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Sample records for epiphytic lichen species

  1. Large-scale patterns of epiphytic lichen species richness: photobiont-dependent response to climate and forest structure.

    PubMed

    Marini, Lorenzo; Nascimbene, Juri; Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2011-09-15

    Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus with a photosynthetic partner. Although the photobiont type is a key life-history trait, tests of the potential differential role of the main photobiont types in shaping large-scale patterns of lichen species richness are still absent. The aim of the study was to test the influences of forest structure and climate on epiphytic lichen species richness across Italy and to see whether these relationships change for groups of species sharing different photobiont types. Regional species richness of epiphytic lichens divided into three main photobiont types (i.e. chlorococcoid green algae, cyanobacteria, and Trentepohlia algae) was retrieved for each of the 20 administrative regions. Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the effect of climate and forest structure, and their potential interaction, on the regional species richness for the three photobiont types, accounting also for the effect of regional area. Regional species richness was associated with both climate and forest structure variables but the relationships with both factors were largely photobiont dependent. Regional area and precipitation were the only predictors included in all the models, confirming the strong dependence of lichens on atmospheric water supply, irrespective of the photobiont type. Number of species with chlorococcoid green algae were further positively associated with cover of high forest, whilst lichens with Trentepohlia were further enhanced by warm temperatures. Cyanolichen species richness was only related to area and precipitation. Our study shed light on the relative importance of climate and forest structure on lichen species richness patterns at the macroscale, showing a differential response of the photobiont types to various environmental determinants. This differential response suggested that the current and future impacts of global change on lichens cannot be generalized and that species

  2. A Pine Is a Pine and a Spruce Is a Spruce – The Effect of Tree Species and Stand Age on Epiphytic Lichen Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bäcklund, Sofia; Jönsson, Mari; Strengbom, Joachim; Frisch, Andreas; Thor, Göran

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing demand for forest-based products, there is a growing interest in introducing fast-growing non-native tree species in forest management. Such introductions often have unknown consequences for native forest biodiversity. In this study, we examine epiphytic lichen species richness and species composition on the trunks of non-native Pinus contorta and compare these to the native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in managed boreal forests in northern Sweden across a chronosequence of age classes. Overall, we recorded a total of 66,209 lichen occurrences belonging to 57 species in the 96 studied forest stands. We found no difference in species richness of lichens between stands of P. contorta and P. sylvestris, but stands of P. abies had higher total species richness. However, species richness of lichens in stands of P. abies decreased with increasing stand age, while no such age effect was detected for P. contorta and P. sylvestris. Lichen species composition progressively diverged with increasing stand age, and in 30-year-old stands all three tree species showed species-specific assemblages. Epiphytic lichen assemblages in stands of 30-year-old P. contorta were influenced by greater basal area, canopy closure, and average diameter at breast height, P. abies stands by higher branch density and canopy closure, and stands of P. sylvestris by greater bark crevice depth. Differences in lichen species richness and composition were mainly explained by canopy closure and habitat availability, and the greater canopy closure in mature P. abies stands promoted the colonization and growth of calicioid lichen species. Our results indicate that the non-native P. contorta have similar species richness as the native P. sylvestris. The main difference in lichen species richness and composition is between P. abies and Pinus spp. in managed forests of boreal Sweden. PMID:26799558

  3. A Pine Is a Pine and a Spruce Is a Spruce--The Effect of Tree Species and Stand Age on Epiphytic Lichen Communities.

    PubMed

    Bäcklund, Sofia; Jönsson, Mari; Strengbom, Joachim; Frisch, Andreas; Thor, Göran

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing demand for forest-based products, there is a growing interest in introducing fast-growing non-native tree species in forest management. Such introductions often have unknown consequences for native forest biodiversity. In this study, we examine epiphytic lichen species richness and species composition on the trunks of non-native Pinus contorta and compare these to the native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in managed boreal forests in northern Sweden across a chronosequence of age classes. Overall, we recorded a total of 66,209 lichen occurrences belonging to 57 species in the 96 studied forest stands. We found no difference in species richness of lichens between stands of P. contorta and P. sylvestris, but stands of P. abies had higher total species richness. However, species richness of lichens in stands of P. abies decreased with increasing stand age, while no such age effect was detected for P. contorta and P. sylvestris. Lichen species composition progressively diverged with increasing stand age, and in 30-year-old stands all three tree species showed species-specific assemblages. Epiphytic lichen assemblages in stands of 30-year-old P. contorta were influenced by greater basal area, canopy closure, and average diameter at breast height, P. abies stands by higher branch density and canopy closure, and stands of P. sylvestris by greater bark crevice depth. Differences in lichen species richness and composition were mainly explained by canopy closure and habitat availability, and the greater canopy closure in mature P. abies stands promoted the colonization and growth of calicioid lichen species. Our results indicate that the non-native P. contorta have similar species richness as the native P. sylvestris. The main difference in lichen species richness and composition is between P. abies and Pinus spp. in managed forests of boreal Sweden. PMID:26799558

  4. Receptor Modeling of Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and SpatialDistribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of inorganic air pollutant emissions to atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada was investigated in the surrounding boreal forests, using a common epiphytic lichen bio-indicator species (Hypogymnia physodes) and applyi...

  5. Effects of reduced nitrogen compounds on epiphytic lichen communities in Mediterranean Italy.

    PubMed

    Frati, Luisa; Brunialti, Giorgio; Loppi, Stefano

    2008-12-15

    The effects of reduced nitrogen compounds on epiphytic lichen vegetation have been largely investigated in northern Europe. This paper reports for the first time results of a study carried out on pine trees in the Mediterranean basin. Contrary to the usual acidophytic lichen colonization of pine bark, in this case a nitrophytic lichen vegetation was found, suggesting that the study area is characterized by a diffuse eutrophication. Tree circumference, distance from the stock farms, bark pH and bark electrical conductivity emerged as the main factors influencing the distribution and abundance of epiphytic lichens in the study area. Both Hyperphyscia adglutinata and Xanthoria parietina were suitable local indicator species of high pine bark pH values. However, while X. parietina indicated high nitrogen dust pollution, H. adglutinata occurred also where there was an additional increase in bark pH caused by the release of high amounts of ammonia. The increased nitrogen availability caused by ammonium apparently had no effect on the occurrence of nitrophytes. PMID:18822445

  6. Oak forest exploitation and black-locust invasion caused severe shifts in epiphytic lichen communities in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo

    2010-10-15

    In the last two centuries, native European oak forests have undergone a dramatic decline related to increasing human pressure for agriculture and urbanization. Oak forests were either completely eradicated and transformed into agricultural landscapes or replaced by second-growth formations. Intensive forest management and the replacement of native forests with production forests or arable lands are recognized amongst the main threats to many lichens in Europe. In this study, we used historical information on the epiphytic lichen biota which was hosted in a native oak-dominated forest of Northern Italy to identify shifts of lichen communities due to the changes in land use which occurred during the last two centuries. We also compared the epiphytic lichen communities inhabiting remnant oak forests with those found in the habitats that have replaced native forests: black-locust forests and agrarian landscapes. Almost all the species sampled during the 19th century are now extinct. The loss of native habitat and the subsequent invasion by black locust were probably the most influential factors which affected the composition of lichen communities, causing the local extinction of most of the species historically recorded. Despite the fact that oak remnants host only a few species which were historically recorded, and that they currently are the lichen poorest habitat in the study region, they host lichen assemblages differing from those of black-locust forests and agrarian stands. In these habitats lichen assemblages are mainly composed of species adapted to well-lit, dry conditions and tolerating air pollution and eutrophication. This pattern is likely to be common also in other lowland and hilly regions throughout Northern Italy where oak forests are targeted among the habitats of conservation concern at the European level. For this reason, a national strategy for biodiversity conservation and monitoring of lowlands forests should provide the framework for local

  7. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill (C Italy).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Grassi, Alice; Vannini, Andrea; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Bil'ová, Ivana; Bačkor, Martin; Corsini, Adelmo; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill in C Italy. An integrated approach, using the diversity of epiphytic lichens, as well as element bioaccumulation and physiological parameters in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was applied along a transect from the facility. The results highlighted the biological effects of air pollution around the landfill. The Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) increased and the content of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) decreased with distance from the landfill. Clear stress signals were observed in lichens growing in front of the facility, i.e. discoloration, necrosis, membrane lipid peroxidation, lower ergosterol content, higher dehydrogenase activity. Decreased photosynthetic efficiency, altered chlorophyll integrity and production of secondary metabolites were also found. The results suggested that lichens can be profitably used as bioindicators of environmental quality around landfills. PMID:25987289

  8. Epiphytic lichen diversity on dead and dying conifers under different levels of atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus

    2005-05-01

    Based on literature data, epiphytic lichen abundance was comparably studied in montane woodlands on healthy versus dead or dying conifers of Europe and North America in areas with different levels of atmospheric pollution. Study sites comprised Picea abies forests in the Harz Mountains and in the northern Alps, Germany, Picea rubens-Abies balsamea forests on Whiteface Mountain, Adirondacks, New York, U.S.A. and Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa forests in the Salish Mountains, Montana, U.S.A. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that epiphytic lichen vegetation differed more between healthy and dead or dying trees at high- versus low-polluted sites. This is attributed to greater differences in chemical habitat conditions between trees of different vitality in highly polluted areas. Based on these results, a hypothetical model of relative importance of site factors for small-scale variation of epiphytic lichen abundance versus atmospheric pollutant load is discussed. PMID:15701398

  9. European phylogeography of the epiphytic lichen fungus Lobaria pulmonaria and its green algal symbiont.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Ivo; Dal Grande, Francesco; Excoffier, Laurent; Holderegger, Rolf; Keller, Christine; Mikryukov, Vladimir S; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    In lichen symbiosis, fungal and algal partners form close associations, often codispersed by vegetative propagules. Due to the particular interdependence, processes such as colonization, dispersal or genetic drift are expected to result in congruent patterns of genetic structure in the symbionts. To study the population structure of an obligate symbiotic system in Europe, we genotyped the fungal and algal symbionts of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria at eight and seven microsatellite loci, respectively, and analysed about 4300 L. pulmonaria thalli from 142 populations from the species' European distribution range. Based on a centroid approach, which localizes centres of genetic differentiation with a high frequency of geographically restricted alleles, we identified the South Italy-Balkan region as the primary glacial refugial area of the lichen symbiosis. Procrustean rotation analysis and a distance congruence test between the fungal and algal population graphs indicated general concordance between the phylogeographies of the symbionts. The incongruent patterns found in areas of postglacial recolonization may show the presence of an additional refugial area for the fungal symbiont, and the impact that horizontal photobiont transmission and different mutation rates of the symbionts have on their genotypic associations at a continental scale. PMID:23094600

  10. Biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens as a complementary method for the study of mercury contamination near a cement plant.

    PubMed

    Ljubič Mlakar, Tanja; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Jeran, Zvonka; Vuk, Tomaž; Mrak, Tanja; Fajon, Vesna

    2011-10-01

    The study was focused on understanding the mercury contamination caused by a cement plant. Active and passive biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens was combined with other instrumental measurements of mercury emissions, mercury concentrations in raw materials, elemental mercury concentrations in air, quantities of dust deposits, temperatures, precipitation and other measurements from the cement plant's regular monitoring programme. Active biomonitoring with transplanted lichens Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf was performed at seven of the most representative sites around the cement plant and one distant reference site for periods of 3, 6 and 12 months. In situ lichens of different species were collected at the beginning of the monitoring period at the same sites. Mercury speciation of the plant exhaust gas showed that the main form of emitted mercury is reactive gaseous mercury Hg²⁺, which is specific for cement plants. Elemental mercury in air was measured in different meteorological conditions using a portable mercury detector. Concentrations in air were relatively low (on average below 10 ng m⁻³). In situ lichens showed Hg concentrations comparable to lichens taken from the background area for transplantation, indicating that the local pollution is not severe. Transplanted lichens showed an increase of mercury, especially at one site near the cement plant. A correlation between precipitation and Hg uptake was not found probably due to a rather uniform rainfall in individual periods. Dust deposits did not influence Hg uptake significantly. Lichens vitality was affected over longer biomonitoring periods, probably due to some elements in dust particles, their alkalinity and the influence of other emissions. Mercury uptake measured in vital transplanted lichens was in a good correlation with the working hours (i.e. emitted Hg quantity) of the kiln. The study showed that selected lichens could be used to detect low to moderate Hg emissions from a cement plant

  11. IR spectroscopic study of the chemical composition of epiphytic lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meysurova, A. F.; Khizhnyak, S. D.; Pakhomov, P. M.

    2011-11-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of lichens exposed to pollutants are investigated by means of FTIR spectroscopy. According to model experiments, alkyl nitrates, ammonium salts, amines, and sulfones develop in the lichen thallus through the action of ammonia and nitric and sulfuric acids. Spectroscopic data of modeling experiments enabled nitrogen- and sulfur-containing substances to be identified as the main air pollutants in the vicinity of a pig-breeding complex and information to be obtained on the content of the pollutants and their impact on the lichens.

  12. Ocean to continent transfer of atmospheric Se as revealed by epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hanjie; Carignan, Jean

    2009-10-01

    There is still a long-term debate concerning the relative contributions of naturally emitted and anthropogenic Se at the regional and local scales. Here, Se and heavy metal concentrations are reported for epiphytic lichens collected in coastal and inland areas from the USA, Canada and France for assessing atmospheric Se source. Correlations found between Se and Cl in lichens confirmed the major marine biogenic source for atmospheric Se. Continental samples do not show systematic relationships between Se and other metal (Pb, Cu, In ...) contents, even for lichens collected in the vicinity of smelters or close to urban areas. Our results suggest that, although anthropogenic Se may be present, the marine biogenic Se source is a major contributor to atmospheric Se for our sampling locations. The contribution of naturally emitted atmospheric Se may be significant in urban and industrial areas and should be taken into account for further studies. PMID:19467747

  13. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks. PMID:26745547

  14. Se Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens From the Boreal Forest of Forthern Québec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, L.; Lhomme, J.; Carignan, J.

    2004-05-01

    The knowledge of Se concentration in environmental samples is important because this element may be both toxic and nutrient for live organisms. This study aims to characterise the Se concentration in lichen samples in order to document the variability of atmospheric fallout. Lichens are of particular interest because their epiphytic character makes them totally dependant of atmospheric nutrients, so that their chemical composition reflects that of atmospheric matter. Lichens hanging on tree branches were sampled in various location of the boreal forest of northern Québec. We developed a separation and pre-concentration technique for Se analysis of low mineral matrix samples by GFAAS. After mineralisation and addition of a Se-free mineral charge to the sample, total Se is reduced to Se IV and fixed onto a thiol cotton. The latter is dissolved and directly analysed by GFAAS. A limit of determination of 0.02 ppm in the solid sample and a precision (relative standard deviation) varying from 3 to 15% was found through the course of this study. Our results are very similar to the certified values of the reference materials analysed, suggesting a good accuracy of the method for organic materials. Some lichen samples were also analysed by INAA and the agreement between results obtained by both techniques is not always perfect. There is, however, no systematic bias between the methods. Some samples agree within analytical uncertainty (about 5%), whereas others differ by more than 20%. The most probable reason why such discrepancies are observed is because these lichen samples were not crushed and homogenised before analysis. Indeed, some duplicate samples analysed by INAA yielded results that differed by more than 20%, while other agreed within 2%. Considering these facts, the overall agreement between GFAAS and INAA is pretty much satisfactory. The Se concentrations measured in lichens vary from 1.2 to 0.3 ppm and decrease from the coast of Hudson Bay towards inland at

  15. Source attribution of agriculture-related deposition by using total nitrogen and δ¹⁵N in epiphytic lichen tissue, bark and deposition water samples in Germany.

    PubMed

    Boltersdorf, Stefanie; Werner, Willy

    2013-06-01

    Compared with physico-chemical deposition measurement methods, lichens are able to identify the long-term overall effects of high N pollution concentrations in the air. In addition, the natural abundances of the stable isotope of N, (15)N, are being widely used in research on N cycling in ecosystems. They can also be used as instruments for source attribution. In this study, epiphytic lichens were tested to determine whether their respective N content and δ(15)N ratios can be used to estimate N deposition rates and to locate various sources of N compounds. Epiphytic lichen and bark samples were collected from around various deposition measurement field stations at different sites in the western part of Germany. The N content of epiphytic lichens reflects the species-specific, agriculture-related circumstances of N deposition at various sites in Germany. At the same time, δ(15)N signatures of the different investigated epiphytic lichen species and bark samples are highly depleted in (15)N under high ammonium deposition. The different surface types of lichens and barks exhibit different concentrations of N and δ(15)N ratios, despite being exposed to similar N deposition rates. The verification of highly negative δ(15)N ratios at sites with local and regional emitters shows that source attribution is possible by comparing different δ(15)N signatures in areas with a wide range of different N deposition types and the corresponding differences in δ(15)N among various source N pools. Especially nitrophytic lichens can support the on-site instrumentation measuring N deposition by qualification and quantification. PMID:23461645

  16. Chemical signals of epiphytic lichens in southwestern North America; natural versus man-made sources for airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, Stephen R.; Gutzler, David S.; Asmerom, Yemane; Shearer, Charles K.; Free, Scott J.

    Ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) in southwestern North America consists of naturally derived desert dust, plus anthropogenic inputs from several sources. Epiphytic lichens ( Usnea sp.) in this region are a useful biomonitor for the airborne PM because they derive nutrients and moisture largely from incorporated atmospheric aerosols, and not by absorption from the host tree limb from which they are suspended. Using a broad-based sampling strategy from southern Chihuahua, Mexico, to northern New Mexico, USA, we show that select elemental abundance ratios and lead isotopes from epiphytic lichens are useful for distinguishing between sources of airborne PM, and for gauging anthropogenic inputs into desert ecosystems. Abundance patterns of the trace elements La, Nd, and Sm in the lichens suggest origination from continental crust, but rare earth elements display a pronounced enrichment relative to the major element Fe by a factor of about 5. This enrichment appears related to geologic weathering, aeolian transport, and grain-size biases toward trace-element-rich mineral grains in the arid setting. Using the metal Pb as an indicator of human inputs, epiphytic lichens typically show Pb enrichments by a factor of about 25-60 over typical upper crustal values. Regional-scale differences in Pb isotope ratios of these lichens relate to different pollutant sources in southwestern North America.

  17. Determination of trace elements in epiphytic lichens from Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor using INAA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairudin, Nurshafiq Ezam; Siong, Khoo Kok; Siong, Wee Boon

    2014-02-01

    Lichens have been used as effective biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants as they can take up nutrients and pollutants directly from the atmosphere. In this study, trace element contents in epiphytic lichens were determined using INAA method. Samples were collected from 7 sampling locations around Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The elements detected were As (1.73+0.85 mg/kg), Ce (3.65+1.91 mg/kg), Co (0.29+0.12 mg/kg), Cr (5.92+3.54 mg/kg), Cs (0.92+0.25 mg/kg), Eu (0.03+0.02 mg/kg), Fe (1280+760 mg/kg), Hf (0.37+0.18 mg/kg), La (1.52+0.89 mg/kg), Rb (27.7+4.8 mg/kg), Sc (0.33+0.19 mg/kg), Sm (0.28+0.16 mg/kg), Th (1.21+0.62 mg/kg) and Zn (116+27 mg/kg). Comparisons were then made between the elemental concentrations obtained and the baseline data from literature. Results showed that most of the elements were within the concentration range of the baseline data. Enrichment factors (EF) of the trace element in lichens showed that most of the elements were within the range of the baseline data except for As which was found to be slightly enriched (EF: 13.2 - 28.5). Regression analysis indicated significant correlation (p<0.05) with Sc for most of the elements which signifies crustal input except for Cs and Rb. The poor correlations of Cs and Rb with Sc may be due to the mobility of these elements. In summary, trace element data obtained using INAA were very useful and demonstrated that lichens were suitable biomonitors for identifying potential trace element pollutants in ambient air around the sampling area.

  18. Isotopic composition of epiphytic lichens as a tracer of the sources of atmospheric lead emissions in southern Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Carignan, J.; Gariepy, C.

    1995-11-01

    Lead isotopic data are reported for epiphytic lichens, vegetation samples, and lacustrine sediments collected in the boreal forest of Quebec between 47{degrees} and 55{degrees}N, and along the St. Lawrence Valley between 45{degrees} to 48{degrees}N. Lichens located up to 500 km north of Noranda (48{degrees}N) record a significant input is not apparent beyond 53{degrees}N where only the isotopic signal typical of Canadian aerosols is recorded. Lichens along the St. Lawrence Valley show evidences for a dominant input from U.S. sources. The lead isotopic composition of lichens allow quantitative monitoring of the sources of atmospheric Pb. However, their slow metabolism and their unknown age detract from recording the Pb signal on short and precise timescales. Spruce needles have isotopic compositions undistinguishable from that of lichens; this reflects integration of the atmospheric Pb signal over a comparable time span, a result confirmed by the lead isotopic record in lacustrine sediments. Vegetation samples such as spruce bark, spruce wood, and decidous tree leaves are more radiogenic than lichens from the same site. This may reflect mixing of radiogenic Pb metabolized from soil solutions through the root system with atmospheric Pb. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    PubMed

    Spier, L; van Dobben, H; van Dort, K

    2010-12-01

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 × 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH. PMID:20832152

  20. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania)

    PubMed Central

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth’s ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future. PMID:26717517

  1. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania).

    PubMed

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth's ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future. PMID:26717517

  2. Solanum clarum and S. morelliforme as novel model species for studies of epiphytism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural history of epiphytic plant species has been extensively studied. However, little is known about the physiology and genetics of epiphytism. This is due to difficulties associated with growing epiphytic plants and the lack of tools for genomics studies and genetic manipulations. In this st...

  3. [Book review] Epiphytic Lichen Diversity and its Dependence on Chemical Site Factors in Differently Elevated Dieback-affected Spruce Stands of the Harz Mountains, by Volker Hesse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Review of: Epiphytic lichen diversity and its dependence on chemical site factors in differently elevated dieback-affected spruce stands of the Harz Mountains. (Dissertationes Botanicae, Band 354). Volker Hesse. 2002. 191 pages, 66 figures, 49 tables, 23x14cm, 390 g. ISBN 978-3-443-64266-2.

  4. Using Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and Spatial Distribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, M.; Graney, J. R.; Pancras, P.; Krupa, S.; Edgerton, E.; Puckett, K.; Percy, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) conducted studies to document the geographic patterns of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. Epiphytic lichen samples (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected from 44 locations in 2002, 359 locations in 2008, and 21 locations in 2011 within the AOSR. A subset of samples from 2002 (15) and 2008 (121); and all the samples from 2011 were microwave extracted and analyzed for a comprehensive suite of trace elements using DRC-ICPMS. In addition, source profiles were developed for samples from a variety of available process stacks, heavy duty diesel fleet vehicles, bulk materials representing the various stages of oil sands processing operations, and forest fires. The lichen monitoring and source profile information were integrated into a receptor modeling framework to elucidate the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic sources to the observed atmospheric deposition of S and N in the AOSR. U.S. EPA implemented statistical receptor models utilized included Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), Unmix, and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB). The sources uniquely identified that significantly contributed to concentrations of elements in the lichen tissue include: fugitive dust from haul roads, tailing sand, and oil sand mining; oil sand processing; combustion processes; and a general urban regional source. The spatial patterns of CMB, PMF, and Unmix receptor model estimated source impacts on the Hypogymnia physodes tissue concentrations from the oil sand processing and fugitive dust sources had a significant association with the distance from the primary oil sands surface mining operations and related production facilities. The spatial extent of the fugitive dust impact was limited to an approximately 20 km radius around the major mining and oil production facilities, indicative of ground level coarse

  5. [Factors limiting distribution of the rare lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria (in forests of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve)].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, N V

    2015-01-01

    The distribution patterns and coenotic confines ofthe epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria have been studied. The factors limiting the habitat of this rare lichen species in the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve (southern taiga subzone) have been revealed. It has been shown that L. pulmonaria is attracted to forest areas, which are less affected by humans and characterized by better light conditions than other communities. It has been found that L. pulmonaria is able to colonize trees at various ontogenetic states, beginning from virginal ones. PMID:26021161

  6. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of air pollution in Tomsk Oblast (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshunova, T. S.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Mezhibor, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    This research presents the data on concentrations of 28 chemical elements in the ash of lichens growing in Tomsk Oblast where different industrial enterprises are located. In the sites of oil and gas exploration complex the lichens contain higher concentrations of Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Ba, and Au in comparison with the background values. In the zone of Tomsk- Seversk industrial agglomeration the lichens accumulate Ca, Sr, Sb, Th, U, and lanthanides.

  7. A Review and Evaluation of Forest Canopy Epiphyte Roles in the Partitioning and Chemical Alteration of Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stan, J. T., II; Pypker, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between precipitation and forest canopy elements (bark, leaves, and epiphytes) control the quantity, spatiotemporal patterning, and the chemical concentration, character and constituency of precipitation to soils. Canopy epiphytes are an element that exerts a range of storm-related hydrological and biogeochemical effects due to their diversity of morphological traits and nutrient acquisition mechanisms. We reviewed and evaluated the state of knowledge regarding epiphyte interactions with precipitation partitioning (into interception loss, throughfall, and stemflow) and the chemical alteration of net precipitation fluxes (throughfall and stemflow). As epiphyte species are quite diverse, this review categorized findings by common paraphyletic groups: lichens, bryophytes, and vascular epiphytes. Of these groups, vascular epiphytes have received the least attention and lichens the most. In general, epiphytes decrease throughfall and stemflow and increase interception loss. Epiphytes alter the spatiotemporal pattern of throughfall and increase the overall latent heat fluxes from the canopy. Epiphytes alter biogeochemical processes by impacting the transfer of solutes through the canopy; however, the change in solute concentration varies with epiphyte type and chemical species. We discuss several important knowledge gaps across all epiphyte groups. We also explore innovative methods that currently exist to confront these knowledge gaps and past techniques applied to gain our current understanding. Future research addressing the listed deficiencies will improve our knowledge of epiphyte roles in water and biogeochemical processes coupled within forest canopies—processes crucial to supporting microbe, plant, vertebrate and invertebrate communities within individual epiphytes/epiphyte assemblages, host trees, and even the forest ecosystem as a whole.

  8. A review and evaluation of forest canopy epiphyte roles in the partitioning and chemical alteration of precipitation.

    PubMed

    Van Stan, John T; Pypker, Thomas G

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between precipitation and forest canopy elements (bark, leaves, and epiphytes) control the quantity, spatiotemporal patterning, and the chemical concentration, character and constituency of precipitation to soils. Canopy epiphytes exert a range of hydrological and biogeochemical effects due to their diversity of morphological traits and nutrient acquisition mechanisms. We reviewed and evaluated the state of knowledge regarding epiphyte interactions with precipitation partitioning (into interception loss, throughfall, and stemflow) and the chemical alteration of net precipitation fluxes (throughfall and stemflow). As epiphyte species are quite diverse, this review categorized findings by common paraphyletic groups: lichens, bryophytes, and vascular epiphytes. Of these groups, vascular epiphytes have received the least attention and lichens the most. In general, epiphytes decrease throughfall and stemflow and increase interception loss. Epiphytes alter the spatiotemporal pattern of throughfall and increase overall latent heat fluxes from the canopy. Epiphytes alter biogeochemical processes by impacting the transfer of solutes through the canopy; however, the change in solute concentration varies with epiphyte type and chemical species. We discuss several important knowledge gaps across all epiphyte groups. We also explore innovative methods that currently exist to confront these knowledge gaps and past techniques applied to gain our current understanding. Future research addressing the listed deficiencies will improve our knowledge of epiphyte roles in water and biogeochemical processes coupled within forest canopies-processes crucial to supporting microbe, plant, vertebrate and invertebrate communities within individual epiphytes, epiphyte assemblages, host trees, and even the forest ecosystem as a whole. PMID:26254081

  9. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    The Soil Crust INternational (SCIN) project aims to achieve improved appreciation of the importance and functioning of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) in Europe. Four sites throughout Europe were identified for having important, yet diverse BSC communities: Gössenheim in Germany, Almeria in Spain, Öland in Sweden and Hochtor in Austria. These sites vary greatly in geographic and environmental conditions; and constitute, along with cyanobacteria, algae, bryophytes and fungi a host of green algal and cyanobacterial lichen species. Many of the lichen species occur in two-four locations, despite the climatic differences, and it has been observed that species are morphologically distinctive between sites. Lichens may be adapted to different environmental conditions by symbiosis with photobionts that are suited to the local conditions. Therefore, we may expect to find that a lichen species that can survive in diverse habitats to be less photobiont specific than species with a narrow range. In recent years it has been discovered that lichens can switch their photobiont throughout the course of their lives. Whether lichens can associate with an available photobiont and switch when a preferred photobiont becomes available is not conclusively known, or whether as habitats are affected by climate change, lichens will be able to switch to a new photobiont to survive changing conditions. A transplantation experiment of lichens between biomes was installed in each of the SCIN sites to investigate the potential of different lichen species to assimilate to a new environment. Where the same lichen species occurred in 2 or more locations samples were transplanted from their natural location to the foreign for a period of 2 years. Controls were also applied; this consisted of samples being transplanted within their own site to assess the effect of the transplantation itself. The photobionts of key species are sequenced to analyse diversity of photobiont interactions within/between the

  10. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Dai, Yan; Hao, Guang-You; Li, Jia-Wei; Fu, Xue-Wei; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae), we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf thickness (LT), epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC) and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70). However, vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax) did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI). Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats. PMID:25954289

  11. Epiphyte presence and seagrass species identity influence rates of herbivory in Mediterranean seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco-Méndez, Candela; Ferrero-Vicente, Luis Miguel; Prado, Patricia; Heck, Kenneth L.; Cebrián, Just; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

    2015-03-01

    Herbivory on Mediterranean seagrass species is generally low compared to consumption of some other temperate and tropical species of seagrasses. In this study we: (1) investigate the feeding preference of the two dominant Mediterranean seagrass herbivores, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the fish Sarpa salpa, on Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa and (2) elucidate the role of epiphytes in herbivore choices. We assessed consumption rates by tethering seagrass shoots, and preferences by food choice experiments with the following paired combinations: 1) Epiphytized leaves of both C. nodosa vs. P. oceanica (CE vs PE); 2) Non-epiphytized leaves of C. nodosa vs. P. oceanica (CNE vs. PNE); 3) Epiphytized vs non-epiphytized leaves of C. nodosa (CE vs. CNE) and 4) Epiphytized vs non-epiphytized leaves of P. oceanica (PE vs PNE). We found that preference for C. nodosa was weak for S. salpa, but strong for P. lividus, the species responsible for most consumption at our study. Overall both herbivores showed preference for epiphytized leaves. The higher nutritional quality of C. nodosa leaves and epiphytes together with the high coverage and diversity of the epiphyte community found on its leaves help explain the higher levels of herbivory recorded on epiphyted leaves of C. nodosa. Other factors such as seagrass accessibility, herbivore mobility and size, and behavioral responses to predation risks, may also affect the intensity of seagrass herbivory, and studies addressing the interactions with these factors are needed to improve our understanding of the nature, extent and implications of herbivory in coastal ecosystems.

  12. FT-Raman spectroscopy of lichen species from the Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, J. M.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Wynn-Williams, D. D.

    1998-06-01

    In this investigation, FT-Raman spectroscopy has been utilized to characterize pigments and chemicals produced by Antarctic lichens, which have been exposed to increasing levels of UV-B radiation and other environmental conditions. The presence of calcium oxalate in some lichen species has also been confirmed spectroscopically.

  13. Ocean to Continent Transfer of Atmospheric Se: Emission, Sources and Fate as Revealed by Epiphytic Lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, H.; Carignan, J.

    2005-12-01

    Because of the very narrow margin between nutritionally optimal and potentially toxic dietary exposures for animals and humans, selenium sources and fate in the environment is an important question. The major sources of atmospheric Se include diverse anthropogenic activities, natural emission of marine biogenic Se and punctual volcanic contributions. Lichens have been used to document elemental atmospheric deposition, including that of volatile elements such as Se, Hg, Sb, As, and to evaluate the natural and anthropogenic input in the atmosphere. Here we report the Cl and Se contents in lichens and various relationships for estimating atmospheric Se sources. Samples were collected in coastal and inland areas from United States (west coast), Canada (west coast and Hudson Bay) and France (west coast). Se and Cl concentrations in samples from coastal areas are well correlated to each other, suggesting the two elements would originate from the same source. Cl is mainly derived from marine sources as sea salts generated from the sea spray. Se is also naturally emitted to the atmosphere from the seawater as methylated Se compounds such as DMSe, DMDSe and MeSeH. Adsorption of cations on negatively charged organic films will probably not be effective for Se because it mainly occurs as anionic forms in seawater. Rather, volatile methylated Se compounds are directly released at the sea surface and later adsorbed on atmospheric particles, leading to Se enrichment relative to Cl and related to the gas-to-particle partitioning. This emission process would explain the fact that Se/Cl ratio measured in "coastal" lichens is higher than that of the bulk seawater by about 5 orders of magnitude. This ratio also seems geographically dependant. For similar Cl concentrations, lichens from southern Hudson Bay (Canada) have a higher Se/Cl ratio than that measured in lichens from California (USA); the lichens from France being intermediate. We suppose that this difference might be the

  14. Assessing rarity of species with low detectability: Lichens in Pacific Northwest forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Cutler, D.R.; Geiser, L.; Alegria, J.; McKenzie, D.

    2004-01-01

    We show how simple statistical analyses of systematically collected inventory data can be used to provide reliable information about the distribution and habitat associations of rare species. Using an existing design-based sampling grid on which epiphytic macrolichens had been inventoried in the Northwest Forest Plan area of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, we (1) estimate frequencies and standard errors for each of 25 lichen species having special management designation (i.e., Survey and Manage), (2) assess the probability that individual species were associated with specific land allocation and forest stand age classifications, and (3) provide estimates of sample sizes necessary to ensure sufficient detections for these analyses. We conclude with a discussion of management and conservation information needs that extant data can satisfy and identify advantages and limitations of random vs. nonrandom sampling strategies. Combining design-assisted and model-assisted approaches can overcome some of the limitations of either single strategy.

  15. Solanum clarum and S. morelliforme as Novel Model Species for Studies of Epiphytism.

    PubMed

    Jansky, Shelley H; Roble, Jacob; Spooner, David M

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of epiphytic plant species has been extensively studied. However, little is known about the physiology and genetics of epiphytism. This is due to difficulties associated with growing epiphytic plants and the lack of tools for genomics studies and genetic manipulations. In this study, tubers were generated from 223 accessions of 42 wild potato Solanum species, including the epiphytic species S. morelliforme and its sister species S. clarum. Lyophilized samples were analyzed for 12 minerals using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Mineral levels in tubers of S. morelliforme and S. clarum were among the highest for 10 out of the 12 elements evaluated. These two wild potato relatives are native to southern Mexico and Central America and live as epiphytes or in epiphytic-like conditions. We propose the use of S. morelliforme and S. clarum as model organisms for the study of mineral uptake efficiency. They have a short life cycle, can be propagated vegetatively via tubers or cuttings, and can be easily grown in controlled environments. In addition, genome sequence data are available for potato. Transgenic manipulations and somatic fusions will allow the movement of genes from these epiphytes to cultivated potato. PMID:26973674

  16. Solanum clarum and S. morelliforme as Novel Model Species for Studies of Epiphytism

    PubMed Central

    Jansky, Shelley H.; Roble, Jacob; Spooner, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of epiphytic plant species has been extensively studied. However, little is known about the physiology and genetics of epiphytism. This is due to difficulties associated with growing epiphytic plants and the lack of tools for genomics studies and genetic manipulations. In this study, tubers were generated from 223 accessions of 42 wild potato Solanum species, including the epiphytic species S. morelliforme and its sister species S. clarum. Lyophilized samples were analyzed for 12 minerals using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Mineral levels in tubers of S. morelliforme and S. clarum were among the highest for 10 out of the 12 elements evaluated. These two wild potato relatives are native to southern Mexico and Central America and live as epiphytes or in epiphytic-like conditions. We propose the use of S. morelliforme and S. clarum as model organisms for the study of mineral uptake efficiency. They have a short life cycle, can be propagated vegetatively via tubers or cuttings, and can be easily grown in controlled environments. In addition, genome sequence data are available for potato. Transgenic manipulations and somatic fusions will allow the movement of genes from these epiphytes to cultivated potato. PMID:26973674

  17. [Trait variability in ontogenesis of epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl].

    PubMed

    Suetina, Iu G; Glotov, N V

    2014-01-01

    Ontogenesis of the foliose lichen Hypogymniaphysodes has been described on the basis of the material obtained from natural populations. Ontogenetic dynamics (diameter of thallus and the number of lobes) and the features of reproductive structures (the number and diameter of labelloid and galeated sorales) were studied in ecologically different pine forests. We reasonably rejected the use of the variance analysis and nonparametric criteria for the result processing. It was shown that the median dynamics and trait variance may be either similar or different throughout the ontogenesis. The trait variances in ecologically different ecotopes were shown to be different. PMID:25720279

  18. The Effects of Gaseous Ozone and Nitric Acid Deposition on two Crustose Lichen Species From Joshua Tree National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessom, Elizabeth Curie

    Lichens are dependent on atmospheric deposition for much of their water and nutrients, and due to their sensitivity to pollutants, are commonly used as bioindicators for air quality. While studies have focused on epiphytic (tree dwelling) lichens as bioindicators, virtually nothing is known about crustose (rock dwelling) lichens. The atmospheric pollutants ozone (O 3) and nitric acid (HNO3) are two major pollutants found within the Los Angeles Basin. While recent O3 research suggests it does not significantly affect lichen growth, HNO3 appears to be phytotoxic to some lichens. As both of these pollutants are deposited downwind from the L.A. basin into Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), lichen species located in the park may provide a sensitive indicator of pollution effects. This research studied two lichen species of particular interest from Joshua Tree National Park, Lobothallia praeradiosa (Nyl.) Hafellner, and Acarospora socialis H. Magn., both of which are crustose species with unknown sensitivities to O3, as well as hypothesized and unknown sensitivities to nitrogen compounds, respectively. Little research exists for either species, possibly because of the difficulty in working with crustose lichens. This research attempted to expand the background knowledge of these species by exposing them to varying levels of O3 and HNO3, to ascertain their physiological responses. Physiological measures of chlorophyll fluorescence, dark respiration, microscopic imaging, and lichen washes (as a proxy for membrane leakage), were measured throughout the exposure period. Results indicated that both species had similar sensitivities to O3 and HNO3. Both species registered physical damage during the O3 fumigation, as well as a decrease in respiration. Neither species showed major physical damage to HNO3, but both manifested a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence, suggesting damage to the photosynthetic systems of the algae symbiont. These results suggest that both of these

  19. Influence of angular exposure and proximity to vehicular traffic on the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Munzi, Silvana; Fiorini, Elisa; Gaggi, Carlo; Loppi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of angular exposure and distance from vehicular traffic on the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements in a town of central Italy. An Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) was calculated on the street-facing and the opposite side of road-lining trees and in a urban park 250 m away, and the content of selected trace elements (Al, Ba, Ce, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn) was determined in samples of the lichen Punctelia borreri (Sm.) Krog growing on tree bark, both on the exposed and opposite sides. ILD increases with distance from traffic emissions. However, at the site with vehicle traffic, non-nitrophilous lichens decreased while nitrophilous ones increased. The concentration of the traffic-related elements Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Sb, and Zn accumulated in thalli of P. borreri was higher on roadside trees than in trees from the urban park. ILD was not affected by the angular exposure to the road and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements was similar in lichens from the side of the bole exposed to traffic emissions and particulate resuspension and from the opposite side. The angular exposure in respect to the traffic source does not influence trace element accumulation. These results are important when using lichens for biomonitoring purposes, both for planning future studies and for the reliability of the interpretation of past surveys that do not report information about the angular exposure of the collected lichen material. PMID:22528998

  20. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    PubMed Central

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369

  1. Genetic structure in a fragmented Northern Hemisphere rainforest: large effective sizes and high connectivity among populations of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria.

    PubMed

    Hilmo, Olga; Lundemo, Sverre; Holien, Håkon; Stengrundet, Kirsti; Stenøien, Hans K

    2012-07-01

    An extraordinary diversity of epiphytic lichens is found in the boreal rainforest of central Norway, the highest-latitude rainforest in the world. These rainforest relicts are located in ravine systems, and clear cutting has increased the distance between remaining patches. We hypothesized that the relatively small lichen populations in the remaining forest stands have suffered a depletion of genetic diversity through bottlenecks and founder events. To test this hypothesis, we assessed genetic diversity and structure in the populations of the tripartite lichen Lobaria pulmonaria using eight SSR loci. We sampled thalli growing on Picea abies branches and propagules deposited in snow at three localities. Contrary to expectations, we found high genetic diversity in lichen and snow samples, and high effective sizes of the studied populations. Also, limited genetic differentiation between populations, high historical migration rates, and a high proportion of first generation immigrants were estimated, implying high connectivity across distances <30km. Almost all genetic variation was attributed to variation within sites; spatial genetic structures within populations were absent or appeared on small scales (5-10m). The high genetic diversity in the remaining old boreal rainforests shows that even relict forest patches might be suitable for conservation of genetic diversity. PMID:22571538

  2. Defense mechanisms of sargassacean species against the epiphytic red alga Neosiphonia harveyi.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Noboru; Ohki, Kaori; Kamiya, Mitsunobu

    2015-08-01

    Flora diversity and abundance of epiphytes are specific to their basiphyte species and may relate to variations in the defensive abilities of basiphytes. Thus, investigating the interactions between epiphytes and basiphytes is useful for a better understanding of the biological impact of epiphytism and the survival strategies of basiphytes. We examined the epiphyte density on five sargassacean species at six locations between two study sites, which showed that the epiphytic red alga Neosiphonia harveyi was remarkably less abundant on Sargassum siliquastrum at all locations. To assess its defense mechanism against N. harveyi, we performed bioassays of phlorotannins, which are considered effective in deterring fouling, by culturing sargassacean blades with N. harveyi carpospores and observed the process by which sargassacean blades remove epiphytes. When the carpospores were incubated with various concentrations of dissolved phlorotannins, settlement and germination were inhibited only at the highest concentrations (>0.1 g · L(-1) ), and this effect did not significantly differ among the five sargassacean species. When the carpospores were combined with blades from the five species, many of the spores attached and germinated on every blade. Because N. harveyi penetrated rhizoids into basiphyte tissues, cuticle peeling observed in all five sargassacean species could not remove this epiphyte after germination. However, in S. siliquastrum, the blade tissues around the germlings became swollen and disintegrative, and were removed together with the germlings. The spores normally grew on the dead blades, suggesting that the tissue degradation of S. siliquastrum is triggered by the infection of N. harveyi. PMID:26986791

  3. 16-year trends in elements of lichens at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, ND

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    An epiphytic lichen and a soil lichen in two very closely related genera (Parmelia sulcata and Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa, respectively) were sampled 16 years apart at Theodore Roosevelt National Park in North Dakota and measured for their elemental content. Mercury and cadmium decreased approximately 30% over the time period in both species. Sulfur decreased 8% in the epiphytic species, but increased 20% in the soil lichen. Factor analysis revealed that soil elements were higher in the soil lichen, indicating there was some soil contamination in that species. A relationship between iron and titanium was found only in the soil lichen. Sulfur and mercury were highly enriched in both species relative to the soil, which suggests that the atmosphere is a contributing source of these elements. New baseline values were calculated, 22 elements for both species, although it is not recommended that the soil lichen be sampled in the future.

  4. Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research II. Secondary Lichen Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Sadowsky, A.; de la Torre, R.; Ott, S.; de Vera, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  5. Biomonitoring of metals in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant in western Anatolia, Turkey using the epiphytic lichen, Xanthoria parietina.

    PubMed

    Gür, Filiz; Yaprak, Günseli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina was applied as the biomonitor of air pollution to determine the environmental influence in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant. Thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina growing on olive, oak and poplar trees were collected with their substrate in 2004-2006. They were taken from 44 different stations located in 3×3 km grids within an area of 30 km in diameter around the Soma power plant near the town of Soma. Lichen samples were analyzed by using the ICP-MS for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn elements and their concentrations were mapped. The sample analyses results were evaluated by using the statistical software (SPSS 11). Average element contents of samples were, in descending order, Fe > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > As > Co > U > Th > Se > Cd > Hg. Results obtained in the current study were generally found to be higher than the data reported in literature although some lower values exist for Cd, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb elements. The most polluted areas were found to be those in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plant, particularly along the direction of predominant wind and in the corridor which runs from west to southeast direction due to topographic conditions. We believe that this research which is conducted around a coal-fired power plant will shed light on future research on pollution. PMID:21992698

  6. Lichens as bioindicators of aerial fallout of heavy metals in Zaria, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Kapu, M.M. Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria ); Ipaye, M.M.; Ega, R.A.I.; Balarabe, M.L. ); Akanya, H.O. ); Schaeffer, D.J. )

    1991-09-01

    Lichens and other epiphytic cryptogams possess efficient ion-exchange mechanisms which enable many species to accumulate airborne metals and which probably contribute to their tolerating metals at concentrations high enough to cause death to other plant species. A direct relationship between the distribution pattern of lichens and the trace metal content of the surrounding air has been demonstrated. The present study used lichens to assess the aerial fallout of heavy metals from traffic in Zaria, northern Nigeria.

  7. Neither Host-specific nor Random: Vascular Epiphytes on Three Tree Species in a Panamanian Lowland Forest

    PubMed Central

    LAUBE, STEFAN; ZOTZ, GERHARD

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims A possible role of host tree identity in the structuring of vascular epiphyte communities has attracted scientific attention for decades. Specifically, it has been suggested that each host tree species has a specific subset of the local species pool according to its own set of properties, e.g. physicochemical characteristics of the bark, tree architecture, or leaf phenology patterns. • Methods A novel, quantitative approach to this question is presented, taking advantage of a complete census of the vascular epiphyte community in 0·4 ha of undisturbed lowland forest in Panama. For three locally common host-tree species (Socratea exorrhiza, Marila laxiflora, Perebea xanthochyma) null models were created of the expected epiphyte assemblages assuming that epiphyte colonization reflected random distribution of epiphytes in the forest. • Key Results In all three tree species, abundances of the majority of epiphyte species (69–81 %) were indistinguishable from random, while the remaining species were about equally over- or under-represented compared with their occurrence in the entire forest plot. Permutations based on the number of colonized trees (reflecting observed spatial patchiness) yielded similar results. Finally, a third analysis (canonical correspondence analysis) also confirmed host-specific differences in epiphyte assemblages. In spite of pronounced preferences of some epiphytes for particular host trees, no epiphyte species was restricted to a single host. • Conclusions The epiphytes on a given tree species are not simply a random sample of the local species pool, but there are no indications of host specificity either. PMID:16574691

  8. Evolution of Epiphytism and Fruit Traits Act Unevenly on the Diversification of the Species-Rich Genus Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Frenzke, Lena; Goetghebeur, Paul; Neinhuis, Christoph; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie; Wanke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The species-rich genus Peperomia (Black Pepper relatives) is the only genus among early diverging angiosperms where epiphytism evolved. The majority of fruits of Peperomia release sticky secretions or exhibit hook-shaped appendages indicative of epizoochorous dispersal, which is in contrast to other flowering plants, where epiphytes are generally characterized by fruit morphological adaptations for anemochory or endozoochory. We investigate fruit characters using Cryo-SEM. Comparative phylogenetic analyses are applied for the first time to include life form and fruit character information to study diversification in Peperomia. Likelihood ratio tests uncover correlated character evolution. We demonstrate that diversification within Peperomia is not homogenous across its phylogeny, and that net diversification rates increase by twofold within the most species-rich subgenus. In contrast to former land plant studies that provide general evidence for increased diversification in epiphytic lineages, we demonstrate that the evolution of epiphytism within Peperomia predates the diversification shift. An epiphytic-dependent diversification is only observed for the background phylogeny. An elevated frequency of life form transitions between epiphytes and terrestrials and thus evolutionary flexibility of life forms is uncovered to coincide with the diversification shift. The evolution of fruits showing dispersal related structures is key to diversification in the foreground region of the phylogeny and postdates the evolution of epiphytism. We conclude that the success of Peperomia, measured in species numbers, is likely the result of enhanced vertical and horizontal dispersal ability and life form flexibility but not the evolution of epiphytism itself. PMID:27555851

  9. Evolution of Epiphytism and Fruit Traits Act Unevenly on the Diversification of the Species-Rich Genus Peperomia (Piperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Frenzke, Lena; Goetghebeur, Paul; Neinhuis, Christoph; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie; Wanke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The species-rich genus Peperomia (Black Pepper relatives) is the only genus among early diverging angiosperms where epiphytism evolved. The majority of fruits of Peperomia release sticky secretions or exhibit hook-shaped appendages indicative of epizoochorous dispersal, which is in contrast to other flowering plants, where epiphytes are generally characterized by fruit morphological adaptations for anemochory or endozoochory. We investigate fruit characters using Cryo-SEM. Comparative phylogenetic analyses are applied for the first time to include life form and fruit character information to study diversification in Peperomia. Likelihood ratio tests uncover correlated character evolution. We demonstrate that diversification within Peperomia is not homogenous across its phylogeny, and that net diversification rates increase by twofold within the most species-rich subgenus. In contrast to former land plant studies that provide general evidence for increased diversification in epiphytic lineages, we demonstrate that the evolution of epiphytism within Peperomia predates the diversification shift. An epiphytic-dependent diversification is only observed for the background phylogeny. An elevated frequency of life form transitions between epiphytes and terrestrials and thus evolutionary flexibility of life forms is uncovered to coincide with the diversification shift. The evolution of fruits showing dispersal related structures is key to diversification in the foreground region of the phylogeny and postdates the evolution of epiphytism. We conclude that the success of Peperomia, measured in species numbers, is likely the result of enhanced vertical and horizontal dispersal ability and life form flexibility but not the evolution of epiphytism itself. PMID:27555851

  10. The threatened epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in the Iberian Peninsula: genetic diversity and structure across a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Otálora, Mónica A G; Belinchón, Rocío; Prieto, María; Aragón, Gregorio; Izquierdo, Patricia; Martínez, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The current genetic diversity and structure of a species plays a marked role in the species' future response to environmental changes. Identification of the factors that might ensure the long-term viability of populations along its distribution area is therefore important for conserving biodiversity. In this work, infraspecific genetic diversity and structure of the threatened lichen Lobaria pulmonaria was investigated along a latitudinal gradient, spanning the Spanish latitudinal range of L. pulmonaria. Eighteen populations in Northern, Central, and Southern Spain were analysed using six specific fungal microsatellites of L. pulmonaria. Genetic diversity indices were calculated and compared among populations. Genetic differentiation was assessed using AMOVA and Bayesian methods. Additionally, a redundancy analysis was used to estimate the relative importance of environmental factors on the genetic variation among populations. Annual precipitation was the only factor affecting the genetic diversity probably through its influence on population and thallus size of L. pulmonaria, and significantly higher levels of genetic diversity were detected in southern populations. Isolation by distance was not significant, being environmental variables most important factors controlling genetic variation in L. pulmonaria populations. PMID:26321729

  11. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in epiphytic lichens and from PM 2.5 filters for receptor modeling in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studabaker, W. B.; Jayanty, J.; Raymer, J. H.; Krupa, S.

    2013-12-01

    As mining and refinery operations in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR) have expanded, there has been increasing concern for the impacts of air pollution generated by those operations on both human and ecosystem health. The inaccessibility of much of the AOSR makes it difficult to establish conventional air quality monitoring stations to the extent needed to model long-range impacts of emissions from the AOSR operations. Epiphytic lichens are important markers of ecosystem health, are well-established bioaccumulators of trace metals, and are potentially useful biomonitors of air pollution. However, their ability to take up organic pollutants has not been extensively explored, and only recently have they been used for biomonitoring of pollution by PAHs. Here we describe the determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in lichens, collected from sites throughout the AOSR, for modeling emissions associated with mining and oil extraction operations. We also describe preliminary results of the determination of PAHs in PM 2.5 filters from dichotomous samplers stationed in the AOSR, in the context of the biological sample data. Lichens (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected on two separate occasions. During the summer of 2009, single samples were taken from 200 sites in the AOSR; a subset of 20 of these was selected for determination of PAHs. During the summer of 2011, triplicate samples (from separate trees within a site) were collected from 20 sites representing similar locations to the 2008 sites. Lichens were milled in a cryogenic impactor, then were extracted with cyclohexane. Extracts were purified on silica gel using automated solid phase extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection. Method detection limits for individual PAHs were 2-4 ng/g. Total PAHs in the samples from both collection events ranged from 50 ng/g to 350 ng/g, and declined with increasing distance from the mining and refinery operations. The relative

  12. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean

  13. Spatial Distribution of Lead Isotope Ratios and Inorganic Element Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, J. R.; Landis, M. S.; Puckett, K.; Edgerton, E.; Krupa, S.; Percy, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coupled studies of inorganic element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios have been conducted on Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada in 2002, 2008, and 2011. To investigate the spatial extent of air emissions, the lichens were collected from sites as far as 160 km from the mining and processing operations. 30 milligram sub-samples of the lichens were microwave digested, and the extracts were analyzed using DRC-ICPMS to determine elemental concentrations, and sector field ICPMS to measure Pb isotope ratios. Concentrations of elements in the lichens were found to reflect proximity to mining and oil processing sites as well as topography, ecosystem differences, and the metabolic biogeochemistry of the lichens. An exponential decrease in concentration of metals associated with fugitive dust (aluminum and others) versus distance from the mining sites, suggests elevated coarse particle emissions associated with mining operations. Near source concentrations of metals with an oil signature (vanadium and others) are less enhanced and more homogeneous than the metals in the fugitive dust, reflecting emission and deposition of smaller diameter particles at greater distances from oil processing sources. The mining and oil processing signatures are superimposed over elemental concentrations that reflect the nutrient needs of the lichens. These findings are being confirmed through ongoing studies using dichot samplers to collect coarse and fine particulate aerosol samples. The lichen samples collected beyond 50 km from the mining and processing sites cluster into a Pb isotope grouping with a 207Pb / 206Pb ratio of 0.8650 and a 208Pb / 206Pb ratio near 2.095. This grouping likely reflects the regional background Pb isotope ratio signature. 207Pb / 206Pb and 208Pb / 206Pb ratios decrease as one nears the mining and processing operations. This indicates that other Pb source(s), (e.g. Pb in the bitumen from the oil

  14. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean

  15. Transfer of atmospheric boron from the oceans to the continents: An investigation using precipitation waters and epiphytic lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, E. F.; Carignan, J.; Chaussidon, M.

    2000-11-01

    The variation of B concentration in atmospheric deposition was studied from the analysis of 35 individual rain events, 17 snow packs, and 17 lichens sampled over NE North America (south from Hudson Bay) and Asia (from the coast of Bangladesh to the high Himalayas of Nepal). Rain samples show a range of B concentration between 0.3 and 9.4 μg/L (average of 1.8 ± 1.7 μg/L), excluding two rains with higher B contents of 17 and 37.5 μg/L, most likely reflecting anthropic contamination. Snowpacks and lichens which average atmospheric deposition over periods of a few months to a few years show a smaller range of variation, from 0.1 to 2.3 μg/L (average 1.1 ± 0.8 μg/L) for snowpacks and from 1 to 25.9 ppm for lichens. The lichens have elemental ratios (such as B/Cl) similar to the average of rains, showing that they are good monitors of atmospheric B deposition without significant biofractionation of elements. This is also demonstrated by their halogen contents, which follow the systematics of the atmospheric distribution of these elements previously derived from the study of rains and atmospheric particles. Though individual rains do not show systematic decrease in B concentration with distance to the sea, this behavior is clearly shown by samples having longer integration times, snowpacks, and lichens. The snow and lichen data show that seawater is a major source of atmospheric B. Using the lichen data, the enrichment factor (normalized to Na) of marine air masses relative to seawater is estimated to be ˜13 (average B/Na of 5.6 × 10-3). This implies that the fractionation factor of atmospheric suspended marine particles relative to seawater (FX = (X/Na)particle/(X/Na)seawater) is 0.177. Thus B transfer from seawater to the atmosphere occurs mostly via degassing of sea salts, the residence time of gaseous B being estimated at 15.9-fold that of particulate B. The distribution of B in the atmosphere between gaseous B and degassed sea salts can be used to model the

  16. Cyanobacterial gardens: the liverwort Frullania asagrayana acts as a reservoir of lichen photobionts.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Carolina; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Cyanobacteria are important mediators of unrelated lichen species, which form epiphytic communities that share the same cyanobiont. No study to date, however, has considered the role of cyanobacteria as mediator between lichens and bryophytes. In the present study, DNA barcoding (16S rDNA, rbcLX) was used to identify filamentous cyanobacteria living in close association with members of an epiphytic liverwort-lichen community on balsam fir in Newfoundland. This study is the first to confirm the presence of Rhizonema strains in boreal forests where they are associated with the liverwort Frullania asagrayana and several lichen species. The majority of cyanobacterial haplotypes can associate with the liverwort, however, some lichen species appear to be more selective for single or closely related haplotypes. Some Rhizonema strains were found exclusively in association with boreal lichens, while others seem to be globally distributed and involved in different lichen symbioses of unrelated fungal lineages and of varying ecological traits. Complex biological interactions in a cyanobacteria-mediated guild are proposed here, which explains composition and dynamics in bryophyte and lichen-dominated epiphytic communities. PMID:26929112

  17. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  18. Phytase activity in lichens.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems. PMID:25963718

  19. [The phorophyte occupation patterns by vascular epiphyte species in the High Orinoco tropical humid forest, Amazonas State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rosas, J

    2001-01-01

    By international agreement (Austria-Venezuela), an experimental area was selected for canopy ecology studies. A tower crane was installed that allows direct access to the canopy of 1.5 ha area of the forest. This is a quantitative study of the phorophyte occupation patterns by vascular epiphyte species in an Amazon tropical humid forest. The forest of Surumoni consists roughly of four arboreal strata, i.e., emergent (conspicuous), superior, middle and lower. The largest proportion of trees occurs in the lower diametric classes (smaller DBH), and the total distribution approaches an "inverted J" curve. The most abundant tree species in the three strata is Goupia glabra (Celastraceae); making this forest a case where a single arboreal species dominants. Mean of epiphyte individuals per occupied phorophyte is too variable, depending on phorophyte species and showing no correlation with occupied tree percentage. The species Eschweleira parviflora (Lecythidaceae) represented in the study area by a single individual of the superior stratum with high density of vascular epiphytes, indicates that this support species is particularly favorable for the establishment epiphytic flora. PMID:11915448

  20. Lichen ecology and diversity of a sagebrush steppe in Oregon: 1977 to the present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A lichen checklist is presented of 141 species from the Lawrence Memorial Grassland Preserve and nearby lands in Wasco County, Oregon, based on collections made in the 1970s and 1990s. Collections include epiphytic, lignicolous, saxicolous, muscicolous and terricolous species. To evaluate differenc...

  1. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Leavitt, Dean H; Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Leigh A; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi. PMID:21443956

  2. [Effects of tree species on polysaccharides content of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying-Ying; Zhu, Yan; Si, Jin-Ping; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Cheng-Yong; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    To reveals the effects of tree species on polysaccharides content of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale attached to living tress in wild or stumps in bionic-facility was determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method. There were extremely significant differences of polysaccharides content of D. officinale attached to different tree species, but the differences had no relationship with the form and nutrition of barks. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale mainly affected by the light intensity of environment, so reasonable illumination favored the accumulation of polysaccharides. Various polysaccharides content of D. officinal from different attached trees is due to the difference of light regulation, but not the form and nutrition of barks. PMID:25775797

  3. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens - an integrative approach to discovering and delimiting fungal species in the lichen-forming rhizoplaca melanophthalma speciescomplex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing body of evidence indicates that morphology-based species circumspection of lichenized ascomycetes greatly misrepresents the number of existing species. Recently it has been demonstrated that population-level processes operating within diverging populations can facilitate the identification...

  4. Monitoring H2S air pollution caused by the industrial exploitation of geothermal energy: the pitfall of using lichens as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Loppi, Stefano; Nascimbene, Juri

    2010-08-01

    This study showed that NH(3) emitted from geothermal power plants affects the surrounding epiphytic lichen vegetation and diversity, confounding the interpretation of lichen diversity counts in terms of air pollution by H(2)S. The presence of nitrophytic lichen species around geothermal installations, determined by NH(3), caused relatively high diversity values that were not related with the levels of air pollution by H(2)S. It is recommended that in the presence of NH(3) emission, nitrophytic species are excluded from the calculation of lichen diversity values. PMID:20605294

  5. Determination of atmospheric heavy metals using two lichen species in Katni and Rewa cities, India.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Mishra, G K; Mohabe, S; Upreti, Dalip K; Nayaka, S

    2011-03-01

    A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess the levels of atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Katni and Rewa cities of Madhya Pradesh, state in central India. The Pyxine cocoes and Phaeophyscia hispidula, two epiphytic foliose lichen were used as bioindicators in the present study and seven metals (As, Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, Zn, Pb) were analyzed in naturally growing thallus. The concentrations of these metals was observed to be in higher range as maximum values of Al, Cd, Cr and Zn were reported from the lichen samples from Rewa city which was 561.8 +/- 2.4, 6.8 +/- 0.8, 35.2 +/- 1.4, 214.6 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1) dry weight respectively. Whereas As, Fe and Pb were reported maximum in the lichen samples collected from Katni city areas with 33.4 +/- 0.05, 689.4 +/- 2.6, 13.3 +/- 0.5 microg g(-1) dry weight respectively. However the accumulation of Cd and Pb from both the cities are more or less similar in concentration. The selectivity sequence of metals were Fe>Al>Zn>As>Cr>Pb>Cd in Katni city, and Al>Fe>Zn>Cr>As>Pb>Cd in Rewa city. The findings of this study indicates that extent of heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of the two cities which may lead to adverse health affects. PMID:21882655

  6. Organic and inorganic nitrogen uptake in lichens.

    PubMed

    Dahlman, Lena; Persson, Jörgen; Palmqvist, Kristin; Näsholm, Torgny

    2004-07-01

    In order to learn more about nitrogen (N) acquisition in lichens, and to see whether different lichens differ in their affinity to various N sources, N uptake was measured in 14 various lichen associations ("species"). These species represented various morphologies (fruticose or foliose), contrasting microhabitat preferences (epiphytic or terricolous), and had green algal, cyanobacterial or both forms of photobionts. N was supplied under non-limiting conditions as an amino acid mixture, ammonium, or nitrate, using 15N to quantify uptake. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) was used to separate active and passive uptake. Thallus N, amino acids, soluble polyol concentrations, and the biont-specific markers chlorophyll a and ergosterol were quantified, aiming to test if these metabolites or markers were correlated with N uptake capacity. Ammonium uptake was significantly greater and to a higher extent passive, relative to the other two N sources. Nitrate uptake differed among lichen photobiont groups, cyanobacterial lichens having a lower uptake rate. All lichens had the capacity to assimilate amino acids, in many species at rates equal to nitrate uptake or even higher, suggesting that organic N compounds could potentially have an important role in the N nutrition of these organisms. There were no clear correlations between N uptake rates and any of the measured metabolites or markers. The relative uptake rates of ammonium, nitrate and amino acids were not related to morphology or microhabitat. PMID:15060826

  7. Integrating coalescent and phylogenetic approaches to delimit species in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Deś, Anna D; Dal Grande, Francesco; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Beck, Andreas; Otte, Jürgen; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Jung A; Schmitt, Imke

    2014-07-01

    The accurate assessment of species boundaries in symbiotic systems is a prerequisite for the study of speciation, co-evolution and selectivity. Many studies have shown the high genetic diversity of green algae from the genus Trebouxia, the most common photobiont of lichen-forming fungi. However, the phylogenetic relationships, and the amount of cryptic diversity of these algae are still poorly understood, and an adequate species concept for trebouxiophycean algae is still missing. In this study we used a multifaceted approach based on coalescence (GMYC, STEM) and phylogenetic relationships to assess species boundaries in the trebouxioid photobionts of the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata. We further investigated whether putative species of Trebouxia found in L. pustulata are shared with other lichen-forming fungi. We found that L. pustulata is associated with at least five species of Trebouxia and most of them are shared with other lichen-forming fungi, showing different patterns of species-to-species and species-to-community interactions. We also show that one of the putative Trebouxia species is found exclusively in association with L. pustulata and is restricted to thalli from localities with Mediterranean microclimate. We suggest that the species delimitation method presented in this study is a promising tool to address species boundaries within the heterogeneous genus Trebouxia. PMID:24685499

  8. Isolation of Arthrobacter species from the phyllosphere and demonstration of their epiphytic fitness

    PubMed Central

    Scheublin, Tanja R; Leveau, Johan H J

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are common inhabitants of the soil environment, but can also be recovered from leaf surfaces (the phyllosphere). Using enrichment cultures on 4-chlorophenol, we succeeded in specifically isolating Arthrobacter bacteria from ground cover vegetation in an apple orchard. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were found to belong to at least three different species of Arthrobacter. Compared to the model bacterial epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans, the Arthrobacter isolates performed as well or even better in a standardized laboratory test of phyllosphere fitness. A similar performance was observed with the well-characterized soil isolate Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6. These findings suggest that the frequently reported presence of Arthrobacter strains on plant foliage can be explained by the capacity to multiply and persist in the phyllosphere environment. As bacteria from the genus Arthrobacter are known for their ability to degrade a wide variety of organic pollutants, their high phyllosphere competency marks them as a promising group for future studies on phyllosphere-based bioremediation, for example, as foliar bioaugmentation on ground cover or buffer-zone vegetation to prevent pesticides from reaching soil, surface-, or groundwater. PMID:23355506

  9. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y.; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin

    2016-01-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea. PMID:27103850

  10. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2016-03-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea. PMID:27103850

  11. Carbon based secondary compounds do not provide protection against heavy metal road pollutants in epiphytic macrolichens.

    PubMed

    Gauslaa, Yngvar; Yemets, Olena A; Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2016-01-15

    Lichens are useful monitoring organisms for heavy metal pollution. They are high in carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) among which some may chelate heavy metals and thus increase metal accumulation. This study quantifies CBSCs in four epiphytic lichens transplanted for 6months on stands along transects from a highway in southern Norway to search for relationships between concentrations of heavy metals and CBSCs along a gradient in heavy metal pollutants. Viability parameters and concentrations of 21 elements including nutrients and heavy metals in these lichen samples were reported in a separate paper. Medullary CBSCs in fruticose lichens (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea dasypoga) were reduced in the most polluted sites, but not in foliose ones (Parmelia sulcata, Lobaria pulmonaria), whereas cortical CBSC did not change with distance from the road in any species. Strong positive correlations only occurred between the major medullary compound stictic acid present in L. pulmonaria and most heavy metals, consistent with a chelating role of stictic acid, but not of other studied CBSCs or in other species. However, heavy metal chelating did not protect L. pulmonaria against damage because this species experienced the strongest reduction in viability in the polluted sites. CBSCs with an accumulation potential for heavy metals should be quantified in lichen biomonitoring studies of heavy metals because they, like stictic acid, could overshadow pollutant inputs in some species rendering biomonitoring data less useful. In the two fruticose lichen species, CBSCs decreased with increasing heavy metal concentration, probably because heavy metal exposure impaired secondary metabolism. Thus, we found no support for a heavy metal protection role of any CBSCs in studied epiphytic lichens. No intraspecific relationships occurred between CBSCs versus N or C/N-ratio. Interspecifically, medullary CBSCs decreased and cortical CBSCs increased with increasing C/N-ratio. PMID:26437350

  12. Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella from mosses and lichens in Australia and New Zealand (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae).

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J

    2015-01-01

    Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella live in association with mosses and lichens. Their gut contents are commonly blue-green, suggesting that they possibly feed on blue-green algae. Three species of Lissothrips are known from New Zealand, of which two are here recorded from Australia together with six new species. Williamsiella is recorded from Australia for the first time, with one new species. PMID:25947697

  13. A new genus and species of myrmecophilous brentid beetle (Coleoptera: Brentidae) inhabiting the myrmecophytic epiphytes in the Bornean rainforest canopy.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Munetoshi; Bartolozzi, Luca; Inui, Yoko; Tanaka, Hiroshi O; Hyodo, Fujio; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Takematsu, Yoko; Hishi, Takuo; Itioka, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Pycnotarsobrentus inuiae Maruyama & Bartolozzi, gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Brentinae: Eremoxenini) is described from the Lambir Hills National Park, Borneo (Sarawak, Malaysia) based on specimens collected from Crematogaster difformis F. Smith, 1857 ant nests in the myrmecophytic epiphytic ferns Platycerium crustacea Copel. and Lecanopteris ridleyi H. Christ. A second species of Pycnotarsobrentus is known from Malaysia but is represented by only one female and consequently not yet described pending discovery of a male. Pycnotarsobrentus belongs to the tribe Eremoxenini and shares some character states with the African genus Pericordus Kolbe, 1883. No species of Eremoxenini with similar morphological modifications are known from the Oriental region. PMID:24869524

  14. Comparative study of the suitability of three lichen species to trace-element air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cercasov, V; Pantelică, A; Sălăgean, M; Caniglia, G; Scarlat, A

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the suitability of three lichen species (Cetraria islandica, Evernia prunastri, and Ramalina farinacea) as transplants to trace-element air biomonitoring, they were exposed on substratum-free supports, from July 1996 until July 1997, in three European countries with different climates (Germany, Italy, Romania), at six sites with different types of air pollutants (two in each country). After 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of exposure, some portions of thallus were collected, prepared, and measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest and by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRFA) at the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart. Fifteen environmentally relevant elements: As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, V, and Zn were determined. The analytical results were compared statistically. To study the distribution of the trace-elements between the lichens and the lichen throughfall water inside a virtual column, the throughfall water was collected under the lichen transplants during 6 and 12 months. The dried residues were analysed by INAA at Bucharest. The accumulating capacity for all investigated species is evident. For a comparative evaluation, the initial element contents, the "accumulation factors" relative to the bulk deposition, the interspecies "calibration factors", and the "retention efficiencies", defined as ratios of the lichen enrichment to the sum of this enrichment and the content in the lichen throughfall water, were considered. These criteria attest the best suitability for Evernia prunastri, followed by Ramalina farinacea and Cetraria islandica. PMID:12125725

  15. Secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic and functional diversity: evidence from a tree-epiphyte system.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Christine; Silliman, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    Facilitation cascades arise where primary foundation species facilitate secondary (dependent) foundation species, and collectively, they increase habitat complexity and quality to enhance biodiversity. Whether such phenomena occur in nonmarine systems and if secondary foundation species enhance food web structure (e.g., support novel feeding guilds) and ecosystem function (e.g., provide nursery for juveniles) remain unclear. Here we report on field experiments designed to test whether trees improve epiphyte survival and epiphytes secondarily increase the number and diversity of adult and juvenile invertebrates in a potential live oak-Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss) facilitation cascade. Our results reveal that trees reduce physical stress to facilitate Tillandsia, which, in turn, reduces desiccation and predation stress to facilitate invertebrates. In experimental removals, invertebrate total density, juvenile density, species richness and H' diversity were 16, 60, 1.7, and 1.5 times higher, and feeding guild richness and H' were 5 and 11 times greater in Tillandsia-colonized relative to Tillandsia-removal limb plots. Tillandsia enhanced communities similarly in a survey across the southeastern United States. These findings reveal that a facilitation cascade organizes this widespread terrestrial assemblage and expand the role of secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic structure and ecosystem function. We conceptualize the relationship between foundation species' structural attributes and associated species abundance and composition in a Foundation Species-Biodiversity (FSB) model. Importantly, the FSB predicts that, where secondary foundation species form expansive and functionally distinct structures that increase habitat availability and complexity within primary foundation species, they generate and maintain hot spots of biodiversity and trophic interactions. PMID:24649658

  16. Application of molecular markers to detect DNA damage caused by environmental pollutants in lichen species.

    PubMed

    Cansaran-Duman, D; Altunkaynak, E; Aslan, A; Büyük, I; Aras, S

    2015-01-01

    Pseudevernia furfuracea L. (Zopf), Peltigera praetextata (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Zopf, Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., and Usnea longissima Ach. lichen species were used as bioindicators to assess the genotoxicity of air pollutants. In the present study, we examined significant environmetal pollutants and investigate how changes may lead to damage in DNA structure using RAPD markers. In the study area (Erzurum, Turkey), poor-quality lignite, which generates a large amount of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle matter, is used for domestic heating, and vehicles also contribute to air pollution. Control lichen samples were collected far from large urban and industrial settlements and transplanted to four polluted sites for 4, 8, or 12 months. The total soluble protein content of the examined four lichen species did not significantly change with exposure time (P < 0.05). The four lichen samples exposed to the pollutants for 8 months had the highest ratio of DNA changes. The ratio of band differences in P. praetextata was higher than that in the other three lichen species, possibly because it has broad leaves that accumulated more pollutants. The average incidences of polymorphism were 64.14, 54.58, 65.76, and 43.06% for P. furfuracea, P. praetextata, L. pulmonaria, and U. longissima, respectively. The genomic template stability (GTS) significantly decreased following exposure to pollutants. GTS ratios revealed that the highest value (98.36%) belonged to U. longissima samples from Site 1 (10 m) after 4 months of exposure, and the lowest values belonged to P. praetextata (73.58%) from Site 3 (100 m) after 8 months of exposure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of P. praetextata as an indicator of genotoxicity. PMID:25966238

  17. Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

  18. [Book review] Lichens of the north woods: a field guide to 111 northern species, by Joe Walewski

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.

    2007-01-01

    Review of: LICHENS OF THE NORTH WOODS, A FIELD GUIDE TO 111 NORTHERN SPECIES. Joe Walewski. 2007. North Woods Naturalist Series, Kollath & Stensaas Publishing, Duluth, Minnesota. 152 pp, softcover. ISBN: 0-9673793-50. $18.95.

  19. Elemental chemistry of four lichen species from the Apostle Islands, Wisconsin 1987, 1995, and 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four lichen species sampled three times over a 15-year time span at four of the Apostle Islands, Wisconsin were analyzed for 16 chemical elements in order to determine time trends and spatial patterns. Factor analyses of the data revealed that elements associated with soils (Al, Cr, Fe, Na, Ni and S) have increased over the study period, while nutrient and pollutant elements (Cu, K, P, Pb and Zn) have decreased. Four other elements (Ca, Cd, Mg and Mn) were unchanged over time. Cladina rangiferina, a terricolous species, contained the lowest concentrations of all elements, while the corticolous species Evernia mesomorpha was highest in soil elements, Hypogymnia physodes was highest in Ca, Cd, Mg and Mn, and Parmelia sulcata was highest in the nutritional elements. Lichens on islands within 3a??4 km of the mainland were highest in soil elements, which decreased with distance from the mainland. Elements that were 18a??43% greater on the nearest islands were significantly different between near and far islands. Eight elements (Al, Ca, Cd, K, Mg, Mn, P and S) exceeded enrichment levels for Hypogymnia physodes, suggesting possible contamination problems for this species. Although Pb has decreased significantly over the time period, other elements have increased in the lichens while decreasing in the atmosphere, suggesting that accumulation in the environment is continuing.

  20. Small increase in sub-stratum pH causes the dieback of one of Europe's most common lichens, Lecanora conizaeoides

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Otto, Philipp I.; Dittrich, Sebastian; Jacob, Mascha; Bade, Claudia; Dörfler, Inken; Leuschner, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Lecanora conizaeoides was until recently western and central Europe's most abundant epiphytic lichen species or at least one of the most common epiphytes. The species is adapted to very acidic conditions at pH values around 3 and high concentrations of SO2 and its derivatives formed in aqueous solution, and thus spread with increasing SO2 deposition during the 19th and 20th centuries. With the recent decrease of SO2 emissions to nearly pre-industrial levels within 20 years, L. conizaeoides declined from most of its former range. If still present, the species is no longer the dominant epiphyte, but is occurring in small densities only. The rapid spread of the L. conizaeoides in Europe from an extremely rare species to the probably most frequent epiphytic lichen and the subsequent rapid dieback are unprecedented by any other organism. The present study aimed at identifying the magnitude of deacidification needed to cause the dieback of the lichen. Methods The epiphytic lichen diversity and bark chemistry of montane spruce forests in the Harz Mountains, northern Germany, were studied and the results were compared with data recorded with the same methods 13–15 years ago. Key Results Lecanora conizaeoides, which was the dominant epiphyte of the study area until 15 years ago, is still found on most trees, but only with small cover values of ≤1 %. The bark pH increased by only 0·4 pH units. Conclusions The data suggest that only slight deacidification of the substratum causes the breakdown of the L. conizaeoides populations. Neither competitors nor parasites of L. conizaeoides that may have profited from reduced SO2 concentrations are likely causes of the rapid dieback of the species. PMID:21788378

  1. Approach to spatialize local to long-range atmospheric metal input (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb) in epiphytic lichens over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France).

    PubMed

    Barre, Julien P G; Deletraz, Gaëlle; Frayret, Jérôme; Pinaly, Hervé; Donard, Olivier F X; Amouroux, David

    2015-06-01

    Geographically based investigations into atmospheric bio-monitoring usually provide information on concentration or occurrence data and spatial trends of specific contaminants over a specified study area. In this work, an original approach based on geographic information system (GIS) was used to establish metal contents (Hg, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in epiphytic lichens from 90 locations as atmospheric bio-monitors over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France). This approach allows the integration of the heterogeneity of the territory and optimization of the sampling sites based on both socioeconomical and geophysical parameters (hereafter defined as urban, industrial, agricultural, and forested areas). The sampling strategy was first evaluated in several sites (n = 15) over different seasons and years in order to follow the temporal variability of the atmospheric metal input in lichens. The results demonstrate that concentration ranges remain constant over different sampling periods in "rural" areas (agricultural and forested). Higher variability is observed in the "anthropized" urban and industrial areas in relation to local atmospheric inputs. In this context, metal concentrations in lichens over the whole study show that (1) Hg and Cd are homogeneous over the whole territory (0.14 ± 0.04 and 0.38 ± 0.26 mg/kg, respectively), whereas (2) Cu and Pb are more concentrated in "anthropized" areas (9.3 and 11.9 mg/kg, respectively) than in "rural" ones (6.8 and 6.0 mg/kg, respectively) (Kruskall-Wallis, K(Cu) = 13.7 and K(Pb) = 9.7, p < 0.00001). They also showed a significant local enrichment for all metals in many locations in the Pays Basque (West) mainly due to metal and steel industrial activities. This confirms the local contribution of this contamination source over a wider geographic scale. A multiple linear regression model was applied to give an integrated spatialization of the data. This showed significant

  2. Escape from the cryptic species trap: lichen evolution on both sides of a cyanobacterial acquisition event.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kevin; Resl, Philipp; Spribille, Toby

    2016-07-01

    Large, architecturally complex lichen symbioses arose only a few times in evolution, increasing thallus size by orders of magnitude over those from which they evolved. The innovations that enabled symbiotic assemblages to acquire and maintain large sizes are unknown. We mapped morphometric data against an eight-locus fungal phylogeny across one of the best-sampled thallus size transition events, the origins of the Placopsis lichen symbiosis, and used a phylogenetic comparative framework to explore the role of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in size differences. Thallus thickness increased by >150% and fruiting body core volume increased ninefold on average after acquisition of cyanobacteria. Volume of cyanobacteria-containing structures (cephalodia), once acquired, correlates with thallus thickness in both phylogenetic generalized least squares and phylogenetic generalized linear mixed-effects analyses. Our results suggest that the availability of nitrogen is an important factor in the formation of large thalli. Cyanobacterial symbiosis appears to have enabled lichens to overcome size constraints in oligotrophic environments such as acidic, rain-washed rock surfaces. In the case of the Placopsis fungal symbiont, this has led to an adaptive radiation of more than 60 recognized species from related crustose members of the genus Trapelia. Our data suggest that precyanobacterial symbiotic lineages were constrained to forming a narrow range of phenotypes, so-called cryptic species, leading systematists until now to recognize only six of the 13 species clusters we identified in Trapelia. PMID:27037681

  3. Selection of suitable lichen bioindicator species for monitoring climatic variability in the Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Shukla, Vertika; Upreti, D K; Semwal, Manoj

    2014-10-01

    Interspecific comparison in metals and PAHs profile in three lichen species, Flavoparmelia caperata, Phaeophyscia hispidula and Pyxine sorediata, were studied in different altitudinal gradients of the Western Himalayas. The species collected from 14 sites, enroute from Dehradun to Morinda (243 Km) including the trekking route 42 Km from Taluka to Morinda having an altitudinal gradient between 850-3,750 m, were analysed for their metals and PAHs. The species showed similar metal as well as PAHs profile under similar altitudinal gradients in the sequence of F. caperata > P. hispidula > P. sorediata. The difference in pollutant concentrations within each lichen species may be related to intrinsic attributes of the species, such as thallus morphology and the presence of lichen substances which are responsible for the sensitivity and accumulation potential of a particular species. Novelty of the present study lies on the fact that all the species show a similar efficiency of reflecting the environmental condition of the area, albeit the coefficient values of individual species for individual pollutant obtained by three-factor ANOVA revealed that the bioaccumulation affinity of F. caperata is significantly higher than P. hispidula and P. sorediata. For individual metals, F. caperata has a higher affinity for Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn while P. hispidula has a significant positive affinity for Fe and Pb. PCA analysis of sites with respect to pollutant revealed the segregation of sites based on source and distance. Combining the bioaccumulation potential parameters along with geostatistical (GIS) techniques establishes that F. caperata species is a better accumulator of metals and PAHs in comparison to P. hispidula and P. sorediata in the temperate regions of the Himalaya. PMID:24888615

  4. A Process-based Model of Global Lichen Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and biotic crusts are abundant in most ecosystems of the world. They are the main autotrophic organisms in many deserts and at high altitudes and they can also be found in large amounts as epiphytes in some forests, especially in the boreal zone. They are characterised by a great variety of physiological properties, such as growth form, productivity or color. Due to the vast land surface areas covered by lichens, they may contribute significantly to the global terrestrial net carbon uptake. Furthermore, they potentially play an important role with respect to nutrient cycles in some ecosystems and they have the ability to enhance weathering at the surface on which they grow. A possible way to quantify these processes at the global scale is presented here in form of a process-based lichen model. This approach is based on the concepts used in many dynamical vegetation models and extends these methods to account for the specific properties of lichens. Hence, processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and water exchange are implemented as well as important trade-offs like photosynthetic capacity versus respiratory load and water content versus CO2 conductivity. The great physiological variability of lichens is incorporated directly into the model through ranges of possible parameter values, which are randomly sampled. In this way, many artificial lichen "species" are created and climate then acts as a filter to determine the species which are able to survive permanently. By averaging over the surviving "species", the model predicts lichen productivity as a function of climate input data such as temperature, radiation and precipitation at the global scale. Consequently, the contribution of lichens to the global carbon balance can be quantified. Moreover, global patterns of lichen biodiversity and other properties can be illustrated. The model can be extended to account for the nutrient dynamics of lichens, such as nitrogen fixation and the acquisition and

  5. FT-Raman spectroscopy of the Candelaria and Pyxine lichen species: A new molecular structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Rafaella F.; Ferreira, Gilson R.; Spielmann, Adriano A.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.

    2015-12-01

    In this work the chemistry of the lichens Candelaria fibrosa and Pyxine coccifera have been investigated for the first time using FT-Raman spectroscopy with the help of quantum mechanical DFT calculations to support spectral band assignments. The non-destructive spectral vibrational analysis provided evidence for the presence of pulvinic acid derivatives and conjugated polyenes, which probably belong to a carotenoid with characteristic signatures at ca. 1003, 1158 and 1525 cm-1 assigned respectively to δ(C-CH3), ν(C-C) and ν(Cdbnd C) modes. The identification of features arising from chiodectonic acid in the Pyxine species and calycin and pulvinic dilactone pigments in C. fibrosa were assisted by the quantum mechanical DFT calculations. Raman spectroscopy can provide important spectroscopic data for the identification of the biomarker spectral signatures nondestructively for these lichen pigments without the need for chemical extraction processes.

  6. Graphis yunnanensis (Ostropales, Graphidaceae), a New Lichen Species from China

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Santosh; Upreti, Dalip Kumar; Wang, Xin Yu

    2015-01-01

    Graphis yunnanensis is described here as a new species. It is taxonomically well characterized by entire labia, slit-like disc, lateral thalline margin, completely carbonized proper exciple, inspersed hymenium, 8-spored asci, muriform 25~45 × 8~12 µm ascospores, and the presence of norstictic and stictic acids. The separation of the new species from other somewhat similar Graphis species is discussed. In addition, the study includes Graphis tenoriensis and Phlyctis karnatakana reported for the first time from China. PMID:26190918

  7. Southern leaf blight disease severity is correlated with decreased maize leaf epiphytic bacterial species richness and the phyllosphere bacterial diversity decline is enhanced by nitrogen fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Manching, Heather C.; Balint-Kurti, Peter J.; Stapleton, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    Plant leaves are inhabited by a diverse group of microorganisms that are important contributors to optimal growth. Biotic and abiotic effects on plant growth are usually studied in controlled settings examining response to variation in single factors and in field settings with large numbers of variables. Multi-factor experiments with combinations of stresses bridge this gap, increasing our understanding of the genotype-environment-phenotype functional map for the host plant and the affiliated epiphytic community. The maize inbred B73 was exposed to single and combination abiotic and the biotic stress treatments: low nitrogen fertilizer and high levels of infection with southern leaf blight (causal agent Cochliobolus heterostrophus). Microbial epiphyte samples were collected at the vegetative early-season phase and species composition was determined using 16S ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Plant traits and level of southern leaf blight disease were measured late-season. Bacterial diversity was different among stress treatment groups (P < 0.001). Lower species richness—alpha diversity—was correlated with increased severity of southern leaf blight disease when disease pressure was high. Nitrogen fertilization intensified the decline in bacterial alpha diversity. While no single bacterial ribotype was consistently associated with disease severity, small sets of ribotypes were good predictors of disease levels. Difference in leaf bacterial-epiphyte diversity early in the season were correlated with plant disease severity, supporting further tests of microbial epiphyte-disease correlations for use in predicting disease progression. PMID:25177328

  8. Use of moss and lichen species to identify (210)Po-contaminated regions.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Wróbel, Justyna

    2014-12-01

    (210)Po concentration in urban air fluctuates as a result of natural (222)Rn radionuclide exhalation and technical activity that is especially linked with high-temperature processes. Each year, an average 11 GBq of (210)Po is released from local power plants into urban air. Over two months, about 180 samples in central Poland were collected. To detect the concentration of (210)Po activity, two common species of biomonitors were chosen: the moss Pleurozium schreberi and the lichen Hypogymnia physodes. For the same locale, (210)Po in lichen shows an average of twice the amount of activity concentration than the moss. In moss, (210)Po concentrations in Lodz ranged from 41.5 Bq kg(-1) to 258.0 Bq kg(-1), while in lichen it ranges from 74.2 Bq kg(-1) to 670.9 Bq kg(-1). On the basis of the measured activity of (210)Po maps, radionuclide distribution has been prepared. For areas identified with higher concentrations of (210)Po, Quantum Gis has been applied. PMID:25301434

  9. [Fog water absorption by the leaves of epiphytes and non - epiphytes in Xishuangbanna].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yulong; Feng, Yulong

    2006-06-01

    Xishuangbanna is located at the northern margin of tropics. Its climate is different from that of typical tropics, but the rainforest there is not very different from that of the typical tropics in Southeast Asia. The main problems in Xishuangbanna are seasonal drought and low temperature. Fog may contribute to the development of rainforest here, but related studies are few. This study is aimed to know whether the leaves of epiphytes and non - epiphytes in Xishuangbanna can directly absorb fog water and contribute to their water status recovery, and whether epiphytes are more competent than non - epiphytes in their leaf fog water absorption. The study was conducted in dry season, and four species of epiphytes and six species of non - epiphytes were investigated. The effect of fog was imitated by spraying leaves with distilled water. For epiphytes and non - epiphytes, their leaf water potential (phi), relative water content (RWC), and amount of absorbed water increased gradually with the time of spraying, but the phi of epiphytes increased more quickly than that of non - epiphytes. The leaves of epiphytes Bolbitis scandens and Rhaphidophora decursiva could absorb fog water more quickly, and increase their RWC more greatly than those of non - epiphytes, indicating that these epiphytes were more competent than non - epiphytes in their leaf fog water absorption. The fog water absorption capacity of the leaves in epiphytic orchid Coelogyne occultata and Staurochilus dawsonianus was lower than that in Amischotolype hispida and Mananthus patentflora, but higher than that in other four non - epiphytes. The phi of epiphytes at early evening when no fog was formed was significantly lower than that at early morning, suggesting that fog water was absorbed by epiphytes at night to improve their leaf water status. Non - epiphytes did not need to absorb fog water directly through leaves, and they could recover their leaf water status through absorbing soil water by root system

  10. Mature non-native black-locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) forest does not regain the lichen diversity of the natural forest.

    PubMed

    Nascimbene, Juri; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Benesperi, Renato

    2012-04-01

    The responses of lichens to habitat changes caused by invasive trees are poorly understood. Invasive forest trees may impact epiphytic lichens by altering both substrate and stand conditions. Previous research has demonstrated that black locust invasion, associated with intensive exploitation of native oak forests, led to dramatic shifts in lichen composition. However, it is not clear if, along with stand aging, black locust formations regain forest species. The main aim of this study was to test whether the succession of black locust stands promotes a lichen succession leading to assemblages in mature black locust stands which are similar to those of native forests. To test the influence of macro-environmental conditions, we performed the study in two bioclimatically different areas of Italy. The epiphytic lichen biota of native oak and chestnut stands was compared with that of black locust stands of different successional stages. In both regions we did not find a lichen succession in black locust stands of different age, and mature black-locust stands did not recover the diversity of epiphytic species, which are lost by the replacement of the native forests by black locust. The absence of this pattern may be caused by factors related to the management of black locust stands, and to bark features. The different bioclimatic conditions between the two study areas may explain differences in the lichen biota of native forests, while that of black locust stands tend to be similar between regions, suggesting that forest habitat changes associated with the spread of black locust could decrease lichen diversity among bioclimatically different regions. PMID:22341402

  11. Oribatid communities and heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected species associated with lichens in a heavily contaminated habitat.

    PubMed

    Skubała, Piotr; Rola, Kaja; Osyczka, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    The study examines oribatid communities and heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected species associated with different microhabitats of a post-smelting dump, i.e. three lichen species of Cladonia with various growth forms and the slag substrate. The abundance of oribatids collected from the substrate was significantly lower than observed in lichen thalli. The morphology and chemical properties of lichens, and to some extent varying concentrations of heavy metals in thalli, are probably responsible for significant differences in oribatid communities inhabiting different Cladonia species. Some oribatids demonstrate the ability to accumulate zinc and cadmium with unusual efficiency, whereas lead is the most effectively regulated element by all species. A positive correlation was found between Zn content in all studied oribatids and their microhabitats. Oribatids exploring different food resources, i.e. fungivorous and non-fungivorous grazers, show considerable differences in bioconcentrations of certain elements. PMID:26810668

  12. From one to six: unrecognized species diversity in the genus Acantholichen (lichenized Basidiomycota: Hygrophoraceae).

    PubMed

    Dal-Forno, Manuela; Lücking, Robert; Bungartz, Frank; Yánez-Ayabaca, Alba; Marcelli, Marcelo P; Spielmann, Adriano A; Coca, Luis Fernando; Chaves, José Luis; Aptroot, Andre; Sipman, Harrie J M; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick; Lawrey, James D

    2016-01-01

    We present a taxonomic revision of the lichenized basidiomycete genus Acantholichen, species of which produce a characteristic blue-gray, microsquamulose thallus with spiny apical hyphal cells known as acanthohyphidia. Since its discovery, the genus was thought to be monospecific, only including the generic type, A. pannarioides. However, a detailed morphological and anatomical study of recently collected specimens from the Galápagos, Costa Rica, Brazil and Colombia, combined with a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) region and 28S of the nuc rDNA and RPB2 sequences, revealed a much more diverse and widespread species assemblage. Based on the results of these analyses, we describe five new species in the genus: A. albomarginatus, A. campestris, A. galapagoensis, A. sorediatus and A. variabilis. We also provide an identification key to all species, anatomical and morphological descriptions, photographs and a table comparing main characters of each species. PMID:26577612

  13. Cesium-137 monitoring using lichens from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos; Tsikritzis, Lazaros

    2010-10-01

    (137)Cs content in lichens and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece was measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous collections was also used for comparison and a diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in epilithic lichens in comparison to epigeic or epiphytic ones. Furthermore, foliose or crustose lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria calcicola, Xanthoparmelia somloensis were more contaminated than filamentose at the same biotope. Among filamentose or fruticose species those with large surface area to biomass ratio e.g. Usnea sp. showed also greater accumulation capacity. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in lichen thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in lichens 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of fallout radionuclide fallout pattern. PMID:20709398

  14. Diversity and succession of epiphytic macrolichen communities in low-elevation managed conifer forests in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, E.B.; McCune, B.

    2001-01-01

    We examined epiphytic macrolichen communities in Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) forests across the western Oregon landscape for relationships to environmental gradients, stand age and structure, and commercial thinning. We used a retrospective, blocked design through the Coast and the western Cascade ranges of Oregon. Each of our 17 blocks consisted of a young, unthinned stand (age 50-110 yr); an adjacent, thinned stand of equivalent age; and an old-growth stand (age > 200 yr). We found 110 epiphytic macrolichen taxa in the stands. Forage-providing alectorioid lichens and the nitrogen-fixing cyanolichen Lobaria oregana associated strongly with old-growth stands and remnant old trees in younger stands (unthinned + thinned). Relative to unthinned stands, thinned stands had a slightly higher abundance of alectorioid lichens and a greater presence of Hypogymnia imshaugii. However, thinned stands hosted a lower landscape-level (I?) diversity, lacking many species that occurred infrequently in the unthinned stands. Patterns in the lichen community composition correlated strongly with climatic gradients; the greatest variation in composition was between the Coast and Cascade ranges. The difference in communities between mountain ranges was greatest among stands 70-110 yr old, suggesting a difference in lichen successional dynamics between the ranges.

  15. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil

    2016-08-01

    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran. PMID:27132251

  16. The multi-element content of the lichen Parmelia sulcata, soil, and oak bark in relation to acidification and climate.

    PubMed

    Purvis, O W; Dubbin, W; Chimonides, P D J; Jones, G C; Read, H

    2008-02-15

    Understanding how biodiversity is influenced by changing atmospheric conditions is important for conservation, public policy and environmental health. In a recent study, an impact on two of the most abundant lichens in Europe (Parmelia sulcata and Hypogymnia physodes) was recorded at Burnham Beeches lying 40 km west of London (UK) during unusual atmospheric conditions whilst other species remained unaffected. Bark and soil chemistry also influence lichen vitality and community composition. Correlations between element concentrations and element ratios in different samples help understand element cycling. To study this further, the multi-element content of the lichen P. sulcata and bark sampled in 2000 from 16 oak (Quercus robur) trees at Burnham Beeches was compared with the same elements determined in 24 surface soils sampled in 2005 from beneath the same trees. Soil pH ranged from 4.1 to 6.7. Highly significant correlations (p<0.001) for Mn/Ca ratios in lichen versus bark, soil versus bark and soil versus lichen samples confirmed cycling via the soil-tree-lichen system. Similar Mn/Ca ratios were reported in coniferous forests where high Mn concentrations were shown to limit epiphytic lichen abundance. Soil acidification influences element bioavailability and bark chemistry in Burnham Beeches with implications for lichen diversity and health. Recovery was recorded in P. sulcata, including regeneration within monitoring quadrats. Biological systems are well known to be influenced by pollution episodes. PMID:18045659

  17. Physiological and genetic effects of chromium (+VI) on toxitolerant lichen species, Pyxine cocoes.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Shukla, Vertika; Singh, Niraj; Rana, T S; Upreti, D K

    2015-03-01

    Chromium is a highly toxic non-essential metal, which causes a variety of metabolic activities in plants. Pyxine cocoes a well known toxitolerant lichen species was considered to evaluate the possible physiological, biochemical, and genetic changes that occur due to chromium Cr (+VI) stress. The physiological (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein, and Fv/Fm) and genetic (ISSR-PCR and ITS) parameters were used to estimate the changes in P. cocoes. Different concentrations of Cr (+VI) (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 μM) for 10, 20, 30, and 45 days were employed on transplanted lichen species. The results revealed that the exposure of Cr (+VI) for 10, 20, 30, and 45 days under controlled conditions caused a significant decline in physiological processes with increasing metal stress. Amino acid profile at different concentrations on the 45th day too indicated prevailing stress condition as proline content significantly increased at 100 μM concentration. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) techniques were used to evaluate the genotoxicity induced by chromium stress. ISSR profiles showed a consistent increase in appearance and disappearance of bands with increasing concentration of the chromium. ISSR technique, therefore, is more sensitive and reproducible to study polymorphism induced by environmental stress. The present study revealed that the physiological and genetic changes induced by the Cr (+VI) can be used as a tool to study environmental stress and polymorphisms due to genotoxicity. To the best of our knowledge, application of ISSR-PCR and ITS sequences in toxitolerant species (P. cocoes) appears to be the maiden attempt to evaluate the genotoxicity. PMID:25263416

  18. Diversity and community ecology of forest epiphyte testate amoebae from European Russia.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard J; Belyakova, Olga; Mazei, Yuri

    2015-10-01

    Testate amoebae are an abundant group of microorganisms which make a significant contribution to the diversity of protist life. Most of the world's potential habitats for testate amoebae have been barely studied and when such places are investigated they frequently reveal novel communities and species. Here we consider the testate amoeba communities associated with boreal forest epiphytes (mosses and lichens); an environment which we argue has been under-researched. We present a dataset of 165 samples from four regions of western Russia and analyse these data in relation to micro-habitat position and selected environmental data. The testate amoebae of epiphytes are abundant but dominated by ubiquitous species. We show that there are trends toward a lower species richness and test concentration with greater elevation on the trunk and in lichens compared to mosses. There are considerable differences in community composition between sampling regions. Of all measured environmental variables only moisture content showed a significant relationship with testate amoeba community structure. Our data highlight how little is known about testate amoeba communities of this habitat and call for greater research efforts, particularly in less-studied regions and biomes. PMID:26355869

  19. Chemical response of Picea glehnii seed-epiphytic Penicillium species to Pythium vexans under in vitro competitive conditions for mycelial growth.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Keiko; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Tahara, Satoshi

    2005-04-01

    The potential protection of Picea glehnii seedlings from damping-off by seed-epiphytic Penicillium species was investigated. We studied the chemical response of seed-epiphytic Penicillium species (Pen. cyaneum, Pen. damascenum, and Pen. implicatum) to Pythium vexans, a damping-off fungus, in vitro. Penicillium species were cultured singly or cocultured with Pyt. vexans for 14 or 18 d, and mycelial growth, pH of culture filtrate, antifungal activity of the culture filtrate against Pyt. vexans, and the amount of antifungal compound produced by each Penicillium species, were examined. The filtrate of both the single culture of Penicillium and the coculture of Penicillium and Pyt. vexans showed antifungal activity against Pyt. vexans. In a coculture with Pyt. vexans, Pen. cyaneum produced an antifungal compound (patulin) as in the single culture. Pen. damascenum cocultured with Pyt. vexans produced an antifungal compound (citrinin), as it did in the single culture and in larger amounts on day 10. Pen. implicatum produced two antifungal compounds, frequentin and palitantin, and the ratio of frequentin (with higher antifungal activity than palitantin) to palitantin was higher in the coculture with Pyt. vexans than in the single culture. Our results indicate that these Penicillium species have the ability to produce antifungal compounds and to keep anti-fungal activity under competitive condition with Pyt. vexans. The chemical response of these Penicillium species to Pyt. vexans may contribute to protect P. glehnii seedlings from damage by Pyt. vexans. PMID:16124252

  20. 137Cs concentrations in lichens before and after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, W; Attarpour, N; Lettner, H; Türk, R

    1993-01-01

    137Cs activities were measured in a variety of epigeic and epiphytic lichens in Austria before and after contamination by the Chernobyl fallout. For comparison, the activity of the naturally occurring 40K was also determined in each lichen sample. The high 137Cs activities found after Chernobyl suggest that lichens are suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the fallout pattern. PMID:8416218

  1. Origin and distribution of rare earth elements in various lichen and moss species over the last century in France.

    PubMed

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A

    2014-07-15

    Rare earth elements (REE) are known to be powerful environmental tracers in natural biogeochemical compartments. In this study, the atmospheric deposition of REE was investigated using various lichens and mosses as well as herbarium samples from 1870 to 1998 from six major forested areas in France. The comparison between the REE distribution patterns in organisms and bedrocks showed a regional uniformity influence from dust particles originating from the bedrock and/or soil weathering that were entrapped by lichens and mosses. These lithological signatures were consistent over the last century. The REE patterns of different organism species allowed minor influence of the species to be highlighted compared to the regional lithology. This was even true where the morphological features played a role in the bioaccumulation levels, which were related to the variable efficiency in trapping atmospheric dust particles. A comparison between REE profiles in the organisms and bark indicated a lack of influence of the substrate on lichen REE content. Lichens and mosses appear to be robust passive monitors of REE atmospheric deposition over decades because the mineral data was preserved in herbarium samples despite organic degradation being shown by carbon isotopes and SEM observations. To overcome the bias of REE concentration that resulted from organic degradation, the use of a normalized method is recommended to interpret the historical samples. PMID:24751590

  2. Functional Diversity of Photosynthetic Light Use of 16 Vascular Epiphyte Species Under Fluctuating Irradiance in the Canopy of a Giant Virola michelii (Myristicaceae) Tree in the Tropical Lowland Forest of French Guyana.

    PubMed

    Rascher, Uwe; Freiberg, Martin; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Here we present the first study, in which a large number of different vascular epiphyte species were measured for their photosynthetic performance in the natural environment of their phorophyte in the lowland rainforest of French Guyana. More than 70 epiphyte species covered the host tree in a dense cover. Of these, the photosynthesis of 16 abundant species was analyzed intensely over several months. Moreover, the light environment was characterized with newly developed light sensors that recorded continuously and with high temporal resolution light intensity next to the epiphytes. Light intensity was highly fluctuating and showed great site specific spatio-temporal variations of photosynthetic photon flux. Using a novel computer routine we quantified the integrated light intensity the epiphytes were exposed to in a 3 h window and we related this light intensity to measurements of the actual photosynthetic status. It could be shown that the photosynthetic apparatus of the epiphytes was well adapted to the quickly changing light conditions. Some of the epiphytes were chronically photoinhibited at predawn and significant acute photoinhibition, expressed by a reduction of potential quantum efficiency (F(v)/F(m))(30'), was observed during the day. By correlating (F(v)/F(m))(30') to the integrated and weighted light intensity perceived during the previous 3 h, it became clear that acute photoinhibition was related to light environment prior to the measurements. Additionally photosynthetic performance was not determined by rain events, with the exception of an Aechmea species. This holds true for all the other 15 species of this study and we thus conclude that actual photosynthesis of these tropical epiphytes was determined by the specific and fluctuating light conditions of their microhabitat and cannot be simply attributed to light-adapted ancestors. PMID:22629271

  3. Functional Diversity of Photosynthetic Light Use of 16 Vascular Epiphyte Species Under Fluctuating Irradiance in the Canopy of a Giant Virola michelii (Myristicaceae) Tree in the Tropical Lowland Forest of French Guyana

    PubMed Central

    Rascher, Uwe; Freiberg, Martin; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Here we present the first study, in which a large number of different vascular epiphyte species were measured for their photosynthetic performance in the natural environment of their phorophyte in the lowland rainforest of French Guyana. More than 70 epiphyte species covered the host tree in a dense cover. Of these, the photosynthesis of 16 abundant species was analyzed intensely over several months. Moreover, the light environment was characterized with newly developed light sensors that recorded continuously and with high temporal resolution light intensity next to the epiphytes. Light intensity was highly fluctuating and showed great site specific spatio-temporal variations of photosynthetic photon flux. Using a novel computer routine we quantified the integrated light intensity the epiphytes were exposed to in a 3 h window and we related this light intensity to measurements of the actual photosynthetic status. It could be shown that the photosynthetic apparatus of the epiphytes was well adapted to the quickly changing light conditions. Some of the epiphytes were chronically photoinhibited at predawn and significant acute photoinhibition, expressed by a reduction of potential quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm)30′, was observed during the day. By correlating (Fv/Fm)30′ to the integrated and weighted light intensity perceived during the previous 3 h, it became clear that acute photoinhibition was related to light environment prior to the measurements. Additionally photosynthetic performance was not determined by rain events, with the exception of an Aechmea species. This holds true for all the other 15 species of this study and we thus conclude that actual photosynthesis of these tropical epiphytes was determined by the specific and fluctuating light conditions of their microhabitat and cannot be simply attributed to light-adapted ancestors. PMID:22629271

  4. Changes in bryophyte and lichen communities on Scots pines along an alkaline dust pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Degtjarenko, Polina; Marmor, Liis; Randlane, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Dust pollution can cause a significant damage of environment and endanger human health. Our study aimed to investigate epiphytic lichens and bryophytes in relation to long-term alkaline dust pollution and provide new insights into the bioindicators of dust pollution. We measured the bark pH of Scots pines and the species richness and cover of two cryptogam groups in 32 sample plots in the vicinity of limestone quarries (up to ca. 3 km) in northern Estonia. The bark pH decreased gradually with increasing distance from quarries. We recorded the changes in natural epiphytic communities, resulting in diversified artificial communities on pines near the pollution source; the distance over 2 km from the quarries was sufficient to re-establish the normal acidity of the bark and natural communities of both lichens and bryophytes. The cover of lichens and the number of bryophytes are a more promising indicator of environmental conditions than individual species occurrence. We confirmed previously proposed and suggested new bioindicator species of dust pollution (e.g., Lecidella elaeochroma, Opegrapha varia, Schistidium apocarpum). Limestone quarrying activity revealed a "parapositive" impact on cryptogamic communities, meaning that quarrying might, besides disturbances of natural communities, temporarily contribute to the distribution of locally rare species. PMID:27230146

  5. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments.

    PubMed

    Lamit, L J; Lau, M K; Naesborg, R Reese; Wojtowicz, T; Whitham, T G; Gehring, C A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of community genetics is to understand the influence of genetic variation within a species on ecological communities. Although well-documented for some organisms, additional research is necessary to understand the relative and interactive effects of genotype and environment on biodiversity, identify mechanisms through which tree genotype influences communities, and connect this emerging field with existing themes in ecology. We employ an underutilized but ecologically significant group of organisms, epiphytic bark lichens, to understand the relative importance of Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) genotype and environment on associated organisms within the context of community assembly and host ontogeny. Several key findings emerged. (1) In a single common garden, tree genotype explained 18-33% and 51% of the variation in lichen community variables and rough bark cover, respectively. (2) Across replicated common gardens, tree genotype affected lichen species richness, total lichen cover, lichen species composition, and rough bark cover, whereas environment only influenced composition and there were no genotype by environment interactions. (3) Rough bark cover was positively correlated with total lichen cover and richness, and was associated with a shift in species composition; these patterns occurred with variation in rough bark cover among tree genotypes of the same age in common gardens and with increasing rough bark cover along a -40 year tree age gradient in a natural riparian stand. (4) In a common garden, 20-year-old parent trees with smooth bark had poorly developed lichen communities, similar to their 10-year-old ramets (root suckers) growing in close proximity, while parent trees with high rough bark cover had more developed communities than their ramets. These findings indicate that epiphytic lichens are influenced by host genotype, an effect that is robust across divergent environments. Furthermore, the response to tree genotype is

  6. Lichen Specific Thallus Mass and Secondary Compounds Change across a Retrogressive Fire-Driven Chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Asplund, Johan; Sandling, Aron; Wardle, David A.

    2012-01-01

    In the long-term absence of major disturbances ecosystems enter a state of retrogression, which involves declining soil fertility and consequently a reduction in decomposition rates. Recent studies have looked at how plant traits such as specific leaf mass and amounts of secondary compounds respond to declining soil fertility during retrogression, but there are no comparable studies for lichen traits despite increasing recognition of the role that lichens can play in ecosystem processes. We studied a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. We used this system to explore how specific thallus mass (STM) and carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) change in three common epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia phsyodes, Melanohalea olivacea and Parmelia sulcata) as soil fertility declines during this retrogression. We found that STMs of lichens increased sharply during retrogression, and for all species soil N to P ratio (which increased during retrogression) was a strong predictor of STM. When expressed per unit area, medullary CBSCs in all species and cortical CBSCs in P. sulcata increased during retrogression. Meanwhile, when expressed per unit mass, only cortical CBSCs in H. physodes responded to retrogression, and in the opposite direction. Given that lichen functional traits are likely to be important in driving ecological processes that drive nutrient and carbon cycling in the way that plant functional traits are, the changes that they undergo during retrogression could potentially be significant for the functioning of the ecosystem. PMID:23145078

  7. Phenotypic variability and therapeutic implications of Candida species in patients with oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Arora, S; Verma, M; Gupta, S R; Urs, A B; Dhakad, M S; Kaur, R

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenotypic variation of Candida species in oral lichen planus (OLP) and the therapeutic implications of our findings. Eighty patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed cases of OLP (64 non-erosive, 16 erosive) and a control group of 80 healthy individuals with no predisposing factors for oral candidiasis were examined for evidence of Candida infection. Oral swabs and smears were obtained for cytology and culture. Identification, speciation and antifungal susceptibility tests of Candida isolates were performed using an automated microbial identification system. Fifty percent of erosive OLP cases, 28% of non-erosive cases and none of the controls showed evidence of Candida. Candida albicans was found predominantly in non-erosive OLP, while other Candida species were predominate in erosive OLP. Non-Candida albicans isolates (C. glabrata, C. krusei) were resistant to the commonly used antifungals, clotrimazole and fluconazole. Candida infection is common in cases of OLP. We recommend antifungal sensitivity testing prior to antifungal therapy for the erosive form of OLP. PMID:26984382

  8. Who's getting around? Assessing species diversity and phylogeography in the widely distributed lichen-forming fungal genus Montanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Divakar, Pradeep K; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Wang, Li-Song; Esslinger, Theodore L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Brown parmelioid lichens comprise a number of distinct genera in one of the most species-rich families of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). In spite of their superficial similarity, a number of studies of brown parmelioids have provided important insight into diversification in lichen-forming fungi with cosmopolitan distributions. In this study we assess species diversity, biogeography and diversification of the genus Montanelia, which includes alpine to temperate saxicolous species. We sampled each of the five known species, four of which are known from broad, intercontinental distributions. In order to identify potential biogeographical patterns, each broadly distributed species was represented by individuals collected across their intercontinental distributions. Molecular sequence data were generated for six loci, including three nuclear protein-coding markers (MCM7, RPB1, and RPB2), two nuclear ribosomal markers (ITS and nrLSU), and a fragment of the mitochondrial small subunit. We used three sequence-based species delimitations methods to validate traditional, phenotype-based species and circumscribe previously unrecognized species-level lineages in Montanelia. Relationships among putative lineages and divergence times were estimated within a coalescent-based multi-locus species tree framework. Based on the results of the species delimitation analyses, we propose that the genus Montanelia is likely comprised of six to nine species-level lineages, including previously unrecognized species-level diversity in the nominal taxa M. panniformis and M. tominii. In contrast, molecular sequence data suggest that M. predisjuncta may be conspecific with the widespread taxon M. disjuncta in spite of distinct morphological differences. The rate-based age estimation of the most recent common ancestor of Montanelia (ca. 23.1Ma) was similar to previous estimates based on the fossil record. Furthermore, our data suggest that diversification in Montanelia occurred

  9. [Phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in five phorophyte species from premontane forest of Finca Zíngara, Cali, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Medina, Edier Soto; Lücking, Robert; Rojas, Ana Bolañios

    2012-06-01

    Lichenized fungi or lichens are organisms that have been little studied in the tropics and which distribution is affected by microenvironmental factors and substrate characteristics. The present study aimed to identify phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in five phorophyte species from premontane forest of the farm Finca Zingara in Cali, Colombia. For this, five individuals were selected from five tree species (phorophytes). Lichen species present in a 0.50x0.20m2 quadrant located in the trunk of each tree at a height of 1.3m were identified. Substrate parameters such as bark pH, Diameter Breast Height (DBH) and bark structure were measured. Also, microenvironmental factors including temperature, humidity and irradiance were determined. In order to detect phorophyte preferences, a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and indicator species analysis were made. Spearman correlation analysis was used to assert the relationship between environmental variables and groupings found in the NMS. A total of 69 species of lichens were found, of which 37 were identified to species, 18 to genera and 14 were not determined because they were sterile or had no spores. NMS showed that some individuals of the same tree species were grouped alongside the analysis dimensions, and they were related with the factors of light intensity, temperature and DBH. Only three lichens with preference for certain tree species were found (Arthonia microsperma by Meriania sp., Cladonia ceratophylla and sorediado 8 by Clusia sp.), suggesting absence of phorophyte preferences. Thus, it can be concluded that lichens from the study area do not show phorophyte preference, but their distribution is affected by light, temperature and DBH. PMID:23894950

  10. Sunscreening fungal pigments influence the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in boreal forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Färber, Leonie; Sølhaug, Knut Asbjorn; Esseen, Per-Anders; Bilger, Wolfgang; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2014-06-01

    Pendulous lichens dominate canopies of boreal forests, with dark Bryoria species in the upper canopy vs. light Alectoria and Usnea species in lower canopy. These genera offer important ecosystem services such as winter forage for reindeer and caribou. The mechanism behind this niche separation is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that species-specific sunscreening fungal pigments protect underlying symbiotic algae differently against high light, and thus shape the vertical canopy gradient of epiphytes. Three pale species with the reflecting pigment usnic acid (Alectoria sarmentosa, Usnea dasypoga, U. longissima) and three with dark, absorbing melanins (Bryoria capillaris, B. fremontii, B. fuscescens) were compared. We subjected the lichens to desiccation stress with and without light, and assessed their performance with chlorophyll fluorescence. Desiccation alone only affected U. longissima. By contrast, light in combination with desiccation caused photoinhibitory damage in all species. Usnic lichens were significantly more susceptible to light during desiccation than melanic ones. Thus, melanin is a more efficient light-screening pigment than usnic acid. Thereby, the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in forest canopies is consistent with a shift in type and functioning of sunscreening pigments, from high-light-tolerant Bryoria in the upper to susceptible Alectoria and Usnea in the lower canopy. PMID:25039211

  11. Epiphytism and pollinator specialization: drivers for orchid diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Gravendeel, Barbara; Smithson, Ann; Slik, Ferry J W; Schuiteman, Andre

    2004-01-01

    Epiphytes are a characteristic component of tropical rainforests. Out of the 25,000 orchid species currently known to science, more than 70% live in tree canopies. Understanding when and how these orchids diversified is vital to understanding the history of epiphytic biomes. We investigated whether orchids managed to radiate so explosively owing to their predominantly epiphytic habit and/or their specialized pollinator systems by testing these hypotheses from a statistical and phylogenetic standpoint. For the first approach, species numbers of 100 randomly chosen epiphytic and terrestrial genera were compared. Furthermore, the mean number of pollinators per orchid species within the five subfamilies was calculated and correlated with their time of diversification and species richness. In the second approach, molecular epiphytic orchid phylogenies were screened for clades with specific suites of epiphytic adaptations. Epiphytic genera were found to be significantly richer in species than terrestrial genera both for orchids and non-orchids. No evidence was found for a positive association between pollinator specialization and orchid species richness. Repeated associations between a small body size, short life cycle and specialized clinging roots of twig epiphytes in Bulbophyllinae and Oncidiinae were discovered. The development of twig epiphytism in the first group seems repeatedly correlated with speciation bursts. PMID:15519970

  12. Susceptibility to acidic precipitation contributes to the decline of the terricolous lichens Cetraria aculeata and Cetraria islandica in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus

    2008-04-01

    The effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in photosystem II (Phi2) was shown to be reduced in the terricolous lichens Cetraria aculeata and Cetraria islandica by short-term exposure to aqueous SO2 at pH values occurring in the precipitation of areas with high SO2 pollution. Significant reduction of Phi2 was found at pHepiphytic lichens in the past) has contributed to the decline of both species in central Europe. In C. islandica, but not in C. aculeata, thalli with the natural content of lichen substances were more tolerant to SO2 than thalli where the extracellular lichen substances were extracted before the experiment. This supports published results that the depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid, a major lichen substance of C. islandica, increases the pollution tolerance in lichens. PMID:18053625

  13. Effects of tropical montane forest disturbance on epiphytic macrolichens.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Angel; Prieto, María; González, Yadira; Aragón, Gregorio

    2012-12-15

    The high diversity of epiphytes typical of undisturbed montane tropical forests has been negatively affected by continuous deforestation and forest conversion to secondary vegetation. Macrolichens are an important component of these epiphytes. Because their physiology is strongly coupled to humidity and solar radiation, we hypothesized that microclimatic changes derived from forest clearing and logging can affect the diversity of these poikilohydric organisms. In southern Ecuador, we examined three types of forests according to a disturbance gradient (primary forests, secondary forests, and monospecific forests of Alnus acuminata) for the presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic macrolichens that we identified on 240 trees. We found that total richness tended to decrease when the range of the disturbance increased. The impoverishment was particularly drastic for "shade-adapted lichens", while the richness of "heliophytic lichens" increased in the drier conditions of secondary growth. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three types of forests, and the similarity decreased when the range of the disturbance was greater. We concluded that a span of 40 years of recovery by secondary vegetation was not enough to regenerate the diversity of epiphytic macrolichens that was lost due to forest disturbances. PMID:23137982

  14. Chemical element concentrations in four lichens on a transect entering Voyageurs National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    A three factor transect study was conducted to test the hypothesis that chemical elements from air emissions in the vicinity of International Falls, Minnesota could not be detected in lichens along a 24 km transect reaching into Voyageurs National Park. It was hypothesized that element concentrations in lichens would decline exponentially downwind and would reach background values at a distance before the park boundary. Four species (Cladina rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia physodes, and Parmelia sulcata) were sampled at ten sites for 3 years and 17 chemical elements were measured. The most notable result was a curvilinear geographic trend for many elements, which decreased from International Falls and then increased towards the park. This trend was significant for many anthropogenic elements, including S, Hg, Cd, and Cr, and for all four species. This type of distribution pattern has been observed in Hypogymnia physodes in other studies downwind of a steel mill and an oil refinery. Cladina, a ground-dwelling lichen, generally had lower tissue concentrations of the elements than the three epiphytic species. Tissue concentrations over the 3 years of sampling declined an average of 12%. Sufficient evidence exists to conclude that lichen tissue element concentrations in the vicinity of International Falls may be related to local air emissions, and that an exponential decline of element concentrations downwind of the sources does not apply to this situation.

  15. Preliminary assessment of terrestrial microalgae isolated from lichens as testing species for environmental monitoring: lichen phycobionts present high sensitivity to environmental micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; Moreno, H; Barreno, E; Catalá, M

    2014-01-01

    Bioassays constitute a tool for pollution analysis providing a holistic approach and high-quality indication of the toxicity. Microbioassays allow evaluating the toxicity of many samples, implying lower costs and enabling routine monitoring and pollution control. But tests conducted so far are limited to the use of a small number of taxa. Lichens are excellent bioindicators of pollution with great ecological significance. Studies show that the phycobiont is more sensitive to pollutants than the mycobiont. Phycobiont have features such as adaptation to anhydrobiosis and relatively rapid growth in vitro, making them suitable for microbioassays. Our aim is to determine the sensitivity of phycobionts to the pharmaceutical micropollutants carbamazepine and diclofenac as a preliminary step for the development of a toxicity microbioassay based on phycobionts. Optical dispersion and chlorophyll autofluorescence were used as endpoints of toxicity on two algal species showing that suspensions present cyclic and taxon specific patterns of aggregation. Trebouxia TR9 suspensions present a very high grade of aggregation while Asterochloris erici cells do not. Both micropollutants alter optical properties of the suspensions of both species. No significant alteration of chlorophyll autofluorescence by carbamazepine is observed. A. erici chlorophyll autofluorescence is extremely sensitive to diclofenac but the effect is not dependent on the drug concentration or on the time of exposure. Differently, TR9 only shows punctual chlorophyll alterations. Fluctuations in optical dispersion may indicate changes in the population structure of the species, including reproductive strategy. A. erici seems more sensitive to micropollutants, is better characterized and is available from commercial collections. PMID:24183288

  16. Lichen Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of lichen sclerosis is unknown. Scientists have different theories to try to explain the cause, including an overactive immune system, genetic traits, or changes in hormones. Since lichen sclerosis is not caused ...

  17. Geothermal chemical elements in lichens of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Geothermal features (e.g. geysers, fumaroles, vents, and springs) emit gaseous mercury, sulfur and heavy metals and therefore, are natural sources of these elements in the atmosphere. Field studies of heavy metals in lichens in Italy have detected elevated concentrations near geothermal power plants, and have determined that the origin of mercury is from soil degassing, not soil particles. We studied this phenomenon in a geothermal area without power plants to determine the natural levels of mercury and other elements. Two common and abundant species of epiphytic Lichens, Bryoria fremontii and Letharia vulpina, were collected at six localities in Yellowstone National Park, USA in 1998 and analyzed for 22 chemical elements. Thirteen elements differed significantly between species. Some elements were significantly higher in the southern part of the park, while others were higher in the north. Levels of most elements were comparable with those in other national parks and wilderness areas in the region, except Hg, which was unusually high. The most likely sources of this element are the geothermal features, which are known emitters of Hg. Multivariate analyses revealed strong positive associations of Hg with S, and negative associations with soil elements, providing strong evidence that the Hg in the lichens is the result of soil degassing of elemental Hg rather than particulate Hg directly from soils. Average Hg levels in the lichens were 140 p.p.b. in Bryoria and 110 p.p.b. in Letharia, but maxima were 291 and 243 p.p.b., respectively. In spite of this, both species were healthy and abundant throughout the park.

  18. MASS LOSS AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS DURING THE DECOMPOSITION OF A N-LABELED N2-FIXING EPOPHYTIC LICHEN, LOBARIA OREGANA (TUCK.) MULL. ARG.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied mass loss and nitrogen dynamics during fall and spring initiated decomposition of an N2-fixing epiphytic lichen, Lobaria oregana (Tuck.) Mull. Arg. using 15N. We developed a method of labeling lichens with 15N that involved spraying lichen material with a nutrient sol...

  19. The Lichen-GIS Project, Teaching Students How to Use Bioindicator Species to Assess Environmental Quality

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Stephen C.; McDonald, Darrel; Watson, Trey; Taylor, Josephine; Sowards, Alan B.

    2009-01-01

    A content-driven biology course for preservice K-8 teachers has been developed. This course uses the constructivist approach, where instructors engage students by organizing information around concept-based problems. To this end, a semester-long, inquiry-based project was introduced where students studied lichen populations on trees located on their campus to monitor air quality. Data were incorporated into a geographical information systems (GIS) database to demonstrate how it can be used to map communities. Student teams counted the number of each lichen type within a grid placed on each tree trunk sampled and entered this information into a GIS database. The students constructed maps of lichen populations at each sample site and wrote abstracts about their research. Student performance was assessed by the preparation of these abstracts as well as by scores on pre- and posttests of key content measures. Students also completed a survey to determine whether the project aided in their comprehension as well as their interest in incorporating this activity into their own curricula. The students’ pre- and posttest results showed an eightfold improvement in the total score after the semester project. Additionally, correct responses to each individual content measure increased by at least 35%. Total scores for the abstract ranged from 12 to 20 points out of 20 total points possible (60% to 100%), with a mean score of 15.8 points (78%). These results indicate that this exercise provided an excellent vehicle to teach students about lichens and their use as bioindicators and the application of geospatial technologies to map environmental data. PMID:23653685

  20. Effects of acute NH3 air pollution on N-sensitive and N-tolerant lichen species.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Grassi, Alice; Bačkor, Martin; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Lichens are sensitive to the presence of ammonia (NH3) in the environment. However, in order to use them as reliable indicators in biomonitoring studies, it is necessary to establish unequivocally the occurrence of certain symptoms following the exposure to NH3 in the environment. In this paper, we simulated an episode of acute air pollution due to the release of NH3. The biological effects of acute air pollution by atmospheric NH3 have been investigated using N-sensitive (Flavoparmelia caperata) and N-tolerant (Xanthoria parietina) species. Lichen samples were exposed to ecologically relevant NH3 concentrations for 8 weeks, simulating three areas of impact: a control area (2 μg/m(3)), an area of intermediate impact (2-35 μg/m(3)) and an area of high impact (10-315 μg/m(3)), with a peak of pollution reached between the fourth and fifth week. Ammonia affected both the photobiont and the mycobiont in F. caperata, while in X. parietina only the photosynthetic performance of the photobiont was altered after exposure to the highest concentration. In the photobiont of F. caperata we recorded chlorophyll degradation as indicated by OD435/415 ratio, decrease of the photosynthetic performance (as reflected by the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry FV/FM and the performance index PIABS); in the mycobiont, ergosterol reduction, membrane lipid peroxidation (as reflected by the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), alteration (decrease) of the secondary metabolite usnic acid. No effects were detected on caperatic acid and dehydrogenase activity. In X. parietina, the only signal determined by NH3 was the alteration of FV/FM and the performance index PIABS. The results suggest that physiological parameters in N-sensitive lichens well reflect the effects of NH3 exposure and can be applied as early indicators in monitoring studies. PMID:26342688

  1. A new species of Phyllopsora (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Dominican amber, with remarks on the fossil history of lichens.

    PubMed

    Rikkinen, Jouko; Poinar, George O

    2008-01-01

    Phyllopsora dominicanus sp. nov. (Bacidiaceae, Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) is described and illustrated from Dominican amber. The diagnostic features of the lichen include a minute subfolious thallus of lacinulate, ascending squamules, a well-developed upper cortex, and a net-like pseudocortex on the lower surface. The algal symbionts are unicellular green algae, forming a distinct layer immediately below the upper cortex. The fossil demonstrates that distinguishing features of Phyllopsora have remained unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossil also provides the first detailed views of mycobiont-photobiont contacts in Tertiary green algal lichens. The mycobiont hyphae formed apical and intercalary appressoria by pressing closely against the photobiont cells. This indicates that a conserved maintenance of structure is also seen in the fine details of the fungal-algal interface. PMID:18319239

  2. Molecular systematics of the wood-inhabiting, lichen-forming genus Xylographa (Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae) with eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Resl, Philipp; Ahti, Teuvo; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Tønsberg, Tor; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The ascomycete genus Xylographa includes some of the most abundant species of wood-inhabiting lichenized fungi in boreal and temperate regions. It has never been monographed and little is known of its species diversity and evolutionary relationships. Based on a morphological and secondary metabolite-based assessment of material from North and South America, Europe and Asia, we generated a three-locus phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer, 28S nuclear rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA. We analyzed the data within the context of putatively related genera in the order Baeomycetales. Xylographa is a strongly supported monophyletic group closely related to Lithographa and Ptychographa, as well as rock-dwelling and lichenicolous species of Rimularia s.lat. The evolution of linearized ascomata in Xylographa appears to have enabled ascomata to grow laterally, and patterns of lateral growth are diagnostic. We recognize twenty species in Xylographa and provide a thorough revision of nomenclature. The following eight species are new: Xylographa bjoerkii T. Sprib., X. constricta T. Sprib., X. erratica T. Sprib., X. lagoi T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega, X. schofieldii T. Sprib., X. septentrionalis T. Sprib., X. stenospora T. Sprib. & Resl and X. vermicularis T. Sprib. The combinations Lambiella insularis (Nyl.) T. Sprib. and Xylographa carneopallida (Räsänen) T. Sprib. are newly proposed. Xylographa constricta from southern South America represents the first known case of secondary de-lichenization in the Baeomycetales. Xylographa parallela s.str. is confirmed as bipolar on the basis of sequenced collections from both southern Chile and the northern Hemisphere. PMID:26953522

  3. Structure of the Epiphyte Community in a Tropical Montane Forest in SW China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingxu; Geekiyanage, Nalaka; Xu, Jianchu; Khin, Myo Myo; Nurdiana, Dian Ridwan; Paudel, Ekananda; Harrison, Rhett Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height), while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest. PMID:25856457

  4. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingxu; Geekiyanage, Nalaka; Xu, Jianchu; Khin, Myo Myo; Nurdiana, Dian Ridwan; Paudel, Ekananda; Harrison, Rhett Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height), while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest. PMID:25856457

  5. Does exogenous carbon extend the realized niche of canopy lichens? Evidence from sub-boreal forests in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jocelyn; Bengtson, Per; Fredeen, Arthur L; Coxson, Darwyn S; Prescott, Cindy E

    2013-05-01

    Foliose lichens with cyanobacterial bionts (bipartite and tripartite) form a distinct assemblage of epiphytes strongly associated with humid microclimatic conditions in inland British Columbia. Previous research showed that these cyano- and cephalolichen communities are disproportionately abundant and species-rich on conifer saplings beneath Populus compared to beneath other tree species. More revealing, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts were observed beneath Populus even in stands that did not otherwise support them. We experimentally test the hypothesis that this association is due to the interception of glucose-rich nectar that is exuded from Populus extra-floral nectaries (EFN). Using CO2 flux measurements and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis with experimental applications of 13C6-labeled glucose, we demonstrate that cyano- and cephalolichens have a strong respiratory response to glucose. Lichens treated with glucose had lower net photosynthesis and higher establishment rates than control thalli. Furthermore, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts rapidly incorporate exogenous 13C into lichen fatty acid tissues. A large proportion of the 13C taken up by the lichens was incorporated into fungal biomarkers, suggesting that the mycobiont absorbed and assimilated the majority of applied 13C6 glucose. Our observations suggest that both cyanolichens and cephalolichens may utilize an exogenous source of glucose, made available by poplar EFNs. The exogenous C may enable these lichens to become established by providing a source of C for fungal respiration despite drought-induced inactivity of the cyanobacterial partner. As such, the mycobiont may adopt an alternative nutritional strategy, using available exogenous carbon to extend its realized niche. PMID:23858658

  6. Accumulation of airborne elements from vehicles in transplanted lichens in urban sites

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.; Kauppi, M.; Kauppi, A.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of the current study is to compare the short-term accumulation capacity of two epiphytic lichens characterized by a different type of thallus. The lichens Hypogynmia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Usnea hirta (L.) Weber em. Mot. were transplanted either to the vicinity of streets of low volume and slow traffic or to the vicinity of a highway in the city of Oulu, N. Finland, for a period of 45 d. Eleven elements were analyzed before and after transplantation. The two lichen species were found to possess a similar accumulating capacity for K and Mn. Hypogynmia physodes manifests a higher accumulating capacity than U. hirta for Na, Fe, and Cu. whereas the more sensitive lichen U. hirta exhibits a higher accumulating capacity for Mg, despite a higher primary concentration of these elements in the thallus of H. physodes. Our findings show a relative high concentration of K, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cu in thalli of H. physodes and Mg, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd in U. hirta in material transplanted to streets of low volume and slow traffic, over and above the concentration found in thalli retrieved form the vicinity of the highway. This may be explained by the higher rate of abrasion of car engines running idle near traffic lights and by the lesser ventilation near the close-clustered streets of the inner city. 65 refs., 8 tabs.

  7. Evidence for Isolation-by-Habitat among Populations of an Epiphytic Orchid Species on a Small Oceanic Island

    PubMed Central

    Mallet, Bertrand; Martos, Florent; Blambert, Laury; Pailler, Thierry; Humeau, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Identifying factors that promote population differentiation is of interest for understanding the early stages of speciation. Gene flow among populations inhabiting different environments can be reduced by geographical distance (isolation-by-distance) or by divergent selection resulting from local adaptation (isolation-by-ecology). Few studies have investigated the influence of these factors in small oceanic islands where the influence of geographic distance is expected to be null but where habitat diversity could have a strong effect on population differentiation. In this study, we tested for the spatial divergence of phenotypes (floral morphology and floral scent) and genotypes (microsatellites) among ten populations of Jumellea rossii, an epiphytic orchid endemic to Réunion growing in three different habitats. We found a significant genetic differentiation between populations that is structured by habitat heterogeneity rather than by geographic distance between populations. These results suggest that ecological factors might reduce gene flow among populations located in different habitats. This pattern of isolation-by-habitat may be the result of both isolation-by-ecology by habitat filtering and asynchrony in flowering phenology. Furthermore, data on floral morphology match these findings, with multivariate analysis grouping populations by habitat type but could be only due to phenotypic plasticity. Indeed floral scent compounds were not significantly different between populations indicating that specific plant-pollinator mutualism does not seem to play a major role in the population differentiation of J. rossii. In conclusion, the results from our study emphasize the importance of habitat diversity of small oceanic islands as a factor of population differentiation. PMID:24498329

  8. Multilocus phylogeny of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota): insights on diversity, distributions, and a comparison of species tree and concatenated topologies.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Spribille, Toby; Divakar, Pradeep K; Thorsten Lumbsch, H

    2013-01-01

    Accurate species circumscriptions are central for many biological disciplines and have critical implications for ecological and conservation studies. An increasing body of evidence suggests that in some cases traditional morphology-based taxonomy have underestimated diversity in lichen-forming fungi. Therefore, genetic data play an increasing role for recognizing distinct lineages of lichenized fungi that it would otherwise be improbable to recognize using classical phenotypic characters. Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) is one of the most widespread and common lichen-forming genera in the northern Hemisphere. In this study, we assess traditional phenotype-based species boundaries, identify previously unrecognized species-level lineages and discuss biogeographic patterns in Melanohalea. We sampled 487 individuals worldwide, representing 18 of the 22 described Melanohalea species, and generated DNA sequence data from mitochondrial, nuclear ribosomal, and protein-coding markers. Diversity previously hidden within traditional species was identified using a genealogical concordance approach. We inferred relationships among sampled species-level lineages within Melanohalea using both concatenated phylogenetic methods and a coalescent-based multilocus species tree approach. Although lineages identified from genetic data are largely congruent with traditional taxonomy, we found strong evidence supporting the presence of previously unrecognized species in six of the 18 sampled taxa. Strong nodal support and overall congruence among independent loci suggest long-term reproductive isolation among most species-level lineages. While some Melanohalea taxa are truly widespread, a limited number of clades appear to have much more restricted distributional ranges. In most instances the concatenated gene tree and multilocus species tree approaches provided similar estimates of relationships. However, nodal support was generally higher in the phylogeny estimated from

  9. Bacterial communities associated with the lichen symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Bates, Scott T; Cropsey, Garrett W G; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-02-01

    Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and "algae" (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N(2) fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N(2) fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses. PMID:21169444

  10. A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Klug, Barbara; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from across the high latitude northern hemisphere. A three-locus dataset of internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-α and replication licensing factor Mcm7 DNA sequences revealed that material treated until now as belonging to M. sanguinarius does indeed form a monophyletic group within the genus and is distinct from a strongly supported Mycoblastus affinis. The M. sanguinarius complex appears closely related to the rare Mycoblastus glabrescens, which is currently known only from the Pacific Northwest and was rediscovered during the present study. However, within M. sanguinarius s.lat. in the northern hemisphere, two deeply divergent and morphologically coherent species can be recovered, one of which matches the southern hemisphere species Mycoblastus sanguinarioides and turns out to be widespread in North America and Asia, and one of which corresponds to M. sanguinarius s.str. Both M. sanguinarius and M. sanguinarioides exhibit additional low-level genetic differentiation into geographically structured clades, the most prominent of which are distributed in East Asia/eastern North America and western North America/Europe, respectively. Individuals from these lowest-level clades are morphologically indistinguishable but chemical analyses by thin layer chromatography revealed that each clade possesses its own fatty acid profile, suggesting that chemical differentiation precedes morphological differentiation and may be a precursor to speciation. PMID:21443957

  11. Urbanization Impacts on Tree Canopies: The Unexplored Link Between Canopy Epiphytes and Pacific Northwest Forest Biogeochemical Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, H.; Rosenstiel, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy-dwelling cryptogamic plants (i.e. lichens and mosses) serve important roles in biogeochemical cycles worldwide and are of particular importance to biogeochemical cycling in Pacific Northwest forests. Epiphytic lichens and mosses respond sensitively to both direct and indirect effects of global change, as evidenced by distinct changes in epiphyte community structure. Yet, few studies have explored how shifting epiphytic communities, resulting from changing climate and increasing air pollutant exposure, may greatly impact biogeochemical cycles of the forests they inhabit. We present the first study investigating how urbanization, as a proxy for global change, impacts epiphytic community structure and functional biodiversity and address the impending effects on Pacific Northwest forest biogeochemical cycles. We discuss the results of paired ground and arboreal epiphyte surveys across an urban to rural gradient in Portland, Oregon. Three research sites with varying distance (0km, 74km, and 109km) from urban center were surveyed and epiphytic biodiversity was described. Pronounced shifts in epiphyte community structure were observed downwind of the Portland metro region. These results suggest that the impacts of urbanization may have significant and surprisingly far-reaching impacts on forested ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest. The impacts of an altered ground and arboreal epiphytic community on Pacific Northwest forest biogeochemical processes will be discussed.

  12. Pleistocene Speciation in North American Lichenized Fungi and the Impact of Alternative Species Circumscriptions and Rates of Molecular Evolution on Divergence Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Stenroos, Soili; Clair, Larry L. St.

    2013-01-01

    Pleistocene climatic fluctuations influenced patterns of genetic variation and promoted speciation across a wide range of species groups. Lichens are commonly found in habitats that were directly impacted by glacial cycles; however, the role of Pleistocene climate in driving speciation in most lichen symbionts remains unclear. This uncertainty is due in part to limitations in our ability to accurately recognize independently evolving lichen-forming fungal lineages and a lack of relevant fossil calibrations. Using a coalescent-based species tree approach, we estimated divergence times for two sister clades in the genus Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) restricted to western North America. We assessed the influence of two different species circumscription scenarios and various locus-specific rates of molecular evolution on divergence estimates. Species circumscriptions were validated using the program BP&P. although speciation was generally supported in both scenarios, divergence times differed between traditional species circumscriptions and those based on genetic data, with more recent estimates resulting from the former. Similarly, rates of evolution for different loci resulted in variable divergence time estimates. However, our results unambiguously indicate that diversification in the sampled Xanthoparmelia clades occurred during the Pleistocene. Our study highlights the potential impact of ambiguous species circumscriptions and uncertain rates of molecular evolution on estimating divergence times within a multilocus species tree framework. PMID:24386465

  13. Decrease in air pollution load in urban environment of Bratislava (Slovakia) inferred from accumulation of metal elements in lichens.

    PubMed

    Guttová, Anna; Lackovičová, Anna; Pišút, Ivan; Pišút, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The study illustrates the response of epiphytic lichens to changing atmospheric conditions in Central Europe, where the emission of air pollutants has significantly decreased from 1990, in the area in and around Bratislava City. Variation in concentrations of seven metal elements (Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the thalli of Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata is assessed. Samples of these species were exposed in lichen bags in 39 sites throughout the territory of the city (more than 300 km(2)) during the period December 2006-February 2007. The samples were analyzed by AAS for metal element contents prior to and after exposure. The decrease in air pollution (for all studied elements by more than 90%) corresponded to a decrease in the accumulation of elements in lichen thalli, e.g. the contents of Pb decreased by 69% and of Cd by 34% on average. The results show also variations in accumulation between with different lichen species. The background values of metal element contents in thalli of H. physodes growing in situ were measured in semi-natural sites in Slovakia. It is suggested that these can be used as a reference in large-scale monitoring studies in Central Europe. Analysis of compatible data from the current study, and the study performed at the end of 1990s shows a significant decrease of metal elements in the air pollution load. PMID:21327486

  14. Structural Impacts on Thallus and Algal Cell Components of Two Lichen Species in Response to Low-Level Air Pollution in Pacific Northwest Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ra, Hyung-Shim Y.; Rubin, Laura; Crang, Richard F. E.

    2004-04-01

    Lichens have long been regarded as bioindicators of air pollution, and structural studies typically have indicated negative impacts in highly polluted areas. In this research, Parmelia sulcata and Platismatia glauca were collected from one clean and two polluted sites in the Pacific Northwest forests of the United States to investigate the anatomical and ultrastructural responses of relatively resistant lichens to moderate air pollution. Light microscopy of polluted materials revealed only slight increases in the algal cell proportions of the thallus, and a decrease in the fungal cells of the medulla. Using transmission electron microscopy, increased lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and an increase in the cell wall thickness of the photobionts were found in the polluted lichens. These results were compared with physiological data in which the net carbon uptake did not show any significant differences; however, the total chlorophyll content was heightened in the polluted samples. The increased total chlorophyll content and the absence of any changes in the algal cell proportions of the polluted samples suggest that the photobionts possessed a higher chlorophyll content per unit volume of the photobiont at polluted sites. The results also indicate that lichens have altered their storage allocation in different cellular compartments. This may be a result of symbiotic readjustment(s) between the photobiont and the mycobiont. In comparison with the physiological results from these two species, these changes do not represent damaging effects by low-level air pollution.

  15. On monitoring anthropogenic airborne uranium concentrations and (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio by Lichen - bio-indicator technique.

    PubMed

    Golubev, A V; Golubeva, V N; Krylov, N G; Kuznetsova, V F; Mavrin, S V; Aleinikov, A Yu; Hoppes, W G; Surano, K A

    2005-01-01

    Lichens are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. However, few studies are available in publications on using lichens to qualitatively assess the atmospheric pollution levels. The paper presents research results applying epiphytic lichens as bio-monitors of quantitative atmospheric contamination with uranium. The observations were conducted during 2.5 years in the natural environment. Two experimental sites were used: one in the vicinity of a uranium contamination source, the other one - at a sufficient distance away to represent the background conditions. Air and lichens were sampled at both sites monthly. Epiphytic lichens Hypogimnia physodes were used as bio-indicators. Lichen samples were taken from various trees at about 1.5m from the ground. Air was sampled with filters at sampling stations. The uranium content in lichen and air samples as well as isotopic mass ratios (235)U/(238)U were measured by mass-spectrometer technique after uranium pre-extraction. Measured content of uranium were 1.45 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 2.09 E-04 microgm(-3) in air and 0.106 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 1.13 E-05 microgm(-3) in air. The relationship of the uranium content in atmosphere and that in lichens was determined, C(AIR)=exp(1.1 x C(LICHEN)-12). The possibility of separate identification of natural and man-made uranium in lichens was demonstrated in principle. PMID:16083999

  16. Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research I. Morphological and Anatomical Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Brandt, A.; Balzer, E.-M.; de la Torre, R.; Sancho, L. G.; de Vera, J.-P.; Ott, S.

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont. In nature, many lichens tolerate extreme environmental conditions and thus became valuable models in astrobiological research to fathom biological resistance towards non-terrestrial conditions; including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. All studies demonstrated the high resistance towards non-terrestrial abiotic factors of selected extremotolerant lichens. Besides other adaptations, this study focuses on the morphological and anatomical traits by comparing five lichen species— Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum—used in present-day astrobiological research. Detailed investigation of thallus organization by microscopy methods allows to study the effect of morphology on lichen resistance and forms a basis for interpreting data of recent and future experiments. All investigated lichens reveal a common heteromerous thallus structure but diverging sets of morphological-anatomical traits, as intra-/extra-thalline mucilage matrices, cortices, algal arrangements, and hyphal strands. In B. frigida, R. geographicum, and X. elegans the combination of pigmented cortex, algal arrangement, and mucilage seems to enhance resistance, while subcortex and algal clustering seem to be crucial in C. gyrosa, as well as pigmented cortices and basal thallus protrusions in P. chlorophanum. Thus, generalizations on morphologically conferred resistance have to be avoided. Such differences might reflect the diverging evolutionary histories and are advantageous by adapting lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors. The peculiar lichen morphology demonstrates its remarkable stake in resisting extreme terrestrial conditions and may explain the high resistance of lichens found in astrobiological research.

  17. Lichens as bioindicators of air quality. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, K.; Doty, R.; Mangis, D.; Tonnessen, K.; Huckaby, L.S.

    1993-03-01

    The report is the result of a workshop held in Denver, Colorado on April 9-11, 1991. It summarizes the current literature and techniques for using lichens to monitor air quality. Experts in lichenology and ecology contributed information on lichen floristics, characterization of monitoring sites, lichen species and communities, identifying lichen species sensitive to pollutants, active monitoring with transplants, chemical analysis of lichens, and case studies as examples of lichen biomonitoring scenarios.

  18. The phylogenetic analysis of fungi associated with lichenized ascomycete genus Bryoria reveals new lineages in the Tremellales including a new species Tremella huuskonenii hyperparasitic on Phacopsis huuskonenii.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Hanna; Diederich, Paul; Goward, Trevor; Myllys, Leena

    2015-09-01

    The basidiomycete order Tremellales includes many species parasitic on or cohabiting with lichen-forming fungi. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic position of Tremellales obtained from Bryoria thalli using nSSU, 5.8S, and partial nLSU sequence data. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses revealed the presence of basidiomycetous fungi in three separate clades within Tremellales. Tremellales sp. A and Tremella sp. B exist asymptomatically in Bryoria thalli and should thus be regarded as endolichenic rather than lichenicolous fungi. The third lineage represents a new species and is described here as Tremella huuskonenii. It is hyperparasitic over galls induced by Phacopsis huuskonenii, a lichenicolous fungus growing in Bryoria thalli. We also examined the genetic diversity of Tremella sp. B and Tremella huuskonenii with an extended taxon sampling using ITS and partial nLSU sequence data. For comparison, ITS, GAPDH, and Mcm7 regions were used for phylogenetic analyses of the host lichen specimens. According to our results, phylogenetic structure within the two Tremella species does not appear to correlate with the geographic distribution nor with the phylogeny or the secondary chemistry of the host lichen. However, ITS haplotype analysis of T. huuskonenii revealed some genetic differences between European and North American populations as some haplotypes were more common in Europe than in North America and vice versa. PMID:26321732

  19. Lichens of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, L.C.; Rope, S.K.

    1987-09-01

    A study begun in 1984 to evaluate the feasibility of using lichens to monitor air pollution at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has provided good baseline data on the lichen flora of the site. To date, 111 lichen taxa, including 25 genera and 110 species, have been identified. Six genera (Agrestia, Heterodermia, Microthelia, Polyblastiopsis, Teloschistes, and Verrucaria) and 49 species were previously unrecorded in Idaho. A key to the lichen species of the INEL and a general description of the genera are included as appendices to this report. Voucher specimens of lichens found at the INEL are being stored at the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory. As of May 1987, 43 species have been curated in the lichen herbarium there.

  20. Wickerhamiella siamensis f.a., sp. nov., an endophytic and epiphytic yeast species isolated from sugar cane leaf.

    PubMed

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Surussawadee, Janjira; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree

    2014-11-01

    Six strains representing a novel yeast species were isolated from tissue (DMKU-SE106(T), DMKU-SE110, DMKU-SE112 and DMKU-SE132) and the external surface (DMKU-SP335 and DMKU-SP406) of sugar cane leaves collected in Thailand. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the six strains were found to represent a single novel species of the genus Wickerhamiella although the formation of ascospores was not observed. The sequences of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and ITS region of the six strains differed from each other by 0-2 and 2-3 nt substitutions, respectively. The novel species was related most closely to Candida infanticola but with 4.5-4.6% nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and 6.6-7.1% nucleotide substitutions in the ITS region. The name Wickerhamiella siamensis f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DMKU-SE106(T) ( =BCC 61185(T) =NBRC 109697(T) =CBS 13331(T)). PMID:25168613

  1. Lichen Planus

    MedlinePlus

    ... scalp problems Itchy skin Painful skin / joints Rashes Diaper rash: How to treat Lichen planus Lupus and your skin Nickel allergy Pityriasis rosea Rash 101 in adults: When to seek treatment Scaly skin Skin cancer ...

  2. Lichen Sclerosus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of lichen sclerosus is unknown. Scientists have different theories to try to explain the cause, including an ... Other symptoms caused from chronic skin irritation Painful urination (peeing) due to urine flowing over irritated skin ...

  3. Lichen planus

    MedlinePlus

    Mouth sores are one symptom of lichen planus. They: May be tender or painful (mild cases may not ... the area and make eating more comfortable (for mouth sores) Topical corticosteroids or oral corticosteroids to reduce swelling ...

  4. The Magnetic Properties of Lichens Exposed Around a Cement Plant in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Aldo; Paoli, Luca; Guttová, Anna; Loppi, Stefano; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    A cement industry is a source of dust pollution, from quarrying and grinding of the raw material to kiln operations. Airborne pollutants related to combustion processes are also emitted, especially during kiln operations and power generation. The use of biomonitors can provide valuable information about the impact of airborne pollutants released during cement production and lichens are suitable bioindicators of air pollution, providing reliable information on the quality of the environment. We investigated the magnetic hysteresis properties and the elemental concentrations of epiphytic lichens from selected sites (a cement mill, two quarries, agricultural areas, and villages) in SW Slovakia; in particular, both transplanted and in situ lichens, bark, soil and rock samples from the sampling sites, as well as pre-transplant samples have been characterized. Evernia prunastri transplants, exposed up to 180 days, showed excellent correlations between the saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs) values and the Fe concentrations; the analyzed samples were magnetically homogeneous, with marked differences only for the sample from a basalt quarry. Xanthoria parietina autochthonous samples have also a similar magnetic mineralogy; anyway their Ms and Mrs values were two orders of magnitude higher with respect to those from the transplants, implying increased concentration of magnetic particles according to the different lichen species and to the prolonged exposure. Magnetic methods can be valuable for discriminating various natural and anthropogenic sources of dust. In this study, we point out that the magnetic properties may also reflect the influence of the basalt quarry activity, of the soil and of the bedrock. For a proper evaluation of the pollution related to human activities, it is thus essential to verify the nature of the substrate and to select suitable and homogeneous pre/post lichen transplant sites.

  5. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the Albanian Alps (Kosovo, Montenegro)

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Eva A.; Hafellner, Josef; Stešević, Danijela; Geci, Fehmi; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    396 taxa (381 species) of lichenized and 45 species of lichenicolous fungi from the upper montane, subalpine and alpine belts of the Albanian Alps (= Prokletije Mountain Range, Bjeshkët e Nemuna) are presented. 92 lichenized and 26 lichenicolous fungi are new to Montenegro, 165 lichenized and 24 lichenicolous fungi are new to Kosovo, and 25 lichenized fungi (23 species) are new for the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26869727

  6. Rainforest air-conditioning: the moderating influence of epiphytes on the microclimate in tropical tree crowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuntz, Sabine; Simon, Ulrich; Zotz, Gerhard

    2002-05-01

    Epiphytes are often assumed to influence the microclimatic conditions of the tree crowns that they inhabit. In order to quantify this notion, we measured the parameters "temperature" (of the substrate surface and the boundary layer of air above it), "evaporative drying rate" and "evapotranspiration" at various locations within tree crowns with differing epiphyte assemblages. The host tree species was Annona glabra, which was either populated by one of three epiphyte species ( Dimerandra emarginata, Tillandsia fasciculata, or Vriesea sanguinolenta) or was epiphyte-free. We found that during the hottest and driest time of day, microsites in the immediate proximity of epiphytes had significantly lower temperatures than epiphyte-bare locations within the same tree crown, even though the latter were also shaded by host tree foliage or branches. Moreover, water loss through evaporative drying at microsites adjacent to epiphytes was almost 20% lower than at exposed microsites. We also found that, over the course of several weeks, the evapotranspiration in tree crowns bearing epiphytes was significantly lower than in trees without epiphytes. Although the influence of epiphytes on temperature extremes and evaporation rates is relatively subtle, their mitigating effect could be of importance for small animals like arthropods inhabiting an environment as harsh and extreme as the tropical forest canopy.

  7. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Knežević, Branka; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 169 published sources. The lichen mycota as currently known from Montenegro includes 681 species (with eight subspecies, nine varieties and one form) of lichenized fungi, 12 species of lichenicolous fungi, and nine non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:21423858

  8. Distribution of vascular epiphytes along a tropical elevational gradient: disentangling abiotic and biotic determinants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Guangfu; Zang, Runguo; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Xinghui; Huang, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytic vascular plants are common species in humid tropical forests. Epiphytes are influenced by abiotic and biotic variables, but little is known about the relative importance of direct and indirect effects on epiphyte distribution. We surveyed 70 transects (10 m × 50 m) along an elevation gradient (180 m-1521 m) and sampled all vascular epiphytes and trees in a typical tropical forest on Hainan Island, south China. The direct and indirect effects of abiotic factors (climatic and edaphic) and tree community characteristics on epiphytes species diversity were examined. The abundance and richness of vascular epiphytes generally showed a unimodal curve with elevation and reached maximum value at ca. 1300 m. The species composition in transects from high elevation (above 1200 m) showed a more similar assemblage. Climate explained the most variation in epiphytes species diversity followed by tree community characteristics and soil features. Overall, climate (relative humidity) and tree community characteristics (tree size represented by basal area) had the strongest direct effects on epiphyte diversity while soil variables (soil water content and available phosphorus) mainly had indirect effects. Our study suggests that air humidity is the most important abiotic while stand basal area is the most important biotic determinants of epiphyte diversity along the tropical elevational gradient. PMID:26796667

  9. Distribution of vascular epiphytes along a tropical elevational gradient: disentangling abiotic and biotic determinants

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Guangfu; Zang, Runguo; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Xinghui; Huang, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytic vascular plants are common species in humid tropical forests. Epiphytes are influenced by abiotic and biotic variables, but little is known about the relative importance of direct and indirect effects on epiphyte distribution. We surveyed 70 transects (10 m × 50 m) along an elevation gradient (180 m–1521 m) and sampled all vascular epiphytes and trees in a typical tropical forest on Hainan Island, south China. The direct and indirect effects of abiotic factors (climatic and edaphic) and tree community characteristics on epiphytes species diversity were examined. The abundance and richness of vascular epiphytes generally showed a unimodal curve with elevation and reached maximum value at ca. 1300 m. The species composition in transects from high elevation (above 1200 m) showed a more similar assemblage. Climate explained the most variation in epiphytes species diversity followed by tree community characteristics and soil features. Overall, climate (relative humidity) and tree community characteristics (tree size represented by basal area) had the strongest direct effects on epiphyte diversity while soil variables (soil water content and available phosphorus) mainly had indirect effects. Our study suggests that air humidity is the most important abiotic while stand basal area is the most important biotic determinants of epiphyte diversity along the tropical elevational gradient. PMID:26796667

  10. Quantifying the influence of small omnivorous fishes on seagrass epiphyte load.

    PubMed

    Gilby, B L; Henderson, C J; Tibbetts, I R; Burfeind, D D

    2016-09-01

    The influence of two cryptic, seagrass-inhabiting omnivorous fishes, the fan-bellied leatherjacket Monacanthus chinensis and the variable sabretoothed blenny Petroscirtes variabilis, on seagrass epiphyte biomass are described. Overall, M. chinensis significantly reduced epiphyte biomass by 35·1% after 18 h in experimental aquaria, whilst P. variabilis showed a non-significant 15·7% reduction. It is concluded that some cryptic omnivorous species play an important role in epiphyte removal in seagrass beds. PMID:27456225

  11. Epiphyte response to drought and experimental warming in an Andean cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Joshua M; Silman, Miles R

    2014-01-01

    The high diversity and abundance of vascular epiphytes in tropical montane cloud forest is associated with frequent cloud immersion, which is thought to protect plants from drought stress. Increasing temperature and rising cloud bases associated with climate change may increase epiphyte drought stress, leading to species and biomass loss. We tested the hypothesis that warmer and drier conditions associated with a lifting cloud base will lead to increased mortality and/or decreased recruitment of epiphyte ramets, altering species composition in epiphyte mats. By using a reciprocal transplant design, where epiphyte mats were transplanted across an altitudinal gradient of increasing cloud immersion, we differentiated between the effects of warmer and drier conditions from the more general prediction of niche theory that transplanting epiphytes in any direction away from their home elevation should result in reduced performance. Effects differed among species, but effects were generally stronger and more negative for epiphytes in mats transplanted down slope from the highest elevation, into warmer and drier conditions, than for epiphyte mats transplanted from other elevations. In contrast, epiphytes from lower elevations showed greater resistance to drought in all treatments. Epiphyte community composition changed with elevation, but over the timescale of the experiment there were no consistent changes in species composition. Our results suggest some epiphytes may show resistance to climate change depending on the environmental and evolutionary context. In particular, sites where high rainfall makes cloud immersion less important for epiphyte water-balance, or where occasional drought has previously selected for drought-resistant taxa, may be less adversely affected by predicted climate changes. PMID:25165534

  12. Epiphyte response to drought and experimental warming in an Andean cloud forest

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Joshua M.; Silman, Miles R.

    2014-01-01

    The high diversity and abundance of vascular epiphytes in tropical montane cloud forest is associated with frequent cloud immersion, which is thought to protect plants from drought stress. Increasing temperature and rising cloud bases associated with climate change may increase epiphyte drought stress, leading to species and biomass loss. We tested the hypothesis that warmer and drier conditions associated with a lifting cloud base will lead to increased mortality and/or decreased recruitment of epiphyte ramets, altering species composition in epiphyte mats. By using a reciprocal transplant design, where epiphyte mats were transplanted across an altitudinal gradient of increasing cloud immersion, we differentiated between the effects of warmer and drier conditions from the more general prediction of niche theory that transplanting epiphytes in any direction away from their home elevation should result in reduced performance. Effects differed among species, but effects were generally stronger and more negative for epiphytes in mats transplanted down slope from the highest elevation, into warmer and drier conditions, than for epiphyte mats transplanted from other elevations. In contrast, epiphytes from lower elevations showed greater resistance to drought in all treatments. Epiphyte community composition changed with elevation, but over the timescale of the experiment there were no consistent changes in species composition. Our results suggest some epiphytes may show resistance to climate change depending on the environmental and evolutionary context. In particular, sites where high rainfall makes cloud immersion less important for epiphyte water-balance, or where occasional drought has previously selected for drought-resistant taxa, may be less adversely affected by predicted climate changes. PMID:25165534

  13. Lichens from Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Island, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Thomson, J.W.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Schofield, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    One hundred eighty-eight taxa of lichens are reported from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands of southwestern Alaska. Wide-ranging arctic-alpine and boreal species dominate the lichens; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. The lichen component of Empetrum nigrum dwarf shrub heath, the dominant vegetation type, was analyzed to identify the most frequently occurring lichens within this community.

  14. Atmospheric deposition inputs and effects on lichen chemistry and indicator species in the Columbia River Gorge, USA.

    PubMed

    Fenn, M E; Geiser, L; Bachman, R; Blubaugh, T J; Bytnerowicz, A

    2007-03-01

    Topographic and meteorological conditions make the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) an 'exhaust pipe' for air pollutants generated by the Portland-Vancouver metropolis and Columbia Basin. We sampled fog, bulk precipitation, throughfall, airborne particulates, lichen thalli, and nitrophytic lichen distribution. Throughfall N and S deposition were high, 11.5-25.4 and 3.4-6.7 kg ha(-1) over 4.5 months at all 9 and 4/9 sites, respectively. Deposition and lichen thallus N were highest at eastern- and western-most sites, implicating both agricultural and urban sources. Fog and precipitation pH were frequently as low as 3.7-5.0. Peak NO(x), NH(3), and SO(2) concentrations in the eastern CRG were low, suggesting enhanced N and S inputs were largely from particulate deposition. Lichens indicating nitrogen-enriched environments were abundant and lichen N and S concentrations were 2x higher in the CRG than surrounding national forests. The atmospheric deposition levels detected likely threaten Gorge ecosystems and cultural resources. PMID:16904250

  15. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    PubMed

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant. PMID:26728733

  16. Mollusc grazing may constrain the ecological niche of the old forest lichen Pseudocyphellaria crocata.

    PubMed

    Gauslaa, Y

    2008-11-01

    This study reports on mollusc grazing of two epiphytic cyanobacterial lichens (Pseudocyphellaria crocata and Lobaria pulmonaria) transplanted within three Picea abies-dominated boreal rain forest stands (clear-cut, young and old forests) in west central Norway. Grazing was particularly high in transplants located in the old forest and was almost absent in clear-cut transplants. Grazing marks were absent on natural thalli on nearby spruce twigs (required creeping distance for mollusc from the ground >4 m). Transplantation of lichens from twigs to artificial transplantation frames reduced the creeping distance to 1.2 m, and caused a significant increase in grazing damage in P. crocata. Given a paired choice under transplantation, molluscs consistently preferred P. crocata and avoided L. pulmonaria, implying species-specific differences in herbivore defence. Pseudocyphellaria crocata has a much lower content of the medullary depsidones stictic and constictic acid than L. pulmonaria. Heavy grazing occurred in the P. crocata thalli lowest in these two depsidones. The upper part of the medulla hosting the photobiont was the preferred fodder for grazing molluscs. Molluscs avoided the yellow soralia in P. crocata (localised pulvinic acid), suggesting a role for pulvinic acid in preventing grazing of detached soredia and early establishment stages. The preference of P. crocata for thin spruce twigs is probably a result of a lower grazing pressure on twigs compared to e.g. deciduous stems that frequently support the better defended L. pulmonaria. Ongoing climate changes with increased annual rainfall and milder winters have presumably increased mollusc grazing, particularly in SW parts of Norway which have more species of lichen-feeding molluscs than the boreal sites studied. These temperate areas lacking natural spruce populations have recently experienced reported extinctions of the poorly defended P. crocata from rocks and deciduous stems prone to mollusc grazing. Lichen

  17. Host use of a specialist lichen-feeder: dealing with lichen secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Pöykkö, Heikki; Backor, Martin; Bencúrová, Elena; Molcanová, Viktoria; Backorová, Miriam; Hyvärinen, Marko

    2010-10-01

    Host use by herbivores is largely determined by host properties such as nutrient content and chemical defence against foragers. The impacts of these attributes on a herbivore may largely depend on its life cycle stage. Lichen species are known to differ in nutritional quality and level of chemical defence and, consequently, vary as fodder for herbivores. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of several lichen species and the presence of their secondary metabolites on their use as hosts by a specialist lichen-feeder, Cleorodes lichenaria. This study also addressed, for the first time, how a specialist lichen-feeder deals with different lichen secondary metabolites. In the beginning of their development, larvae grew better on Xanthoria parietina than on the other host lichens, whereas older larvae grew best on Ramalina fraxinea. Lichen secondary chemicals in R. fraxinea and Parmelia sulcata hindered larval growth in the beginning but after 75 days lichen secondary chemicals had no impact on the mass of larvae. Physodic acids in Hypogymnia physodes were lethal to larvae. In general, larvae metabolized 70-95% of ingested lichen secondary chemicals and the rest of these were excreted in frass. Lichen secondary metabolites in P. sulcata restrict and in H. physodes prevent their use as a host for C. lichenaria larvae. Our main finding, the ability of larvae to metabolize several lichen secondary metabolites, indicates digestive adaptation to these chemicals. No signs of sequestration of these chemicals were found. PMID:20585810

  18. Epiphytes as an Indicator of Climate Change in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettwich, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Although climate change threatens many ecosystems, current research in this field suggests tropical vegetation lags in response. Epiphytes, or arboreal vegetation, occupy tight, climate-defined niches compared with co-occurring life forms such as trees, yet there have been few studies of Hawaii's epiphyte communities. Because of Hawaii Island's natural climatic diversity, it is an ideal location to understand how these intrinsically climate sensitive plants interact with the atmosphere and evaluate how they may serve as a near-term indicator of climate change. Here we establish a baseline from which changes in corticolous epiphyte communities can be monitored as a leading indicator of likely forest changes by 1) investigating patterns of epiphyte abundance and species composition across elevation and precipitation gradients on windward Hawaii Island, and 2) using physiological measurements to investigate the relative importance of rain vs. fog in epiphyte-atmosphere interactions. The precipitation gradient keeps elevation constant at 1000m, while varying precipitation between 2,400 and 6,400 mm/year. The elevation gradient keeps rainfall constant at 3000mm/year, and varies elevation between 200 and 1750 m. Forest sites are dominated by Ohia Lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) across broad geographic and climatological ranges thus allowing examination of epiphytes on this single host. We quantified bryophytes and vascular plants growing on Ohia trunks with standardized diameter and branching characteristics. Overall, epiphyte communities showed much finer scale responses to climate variation when compared with structurally dominant vegetation (which was broadly similar at all sites). The precipitation gradient exhibits a clear increase in abundance of all epiphyte groups and a definable increase in diversity with increasing rainfall. Results across the elevation gradient show a higher abundance of filmy ferns and bryophytes above the lifting condensation level (about

  19. Exploring symbiont management in lichens.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Spribille, Toby

    2012-07-01

    Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures. The myriad intersections of unique fungal species with photosynthetic partner organisms (green algae in 90% of lichens) produce a wide variety of diverse shapes and colours of the fully synthesized lichen thallus when growing in nature. This characteristic complex morphology is, however, not achieved in the fungal axenic state. Even under ideal environmental conditions, the lichen life cycle faces considerable odds: first, meiotic spores are only produced on well-established thalli and often only after achieving considerable age in a stable environment, and second, even then in vivo resynthesis requires the presence of compatible algal strains where fungal spores germinate. Many lichen species have evolved a way around the resynthesis bottleneck by producing asexual propagules for joint propagation of symbionts. These different dispersal strategies ostensibly shape the population genetic structure of lichen symbioses, but the relative contributions of vertical (joint) and horizontal (independent) symbiont transmission have long eluded lichen evolutionary biologists. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dal Grande et al. (2012) close in on this question with the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria, a flagship species in the conservation of old growth forests. By capitalizing on available microsatellite markers for both fungal and algal symbionts, they show that while vertical transmission is the predominant mode of reproduction, horizontal transmission is demonstrable and actively shapes population genetic structure. The resulting mixed propagation system is a highly successful balance of safe recruitment of symbiotic clones and endless possibilities for fungal recombination and symbiont shuffling. PMID:22916345

  20. Not rare. But, endangered Elemental profiles of three corticolous lichen species on red spruce in Maine. [Usnea subfloridana; Platismatia glauca; Hypogymnia physodes

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, C.S.; Homola, R.H. )

    1990-01-01

    Usnea subfloridana Stirton, Platismatia glauca (L.) Club. and Club., and Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. are lichen species moderately to highly sensitive to air pollutants, including acid deposition and ozone. Some researchers have attributed depauperate populations and local extinctions of these species to poor air quality. Since 1985, areas of Maine annually experienced mean summer rain and fog events of pH 4.5 or lower and ozone levels above national standards. Given this possible threat to these and other pollution sensitive species, baseline elemental analyses for Ca, K, P, Mg, Al, B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, N, S, Na, and Pb were performed in 1986 on coastal and inland populations on Picea rubens L. Elemental analyses were again performed on nontransplanted and transplanted lichens from the same populations in 1988. There were statistically significant differences in elemental profiles between nontransplanted 1986 and 1988 samples for all three species, such as significant decreases in Ca and Mg concentrations, and increases in Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn for U. subfloridana. Elemental concentrations between nontransplanted and transplanted material differed significantly, but no consistent pattern emerged. These results, coupled with other evidence (such as luxuriance and density ratings), suggest that both inland and coastal populations of U. subfloridana on red spruce are experiencing ecophysiological stress.

  1. The importance of old deciduous trees and wooden fences for lichen diversity – an example from the Teichalm area (Eastern Alps)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter Othmar

    2016-01-01

    BILOVITZ, P. O. 2014. The importance of old deciduous trees and wooden fences for lichen diversity – an example from the Teichalm area (Eastern Alps). – Herzogia 27: 199 –204. The investigation of the epiphytic lichen diversity on four neighbouring old, isolated deciduous trees and a wooden fence in the Teichalm area yielded 74 lichen taxa and 4 lichenicolous fungi. Anaptychia ciliaris, Cyphelium notarisii, Ramalina fastigiata and R. fraxinea are remarkable records. The usually sterile lichen Thelomma ocellatum was rich in fertile thalli. The known lichen diversity of the Teichalm-Sommeralm region increases from 87 to 122 taxa.

  2. Phylogenetic placement, species delimitation, and cyanobiont identity of endangered aquatic Peltigera species (lichen-forming Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes).

    PubMed

    Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Richardson, David; Magain, Nicolas; Ball, Bernard; Anderson, Frances; Cameron, Robert; Lendemer, James; Truong, Camille; Lutzoni, François

    2014-07-11

    • Premise of this study: Aquatic cyanolichens from the genus Peltigera section Hydrothyriae are subject to anthropogenic threats and, therefore, are considered endangered. In this study we addressed the phylogenetic placement of section Hydrothyriae within Peltigera. We delimited species within the section and identified their symbiotic cyanobacteria.• Methods: Species delimitation and population structure were explored using monophyly as a grouping criterion (RAxML) and Structurama based on three protein-coding genes in combination with two nuclear ribosomal loci. The 16S and rbcLX sequences for the cyanobionts were analyzed in the broad phylogenetic context of free-living and symbiotic cyanobacteria.• Key results: We confirm with high confidence the placement of section Hydrothyriae within the monophyletic genus Peltigera; however, its phylogenetic position within the genus remains unsettled. We recovered three distinct monophyletic groups corresponding to three species: P. hydrothyria, P. gowardii s.s., and P. aquatica Miadl. & Lendemer, the latter being formally introduced here. Each species was associated with an exclusive set of Nostoc haplotypes.• Conclusions: The ITS region alone provides sufficient genetic information to distinguish the three morphologically cryptic species within section Hydrothyriae. Section Hydrothyriae seems to be associated with a monophyletic lineage of Nostoc, that has not been found in symbiotic association with other members of Peltigera. Capsosira lowei should be transferred to the genus Nostoc. Potential threats to P. aquatica should be re-examined based on the recognition of two aquatic species in western North America. PMID:25016011

  3. Phylogeography of Ramalina menziesii, a widely distributed lichen-forming fungus in western North America.

    PubMed

    Sork, Victoria L; Werth, Silke

    2014-05-01

    The complex topography and climate history of western North America offer a setting where lineage formation, accumulation and migration have led to elevated inter- and intraspecific biodiversity in many taxa. Here, we study Ramalina menziesii, an epiphytic lichenized fungus with a range encompassing major ecosystems from Baja California to Alaska to explore the predictions of two hypotheses: (i) that the widespread distribution of R. menziesii is due to a single migration episode from a single lineage and (ii) that the widespread distribution is due to the formation and persistence of multiple lineages structured throughout the species' range. To obtain evidence for these predictions, we first construct a phylogenetic tree and identify multiple lineages structured throughout the species' range--some ancient ones that are localized and other more recent lineages that are widely distributed. Second, we use an isolation with migration model to show that sets of ecoregion populations diverged from each other at different times, demonstrating the importance of historical and current barriers to gene flow. Third, we estimated migration rates among ecoregions and find that Baja California populations are relatively isolated, that inland California ecoregion populations do not send out emigrants and that migration out of California coastal and Pacific Northwest populations into inland California ecoregions is high. Such intraspecific geographical patterns of population persistence and dispersal both contribute to the wide range of this genetically diverse lichen fungus and provide insight into the evolutionary processes that enhance species diversity of the California Floristic Province. PMID:24673777

  4. Lichens: unexpected anti-prion agents?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bennett, James P.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than 20 lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  5. Esophageal lichen planus*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Janine Pichler; Uribe, Natalia Caballero; Abulafia, Luna Azulay; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. Esophageal lichen planus is a rarely reported manifestation of lichen planus, presenting itself commonly in middle-aged women, with symptoms such as dysphagia. We report a case of esophageal lichen planus in a 54-year-old woman associated with oral, cutaneous and ungual lichen planus. Although lichen planus is a disorder well known by dermatologists, reports of esophageal lichen planus are rare in dermatologic literature. The esophageal lichen planus is little known and underdiagnosed, with a significant delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. PMID:26131872

  6. Vascular Epiphyte Diversity Differs with Host Crown Zone and Diameter, but Not Orientation in a Tropical Cloud Forest

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xixi; Long, Wenxing; Schamp, Brandon S.; Yang, Xiaobo; Kang, Yong; Xie, Zhixu; Xiong, Menghui

    2016-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are important components of biological diversity in tropical forests. We measured the species richness and abundance of vascular epiphytes along four vertical crown zones and five horizontal orientations on 376 trees, as well as the diameter at breast height (DBH) of host trees in tropical cloud forests in Bawangling, Hainan, China. The relationship between vascular epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH was assessed using a generalized linear model. There were 1,453 vascular individual epiphytes attributed to 9 families, 24 genera and 35 species, with orchids and pteridophytes dominating. Both the species richness and abundance of epiphytes significantly differed among the four crown zones for all collections and each host tree, suggesting that vertical microhabitats contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Neither epiphyte abundance nor species richness differed among the eastern, southern, western, and northern orientations for all host trees; however, both richness and abundance were significantly higher for epiphytes that encircled host tree trunks. This suggests that morphological and physiological characteristics of the tree, but not microclimates probably contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Epiphyte species richness was positively correlated with tree DBH across the six host tree species studied, with increases in DBH among smaller trees resulting in larger increases in richness, while increases in DBH among larger host trees resulting in more modest increases in ephiphyte richness. Our findings contribute support for a positive relationship between epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH and provide important guidance for future surveys of epiphyte community development. PMID:27391217

  7. Vascular Epiphyte Diversity Differs with Host Crown Zone and Diameter, but Not Orientation in a Tropical Cloud Forest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xixi; Long, Wenxing; Schamp, Brandon S; Yang, Xiaobo; Kang, Yong; Xie, Zhixu; Xiong, Menghui

    2016-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are important components of biological diversity in tropical forests. We measured the species richness and abundance of vascular epiphytes along four vertical crown zones and five horizontal orientations on 376 trees, as well as the diameter at breast height (DBH) of host trees in tropical cloud forests in Bawangling, Hainan, China. The relationship between vascular epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH was assessed using a generalized linear model. There were 1,453 vascular individual epiphytes attributed to 9 families, 24 genera and 35 species, with orchids and pteridophytes dominating. Both the species richness and abundance of epiphytes significantly differed among the four crown zones for all collections and each host tree, suggesting that vertical microhabitats contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Neither epiphyte abundance nor species richness differed among the eastern, southern, western, and northern orientations for all host trees; however, both richness and abundance were significantly higher for epiphytes that encircled host tree trunks. This suggests that morphological and physiological characteristics of the tree, but not microclimates probably contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Epiphyte species richness was positively correlated with tree DBH across the six host tree species studied, with increases in DBH among smaller trees resulting in larger increases in richness, while increases in DBH among larger host trees resulting in more modest increases in ephiphyte richness. Our findings contribute support for a positive relationship between epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH and provide important guidance for future surveys of epiphyte community development. PMID:27391217

  8. Coalescent-Based Species Delimitation Approach Uncovers High Cryptic Diversity in the Cosmopolitan Lichen-Forming Fungal Genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Otte, Jürgen; Leavitt, Steven D.; Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Crespo, Ana; Rico, Víctor J.; Aptroot, André; Cáceres, Marcela Eugenia da Silva; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2015-01-01

    Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal -arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the phylogeny of 18 species currently assigned to this genus based on 160 specimens and six markers: mtSSU, nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7, and TSR1. We assessed the circumscription of species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. using two coalescent-based species delimitation methods – BP&P and spedeSTEM. Our results suggest the presence of a tropical and an extra-tropical lineage, and eleven previously unrecognized distinct species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. Several cryptic lineages were discovered as compared to phenotype-based species delimitation. Many of the putative species are supported by geographic evidence. PMID:25932996

  9. Coalescent-based species delimitation approach uncovers high cryptic diversity in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Divakar, Pradeep K; Otte, Jürgen; Leavitt, Steven D; Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Crespo, Ana; Rico, Víctor J; Aptroot, André; Cáceres, Marcela Eugenia da Silva; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2015-01-01

    Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal-arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the phylogeny of 18 species currently assigned to this genus based on 160 specimens and six markers: mtSSU, nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7, and TSR1. We assessed the circumscription of species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. using two coalescent-based species delimitation methods--BP&P and spedeSTEM. Our results suggest the presence of a tropical and an extra-tropical lineage, and eleven previously unrecognized distinct species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. Several cryptic lineages were discovered as compared to phenotype-based species delimitation. Many of the putative species are supported by geographic evidence. PMID:25932996

  10. Lichens of Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, westernmost Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Thomson, J.W.; Schofield, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred eighty-two taxa of lichens including two lichen parasites are reported from Izembek National Wildlife Refuge on the tip of the Alaska Peninsula. Metasphaeria tartarina is new to North America; Scoliciosporum umbrinum is new to Alaska. Wide-ranging, arctic-alpine, and boreal species dominate the lichen flora; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. Epigeic lichen abundance is described along a lowland to alpine mesotopographic gradient selected to represent major landscape variation in the refuge. Of six major community types identified, three had significant lichen components.

  11. Loss of Lecanora conizaeoides and other fluctuations of epiphytes on oak in S.E. England over 21 years with declining SO 2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, J. W.; Bell, J. N. B.; Massara, A. C.

    Epiphytic lichens and algae were studied on the bark of mature, free-standing Quercus robur L. at five stations along a transect extending S.S.W. for nearly 70 km into rural Sussex from central London. Percentage cover data for the epiphytes was recorded annually over the period 1979-1999 at chest height (1500 mm) and on the trunk base (450 mm). Data from the nearest pollution monitoring stations in the UK network show that SO 2 concentrations have declined at all transect stations, but particularly dramatically at the three inner sites (Kensington Gardens, Putney Heath, Epsom Common). The crustose lichen Lecanora conizaeoides, initially almost ubiquitous on oak bark at Epsom Common and once frequent at all but the innermost site, had declined and is now extinct at the four outer stations. However, it had recently appeared on oak bases in Kensington Gardens, the only station to retain appreciable SO 2 levels. Lepraria incana agg. had increased progressively at all sites with the decline of SO 2. 'Green alga', probably Desmococcus viridis, had also increased with declining importance of SO 2, although there was evidence that it was the most SO 2-tolerant of the three epiphytes. Its abundance at the urban stations is possibly connected with their high NO x concentrations. Hypogymnia physodes was the most common macrolichen but only occurred in significant quantities at the two outer sites (Hesworth Common, Holmwood Common). It too had shown a significant decline with falling SO 2 levels. No significant re-colonization of formally polluted sites by SO 2-sensitive macrolichens had been noted during 21 years of study, probably because of the high acidity of oak bark and elevated NO x in inner London. The loss of L. conizaeoides supports the hypothesis that this species requires elevated SO 2 inputs (or some closely related chemical factor) for healthy growth, but competitive interactions with the other epiphytes and attacks by the parasitic fungus Athelia arachnoidea

  12. UV-C tolerance of symbiotic Trebouxia sp. in the space-tested lichen species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Circinaria gyrosa: role of the hydration state and cortex/screening substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Meeßen, Joachim; del Carmen Ruiz, M.; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Ott, Sieglinde; Vílchez, Carlos; Horneck, Gerda; Sadowsky, Andres; de la Torre, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the survival capacity of extremotolerant lichens when facing harsh conditions, including those of outer space or of simulated Martian environment. For further progress, a deeper study on the physiological mechanisms is needed that confer the unexpected levels of resistance detected on these symbiotic organisms. In this work, the response of the lichenized green algae Trebouxia sp. (a predominant lichen photobiont) to increasing doses of UV-C radiation is studied. UV-C (one of the most lethal factors to be found in space together with vacuum and cosmic-ionizing radiation with high atomic number and energy (HZE) particles) has been applied in the present experiments up to a maximum dose analogue to 67 days in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For that purpose we selected two extremotolerant and space-tested lichen species in which Trebouxia sp. is the photosynthetic partner: the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum and the fruticose lichen Circinaria gyrosa. In order to evaluate the effect of the physiological state of the lichen thallus (active when wet and dormant when dry) and of protective structures (cortex and photoprotective pigments) on the resistance of the photobiont to UV-C, four different experimental conditions were tested: (1) dry intact samples, (2) wet intact samples, (3) dry samples without cortex/acetone-rinsed and (4) wet samples without cortex/acetone-rinsed. After irradiation and a 72 hours period of recovery, the influence of UV-C on the two lichen's photobiont under each experimental approach was assessed by two complimentary methods: (1) By determining the photosystem II (PSII) activity in three successive 24 hours intervals (Mini-PAM fluorometer) to investigate the overall state of the photosynthetic process and the resilience of Trebouxia sp. (2) By performing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-quantification of four essential photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b,

  13. Testing the use of ITS rDNA and protein-coding genes in the generic and species delimitation of the lichen genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Truong, Camille; Divakar, Pradeep K; Yahr, Rebecca; Crespo, Ana; Clerc, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    In lichen-forming fungi, traditional taxonomical concepts are frequently in conflict with molecular data, and identifying appropriate taxonomic characters to describe phylogenetic clades remains challenging in many groups. The selection of suitable markers for the reconstruction of solid phylogenetic hypotheses is therefore fundamental. The lichen genus Usnea is highly diverse, with more than 350 estimated species, distributed in polar, temperate and tropical regions. The phylogeny and classification of Usnea have been a matter of debate, given the lack of phenotypic characters to describe phylogenetic clades and the low degree of resolution of phylogenetic trees. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of 52 Usnea species from across the genus, based on ITS rDNA, nuLSU, and two protein-coding genes RPB1 and MCM7. ITS comprised several highly variable regions, containing substantial genetic signal, but also susceptible to causing bias in the generation of the alignment. We compared several methods of alignment of ITS and found that a simultaneous optimization of alignment and phylogeny (using BAli-phy) improved significantly both the topology and the resolution of the phylogenetic tree. However the resolution was even better when using protein-coding genes, especially RPB1 although it is less variable. The phylogeny based on the concatenated dataset revealed that the genus Usnea is subdivided into four highly-supported clades, corresponding to the traditionally circumscribed subgenera Eumitria, Dolichousnea, Neuropogon and Usnea. However, characters that have been used to describe these clades are often homoplasious within the phylogeny and their parallel evolution is suggested. On the other hand, most of the species were reconstructed as monophyletic, indicating that combinations of phenotypic characters are suitable discriminators for delimitating species, but are inadequate to describe generic subdivisions. PMID:23603312

  14. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature. PMID:26342621

  15. Toxicity of Iceland lichen and reindeer lichen.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, M M; Peura, P; Antere, S

    1986-01-01

    Iceland lichen (Cetraria islandica) is sold in health food stores to prevent various disorders. In olden times it and sometimes also reindeer lichen (Cladonia sp.) have been used as emergency food. Lichen contains bitter and potentially toxic lichen acids and it also concentrates heavy metals. Therefore lichen toxicity was studied with traditional pretreatment methods (boiling, ash-soaking or both). Untreated and only shortly boiled lichens were lethally toxic to mice in 50 and 25% w/w mixtures in food, but when ash-soaking was added mice tolerated Cetraria (but not Cladonia) reasonably well for 3 weeks. In a 3 month test in rats 25% mixture of Cladonia was tolerated well and blood tests were normal at the end. However, urinary protein was increased, the autopsies revealed kidney changes corresponding to a mild heavy metal poisoning, as the lead concentrations in kidney and lichen were high. PMID:3468923

  16. Contributions to the Foliicolous Lichens Flora of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Oh, Soon Ok; Lücking, Robert; Joshi, Santosh; Kim, Jung A; Park, Jung-Shin

    2013-01-01

    South Korea is covered primarily by temperate vegetation; therefore, foliicolous lichens may not be expected to play an important role in its lichen flora. However, this study describes four foliicolous lichen species, Strigula concreta, S. macrocarpa, S. melanobapha, and S. subelegans, which are new to South Korea. These findings will lead to further research on foliicolous lichens and provide a better understanding of their distribution within the East Asian region. This is the first detailed report on foliicolous lichens and their distribution in South Korea. PMID:24493940

  17. Prolonging the hydration and active metabolism from light periods into nights substantially enhances lichen growth.

    PubMed

    Bidussi, Massimo; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates how hydration during light and dark periods influences growth in two epiphytic old forest lichens, the green algal Lobaria pulmonaria and the cyanobacterial L. scrobiculata. The lichens were cultivated in growth chambers for 14 days (200 μmol m(-1) s(-2); 12 h photoperiod) at four temperature regimes (25/20 °C, 21/16 °C, 13/8 °C, and 6/1 °C; day/night temperatures) and two hydration regimes (12 h day-time hydration; 12 h day-time + 12 h night-time hydration). Growth was highly dynamic, showing that short-term growth experiments in growth cabinets have a high, but largely unexplored potential in functional lichen studies. The highest measured growth rates were not far from the maximal dry matter gain estimated from published net photosynthetic CO2 uptake data. For the entire data set, photobiont type, temperature, hydration regime and specific thallus mass accounted for 46.6 % of the variation in relative growth rate (RGR). Both species showed substantially higher relative growth rates based on both biomass (RGR) and thallus area (RTAGR) when they were hydrated day and night compared to hydration in light only. Chronic photoinhibition was substantial in thalli hydrated only during the day time and kept at the highest and lowest temperature regimes, resulting in exponential increases in RGR with increasing maximal PSII efficiency (F v/F m) in both species. However, the depression in F v/F m was stronger for the cyanolichen than for the cephalolichen at extreme temperatures. The growth-stimulating effect of night-time hydration suggests that nocturnal metabolic activity improves recovery of photoinhibition and/or enhances the conversion rate of photosynthates into thallus extension. PMID:23389675

  18. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Stefanie; Wedin, Mats; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Weber, Bettina; Grube, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) seal the soil surface from erosive forces in many habitats where plants cannot compete. Lichens symbioses of fungi and algae often form significant fraction of these microbial assemblages. In addition to the fungal symbiont, many species of other fungi can inhabit the lichenic structures and interact with their hosts in different ways, ranging from commensalism to parasitism. More than 1800 species of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi are known to science. One example is Diploschistes muscorum, a common species in lichen-dominated BSC that infects lichens of the genus Cladonia. D. muscorum starts as a lichenicolous fungus, invading the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Furthermore, bacterial groups, such as Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, have been consistently recovered from lichen thalli and evidence is rapidly accumulating that these microbes may generally play integral roles in the lichen symbiosis. Here we describe lichen microbiome dynamics as the parasitic lichen D. muscorum takes over C. symphycarpa. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing to track bacterial and algal transitions during the infection process, and employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize bacteria in the Cladonia and Diploschistes lichen thalli. We sampled four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany: A) Cladonia with no visible infection, B) early infection stage defined by the first visible Diploschistes thallus, C) late-stage infection with parts of the Cladonia thallus still identifiable, and D) final stage with a fully developed Diploschistes thallus, A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of

  19. Lichens as indicators of the atmosphere state in the oil exploration district of Tomsk Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshunova, Tatiana; Ivan, Podkozlin

    2013-04-01

    Lichens are widespread in the vegetative cover of West Siberia, particularly in the north. They play an important role in the migration and transformation of chemical pollutants. Lichens lack waxy cuticles and are largely dependent on the atmosphere for their water and nutrient uptake. Lichens are not only studied and used as indicators, but also as accumulators, e.g. for trace and heavy metals. In fact, lichens are known for their ability to accumulate airborne substances to concentrations far greater those in the atmosphere, and the element contents of lichen thalli proved to be directly correlated with environmental levels. Monitoring of the atmosphere pollution using lichens is more efficient than that using snow cover. Because of the long lichen life it is possible to obtain persistent mean characteristics of the ecosystems state. Epiphytic lichens, growing on tree stems are more appropriate to use than that which grow on soil. Epiphytic lichens are more sensitive to changes of the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Pollutants penetrate in the lichen thalli from the atmosphere together with precipitations and dust. Moreover the precipitations are saturated with pollutants when going through crowns of trees and trickling down the steams and branches. Lichen studies are especially important in territories subjected to excessive human activity. Because a great part of Tomsk region (West Siberia, Russia) is the territory of the oil-field exploration, there the atmosphere monitoring is a necessary part of the whole environmental monitoring. The aim of this investigation is the estimation of the influence of oil exploration industry in Tomsk region on the atmosphere by means of the study of epiphytic lichens. Lichen samples were collected in August and September 2010-2011. Sampling net included seven areas distributed inside the oil-exploration districts of Tomsk region. In total 27 samples were collected. In these samples 53 chemical elements were detected by

  20. Invertebrate response to nutrient-driven epiphytic load increase in Posidonia oceanica meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castejón-Silvo, Inés; Domínguez, Marta; Terrados, Jorge; Tomas, Fiona; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2012-10-01

    Nutrient increases in coastal systems are becoming a world-wide concern since they promote strong structural and functional changes in shallow ecosystems. Increased nutrient availability in the water column may strongly enhance the leaf epiphytic communities of key habitat-forming species such as seagrasses through a bottom-up mechanism, competing for light and nutrients with the leaves. Epiphytes support an abundant and diverse community of resident invertebrates which fuel higher trophic levels in Posidonia oceanica food webs. We evaluated the response of seagrass, epiphytes and the invertebrate community to an experimental increase of water column nutrient availability. Nutrient increase was followed by a rise of epiphyte biomass. The increase in epiphytic biomass promoted invertebrate abundance, but appeared to have negative effects on P. oceanica shoot size. On the other hand, the increase in invertebrate abundance did not seem to control epiphytic biomass, which was not reversed to pre-nutrient enrichment levels. This work suggests that the abundance of invertebrate populations is limited by epiphyte biomass, through food or habitat provision, in P. oceanica systems and points to nutrients as the main driver of epiphyte biomass during summer. The results illustrate the control mechanisms at community level in P. oceanica meadows and the possible responses of a threatened ecosystem to human impact such as eutrophication.

  1. The spatial and seasonal variation of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Canada, and the association with lichen abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Mark D.; Heal, Mathew R.; Li, Zhengyan; Kuchta, James; King, Gavin H.; Hayes, Alex; Lambert, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    Over 200,000 tourists per year visit Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada. The forests within the park are home to many rare epiphytic lichens, the species diversity of which has declined in some areas. The primary motivation for this study was to gain insight into the concentrations and potential local and long-range sources of air pollution, but its association with lichen species diversity was also examined. Ogawa passive diffusion samplers were used to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the park at 19 sites in the winter and 20 sites in the summer of 2011. An improvement in the sensitivity of the sampler analytical protocol was developed. The mean concentrations in the park of winter and summer NO2 (0.81 and 0.16 ppb) and SO2 (0.24 and 0.21 ppb) are not at levels known to be phytotoxic to lichen. The NO2 concentrations in winter were significantly (p = 0.001) higher than those in summer whilst the SO2 concentrations did not differ significantly between winter and summer (p = 0.429). Highest NO2 concentrations in both seasons were observed in the Grand Anse Valley, presumably due to the steep road, emissions from the Pleasant Bay community at the foot of the valley and the enclosed topography of this area reducing dispersion of primary emissions. The SO2 concentrations in the park tended to be greater at elevated sites than valley sites, consistent with dispersion from long-range, rather than local, sources for this pollutant. Significant predictors in a multilinear regression for an index of air purity (lichen based measure of air quality) were lichen species number (p = 0.009), forest old growth index (p = 0.001) and distance from roads (p < 0.001) (model R2 = 0.8, model p = 0.004). The study suggests that local sources of pollution (roads emissions) are adversely associated with lichen species diversity in this National Park, compared with long-range transport, and that monitoring programs such as a lichen

  2. Lichens survive in space: results from the 2005 LICHENS experiment.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Leopoldo G; de la Torre, Rosa; Horneck, Gerda; Ascaso, Carmen; de Los Rios, Asunción; Pintado, Ana; Wierzchos, J; Schuster, M

    2007-06-01

    This experiment was aimed at establishing, for the first time, the survival capability of lichens exposed to space conditions. In particular, the damaging effect of various wavelengths of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was studied. The lichens used were the bipolar species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, which were collected above 2000 m in the mountains of central Spain and as endolithic communities inhabiting granites in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Lichens were exposed to space in the BIOPAN-5 facility of the European Space Agency; BIOPAN-5 is located on the outer shell of the Earth-orbiting FOTON-M2 Russian satellite. The lichen samples were launched from Baikonur by a Soyuz rocket on May 31, 2005, and were returned to Earth after 16 days in space, at which time they were tested for survival. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used for the measurement of photosynthetic parameters. Scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered mode, low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the organization and composition of both symbionts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, in combination with the use of specific fluorescent probes, allowed for the assessment of the physiological state of the cells. All exposed lichens, regardless of the optical filters used, showed nearly the same photosynthetic activity after the flight as measured before the flight. Likewise, the multimicroscopy approach revealed no detectable ultrastructural changes in most of the algal and fungal cells of the lichen thalli, though a greater proportion of cells in the flight samples had compromised membranes, as revealed by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit. These findings indicate that most lichenized fungal and algal cells can survive in space after full exposure to massive UV and cosmic radiation, conditions proven to be lethal to bacteria and other microorganisms. The lichen upper cortex seems to provide adequate

  3. Lichens Survive in Space: Results from the 2005 LICHENS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Leopoldo G.; de la Torre, Rosa; Horneck, Gerda; Ascaso, Carmen; de los Rios, Asunción; Pintado, Ana; Wierzchos, J.; Schuster, M.

    2007-06-01

    This experiment was aimed at establishing, for the first time, the survival capability of lichens exposed to space conditions. In particular, the damaging effect of various wavelengths of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was studied. The lichens used were the bipolar species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, which were collected above 2000 m in the mountains of central Spain and as endolithic communities inhabiting granites in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Lichens were exposed to space in the BIOPAN-5 facility of the European Space Agency; BIOPAN-5 is located on the outer shell of the Earth-orbiting FOTON-M2 Russian satellite. The lichen samples were launched from Baikonur by a Soyuz rocket on May 31, 2005, and were returned to Earth after 16 days in space, at which time they were tested for survival. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used for the measurement of photosynthetic parameters. Scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered mode, low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the organization and composition of both symbionts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, in combination with the use of specific fluorescent probes, allowed for the assessment of the physiological state of the cells. All exposed lichens, regardless of the optical filters used, showed nearly the same photosynthetic activity after the flight as measured before the flight. Likewise, the multimicroscopy approach revealed no detectable ultrastructural changes in most of the algal and fungal cells of the lichen thalli, though a greater proportion of cells in the flight samples had compromised membranes, as revealed by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit. These findings indicate that most lichenized fungal and algal cells can survive in space after full exposure to massive UV and cosmic radiation, conditions proven to be lethal to bacteria and other microorganisms. The lichen upper cortex seems to provide adequate

  4. [How lichen was translated as Chii].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Teruyuki

    2009-01-01

    Chii, the Japanese term for 'lichen', is widely used in contemporary East Asia. However, precisely when and by whom this term was first used to refer to lichen is not known. In addition, Japanese botanists from the 1880s to the 1950s had doubts regarding whether Chii was an accurate translation of lichen, given that Chii originally referred to moss that grows on the ground, whereas most species of lichens grow on barks of trees or on rocks. In this paper, the author shows that Li Shanlan and A. Williamson et al., in the late Qing dynasty of China, first used the term Chii to refer to lichen in Zhiwuxue, published in 1858. In Japan, Tanaka Yoshio, who was influenced by Zhiwuxue, first used the term Chii in 1872. However, further investigations led to the discovery that ITO Keisuke translated lichen as Risen in 1829. In 1836, UDAGAWA Yoan also translated lichen as Risen by using a different kanji (Chinese character) to represent sen. In 1888, in his article, MIYOSHI Manabu suggested a new equivalent term, Kisoukin, to refer to lichen (algae-parasitized fungi). In the article, he proposed the term Kyosei as the Japanese translation of symbiosis. Ever since the late 1880s, Kyosei has been used as the Japanese biological term for symbiosis. PMID:19824315

  5. Influence of plant species and environmental conditions on epiphytic and endophytic pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacterial populations associated with field-grown rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Sa, Tongmin

    2007-10-01

    The total methylotrophic population associated with rice plants from different cultivars was enumerated at three different stages: vegetative, flowering, and harvesting. The bacterial population in the leaf, rhizosphere soil, endophytic in the stem and roots, and epiphytic in the florets and grains were determined from four rice cultivars, Il-mi, Nam-pyeoung, O-dae, and Dong-jin, sampled from three different field sites. The methylotrophic bacteria isolated on AMS media containing 0.5% methanol as the sole carbon source uniformly showed three distinct morphologies, which were recorded as separate groups and their distribution among the various samples was determined using the ecophysiological index. The growth stage at the time of sampling had a more significant effect on the methylotrophic population and their distribution than the field site or cultivar. A similar effect was also observed for the PPFMs, where their population in different plant parts increased from V10 to R4 and then decreased towards stage R9. A canonical discriminant analysis of the PPFM population from different parts of rice showed clear variations among the cultivars, sampled sites, and growth stages, although the variations were more prominent among the growth stages. PMID:18156780

  6. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biosca, Elena G; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    and other lichen species. PMID:27494030

  7. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biosca, Elena G.; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D.; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    and other lichen species. PMID:27494030

  8. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level

    PubMed Central

    Einzmann, Helena J. R.; Beyschlag, Joachim; Hofhansl, Florian; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The processes that govern diverse tropical plant communities have rarely been studied in life forms other than trees. Structurally dependent vascular epiphytes, a major part of tropical biodiversity, grow in a three-dimensional matrix defined by their hosts, but trees differ in their architecture, bark structure/chemistry and leaf phenology. We hypothesized that the resulting seasonal differences in microclimatic conditions in evergreen vs. deciduous trees would affect epiphytes at different levels, from organ physiology to community structure. We studied the influence of tree leaf phenology on vascular epiphytes on the Island of Barro Colorado, Panama. Five tree species were selected, which were deciduous, semi-deciduous or evergreen. The crowns of drought-deciduous trees, characterized by sunnier and drier microclimates, hosted fewer individuals and less diverse epiphyte assemblages. Differences were also observed at a functional level, e.g. epiphyte assemblages in deciduous trees had larger proportions of Crassulacean acid metabolism species and individuals. At the population level a drier microclimate was associated with lower individual growth and survival in a xerophytic fern. Some species also showed, as expected, lower specific leaf area and higher δ13C values when growing in deciduous trees compared with evergreen trees. As hypothesized, host tree leaf phenology influences vascular epiphytes at different levels. Our results suggest a cascading effect of tree composition and associated differences in tree phenology on the diversity and functioning of epiphyte communities in tropical lowland forests. PMID:25392188

  9. Survival and Growth of Epiphytic Ferns Depend on Resource Sharing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua-Zheng; Song, Liang; Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Xing-Liang; Hu, Yue-Hua; Shi, Xian-Meng; Li, Su; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Chang, Yan-Fen; Fan, Ze-Xin; Lu, Shu-Gang; Wu, Yi; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Locally available resources can be shared within clonal plant systems through physiological integration, thus enhancing their survival and growth. Most epiphytes exhibit clonal growth habit, but few studies have tested effects of physiological integration (resource sharing) on survival and growth of epiphytes and whether such effects vary with species. We conducted two experiments, one on individuals (single ramets) and another on groups (several ramets within a plot), with severed and intact rhizome treatments (without and with physiological integration) on two dominant epiphytic ferns (Polypodiodes subamoena and Lepisorus scolopendrium) in a subtropical montane moist forest in Southwest China. Rhizome severing (preventing integration) significantly reduced ramet survival in the individual experiment and number of surviving ramets in the group experiment, and it also decreased biomass of both species in both experiments. However, the magnitude of such integration effects did not vary significantly between the two species. We conclude that resource sharing may be a general strategy for clonal epiphytes to adapt to forest canopies where resources are limited and heterogeneously distributed in space and time. PMID:27066052

  10. Survival and Growth of Epiphytic Ferns Depend on Resource Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua-Zheng; Song, Liang; Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Xing-Liang; Hu, Yue-Hua; Shi, Xian-Meng; Li, Su; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Chang, Yan-Fen; Fan, Ze-Xin; Lu, Shu-Gang; Wu, Yi; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Locally available resources can be shared within clonal plant systems through physiological integration, thus enhancing their survival and growth. Most epiphytes exhibit clonal growth habit, but few studies have tested effects of physiological integration (resource sharing) on survival and growth of epiphytes and whether such effects vary with species. We conducted two experiments, one on individuals (single ramets) and another on groups (several ramets within a plot), with severed and intact rhizome treatments (without and with physiological integration) on two dominant epiphytic ferns (Polypodiodes subamoena and Lepisorus scolopendrium) in a subtropical montane moist forest in Southwest China. Rhizome severing (preventing integration) significantly reduced ramet survival in the individual experiment and number of surviving ramets in the group experiment, and it also decreased biomass of both species in both experiments. However, the magnitude of such integration effects did not vary significantly between the two species. We conclude that resource sharing may be a general strategy for clonal epiphytes to adapt to forest canopies where resources are limited and heterogeneously distributed in space and time. PMID:27066052

  11. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens.

    PubMed

    Wedin, Mats; Maier, Stefanie; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Grube, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Lichens are obligate symbioses between fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria. Most lichens resynthesize their symbiotic thalli from propagules, but some develop within the structures of already existing lichen symbioses. Diploschistes muscorum starts as a parasite infecting the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Here we studied how this process influences lichen-associated microbiomes and photobionts by sampling four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany, and characterizing their microbial communities using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria with a concomitant increase in Betaproteobacteria. Armatimonadia, Spartobacteria and Acidobacteria also decreased during the infection of Cladonia by Diploschistes. The lichens differed in photobiont specificity. Cladonia symphycarpa was associated with the same algal species at all sites, but Diploschistes muscorum had a flexible strategy with different photobiont combinations at each site. This symbiotic invasion system suggests that partners can be reorganized and selected for maintaining potential roles rather than depending on particular species. PMID:26310431

  12. Covariance of lichen and vascular plant floras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The geographic relationships among taxonomic groups are important to study to determine patterns of biodiversity and whether or not associations occur between large groups, e.g., birds and vascular plants. This study was undertaken to determine relationships between higher plants and lower plants, specifically vascular plant and lichen floras in nine national parks of the Great Lakes region. No significant relationship was found between vascular plant floras and lichen floras in this area, which spans 1200 km longitudinally, or between an additional 19 areas from North America that were less than 1000 km(2) in area. For areas larger than 1000 km(2), however, a significant positive relationship existed for 33 areas that span one to approximately 150 million km(2). The ratio of numbers of vascular plants to lichens appeared to average just over 6 across the 33 areas. In the Great Lakes parks, between 28-30% of either the vascular plant or lichen species were singletons (occurring in only one park), but the parks that contained the most singletons were not congruent: Isle Royale had the most singleton lichens, while Indiana Dunes had the most vascular plant singletons. Fewer lichen species (2%) than vascular plants (4%) occurred in all nine parks. Latitude appeared to explain some of the variation between the two groups: vascular plants decreased with increasing latitude, while lichens increased.

  13. Lichen physiology and cell biology

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on topics relating to mineral element accumulation in bog lichens, nitrogen losses from diazotrophic lichens, influence of automobile exhaust and lead on the oxygen exchange of lichens, temporal variation in lichen element levels, and lead and uranium uptake by lichens. Other topics include the architecture of the concentric bodies in the mycobiont of Peltigera praetextata; multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations and thallus structure of strictaceae lichens; and aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in lichens. The distribution of uranium and companion elements in lichen heath associated with undisturbed uranium deposits in the Canadian Arctic is also discussed.

  14. What Is Lichen Sclerosus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sclerosus PDF Version Size: 57 KB Audio Version Time: 09:12 Size: 8.6 MB November 2014 What Is Lichen Sclerosus? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of Publications for the Public What Is Lichen ...

  15. Lichen simplex chronicus

    MedlinePlus

    Lichen simplex chronicus is a skin condition caused by chronic itching and scratching. ... You can control lichen simplex chronicus by controlling scratching and reducing stress. The condition may return or move to different areas on the ...

  16. Lichens and lepidopterons

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The newly found association of Usnea strigosa (Ach.) A. Eat. and the lichenophagous larva of the moth Zanclognatha theralis (Walker) is described. The possible biological role of lichen acids in the lichen-moth relationship is discussed.

  17. Optimization of Protein Extraction for Lichen Thalli

    PubMed Central

    Kondratiuk, Anna S.; Savchuk, Oleksiy M.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen-forming fungal proteins have been seldom searched due to many difficulties in their extraction. Phenols, quinones, proteases, and other components released during cell disruption have been known to be the greatest challenges related to protein extraction from lichens. To overcome these problems and maintain good electrophoretic resolution and high protein concentration, an extraction buffer containing polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, ascorbic acid, Triton X-100, polyethylene glycol, proteinase, and oxidase inhibitors in sodium phosphate buffer was developed. This extraction buffer showed high efficiency for all lichen species tested in the study. PMID:26190923

  18. Terricolous lichens in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Two sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier to investigate lichen communities on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner. The survey yielded 34 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus. In addition, 19 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus were found by collecting at random, outside the two sampling sites. PMID:27042696

  19. Vanadium contamination of lichens and tree foliage in the vicinity of three oil-fired power plants in Eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Juichang, R.; Freedman, B.; Coles, C.; Zwicker, B.; Holzbecker, J.; Chatt, A.

    1995-06-01

    Vanadium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis in samples of epiphytic lichens and tree foliage collected at sites along 10 transects in the vicinity of three oil-fired power plants in eastern Canada. The vanadium concentrations in plants decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the power plants. Substantially larger concentrations of vanadium occurred in lichen tissues than in tree foliage. Lichens clearly are more suitable for biomonitoring environmental contamination with vanadium near oil-fired power plants. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident. PMID:25105247

  1. Lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Yesudian, P D; Sugunendran, H; Bates, C M; O'Mahony, C

    2005-07-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin and mucosa, presenting to genitourinary physicians and dermatologists. It affects both sexes and all age groups. Although the exact aetiology is uncertain, genetic predisposition, infections and autoimmune factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Symptoms include pruritus and soreness, but asymptomatic presentations are not uncommon. The classical clinical picture is of atrophic white plaques in the anogenital region. Histopathology is specific with basal cell degeneration, upper dermal oedema, homogenization of collagen and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Short courses of potent topical corticosteroids form the mainstay of treatment. The condition tends to be remitting and relapsing, with spontaneous regressions reported in a few. In men, the term balanitis xerotica obliterans is sometimes used to describe late and severe LS of the penis. Scarring and progression to squamous cell carcinomas can occur in chronic LS, resulting in significant morbidity. A multidisciplinary approach to care and the need for long-term monitoring cannot be overemphasized. PMID:16004624

  2. Surface Hydrophobicity Causes SO2 Tolerance in Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The superhydrophobicity of the thallus surface in one of the most SO2-tolerant lichen species, Lecanora conizaeoides, suggests that surface hydrophobicity could be a general feature of lichen symbioses controlling their tolerance to SO2. The study described here tests this hypothesis. Methods Water droplets of the size of a raindrop were placed on the surface of air-dry thalli in 50 lichen species of known SO2 tolerance and contact angles were measured to quantify hydrophobicity. Key Results The wettability of lichen thalli ranges from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic. SO2 tolerance of the studied lichen species increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the thallus surface. Extraction of extracellular lichen secondary metabolites with acetone reduced, but did not abolish the hydrophobicity of lichen thalli. Conclusions Surface hydrophobicity is the main factor controlling SO2 tolerance in lichens. It presumably originally evolved as an adaptation to wet habitats preventing the depression of net photosynthesis due to supersaturation of the thallus with water. Hydrophilicity of lichen thalli is an adaptation to dry or humid, but not directly rain-exposed habitats. The crucial role of surface hydrophobicity in SO2 also explains why many markedly SO2-tolerant species are additionally tolerant to other (chemically unrelated) toxic substances including heavy metals. PMID:18077467

  3. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, Verena K; Schmitt, Nicola; Volk, Lukas P M; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Beck, Andreas; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Non-targeted ¹H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA) were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis. PMID:26437395

  4. How Do You Solve a Problem like Letharia? A New Look at Cryptic Species in Lichen-Forming Fungi Using Bayesian Clustering and SNPs from Multilocus Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Altermann, Susanne; Leavitt, Steven D.; Goward, Trevor; Nelsen, Matthew P.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of molecular data is increasingly an integral part of studies assessing species boundaries. Analyses based on predefined groups may obscure patterns of differentiation, and population assignment tests provide an alternative for identifying population structure and barriers to gene flow. In this study, we apply population assignment tests implemented in the programs STRUCTURE and BAPS to single nucleotide polymorphisms from DNA sequence data generated for three previous studies of the lichenized fungal genus Letharia. Previous molecular work employing a gene genealogical approach circumscribed six species-level lineages within the genus, four putative lineages within the nominal taxon L. columbiana (Nutt.) J.W. Thomson and two sorediate lineages. We show that Bayesian clustering implemented in the program STRUCTURE was generally able to recover the same six putative Letharia lineages. Population assignments were largely consistent across a range of scenarios, including: extensive amounts of missing data, the exclusion of SNPs from variable markers, and inferences based on SNPs from as few as three gene regions. While our study provided additional evidence corroborating the six candidate Letharia species, the equivalence of these genetic clusters with species-level lineages is uncertain due, in part, to limited phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, both the BAPS analysis and the ad hoc ΔK statistic from results of the STRUCTURE analysis suggest that population structure can possibly be captured with fewer genetic groups. Our findings also suggest that uneven sampling across taxa may be responsible for the contrasting inferences of population substructure. Our results consistently supported two distinct sorediate groups, ‘L. lupina’ and L. vulpina, and subtle morphological differences support this distinction. Similarly, the putative apotheciate species ‘L. lucida’ was also consistently supported as a distinct genetic cluster. However, additional

  5. Age, sun and substrate: triggers of bacterial communities in lichens.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Steinová, Jana; Rabensteiner, Johannes; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Bacterial communities colonize the surfaces of lichens in a biofilm-like manner. The overall structure of the bacterial communities harboured by the lichens shows similarities, in particular the dominance of not yet cultured Alphaproteobacteria. Parameters causing variation in abundance, composition and spatial organization of the lichen-associated bacterial communities are so far poorly understood. As a first step, we used a microscopic approach to test the significance of both lichen-intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors on the bacterial communities associated with 11 lichen samples, belonging to six species. Some of these species have thalli with a distinct age gradient. A statistically significant effect can be attributed to the age of the thallus parts, which is an intrinsic factor: growing parts of the lichens host bacterial communities that significantly differ from those of the ageing portions of the thalli. The substrate type (rock, tree, understory) and (at a lower extent) the exposition to the sun also affected the bacterial communities. Interestingly, the abundance of bacterial cells in the lichens was also influenced by the same structure-triggering factors. No effect on the composition with main bacterial groups was attributed to different lichen species, differentiated thallus parts or thallus growth type. Our results are important for the experimental designs in lichen-bacterial ecology. PMID:23757225

  6. Oral lichen planus preceding concomitant lichen planopilaris.

    PubMed

    Stoopler, Eric T; Alfaris, Sausan; Alomar, Dalal; Alawi, Faizan

    2016-09-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disorder with a wide array of clinical presentations. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is characterized clinically by striae, desquamation, and/or ulceration. Lichen planopilaris (LPP), a variant of LP, affects the scalp, resulting in perifollicular erythema and scarring of cutaneous surfaces accompanied by hair loss. The association between OLP and LPP has been reported previously with scant information on concomitant or sequential disease presentation. We describe a patient with concomitant OLP and LPP, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on OLP preceding the onset of LPP. PMID:27544399

  7. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; Connick, William B.; Spitz, Henry B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Oldham, Warren J.

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  8. Diversity and distribution of vascular epiphytes in an insular Brazilian coastal forest.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Rodrigo de Andrade; Borgo, Marília; Silva, Sandro Menezes

    2009-09-01

    The study was carried out in a 3,000 m2 area of coastal Atlantic rain forest at Ilha do Mel island (25 degrees 30"S 48 degrees 23'W), on 100 assorted trees separated into 2 meter-high strata starting from the ground. In each stratum all of the occurring epiphytic species were recorded. The sampled species were grouped into three categories: exclusive, preferential, and indifferent, according to their abundance in each strata, and selective, preferential and indifferent, according to abundance on the forophytes. Intermediate strata registered the highest diversity. Six species were considered exclusive to one or two strata, 15 were restricted to some strata and 5 presented a broad distribution. No epiphytic species showed uniform horizontal distribution on the area. The epiphyte richness in a host tree varied from zero to 30. Regarding to fidelity on host tree species, few selective or preferential, and mainly indifferent epiphyte species, were found. A total of 82 epiphyte species were sampled in the surveyed tree, and the Wittaker plot indicate a highly dominant assemblage. PMID:19928468

  9. Ecology and conservation of a rare, old-growth-associated canopy lichen in a silvicultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosso, A.L.; McCune, B.; Rambo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Nephroma occultum Wetm. is a rare, epiphytic lichen associated with old-growth forests of northwestern North America. We describe its distribution, abundance, and habitat within the managed landscape of a southwestern Oregon watershed. Because this species is found mainly in the canopy, we used direct canopy access (tree climbing) in combination with ground (litter) searches for our surveys. We recommend this dual approach when confident determination of presence or absence of a canopy species is needed. Our surveys confirm that N. occultum is a rare old-growth associate within the area of this study, the southernmost extension of its known range. It was both rare across the landscape and uncommon in our primary study site, a 500 yr old stand. It was most often found growing close to the trunk on branches of large Pseudotsuga menziesii, but its distribution was sporadic even within an old-growth stand. The scarcity of very old stands, in combination with the limited ability of this species to disperse within and between stands, has likely contributed to its rarity within the watershed. Management for N. occultum should focus on populations and habitat needs rather than on individuals. Our calculations show that cutting with retention of individual trees surrounded by small buffers could result in the eventual loss of N. occultum from the study area.

  10. Evaluation of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay for assessing nutrient enrichment in the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Ray, Andrew M; Mebane, Christopher A; Raben, Flint; Irvine, Kathryn M; Marcarelli, Amy M

    2014-07-01

    We describe and evaluate a laboratory bioassay that uses Lemna minor L. and attached epiphytes to characterize the status of ambient and nutrient-enriched water from the Portneuf River, Idaho. Specifically, we measured morphological (number of fronds, longest surface axis, and root length) and population-level (number of plants and dry mass) responses of L. minor and community-level (ash-free dry mass [AFDM] and chlorophyll a [Chl a]) responses of epiphytes to nutrient enrichment. Overall, measures of macrophyte biomass and abundance increased with increasing concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) and responded more predictably to nutrient enrichment than morphological measures. Epiphyte AFDM and Chl a were also greatest in P-enriched water; enrichments of N alone produced no measurable epiphytic response. The epiphyte biomass response did not directly mirror macrophyte biomass responses, illustrating the value of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte assay to more fully evaluate nutrient management strategies. Finally, the most P-enriched waters not only supported greater standing stocks of macrophyte and epiphytes but also had significantly higher water column dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and a lower pH. Advantages of this macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay over more traditional single-species assays include the use of a more realistic level of biological organization, a relatively short assay schedule (~10 days), and the inclusion of multiple biological response and water-quality measures. PMID:24549944

  11. Evaluation of a combined macrophyte–epiphyte bioassay for assessing nutrient enrichment in the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Andrew M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Raben, Flint; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marcarelli, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a laboratory bioassay that uses Lemna minor L. and attached epiphytes to characterize the status of ambient and nutrient-enriched water from the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA. Specifically, we measured morphological (number of fronds, longest surface axis, root length) and population-level (number of plants, dry mass) responses of L. minor, and community-level (ash free dry mass [AFDM] and chlorophyll a [chl a]) responses of epiphytes to nutrient enrichment. Overall, measures of macrophyte biomass and abundance increased with increasing concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) and responded more predictably to nutrient enrichment than morphological measures. Epiphyte AFDM and chl a were also greatest in P enriched-water; enrichments of N alone produced no measurable epiphytic response. The epiphyte biomass response did not directly mirror macrophyte biomass responses, illustrating the value of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte assay to more fully evaluate nutrient management strategies. Finally, the most P-enriched waters not only supported greater standing stocks of macrophyte and epiphytes, but also had significantly higher water column dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and a lower pH. Advantages of this macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay over more traditional single species assays include the use of a more realistic level of biological organization, a relatively short assay schedule (~10 days), and the inclusion of multiple biological response and water quality measures.

  12. Evaluating factors that predict the structure of a commensalistic epiphyte-phorophyte network.

    PubMed

    Sáyago, Roberto; Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Martha; Quesada, Mauricio; Álvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Cascante-Marín, Alfredo; Bastida, Jesus Ma

    2013-04-01

    A central issue in ecology is the understanding of the establishment of biotic interactions. We studied the factors that affect the assembly of the commensalistic interactions between vascular epiphytes and their host plants. We used an analytical approach that considers all individuals and species of epiphytic bromeliads and woody hosts and non-hosts at study plots. We built models of interaction probabilities among species to assess if host traits and abundance and spatial overlap of species predict the quantitative epiphyte-host network. Species abundance, species spatial overlap and host size largely predicted pairwise interactions and several network metrics. Wood density and bark texture of hosts also contributed to explain network structure. Epiphytes were more common on large hosts, on abundant woody species, with denser wood and/or rougher bark. The network had a low level of specialization, although several interactions were more frequent than expected by the models. We did not detect a phylogenetic signal on the network structure. The effect of host size on the establishment of epiphytes indicates that mature forests are necessary to preserve diverse bromeliad communities. PMID:23407832

  13. The lichen genus parmotrema in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2013-03-01

    Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536

  14. The Lichen Genus Parmotrema in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536

  15. LUXURY CONSUMPTION OF PHOSPHOROUS BY FIVE 'CLADOPHORA' EPIPHYTES IN LAKE HURON (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stainable polyphosphate bodies in five species of algae epiphytic on Cladophora glomerata were enumerated. The algal populations, two species of diatoms, two species of blue-green algae, and a red alga, were collected at various distances from a point source of phosphorus enr...

  16. Comparative analysis of the antioxidant properties of Icelandic and Hawaiian lichens.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Kehau; Wright, Patrick R; Tabandera, Nicole K; Kelman, Dovi; Backofen, Rolf; Ómarsdóttir, Sesselja; Wright, Anthony D

    2016-09-01

    Antioxidant activity of symbiotic organisms known as lichens is an intriguing field of research because of its strong contribution to their ability to withstand extremes of physical and biological stress (e.g. desiccation, temperature, UV radiation and microbial infection). We present a comparative study on the antioxidant activities of 76 Icelandic and 41 Hawaiian lichen samples assessed employing the DPPH- and FRAP-based antioxidant assays. Utilizing this unprecedented sample size, we show that while highest individual sample activity is present in the Icelandic dataset, the overall antioxidant activity is higher for lichens found in Hawaii. Furthermore, we report that lichens from the genus Peltigera that have been described as strong antioxidant producers in studies on Chinese, Russian and Turkish lichens also show high antioxidant activities in both Icelandic and Hawaiian lichen samples. Finally, we show that opportunistic sampling of lichens in both Iceland and Hawaii will yield high numbers of lichen species that exclusively include green algae as photobiont. PMID:25808912

  17. Genetic Basis of Self-Incompatibility in the Lichen-Forming Fungus Lobaria pulmonaria and Skewed Frequency Distribution of Mating-Type Idiomorphs: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Cornejo, Carolina; Schmitt, Imke; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Fungal populations that reproduce sexually are likely to be genetically more diverse and have a higher adaptive potential than asexually reproducing populations. Mating systems of fungal species can be self-incompatible, requiring the presence of isolates of different mating-type genes for sexual reproduction to occur, or self-compatible, requiring only one. Understanding the distribution of mating-type genes in populations can help to assess the potential of self-incompatible species to reproduce sexually. In the locally threatened epiphytic lichen-forming fungus Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., low frequency of sexual reproduction is likely to limit the potential of populations to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Our study provides direct evidence of self-incompatibility (heterothallism) in L. pulmonaria. It can thus be hypothesized that sexual reproduction in small populations might be limited by an unbalanced distribution of mating-type genes. We therefore assessed neutral genetic diversity (using microsatellites) and mating-type ratio in 27 lichen populations (933 individuals). We found significant differences in the frequency of the two mating types in 13 populations, indicating a lower likelihood of sexual reproduction in these populations. This suggests that conservation translocation activities aiming at maximizing genetic heterogeneity in threatened and declining populations should take into account not only presence of fruiting bodies in transplanted individuals, but also the identity and balanced representation of mating-type genes. PMID:23236495

  18. Lead Isotopes and Temporal Records of Atmospheric Aerosol and Pollutants in Lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, S. R.; Nash, T.; Asmerom, Y.

    2001-05-01

    , and not local effects of wind or rock substrate. There, the 206Pb/207Pb of 1.18 is identical among epiphytic lichens suspended from trees (Usnea sp.) and a thallus profile for a radial epilithic lichens (Xanthoparmelia sp.). Each lichen contrasts strongly with the 206Pb/207Pb of 1.138 for the basalt substrate. These results show that temporal records of airborne PM in radial lichens can help to reconstruct rates of recycling of aeolian soils and aerosol dispersal in desert ecosystems.

  19. Influence of Habitat and Climate Variables on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Community Distribution, as Revealed by a Case Study of Facultative Plant Epiphytism under Semiarid Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, E.; Torres, P.; Querejeta, J. I.; Roldán, A.

    2013-01-01

    In semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems, epiphytic plant species are practically absent, and only some species of palm trees can support epiphytes growing in their lower crown area, such as Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm). In this study, we focused on Sonchus tenerrimus L. plants growing as facultative epiphytes in P. dactylifera and its terrestrial forms growing in adjacent soils. Our aim was to determine the possible presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these peculiar habitats and to relate AMF communities with climatic variations. We investigated the AMF community composition of epiphytic and terrestrial S. tenerrimus plants along a temperature and precipitation gradient across 12 localities. Epiphytic roots were colonized by AMF, as determined by microscopic observation; all of the epiphytic and terrestrial samples analyzed showed AMF sequences from taxa belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota, which were grouped in 30 AMF operational taxonomic units. The AMF community composition was clearly different between epiphytic and terrestrial root samples, and this could be attributable to dispersal constraints and/or the contrasting environmental and ecophysiological conditions prevailing in each habitat. Across sites, the richness and diversity of terrestrial AMF communities was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the most recent growing season. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between climate variables and AMF richness and diversity for epiphytic AMF communities, which suggests that the composition of AMF communities in epiphytic habitats appears to be largely determined by the availability and dispersion of fungal propagules from adjacent terrestrial habitats. PMID:24038687

  20. Abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates from coastal waters off Jeju Island, Korea During Autumn 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Seop; Yih, Wonho; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Myung, Geumog; Jeong, Hae Jin

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of harmful epiphytic dinoflagellates is of concern to scientists, the aquaculture industry, and government due to their toxicity not only to marine organisms but also to humans. There have been no studies on the abundance of the epiphytic dinoflagellates in Korean waters. We explored the presence of epiphytic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters off Jeju Island, southwestern Korea. Furthermore, we measured the abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates on the thalli of 24 different macroalgae, collected from five different locations in October 2009. Five epiphytic dinoflagellate genera Amphidinium, Coolia, Gambierdiscus, Ostreopsis, and Prorocentrum were found. These five genera were observed on the thalli of the macroalgae Chordaria flagelliformis, Martensia sp., Padina arborescens, and Sargassum sp., while none were observed exceptionally on Codium fragile. The abundance of Ostreopsis spp. was highest on Derbesia sp. (8,660 cells/g wet weight), while that of Gambierdiscus spp. was highest on Martensia sp. (4,870 cells/g-ww). The maximum abundances of Amphidinium spp., Coolia spp., and Prorocentrum spp. were 410, 710, and 300 cells/g-ww, respectively. The maximum abundance of Coolia spp., Gambierdiscus spp., and Ostreopsis spp. obtained in the present study was lower than for other locations reported in literature. The results of the present study suggest that the presence and abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates may be related to the macroalgal species of the coastal waters of Jeju Island.

  1. Host specificity in vascular epiphytes: a review of methodology, empirical evidence and potential mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Katrin; Mendieta-Leiva, Glenda; Zotz, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Information on the degree of host specificity is fundamental for an understanding of the ecology of structurally dependent plants such as vascular epiphytes. Starting with the seminal paper of A.F.W. Schimper on epiphyte ecology in the late 19th century over 200 publications have dealt with the issue of host specificity in vascular epiphytes. We review and critically discuss this extensive literature. The available evidence indicates that host ranges of vascular epiphytes are largely unrestricted while a certain host bias is ubiquitous. However, tree size and age and spatial autocorrelation of tree and epiphyte species have not been adequately considered in most statistical analyses. More refined null expectations and adequate replication are needed to allow more rigorous conclusions. Host specificity could be caused by a large number of tree traits (e.g. bark characteristics and architectural traits), which influence epiphyte performance. After reviewing the empirical evidence for their relevance, we conclude that future research should use a more comprehensive approach by determining the relative importance of various potential mechanisms acting locally and by testing several proposed hypotheses regarding the relative strength of host specificity in different habitats and among different groups of structurally dependent flora. PMID:25564514

  2. Effects of Macroalgal Chemical Extracts on Spore Behavior of the Antarctic Epiphyte Elachista antarctica Phaeophyceae.

    PubMed

    Bucolo, Philip; Amsler, Charles D; McClintock, James B; Baker, Bill J

    2012-12-01

    Most macroalgal species along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are defended against predation, many using chemical defenses. These subtidal communities are also mostly devoid of free living filamentous algae. However, one endo/epiphyte, Elachista antarctica, is found growing exclusively out of the palatable rhodophyte Palmaria decipiens. To understand this unusual and exclusive epiphytization, we tested whether macroalgal secondary metabolites such as those responsible for deterring sympatric grazers, affect the behaviors of the epiphyte's spores. Settlement, germination, and swimming behaviors of the epiphyte's motile spores were quantified in the presence of fractionated lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts of host P. decipiens and other rhodophytes from the shallow subtidal. Host P. decipiens was the only alga tested that did not inhibit spore settlement or germination. We also examined whether extracts from these chemically rich algae affect spore swimming behaviors and found spores to be chemotactically attracted to seawater soluble extract fractions of host P. decipiens. These results indicate that chemosensory behaviors of the epiphyte's spores to metabolites associated with these chemically defended macrophytes can explain this exclusive epiphyte-host interaction. PMID:27009991

  3. Lichens in the Churchyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldershaw, Cally; Hilton, Barbara; Rocca, Alis

    2010-01-01

    The late Tom Chester, in his role as the British Lichen Society churchyard coordinator, did a great deal to encourage the use of the churchyard as an educational tool. In his honour, the Society has created an award as part of its "Lichen Project". When the Society approached the Association for Science Education (ASE) for help in contacting…

  4. Exploiting the Lichen Liaison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, R. Gary

    1978-01-01

    For teachers in search of an easily obtainable, readily dissectable, and unique living specimen to arouse the interest of their students and illustrate important biological principles, lichens are the perfect selection. Background information and experiments on lichen anatomy, physiology, and chemistry are given. An appendix gives culture media.…

  5. Lichens as Bioindicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory L.; Baker, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    Lichens, small and unobtrusive organisms, are seldom noticed as they cling to rocks, trees, and soil in fragile veils or crusts of splendid color and ornate textures. Their beauty is captivating and fascinating, and their purpose and origins are thought-provoking. Lichens make particularly good "bioindicators". They are bioindicators of sulfur…

  6. Epiphyte Water Retention and Evaporation in Native and Invaded Tropical Montane Cloud Forests in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudd, R. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2006-12-01

    Epiphyte water retention was quantified at two montane cloud forest sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, one native and the other invaded by an alien tree species. Water storage elements measured included all epiphytic mosses, leafy liverworts, and filmy ferns. Tree surface area was estimated and a careful survey was taken to account for all epiphytes in the sample area of the forest. Samples were collected and analyzed in the lab for epiphyte water retention capacity (WRC). Based on the volume of the different kinds of epiphytes and their corresponding WRC, forest stand water retention capacity for each survey area was estimated. Evaporation from the epiphyte mass was quantified using artificial reference samples attached to trees that were weighed at intervals to determine changes in stored water on days without significant rain or fog. In addition, a soil moisture sensor was wrapped in an epiphyte sample and left in the forest for a 6-day period. Epiphyte biomass at the Native Site and Invaded Site were estimated to be 2.89 t ha-1 and 1.05 t ha-1, respectively. Average WRC at the Native Site and Invaded Site were estimated at 1.45 mm and 0.68 mm, respectively. The difference is likely due to the presence of the invasive Psidium cattleianum at the Invaded Site because its smooth stem surface is unable to support a significant epiphytic layer. The evaporation rate from the epiphyte mass near WSC for the forest stand at the Native Site was measured at 0.38 mm day-1, which represented 10.6 % of the total ET from the forest canopy at the Native Site during the period. The above research has been recently complemented by a thorough investigation of the WSC of all water storage elements (tree stems, tree leaves, shrubs, grasses, litter, fallen branches, and epiphytes) at six forested sites at different elevations within, above, and below the zone of frequent cloud-cover. The goal of this study was to create an inexpensive and efficient methodology for acquiring

  7. A review of epiphyte community development: surface interactions and settlement on seagrass.

    PubMed

    Michael, Teena S; Shin, Hyun Woung; Hanna, Richard; Spafford, David C

    2008-07-01

    A focus of community ecology is the spatial distribution of species assemblages and the interactions among species and abiotic features of the environment. While the ubiquity of species associations is apparent, it is less clear if interactions within a community impart an organizational structure to the community. Do settlement processes in early stages of community development contribute to later community structure? What are the interfacial forces that lead to recruitment and colonization of diverse substrata? This review examines seagrasses as living substrates for epiphyte colonization and the surface interactions which may determine settlement success. These epiphytes include primary producers which contribute to biodiversity and are bioindicators of pollution/nutrient enrichment. PMID:19195408

  8. Cryptic diversity and symbiont interactions in rock-posy lichens.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Vondrak, Jan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Perez-Ortega, Sergio; St Clair, Larry L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors that influence species interactions is central to research in symbiotic systems. While lichens represent iconic models of symbiosis and play important roles in understanding the biology of symbiotic interactions, patterns of interactions in lichen symbionts and mechanisms governing these relationships are not well characterized. This is due, in part to the fact that current taxonomic approaches for recognizing diversity in lichen symbionts commonly fail to accurately reflect actual species diversity. In this study, we employed DNA-based approaches to circumscribed candidate species-level lineages in rock-posy lichen symbionts (mycobiont=Rhizoplaca s. lat. species; photobiont=Trebouxia species). Our results revealed a high degree of cryptic diversity in both the myco- and photobionts in these lichens. Using the candidate species circumscribed here, we investigated the specificity of the symbionts toward their partners and inferred the relative importance of various factors influencing symbiont interactions. Distinct mycobiont species complexes, ecozones, and biomes are significantly correlated with the occurrence of photobiont OTUs, indicating that complex interactions among mycobiont lineages, ecogeography, and microhabitat determine interactions between photobionts and their mycobionts in lichen symbiosis. One-to-one specificity between mycobiont and photobiont species was not found, with the exception of R. maheui that associated with a single Trebouxia OTU that was not found with other Rhizoplaca s. lat. species. We estimated the most recent common ancestor of the core Rhizoplaca group at c. 62.5Ma, similar in age to the diverse parmelioid core group in the well-studied family Parmeliaceae. However, in contrast to Parmeliaceae, species in Rhizoplaca were found to associate with a narrow range of photobionts. Our study provides important perspectives into species diversity and interactions in iconic lichen symbiotic systems and establishes a

  9. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil - and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants. PMID:26884706

  10. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil – and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants. PMID:26884706

  11. Differential responses of certain lichen species to sulfur-containing solutions under acidic conditions as expressed by the production of stress-ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.; Kauppi, M.; Kauppi, A.

    1995-05-01

    To determine whether fluctuations in the concentration of ethylene produced by lichens exposed to sulfur-containing solutions at a low pH correlate with the tolerance/sensitivity of these lichens to air pollution, we measured the amount of ethylene produced by thalli soaked in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaHSO{sub 3}. The exposure of Hypogymnia physodes, Cladina stellaris, and Bryoria fuscescens to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at a pH ranging between 4.0 and 2.0 did not produce changes in the concentration of ethylene in comparison with samples wetted with H{sub 2}O at pH 6.8. The exposure of two pendulous lichens, Usnea hirta and Alectoria sarmentosa, to 1.0 and 5.0 mM H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at pH 2.7 and 2.0, respectively, stimulated only a slight increase of ethylene production, whereas another pendulous lichen, Bryoria fremontii, exposed to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at pH 4.0-2.0 decreased its production of ethylene. The soaking of H. physodes, U. hirta, C. stellaris, and A. sarmentosa thalli in NaHSO{sub 3} at pH 4.0 gradually increased the production of ethylene. The exposure of B. fremontii and B. fuscescens to low NaHSO{sub 3} concentrations depressed the production of ethylene in these lichens. The indifference of H. physodes to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under strong acidic conditions correlated with its resistance to SO{sub 21} in the air. In accordance with a model by D.M. Reid (In {open_quotes}Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants on Forests, Wetlands and Agricultural Ecosystems. NATO ASI Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, 1987) referring to higher plants, it is suggested that sulfur-containing solutions under acidic conditions increase the solubility of particles containing heavy metals entrapped among the mycobiont hyphae in lichens. This may lead to an increase of the production of endogenous ethylene in lichens as they are exposed to sulfur-containing chemicals, to acidic rain, or to heavy metal-polluted air. 65 refs., 8 tabs.

  12. Lichens and air quality in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmore, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    This study was undertaken because of reports of decreased visibility due to haze and the possibility of increased air pollution in the park. Numerous localities where lichens had been collected 10 years ago were revisited in 1980 to look for any changes in the lichen flora. Photographs were taken from scenic vistas where photographs had been taken earlier. Permanent photographic points for lichens were established for long term monitoring. It is argued that fruticose lichens are just as useful for monitoring air quality in arid areas as in wetter areas. There has been no loss of lichen species at any locality over the past 10 years and haze conditions have not changed much. It is concluded that no significant increase in air pollution has occurred within the park over the past 10 years. 17 references, 4 figures.

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26214895

  14. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  15. Learning about Lichens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Danny

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and teaching suggestions for collecting and using lichens in the classroom and for conducting field investigations. Focuses on structure, reproduction, photosynthesis, and effects of air pollution. (DC)

  16. Roles of epiphytes associated with macroalgae in benthic food web of a eutrophic coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xinqing; Huang, Lingfeng; Lin, Rongcheng; Du, Jianguo

    2015-11-01

    Macroalgae perform a significant function in the trophic dynamics in many coastal lagoons, and conventionally, they are the key trophic base that fuels the overall aquatic food web. However, few studies have considered the trophic contribution of epiphytes that attach to macroalgae in the diet of benthic primary consumers or their contribution to the trophic base of the aquatic food web. In this study, macrobenthic invertebrate biomass was combined with multiple-isotope-mixing models to distinguish the trophic importance of macroalgae and their associated epiphytic assemblages in the benthic food web during Ulva lactuca bloom in the Yundang Lagoon, a eutrophic coastal lagoon in Xiamen, China. Amphipods primarily dominated the zoobenthos, with the biomass varied from 40.9 g/m2 in January to 283.9 g/m2 in March. They mainly fed on U. lactuca and its associated epiphytes, which jointly contributed more than 60% to amphipod diets, but species-specific feeding habits were exhibited among amphipods. Using the zoobenthos biomass as a weighting factor, the contribution of U. lactuca and its epiphytes to total benthic communities during U. lactuca bloom exceeded 65%.The epiphytes were clearly utilized more than U. lactuca, with a median contribution ranging from 48.5% in January to 66.6% in March. Our findings demonstrate the trophic importance of the epiphytes in macroalgae-based coastal habitats, as found in many seagrass beds. Therefore, we propose that further food web studies of macroalgae-based ecosystems should pay greater attention to the role of epiphytes.

  17. Tropical epiphytes in a CO 2-rich atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, José Alberto Fernandez; Zotz, Gerhard; Körner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We tested the effect on epiphyte growth of a doubling of pre-industrial CO 2 concentration (280 vs. 560 ppm) combined with two light (three fold) and two nutrition (ten fold) treatments under close to natural humid conditions in daylight growth cabinets over 6 months. Across co-treatments and six species, elevated CO 2 increased relative growth rates by only 6% ( p = 0.03). Although the three C3 species, on average, grew 60% faster than the three CAM species, the two groups did not significantly differ in their CO 2 response. The two Orchidaceae, Bulbophyllum (CAM) and Oncidium (C3) showed no CO 2 response, and three out of four Bromeliaceae showed a positive one: Aechmea (CAM, +32% p = 0.08), Catopsis (C3, +11% p = 0.01) and Vriesea (C3, +4% p = 0.02). In contrast, the representative of the species-rich genus Tillandsia (CAM), which grew very well under experimental conditions, showed no stimulation. On average, high light increased growth by 21% and high nutrients by 10%. Interactions between CO 2, light and nutrient treatments (low vs. high) were inconsistent across species. CO 2 responsive taxa such as Catopsis, could accelerate tropical forest dynamics and increase branch breakage, but overall, the responses to doubling CO 2 of these epiphytes was relatively small and the responses were taxa specific.

  18. Retaining biodiversity in intensive farmland: epiphyte removal in oil palm plantations does not affect yield.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Graham W; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A

    2015-05-01

    The expansion of agriculture into tropical forest frontiers is one of the primary drivers of the global extinction crisis, resulting in calls to intensify tropical agriculture to reduce demand for more forest land and thus spare land for nature. Intensification is likely to reduce habitat complexity, with profound consequences for biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. Understanding which features of habitat complexity are essential for maintaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services within agricultural landscapes without compromising productivity is therefore key to limiting the environmental damage associated with producing food intensively. Here, we focus on oil palm, a rapidly expanding crop in the tropics and subject to frequent calls for increased intensification. One promoted strategy is to remove epiphytes that cover the trunks of oil palms, and we ask whether this treatment affects either biodiversity or yield. We experimentally tested this by removing epiphytes from four-hectare plots and seeing if the biodiversity and production of fruit bunches 2 months and 16 months later differed from equivalent control plots where epiphytes were left uncut. We found a species-rich and taxonomically diverse epiphyte community of 58 species from 31 families. Epiphyte removal did not affect the production of fresh fruit bunches, or the species richness and community composition of birds and ants, although the impact on other components of biodiversity remains unknown. We conclude that as they do not adversely affect palm oil production, the diverse epiphyte flora should be left uncut. Our results underscore the importance of experimentally determining the effects of habitat complexity on yield before introducing intensive methods with no discernible benefits. PMID:26045947

  19. Retaining biodiversity in intensive farmland: epiphyte removal in oil palm plantations does not affect yield

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Graham W; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of agriculture into tropical forest frontiers is one of the primary drivers of the global extinction crisis, resulting in calls to intensify tropical agriculture to reduce demand for more forest land and thus spare land for nature. Intensification is likely to reduce habitat complexity, with profound consequences for biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. Understanding which features of habitat complexity are essential for maintaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services within agricultural landscapes without compromising productivity is therefore key to limiting the environmental damage associated with producing food intensively. Here, we focus on oil palm, a rapidly expanding crop in the tropics and subject to frequent calls for increased intensification. One promoted strategy is to remove epiphytes that cover the trunks of oil palms, and we ask whether this treatment affects either biodiversity or yield. We experimentally tested this by removing epiphytes from four-hectare plots and seeing if the biodiversity and production of fruit bunches 2 months and 16 months later differed from equivalent control plots where epiphytes were left uncut. We found a species-rich and taxonomically diverse epiphyte community of 58 species from 31 families. Epiphyte removal did not affect the production of fresh fruit bunches, or the species richness and community composition of birds and ants, although the impact on other components of biodiversity remains unknown. We conclude that as they do not adversely affect palm oil production, the diverse epiphyte flora should be left uncut. Our results underscore the importance of experimentally determining the effects of habitat complexity on yield before introducing intensive methods with no discernible benefits. PMID:26045947

  20. Intrinsic factors of Peltigera lichens influence the structure of the associated soil bacterial microbiota.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Diego; Clavero-León, Claudia; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2016-11-01

    Definition of lichens has evolved from bi(tri)partite associations to multi-species symbioses, where bacteria would play essential roles. Besides, although soil bacterial communities are known to be affected by edaphic factors, when lichens grow upon them these could become less preponderant. We hypothesized that the structure of both the lichen microbiota and the microbiota in the soil underneath lichens is shaped by lichen intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this work, intrinsic factors corresponded to mycobiont and cyanobiont identities of Peltigera lichens, metabolite diversity and phenoloxidase activity and extrinsic factors involved the site of the forest where lichens grow. Likewise, the genetic and metabolic structure of the lichen and soil bacterial communities were analyzed by fingerprinting. Among the results, metabolite diversity was inversely related to the genetic structure of bacterial communities of lichens and soils, highlighting the far-reaching effect of these substances; while phenoloxidase activity was inversely related to the metabolic structure only of the lichen bacterial microbiota, presuming a more limited effect of the products of these enzymes. Soil bacterial microbiota was different depending on the site and, strikingly, according to the cyanobiont present in the lichen over them, which could indicate an influence of the photobiont metabolism on the availability of soil nutrients. PMID:27543320

  1. [Vertical stratification of epiphytic bryophytes found on Quercus humboldtii (Fagaceae) from boyacá, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Gil Novoa, Jorge Enrique; Morales Puentes, María Eugenia

    2014-06-01

    Oak forest represents an ecologically important plant formation in Colombia, partly due to the large amount of epiphyte flora that harbors, especially non-vascular plants which have been poorly studied in Colombia. One of the biggest oak forests in the country is the one found in the Parque Natural Municipal "Robledales de Tipacoque" (PNMRT), in Boyacá, municipality of Tipacoque. The epiphyte bryoflora was evaluated in Q. humboldtii, using canopy climbing techniques and dividing the trees (25 individuals sampled) each into five layers (base, trunk, inner canopy, middle and outer canopy). A total of 365 samples were collected: 29% liveworts and 71% mosses. Hepatics represented 10 families, 16 genera and 26 species; mosses 11 families, 26 genera and 49 species. Considering the tree layers, the most diverse one was the base with 51 species, followed by the trunk with 43; in the canopy, the inner canopy was found the most diverse with 28 species, and was followed by the middle canopy with 18, and the outer canopy with 15. A species similarity index shows that the trunk and the middle canopy were the most closely related (0.42) in terms of species composition. The results showed that non-vascular plants were mostly found in lower layers (base and trunk), where the diversity was greater, richer (species number), and this might be caused by the microclimatic conditions in these places, such as higher humidity, lower light intensity and shade. Thus, some species are considered shade epiphytes (ombrophiles) because they are unique to these areas, like Bazzania gracilis and Taxilejeunea pterigonia, among others. Likewise, Jungermannia sp. is considered a sun epiphyte (heliophilous) because it is found only in the outer canopy. We concluded that Q. humboldtii could be considered as a potential host for the conservation of non-vascular epiphytes in Colombian forests. PMID:25102653

  2. Dissociation and metal-binding characteristics of yellow lichen substances suggest a relationship with site preferences of lichens

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Willenbruch, Karen; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Many species of lichen-forming fungi contain yellow or orange extracellular pigments belonging to the dibenzofurans (usnic acid), anthraquinones (e.g. parietin) or pulvinic acid group. These pigments are all equally efficient light screens, leading us to question the potential ecological and evolutionary significance of diversity in yellow and orange lichen substances. Here the hypothesis is tested that the different pigments differ in metal-binding characteristics, which suggest that they may contribute to adaptation to sites differing in pH and metal availability. Methods UV spectroscopy was used to study the dissociation and the pH dependence of the metal-binding behaviour of seven isolated lichen substances in methanol. Metals applied were selected macro- and micro-nutrients (Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+). Key Results All the pigments studied are strong to moderate acids with pKa1 values between 2·8 and 4·5. Metal complexation is common in the lichen substances studied. Complexation takes place under acidic conditions with usnic acid, but under alkaline conditions with parietin and most compounds of the pulvinic acid group. The pulvinic acid derivative rhizocarpic acid forms metal complexes both in the acidic and the alkaline range. Conclusions Metal complexation by lichen substances could be a prerequisite for lichen substance-mediated control of metal uptake. Assuming such an effect at pH values where the affinity of the metal for the lichen substance is intermediate would explain the strong preference of lichens with usnic or rhizocarpic acids to acidic substrata. Moreover, it would explain the preference of lichens with parietin and some lichens with compounds of the pulvinic acid group either for nutrient-rich substrata at low pH or for calcareous substrata. PMID:18977765

  3. Mycorrhizal fungal diversity and community composition in a lithophytic and epiphytic orchid.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoke; Gai, Xuege; Liu, Qiang; Hart, Miranda M; Guo, Shunxing

    2015-05-01

    Some orchid species are present as epiphytes and lithophytes in the same habitat, but little is known about the differences of their mycorrhizal fungal communities. We used Coelogyne viscosa, which occurs both as an epiphyte and a lithophyte, as a study system to investigate orchid mycorrhizal fungal communities in lithophytes and epiphytes in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve (Yunnan Province, China). Twenty-three fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 18 sampling sites were identified. Results indicated that mycorrhizal fungal community composition was different between epi- and lithophytes. When we analyzed the Tulasnellaceae and Sebacinales communities separately, we found that the Sebacinales fungal communities were significantly different in the two growth habitats, but the Tulasnellaceae fungal communities were not. Our results provide evidence for distinct orchid mycorrhiza fungal communities depending on the growth habitat of the orchid. Consistent with some recent investigations of mycorrhizal fungus community composition, this study suggests that for one orchid, growth habitat affects mycorrhizal symbioses. PMID:25319065

  4. Antarctic Epilithic Lichens as Niches for Black Meristematic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Selbmann, Laura; Grube, Martin; Onofri, Silvano; Isola, Daniela; Zucconi, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen epilithic lichen samples (13 species), collected from seven locations in Northern and Southern Victoria Land in Antarctica, were investigated for the presence of black fungi. Thirteen fungal strains isolated were studied by both morphological and molecular methods. Nuclear ribosomal 18S gene sequences were used together with the most similar published and unpublished sequences of fungi from other sources, to reconstruct an ML tree. Most of the studied fungi could be grouped together with described or still unnamed rock-inhabiting species in lichen dominated Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. At the edge of life, epilithic lichens withdraw inside the airspaces of rocks to find conditions still compatible with life; this study provides evidence, for the first time, that the same microbes associated to epilithic thalli also have the same fate and chose endolithic life. These results support the concept of lichens being complex symbiotic systems, which offer attractive and sheltered habitats for other microbes. PMID:24832808

  5. Lichens and mosses on shrub-steppe soils in Southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Steven O.; Ryan, Bruce D.; Downs, Janelle L. ); Cadwell, Larry L. ); Soll, Jonathan A.; Hawke, Mary Ann; Ponzetti, Jeanne

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the lichens and mosses found on soils of the shrub-steppe at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Thirteen sites primarily at low elevation were intensively sampled. Twenty nine lichens and six moss species were identified. Three lichens were considered undescribed species. Based on comparison with other studies and herbarium records, we conclude the soil lichen flora of the Hanford Site is substantially different than that of the Great Basin or of the shrub-steppe in Idaho.

  6. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Rötkees (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Nascimbene, Juri; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Rötkees yielded 31 lichen taxa (29 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Micarea incrassata Hedl. (Lecanorales) is new to Italy. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. PMID:26869737

  7. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Gaisbergferner (Eastern Alps, Tyrol, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Gaisbergferner yielded 41 lichen taxa (39 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. PMID:26869736

  8. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 152 published sources. It includes 624 species (with 4 subspecies and 13 varieties) of lichenized and 17 species of lichenicolous Ascomycota, as well as 9 non-lichenized Ascomycota traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:22121302

  9. Understanding phenotypical character evolution in parmelioid lichenized fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438

  10. Understanding Phenotypical Character Evolution in Parmelioid Lichenized Fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Divakar, Pradeep K.; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438