; de Merida, A M; Hightower, A W; Venczel, L; Herwaldt, B L; Klein, R E

    1999-01-01

    In 1996 and 1997, cyclosporiasis outbreaks in North America were linked to eating Guatemalan raspberries. We conducted a study in health-care facilities and among raspberry farm workers, as well as a case-control study, to assess risk factors for the disease in Guatemala. From April 6, 1997, to March 19, 1998, 126 (2.3%) of 5, 552 surveillance specimens tested positive for Cyclospora; prevalence peaked in June (6.7%). Infection was most common among children 1.5 to 9 years old and among persons with gastroenteritis. Among 182 raspberry farm workers and family members monitored from April 6 to May 29, six had Cyclospora infection. In the case-control analysis, 62 (91%) of 68 persons with Cyclospora infection reported drinking untreated water in the 2 weeks before illness, compared with 88 (73%) of 120 controls (odds ratio [OR] 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4, 10.8 by univariate analysis). Other risk factors included water source, type of sewage drainage, ownership of chickens or other fowl, and contact with soil (among children younger than 2 years). PMID:10603209

  16. Trachoma in the Sudan. An epidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Salim, A R; Sheikh, H A

    1975-01-01

    The prevalence and distribution of trachoma in the Sudan has been studied. The morbidity rate of 83.2 per 1000 in the Northern Province decreases southwards until it reaches 0.94 in the extreme south (Equatoria Province). 2. In endemic areas infection starts very early--in the first year of life. 3. There is a marked difference between the prevalence of trachoma in towns and villages--71.3 per cent for the age group 1-4 years in villages, and 56.7 per cent for the same age group in the towns. This is probably due to better standards of living and hygiene in the towns. 4. Some relationship has been found between the rainfall, the relative humidity, and the incidence of trachoma, but this does not necessarily apply in other countries. 5. The factors that may explain the high prevalence of trachoma in the northern Sudan are: a. Mechanical trauma caused by frequent sandstorms. b. Irritation of the eyes by dust particles, leading to excessive watering and discharge, and rubbing with the fingers. c. The habit of frequent hand-shaking. d. Poor personal hygiene in pre-schoolchildren. e. Associated bacterial conjunctivitis. f. The presence of eye-seeking flies. PMID:1191619

  17. GESDB: a platform of simulation resources for genetic epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Yao, Po-Ju; Chung, Ren-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulations are routinely conducted to evaluate new statistical methods, to compare the properties among different methods, and to mimic the observed data in genetic epidemiology studies. Conducting simulation studies can become a complicated task as several challenges can occur, such as the selection of an appropriate simulation tool and the specification of parameters in the simulation model. Although abundant simulated data have been generated for human genetic research, currently there is no public database designed specifically as a repository for these simulated data. With the lack of such a database, for similar studies, similar simulations may have been repeated, which resulted in redundant work. Thus, we created an online platform, the Genetic Epidemiology Simulation Database (GESDB), for simulation data sharing and discussion of simulation techniques for genetic epidemiology studies. GESDB consists of a database for storing simulation scripts, simulated data and documentation from published articles as well as a discussion forum, which provides a platform for discussion of the simulated data and exchanging simulation ideas. Moreover, summary statistics such as the simulation tools that are most commonly used and datasets that are most frequently downloaded are provided. The statistics will be informative for researchers to choose an appropriate simulation tool or select a common dataset for method comparisons. GESDB can be accessed at http://gesdb.nhri.org.twDatabase URL: http://gesdb.nhri.org.tw. PMID:27242038

  18. GESDB: a platform of simulation resources for genetic epidemiology studies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Po-Ju; Chung, Ren-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulations are routinely conducted to evaluate new statistical methods, to compare the properties among different methods, and to mimic the observed data in genetic epidemiology studies. Conducting simulation studies can become a complicated task as several challenges can occur, such as the selection of an appropriate simulation tool and the specification of parameters in the simulation model. Although abundant simulated data have been generated for human genetic research, currently there is no public database designed specifically as a repository for these simulated data. With the lack of such a database, for similar studies, similar simulations may have been repeated, which resulted in redundant work. Thus, we created an online platform, the Genetic Epidemiology Simulation Database (GESDB), for simulation data sharing and discussion of simulation techniques for genetic epidemiology studies. GESDB consists of a database for storing simulation scripts, simulated data and documentation from published articles as well as a discussion forum, which provides a platform for discussion of the simulated data and exchanging simulation ideas. Moreover, summary statistics such as the simulation tools that are most commonly used and datasets that are most frequently downloaded are provided. The statistics will be informative for researchers to choose an appropriate simulation tool or select a common dataset for method comparisons. GESDB can be accessed at http://gesdb.nhri.org.tw. Database URL: http://gesdb.nhri.org.tw PMID:27242038

  19. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures. PMID:26635494

  20. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to identifying risk and protective factors for colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications using the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Results. Existing epidemiological studies using the NHS have reported that red and processed meat, alcohol, smoking, and obesity were associated with an increased risk of CRC, whereas folate, calcium, vitamin D, aspirin, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk of CRC. Moreover, modifiable factors, such as physical activity, vitamin D, folate, insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and diet quality, were identified to be associated with survival among CRC patients. In recent years, molecular pathological epidemiological studies have been actively conducted and have shown refined results by molecular subtypes of CRC. Conclusions. The NHS has provided new insights into colorectal adenomas, CRC etiology, and pathogenic mechanisms. With its unique strengths, the NHS should continue to contribute to the field of CRC epidemiology and play a major role in public health. PMID:27459444

  1. Size distribution of airborne particles controls outcome of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Roy M; Giorio, Chiara; Beddows, David C S; Dall'Osto, Manuel

    2010-12-15

    Epidemiological studies typically using wide size range mass metrics (e.g. PM(10)) have demonstrated associations between airborne particulate matter and several adverse health outcomes. This approach ignores the fact that mass concentration may not correlate with regional lung dose, unlike the case of trace gases. When using measured particle size distributions as the basis for calculating regional lung dose, PM(10) mass concentration is found to be a good predictor of the mass dose in all regions of the lung, but is far less predictive of the surface area and particle number dose. On the other hand, measurements of particle number do not well predict mass dose, indicating that the chosen particle metric is likely to determine the health outcomes detectable by an epidemiological study. Consequently, epidemiological studies using mass metrics (PM(2.5) and PM(10)) may fail to recognise important health consequences of particulate matter exposure, leading to an underestimate of the public health consequences of particle exposure. PMID:21109288

  2. Improving estimates of exposures for epidemiologic studies of plutonium workers.

    PubMed

    Ruttenber, A J; Schonbeck, M; McCrea, J; McClure, D; Martyny, J

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of nuclear facilities usually focus on relations between cancer and doses from external penetrating radiation, and describe these exposures with little detail on measurement error and missing data. We demonstrate ways to document complex exposures to nuclear workers with data on external and internal exposures to ionizing radiation and toxic chemicals. We describe methods for assessing internal exposures to plutonium and external doses from neutrons; the use of a job exposure matrix for estimating chemical exposures; and methods for imputing missing data for exposures and doses. For plutonium workers at Rocky Flats, errors in estimating neutron doses resulted in underestimating the total external dose for production workers by about 16%. Estimates of systemic deposition do not correlate well with estimates of organ doses. Only a small percentage of workers had exposures to toxic chemicals, making epidemiologic assessments of risk difficult. PMID:11319050

  3. Multicollinearity in Regression Analyses Conducted in Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vatcheva, Kristina P.; Lee, MinJae; McCormick, Joseph B.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

    2016-01-01

    The adverse impact of ignoring multicollinearity on findings and data interpretation in regression analysis is very well documented in the statistical literature. The failure to identify and report multicollinearity could result in misleading interpretations of the results. A review of epidemiological literature in PubMed from January 2004 to December 2013, illustrated the need for a greater attention to identifying and minimizing the effect of multicollinearity in analysis of data from epidemiologic studies. We used simulated datasets and real life data from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort to demonstrate the adverse effects of multicollinearity in the regression analysis and encourage researchers to consider the diagnostic for multicollinearity as one of the steps in regression analysis. PMID:27274911

  4. TIME-INTEGRATED EXPOSURE MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Although long-term integrated exposure measurements are a critical component of exposure assessment, the ability to include these measurements into epidemiologic...

  5. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health...

  6. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health...

  7. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health...

  8. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health...

  9. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health...

  10. Contributions of occupational epidemiologic studies to radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1982-01-01

    Early evidence of health effects of occupational radiation exposure contributed importantly to the establishment of exposure standards, especially for internal emitters. Standards derived in this manner for radium body burdens and for air concentrations of radon and its daughters were especially influential. The body burden limits for plutonium and other bone-seeking radionuclides were based upon the radium standard. The exposure controls instituted as a consequence of those early limits have reduced the exposure of worker populations to the extent that the current, more sophisticated epidemiologic studies will probably not influence the revision of existing standards. The justification for conducting such studies is discussed.

  11. TCDD and cancer: A critical review of epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Boffetta, Paolo; Mundt, Kenneth A; Adami, Hans-Olov; Cole, Philip; Mandel, Jack S

    2011-01-01

    The authors reviewed the epidemiologic studies on exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and cancer risk, published since the last full-scale review made by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs program in 1997. The update of a cohort of US herbicide producers generated negative results overall; the internal analysis provided evidence of an increased “all-cancer” risk in the highest exposure category, with a statistically significant exposure-response association in some of the many analyses performed.The update of a similar Dutch cohort did not confirm the previously observed association with TCDD exposure. The updated surveillance of the Seveso population provided evidence of increased all-cancer mortality 15-20 years after exposure among those living in the most contaminated area but might also reflect random variation, as overall excesses in the most recent follow-up were not observed. Corresponding data on cancer incidence offer little support to the mortality results. Updated results from cohort studies of Vietnam veterans potentially exposed to TCDD did not consistently suggest an increased risk of cancer. Results of additional, smaller studies of other occupational groups potentially exposed to TCDD, and of community-based case-control studies, did not provide consistent evidence of an increased cancer risk. In conclusion, recent epidemiological evidence falls far short of conclusively demonstrating a causal link between TCDD exposure and cancer risk in humans. The emphasis on results for overall cancer risk—rather than risk for specific neoplasms—is notjustified on epidemiologic grounds and is nota reason for ignoring the weaknesses of the available evidence. PMID:21718216

  12. Mining characteristics of epidemiological studies from Medline: a case study in obesity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health sciences literature incorporates a relatively large subset of epidemiological studies that focus on population-level findings, including various determinants, outcomes and correlations. Extracting structured information about those characteristics would be useful for more complete understanding of diseases and for meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Results We present an information extraction approach that enables users to identify key characteristics of epidemiological studies from MEDLINE abstracts. It extracts six types of epidemiological characteristic: design of the study, population that has been studied, exposure, outcome, covariates and effect size. We have developed a generic rule-based approach that has been designed according to semantic patterns observed in text, and tested it in the domain of obesity. Identified exposure, outcome and covariate concepts are clustered into health-related groups of interest. On a manually annotated test corpus of 60 epidemiological abstracts, the system achieved precision, recall and F-score between 79-100%, 80-100% and 82-96% respectively. We report the results of applying the method to a large scale epidemiological corpus related to obesity. Conclusions The experiments suggest that the proposed approach could identify key epidemiological characteristics associated with a complex clinical problem from related abstracts. When integrated over the literature, the extracted data can be used to provide a more complete picture of epidemiological efforts, and thus support understanding via meta-analysis and systematic reviews. PMID:24949194

  13. Critical review of epidemiologic studies related to ingested asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.M.

    1983-11-01

    Thirteen epidemiologic studies of ingested asbestos conducted in five areas of the US and Canada were evaluated for the definitiveness and applicability regarding the development of ambient water quality standards. Associations between asbestos in water supplies and cancer mortality or incidence in humans were found in one or more studies dealing with neoplasms in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, gallbaldder, pancreas, peritoneum, lungs, pleura, prostate, kidneys, brain and thyroid as well as leukemia. However, no single study nor aggregate of studies existed that would establish risk levels from ingested asbestos. It is recommended that the integrated ecologic data to date be used to generate a rough priority of specific etiologic hypotheses that should be tested in the original settings or in independent study populations using studies designed at the more definitive individual level, such as case-control studies. 25 references, 7 tables.

  14. Drug data coding and analysis in epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Pahor, M; Chrischilles, E A; Guralnik, J M; Brown, S L; Wallace, R B; Carbonin, P

    1994-08-01

    In epidemiologic studies that collect comprehensive information on medication use, the complexity of dealing with a large number of trade and generic names may limit the utilization of these data bases. This paper shows the specific advantage of using two coding systems, one to maximize efficiency of data entry, and the other to facilitate analysis by organizing the drug ingredients into hierarchical categories. The approach used by two large surveys, one in the USA and one in Italy, is described: the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) and the 'Gruppo Italiano di Farmacovigilanza nell' Anziano' (GIFA). To enter the medications into a computerized database, codes matching the drug product names are needed. In the EPESE the prescription and over the counter drug products are coded with the Drug Products Information Coding System (DPICS) and the Iowa Nonprescription Drug Products Information Coding System (INDPICS), respectively. The GIFA study uses the coding system of the Italian Ministry of Health (MINSAN), with a unique numeric code for each drug product available in Italy. To simplify the analytical process the drug entry codes are converted into hierarchical coding systems with unique codes for specific drug ingredients, chemical and therapeutic categories. The EPESE and GIFA drug data are coded with the Iowa Drug Information System (IDIS) ingredient codes, and the Anatomical Therapeutic and chemical (ATC) codes, respectively. Examples are provided that show coding of diuretics in these two studies and demonstrate the analytic advantages of these systems. PMID:7843344

  15. The epidemiology of vertebral fractures. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C; O'Neill, T; Silman, A

    1993-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are recognised as a hallmark of osteoporosis, yet little is known of their epidemiology. This deficiency limits accurate characterisation of the public health importance of osteoporosis. Assessment of the impact of vertebral fractures has been hampered by the absence of formal criteria for identifying fractures on a thoracolumbar radiograph. Initial methods relying upon subjective radiological assessments have given way to morphometric measurements of vertebral heights, with deformities defined according to various algorithms. These methods have been used in a series of studies performed in Rochester, MN, to determine the incidence, outcome, and time trends of vertebral deformities. The results suggest a prevalence rate of vertebral deformity of 25.3 per 100 Rochester women aged 50 years and over (95% CI, 22.3-28.2), with an estimated incidence of 17.8 per 1,000 person-years. The incidence of clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures among women in the same population was 5.3 per 1,000 person-years, suggesting that around 30% of such deformities in women receive clinical attention. Morphometric measurement on the radiographs of women with clinically diagnosed fractures revealed that 80% had grade 2 ( > 4 SD) deformities. Comparable data on the occurrence and health impact of vertebral deformities throughout Europe are urgently required. The European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) is a multicentre epidemiological study that aims to address this issue. It is designed as a radiographic prevalence study in 34 European centres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8110529

  16. The Air Force health study: an epidemiologic retrospective.

    PubMed

    Buffler, Patricia A; Ginevan, Michael E; Mandel, Jack S; Watkins, Deborah K

    2011-09-01

    In 1979, the U.S. Air Force announced that an epidemiologic study would be undertaken to determine whether the Air Force personnel involved in Operation Ranch Hand-the program responsible for herbicide spraying in Vietnam-had experienced adverse health effects as a result of that service. In January 1982 the Air Force Health Study (AFHS) protocol was approved and the 20 year matched cohort study consisting of independent mortality, morbidity and reproductive health components was initiated. This controversial study has been criticized regarding the study's potential scientific limitations as well as some of the administrative aspects of its conduct. Now, almost 30 years since the implementation of the AFHS and nearly a decade since the final follow up examinations, an appraisal of the study indicates that the results of the AFHS do not provide evidence of disease in the Ranch Hand veterans caused by their elevated levels of exposure to Agent Orange. PMID:21441038

  17. Genetic Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Susceptibility: Impact of Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several candidate gene studies have provided evidence for a role of host genetics in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). However, the results of these studies have been very inconsistent, even within a study population. Here, we review the design of these studies from a genetic epidemiological perspective, illustrating important differences in phenotype definition in both cases and controls, consideration of latent M. tuberculosis infection versus active TB disease, population genetic factors such as population substructure and linkage disequilibrium, polymorphism selection, and potential global differences in M. tuberculosis strain. These considerable differences between studies should be accounted for when examining the current literature. Recommendations are made for future studies to further clarify the host genetics of TB. PMID:21283783

  18. Molecular markers for the study of streptococcal epidemiology.

    PubMed

    McMillan, David J; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L; Smeesters, Pierre Robert; Sriprakash, Kadaba S

    2013-01-01

    Diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus, GAS) range from superficial infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo to potentially fatal rheumatic heart disease and invasive disease. Studies spanning emm-typing surveillance to population genomics are providing new insights into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and biology of this organism. Such studies have demonstrated the differences that exist in the epidemiology of streptococcal disease between developing and developed nations. In developing nations, where streptococcal disease is endemic, the diversity of GAS emm-types circulating is much greater than that found in developed nations. An association between emm-type and disease, as observed in developed countries is also lacking. Intriguingly, comparative genetic studies suggest that emm-type is not always a good predictor of the evolutionary relatedness of geographically distant isolates. A view of GAS as a highly dynamic organism, in possession of a core set of virulence genes that contribute to host niche specialization and common pathogenic processes, augmented by accessory genes that change the relative virulence of specific lineages is emerging. Our inability to definitively identify genetic factors that contribute to specific disease outcome underscores the complex nature of streptococcal diseases. PMID:23179674

  19. MODELING AN IRRITANT GAS PLUME FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Dev D.; Reed, David; Feigley, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Plume dispersion modeling systems are often used in assessing human exposures to chemical hazards for epidemiologic study. We modeled the 2005 Graniteville, South Carolina, 54,915 kg railcar chlorine release using both the Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) and Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) plume modeling systems. We estimated the release rate by an engineering analysis combining semi-quantitative observations and fundamental physical principles. The use of regional meteorological conditions was validated by comparing concentration estimates generated by two source-location weather data sets. The HPAC model estimated a chlorine plume with 20 ppm outdoor concentrations up to 7 km downwind and 0.25 km upwind/downgrade. A comparative analysis of our two models showed that HPAC was the best candidate for use as a model system on which epidemiologic studies could be based after further model validation. Further validation studies are needed before individual exposure estimates can be reliable and the chlorine plume more definitively modeled. PMID:25772143

  20. Serum Biomarkers of (Anti)Oxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Eugène; Ruskovska, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (anti)oxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites) was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential). All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic) diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented. PMID:26580612

  1. Epidemiologic study of ankle fractures in a tertiary hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Matsumura, Bruno Akio Rodrigues; Dotta, Thiago De Angelis Guerra; Pontin, Pedro Augusto; dos Santos, Alexandre Leme Godoy; Fernandes, Tulio Diniz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiology of ankle fractures surgically treated at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Medical records of patients admitted with foot and ankle fractures between 2006 and 2011 were revised. Seventy three ankle fractures that underwent surgical treatment were identified. The parameters analyzed included age, gender, injured side, AO and Gustilo & Anderson classification, associated injuries, exposure, need to urgent treatment, time to definitive treatment and early post-operative complications. Study design: retrospective epidemiological study. RESULTS: Male gender was predominant among subjects and the mean age was 27.5 years old. Thirty nine fractures resulted from traffic accidents and type B fracture according to AO classification was the most common. Twenty one were open fractures and 22 patients had associated injuries. The average time to definitive treatment was 6.5 days. Early post-operative complications were found in 21.3% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Ankle fractures treated in a tertiary hospital of a large city in Brazil affect young people victims of high-energy accidents and present significant rates of associated injuries and post-operative complications. Level of Evidence IV, Cases Series. PMID:24868187

  2. Biologically based epidemiological studies of electric power and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R G

    1993-01-01

    As societies industrialize, the health profile of the population changes; in general, acute infectious disease declines and chronic disease increases. Use of electricity is a hallmark of the industrialization process, but there has been no suspicion that electricity could increase the risk of cancer. Recently, however, a number of epidemiologic studies have suggested that electromagnetic fields (EMF) may do just that. Although few cancer experiments have been done yet, there are a number of biological effects of EMF reported in the literature that might provide bases for designing cancer experiments and epidemiologic studies. These include effects of EMF on: a) DNA transcription and translation, b) calcium balance in cells, and c) pineal production of melatonin. Alterations in DNA transcription and translation could have pleiotropic effects. Disruption of calcium homeostasis has many implications including oncogene activation, promotional activity via protein kinases and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and increasing oxidative stress. Reduction of melatonin suggests a possible increased risk of cancers of hormone-dependent tissues such as breast and prostate. The idea that a cancer-causing agent must either be an initiator or a promoter should be discarded; indeed, the phenomenologic meaning of these two terms has become confused with imputed mechanistic necessity in recent years. Agents that affect division of normal cells or of fully transformed cells can play an important role in clinical cancer development quite apart from initiation or promotion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8206047

  3. Study of Resource Recovery and Epidemiology in an Anaerobic Digester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Cao, Song; Hunt, M. D.; Fu, Xuping

    1995-01-01

    Three 4-liter packed bed anaerobic digesters were fabricated and operated at 35 degrees C, pH around 7, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20, 10 and 5 days to study the resource recovery and epidemiology in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). A simulated wastewater, consisted of shower water, clothwash water, dishwasher water, handwash water, and urine flush water was used as the feeding solution. Under steady-state operation, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium wer monitored in the digester input and output solutions. The volume and the CH4/CO2 ratios in the biogas produced from the anaerobic digesters were measured. The results indicate about 90 percent of TOC is converted while only 5-8 percent of N-P-K are consumed in the digester. A multi-drug resistant strain of Salmonella choleraesuis was used as the indicator bacterium in the epidemiology study. The levels of Salmonella choleraesuis in the influent and the effluent wer determined and decimal decay rate constants, k(d), were estimated. The k(d) values were greater at higher initial doses than lower doses for the same HR, and greater for batch digestion (7.89/d) than for continuous digestion (4.28, 3.82, and 3.82/d for 20, 10, and 5 d HRT, respectively).

  4. Optimal design for epidemiological studies subject to designed missingness.

    PubMed

    Morara, Michele; Ryan, Louise; Houseman, Andres; Strauss, Warren

    2007-12-01

    In large epidemiological studies, budgetary or logistical constraints will typically preclude study investigators from measuring all exposures, covariates and outcomes of interest on all study subjects. We develop a flexible theoretical framework that incorporates a number of familiar designs such as case control and cohort studies, as well as multistage sampling designs. Our framework also allows for designed missingness and includes the option for outcome dependent designs. Our formulation is based on maximum likelihood and generalizes well known results for inference with missing data to the multistage setting. A variety of techniques are applied to streamline the computation of the Hessian matrix for these designs, facilitating the development of an efficient software tool to implement a wide variety of designs. PMID:18080755

  5. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Annette . E-mail: peters@gsf.de

    2005-09-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

  6. Recruiting American Indian Women for a Genetic Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, M.; Best, L.

    2010-01-01

    Due to previous negative experiences, some American Indian communities are distrustful of research in general and genetic research in particular. The Turtle Mountain Community College was awarded a National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant with 3 aims: (1) to study possible genetic influences on pre-eclampsia, (2) to encourage tribal college students to consider biomedical careers and (3) to develop the local research infrastructure. Retrospectively identified case (91) and control (188) participants were recruited into Phase I over a 3-year period and additional participants (71) were concurrently recruited from a prenatal clinic into a prospective case/control study, Phase II. This paper describes some of the challenges and solutions we encountered in the process of recruiting American Indian participants into a genetic epidemiologic study. PMID:20616521

  7. [French Guiana "papillonite" (lepidopterism). Clinical and epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Ducombs, G; Lamy, M; Michel, M; Pradinaud, R; Jamet, P; Vincendeau, P; Maleville, J; Texier, L

    1983-01-01

    Clinical studies by Dr R. Pradinaud (Cayenne) has given prominence to the symptoms of "papillonite": its primary and secondary cutaneous lesions, their localisation and evolution as well as its accompanying symptoms such as respiratory pathology. Epidemiologic survey shows a parallelism between the occurrence of papillonite and the presence of the moth Hylesia urticans. The urticant apparatus of this moth was studied with the scanning electron microscope. "Arrow" (fléchettes) were found and they more or less resemble the urticant apparatus of Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff caterpillar. The mechanism of action has been studied in the animal and in humans. Extracts prepared from the "arrows" have been rested in vivo guinea-pigs (bleu Evans, Liacopoulos et al.). The findings seem to incriminate an histamino-liberation. PMID:6666924

  8. [Alcohol and wine and cardiovascular diseases in epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Sinkiewicz, Władysław; Weglarz, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Moderate alcohol intake is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases. A large number of epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a U- or J-shaped relation between alcohol consumption and total mortality, coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. The lowest risk occurs in those who drink one or two drinks per day. Many studies have dealt with the question if specific alcoholic beverage (vodka, beer, wine, liquor) might offer a greater protection. Red wine containing polyphenols is believed to possess exceptional cardioprotective properties, especially if consumed with meals. However, alcohol beverages should not be recommended to patients as a substitute for the well-proven, cardiovascular risk reducing alternatives such as low fat diet, exercise and pharmacotherapy. PMID:19739580

  9. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J; Berg-Beckhoff, G

    2010-08-01

    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly. PMID:20308051

  10. Epidemiologic studies of the human microbiome and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vogtmann, Emily; Goedert, James J

    2016-01-01

    The human microbiome, which includes the collective genome of all bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and viruses found in and on the human body, is altered in many diseases and may substantially affect cancer risk. Previously detected associations of individual bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori), periodontal disease, and inflammation with specific cancers have motivated studies considering the association between the human microbiome and cancer risk. This short review summarises microbiome research, focusing on published epidemiological associations with gastric, oesophageal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, lung, colorectal, and other cancers. Large, prospective studies of the microbiome that employ multidisciplinary laboratory and analysis methods, as well as rigorous validation of case status, are likely to yield translational opportunities to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality by improving prevention, screening, and treatment. PMID:26730578

  11. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, S. M.; Cartwright, R. A.; Darwin, C. M.; Richards, I. D.; Roberts, B.; O'Brien, C.; Bird, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed. PMID:3814482

  12. How can epidemiological studies contribute to understanding autism spectrum disorders?

    PubMed

    Honda, Hideo

    2013-02-01

    More and more studies on the frequency of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been published recently, most of which show the increase in prevalence data. In this review, the author pointed out factors and parameters to be considered in analyzing frequency data, i.e., the enlargement of the concept of autism, prevalence and incidence, accuracy and precision in the initial screening, and the effect of the "vaccine debate". The proportion of high-functioning ASD has been growing higher and higher due to better recognition in the last few years, and the apparent increase might still be the tip of an iceberg. Future epidemiological studies should include themes on diversity of the longitudinal course and re-conceptualization of ASD by dimensional diagnosis. PMID:22766241

  13. Ultraviolet radiation and the eye: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H R

    1989-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from biochemical, animal, and epidemiologic studies suggests an association between exposure to UV-B radiation (290 nm to 320 nm) and cataract. Such an association had not been proven because it had not been possible to quantify ocular UV-B exposure of individuals or to reliably grade the type and severity of cataract in field studies. We undertook an epidemiologic survey of cataract among 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay. Their individual ocular UV-B exposure was quantified for each year of life over the age of 16, on the basis of a detailed occupational history combined with laboratory and field measurements of ocular UV-B exposure. Cataracts were graded by both type and severity through clinical and photographic means. SMD changes were ascertained by fundal photography. A general medical history was taken to discover potentially confounding factors. This study showed that people with cortical lens opacities had a 21% higher UV-B exposure at each year of life than people without these opacities. A doubling in lifetime UV-B exposure led to a 60% increase in the risk of cortical cataract, and those with a high annual UV-B exposure increased their risk of cortical cataract over threefold. Corneal changes, namely pterygium and CDK, were also strongly associated with high UV-B exposure. No association was found between nuclear lens opacities or macular degeneration and UV-B exposure. This study also indicated several simple, practical measures, such as wearing spectacles or a hat, that effectively protect the eye from UV-B exposure. Thus it is easily within the power of individuals to protect their eyes from excessive UV-B exposure and reduce their risk of cortical cataract. A program of public education in this area could be a cost-effective means of reducing this important disease. PMID:2562534

  14. Radiation epidemiology and recent paediatric computed tomography studies.

    PubMed

    Boice, J D

    2015-06-01

    Recent record-linkage studies of cancer risk following computed tomography (CT) procedures among children and adolescents under 21 years of age must be interpreted with caution. The reasons why the examinations were performed were not known, and the dosimetric approaches did not include individual dose reconstructions or account for the possibility for missed examinations. The recent report (2013) on children by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation concluded that the associations may have resulted from confounding by indication (also called 'reverse causation'), and not radiation exposure. The reported cancer associations may very well have been related to the patients' underlying health conditions that prompted the examinations. Reverse causation has been observed in other epidemiological investigations, such as a Swedish study of thyroid cancer risk following I-131 scintillation imaging scans, and in studies of brain cancer risk following Thorotrast for cerebral angiography. Epidemiological patterns reported in the CT studies were also inconsistent with the world's literature. For example, in a UK study, teenagers had a higher risk of brain tumour than young children; in an Australian study, cancers not previously linked to radiation were significantly elevated; and in a Taiwanese study, the risk of benign tumours decreased with age at the time of CT examination. In all studies, solid tumours appeared much earlier than previously reported. Remarkably, in the Australian study, brain cancer excesses were seen regardless of whether or not the CT was to the head, i.e. a significant excess was reported for CT examinations of the abdomen and extremities, which involved no radiation exposure to the brain. In the UK study, the significance of the 'leukaemia' finding was only because myelodysplastic syndrome was added to the category, and there was no significance for leukaemia alone. Without knowledge of why CT examinations were

  15. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  16. Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Tossa, Paul; Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Hartemann, Philippe; Mathieu, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days). 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]). A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method) was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04). Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of Legionella. PMID:16646972

  17. Cycloplegic refraction is the gold standard for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ian G; Iribarren, Rafael; Fotouhi, Akbar; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Many studies on children have shown that lack of cycloplegia is associated with slight overestimation of myopia and marked errors in estimates of the prevalence of emmetropia and hyperopia. Non-cycloplegic refraction is particularly problematic for studies of associations with risk factors. The consensus around the importance of cycloplegia in children left undefined at what age, if any, cycloplegia became unnecessary. It was often implicitly assumed that cycloplegia is not necessary beyond childhood or early adulthood, and thus, the protocol for the classical studies of refraction in older adults did not include cycloplegia. Now that population studies of refractive error are beginning to fill the gap between schoolchildren and older adults, whether cycloplegia is required for measuring refractive error in this age range, needs to be defined. Data from the Tehran Eye Study show that, without cycloplegia, there are errors in the estimation of myopia, emmetropia and hyperopia in the age range 20-50, just as in children. Similar results have been reported in an analysis of data from the Beaver Dam Offspring Eye Study. If the only important outcome measure of a particular study is the prevalence of myopia, then cycloplegia may not be crucial in some cases. But, without cycloplegia, measurements of other refractive categories as well as spherical equivalent are unreliable. In summary, the current evidence suggests that cycloplegic refraction should be considered as the gold standard for epidemiological studies of refraction, not only in children, but in adults up to the age of 50. PMID:25597549

  18. Critical review of epidemiologic studies related to ingested asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, G M

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen epidemiologic studies of ingested asbestos conducted in five areas of the United States and Canada were reviewed and evaluated for the definitiveness and applicability regarding the development of ambient water quality standards. One or more studies found male or female associations between asbestos in water supplies and cancer mortality (or incidence) due to neoplasms of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, peritoneum, lungs, pleura, prostate, kidneys, brain, and thyroid, and also due to leukemia. Several methodologic weaknesses and limitations were found in each study, leading to the determination that no individual study or aggregation of studies exist that would establish risk levels from ingested asbestos. A binomial probability analysis of the eight independent studies suggested that, while the level of male-female agreement was generally low, the number of observed positive associations in males and females for neoplasms of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and prostate was unlikely to have been generated by chance factors alone, and thus, may have a biological basis related to ingested asbestos. Cancers of the small intestine and leukemia were implicated to a lesser degree in this analysis. The patterns of integrated findings for most gastrointestinal cancers were somewhat consistent with patterns observed among asbestos-exposed occupational groups, whereas the patterns found for pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, and leukemia were not consistent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6662094

  19. Overview of epidemiological studies on wine, health and mortality.

    PubMed

    Ruf, J C

    2003-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have observed that moderate intake of alcohol including wine is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, according to several authors, moderate consumption of wine is more beneficial than that of beer or spirits. Some studies have shown that moderate consumption of wine can lower mortality from CVD and other causes. The link between drinking wine and total mortality risk (all causes combined) has been studied. The results of various prospective population studies show that intake of beer and spirits from abstention to light to moderate daily intake did not influence mortality, while wine seems to have a beneficial effect on all causes of mortality. Other studies have reached the same conclusion. In general, several authors have reported that in subjects consuming wine in moderation the risk of mortality from all causes is 20-30% lower than in abstainers. Grape wine appears to be the main alcoholic beverage that contains antioxidant phenolic substances known to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein and affect hemostasis and carcinogenesis. In conclusion, there are differences in the effects of wine, beer and spirits on health. These differences may not be significant in coronary heart disease. Only moderate wine consumption appears to have a beneficial effect on several types of cancer and on total mortality. PMID:15134372

  20. Parental occupation and childhood cancer: review of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, D A; Chen, J H

    1990-01-01

    Parental occupational exposures might affect childhood cancer in the offspring through genetic changes in the ovum or sperm or through transplacental carcinogenesis. The 24 published epidemiologic studies of this association have all used case-control designs, with controls generally selected from birth certificates or from general population sampling. Occupational exposures were inferred from job titles on birth certificates or through interviews. A large number of occupation-cancer associations have been reported, many of which were not addressed or not confirmed in other studies. Several associations have been found with consistency: paternal exposures in hydrocarbon-associated occupations, the petroleum and chemical industries, and especially paint exposures have been associated with brain cancer; paint exposures have also been linked to leukemias. Maternal exposures have received much less attention, but studies have yielded strongly suggestive results linking a variety of occupational exposures to leukemia and brain cancer. The primary limitations in this literature are the inaccuracy inherent in assigning exposure based on job title alone and imprecision due to limited study size. Although no etiologic associations have been firmly established by these studies, the public health concerns and suggestive data warrant continued research. PMID:2272330

  1. Endometriosis and breast cancer: A survey of the epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    PONTIKAKI, A.; SIFAKIS, S.; SPANDIDOS, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that affects approximately 10% of women of reproductive age. Recent reviews have demonstrated the connection between endometriosis and breast cancer, which represents the most frequently diagnosed female cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related mortality among women worldwide. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of available published epidemiological studies indicating the association between endometriosis and breast cancer, and simultaneously to categorize the results based on the strength of the association, with the intention of the critical evaluation of the existing data. We performed a rigorous search of the PubMed/Medline database, using the key words ‘endometriosis’ and ‘breast cancer’ for all studies published in the English language until September 2015. We found 4 retrospective cohort studies, 4 case-control studies and 3 case-cohort studies that demonstrated a notable risk for developing breast cancer among women with endometriosis. By contrast, we also found 5 case-control studies, 1 prospective cohort study, 1 case-cohort study and 1 cross-sectional study that demonstrated a negative association between endometriosis and breast cancer. In conclusion, as regards the clarification of a ‘robust’ or ‘weak’ association between endometriosis and breast cancer, no definite conclusions could be drawn, due to the limited number of studies and the limitations of each of these studies. New well-designed, prospective cohort or randomized control trials with long-term follow-up are warranted in order to provide evidence-based clinical recommendations for proper counseling, screening and treatment strategies for patients with endometriosis, and hence to improve public health. PMID:26870162

  2. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Cancer.gov

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  3. ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    Richard Kwok1, Pauline Mendola1 Zhixiong Ning2, Zhiyi Liu2 and Judy Mumford1

    1) Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA, R...

  4. Mycosis fungoides in Iranian population: an epidemiological and clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Fatemi Naeini, Farahnaz; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Sadeghiyan, Hamidreza; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Najafian, Jamshid; Pourazizi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Extensive studies on Iranian MF patients are absent. The present study aimed to produce updated clinical information on Iranian MF patients. Methods. This was a retrospective, descriptive, single-center study, including all cases of MF seen in the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Isfahan, Iran, between 2003 and 2013. Data systematically recorded for each patient included clinical, biological, histological, and molecular findings. Results. Eighty-six patients with clinical and histologic diagnosis of MF were included in the study. Thirty-nine patients (45.3%) were male. Female predominance was observed in patients (male : female ratio is 1 : 1.2). Patients were between 7 and 84 years of age (median: 41). The interval from disease onset to diagnosis ranged from 0 to 55 years (median: 1 year). Eighteen cases (20.9%) had unusual variants of MF. The most common types included hypopigmented and poikilodermatous MF. Childhood cases of MF constituted 5.8% (5/86) of all patients. The early stages were seen in 82 cases (95.34%). Conclusion. The major differences in epidemiologic characteristics of MF in Iran are the lack of male predominance and the lower age of patients at the time of diagnosis. PMID:25694829

  5. Mycosis Fungoides in Iranian Population: An Epidemiological and Clinicopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi Naeini, Farahnaz; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Sadeghiyan, Hamidreza; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Najafian, Jamshid; Pourazizi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Extensive studies on Iranian MF patients are absent. The present study aimed to produce updated clinical information on Iranian MF patients. Methods. This was a retrospective, descriptive, single-center study, including all cases of MF seen in the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Isfahan, Iran, between 2003 and 2013. Data systematically recorded for each patient included clinical, biological, histological, and molecular findings. Results. Eighty-six patients with clinical and histologic diagnosis of MF were included in the study. Thirty-nine patients (45.3%) were male. Female predominance was observed in patients (male : female ratio is 1 : 1.2). Patients were between 7 and 84 years of age (median: 41). The interval from disease onset to diagnosis ranged from 0 to 55 years (median: 1 year). Eighteen cases (20.9%) had unusual variants of MF. The most common types included hypopigmented and poikilodermatous MF. Childhood cases of MF constituted 5.8% (5/86) of all patients. The early stages were seen in 82 cases (95.34%). Conclusion. The major differences in epidemiologic characteristics of MF in Iran are the lack of male predominance and the lower age of patients at the time of diagnosis. PMID:25694829

  6. Epidemiological study of fixed drug eruption in Pointe-Noire.

    PubMed

    Ognongo-Ibiaho, A N; Atanda, H L

    2012-11-01

    A prospective study was conducted over a 27 month period in order to determine the epidemiological profile of fixed drug eruption (FDE) observed during a dermatological consultation at Pointe-Noire. During the study period 54 out of 9,070 persons consulting (0.6%) suffered from clinically diagnosed FDE. The variables studied were: age, sex, medicine and point of sale. The average age of onset was 30 years. The frequency of onset was higher in males (38 patients) than in females (16 patients). The incriminated medicines were: the sulfamides (48 patients) including Cotrimoxazole (45 patients ) and Sulfadoxine and Pyremethamine (3 patients) Coartem(®) + Doliprane(®) (1 patient), Chloramphenicol(®) (1 patient), Amidol(®) (1 patient), Duocotexin(®) + Paracetamol(®) (1 patient), Surquina(®) (1 patient), Amodiaquine(®) (1 patient). The point of sale was illicit (peddlers, markets) for 44 patients; for 10 patients it was a lawful outlet (pharmacies). This study shows that cotrimoxazole bought at illicit points of sale is the main etiology of FDE in the department, confirming that these medicines are counterfeit. The involvement of dermatologists in the fight against the illicit sale of medicines should be made a priority. PMID:23210952

  7. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  8. Low-dose radiation epidemiology studies: status and issues.

    PubMed

    Shore, Roy E

    2009-11-01

    Although the Japanese atomic bomb study and radiotherapy studies have clearly documented cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposures, radiation risk assessment groups have long recognized that protracted or low exposures to low-linear energy transfer radiations are key radiation protection concerns because these are far more common than high-exposure scenarios. Epidemiologic studies of human populations with low-dose or low dose-rate exposures are one approach to addressing those concerns. A number of large studies of radiation workers (Chernobyl clean-up workers, U.S. and Chinese radiological technologists, and the 15-country worker study) or of persons exposed to environmental radiation at moderate to low levels (residents near Techa River, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl, or nuclear facilities) have been conducted. A variety of studies of medical radiation exposures (multiple-fluoroscopy, diagnostic (131)I, scatter radiation doses from radiotherapy, etc.) also are of interest. Key results from these studies are summarized and compared with risk estimates from the Japanese atomic bomb study. Ideally, one would like the low-dose and low dose-rate studies to guide radiation risk estimation regarding the shape of the dose-response curve, DDREF (dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), and risk at low doses. However, the degree to which low-dose studies can do so is subject to various limitations, especially those pertaining to dosimetric uncertainties and limited statistical power. The identification of individuals who are particularly susceptible to radiation cancer induction also is of high interest in terms of occupational and medical radiation protection. Several examples of studies of radiation-related cancer susceptibility are discussed, but none thus far have clearly identified radiation-susceptible genotypes. PMID:19820457

  9. [Program of studies on psychiatric epidemiology in Argentina. General report].

    PubMed

    Casullo, M M

    1980-12-01

    This paper is an outline of a wide program that is currently under development in the large territory of Argentina. The Director of the Program is Dr. Fernando Pagés Larraya; it is supported by the National Council of Scientific Researches (CONICET) and the National Board of Mental Health. The general purpose of the program is to study the prevalence of mental disorders in different ethnographic areas within the country. Epidemiology allows the forecasting of disease occurence. A research work this area may be qualified "effective" if it provides useful data for prevention programs. Therefore, it is necessary that researches and professional responsibles of Mental Health Governmental decissions work together. This rapprochment is being attempted in developing the Argentine research program. It has a cross-cultural approach. It can be called "a way of thinking" as opposed to a precise methodology. A considerable variety of research tools are being used, depending on the specific purposes and the characteristics of the ethnographic areas. One of the main difficulties in choosing a technique for "case-finding" is uncertainty about where to place the "cut-off point" between presence and absence of illness. In this program the Present State Examination (PSE) is used in population surveys of large urban centers. It is a semi-structured interview that has been extensively tested. In small rural communities, the work is done using "key-informants" and applying the snow-ball sample technique. One specific purpose of the research is the study of the modal personality structure in each ethnographic area, formulated in terms of the Holtzman Inkblot Test. The paper shows the relationships between purposes, research tools and responsible professionals. There is hardly time or surplus intellectual energy for polemic and alienation between clinicians and social scientists. Theories, methodologies, research data and prevention programs have not developed harmoniously. We need to

  10. An epidemiological study of dengue in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Kumar; Nagpal, B N; Pande, Veena; Srivastava, Aruna; Saxena, Rekha; Anvikar, Anup; Das, Aparup; Singh, Himmat; Anushrita; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Tuli, N R; Telle, Olivier; Yadav, N K; Valecha, Neena; Paul, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Delhi, the capital of India, is an important metropolitan hub for major financial and sociocultural exchanges, offering challenging threats to current public health infrastructure. In recent past, an upsurge of dengue cases in Delhi posed a significant menace to the existing dengue control policies. To reform the control strategies and take timely intervention to prevent future epidemics, an epidemiological study on the proportion of both asymptomatic and symptomatic dengue infections in selected population was conducted. The aim of the study was to investigate and assess the epidemiology of dengue infection and to estimate the proportion of asymptomatic and symptomatic dengue infections in Delhi. In this study, around 50 confirmed dengue cases, a total of 2125 individuals as household and neighbourhood contacts, with or without dengue febrile illness, were finger pricked and serologically detected as dengue positive or negative using SD Duo Bioline Rapid Diagnostic Test (SD Inc, Korea) with NS1, IgM & IgG combo test, which detected dengue virus antigen and antibodies to dengue virus in human blood. Out of 2125 individuals, 768 (36.1%) individuals showed positive dengue test with past (25.5%), primary (1.88%) or secondary (8.8%) dengue infections. Higher percentage of IgG was found in age groups 15-24 years and 25-50 years (36% each). Infants (<1 year) presented higher incidence of new infections (22% of NS1+IgM positives) as compared to adults. Further analysis revealed that out of the 226 newly infected cases (including NS1 and IgM positives), 142 (63%) were asymptomatic and 84 (37%) were symptomatic, as per WHO guidelines. Our findings also suggest that out of the total population screened, 10.6% dengue infection was either primary or secondary. On the basis of these results, it may be hypothesized that there are large number of asymptomatic dengue infections in the community as compared to reported symptomatic cases in Delhi. For the effective control of dengue

  11. Exposure assessment in industry specific retrospective occupational epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, N S; Checkoway, H

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of exposure for occupational epidemiology studies has received increasing attention in recent years and, as a result, a body of methodological literature has begun to take form. This paper reviews the generic issues in the methodology of exposure assessment, particularly methods for quantitative retrospective assessment studies. A simple framework, termed an exposure data matrix (EDM), for defining and analysing exposure data is proposed and discussed in terms of the definition of matrix dimensions and scales. Several methods for estimation, interpolation, and extrapolation, ranging from subjective ratings to quantitative statistical modelling are presented and discussed. The various approaches to exposure assessment based on the EDM concept are illustrated with studies of lung disease among coal miners and other dust and chemically induced chronic occupational diseases. The advantages of validated statistical models are emphasised. The importance of analysis and control of errors in exposure assessments, and integration of the exposure assessment and exposure-response processes, especially for emerging occupational health issues, is emphasised. PMID:7489051

  12. Epidemiological Assessments of Skin Outcomes in the Nurses’ Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Weinstock, Martin A.; Mashfiq, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHSs) to identifying epidemiological factors associated with multiple skin diseases, including skin cancer, psoriasis, and other inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. Methods. We carried out a narrative review of NHS articles published between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHSs have identified environmental and lifestyle factors related to psoriasis, supporting obesity and smoking as psoriasis risk factors; associations between psoriasis and diabetes, myocardial infarction, and Crohn’s disease, supporting psoriasis as a systemic disorder; and associations of pigmentary traits, ultraviolet radiation, and lifestyle factors such as citrus consumption with risk of skin cancer. Genetic studies have identified novel genetic loci for skin pigmentation (e.g., IRF4, SLC24A4, NID1, and EDNRB) and skin cancer (e.g., TET2 and HERC2-OCA2). Work continues on highly prevalent but less studied skin conditions such as rosacea, acne, and atopic dermatitis. The NHS results have influenced public health policies on indoor tanning devices. Conclusions. The NHSs have provided invaluable resources on skin disease population science and contributed to the etiological understanding of multiple skin disorders. PMID:27459457

  13. Interfacing anthropology and epidemiology: the Bedouin Arab Infant Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Hundt, G A; Forman, M R

    1993-04-01

    This paper encapsulates a 10 year effort of multi-disciplinary research on the relationship between infant feeding, growth, and morbidity among the Negev Bedouin Arabs of Israel as they underwent a transition from semi-nomadism to urban settlement. The research team was multi-disciplinary including a nutritional epidemiologist and an anthropologist who both came to the study with previous experience in interdisciplinary work. The specific study objectives were (1) a description of infant feeding practices among Negev Bedouin Arab women at various stages of settlement, (2) an examination of the trend in these infant feeding practices, (3) a comparison of the extent to which different infant feeding practices are related to infant morbidity and growth after adjustment for exposure to social change and other covariates. The data collection took place in 1981-83 and the analysis from 1984-88. In this paper, two areas of the study are discussed in depth: the duration of exclusive breast feeding during the practice of the traditional postpartum 40 day rest period, and the development of a culture-specific scale of socioeconomic status. Through these examples, we highlight the use of ethnographic data and the merging of epidemiology and anthropology from hypothesis generation through data collection, data analysis and interpretation. PMID:8480241

  14. An update of epidemiologic studies of plutonium workers.

    PubMed

    Voelz, G L; Wilkinson, G S; Acquavella, J F; Tietjen, G L; Brackbill, R N; Reyes, M; Wiggs, L D

    1983-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies are being conducted as part of a national survey of plutonium workers at four Department of Energy facilities (Los Alamos, NM; Rocky Flats, CO; Mound Laboratory, OH; and Savannah River, SC). A preliminary analysis of mortality was done for all white males who have worked at the Rocky Flats Plant during the period 1952-79. The 452 observed deaths were significantly fewer than the 831 expected for all causes. The 107 deaths due to all malignant neoplasms were also significantly fewer than the 167 expected from these diseases. Expected deaths were derived from age and calendar-specific death rates for U.S. white males. Deaths reported for benign and unspecified neoplasms numbered eight versus an expected two, a significant elevation. These tumors, all intracranial, are the subject of a case-control study to be reported later. Subdividing the cohort on the basis of plutonium exposures and external radiation exposures results in similar overall findings. The benign and unspecified neoplasms, however, were not significantly high in the plutonium-exposed group. PMID:6862925

  15. An Epidemiological Study of Neuropathic Pain Symptoms in Canadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G.; Mann, Elizabeth G.; Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H.; Johnson, Ana; Gilron, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The reported prevalence of neuropathic pain ranges from 6.9% to 10%; however the only Canadian study reported 17.9%. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of neuropathic pain in Canada. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a random sample of Canadian adults. The response rate was 21.1% (1504/7134). Likely or possible neuropathic pain was defined using a neuropathic pain-related diagnosis and a positive outcome on the Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale (S-LANSS) or the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) Questions. The prevalence of likely neuropathic pain was 1.9% (S-LANSS) and 3.4% (DN4) and that of possible neuropathic pain was 5.8% (S-LANSS) and 8.1% (DN4). Neuropathic pain was highest in economically disadvantaged males. There is a significant burden of neuropathic pain in Canada. The low response rate and a slightly older and less educated sample than the Canadian population may have led to an overestimate of neuropathic pain. Population prevalence varies by screening tool used, indicating more work is needed to develop reliable measures. Population level screening targeted towards high risk groups should improve the sensitivity and specificity of screening, while clinical examination of those with positive screening results will further refine the estimate of prevalence. PMID:27445636

  16. Study design in genetic epidemiology: theoretical and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Whittemore, A S; Nelson, L M

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics have created new opportunities and challenges for genetic epidemiologists. Here we review some of the issues that arise when designing a study involving the genetic epidemiology of chronic diseases of late onset, such as cancer. We discuss two considerations that influence the choice of design. The first consideration is the study's goals. We describe the goals of identifying new susceptibility genes for a disease, of estimating important characteristics of known genes, and of learning how to prevent the disease in the genetically susceptible. We indicate how these goals affect the choice of design and present some guidelines for choosing designs that effectively address them. The second consideration is the set of practical constraints to successfully conducting the research. These contraints include problems of potential selection bias, reduced response rates, problems particular to family registries, problems particular to the cultures of various ethnic groups, and ethical issues. We indicate how these constraints affect the choice of design and discuss ways to deal with them. PMID:10854488

  17. Epidemiological studies of CHD and the evolution of preventive cardiology.

    PubMed

    Wong, Nathan D

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) cause nearly one-third of all deaths worldwide. Coronary heart disease (CHD) accounts for the greatest proportion of CVDs, and risk factors such as hypertension, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus or elevated glucose level, elevated cholesterol levels, and obesity or being overweight are the top six causes of death globally. Ecological and population-based longitudinal studies, conducted globally or within individual countries, have established the role of traditional and novel risk factors and measures of subclinical disease in the prediction of CHD. Risk assessment with short-term or long-term risk prediction algorithms can help to identify individuals who would benefit most from risk-factor interventions. Evaluation of novel risk factors and screening for subclinical atherosclerosis can also help to identify individuals at highest cardiovascular risk. Prevention of CHD focuses on identifying and managing risk factors at both the population and individual levels through primordial, primary, and secondary prevention. Epidemiological studies have provided the hypotheses for subsequent clinical trials that have documented the efficacy of risk-factor interventions, which are the basis of preventive cardiology. Future research efforts will determine the screening and intervention strategies that have the greatest effect on CHD prevention. PMID:24663092

  18. Maximizing DNA yield for epidemiologic studies: no more buffy coats?

    PubMed

    Gail, Mitchell H; Sheehy, Tim; Cosentino, Mark; Pee, David; Diaz-Mayoral, Norma A; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Caporaso, Neil E; Pitt, Karen; Ziegler, Regina G

    2013-10-01

    Some molecular analyses require microgram quantities of DNA, yet many epidemiologic studies preserve only the buffy coat. In Frederick, Maryland, in 2010, we estimated DNA yields from 5 mL of whole blood and from equivalent amounts of all-cell-pellet (ACP) fraction, buffy coat, and residual blood cells from fresh blood (n = 10 volunteers) and from both fresh and frozen blood (n = 10). We extracted DNA with the QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, Maryland) for silica spin column capture and measured double-stranded DNA. Yields from frozen blood fractions were not statistically significantly different from those obtained from fresh fractions. ACP fractions yielded 80.6% (95% confidence interval: 66, 97) of the yield of frozen whole blood and 99.3% (95% confidence interval: 86, 100) of the yield of fresh blood. Frozen buffy coat and residual blood cells each yielded only half as much DNA as frozen ACP, and the yields were more variable. Assuming that DNA yield and quality from frozen ACP are stable, we recommend freezing plasma and ACP. Not only does ACP yield twice as much DNA as buffy coat but it is easier to process, and its yield is less variable from person to person. Long-term stability studies are needed. If one wishes to separate buffy coat before freezing, one should also save the residual blood cell fraction, which contains just as much DNA. PMID:23857774

  19. Biotyping of Serratia marcescens and its use in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Grimont, P A; Grimont, F

    1978-01-01

    A Serratia marcescens biotyping system using eight carbon sources (benzoate, DL-carnitine, m-erythritol, 3-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, lactose, D-quinate, and trigonelline), a tetrathionate reduction test, production of prodigiosin, and horse blood hemolysis was derived from a recent numerical taxonomic study (Grimont et al., J. Gen. Microbiol. 98:39-66, 1977). A total of 98.6% of 2,210 isolates from various sources could be assigned to 1 of 19 biotypes. Distribution and spread of 1,088 S. marcescens isolates throughout 13 clinical departments of Pellegrin Hospital (Bordeaux, France) were studied from 1968 through 1975. Except for one that colonized the intestinal tract of newborns, the six pigmented biotypes were seldom isolated. Each of the 13 nonpigmented biotypes showed a particular pattern of distribution and spread. The usefulness of S. marcescens biotyping was shown by relating several isolates recovered from patients and their inanimate environment and by pointing out the possible existence of infections or colonizations by two unrelated biotypes. S. marcescens strains isolated from the natural environment (water) are usually pigmented, and their biotypes are uncommon in hospitals. Biotyping can, therefore, be of help in epidemiological and ecological surveys. PMID:353073

  20. Cognition and Vascular Risk Factors: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Vicario, Augusto; Del Sueldo, Mildren; Fernández, Ruth A.; Enders, Julio; Zilberman, Judith; Cerezo, Gustavo H.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological approach to identify the negative impact of the vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia) over cognition. The interesting aspect of this study was that the survey was conducted in all age groups through a voluntary call (n = 1365; ≥18 years old, both sexes; age 49 ± 15 y, female 75.7%). Thus, we demonstrated that the use of a Minimum Cognitive Examination (MCE), a brief, simple, and easy managed neuropsychological evaluation, detected a greater number of people with cognitive decline surpassing to the Minimal Mental Statement Examination alone (14.5% of the participants showed MMSE ≤24, 34,6% showed dys-executive function, and 45,8% memory impairment. Out of the 4 studied RF, the only one that was not related to cognitive impairment was dyslipemia. Finally, we noted the importance of cognitive state early detection in all age groups, even in the youngest group. Acting in the middle of the life stages, we can prevent or delay the onset of a disease in adults, nowadays incurable: dementia. PMID:22988488

  1. Molecular epidemiological study of dengue virus type 1 in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kao-Pin; Chu, Pei-Yu; Tung, Yi-Ching; Wang, Heng-Lin; Yueh, Yi-Yun; Wu, Ying-Chang; Chin, Chuan; Lin, Kuei-Hsiang

    2003-07-01

    Taiwan has experienced several major outbreaks of dengue (DEN) virus since 1981. The predominant virus type involved has been dengue virus type one (DEN-1), which first appeared in 1987. To understand the molecular epidemiology of this virus, 15 strains of DEN-1 isolated during 1987-1991 and 1994-1995, including 11 epidemic strains, two sporadic strains, and two imported strains have been studied. Fragments of 490 nucleotides (nt) from the E/NS1 junction were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the nt sequences were determined. Of the 490 nt of the E/NS1 junction, 240 nt (nt 2282-2521) were aligned and compared. Nucleotide substitutions were found at 54 positions among 15 isolates. Most nt changes were synonymous substitutions, and only three amino acid changes were found. A total of 61 strains isolated worldwide were analyzed by the Neighbor-joining method, and separated phylogenetically into three distinct genotypes, I-III. Genotype I comprised isolates from Japan and Hawaii collected in the 1940s. Genotype II included most strains isolated from Asia in 1977-1995. Genotype III consisted of isolates from three continents in 1964-1995: Asia, the Americas, and Africa. Genotype III was divided further into two subgenotypes, IIIA and IIIB. Most recent isolates from Taiwan, except for the sporadic strain isolated in 1995, were similar genetically and have been classified as Genotype II. PMID:12767004

  2. Usefulness of ribotyping in a molecular epidemiology study of shigellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, M. C.; Martín, M. C.; González-Hevia, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Ribotyping performed with six restriction endonucleases was used to study the molecular epidemiology of shigellosis in Asturias, Spain. The series included Shigella sonnei from 34 sporadic cases, 3 outbreaks and 3 reference strains, and S. Flexneri from sporadic cases and 1 reference strain. The S. sonnei strains were grouped into 5 ribotypes with Sal I, 4 with Hind III and Pvu II, 3 with Bgl II and EcoR I and 2 with Hinc II (Discriminatory Index (DI) between 0.54 and 0.14); the S. flexneri into 5 ribotypes with Sal I, Hinc II and Hind III, and 4 with the other enzymes (DI = 0.71 - 0.63). The combination of results for 2 or more enzymes facilitated and additional discrimination, the highest values in S. sonnei were for the 6 enzymes (16 types, DI = 0.91) and in S. flexneri for some combinations of 3 or more enzymes (7 types, DI = 0.81). Ribotypes with the 6 enzymes defined 16 clonal lines in S. sonnei and 7 in S. flexneri, which showed a different degree of genetic heterogeneity, and all the lines of each species falling into a different cluster. No line appeared as clearly endemic in the bowels of Asturian people. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8620903

  3. Comparison of Mycotic Keratitis with Nonmycotic Keratitis: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Khater, Mohammad M.; Shehab, Nehal S.; El-Badry, Anwar S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This work aims to study the problems encountered with and the different epidemiological features of patients with fungal keratitis. Patients and Methods. All cases with keratitis attending the Outpatient Clinic of Ophthalmology Department at Tanta University Hospital during three years from the first of January 2011 to the end of December 2013 were selected and carefully examined and cases with mycotic keratitis were further examined and investigated. Results. From 66303 attendants during this period with different complaints, there were 361 cases (0.54%) with mycotic keratitis and 473 cases (0.71%) of nonmycotic origin. Mycotic keratitis is common between 40 and 60 years, more in farmers (64%), families with large number and large crowding index, rural than urban residence, and patients with outdoor water sources and insanitary sewage disposal. Positive fungal cultures were obtained in 84.5% and were negative in 15.5% of cases in spite of their typical clinical findings for diagnosis and their improvement with antifungal therapy. Conclusion. Mycotic keratitis is more frequent in farmers, rural areas, outdoor water supply, insanitary sewage disposal, and patients preceded with organic trauma. Atypical clinical findings were found in some cases and not all cases improved with specific antifungal therapy. PMID:25548657

  4. [Acute and overuse injuries in elite paracycling - an epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Kromer, P; Röcker, K; Sommer, A; Baur, H; Konstantinidis, L; Gollhofer, A; Südkamp, N P; Hirschmüller, A

    2011-09-01

    Although paracycling is a growing discipline in high level competitive sports as well as in posttraumatic rehabilitation, epidemiological data of resulting injuries is still missing. Therefore, 19 athletes of the German national paracycling team were asked about their injuries during the 2008 season using a standardized questionnaire. Overall, 18 (94.7 %) of 19 athletes reported overuse injuries; most commonly localized at the back (83.3 %), neck/shoulder (77.8 %), knee (50 %), groin/buttock (50 %) and hands/wrists (38.9 %). Altogether, 18 accidents were registered, corresponding to an injury rate of 0,95 acute injuries per athlete per year (0,07 / 1000 km). The most common acute injuries were abrasions (69.2 %) and contusions (61.5 %), whereas fractures were stated only twice (11.8 %). The anatomical distribution of overuse injuries in disabled cyclists confirms the results of studies in able-bodied cycling, although the incidences in low-back pain and neck/shoulder pain is clearly higher in disabled cycling, as well as the rate of traumatic injuries. PMID:21922439

  5. Fatalities associated with farm tractor injuries: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R A; Smith, J D; Sikes, R K; Rogers, D L; Mickey, J L

    1985-01-01

    Death certificates were used as a source of information to characterize fatalities associated with farm tractor injuries in Georgia for the period 1971-81. In this period, 202 tractor-associated fatalities occurred among residents of Georgia; 198 of these persons were males. The annual tractor-associated fatality rate for males based on the population of male farm residents was 23.6 per 100,000; rates of fatal injury increased with age for this population. Persons whose primary occupation was other than farming accounted for more than half of all tractor-associated deaths. Fatal injuries occurred throughout the year but predominantly during the planting and harvesting months. Injuries occurred throughout the day (7 a.m. to midnight), with a peak at 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. Most fatal injuries, 76 percent, resulted when tractors overturned. Fatalities were attributed to crushed chest, exsanguination, strangulation or asphyxia, drowning, and other injuries. Current safety standards for the operation of farm tractors are limited; rollover protective canopies are not required for farm owners or their family members. Descriptive epidemiologic information obtained from death certificates can be used to define injury determinants and to suggest approaches for the further study and prevention of specific types of injuries. PMID:3923543

  6. Histopathologic reproducibility of thyroid disease in an epidemiologic study

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Griffel, B.; Liban, E.; Modan, B.

    1986-03-01

    An investigation of the long-term effects of childhood scalp irradiation demonstrated a significantly increased risk of thyroid tumors in the irradiated population. Because of the complexity of thyroid cancer diagnosis, a histopathologic slide review of 59 of the 68 patients (irradiated and nonirradiated) with thyroid disease was undertaken. The review revealed 90% agreement (kappa = +0.85, P less than 0.01) between the original and review diagnosis. Four of 27 cases previously diagnosed as malignant were reclassified as benign, yielding a cancer misdiagnosis rate of 14.8%. All four of the misdiagnosed cancers were of follicular or mixed papillary-follicular type. As a result of the histologic review, the ratio of malignant to benign tumors decreased from 2.55 to 1.75. Since disagreement in diagnosis was similar in the irradiated and nonirradiated groups, the relative risk of radiation-associated neoplasms did not change substantially. The histopathologic review shows that although there were some problems in diagnostic reproducibility, they were not statistically significant and did not alter our previous conclusions regarding radiation exposure. However, a 15% reduction in the number of malignancies might affect epidemiologic studies with an external comparison as well as geographic or temporal comparisons.

  7. Problem gambling and homelessness: results from an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Nower, Lia; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Pollio, David E; North, Carol S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of gambling disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders in a homeless population and identify features related to potential subtypes. At baseline, participants were administered a structured interview including socio-demographic sections of the National Comorbidity Study (NCS) interview; seven diagnostic sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS); the alcohol and drug abuse sections of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module (CIDI-SAM); and the Homeless Supplement to the DIS. At nine months post-baseline assessment, participants were administered additional NCS family history questions and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Participants were an epidemiologic sample of 275 predominately African-American homeless individuals, grouped as lifetime non-gamblers (n = 60), recreational gamblers (n = 152), and problem gamblers (n = 63), recruited on the street and through homeless shelters. Results indicate that lifetime rates of sub-clinical problem (46.2%) and disordered (12.0%) gambling were significantly higher than in the general population. Problem gamblers were more likely than non-problem gamblers to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, and any psychiatric disorder, and more likely than non-gamblers to use illicit drugs or meet criteria for abuse/dependence for nicotine, alcohol, or any substance. This study provides evidence that problem gambling is a significant public health issue among the African-American homeless population. Homeless services should include assessment for problem gambling along with psychiatric disorders and referrals to resources and treatment programs. Future studies should explore the relationship of the onset and course of problem gambling and other psychiatric disorders with homelessness as well as racial differences in gambling patterns and problem severity

  8. The Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument for Assessing Study Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental epidemiology studies can be an effective means to assess impacts on human health from exposure to environmental stressors. Exposure scenarios are often extremely complex and proper assessment is critical for interpreting epidemiological study results. Biomarkers are...

  9. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  10. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S P; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M M; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait. PMID:27128094

  11. An epidemiological study of RSV infection in the Gambia.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Martin W.; Milligan, Paul; Sanneh, Mariama; Awemoyi, Agnes; Dakour, Raduwan; Schneider, Gisela; Palmer, Ayo; Jallow, Mariatou; Oparaogu, Anslem; Whittle, Hilton; Mulholland, E. Kim; Greenwood, Brian M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in a developing country. METHODS: The work was carried out in three hospitals for primary cases and in the community for secondary cases in the western region of the Gambia, West Africa. RSV infection was diagnosed by immunofluorescence of nasopharyngeal aspirate samples in children younger than two years admitted to hospital with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Routine records of all children with ALRI were analysed, and the incidence rates of ALRI, severe RSV-associated respiratory illness and hypoxaemic RSV infections were compared. A community-based study was undertaken to identify secondary cases and to obtain information about spread of the virus. FINDINGS: 4799 children with ALRI who were younger than two years and lived in the study area were admitted to the study hospitals: 421 had severe RSV-associated respiratory illness; 55 of these were hypoxaemic. Between 1994 and 1996, the observed incidence rate for ALRI in 100 children younger than one year living close to hospital was 9.6 cases per year; for severe RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.83; and for hypoxaemic RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.089. The proportion of all ALRI admissions due to RSV was 19%. Overall, 41% of children younger than five years in compounds in which cases lived and 42% in control compounds had evidence of RSV infection during the surveillance period. CONCLUSION: RSV is an important cause of ALRI leading to hospital admission in the Gambia. Morbidity is considerable and efforts at prevention are worthwhile. PMID:12163920

  12. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M. Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M. M.; Marziale, Maria H.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E. Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J. Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20–59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait. PMID:27128094

  13. Development and perspective of current Brazilian studies on the epidemiology of childhood leukemia.

    PubMed

    Pombo de Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sergio; Vasconcelos, Gisele M; Emerenciano, Mariana; de Oliveira Novaes, Cristiane

    2009-01-01

    In this concise report, we describe the history and evolution of childhood acute leukemia studies in Brazil, and the application if key biomarkers for clinical trials and epidemiological studies over the past 8 years. Highlights of each ongoing study are summarized. A Brazilian network integrating hospitals and scientific institutions from all country regions has been established. This organization is made possible through informatics and computer networking, and the standardization of pathological reviews including immunophenotyping and molecular characterization of childhood leukemias. The unique characteristics of the Brazilian population combined with a large clinical and epidemiologic framework for patient ascertainment has enabled large-scale epidemiological studies on childhood leukemia in Brazil. PMID:19064327

  14. FEASIBILITY OF MATCHING STUDY PARTICIPANT RESIDENCE WITH SPECIFIC WATER UTILITY TRIHALOMETHANE (THM) DATA IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies concerning by-products of water disinfection use utility monitoring data to estimate exposure. Use of such data requires linkage of residence location to a specific water utility and associated monitoring data during a given exposure period. The inabil...

  15. New Insights into Handling Missing Values in Environmental Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Roda, Célina; Nicolis, Ioannis; Momas, Isabelle; Guihenneuc, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Missing data are unavoidable in environmental epidemiologic surveys. The aim of this study was to compare methods for handling large amounts of missing values: omission of missing values, single and multiple imputations (through linear regression or partial least squares regression), and a fully Bayesian approach. These methods were applied to the PARIS birth cohort, where indoor domestic pollutant measurements were performed in a random sample of babies' dwellings. A simulation study was conducted to assess performances of different approaches with a high proportion of missing values (from 50% to 95%). Different simulation scenarios were carried out, controlling the true value of the association (odds ratio of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4), and varying the health outcome prevalence. When a large amount of data is missing, omitting these missing data reduced statistical power and inflated standard errors, which affected the significance of the association. Single imputation underestimated the variability, and considerably increased risk of type I error. All approaches were conservative, except the Bayesian joint model. In the case of a common health outcome, the fully Bayesian approach is the most efficient approach (low root mean square error, reasonable type I error, and high statistical power). Nevertheless for a less prevalent event, the type I error is increased and the statistical power is reduced. The estimated posterior distribution of the OR is useful to refine the conclusion. Among the methods handling missing values, no approach is absolutely the best but when usual approaches (e.g. single imputation) are not sufficient, joint modelling approach of missing process and health association is more efficient when large amounts of data are missing. PMID:25226278

  16. New insights into handling missing values in environmental epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Roda, Célina; Nicolis, Ioannis; Momas, Isabelle; Guihenneuc, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Missing data are unavoidable in environmental epidemiologic surveys. The aim of this study was to compare methods for handling large amounts of missing values: omission of missing values, single and multiple imputations (through linear regression or partial least squares regression), and a fully Bayesian approach. These methods were applied to the PARIS birth cohort, where indoor domestic pollutant measurements were performed in a random sample of babies' dwellings. A simulation study was conducted to assess performances of different approaches with a high proportion of missing values (from 50% to 95%). Different simulation scenarios were carried out, controlling the true value of the association (odds ratio of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4), and varying the health outcome prevalence. When a large amount of data is missing, omitting these missing data reduced statistical power and inflated standard errors, which affected the significance of the association. Single imputation underestimated the variability, and considerably increased risk of type I error. All approaches were conservative, except the Bayesian joint model. In the case of a common health outcome, the fully Bayesian approach is the most efficient approach (low root mean square error, reasonable type I error, and high statistical power). Nevertheless for a less prevalent event, the type I error is increased and the statistical power is reduced. The estimated posterior distribution of the OR is useful to refine the conclusion. Among the methods handling missing values, no approach is absolutely the best but when usual approaches (e.g. single imputation) are not sufficient, joint modelling approach of missing process and health association is more efficient when large amounts of data are missing. PMID:25226278

  17. True Vertigo Patients in Emergency Department; an Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahrami, Ali; Norouzi, Mehdi; Kariman, Hamid; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Arhami Dolatabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vertigo prevalence is estimated to be 1.8% among young adults and more than 30% in the elderly. 13-38% of the referrals of patients over 65 years old in America are due to vertigo. Vertigo does not increase the risk of mortality but it can affect the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of vertigo patients referred to the emergency department (ED). Methods: In this 6-month retrospective cross-sectional study, the profiles of all vertigo patients referred to the ED of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from October 2013 to March 2014 were evaluated. Demographic data and baseline characteristics of the patients were recorded and then patients were divided into central and peripheral vertigo. The correlation of history and clinical examination with vertigo type was evaluated and screening performance characteristics of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were determined. Results: 379 patients with the mean age of 50.69 ± 11.94 years (minimum 18 and maximum 86) were enrolled (58.13% female). There was no sex difference in vertigo incidence (p = 0.756). A significant correlation existed between older age and increase in frequency of central cases (p < 0.001). No significant difference was detected between the treatment protocols regarding ED length of stay (p = 0.72). There was a significant overlap between the initial diagnosis and the final decision based on imaging and neurologist’s final opinion (p < 0.001). In the end, 361 (95.3%) patients were discharged from ED, while 18 were disposed to the neurology ward. No case of mortality was reported. Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were 99 (95% CI: 57-99) and 99 (95% CI: 97-99), respectively PMID:26862546

  18. PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ENTERIC DISEASE TRANSMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH SPRINKLER IRRIGATION WITH WASTEWATER: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report deals with a prospective epidemiological morbidity and serology study, in which the quality of data could be optimally controlled on the possible association between enteric disease incidence and wastewater utilization in agricultural settlements in Israel. The study r...

  19. Use of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to Improve Interpretation of a Recreational Water Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a supplemental water quality monitoring study and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to complement the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water study at Boq...

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONCEPTS FOR INTERPRETING FINDINGS IN STUDIES OF DRINKING WATER EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To the inexperienced, environmental epidemiology may appear to be an uncomplicated, straightforward approach to studying exposure-disease associations in human populations. The studies can provide useful information about the risks of environmental exposures that human populatio...

  1. Feasibility of future epidemiological studies on possible health effects of mobile phone base stations.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Georg; Feychting, Maria; Hamnerius, Yngve; Kheifets, Leeka; Kuster, Niels; Ruiz, Ignacio; Schüz, Joachim; Uberbacher, Richard; Wiart, Joe; Röösli, Martin

    2007-04-01

    The increasing deployment of mobile communication base stations led to an increasing demand for epidemiological studies on possible health effects of radio frequency emissions. The methodological challenges of such studies have been critically evaluated by a panel of scientists in the fields of radiofrequency engineering/dosimetry and epidemiology. Strengths and weaknesses of previous studies have been identified. Dosimetric concepts and crucial aspects in exposure assessment were evaluated in terms of epidemiological studies on different types of outcomes. We conclude that in principle base station epidemiological studies are feasible. However, the exposure contributions from all relevant radio frequency sources have to be taken into account. The applied exposure assessment method should be piloted and validated. Short to medium term effects on physiology or health related quality of life are best investigated by cohort studies. For long term effects, groups with a potential for high exposure need to first be identified; for immediate effect, human laboratory studies are the preferred approach. PMID:17080459

  2. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baysson, Helene; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-07

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  3. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baysson, Hélène; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-01

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  4. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patti J; Dimitrov, Kiril M; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Swayne, David E; Suarez, David L; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  5. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  6. The Exposure Dimension of Environmental Epidemiology: A Critical but Under-ExploredStudy Quality Issue in Environmental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological research plays a critical role in assessing the effects of various chemical, physical, oiological, and social exposures on human health both in the general population and the workplace. However, even epidemiological studies that are specifically designed to test c...

  7. What is desirable and feasible in dose reconstruction for application in epidemiological studies?

    SciTech Connect

    Bouville, A.; Beebe, G.W.; Anspaugh, L.

    1996-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of populations are of two general forms, monitoring or formal, and serve several possible purposes. Monitoring studies inform members of potentially affected population groups of the nature and magnitude of the risks that might have been imposed on them. Formal epidemiological studies can increase scientific knowledge about the quantitative risk that attends exposure. Risks of human health due to radiation exposure are most appropriately estimated by means of formal epidemiological studies. Dosimetric data are essential for any epidemiological study, but the detail and accuracy needed depend on the purposes to be served. If the need is for a monitoring study, then general information about doses will suffice. However, a formal study that is expected to contribute to scientific information about quantitative radiation risk requires careful individual dose estimation. This paper is devoted to the discussion of dosimetric data needed for formal epidemiological studies of populations exposed as a result of nuclear power operations. The recommendations made by the National Research Council have largely been followed. The examples used in this paper are relevant to the Chernobyl accident, which caused a large number of people to be exposed at relatively high doses and provided an opportunity for formal epidemiological studies to be initiated. The studies that are singled out are those of thyroid cancer among children who resided in Belarus and in Ukraine at the time of the accident, and those of leukemia among workers involved in the mitigation of the accident and in clean-up operations.

  8. [Epidemiological study of tinea pedis in a population studied in Santa Casa de Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Zaitz, C; Proença, N G

    1989-01-01

    The authors make an epidemiologic study of tinea pedis aiming at establishing its minimal frequency in the population studied, as well as recognizing the most frequent fungi and the clinical aspects they determine. We've tried to study the role of the dermatophytes in the normal microbiota of the feet. Finally we analyzed the influence of sex and seasonality factors on the incidence of tinea pedis. PMID:2693864

  9. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  10. Development and Evaluation of Alternative Metrics of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure for Use in Epidemiologic Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiologic studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available outdoor concentrations from central monitoring sites. This practice may in...

  11. Sources of uncertainty in epidemiological studies and their impact on human health risk assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    ILSI’s Health and Environmental Science Institute identified the evaluation of causality in epidemiological studies as an emerging science priority in 2010. A multidisciplinary subcommittee of experts convened in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina in October of 2012 to ...

  12. Spot Sampling and Exposure Surrogate Selection as Sources of Bias in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spot measurements of chemical biomarkers are often used as quantitative exposure surrogates in environmental epidemiology studies. These measures can be expressed a number of different ways – for example, urinary biomarkers can be expressed in units of concentration (&micr...

  13. TRANSMISSION OF ENTERIC DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER IRRIGATION: A PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a prospective epidemiological study of possible enteric disease transmission by aerosolized pathogens from sprinkler irrigation of partially treated wastewater in 20 kibbutzim (colllective agricultural settlements) in Isreal between March 1981 and February 1982. Medi...

  14. Equivalency of risk for a modified health endpoint: a case from recreational water epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and its predecessors have conducted three distinct series of epidemiological studies beginning in 1948 on the relationship between bathing water quality and swimmers' illnesses. Keeping pace with advances in microbial tec...

  15. [Epidemiologic warnings from studies on alcohol use disorders].

    PubMed

    Limosin, F

    2014-04-01

    The highest consumption levels of alcohol are found in the developed world, mostly the Northern Hemisphere. After a slight decrease at the beginning of the 1990s, alcohol use in the European Region increased with an average adult per capita consumption amounting to 12.5 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009. In France, adult consumption was 12.7 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009, and it is estimated that 1.5 to 2 million of adults are alcohol-dependent (4-5% of the adult population) and 5 million are excessive drinkers. The harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. Alcohol is the direct cause of more than 30 diseases and a causal factor in more than 60 major types of diseases and injuries, resulting in approximately 2.5 million deaths each year. Approximately 4% of all deaths worldwide and 4.5% (7.4% for men and 1.4% for women) of the global burden of disease and injury are attributable to alcohol. In 2004 in the EU, 15.2% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in men and 3.9% of all DALYs in women were lost due to alcohol. While the impact of alcohol consumption and dependence on mortality and disease is substantial, there are also many psychosocial consequences, including violence, family problems, child neglect and abuse, absenteeism and lost productivity in the workplace. This means that alcohol consumption and dependence have sizable impacts on many people other than the drinker. These effects add up to a staggering number of alcohol-attributable social costs, which can be estimated at € 155.8 billion a year in Europe. Despite all these consequences, many individuals with alcohol use disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. From 37 community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for alcohol abuse or dependence, the median rate of untreated cases of these

  16. A nationwide study of the epidemiology of relapsing polychondritis

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Anna; Páll, Nóra; Molnár, Katalin; Kováts, Tamás; Surján, György; Vicsek, Tamás; Pollner, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks mainly cartilaginous structures or causes serious damage in proteoglycan-rich structures (the eyes, heart, blood vessels, inner ear). This study shows results regarding the epidemiology, progression, and associations of this highly variable disease by collecting all cases from a 124-million-person-year Central European nationwide cohort. Methods We used the Hungarian Health Care Database to identify all persons with possible RP infection. We followed patients who had International Classification of Diseases 10th edition code M94.1 at least once in their inpatient or outpatient records between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013 in Hungary. We classified these patients into disease severity groups by their drug consumption patterns between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We analyzed the regional distribution of RP incidences as well. Overall maps of comorbidity are presented with network layouts. Results We identified 256 patients with RP among cumulatively 11.5 million registered inhabitants. We classified these patients into four severity classes as “extremely mild” (n=144), “mild” (n=22), “moderate” (n=41), and “severe” (n=4). Two additional groups were defined for patients without available drug data as “suspected only” (n=23) and “confirmed but unknown treatment” (n=22). The age and sex distributions of patients were similar to worldwide statistics. Indeed, the overall survival was good (95% confidence interval for 5 years was 83.6%–92.9% and for 10 years was 75.0%–88.3% which corresponds to the overall survival of the general population in Hungary), and the associations with other autoimmune disorders were high (56%) in Hungary. Almost any disease can occur with RP; however, the symptoms of chromosomal abnormalities are only incidental. Spondylosis can be a sign of the activation of RP, while Sjögren syndrome is the most frequent

  17. Ischemic heart disease among the general Mongolian population: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Enkh-Oyun, Tsogzolbaatar; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Swanson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is considered to be a pivotal health problem in Mongolia. To summarize the existing epidemiology of IHD in the general Mongolian population is crucial for primary prevention. The present review summarized population-based epidemiological data of IHD in Mongolia. When epidemiological studies were extracted from databases, very limited studies were available. The frequencies of IHD and IHD-attributable death rates appeared to be high and have an increased tendency in Mongolia. This could to be due to a gradually worsening state of potential IHD-related risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and diabetes mellitus. This might indicate an urgent need of strategies for IHD and related risk factors. Anti-IHD strategies, such as more epidemiological studies and campaigns to increase awareness of IHD, at nationwide public health levels would be required in Mongolia for more effective prevention. PMID:26647395

  18. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer in Hehuang valley of China: A 10-year epidemiological study of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Su; Li, Bin; Bai, Zhen-Zhong; Wu, Jun-Qi; Xie, Da-Wei; Ma, Ying-Cai; Ma, Xu-Xiang; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Guo, Xin-Jian

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer in the Hehuang valley, China, to provide a reference for treatment and prevention of regional gastric cancer. METHODS: Between February 2003 and February 2013, the records of 2419 patients with gastric cancer were included in this study. The patient’s characteristics, histological and pathological features, as well as the dietary habits of the patients, were investigated. RESULTS: The clinical data showed that adenocarcinoma was the leading histological type of gastric cancer in this area. Characteristics of gastric cancer in different ethnic groups and age showed that the 60.55-65.50 years group showed the high incidence of gastric cancer in all ethnic groups. There were more male gastric cancer patients than female. Intestinal was the most common type of gastric cancer in the Hehuang valley. There was no significant difference in the proportion of sex in terms of Helicobacter pylori infection. The impact of dietary habits on gastric cancer showed that regular consumption of fried or grilled food, consumption of high-salt, high-fat and spicy food and drinking strong Boiled brick-tea were three important factors associated with gastric cancer in males and females. CONCLUSION: Differences existed in race, sex, and age of patients according to the epidemiology of gastric cancer in the Hehuang valley. Moreover, dietary habits was also an important factor contributing to gastric cancer. PMID:25132766

  19. Design and analysis of metabolomics studies in epidemiologic research: a primer on -omic technologies.

    PubMed

    Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Valdes, Ana; Elliott, Paul; Ioannidis, John P A

    2014-07-15

    Metabolomics is the field of "-omics" research concerned with the comprehensive characterization of the small low-molecular-weight metabolites in biological samples. In epidemiology, it represents an emerging technology and an unprecedented opportunity to measure environmental and other exposures with improved precision and far less measurement error than with standard epidemiologic methods. Advances in the application of metabolomics in large-scale epidemiologic research are now being realized through a combination of improved sample preparation and handling, automated laboratory and processing methods, and reduction in costs. The number of epidemiologic studies that use metabolic profiling is still limited, but it is fast gaining popularity in this area. In the present article, we present a roadmap for metabolomic analyses in epidemiologic studies and discuss the various challenges these data pose to large-scale studies. We discuss the steps of data preprocessing, univariate and multivariate data analysis, correction for multiplicity of comparisons with correlated data, and finally the steps of cross-validation and external validation. As data from metabolomic studies accumulate in epidemiology, there is a need for large-scale replication and synthesis of findings, increased availability of raw data, and a focus on good study design, all of which will highlight the potential clinical impact of metabolomics in this field. PMID:24966222

  20. Review of epidemiological studies on the occupational risk of tuberculosis in low-incidence areas.

    PubMed

    Seidler, Andreas; Nienhaus, Albert; Diel, Roland

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiological evidence for occupationally acquired tuberculosis and considers the implications for the prevention of tuberculosis. The relevant epidemiological studies were identified on the basis of the Medline data bank, starting with the year 1966. The evaluation of occupational groups with an elevated tuberculosis risk is exclusively based on epidemiologic studies of good or acceptable quality, applying clearly defined criteria of methodological quality. In summary, the available epidemiological evidence suggests that the risk of tuberculosis is elevated in the following occupational groups: hospital employees in wards with tuberculosis patients; nurses in hospitals; nurses attending HIV-positive or drug-addicted patients; pathology and laboratory workers; respiratory therapists and physiotherapists; physicians in internal medicine, anaesthesia, surgery and psychiatry; non-medical hospital personnel in housekeeping and transport work; funeral home employees, and prison employees. However, the epidemiological evidence is limited for all these occupations, with the exception of the nurses, because of the lack of methodologically adequate studies that have got the statistical power to differentiate between specific work tasks. There is a need for large population-based studies with precise definition of exposure, which should include molecular epidemiologic methods in the investigation of occupational risk factors of tuberculosis. PMID:16088290

  1. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  2. [Nontuberculous mycobacteriosis; the present status of epidemiology and clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Sakatani, M

    1999-04-01

    In Japan, The Mycobacteriosis Research Group at the Japanese National Chest Hospitals has continuously made the clinico-epidemiological study of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis (NTM) since early 1970s. The prevalence rate was determined as 0.82, 0.91, 1.22, 1.74 and 2.43 per 100,000 population per year in 1971, 1975, 1980, 1985 and in 1990 respectively. The newest datum in 1997 was 3.52. These data indicates the prevalence rate has continuously increased and became 3.8 times than 25 years ago. While on the other hand, the prevalence rate of lung tuberculosis has decreased from 133.1 to 15.2, becoming one nines in the same period. The numbers of newly detected patients of lung mycobacteriosis in 1996 were also studied at 12 hospitals in Kinki district. The rate of NTM was 16.6% in 4 sanatorium hospitals, being about the same to the datum of The Mycobacteriosis Research Group. The rate of NTM in 8 general hospitals was surprisingly high, 40.0%. The 70% of NTM patients were infected with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). The 24% were with M. kansasii, and the only 6% were with other miscellaneous species. That is, the about one thirds or more of total NTM patients were female MAC desease patients, another one thirds or less were male MAC patients, and the more than 90% of M. kansasii patients (about one fourth of total patients) were male. These 3 groups took the most part of NTM patients. The rate of female MAC patients with small non-cavitary lesion without underlying diseases showed a tendency to increase, and the rate of male MAC patients with cavitary lesions with underlying lung or systemic diseases decreased. In 1997, American Thoracic Society (ATS) published the official statement about the diagnosis and treatment of NTM disease. The table-1 in that statement showed the new criteria for diagnosis of NTM pulmonary disease. It is useful for precise diagnosis of lung NTM disease, and the old criteria made by The Mycobacteriosis Research Group of the Japanese

  3. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute retrovirus epidemiology donor studies (Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study and Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II): twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A

    2012-10-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989 to 2001, and the REDS-II, conducted from 2004 to 2012, were National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. The REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The 3 major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of human immunodeficiency virus, human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, West Nile virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 8, parvovirus B19, malaria, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, influenza, and Trypanosoma cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors' perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, 2 large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these 2 REDS programs. In 2011, a new 7-year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III, was launched. The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting and adds a third country, South Africa

  4. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An Extension of the STROBE Statement

    PubMed Central

    Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C.; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Methods and Findings Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. Conclusion When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health. PMID:27270749

  5. THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY: PART 2-PERSONAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT ASSOCIATED WITH AN ELDERLY STUDY POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated epidemiological-exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 which focused upon establishing relationships between potential human exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants with detectable health effects. The study design incor...

  6. [Polish Multicenter Study on Diabetes Epidemiology (PMSDE)--1998-2000].

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Z

    2001-09-01

    increasing a burden of patients, theirs families, society and health care system. Within PMSDE programme elaboration of the model for calculation the direct costs about of diabetes and burden in terms of years of life lost using DALY measure was performed (K. Kissimova-Skarbek). Average diabetes type 1 patients costs 7 times and type 2 over 3 times higher than average health care cost and 95% of total time lost due to disability is caused by diabetes type 2. Therefor primary and secondary prevention of diabetes typ 2 have highest priority among strategic preventive targets. The Review Conference held in Warsaw at 24-25 February 2001 in the presence of WHO Experts formulated the recommendations focused on: 1. Elaboration of high risk strategy for early diagnosis of unknown diabetes type 2 based on the 2-hours OGTT (WHO 1985) 2. Continuation of the epidemiologic study in diabetes 3. Instituting the professional post for diabetes educator on the specialized and primary health care levels. 4. Further research are recommended for evaluation of the role of fasting glycemia and hyperinsulinemia as predictors and risk factors of diabetes type 2, for development of preventive models in diabetes type 2 and for development of the economical models to asses the costs of diabetes (Recommendations). PMID:11928582

  7. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world. PMID:22012041

  8. Using Geographic Information Systems for Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, John R.; Ward, Mary H.; Jarup, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used with increasing frequency in environmental epidemiology studies. Reported applications include locating the study population by geocoding addresses (assigning mapping coordinates), using proximity analysis of contaminant source as a surrogate for exposure, and integrating environmental monitoring data into the analysis of the health outcomes. Although most of these studies have been ecologic in design, some have used GIS in estimating environmental levels of a contaminant at the individual level and to design exposure metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. In this article we discuss fundamentals of three scientific disciplines instrumental to using GIS in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies: geospatial science, environmental science, and epidemiology. We also explore how a GIS can be used to accomplish several steps in the exposure assessment process. These steps include defining the study population, identifying source and potential routes of exposure, estimating environmental levels of target contaminants, and estimating personal exposures. We present and discuss examples for the first three steps. We discuss potential use of GIS and global positioning systems (GPS) in the last step. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the use of GIS in exposure assessment for environmental epidemiology studies is not only feasible but can enhance the understanding of the association between contaminants in our environment and disease. PMID:15198921

  9. Extrapolation from occupational studies: a substitute for environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Enterline, P E

    1981-01-01

    Extrapolation from occupational data to general environmental exposures gives some interesting results, and these results might be useful in our decision-making process. These results could never be observed by environmental epidemiology and this method probably represents the only way of quantifying the health effects of low-exposure levels. Three linear models for extrapolating to low levels are presented--one from Canadian data, one from American data and one from British data. One or more of these is applied to two recently publicized asbestos exposures; exposures resulting from asbestos heat shields in hair dryers and exposures in public school buildings. Predictions are derived as to the effects of asbestos exposures on cancer mortality. A comparison is made between predictions made on the basis of a linear and nonlinear model. PMID:7333259

  10. A clinico-epidemiological study of epidemic typhus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Perine, P L; Chandler, B P; Krause, D K; McCardle, P; Awoke, S; Habte-Gabr, E; Wisseman, C L; McDade, J E

    1992-05-01

    Epidemic, louse-borne typhus persists in the rugged, mountainous areas of Ethiopia and much of northeastern and central Africa as well as in the rural highlands of Central and South America, where the conditions of living favor the harboring of body lice and where antibiotic treatment and effective louse-control measures are unavailable. The historical significance and current epidemiology of typhus, including the reservoir of Rickettsia prowazekii in flying squirrels in the United States, are reviewed, and the clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and hospital course in the cases of 60 patients admitted with epidemic, louse-borne typhus to the St. Paul's Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, are described. Treatment of this disease with oral doxycycline, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol prevents complications and results in prompt resolution of symptoms. PMID:1600020

  11. Brief Report: Negative Controls to Detect Selection Bias and Measurement Bias in Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ercumen, Ayse; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Colford, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical laboratory experiments routinely use negative controls to identify possible sources of bias, but epidemiologic studies have infrequently used this type of control in their design or measurement approach. Recently, epidemiologists proposed the routine use of negative controls in observational studies and defined the structure of negative controls to detect bias due to unmeasured confounding. We extend this previous study and define the structure of negative controls to detect selection bias and measurement bias in both observational studies and randomized trials. We illustrate the strengths and limitations of negative controls in this context using examples from the epidemiologic literature. Given their demonstrated utility and broad generalizability, the routine use of prespecified negative controls will strengthen the evidence from epidemiologic studies. PMID:27182642

  12. Brief Report: Negative Controls to Detect Selection Bias and Measurement Bias in Epidemiologic Studies.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Ercumen, Ayse; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Colford, John M

    2016-09-01

    Biomedical laboratory experiments routinely use negative controls to identify possible sources of bias, but epidemiologic studies have infrequently used this type of control in their design or measurement approach. Recently, epidemiologists proposed the routine use of negative controls in observational studies and defined the structure of negative controls to detect bias due to unmeasured confounding. We extend this previous study and define the structure of negative controls to detect selection bias and measurement bias in both observational studies and randomized trials. We illustrate the strengths and limitations of negative controls in this context using examples from the epidemiologic literature. Given their demonstrated utility and broad generalizability, the routine use of prespecified negative controls will strengthen the evidence from epidemiologic studies. PMID:27182642

  13. Leveraging epidemiologic and clinical collections for genomic studies of complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Dana C.; Goodloe, Robert; Farber-Eger, Eric; Boston, Jonathan; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Bush, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Present day limited resources demand DNA and phenotyping alternatives to the traditional prospective population-based epidemiologic collections. Methods To accelerate genomic discovery with an emphasis on diverse populations, we as part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study accessed all non-European American samples (n=15,863) available in BioVU, the Vanderbilt University biorepository linked to de-identified electronic medical records, for genomic studies as part of the larger Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I Study. Given previous studies have cautioned against the secondary use of clinically collected data compared with epidemiologically-collected data, we present here a characterization of EAGLE BioVU, including the billing and diagnostic (ICD-9) code distributions for adult and pediatric patients as well as comparisons made for select health metrics (body mass index, glucose, HbA1c, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides) with the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to DNA samples (NHANES III; n=7,159 and NHANES 1999–2002; n=7,839). Results Overall, the distributions of billing and diagnostic codes suggest this clinical sample is mixture of healthy and sick patients like that expected for a contemporary American population. Conclusion Little bias is observed among health metrics suggesting this clinical collection is suitable for genomic studies along with traditional epidemiologic cohorts. PMID:26201699

  14. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEASIBILITY STUDY AND A BIOMARKER STUDY FOR ASSESSING HEALTH EFFECTS OF ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiology Studies: This work will be accomplished through: (a) building data bases; evaluating existing data, including published (mostly in Chinese) and unpublished data on arsenic exposure and health effects in Inner Mongolia and publishing this summary analysis in English l...

  15. Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Turkey: A multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Dündar, Devrim; Willke, Ayse; Sayan, Murat; Koc, Meliha Meric; Akan, Ozay Arıkan; Sumerkan, Bulent; Saltoglu, Nese; Yaman, Akgun; Ayaz, Celal; Koksal, Iftihar

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological and molecular features of clinical meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in Turkey. MRSA isolates were collected from six regions of Turkey. The mecA and nuc genes were detected by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the disk diffusion method. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing were performed by the sequencing method for 270 randomly selected MRSA isolates. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition was used for epidemiological diagnosis of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Resistance rates of MRSA to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, clindamycin, erythromycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were 93.4%, 81.2%, 38.5%, 57.8%, 93.9%, 1.1% and 93.1%, respectively. The most frequent SCCmec type was SCCmec III (91.1%). SCCmec type IV was found in 5.2% of the isolates. The most frequent spa type was t030 (81.1%). Five isolates were CA-MRSA if only the epidemiological definition was used (5/725; 0.7%). Two isolates were defined as CA-MRSA both by epidemiological features and SCCmec typing (2/270; 0.7%). Of 14 SCCmec type IV isolates, 12 were not defined as CA-MRSA by epidemiological features. In conclusion, this is the most comprehensive multicentre study in Turkey investigating MRSA using both epidemiological and genotypic features. The CA-MRSA rate is low in Turkey. Combined use of epidemiological and genotypic methods is the most accurate approach for the diagnosis of CA-MRSA. PMID:27530838

  16. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  17. Perspectives on population-based epidemiological studies of olfactory and taste impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Howard J.; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Davis, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of the senses of olfaction (smell) and gustation (taste) are needed since impairments in these senses have important implications for health. Only a few attempts have been made to measure the prevalence of olfactory and gustatory or taste dysfunction and many methodological challenges remain to be addressed. These challenges differ from those faced in studies based in the clinic or research laboratory. Epidemiological studies of smell and taste represent translational research, since they can be used to understand how findings from laboratory or clinical studies apply to the general population. This paper briefly reviews existing methods for “how” to measure smell and taste dysfunction and then illustrates findings based on prior epidemiological studies to indicate “why” we wish to measure smell and taste functioning in population-based samples. Self report information collected on smell and taste loss in a national sample, the 1994–1995 Disability Sample (Phase I screening) of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS-D), is contrasted with results provided by an exam-based measure of olfactory impairment in an epidemiological study conducted in Beaver Dam, WI. The comparison of self report and exam-based measures of smell or taste loss leads to the question of how to best define smell or taste impairment in population samples, since unlike other sensory domains (namely, vision and hearing), there are no internationally accepted standards of impairment for the chemosenses. In addition to highlighting existing epidemiological studies, the current development of an NIH Toolbox of brief exam measures is described. Through this symposium, we hope to advance the nascent field of olfactory and taste epidemiology. PMID:19686188

  18. Usefulness of comprehensive feasibility studies in environmental epidemiology investigations: a case study in Minnesota.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, A P; Williams, A N; Sprafka, J M; Mandel, J S; Straub, C P

    1988-01-01

    Episodes of public water supply contamination with industrial or agricultural chemicals frequently give rise to public concerns about adverse health effects. These concerns may precipitate epidemiologic or clinical investigations requiring large expenditures of state and federal resources regardless of whether such investigations are justified by scientific criteria. An alternative is a comprehensive feasibility study, utilizing all available information to determine whether large-scale studies are warranted or feasible. At a relatively modest cost, a feasibility study allows health officials to identify information needs and deficiencies, outline potential study options and costs, clearly establish the rationale for a proposed study or, conversely, prevent unwarranted expenditures of public resources. Furthermore, a feasibility study may in itself resolve many community and scientific concerns. This article provides a case study of the usefulness of a formal feasibility study in a situation involving an elevated cancer rate and contaminated municipal water supply wells surrounding a federal superfund site. PMID:3341499

  19. Epidemiologic studies of ionizing radiation and cancer: past successes and future challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J M

    1997-01-01

    The health effects of radiation have been a focus for research since early in the 20th century. As the century ends, extensive experimental and epidemiologic evidence has been accumulated that addresses the adverse consequences of radiation exposure; epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed groups from the general population and specific occupational groups provide quantitative estimates of the cancer risks associated with exposure. This report provides a perspective on the extensive epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of ionizing radiation and on likely needs for further epidemiologic research on radiation and health. Epidemiologic studies have proved informative on the quantitative risks of radiation-caused cancer but we now face the challenges of more precisely characterizing risks at lower levels of exposure and also of assessing modifiers of the risks, including dose rate, genetic susceptibility, and other environmental exposures. This report considers investigative approaches, such as pooled analysis of multiple data sets, that can be used to address these complex questions and the limitations of these approaches for addressing societal concerns about the risks of radiation exposure. PMID:9255575

  20. Analysis of Factors Influencing Telephone Call Response Rate in an Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Matías-Guiu, Jorge; Serrano-Castro, Pedro Jesús; Mauri-Llerda, José Ángel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Sanz, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Descriptive epidemiology research involves collecting data from large numbers of subjects. Obtaining these data requires approaches designed to achieve maximum participation or response rates among respondents possessing the desired information. We analyze participation and response rates in a population-based epidemiological study though a telephone survey and identify factors implicated in consenting to participate. Rates found exceeded those reported in the literature and they were higher for afternoon calls than for morning calls. Women and subjects older than 40 years were the most likely to answer the telephone. The study identified geographical differences, with higher RRs in districts in southern Spain that are not considered urbanized. This information may be helpful for designing more efficient community epidemiology projects. PMID:25401127

  1. Clinico-epidemiological study of donovanosis in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and clinical features of donovanosis and their relevance to the possible coincident risk of HIV-1 transmission in patients attending an STD clinic. DESIGN: Assessment of patients with donovanosis diagnosed by the detection of Donovan bodies on tissue smears stained by the RapiDiff technique. SETTING: City Health STD Clinic, King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and seventy one patients with donovanosis. RESULTS: Donovan bodies were detected in 171 (130 men, 41 women). Ulcers were present for longer than 28 days in 72 (55.4%) men and 19 (46.3%) women. Ninety five (55.6%) came from rural areas. Lesions were ulcero-granulomatous in 162, hypertrophic in eight and necrotic in one. Anal lesions were detected in one woman. Only one of 21 regular sexual partners examined was infected with donovanosis. Complete healing was observed in 41 (24%) who attended for follow up. Extensive lesions were sometimes observed in pregnant women. Serological tests for syphilis were positive in 40 (23.4%). HIV-1 antibodies were detected in 4/48 men and 0/15 women who underwent HIV testing. Donovanosis ulcers in three HIV-1 seropositive men were cured by standard antibiotic therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Delay in presentation, extensive areas of genital ulceration and lack of co-existent infection with donovanosis among sexual partners were notable features. Primary health care facilities in rural areas do not appear to be providing an adequate service for patients with donovanosis. HIV control programmes should consider specific measures aimed at eradicating donovanosis in areas where the condition is prevalent. PMID:8509089

  2. Ribotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: discriminatory power and usefulness as a tool for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, D S; Siegrist, H H; Sahli, R; Francioli, P

    1993-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism of ribosomal DNA regions (ribotyping) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated as a tool for epidemiological purposes. Fifty-five epidemiologically unrelated isolates from three geographic areas of Switzerland and 11 isolates obtained during an outbreak of P. aeruginosa infections in a burn unit were typed by this method. Typeability and reproducibility of the method reached 100%. With four selected restriction enzymes (BamHI, ClaI, EcoRI, and PstI), the 55 unrelated isolates could be classified into 33 ribotypes. To assess the value of this method for the interpretation of epidemiological data, we calculated an index of discrimination (ID) which takes into consideration both the number of types defined by the typing method and their relative frequencies. Our ribotyping system obtained a high ID of 0.958 with only four restriction enzymes, comparing well with other different typing schemes for which ID values could be calculated from published data. All clinical isolates of the outbreak belonged to the same ribotype, whereas environmental isolates, initially thought to be the source of the epidemic, belonged to a different ribotype. Thus, the typeability, reproducibility, and discriminatory power of our method as well as its value established in an epidemiological investigation were found to be appropriate for further epidemiological studies of P. aeruginosa. Images PMID:8093252

  3. Late Language Emergence at 24 Months: An Epidemiological Study of Prevalence, Predictors, and Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Rice, Mabel L.; Slegers, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of late language emergence (LLE) and to investigate the predictive status of maternal, family, and child variables. Method: This is a prospective cohort study of 1,766 epidemiologically ascertained 24-month-old singleton children. The framework was an ecological model…

  4. QMRA as a compliment to epidemiologic studies estimating bather risk at recreational beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA and WHO have set recreational water quality standards based on epidemiologic studies to protect human health at beaches. These studies have largely been limited to sewage-impacted sites and resources are unlikely to be available to assess the myriad of other impacted ...

  5. The Mystery of the Blue Death: A Case Study in Epidemiology and the History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, Susan Bandoni

    2009-01-01

    This case study introduces students to John Snow, considered to be one of the founders of both epidemiology and anesthesiology, and a remarkable figure in the history of science. Although historical case studies are often less popular with students than contemporary issues (Herreid 1998), a number of aspects of this case make it attractive to…

  6. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale with a Young Adolescent Population: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Glenn A.; Shadish, William R.; Murray, David M.; Kubik, Martha; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.

    2006-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was developed to assess the population prevalence of depression. The CES-D was developed and normed on an adult population. Since the CES-D's publication, various studies have both used and psychometrically assessed the scale for older adolescent populations. However, we found no…

  7. A pilot study: research poster presentations as an educational tool for undergraduate epidemiology students

    PubMed Central

    Deonandan, Raywat; Gomes, James; Lavigne, Eric; Dinh, Thy; Blanchard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Students in a fourth year epidemiology course were surveyed after participating in a formal Science Research Day in which they presented original research, in poster form, to be judged by scientists from the community. Of 276 participating students, 80 (29%) responded to the study survey. As a result, 19% of respondents were more likely to pursue a career in science, and 27.5% were more likely to pursue a career in epidemiology. Only one respondent reported being less likely to pursue a science career, while seven were less likely to pursue epidemiology. A majority of respondents felt that the poster experience was on par with, or superior to, a comparable research paper, in terms of both educational appeal and enjoyment. Mandatory, formal poster presentations are an innovative format for teaching advanced health sciences, and may more accurately reflect the realities of a science career than do more traditional educational formats. PMID:24101888

  8. Pattern analysis in the study of infantile diarrhoea and other epidemiological problems*

    PubMed Central

    Mansourian, B. G.; Sayers, B. McA

    1979-01-01

    The patterns imposed on records of epidemiological variables by spatial, temporal, and other factors demand a special approach for their identification, characterization, and interpretation. Over the last 10 years, a methodology based on pattern analysis has been developed and put to the test in elucidating selected epidemiological problems. The aim of this approach is to link the pattern or its detailed features to factors likely to be important in understanding the origins of the disease and the mechanisms underlying its occurrence; such knowledge may in turn suggest methods that can be used to control the disease. Pattern analysis provides a battery of techniques that can greatly enhance the cost-effectiveness of epidemiological investigations. To exemplify these techniques, the applications of pattern analysis in the study of the infantile diarrhoeal complex and in elucidating the epidemic spread of wildlife rabies are described. Some other examples are mentioned briefly and comments are made on the more important techniques available. PMID:317018

  9. Stability and Reproducibility of the Measurement of Plasma Nitrate in Large Epidemiologic Studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yushan; Townsend, Mary K; Eliassen, A Heather; Wu, Tianying

    2013-04-01

    Inorganic nitrate has emerged as a therapeutic agent for cardiovascular disease; however, nitrate can also metabolize to carcinogenic nitrosamines under pathologic conditions. Few large epidemiologic studies have examined circulating levels of nitrate in relation to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Data on the validity of nitrate measurement in blood samples collected in typical epidemiologic settings are needed before nitrate can be evaluated as an exposure in large epidemiologic studies. We measured plasma levels of nitrate in three pilot studies to evaluate its laboratory variability, stability with delayed processing, and reproducibility over time among women from the Nurses' Health Study and healthy female volunteers. Laboratory variability of nitrate levels was fairly low, with a coefficient variation (CV) of 7%. Plasma nitrate levels in samples stored as whole blood on ice for up to 48 hrs before processing were very stable; the overall intra-class correlation (ICC) from 0 to 48 hours was 0.89 (95%CI, 0.70-0.97). The within-person reproducibility over a one-year period was modest, with an ICC of 0.49 (95% CI, 0.33- 0.94). Our results indicate that measurement of nitrate in plasma is reliable and stable in blood samples with delayed processing up to 48 hours. Within-person reproducibility was modest but data from this study can be used for measurement error correction in subsequent analyses. The measurement of nitrate cannot be widely used in epidemiologic research without the documentation of its stability and reproducibility. PMID:24244804

  10. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances. PMID:27138987

  11. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances. PMID:27138987

  12. "Development of Model-Based Air Pollution Exposure Metrics for use in Epidemiologic Studies"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available concentrations from central monitoring sites. U.S. EPA in collaboration w...

  13. Exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies: Keyfindings and future recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies of the health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution use measurements from central-site monitors as their exposure estimate. However, measurements from central-site monitors may lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to capture exposure...

  14. BREATH MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL BODY BURDEN OF JP-8 JET FUEL FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A complex epidemiological investigation of the effects of acute exposure to JP-8 jet fuel in the U.S. Air Force was performed through the study of about 350 human subjects across six Air Force bases. The focus was on fuels system maintenance personnel as the "exposed"...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF MODEL-BASED AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURE METRICS FOR USE IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available concentrations from central monitoring sites. U.S. EPA in collaboration w...

  16. APPLYING DATA ASSIMILATION AND ADJOINT SENSITIVITY TO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND POLICY STUDIES OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source-resolved fine particulate matter (PM) concentrations are needed at high spatial and temporal resolutions for epidemiological studies aimed at identifying more- and less-harmful types of PM. Building on recent advances in air quality modeling, data assimilation, and s...

  17. PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER UTILIZATION IN AGRICULTURE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prospective epidemiological morbidity and serology study was carried out in Israel in 1980/82 on the association between enteric disease incidence and wastewater utilization in 29 kibbutzim. Analysis of morbidity data indicate that no significant excess of enteric disease episo...

  18. Putting Life into Computer-Based Training: The Creation of an Epidemiologic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathany, Nancy C.; Stehr-Green, Jeanette K.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the design of "Pharyngitis in Louisiana," a computer-based epidemiologic case study that was created to teach students how to conduct disease outbreak investigations. Topics discussed include realistic content portrayals; graphics; interactive teaching methods; interaction between the instructional designer and the medical expert; and…

  19. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  20. An Epidemiological Study of Number Processing and Mental Calculation in Greek Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumoula, Anastasia; Tsironi, Vanda; Stamouli, Victoria; Bardani, Irini; Stavroula, Siapati; Graham, Annik; Kafantaris, Ignatios; Charalambidou, Irini; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate and standardize an instrument for the diagnosis of developmental dyscalculia (mathematics disorder) in a Greek population and to obtain relevant epidemiological data. We used the "Neuropsychological Test Battery for Number Processing and Calculation in Children" (NUCALC) in a community sample of 240 students…

  1. Multiple imputation in veterinary epidemiological studies: a case study and simulation.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, Ian R; Nielsen, Christel R; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    The problem of missing data occurs frequently in veterinary epidemiological studies. Most studies use a complete case (CC) analysis which excludes all observations for which any relevant variable have missing values. Alternative approaches (most notably multiple imputation (MI)) which avoid the exclusion of observations with missing values are now widely available but have been used very little in veterinary epidemiology. This paper uses a case study based on research into dairy producers' attitudes toward mastitis control procedures, combined with two simulation studies to evaluate the use of MI and compare results with a CC analysis. MI analysis of the original data produced results which had relatively minor differences from the CC analysis. However, most of the missing data in the original data set were in the dependent variable and a subsequent simulation study based on the observed missing data pattern and 1000 simulations showed that an MI analysis would not be expected to offer any advantages over a CC analysis in this situation. This was true regardless of the missing data mechanism (MCAR - missing completely at random, MAR - missing at random, or NMAR - not missing at random) underlying the missing values. Surprisingly, recent textbooks dealing with MI make little reference to this limitation of MI for dealing with missing values in the dependent variable. An additional simulation study (1000 runs for each of the three missing data mechanisms) compared MI and CC analyses for data in which varying levels (n=7) of missing data were created in predictor variables. This study showed that MI analyses generally produced results that were less biased on average, were more precise (smaller SEs), were more consistent (less variability between simulation runs) and consequently were more likely to produce estimates that were close to the "truth" (results obtained from a data set with no missing values). While the benefit of MI varied with the mechanism used to

  2. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2015-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs. PMID:26703701

  3. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2016-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs. PMID:26703701

  4. [Occupational epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Behrens, T; Mester, B; Schmeisser, N

    2008-03-01

    The aim of occupational epidemiology is to describe workplace-related diseases and to identify their underlying causes. Its primary goal is to protect workers from hazardous effects of the working process by applying work-related primary and secondary prevention measures. To assess health risks different study designs and a wide array of complex study instruments and methods are frequently employed that cannot be replaced by toxicological investigations. This paper primarily addresses health risks by agent exposures. In this context a central task of occupational epidemiology is careful assessment of exposure. Different data sources, such as work site measurements, register data, archive material, experts' opinion, and the workers' personal estimates of exposure may be used during this process. In addition, biological markers can complement exposure assessment. Since thorough occupational epidemiologic studies allow assessment of disease risks under realistic exposure conditions, their results should be more frequently used to derive workplace-related threshold limit values. PMID:18311483

  5. The potential of exposure biomarkers in epidemiologic studies of reproductive health.

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, C J; Brewster, M A

    1991-01-01

    To further the development and application of exposure markers in field investigations in reproductive epidemiology, we have synthesized recent examinations of the issues surrounding exposure measurements in reproductive epidemiology. The specific goals of this paper are to define exposure biomarkers and explore their potential uses, particularly as screening tools. The tests for glucaric acid, thioethers, mutagenicity, and porphyrin patterns meet the general criteria for useful exposure screens. For certain xenobiotic agents, these tests accurately differentiate exposure levels, as demonstrated in occupational and environmental epidemiologic studies. As urinary screens, they are noninvasive and applicable on a large scale with current laboratory techniques. For short-term exposure, glucaric acid, thioethers, and mutagenicity tests are useful. Porphyrin patterns may measure cumulative effects as well as current exposure levels. The usefulness of these tests in epidemiologic studies of environmental effects on reproductive health has yet to be studied. To do so, the battery must be standardized for pregnant women, and test results must be correlated with measured adverse reproductive outcomes, such as gestational length and birthweight. This correlation is particularly important because maternal exposure rather than fetal exposure is being measured. The extent to which xenobiotic chemicals cross the placental barrier may vary greatly depending on the type of exposures, timing in pregnancy, and maternal detoxification capability. Without better exposure measures, epidemiologic studies of reproductive health probably will not successfully identify xenobiotic fetotoxic agents in the environment. However, with an adequate battery of nonspecific exposure biomarkers, prospective studies of environmental effects on pregnancy outcomes might be possible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2050070

  6. Workplace exposure to passive smoking and risk of cardiovascular disease: summary of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, I; Colditz, G A

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed the published epidemiologic studies addressing the relationship between workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cardiovascular disease risk in three case-control studies and three cohort studies. Although the point estimates of risk for cardiovascular disease exceeded 1.0 in five of six studies, none of the relative risks was statistically significant because of the small number of cardiovascular end points occurring in individual studies. In common with most epidemiologic investigations of the health risks of ETS, none of the workplace studies included independent biochemical validation of ETS exposure. In contrast to the evidence on increased cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to spousal ETS, studies of ETS exposure in the workplace are still sparse and inconclusive. Conversely, there is no biologically plausible reason to believe that the hazards of ETS exposure that have been demonstrated in the home should not also apply to the workplace. PMID:10592141

  7. The Role of DNA Methylation in Cardiovascular Risk and Disease: Methodological Aspects, Study Design, and Data Analysis for Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jia; Agha, Golareh; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that genetic, environmental, behavioral, and clinical factors contribute to cardiovascular disease development. How these risk factors interact at the cellular level to cause cardiovascular disease is not well known. Epigenetic epidemiology enables researchers to explore critical links between genomic coding, modifiable exposures, and manifestation of disease phenotype. One epigenetic link, DNA methylation, is potentially an important mechanism underlying these associations. In the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of epidemiological studies investigating cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in relation to DNA methylation, but many gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying cause and biological implications. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the biology and mechanisms of DNA methylation and its role in cardiovascular disease. In addition, we summarize the current evidence base in epigenetic epidemiology studies relevant to cardiovascular health and disease and discuss the limitations, challenges, and future directions of the field. Finally, we provide guidelines for well-designed epigenetic epidemiology studies, with particular focus on methodological aspects, study design, and analytical challenges. PMID:26837743

  8. Epidemiology and Clinical Research Design, Part 1: Study Types

    PubMed Central

    Manja, Veena; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2015-01-01

    Selecting the best available preventive and therapeutic measures to avoid disability and death is an important goal for all health care practitioners. To achieve this goal, we need to perform studies that determine the value of these measures. In this article, we discuss the possible study designs that can be used for evaluating new approaches to prevention and treatment. The gold standard study design is a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. In many instances, a randomized controlled trial may not be ethically or practically feasible. Other study types, such as case series, case-control studies, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, crossover designs, and open-label studies, may be required to hypothesize and evaluate the link between an exposure or predictor variable and an outcome variable. Various study types pertaining to neonatal-perinatal medicine are reviewed in this article. PMID:25848346

  9. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    PubMed

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. PMID:27225924

  10. Cognitive epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory: A guide to records series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each series of records that pertains to the epidemiologic studies conducted by the Epidemiology Section of the Occupational Medicine Group (ESH-2) at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The records described in this guide relate to occupational studies performed by the Epidemiology Section, including those pertaining to workers at LANL, Mound Plant, Oak Ridge Reservation, Pantex Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, and Savannah River Site. Also included are descriptions of other health-related records generated or collected by the Epidemiology Section and a small set of records collected by the Industrial Hygiene and Safety Group. This guide is not designed to describe the universe of records generated by LANL which may be used for epidemiologic studies of the LANL work force. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of LANL the history and functions of LANL`s Health Division and Epidemiology Section, and the various epidemiologic studies performed by the Epidemiology Section. It provides information on the methodology that HAI used to inventory and describe records housed in the offices of the LANL Epidemiology Section in Technical Area 59 and at the LANL Records Center. Other topics include the methodology used to produce the guide, the arrangement of the detailed record series descriptions, and information concerning access to records repositories.

  12. Epidemiological data of 290 pemphigus vulgaris patients: a 29-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Baum, Sharon; Astman, Nadav; Berco, Efraim; Solomon, Michal; Trau, Henri; Barzilai, Aviv

    2016-08-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV), an autoimmune blistering disease involving the skin and mucosa, is traditionally considered to be prevalent among Jews, particularly those of Ashkenazi origin. Israel, where the Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jewish population live alongside a large Arab minority, is a particularly interesting place for epidemiological studies of PV. To characterise the epidemiological and clinical parameters of PV patients from a single tertiary medical centre in Israel. Data was retrieved retrospectively from the medical records of newly diagnosed PV patients referred to the Sheba Medical Center between 1980 and 2009. A total of 290 PV patients were diagnosed during the study period. The mean age at diagnosis was 49.7 years (range: 10-92 years) and a female predominance was identified (1.54:1; p<0.001). Among the Jewish patients, the ratio of Ashkenazi to non-Ashkenazi was 1.23:1, which was not statistically significant in comparison to the ratio of the general Jewish population in Israel (p = 0.289). We describe the comorbidities found among the patients. Disease severity at diagnosis was not found to be related to the epidemiological parameters examined. Studies from different countries reveal variations in the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the disease. The epidemiology of PV in Israel, a Middle-Eastern country with a Western lifestyle and a diverse ethnic population, shows some characteristics that represent an "admixture" between European and Middle-Eastern or Asian countries. The associated comorbidities of PV emphasize the need for dermatologists to keep a high index of suspicion and actively evaluate patients to determine their presence. PMID:27300747

  13. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  14. Occupational epidemiology in agriculture: a case study in the southern African context.

    PubMed

    London, L

    1998-01-01

    Some challenges facing occupational epidemiology in developing countries are outlined in this case study of agriculture drawing on Southern African research. These include the characterization of exposures in resource- and data-poor environments typical of developing countries, the assessment of outcomes where cross-cultural and socio-environmental confounders may be substantial obstacles, and the impact of environmental exposures on workplace health. Traditional assignment of low priority to the chronic effects of low-dose exposures relative to acute morbidity in developing countries must be critically examined, as must the gender bias of much occupational epidemiology in agriculture. Advocacy issues involving child labor and the ethics of research among vulnerable groups deserve rigorous attention. It is argued that, if occupational epidemiology is to have meaningful impact on the health of the most marginalized groups of workers in developing countries, it must redefine itself in terms of a public health approach. The boundaries of epidemiologic inquiry need to be broad, and amenable to interfacing with policy research, using qualitative methods and participatory approaches. More so than in order industrial settings, epidemiologists must move from research to practice, seeking to take action where interventions are needed, and to evaluate such actions. PMID:9876634

  15. Latino adults' access to mental health care: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Zayas, Luis H; Hansen, Marissa C

    2006-05-01

    Since the early 1980s, epidemiological studies using state-of-the-art methodologies have documented the unmet mental health needs of Latinos adults in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. This paper reviews 16 articles based on seven epidemiological studies, examines studies methodologies, and summarizes findings about how Latino adults access mental health services. Studies consistently report that, compared to non-Latino Whites, Latinos underutilize mental health services, are less likely to receive guideline congruent care, and rely more often on primary care for services. Structural, economic, psychiatric, and cultural factors influence Latinos' service access. In spite of the valuable information these studies provide, methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs, scarcity of mixed Latino group samples) constrict knowledge about Latinos access to mental health services. Areas for future research and development needed to improve Latinos' access and quality of mental health care are discussed. PMID:16598658

  16. Carbon Nanotubes Exposure Risk Assessment: From Toxicology to Epidemiologic Studies (Overview of the Current Problem)

    PubMed Central

    Fatkhutdinova, L. M.; Khaliullin, T. O.; Shvedova, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale size and fiber like structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may determine high reactivity and penetration, as well as the pathogenicity of asbestos and other mineral fibers. Despite many in vitro and in vivo studies, the absence of full-scale data on CNT effects on human health clearly point out the necessity for epidemiological studies. Currently, several projects are initiated worldwide on studying health risks associated with the inhalation of industrial CNTs, including NIOSH-promoted research (United States), the European CANTES study, and the Russian CNT-ERA project. Studies comprising several successive steps, such as CNT exposure assessment in occupational settings, toxicological evaluation, and epidemiological observations, are critical for determining material safety and use criteria. PMID:26457172

  17. SEVERITY OF ILLNESS RESULTS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NEEAR Water Study surveyed 21,105 beachgoers at four freshwater coastal beaches. It has been well documented that beachgoers experience more illness than persons that do not frequent beach areas. Reported symptoms among beachgoers for this study are gastrointestinal illness...

  18. Uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Polednak, A.P.; Janerich, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    The uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology are described with reference to New York State. The available record systems (and relevant reproductive end points) described include: a newborn screening program for metabolic diseases and hemoglobinopathies (relevant to point mutations); chromosome registries and prenatal cytogenetics (for chromosome anomalies); live birth certificates (for birth defects, birthweight, sex ratio, etc); fetal death certificates (for spontaneous fetal deaths); and a statewide cancer registry (for childhood cancers and transplacental carcinogenesis). The uses and limitations of these record systems are discussed, along with examples of their use in descriptive and analytic epidemiologic studies. Descriptive studies outlined include investigations of temporal and geographic trends in birth defects, birth weight, and fetal deaths, with reference to environmental questions (eg, Love Canal, nuclear power plants). Analytic studies described concern parental occupation in relation to specific birth defects (neural tube defects and Down syndrome) and maternal use of contraceptive drugs.

  19. Uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology.

    PubMed

    Polednak, A P; Janerich, D T

    1983-01-01

    The uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology are described with reference to New York State. The available record systems (and relevant reproductive end points) described include: a newborn screening program for metabolic diseases and hemoglobinopathies (relevant to point mutations); chromosome registries and prenatal cytogenetics (for chromosome anomalies); live birth certificates (for birth defects, birthweight, sex ratio, etc); fetal death certificates (for spontaneous fetal deaths); and a statewide cancer registry (for childhood cancers and transplacental carcinogenesis). The uses and limitations of these record systems are discussed, along with examples of their use in descriptive and analytic epidemiologic studies. Descriptive studies outlined include investigations of temporal and geographic trends in birth defects, birth weight, and fetal deaths, with reference to environmental questions (eg, Love Canal, nuclear power plants). Analytic studies described concern parental occupation in relation to specific birth defects (neural tube defects and Down syndrome) and maternal use of contraceptive drugs. PMID:6220602

  20. Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  1. Assessment of 1,3-butadiene epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ott, M G

    1990-01-01

    Positive carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats have led to concerns that 1,3-butadiene may be carcinogenic in humans under exposure conditions that have existed in occupational settings and perhaps exist today. The principal settings of interest are the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) manufacturing industry, which uses large quantities of 1,3-butadiene, and the 1,3-butadiene monomer industry. The potential for 1,3-butadiene exposure is highest during monomer transfer operations and is lowest in finishing areas of polymerization plants where the polymer products are processed. Three large cohort mortality studies have been conducted in the SBR and monomer producing industries since 1980. These studies, which examined the mortality experience of over 17,000 men employed in one monomer and 10 SBR facilities, are the subject of this review. All but one of the facilities began operations during the early 1940s. The mortality experience observed within these employee cohorts is comparable to that seen in other long-term studies of men employed in the petroleum, chemical, and rubber industries for all causes of death, total malignant neoplasms, and for the specific cancers seen in excess in the toxicologic studies. This paper discusses discrepant findings observed in more detailed analyses within individual cohorts and among employment subgroups, as well as selected limitations of the particular studies. Additional efforts to refine 1,3-butadiene exposure categories are needed. Within the context of sample size limitations inherent in these studies, there is currently inadequate evidence to establish a relationship between cancer mortality outcomes and 1.3-butadiene exposure in humans. PMID:2205483

  2. How much soil do young children ingest: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, E J; Barnes, R; Stanek, E J; Pastides, H; Gilbert, C E; Veneman, P; Wang, X R; Lasztity, A; Kostecki, P T

    1989-10-01

    Sixty-four children aged 1-4 years were evaluated for the extent to which they ingest soil. The study followed the soil tracer methodology of S. Binder, D. Sokal, and D. Maughan (1986, Arch. Environ. Health, 41, 341-345). However, the present study included a number of modifications from the Binder et al. study. The principal new features were (1) increasing the tracer elements from three to eight; (2) using a mass-balance approach so that the contribution of food and medicine ingestion would be considered; (3) extending the period of observation from 3 days to 8 days; and (4) validating the methodology by having adult volunteers ingest known amounts of soil in a mass-balance validation study. The principal findings reveal the following. (1) The adult study confirmed the validity of the tracer methodology to estimate soil ingestion. (2) Of the eight tracers employed in the adult study, only Al, Si, and Y provided sufficient recovery data that was directly acceptably stable and reliable. (3) If food ingestion determinations were taken into consideration, the median estimates of soil ingestion from the eight tracers ranged from a low of 9 mg/day (Y) to a high of 96 mg/day (V); the median values of Al, Si, and Y, the three most reliable tracers, ranged from 9 mg/day to 40 mg/day. (4) One child had soil ingestion values ranging from 5 to 8 g/day, depending on the tracer. (5) If food ingestion had not been considered, the estimates of soil ingestion would have increased about two- to sixfold, depending on the tracer with Ti and Y being most affected by food intake. (6) Since soil and dust samples did not significantly differ in their levels of tracer elements, no reliable differentiation between the contribution of ingestion of dust and soil could be made. (7) These findings are generally consistent with the previously reported findings of Binder et al. (1986) and P. Clausing, B. Brunekreff, and J.H. van Wijnen (1987, Int. Arch. Occup. Med., 59, 73) if these latter

  3. Maltreatment and Disabilities: A Population-based Epidemiological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Patricia M.; Knutson, John F.

    2000-01-01

    This study reviewed merged records of children (N=40,211, 3,262 disabled) in Omaha, Nebraska, during 1994-95. An electronic merger of school records with child abuse, foster care, and police records was followed by a review of maltreatment incidents. Findings indicated a 9 percent prevalence rate of maltreatment for nondisabled children and a 31…

  4. EFFECT OF CIGARETTE SMOKING IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF LUNG CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a method for adjusting the analysis of occupational-environmental lung cancer risks for the effects of cigarette smoking in cohort and case control studies. he method uses a function that relates an individual's death rate to his age and cigarette smoking his...

  5. Optimal designs for epidemiologic longitudinal studies with binary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mehtälä, Juha; Auranen, Kari; Kulathinal, Sangita

    2015-12-01

    Alternating presence and absence of a medical condition in human subjects is often modelled as an outcome of underlying process dynamics. Longitudinal studies provide important insights into research questions involving such dynamics. This article concerns optimal designs for studies in which the dynamics are modelled as a binary continuous-time Markov process. Either one or both the transition rate parameters in the model are to be estimated with maximum precision from a sequence of observations made at discrete times on a number of subjects. The design questions concern the choice of time interval between observations, the initial state of each subject and the choice between number of subjects versus repeated observations per subject. Sequential designs are considered due to dependence of the designs on the model parameters. The optimal time spacing can be approximated by the reciprocal of the sum of the two rates. The initial distribution of the study subjects should be taken into account when relatively few repeated samples per subject are to be collected. A study with a reasonably large size should be designed in more than one phase because there are then enough observations to be spent in the first phase to revise the time spacing for the subsequent phases. PMID:22170892

  6. Epidemiological studies of taste function: Discussion and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Derek J.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to quantify the public health impact of chemosensation present significant challenges, including a strong need for testing methods suitable for field assessment. This discussion highlights several promising approaches to the population-based study of taste function; it also identifies key principles that should be considered when adapting laboratory-based taste tests for field use. PMID:19686195

  7. An epidemiological study on pattern and incidence of mandibular fractures.

    PubMed

    Natu, Subodh S; Pradhan, Harsha; Gupta, Hemant; Alam, Sarwar; Gupta, Sumit; Pradhan, R; Mohammad, Shadab; Kohli, Munish; Sinha, Vijai P; Shankar, Ravi; Agarwal, Anshita

    2012-01-01

    Mandible is the second most common facial fracture. There has been a significant increase in the number of cases in recent years with the advent of fast moving automobiles. Mandibular fractures constitute a substantial proportion of maxillofacial trauma cases in Lucknow. This study was undertaken to study mandibular fractures clinicoradiologically with an aim to calculate incidence and study pattern and the commonest site of fractures in population in and around Lucknow. Patient presenting with history of trauma at various centers of maxillofacial surgery in and around Lucknow were included in this study. Detailed case history was recorded followed by thorough clinical examination, and radiological interpretation was done for establishing the diagnosis and the data obtained was analyzed statistically. Out of 66 patients with mandibular fractures, highest percentage was found in 21-30 years of age with male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of fracture with parasymphysis being commonest site. Commonest combination was parasymphysis with subcondyle. There was no gender bias in etiology with number of fracture sites. The incidence and causes of mandibular fracture reflect trauma patterns within the community and can provide a guide to the design of programs geared toward prevention and treatment. PMID:23227327

  8. Hearing Impairment in 2008: a compilation of available epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Pascolini, Donatella; Smith, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A data bank of prevalence of hearing impairment for monitoring and implementation of programmes at national or global level and for the estimate of the global burden has been established. A systematic search was conducted of random-sample population-based studies of bilateral hearing impairment with clearly defined hearing threshold levels. Fifty-three studies from 31 countries from all WHO regions were found to meet the selection criteria. The prevalence of mild and disabling hearing impairment and other details from the studies are reported by WHO region. Although a large number of studies were found, only a small number among them were suitable surveys of prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment in the general population. Hearing impairment is a major disability that should be monitored at all ages: more population-based surveys are needed in all regions of the world. Utilization of the WHO protocol is recommended for collection and analysis of data in standard ways; especially recommended is the use of WHO threshold levels and to report the prevalence of bilateral impairment, both of which required to calculate burden. PMID:19444763

  9. Epidemiological Findings of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in a Venezuelan Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Pena, Joaquin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) for children receiving services in Maracaibo County, Venezuela. Children aged 3-9 with diagnosis of any ASD were recruited. We ascertained area, referral process, and definitions of ASD for each patient. A total of 430 children were identified, and 76.5 percent were…

  10. Accidents related to manure in eastern Switzerland: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Knoblauch, A; Steiner, B; Bachmann, S; Trachsler, G; Burgheer, R; Osterwalder, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Liquid manure systems and manure pits are major hazards in the agricultural workplace. The incidence of accidents related to manure is unknown. The objective of this study was to survey the liquid manure facilities of farms in eastern Switzerland and find the incidence of accidents related to manure in the region. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study and cross sectional survey of 210 farms in eastern Switzerland. RESULTS: The incidence of accidents related to manure was found to be 10.4/1000 person-years. Most accidents were categorised as minor--that is, had a benign outcome for the people involved or involved animals only. One in 33 of the farms surveyed was the scene of an accident related to manure each year. CONCLUSIONS: The medical literature on accidents related to manure mostly reports accidents with catastrophic outcomes. This study shows that this type of accident is only the tip of the iceberg. Most of the accidents reported in this study belong to a category that has hitherto been un-noticed and unreported. The term "accident related to manure" covers a broad range of events, and those resulting in serious human illness or death represent only a small part of this spectrum. A wide variety of liquid manure systems were found on the farms surveyed. Very few liquid manure facilities conformed to published safety standards. PMID:8882112

  11. [The Oradea study regarding the epidemiology factors in ischemic cardiopathy].

    PubMed

    Pop, E; Popa, I; Bolcaş, D; Sirca, D; Simon, F; Costin, V; Balaj, V; Micle, T; Săvulescu, I H; Elenes, S; Negru, M; Cazacu, G; Popper, A; Gerhardt, L; Zavornic, E; Anton, N; Erdös, I; Frăţilă, H; Nica, V; Mesaroş, P; Jozsa, P; Lupu, D; David, D; Derecskey, E; Man, C; Palfi, E; Vass, H L

    1981-01-01

    Cholesterolemia in a population of 100482 inhabitants of the Bihor district, subjected to screening for the risk factors in ischemic cardiopathy were studied. Together with hyperlipidemias other risk factors were detected: arterial hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, smoking, ischemic alterations of the electrocardiogram, the influence of the noxious agents present at the working place, of the blood groups and disturbances of the menstrual cycle. The mean cholesteremia is of 205 ± 43.7 mgr% (M = 207 ± 43.7 mgr%; F = 204 ± 43.5 mgr%). The prevalence of cholesterolemia, in comparison with the higher normal limits in each age group over 15 years of age, is in the entire studied series, of 13.5%. The population in whom cholesterolemia exceeds 250 mgr% represents 13.92%. PMID:25528799

  12. A proposal to facilitate weight-of-evidence assessments: Harmonization of Neurodevelopmental Environmental Epidemiology Studies (HONEES)

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric; Kenworthy, Lauren; Lipkin, Paul H.; Goodman, Michael; Squibb, Katherine; Mattison, Donald R.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Makris, Susan L.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Raffaele, Kathleen C.; LaKind, Judy S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to conduct weight-of-evidence assessments to inform the assessment of potential environmental neurotoxicants is limited by lack of comparability of study methods, data analysis, and reporting. There is a need to establish consensus guidelines for conducting, analyzing, and reporting neurodevelopmental environmental epidemiologic studies, while recognizing that consistency is likewise needed for epidemiology studies examining other health outcomes. This paper proposes a set of considerations to be used by the scientific community at-large as a tool for systematically evaluating the quality of proposed and/or published studies in terms of their value for weight-of-evidence assessments. Particular emphasis is placed on evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of neurodevelopmental function tests, as these characteristics directly affect the risk of false positive and false negative decisions at the level of the individual, thus influencing the risk of incorrect conclusions at the level of study findings. The proposed considerations are the first step in what must be a larger consensus-based process and can serve to catalyze such a discussion. Achieving consensus in these types of endeavors is difficult; however, opportunities exist for further interdisciplinary discussion, collaboration, and research that will help realize this goal. Broad acceptance and application of such an approach can facilitate the expanded use of environmental epidemiology studies of potential neurodevelopmental toxicants in the protection of public health, and specifically children's health. PMID:21315817

  13. A proposal to facilitate weight-of-evidence assessments: Harmonization of Neurodevelopmental Environmental Epidemiology Studies (HONEES).

    PubMed

    Youngstrom, Eric; Kenworthy, Lauren; Lipkin, Paul H; Goodman, Michael; Squibb, Katherine; Mattison, Donald R; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Makris, Susan L; Bale, Ambuja S; Raffaele, Kathleen C; LaKind, Judy S

    2011-01-01

    The ability to conduct weight-of-evidence assessments to inform the evaluation of potential environmental neurotoxicants is limited by lack of comparability of study methods, data analysis, and reporting. There is a need to establish consensus guidelines for conducting, analyzing, and reporting neurodevelopmental environmental epidemiologic studies, while recognizing that consistency is likewise needed for epidemiology studies examining other health outcomes. This paper proposes a set of considerations to be used by the scientific community at-large as a tool for systematically evaluating the quality of proposed and/or published studies in terms of their value for weight-of-evidence assessments. Particular emphasis is placed on evaluating factors influencing the risk of incorrect conclusions at the level of study findings. The proposed considerations are the first step in what must be a larger consensus-based process and can serve to catalyze such a discussion. Achieving consensus in these types of endeavors is difficult; however, opportunities exist for further interdisciplinary discussion, collaboration, and research that will help realize this goal. Broad acceptance and application of such an approach can facilitate the expanded use of environmental epidemiology studies of potential neurodevelopmental toxicants in the protection of public health, and specifically children's health. PMID:21315817

  14. Dental Anxiety Among Adults: An Epidemiological Study in South India

    PubMed Central

    Appukuttan, Devapriya; Subramanian, Sangeetha; Tadepalli, Anupama; Damodaran, Lokesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental anxiety is a major barrier for dental care utilization. Hence, identifying anxious individuals and their appropriate management becomes crucial in clinical practice. Aim: The study aims to assess dental anxiety, factors influencing dental anxiety, and anxiety towards tooth extraction procedure among patients attending a dental hospital in India. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 1,148 consecutive patients aged 18-70 years. The assessment tools consisted of a consent form, history form, a questionnaire form containing the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) which was used to assess the level of dental anxiety, and an additional question on anxiety towards dental extraction procedure. Results: Among the study group, 63.7% were men and 36.3% were women. Based on the MDAS score, 45.2% of the participants were identified to be less anxious, 51.8% were moderately or extremely anxious, and 3% were suffering from dental phobia. Mean MDAS total score was 10.4 (standard deviation (SD) = 3.91). Female participants and younger subjects were more anxious (P < 0.001). Subjects who were anxious had postponed their dental visit (P < 0.001). Participants who had negative dental experience were more anxious (P < 0.05). Notably, 82.6% reported anxiety towards extraction procedure. Significant association was seen between anxiety towards extraction procedure and the respondents gender (P < 0.05), age (P < 0.001), education level (P < 0.05), employment status (P < 0.001), income (P < 0.001), self-perceived oral health status (P < 0.05), and their history of visit to dentist (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Significant percentage of population was suffering from dental anxiety in this study population. A plethora of factors like age, gender, education level, occupation, financial stability, and previous bad dental experience influences dental anxiety to various levels. Extraction followed by drilling of tooth and receiving local anesthetic injection

  15. Descriptive Epidemiology of the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has worse outcomes than primary reconstructions. Predictors for these worse outcomes are not known. The Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Group was developed to perform a multisurgeon, multicenter prospective longitudinal study to obtain sufficient subjects to allow multivariable analysis to determine predictors of clinical outcome. Purpose To describe the formation of MARS and provide descriptive analysis of patient demographics and clinical features for the initial 460 enrolled patients to date in this prospective cohort. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods After training and institutional review board approval, surgeons began enrolling patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, recording patient demographics, previous ACL reconstruction methods, intra-articular injuries, and current revision techniques. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of validated patient-based outcome measures. Results As of April 1, 2009, 87 surgeons have enrolled a total of 460 patients (57% men; median age, 26 years). For 89%, the reconstruction was the first revision. Mode of failure as deemed by the revising surgeon was traumatic (32%), technical (24%), biologic (7%), combination (37%), infection (<1%), and no response (<1%). Previous graft present at the time of injury was 70% autograft, 27% allograft, 2% combination, and 1% unknown. Sixty-two percent were more than 2 years removed from their last reconstruction. Graft choice for revision ACL reconstruction was 45% autograft, 54% allograft, and more than 1% both allograft and autograft. Meniscus and/or chondral damage was found in 90% of patients. Conclusion The MARS Group has been able to quickly accumulate the largest revision ACL reconstruction cohort reported to date. Traumatic reinjury is deemed by surgeons to be the most common single mode of failure, but a combination of factors represents the most

  16. Epidemiological studies of human exposures to radiofrequency radiation. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Roberts, N J; Michaelson, S M

    1985-01-01

    The health effects to exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) remain undefined and controversial. Epidemiological studies of human exposures to RFR are confounded by difficulties in determining the type and true extent of exposures, in selecting an appropriate control group for comparisons, in determining the existence and influence of many concomitant environmental factors, and in establishing the presence or measuring the frequency or severity of subjective complaints was well as objective findings in the studied populations. This paper reviews reported RFR effects on general health, growth and development, physiological systems such as the cardiovascular and nervous systems, and organs such as the eye. Criteria for reliable epidemiological studies are presented to allow critical analysis of such reports. PMID:3905624

  17. Adverse reproductive outcomes in families of atomic veterans: The feasibility of epidemiologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This is an outstanding report from a distinguished academy committee, which in 71 pages of text provides the scientific basis for the carefully crafted 8-page executive summary. The principles and issues of the required epidemiological study are presented calmly and concisely, as are the ensuing short chapters on radiation biology, genetics and risk estimation, and all other adverse reproductive outcomes. The committee was mandated by Congress to determine the feasibility, cost and duration of a study on adverse reproductive outcomes in families of atomic veteran. The committee found that a scientifically adequate and epidemiologically valid study could not be mounted and the cost would be tens of millions of dollars lasting a decade. The Committee presents a number of well-discussed approaches in support of their position.

  18. Collecting Fecal Samples for Microbiome Analyses in Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rashmi; Chen, Jun; Amir, Amnon; Vogtmann, Emily; Shi, Jianxin; Inman, Kristin S.; Flores, Roberto; Sampson, Joshua; Knight, Rob; Chia, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background The need to develop valid methods for sampling and analyzing fecal specimens for microbiome studies is increasingly important, especially for large population studies. Methods Some of the most important attributes of any sampling method are reproducibility, stability, and accuracy. We compared seven fecal sampling methods (no additive, RNAlater, 70% ethanol, EDTA, dry swab, and pre/post development fecal occult blood test (FOBT)) using 16S rRNA microbiome profiling in two laboratories. We evaluated nine commonly used microbiome metrics: abundance of 3 phyla, two alpha-diversities, and four beta-diversities. We determined the technical reproducibility, stability at ambient temperature, and accuracy. Results While microbiome profiles showed systematic biases according to sample method and time at ambient temperature, the highest source of variation was between individuals. All collection methods showed high reproducibility. FOBT and RNAlater resulted in the highest stability without freezing for four days. In comparison to no-additive samples, swab, FOBT, and 70% ethanol exhibited the greatest accuracy when immediately frozen. Conclusions Overall, optimal stability and reproducibility was achieved using FOBT, making this a reasonable sample collection method for 16s analysis. Impact Having standardized method of collecting and storing stable fecal samples will allow future investigations into the role of gut microbiota in chronic disease etiology in large population studies. PMID:26604270

  19. Orbital fractures due to domestic violence: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Stuart H.; McRill, Connie M.; Bruno, Christopher R.; Ten Have, Tom; Lehman, Erik

    2000-09-01

    Domestic violence is an important cause of orbital fractures in women. Physicians who treat patients with orbital fractures may not suspect this mechanism of injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between domestic violence and orbital fractures. A medical center-based case-control study with matching on age and site of admission was done. Medical center databases were searched using ICD-9 codes to identify all cases of orbital fractures encountered during a three-year period. Medical records of female patients age 13 and older were reviewed along with those of age, gender and site of admission matched controls. A stratified exact test was employed to test the association between domestic violence and orbital fracture. Among 41 adult female cases with orbital fractures treated at our medical center, three (7.3%) reported domestic violence compared to zero among the matched controls (p = 0.037). We believe that domestic violence may be under-reported in both orbital fracture cases and controls. This may result in an underestimate of the orbital fracture versus domestic violence association. Domestic violence is a serious women's health and societal problem. Domestic violence may have a variety of presentations, including illnesses and injuries. Orbital fracture is an identifiable manifestation of domestic violence. Domestic violence is more likely to be detected in adult female hospital patients with orbital fracture than in matched controls with any other diagnosis. Physicians who treat patients with orbital fractures should be familiar with this mechanism of injury. PMID:12045943

  20. A molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Nadin-Davis, S A; Torres, G; Ribas, M De Los Angeles; Guzman, M; De La Paz, R Cruz; Morales, M; Wandeler, A I

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the emergence and current situation of terrestrial rabies in Cuba, a collection of rabies virus specimens was employed for genetic characterization. These data supported the monophyletic nature of all terrestrial rabies viruses presently circulating in Cuba but additionally delineated several distinct variants exhibiting limited spatial distribution which may reflect the history of rabies spread on the island. The strain of rabies currently circulating in Cuba, which emerged on the island in the early 20th century, has very close evolutionary ties to the Mexican dog type and is a member of the cosmopolitan lineage widely distributed during the colonial period. The Cuban rabies viruses, which circulate predominantly within the mongoose population, are phylogenetically distant from viruses circulating in mongooses in other parts of the world. These studies illustrate, at a global level, the adaptation of multiple strains of rabies to mongoose species which should be regarded as important wildlife hosts for rabies re-emergence. Given the recent emergence of human cases due to bat contact in Cuba, this study also included a single insectivorous bat specimen which was found to most closely resemble the rabies viruses known to circulate in Mexican vampire bats. PMID:16740188

  1. Epidemiological studies of congo red Escherichia coli in broiler chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Stebbins, M E; Berkhoff, H A; Corbett, W T

    1992-01-01

    This prospective cohort study was designed to confirm the association between Congo red binding Escherichia coli (CREC) and E. coli air sacculitis in commercial broilers. It was also designed to evaluate CREC as an air sacculitis risk factor and to explore the CREC relationship to other air sacculitis risk factors (poultry house temperature, air-ammonia levels, and presence of other diseases). In addition, this study was used to assess a possible role of the broiler-breeder flocks and hatchers in the spread of CREC air sacculitis. Congo red E. coli-associated airsacculitis risk was based on CREC exposure of the chicks in the hatchers. Breeder flocks with greater than 30 CREC colonies/plate from hatcher air sampling tests were placed in the high risk group; flocks with less than five CREC colonies/plate were placed in the low risk group. Increased risks of death due to air sacculitis (RR = 2.26), and increased death rates due to CREC air sacculitis (RR = 9.45) in high-risk flocks, identified CREC as an important air sacculitis risk factor. The attributable risk percent of CREC airsacculitis from hatcher exposure of CREC was 89.4%, pointing to the hatcher as the source of CREC infection. The association of specific broiler-breeder flocks to high levels of CREC in the hatchers, and subsequent air sacculitis, suggests that the broiler-breeders are the ultimate source of CREC. PMID:1423058

  2. Methods for measuring utilization of mental health services in two epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    NOVINS, DOUGLAS K.; BEALS, JANETTE; CROY, CALVIN; MANSON, SPERO M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives of Study Psychiatric epidemiologic studies often include two or more sets of questions regarding service utilization, but the agreement across these different questions and the factors associated with their endorsement have not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the agreement of different sets of mental health service utilization questions that were included in the American Indian Service Utilization Psychiatric Epidemiology Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP), and compare the results to similar questions included in the baseline National Comorbidity Survey (NCS). Methods Responses to service utilization questions by 2878 AI-SUPERPFP and 5877 NCS participants were examined by calculating estimates of service use and agreement (κ) across the different sets of questions. Logistic regression models were developed to identify factors associated with endorsement of specific sets of questions. Results In both studies, estimates of mental health service utilization varied across the different sets of questions. Agreement across the different question sets was marginal to good (κ = 0.27–0.69). Characteristics of identified service users varied across the question sets. Limitations Neither survey included data to examine the validity of participant responses to service utilization questions. Recommendations for Further Research Question wording and placement appear to impact estimates of service utilization in psychiatric epidemiologic studies. Given the importance of these estimates for policy-making, further research into the validity of survey responses as well as impacts of question wording and context on rates of service utilization is warranted. PMID:18767205

  3. Evaluating alternative exposure indices in epidemiologic studies on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Juutilainen, J.; Hatfield, T.; Laeaerae, E.

    1996-05-01

    Choosing the right exposure index for epidemiological studies on 50--60 Hz magnetic fields is difficult due to the lack of knowledge about critical exposure parameters for the biological effects of magnetic fields. This paper uses data from a previously published epidemiological investigation on early pregnancy loss (EPL) to study the methods of evaluating the exposure-response relationship of 50 Hz magnetic fields. Two approaches were used. The first approach was to apply generalized additive modeling to suggest the functional form of the relationship between EPL data with eight alternative exposure indices: the 24 h average of magnetic field strength, three indices measuring the proportion of time above specified thresholds, and four indices measuring the proportion of time within specified intensity windows. Because the original exposure data included only spot measurements, estimates for the selected exposure indices were calculated indirectly form the spot measurements using empirical nonlinear equations derived from 24 h recording in 60 residences. The results did not support intensity windows, and a threshold-type dependence on field strength appeared to be more plausible than a linear relationship. In addition, the study produced data suggesting that spot measurements may be used as surrogates for other exposure indices besides the time average field strength. No final conclusions should be drawn from this study alone, but the authors hope that this exercise stimulates evaluation of alternative exposure indices in other planned and ongoing epidemiological studies.

  4. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also. PMID:6747384

  5. Prospective study of erythema toxicum neonatorum: epidemiology and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Benigno; Labandeira, Javier; Cabanillas, Miguel; Acevedo, Antonio; Toribio, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    We performed a prospective study of 1,000 neonates investigated in the first 72 hours of life in the health area of Ferrol (northwest of Spain) to assess the prevalence of erythema toxicum neonatorum, the anatomical sites most frequently involved, the influence of different maternal and neonatal parameters, day of life of medical examination, and type of delivery (vaginal or Cesarean). Overall prevalence of erythema toxicum neonatorum was 16.7%. Lesions most frequently involved the trunk, buttocks, and proximal areas of limbs. A higher prevalence of this dermatosis was found in Caucasian newborns (p = 0.01) and those with higher birthweight (p < 0.05), greater gestational age (p < 0.05), vaginal delivery (p < 0.05), maternal age of <30 years (p = 0.28), and fewer than two previous pregnancies (p = 0.12). PMID:22066938

  6. Aftermath of stroke: an epidemiological study in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Christie, D

    1982-01-01

    A population-based study of the incidence of stroke was carried out in an urban area of Melbourne, Australia. The 508 cases were followed up and the survivors interviewed briefly at three months and in more depth six months after the onset of stroke. Fifty-eight per cent of all subjects had survived to six months, and the strongest prognostic indicator was level of consciousness at time of maximum impairment. By six months, 25% of all cases were independent in self-care and mobile outside the home; of those patients aged under 75 years, suffering a first stroke and retaining full consciousness at the time of maximum impairment, the proportion was 50%. A very imperfect correlation was present between residual physical impairment and return to the full range of prestroke activities. PMID:6214601

  7. Occupational allergy to laboratory animals: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Bland, S M; Levine, M S; Wilson, P D; Fox, N L; Rivera, J C

    1986-11-01

    A cross-sectional study has been carried out at The National Institutes of Health to examine the prevalence of laboratory animal allergy (LAA) in a population exposed to animals, and to compare the prevalence of general allergy in the exposed v a control group. A group of 289 workers with light-to-moderate exposure to animals, 260 with heavy exposure, and 242 control subjects were interviewed. A slightly greater prevalence of general allergy was found among those working with laboratory animals (39%), than in the control group (33.9%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The prevalence of LAA in the total exposed group was 23.9%. A history of atopic problems and history of allergy to domestic animals correlated significantly with LAA, as did the number of species of animals handled and the average number of hours per week exposed to laboratory animals, with evidence of dose-response relationships. PMID:3491199

  8. [An epidemiological study on traffic accident in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Wang, S

    1993-12-01

    This report showed the general mortality of traffic accident and changes of its distribution from 1974 to 1990 in Guangzhou. The incidence rate per 10,000 registered vehicles, mortality and injury had been tending to fall during the interval. Since 1987, the average rate of decrease per year was 24.27%. The type of collision between automobiles was in the majority. The rate of deaths and injuries per accident involved bicycles or pedestrians was the highest. The percentage of crash between automobile and non-automobile, that between automobile and bicycle, and that between automobile and pedestrian tended to rise in recent years. The result of this study indicated that the administration of traffic safety in Guangzhou had gained marked success in the last few years. Traffic accident has become one of the grave problems of social safety and public health along with the increase of population and vehicles in modernized city. PMID:8156576

  9. Food Polyamine and Cardiovascular Disease -An Epidemiological Study-

    PubMed Central

    Soda, Kuniyasu; Kano, Yoshihiko; Chiba, Fumihiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of dietary polyamines toward preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Age-standardized mortality rates as well as other relevant information regarding individuals with CVD were gathered from the World Health Organization and the International Monetary Fund in 48 different European and other Western countries. Food supply data were collected from the database of the United Nations, and the amount of dietary polyamines was estimated by using polyamine concentrations in foods from published sources. The association between CVD mortality and the amount of polyamines was investigated by performing a series of multiple linear regression analyses. Analyses using factors known to modulate the risk of CVD including: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (standardized regression coefficient (r) = -0.786, p < 0.001) and the amount of fruits, vegetable, nuts, and beans (r = -0.183, p = 0.001) but not including polyamines, showed negative associations with CVD, while smoking rate (r = 0.139, p = 0.041) and whole milk amount (r = 0.131, p = 0.028) showed positive associations with CVD. When the amount of polyamines was added to the analyses as a covariate, GDP (r = -0.864, p < 0.001) and polyamines (r = -0.355, p = 0.007) showed negative associations with CVD, while smoking rate (r = 0.183, p = 0.006) and whole milk (r = 0.113, p = 0.041) showed positive associations with CVD. The inverse association between dietary polyamines and CVD mortality revealed by the present study merits further evaluation. PMID:23121753

  10. [Soccer injuries. A prospective epidemiological and socioeconomic study].

    PubMed

    Jensen, K H; Lindblad, B E; Terkelsen, C J; Helleland, H E; Terkelsen, C J

    1993-11-01

    In one year 715 soccer injuries were registered and treated in the casualty ward of Randers City Hospital. We conducted a prospective study of these patients, using a questionnaire in order to determine the most common locations, types, mechanisms and treatments of injury. Financial costs to society and the individual were also examined. Finally, we compared the most common types of injury definition in sports medicine. According to the Abbreviated Injury Scale, A.I.S., 44% of the injuries were classified as minor, 46% as moderate injury and 9% as severe. Fractures accounted for 17% of all injuries. Sprains and contusions were the most frequent injuries, accounting for 46% and 25% respectively. Most injuries (63%) were treated in the casualty ward, whilst 20% were treated as outpatients. 7% were admitted to the hospital immediately, and a further 2% were later admitted from the outpatient clinic. A total of 88% of those hospitalized were treated as inpatients for 1-7 days, and 12% for more than two weeks. 31% of all the soccer players seen in the casualty ward were absent from work, and 12% were absent from work for more than three weeks. 8% of the injured soccer players suffered loss of income. 40% had financial losses between $0-250, 40% between $250-750, seven per cent between $750-1,250, and 14% more than $1,250. From the data presented in this study, we conclude that the injury rate among soccer players increases with age, and the severity of the injuries is greatest in the oldest age groups. Soccer injuries constitute the major part of sports injuries seen in the casualty ward.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8256352