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Sample records for epithelial cell culture

  1. Applications of mouse airway epithelial cell culture for asthma research.

    PubMed

    Horani, Amjad; Dickinson, John D; Brody, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    Primary airway epithelial cell culture provides a valuable tool for studying cell differentiation, cell-cell interactions, and the role of immune system factors in asthma pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss the application of mouse tracheal epithelial cell cultures for the study of asthma biology. A major advantage of this system is the ability to use airway epithelial cells from mice with defined genetic backgrounds. The in vitro proliferation and differentiation of mouse airway epithelial cells uses the air-liquid interface condition to generate well-differentiated epithelia with characteristics of native airways. Protocols are provided for manipulation of differentiation, induction of mucous cell metaplasia, genetic modification, and cell and pathogen coculture. Assays for the assessment of gene expression, responses of cells, and analysis of specific cell subpopulations within the airway epithelium are included. PMID:23943446

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELLS CULTURED IN SEMIPERMEABLE HOLLOW FIBERS

    PubMed Central

    Grek, Christina L.; Newton, Danforth A.; Qiu, Yonhzhi; Wen, Xuejun; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.; Baatz, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Cell culture methods commonly used to represent alveolar epithelial cells in vivo have lacked airflow, a 3-dimensional air-liquid interface, and dynamic stretching characteristics of native lung tissue—physiological parameters critical for normal phenotypic gene expression and cellular function. Here the authors report the development of a selectively semipermeable hollow fiber culture system that more accurately mimics the in vivo microenvironment experienced by mammalian distal airway cells than in conventional or standard air-liquid interface culture. Murine lung epithelial cells (MLE-15) were cultured within semipermeable polyurethane hollow fibers and introduced to controlled airflow through the microfiber interior. Under these conditions, MLE-15 cells formed confluent monolayers, demonstrated a cuboidal morphology, formed tight junctions, and produced and secreted surfactant proteins. Numerous lamellar bodies and microvilli were present in MLE-15 cells grown in hollow fiber culture. Conversely, these alveolar type II cell characteristics were reduced in MLE-15 cells cultured in conventional 2D static culture systems. These data support the hypothesis that MLE-15 cells grown within our microfiber culture system in the presence of airflow maintain the phenotypic characteristics of type II cells to a higher degree than those grown in standard in vitro cell culture models. Application of our novel model system may prove advantageous for future studies of specific gene and protein expression involving alveolar epithelial or bronchiolar epithelial cells. PMID:19263283

  3. Morphological appearances of human lens epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Power, W; Neylan, D; Collum, L

    1993-01-01

    A system for culturing human lens epithelial cells in the laboratory was developed. The morphological appearances of the cells was studied using phase contrast, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Cell marker studies using monoclonal antibodies to cytokeratin, vimentin and epithelial membrane antigen were also performed. There was a marked increase in cell size as a function of time in culture. After 3 to 4 weeks cells showed early signs of ageing. By 6 to 8 weeks the majority of the cells had become very irregular in shape and demonstrated irregularities of the plasma membrane and intra-cytoplasmic vacuole formation. The cells stained strongly for vimentin and epithelial membrane antigen. Staining with cytokeratin was somewhat weaker. This culture technique provides us with a suitable model for studying the growth behavior of these cells. PMID:7512459

  4. Microfluidic approaches for epithelial cell layer culture and characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Thuenauer, Roland; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique; Römer, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, epithelial cell layers line most body cavities and form selective barriers that regulate the exchange of solutes between compartments. In order to fulfil these functions, the cells assume a polarised architecture and maintain two distinct plasma membrane domains, the apical domain facing the lumen and the basolateral domain facing other cells and the extracellular matrix. Microfluidic biochips offer the unique opportunity to establish novel in vitro models of epithelia in which the in vivo microenvironment of epithelial cells is precisely reconstituted. In addition, analytical tools to monitor biologically relevant parameters can be directly integrated on-chip. In this review we summarise recently developed biochip designs for culturing epithelial cell layers. Since endothelial cell layers, which line blood vessels, have similar barrier functions and polar organisation as epithelial cell layers, we also discuss biochips for culturing endothelial cell layers. Furthermore, we review approaches to integrate tools to analyse and manipulate epithelia and endothelia in microfluidic biochips, including methods to perform electrical impedance spectroscopy, methods to detect substances undergoing trans-epithelial transport via fluorescence, spectrophotometry, and mass spectrometry, techniques to mechanically stimulate cells via stretching and fluid flow-induced shear stress, and methods to carry out high-resolution imaging of vesicular trafficking with light microscopy. Taken together, this versatile microfluidic toolbox enables novel experimental approaches to characterise epithelial monolayers. PMID:24668405

  5. Microfluidic approaches for epithelial cell layer culture and characterisation.

    PubMed

    Thuenauer, Roland; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique; Römer, Winfried

    2014-07-01

    In higher eukaryotes, epithelial cell layers line most body cavities and form selective barriers that regulate the exchange of solutes between compartments. In order to fulfil these functions, the cells assume a polarised architecture and maintain two distinct plasma membrane domains, the apical domain facing the lumen and the basolateral domain facing other cells and the extracellular matrix. Microfluidic biochips offer the unique opportunity to establish novel in vitro models of epithelia in which the in vivo microenvironment of epithelial cells is precisely reconstituted. In addition, analytical tools to monitor biologically relevant parameters can be directly integrated on-chip. In this review we summarise recently developed biochip designs for culturing epithelial cell layers. Since endothelial cell layers, which line blood vessels, have similar barrier functions and polar organisation as epithelial cell layers, we also discuss biochips for culturing endothelial cell layers. Furthermore, we review approaches to integrate tools to analyse and manipulate epithelia and endothelia in microfluidic biochips; including methods to perform electrical impedance spectroscopy; methods to detect substances undergoing trans-epithelial transport via fluorescence, spectrophotometry, and mass spectrometry; techniques to mechanically stimulate cells via stretching and fluid flow-induced shear stress; and methods to carry out high-resolution imaging of vesicular trafficking using light microscopy. Taken together, this versatile microfluidic toolbox enables novel experimental approaches to characterise epithelial monolayers. PMID:24668405

  6. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them

    PubMed Central

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP), were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine. PMID:26828484

  7. Culture and characterization of human junctional epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, T; Izumi, Y; Sueda, T

    1997-03-01

    This study was undertaken to establish a culture of junctional epithelial cells derived from gingival tissue attached to the tooth surface and to characterize these cells immunocytochemically and ultrastructurally. Primary cultures of cells were obtained from the junctional tissue explanted on type I collagen-coated dishes and immersed in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cells were subcultured with conditioned serum-free keratinocyte medium (keratinocyte-SFM + 5% FBS) on dishes coated with solubilized extract of the basement membrane. After 24 hours, the medium was changed to keratinocyte-SFM (0.09 mM Ca2+). The cell-doubling time was 40.5 hours. As a control, cells from gingival tissue were cultured by the same method. Cells from junctional tissue and gingival tissue were compared immunocytochemically using monoclonal antibodies to keratin, vimentin, and desmoplakins I and II and using Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA). The keratin AE1 and AE3 was expressed by all of culture cells. The vimentin (specific for the intermediate filament of mesenchymal cells) was also expressed by all cells. The expression pattern of keratin 19 was observed not only by cells from junctional tissue but also by cells from gingival tissue. All keratin peptides were expressed in both cells. However, DBA reacted only with cells from the junctional tissue. Anti-desmoplakin I and II reacted with both cells, however, the staining patterns differed. DBA-positive cultured epithelial cells from the junctional tissue showed poor tonofilament bundles and were rich in cytoplasmic organelles. These findings suggest that junctional epithelial cells can be isolated from junctional tissue and cultured under improved conditions. PMID:9100198

  8. Culture and immortalization of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Terence; Ouellette, Michel; Kolar, Carol; Hollingsworth, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Some populations of the epithelial cells from the duct and ductular network of the mammalian pancreas have been isolated and maintained in vitro for up to 3 mo. These cells express many of the surface factors that are unique to them in vivo. They also retain significant drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing capacity in vitro. In this chapter we review the progression of the methods for the isolation, culture and maintenance in vitro for these cells from the earliest when only duct/ductular fragments were obtainable to the current ones which provide epithelial cells. The critical steps in the isolation process are identified and strategies are provided to facilitate these steps. These include the selection of tissue digestive enzymes, the importance of extensive mincing before culture and the importance of roles of some co-factors used in the culture medium. PMID:15542901

  9. Fabrication of transplantable corneal epithelial and oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets using a novel temperature-responsive closed culture device.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ryota; Kobayashi, Toyoshige; Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Kitano, Yuriko; Watanabe, Hiroya; Mizutani, Manabu; Nozaki, Takayuki; Senda, Naoko; Saitoh, Kazuo; Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Takeda, Shizu

    2015-05-01

    Temperature-responsive culture surfaces make it possible to harvest transplantable carrier-free cell sheets. Here, we applied temperature-responsive polymer for polycarbonate surfaces with previously developed closed culture devices for an automated culture system in order to fabricate transplantable stratified epithelial cell sheets. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses and colony-forming assays revealed that corneal epithelial and oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets could be harvested with the temperature-responsive closed culture devices. The results were similar to those obtained using temperature-responsive culture inserts. These results indicate that the novel temperature-responsive closed culture device is useful for fabricating transplantable stratified epithelial cell sheets. PMID:23475606

  10. Nucleus Morphometry in Cultured Epithelial Cells Correlates with Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ayyad Z; Utheim, Tor P; Jackson, Catherine J; Reppe, Sjur; Lyberg, Torstein; Eidet, Jon R

    2016-06-01

    Phenotype of cultured ocular epithelial transplants has been shown to affect clinical success rates following transplantation to the cornea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cell nucleus morphometry and phenotype in three types of cultured epithelial cells. This study provides knowledge for the development of a non-invasive method of determining the phenotype of cultured epithelium before transplantation. Cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCjE), human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK), and human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPE) were analyzed by quantitative immunofluorescence. Assessments of nucleus morphometry and nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio (N/C ratio) were performed using ImageJ. Spearman's correlation coefficient was employed for statistical analysis. Levels of the proliferation marker PCNA in HCjE, HEK, and HRPE correlated positively with nuclear area. Nuclear area correlated significantly with levels of the undifferentiated cell marker ABCG2 in HCjE. Bmi1 levels, but not p63α levels, correlated significantly with nuclear area in HEK. The N/C ratio did not correlate significantly with any of the immunomarkers in HCjE (ABCG2, CK7, and PCNA) and HRPE (PCNA). In HEK, however, the N/C ratio was negatively correlated with levels of the undifferentiated cell marker CK14 and positively correlated with Bmi1 expression. The size of the nuclear area correlated positively with proliferation markers in all three epithelia. Morphometric indicators of phenotype in cultured epithelia can be identified using ImageJ. Conversely, the N/C ratio did not show a uniform relationship with phenotype in HCjE, HEK, or HRPE. N/C ratio therefore, may not be a useful morphometric marker for in vitro assessment of phenotype in these three epithelia. PMID:27329312

  11. Differentiation of cultured epithelial cells: Response to toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.H.; LaMontagne, A.D.; Petito, C.T.; Rong, Xianhui )

    1989-03-01

    Cell culture systems are instrumental in elucidating regulation of normal function and mechanisms of its perturbation by toxic substances. To this end, three applications of epithelial cells cultured with 3T3 feeder layer support are described. First, treatment of the premalignant human epidermal keratinocyte line SCC-12F2 with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate suppressed cell growth and differentiation. This agent produced a biphasic growth response greatly inhibiting cell growth at 1 to 10 nM, but much less above 100 nM. Expression of the differentiated functions involucrin and transglutaminase was found to be inhibited markedly at concentrations above 10 nM. Second, 3-methylcholanthrene toxicity was surveyed in a variety of rat epithelial cell types. The two most sensitive to growth inhibition were epidermal and mammary epithelial cells, while those from bladder, prostate, thyroid, and endometrium were insensitive to growth inhibition. Finally, expression of estrogen receptors in rat endometrial cells was shown to be stimulated by the cAmP-elevating agent forskolin. Maximal stimulation of 3- to 6-fold occurred in 6 hr, compatible with a requirement for protein synthesis. Pursuit of such results will aid in understanding differences in response among cell types and species, in elucidating mechanisms of action of known toxic substances and, ultimately, in predicting toxicity of less well understood agents.

  12. Three-Dimensional Cultures of Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mroue, Rana; Bissell, Mina J.

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland is an ideal “model organism” for studying tissue specificity and gene expression in mammals: it is one of the few organs that develop after birth and it undergoes multiple cycles of growth, differentiation and regression during the animal’s lifetime in preparation for the important function of lactation. The basic “functional differentiation” unit in the gland is the mammary acinus made up of a layer of polarized epithelial cells specialized for milk production surrounded by myoepithelial contractile cells, and the two-layered structure is surrounded by basement membrane. Much knowledge about the regulation of mammary gland development has been acquired from studying the physiology of the gland and of lactation in rodents. Culture studies, however, were hampered by the inability to maintain functional differentiation on conventional tissue culture plastic. We now know that the microenvironment, including the extracellular matrix and tissue architecture, plays a crucial role in directing functional differentiation of organs. Thus, in order for culture systems to be effective experimental models, they need to recapitulate the basic unit of differentiated function in the tissue or organ and to maintain its three-dimensional (3D) structure. Mouse mammary culture models evolved from basic monolayers of cells to an array of complex 3D systems that observe the importance of the microenvironment in dictating proper tissue function and structure. In this chapter, we focus on how 3D mouse mammary epithelial cultures have enabled investigators to gain a better understanding of the organization, development and function of the acinus, and to identify key molecular, structural, and mechanical cues important for maintaining mammary function and architecture. The accompanying chapter of Vidi et al. describes 3D models developed for human cells. Here, we describe how mouse primary epithelial cells and cell lines—essentially those we use in our

  13. Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

    2015-02-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, αENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

  14. Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, αENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

  15. Nucleoside transport in primary cultured rabbit tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Neil R; Wu, Sharon K; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Lee, Vincent H L

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating the mechanisms of nucleoside transport in primary cultured rabbit tracheal epithelial cells (RTEC) grown on a permeable filter support. Uptake of (3)H-uridine, the model nucleoside substrate, from the apical fluid of primary cultured RTEC was examined with respect to its dependence on Na(+), substrate concentration, temperature and its sensitivity to inhibitors, other nucleosides and antiviral nucleoside analogs. Apical (3)H-uridine uptake in primary cultured RTEC was strongly dependent on an inward Na(+) gradient and temperature. Ten micromolar nitro-benzyl-mercapto-purine-ribose (NBMPR) (an inhibitor of es-type nucleoside transport in the nanomolar range) did not further inhibit this process. (3)H-uridine uptake from apical fluid was inhibited by basolateral ouabain (10 microM) and apical phloridzin (100 microM), indicating that uptake may involve a secondary active transport process. Uridine uptake was saturable with a K(m) of 3.4 +/- 1.8 microM and the V(max) of 24.3 +/- 5.2 pmoles/mg protein/30 s. Inhibition studies indicated that nucleoside analogs that have a substitution on the nucleobase competed with uridine uptake from apical fluid, but those with modifications on the ribose sugar including acyclic analogs were ineffective. The pattern of inhibition of apical (3)H-uridine, (3)H-inosine and (3)H-thymidine uptake into RTEC cells by physiological nucleosides was consistent with multiple systems: A pyrimidine-selective transport system (CNT1); a broad nucleoside substrate transport system that excludes inosine (CNT4) and an equilibrative NBMPR-insensitive nucleoside transport system (ei type). These results indicate that the presence of apically located nucleoside transporters in the epithelial cells lining the upper respiratory tract can lead to a high accumulation of nucleosides in the trachea. At least one Na(+)-dependent, secondary, active transport process may mediate the apical absorption of nucleosides or

  16. Lymphohaemopoietic antigens of cultured human glomerular epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    van der Woude, F. J.; Michael, A. F.; Muller, E.; van der Hem, G. K.; Vernier, R. L.; Kim, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Glomerular visceral epithelial cells (GVEC) from normal human glomeruli were grown in tissue culture. Cell surface markers were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies against lymphohaemopoietic differentiation antigens which are known to be present early (BA-1, OKB2, BA-2) and late (J5, anti CR1) in renal ontogenesis. Like foetal human glomerular epithelium, the cultured cells reacted with BA-1 and OKB2 (identifying an antigen expressed on B cells and polymorphonuclear leucocytes), and BA-2 (leukaemia-associated antigen), but were consistently negative for CR1 (C3b receptor); J5 which identifies the common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen (CALLA) stained variably. Reactivity with antimyosin or anti factor VIII were absent. The cells produced an extracellular matrix containing laminin, type IV collagen, and fibronectin. This study supports the notion that GVEC undergo dedifferentiation as shown by the acquisition of lymphohaemopoietic differentiation antigens present early in renal ontogeny. In addition, the production of extracellular matrix constituents in vitro may be useful for the investigation of human glomerular basement membranes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2647119

  17. In Vitro Culture and Characterization of a Mammary Epithelial Cell Line from Chinese Holstein Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Han; Wang, Jiaqi; Bu, Dengpan; Wei, Hongyang; Zhou, Linyun; Li, Fadi; Loor, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro. Methodology Mammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition) was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells successively grew and extended from the culturing mammary tissue at the third day. Pure epithelial cells were obtained by passages culture. Principal Findings The strong positive immunostaining to cytokeratin 18 suggested that the resulting cell line exhibited the specific character of epithelial cells. Epithelial cells cultured in the presence of 10% FBS, supraphysiologic concentrations of insulin, and hydrocortisone maintained a normal diploid chromosome modal number of 2n = 60. Furthermore, they were capable of synthesizing β-casein (CSN2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase-α (ACACA) and butyrophilin (BTN1A1). An important finding was that frozen preservation in a mixture of 90% FBS and 10% DMSO did not influence the growth characteristics, chromosome number, or protein secretion of the isolated epithelial cell line. Conclusions The obtained mammary epithelial cell line had normal morphology, growth characteristics, cytogenetic and secretory characteristics, thus, it might represent an useful tool for studying the function of Chinese Holstein dairy cows mammary epithelial cell (CMECs). PMID:19888476

  18. Interactions between airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells during viral infections using an in vitro co-culture model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Historically, single cell culture models have been limited in pathological and physiological relevance. A co-culture model of dendritic cells (DCs) and differentiated human airway epithelial cells was developed to examine potential interactions between these two cell t...

  19. Cytokeratin changes in cell culture systems of epithelial cells isolated from oral mucosa: a short review.

    PubMed

    Gasparoni, Alberto; Squier, Christopher Alan; Fonzi, Luciano

    2005-01-01

    In the past three decades, many studies have analyzed ultrastructural and molecular markers of differentiation in squamous stratified epithelial tissues. In these tissues, epithelial cells migrating from the basal layer to the upper layers undergo drastic changes, which involve membrane-associated proteins, DNA synthesis, phenotypic aspects, lipid composition, and cytoskeletal components. Cytoskeletal components include a large and heterogeneous group, including intermediate filaments, components of the cornified envelope, and of the stratum corneum. When grown in mono- and multilayer cell cultures, epithelial cells isolated from the oral mucosa may reproduce many of the biochemical and morphological aspects of epithelial tissue in vivo. In the present paper, we examine phenotypic changes, development of suprabasal layer, and Involucrin expression occurring in differentiating oral epithelial cells, based on literature review and original data. PMID:16277157

  20. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  1. Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells for the Purpose of Treating Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Paaske Utheim, Tor; Aass Utheim, Øygunn; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Sehic, Amer

    2016-01-01

    The cornea is critical for normal vision as it allows allowing light transmission to the retina. The corneal epithelium is renewed by limbal epithelial cells (LEC), which are located in the periphery of the cornea, the limbus. Damage or disease involving LEC may lead to various clinical presentations of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Both severe pain and blindness may result. Transplantation of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) represents the first use of a cultured non-limbal autologous cell type to treat this disease. Among non-limbal cell types, CAOMECS and conjunctival epithelial cells are the only laboratory cultured cell sources that have been explored in humans. Thus far, the expression of p63 is the only predictor of clinical outcome following transplantation to correct LSCD. The optimal culture method and substrate for CAOMECS is not established. The present review focuses on cell culture methods, with particular emphasis on substrates. Most culture protocols for CAOMECS used amniotic membrane as a substrate and included the xenogeneic components fetal bovine serum and murine 3T3 fibroblasts. However, it has been demonstrated that tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheet grafts can be successfully fabricated using temperature-responsive culture surfaces and autologous serum. In the studies using different substrates for culture of CAOMECS, the quantitative expression of p63 was generally poorly reported; thus, more research is warranted with quantification of phenotypic data. Further research is required to develop a culture system for CAOMECS that mimics the natural environment of oral/limbal/corneal epithelial cells without the need for undefined foreign materials such as serum and feeder cells. PMID:26938569

  2. Ultrastructural analysis of primary human urethral epithelial cell cultures infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Harvey, H A; Ketterer, M R; Preston, A; Lubaroff, D; Williams, R; Apicella, M A

    1997-06-01

    In men with gonococcal urethritis, the urethral epithelial cell is a site of infection. To study the pathogenesis of gonorrhea in this cell type, we have developed a method to culture primary human urethral epithelial cells obtained at the time of urologic surgery. Fluorescent analysis demonstrated that 100% of the cells stained for keratin. Microscopic analyses indicated that these epithelial cells arrayed in a pattern similar to that seen in urethral epithelium. Using immunoelectron and confocal microscopy, we compared the infection process seen in primary cells with events occurring during natural infection of the same cell type in men with gonococcal urethritis. Immunoelectron microscopy studies of cells infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae 1291 Opa+ P+ showed adherence of organisms to the epithelial cell membrane, pedestal formation with evidence of intimate association between the gonococcal and the epithelial cell membranes, and intracellular gonococci present in vacuoles. Confocal studies of primary urethral epithelial cells showed actin polymerization upon infection. Polyclonal antibodies to the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) demonstrated the presence of this receptor on infected cells in the primary urethral cell culture. In situ hybridization using a fluorescent-labeled probe specific to the ASGP-R mRNA demonstrated this message in uninfected and infected cells. These features were identical to those seen in urethral epithelial cells in exudates from males with gonorrhea. Infection of primary urethral cells in culture mimics events seen in natural infection and will allow detailed molecular analysis of gonococcal pathogenesis in a human epithelial cell which is commonly infected. PMID:9169783

  3. Culture models of human mammary epithelial cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2000-11-10

    Human pre-malignant breast diseases, particularly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)3 already display several of the aberrant phenotypes found in primary breast cancers, including chromosomal abnormalities, telomerase activity, inactivation of the p53 gene and overexpression of some oncogenes. Efforts to model early breast carcinogenesis in human cell cultures have largely involved studies in vitro transformation of normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to immortality and malignancy. We present a model of HMEC immortal transformation consistent with the know in vivo data. This model includes a recently described, presumably epigenetic process, termed conversion, which occurs in cells that have overcome stringent replicative senescence and are thus able to maintain proliferation with critically short telomeres. The conversion process involves reactivation of telomerase activity, and acquisition of good uniform growth in the absence and presence of TFGB. We propose th at overcoming the proliferative constraints set by senescence, and undergoing conversion, represent key rate-limiting steps in human breast carcinogenesis, and occur during early stage breast cancer progression.

  4. Recognition of Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens on Cultured Human Biliary Epithelial Cells by Alloreactive Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Saidman, Susan L.; Duquesnoy, Rene J.; Zeevi, Adriana; Fung, John J.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Demetris, A. Jake

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro system to study the interactions between biliary epithelium and lymphocytes using cultured human biliary epithelial cells. No class II antigens were detected by immunoperoxidase staining of the normal biliary epithelial cells, but alloactivated lymphocyte culture supernatants were able to induce class II expression. The activity of the supernatants was blocked with an anti-γ-interferon monoclonal antibody. In addition, recombinant human γ-interferon alone induced the expression of class II antigens and increased the intensity of class I staining of cultured biliary epithelial cells. Biliary epithelial cell–induced proliferation of alloreactive T lymphocytes demonstrated that the major histocompatibility complex molecules carry functional lymphocyte-activating determinants. The recognition of major histocompatibility complex determinants was confirmed by monoclonal antibody–blocking studies and by stimulation of an alloreactive T-cell clone. However, the biliary epithelial cells were much less potent stimulators than arterial endothelial cells tested in the same assay system. PMID:1704868

  5. Epithelial cell cultures from normal and cancerous human tissues.

    PubMed

    Owens, R B; Smith, H S; Nelson-Rees, W A; Springer, E L

    1976-04-01

    Thirty epithelial cell strains were isolated from human carcinomas and normal epithelial tissues by collagenase digestion and selective removal of fibroblasts with trypsin-Versene. Most strains were obtained from metastatic carcinomas or epithelia of the urinary and intestinal tracts. The success rate for growth of both neoplastic and normal tissues (excluding skin) was 38%. Six of these strains showed gross morphologic and chromosome changes typical of malignant cells. Nine resembled normal epithelium. The other 15 exhibited some degree of morphologic change from normal. PMID:176412

  6. Klebsiella pneumoniae Is Able to Trigger Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Process in Cultured Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Laura; Mazzetta, Francesca; Martinelli, Daniela; Valente, Sabatino; Alimandi, Maurizio; Raffa, Salvatore; Santino, Iolanda

    2016-01-01

    The ability of some bacterial pathogens to activate Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition normally is a consequence of the persistence of a local chronic inflammatory response or depends on a direct interaction of the pathogens with the host epithelial cells. In this study we monitored the abilities of the K. pneumoniae to activate the expression of genes related to EMT-like processes and the occurrence of phenotypic changes in airway epithelial cells during the early steps of cell infection. We describe changes in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and increased HIF-1α mRNA expression in cells exposed to K. pneumoniae infection. We also describe the upregulation of a set of transcription factors implicated in the EMT processes, such as Twist, Snail and ZEB, indicating that the morphological changes of epithelial cells already appreciable after few hours from the K. pneumoniae infection are tightly regulated by the activation of transcriptional pathways, driving epithelial cells to EMT. These effects appear to be effectively counteracted by resveratrol, an antioxidant that is able to exert a sustained scavenging of the intracellular ROS. This is the first report indicating that strains of K. pneumoniae may promote EMT-like programs through direct interaction with epithelial cells without the involvement of inflammatory cells. PMID:26812644

  7. Differentiation of adult rat bone marrow stem cells into epithelial progenitor cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Shu, Chang; Li, Ting Yu; Tsang, Lai Ling; Fok, Kin Lam; Lo, Pui Shan; Zhu, Jin Xia; Ho, Lo Sze; Chung, Yiu Wa; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2006-10-01

    We have previously obtained monoclonal bone marrow stem cells from adult rats (rMSCs) and induced them into phenotypic neurons. In the present study, we aimed to induce rMSCs into epithelial cells by culturing them onto compartmentalized permeable supports, which have been used for growing a variety of polarized epithelia in culture. Hematoxylin staining showed that after 4 days grown on permeable supports, rMSCs formed an epithelial-like monolayer. Immunofluorescence of the permeably-supported monolayers, but not the rMSCs grown in culture flasks, showed positive signals for epithelial markers, cytokeratin 5 & 8. RT-PCR results also showed the mRNA expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) as well as tight junction protein ZO-1 in the rMSC-derived monolayers grown on permeable supports but absent from those grown in culture flasks. However, western blot only detected protein expression of ZO-1 but not ENaC nor CFTR. The short-circuit current measurements showed that the rMSC-derived monolayers grown on permeable supports exhibited a trans-monolayer resistance of 30-50 Omega cm(2); however, the monolayers did not respond to activators or blockers of CFTR or ENaC. The results suggest that compartmentalized or polarized culture conditions provide a suitable environment for rMSCs to differentiate into epithelial progenitor cells with tight junction formation; however, this condition is not sufficient for functional expression of epithelial ion channels associated with well-differentiated epithelia. PMID:16877014

  8. Epithelial monolayer culture system for real‐time single‐cell analyses

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong Bae; Moody, Mark; Koh, Duk‐Su

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Many epithelial cells form polarized monolayers under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Typically, epithelial cells are cultured for differentiation on insert systems where cells are plated on a porous filter membrane. Although the cultured monolayers have been a standard system to study epithelial physiology, there are some limits: The epithelial cells growing inside the commercial inserts are not optimal to visualize directly through lenses on inverted microscopes. The cell images are optically distorted and background fluorescence is bright due to the filter membrane positioned between the cells and the lens. In addition, the cells are not easily accessible by electrodes due to the presence of tall side walls. Here, we present the design, fabrication, and practical applications of an improved system for analysis of polarized epithelial monolayers. This new system allows (1) direct imaging of cells without an interfering filter membrane, (2) electrophysiological measurements, and (3) detection of apical secretion with minimal dilution. Therefore, our culture method is optimized to study differentiated epithelial cells at the single‐cell and subcellular levels, and can be extended to other cell types with minor modifications. PMID:24771696

  9. Human corneal stromal stem cells support limbal epithelial cells cultured on RAFT tissue equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Kureshi, Alvena K; Dziasko, Marc; Funderburgh, James L; Daniels, Julie T

    2015-01-01

    Human limbal epithelial cells (HLE) and corneal stromal stem cells (CSSC) reside in close proximity in vivo in the corneal limbal stem cell niche. However, HLE are typically cultured in vitro without supporting niche cells. Here, we re-create the cell-cell juxtaposition of the native environment in vitro, to provide a tool for investigation of epithelial-stromal cell interactions and to optimize HLE culture conditions for potential therapeutic application. RAFT (Real Architecture For 3D Tissue) tissue equivalents (TEs) were used as a 3-dimensional substrate for co-culturing HLE and CSSC. Our results demonstrate that a monolayer of HLE that maintained expression of p63α, ABCB5, CK8 and CK15 (HLE markers), formed on the surface of RAFT TEs within 13 days of culture. CSSC remained in close proximity to HLE and maintained expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers. This simple technique has a short preparation time of only 15 days with the onset of HLE layering and differentiation observed. Furthermore, co-cultivation of HLE with another niche cell type (CSSC) directly on RAFT TEs, eliminates the requirement for animal-derived feeder cells. RAFT TEs may be useful for future therapeutic delivery of multiple cell types to restore the limbal niche following ocular surface injury or disease. PMID:26531048

  10. Characterization of Long-Term Cultured Murine Submandibular Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Kazuyuki; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Human and rat salivary gland cell lines derived from tumors or genetic modification are currently available for research. Here, we attempted to culture and characterize long-term cultured cells spontaneously derived from wild type murine submandibular glands (SGs). Methods SGs were removed from 3-week-old C57B/6J female mice and dissociated by collagenase type 1 and hyaluronidase digestion. Isolated SG epithelial cells were cultured in low calcium, serum-free growth media in the presence of cholera toxin (CT) during early passages. Single-cell colonies were isolated by limiting dilution culture after 25 passages. Early- and late-stage cell cultures were characterized for keratin 14, keratin 18, α-smooth muscle actin, and p63 by immunostaining and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results SG epithelial cells cultured in optimized media maintained their proliferative ability and morphology for over 80 passages. Long-term cultured cells expressed keratin 14, keratin 18, and p63, indicative of an epithelial phenotype. Conclusions Epithelial cells originating from wild type murine SGs could be cultured for longer periods of time and remain phenotypically similar to ductal basal epithelium. PMID:26800086

  11. Immunohistochemical characterisation of epithelial cells of rodent harderian glands in primary culture

    PubMed Central

    DJERIDANE, YASMINA; SIMONNEAUX, VALERIE; KLOSEN, PAUL; VIVIEN-ROELS, BERTHE; PEVET, PAUL

    1999-01-01

    The aims of the current investigation were (1) to establish an efficient procedure for the isolation of rodent harderian gland cells and to define conditions for maintenance of viable differentiated cells; (2) to compare the in vitro growth pattern of cultured epithelial cells; and (3) to characterise the cultured epithelial cells from 3 rodent species: Wistar rats, Syrian hamsters and Djungarian hamsters. We have established primary culture conditions that permit the maintenance of viable and differentiated secretory cells from adult rodent harderian gland. This study demonstrates that the cell growth pattern is faster in hamsters than in rats and despite morphological changes, epithelial cells reestablish their distinctive (biochemical/metabolic) phenotype as indicated by lipid-containing vacuoles, porphyrin pigment and serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase labelling. PMID:10634691

  12. Association of ICAM-1 with the cytoskeleton in rat alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Barton, W W; Wilcoxen, S E; Christensen, P J; Paine, R

    1996-11-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ICAM-1) is a transmembrane adhesion protein that is expressed constitutively on the apical surface of type I cells in vivo and on type II cells in vitro as they spread in culture, assuming type I cell-like characteristics. To investigate the possible interaction of ICAM-1 with the alveolar epithelial cell cytoskeleton, rat type II cells in primary culture were extracted with nonionic detergent, and residual ICAM-1 associated with the cytoskeletal remnants was determined using immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoprecipitation, and cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A large fraction of alveolar epithelial cell ICAM-1 remained associated with the cytoskeleton after detergent extraction, whereas two other transmembrane molecules, transferrin receptor and class II major histocompatibility complex, were completely removed. ICAM-1 was redistributed on the cell surface after the disruption of actin filaments with cytochalasin B, suggesting interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. In contrast, ICAM-1 was completely detergent soluble in rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and rat alveolar macrophages. The association of ICAM-1 with the alveolar epithelial cell cytoskeleton was not altered after stimulation with inflammatory cytokines. However, detergent resistant ICAM-1 was significantly increased after crosslinking of ICAM-1 on the cell surface, suggesting that this cytoskeletal association may be modulated by interactions of alveolar epithelial cells with inflammatory cells. The association of ICAM-1 with the cytoskeleton in alveolar epithelial cells may provide a fixed intermediary between mobile inflammatory cells and the alveolar surface. PMID:8944713

  13. A Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Model To Study Enterovirus Infection of Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Coyne G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite serving as the primary entry portal for coxsackievirus B (CVB), little is known about CVB infection of the intestinal epithelium, owing at least in part to the lack of suitable in vivo models and the inability of cultured cells to recapitulate the complexity and structure associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we report on the development of a three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic cell culture model of Caco-2 cells to model CVB infection of the gastrointestinal epithelium. We show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor recapitulate many of the properties of the intestinal epithelium, including the formation of well-developed tight junctions, apical-basolateral polarity, brush borders, and multicellular complexity. In addition, transcriptome analyses using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) revealed the induction of a number of genes associated with intestinal epithelial differentiation and/or intestinal processes in vivo when Caco-2 cells were cultured in 3-D. Applying this model to CVB infection, we found that although the levels of intracellular virus production were similar in two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures, the release of infectious CVB was enhanced in 3-D cultures at early stages of infection. Unlike CVB, the replication of poliovirus (PV) was significantly reduced in 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures. Collectively, our studies show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the RWV bioreactor provide a cell culture model that structurally and transcriptionally represents key aspects of cells in the human GI tract and can thus be used to expand our understanding of enterovirus-host interactions in intestinal epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE Coxsackievirus B (CVB), a member of the enterovirus family of RNA viruses, is associated with meningitis, pericarditis, diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis, among other pathologies. CVB is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and

  14. A Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Model To Study Enterovirus Infection of Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Coyne G; Nickerson, Cheryl A; Coyne, Carolyn B

    2016-01-01

    Despite serving as the primary entry portal for coxsackievirus B (CVB), little is known about CVB infection of the intestinal epithelium, owing at least in part to the lack of suitable in vivo models and the inability of cultured cells to recapitulate the complexity and structure associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we report on the development of a three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic cell culture model of Caco-2 cells to model CVB infection of the gastrointestinal epithelium. We show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor recapitulate many of the properties of the intestinal epithelium, including the formation of well-developed tight junctions, apical-basolateral polarity, brush borders, and multicellular complexity. In addition, transcriptome analyses using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) revealed the induction of a number of genes associated with intestinal epithelial differentiation and/or intestinal processes in vivo when Caco-2 cells were cultured in 3-D. Applying this model to CVB infection, we found that although the levels of intracellular virus production were similar in two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures, the release of infectious CVB was enhanced in 3-D cultures at early stages of infection. Unlike CVB, the replication of poliovirus (PV) was significantly reduced in 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures. Collectively, our studies show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the RWV bioreactor provide a cell culture model that structurally and transcriptionally represents key aspects of cells in the human GI tract and can thus be used to expand our understanding of enterovirus-host interactions in intestinal epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE Coxsackievirus B (CVB), a member of the enterovirus family of RNA viruses, is associated with meningitis, pericarditis, diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis, among other pathologies. CVB is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and encounters the

  15. Changes in the gene expression pattern of cytokeratins in human respiratory epithelial cells during culture.

    PubMed

    Endres, Michaela; Leinhase, Iris; Kaps, Christian; Wentges, Marek; Unger, Manja; Olze, Heidi; Ringe, Jochen; Sittinger, Michael; Rotter, Nicole

    2005-05-01

    The replacement of extensive tracheal defects resulting from intensive care medicine, trauma or large resections is still challenged by the re-epithelialization of an autologous or alloplastic trachea replacement. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the potential of culture-expanded human respiratory epithelial cells (hREC) to regenerate a functional epithelium for tracheal tissue engineering. hREC from seven male nasal turbinates were freshly isolated, expanded on a collagenous matrix and subsequently cultured in high-density multi-layers to allow epithelial differentiation. The composition of epithelial cells in native respiratory epithelial tissue and culture-expanded hREC was analyzed by histological staining with Alcian blue and by immunohistochemical staining of cytokeratin pairs CK1/10 and CK5/14 with the antibodies 34betaE12 and CD44v6. Differentiation of culture-expanded hREC was further characterized by gene expression analysis of cytokeratins CK5, CK13, CK14 and CK18 using semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR technique. Histological and immunohistochemical staining of culture-expanded hREC demonstrated basal cells covering the collagenous matrix. These cells formed a cellular multi-layer, which was composed of a basal layer of undifferentiated basal cells and an upper layer of cells differentiating along the squamous metaplasia and ciliated cell lineage. Lineage development of culture-expanded hREC was further documented by the induction of cytokeratins CK13 and CK18. Our results suggest that culture-expanded hREC have the potential to colonize collagen-coated biomaterials and to regenerate epithelial cell types for tracheal tissue engineering. PMID:15549340

  16. CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION DURING DIFFERENTIATION OF CULTURED HUMAN PRIMARY BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary airway epithelial cell cultures are a useful tool for the in vitro study of normal bronchial cell differentiation and function, airway disease mechanisms, and pathogens and toxin response. Growth of these cells at an air-liquid interface for several days results in the f...

  17. Isolation and Culture of Alveolar Epithelial Type I and Type II Cells from Rat Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Robert F.; Dobbs, Leland G.

    2014-01-01

    The pulmonary alveolar epithelium, comprised of alveolar Type I (TI) and Type II (TII) cells, covers more than 99% of the internal surface area of the lungs. The study of isolated and cultured alveolar epithelial TI and TII cells has provided a large amount of information about the functions of both cell types. This chapter provides information about methods for isolating and culturing both of these cell types from rat lungs. PMID:23097106

  18. Characterization of cultured epithelial cells using a novel technique not requiring enzymatic digestion for subculturing.

    PubMed

    Peramo, Antonio; Feinberg, Stephen E; Marcelo, Cynthia L

    2013-09-01

    Our laboratory had developed a methodology to expand epithelial cells in culture by growing keratinocyte monolayers, under large volumes of medium that produces large numbers of keratinocytes that leave the monolayer and move into suspension. The cells have been defined as epithelial Pop Up Keratinocytes or ePUKs cells and appear to be highly suitable for clinical applications. In this publication we extend the characterization of the cells with a detailed analysis of the capabilities of the monolayer of a single culture flask to produce, over time, ePUK cells. The cells were characterized using standard epithelial markers for proliferation and differentiation. Analysis of morphology of the monolayer formed and total number of cells produced is presented for a variety of human epithelial cell strains. These keratinocytes provide an additional controlled human cell system for investigation of the mechanisms regulating epithelia cell growth and differentiation and since they are produced in large numbers, they are highly suitable for use in epithelial cell banking. PMID:23149549

  19. Cytoskeleton remodelling of confluent epithelial cells cultured on porous substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Jan; Büchsenschütz-Göbeler, Matthias; Nöding, Helen; Steltenkamp, Siegfried; Samwer, Konrad; Janshoff, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The impact of substrate topography on the morphological and mechanical properties of confluent MDCK-II cells cultured on porous substrates was scrutinized by means of various imaging techniques as well as atomic force microscopy comprising force volume and microrheology measurements. Regardless of the pore size, ranging from 450 to 5500 nm in diameter, cells were able to span the pores. They did not crawl into the holes or grow around the pores. Generally, we found that cells cultured on non-porous surfaces are stiffer, i.e. cortical tension rises from 0.1 to 0.3 mN m−1, and less fluid than cells grown over pores. The mechanical data are corroborated by electron microscopy imaging showing more cytoskeletal filaments on flat samples in comparison to porous ones. By contrast, cellular compliance increases with pore size and cells display a more fluid-like behaviour on larger pores. Interestingly, cells on pores larger than 3500 nm produce thick actin bundles that bridge the pores and thereby strengthen the contact zone of the cells. PMID:25566882

  20. Cytotoxicity of Shiga toxin for primary cultures of human colonic and ileal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, M P; Dixon, P S; Rothman, S W; Brown, J E

    1987-01-01

    Shiga toxin purified from Shigella dysenteriae 1 was cytotoxic to cultured epithelial cells from human colon and ileum. The cytotoxicity, which affected only about 50% of treated cells, was neutralized by rabbit antiserum monospecific for Shiga toxin and mediated by protein synthesis inhibition. PMID:3570477

  1. Long-term culture and partial characterization of dog gallbladder epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Oda, D; Lee, S P; Hayashi, A

    1991-05-01

    We describe the successful isolation and maintenance of primary cultures of dog gallbladder epithelial cells. The surgically removed gallbladder was treated with trypsin/EDTA for 45 minutes and epithelial cells were collected and resuspended in Eagle's minimum essential medium with 10% fetal calf serum, and plated on Vitrogen-coated culture dishes. Each gallbladder yielded approximately 12 to 15 x 10(6) columnar epithelial cells, greater than 95% of which were viable by trypan blue exclusion. In culture, cells maintained their polarity. They were arranged and grew in small and tight clusters that coalesced at confluency. When examined using transmission electron microscopy, prominent and numerous microville were identified on the apical portion of the plasma membrane. Cells were connected by well-formed desmosomes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed clusters of polyhedral cells with numerous papillary projections. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated uniform staining of cells to keratin 35BH11 and AE1. Histochemical studies were positive for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and negative for glucose-6-phosphatase and albumin. Cells incorporated [3H]uridine into intracellular proteins and [14C]glucosamine into tissue and secreted mucous glycoproteins linearly over 2 to 24 hours. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated a consistent and reproducible number of cells (10 to 12%) at S-phase. However, the number of cells at S-phase was dramatically reduced to almost negligible as cells reached confluency. This method of culturing primary dog gallbladder epithelial cells is highly reproducible and reliable. These cells preserve their state of differentiation, polarity, histochemical and immunohistochemical profile, morphologic, and metabolic integrity with repeated passaging or after being frozen. [3H]Thymidine uptake is well maintained, although doubling time shows a trend of decreased cell duplication with time. This technique offers the opportunity to study the

  2. Cell and Molecular Biology of Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Irradiated in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Autologous isolates of cell types from obligate heterozygotes with the autosomal disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)were used to begin a tissue culture model for assessing pathways of radiation-induced cancer formation in this target tissue. This was done by establishing cultures of stromal fibroblasts and long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in standard 2-dimensional tissue culture in order to establish expression of markers detailing early steps of carcinogenesis. The presumptive breast cancer susceptibility of A-T heterozygotes as a sequel to damage caused by ionizing radiation provided reason to study expression of markers in irradiated HMEC. Findings from our study with HMEC have included determination of differences in specific protein expression amongst growth phase (e.g., log vs stationary) and growth progression (e.g., pass 7 vs pass 9), as well as differences in morphologic markers within populations of irradiated HMEC (e.g., development of multinucleated cells).

  3. Estrogen inhibits cell cycle progression and retinoblastoma phosphorylation in rhesus ovarian surface epithelial cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jay W.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2003-10-31

    Estrogen promotes the growth of some ovarian cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations, but has been shown to inhibit growth of normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells at micromolar concentrations (1μg/ml). OSE cells express the estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and are the source of 90% of various cancers. The potential sensitivity of OSE cells to estrogen stresses the importance of understanding the estrogen-dependent mechanisms at play in OSE proliferation and transformation, as well as in anticancer treatment. We investigated the effects of estradiol on cell proliferation in vitro, and demonstrate an intracellular locus of action of estradiol in cultured rhesus ovarian surface epithelial (RhOSE) cells. We show that ovarian and breast cells are growth-inhibited by micromolar concentration of estradiol and that this inhibition correlates with estrogen receptor expression. We further show that normal rhesus OSE cells do not activate ERK or Akt in response to estradiol nor does estradiol block the ability of serum to stimulate ERK or induce cyclin D expression. Contrarily, estradiol inhibits serum-dependent retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation and blocks DNA synthesis. This inhibition does not formally arrest cells and is reversible within hours of estrogen withdrawal. Our data are consistent with growth inhibition by activation of Rb and indicate that sensitivity to hormone therapy in anticancer treatment can be modulated by cell cycle regulators downstream of the estrogen receptor.

  4. Isolation and Culture of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells and Stromal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joseph C.; Roan, Nadia R.

    2016-01-01

    Purification and culture of endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) and stromal fibroblasts (eSF) from endometrial biopsies allows for downstream cell-specific in vitro studies. The utility of this protocol is the ease with which cells are purified without contamination from unwanted cell types, and the ability to use patient-paired eEC and eSF in experiments. These methods have been previously published, but here the protocol has been updated for maximum efficiency. PMID:27347495

  5. IL-10 release by bovine epithelial cells cultured with Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Ricardo Chaves; Benchimol, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells. PMID:23440124

  6. Three-dimensional cultures modeling premalignant progression of human breast epithelial cells: role of cysteine cathepsins.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Stefanie R; Sameni, Mansoureth; Blum, Galia; Bogyo, Matthew; Sloane, Bonnie F; Moin, Kamiar

    2012-12-01

    The expression of the cysteine protease cathepsin B is increased in early stages of human breast cancer.To assess the potential role of cathepsin B in premalignant progression of breast epithelial cells, we employed a 3D reconstituted basement membrane overlay culture model of MCF10A human breast epithelial cells and isogenic variants that replicate the in vivo phenotypes of hyper plasia(MCF10AneoT) and atypical hyperplasia (MCF10AT1). MCF10A cells developed into polarized acinar structures with central lumens. In contrast, MCF10AneoT and MCF10AT1 cells form larger structures in which the lumens are filled with cells. CA074Me, a cell-permeable inhibitor selective for the cysteine cathepsins B and L,reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of MCF10A, MCF10AneoT and MCF10AT1 cells in 3D culture. We detected active cysteine cathepsins in the isogenic MCF10 variants in 3D culture with GB111, a cell-permeable activity based probe, and established differential inhibition of cathepsin B in our 3D cultures. We conclude that cathepsin B promotes proliferation and premalignant progression of breast epithelial cells. These findings are consistent with studies by others showing that deletion of cathepsin B in the transgenic MMTV-PyMT mice, a murine model that is predisposed to development of mammary cancer, reduces malignant progression. PMID:23667900

  7. EFFECT OF PHORBOL ESTERS ON CLONAL CULTURES OF HUMAN, HAMSTER, AND RAT RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the growth of epithelial cells from rat, hamster, and human respiratory tract has been measured by monitoring colony formation in culture. TPA and its active derivatives stimulated colony formation of ...

  8. Establishment of three-dimensional cultures of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M.; Menter, David G.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Reddy, Shrikanth A.G. . E-mail: sa08366@wotan.mdacc.tmc.edu

    2007-07-06

    Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of epithelial cells offer singular advantages for studies of morphogenesis or the role of cancer genes in oncogenesis. In this study, as part of establishing a 3D culture system of pancreatic duct epithelial cells, we compared human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE-E6E7) with pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our results show, that in contrast to cancer cells, HPDE-E6E7 organized into spheroids with what appeared to be apical and basal membranes and a luminal space. Immunostaining experiments indicated that protein kinase Akt was phosphorylated (Ser473) and CTMP, a negative Akt regulator, was expressed in both HPDE-E6E7 and cancer cells. However, a nuclear pool of CTMP was detectable in HPDE-E6E7 cells that showed a dynamic concentrated expression pattern, a feature that further distinguished HPDE-E637 cells from cancer cells. Collectively, these data suggest that 3D cultures of HPDE-E6E7 cells are useful for investigating signaling and morphological abnormalities in pancreatic cancer cells.

  9. Ultrasonic differentiation of normal versus malignant breast epithelial cells in monolayer cultures.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Timothy E; Goodrich, Jeffrey B; Ambrose, Brady J; Patel, Hemang; Kwon, Soonjo; Pearson, Lee H

    2010-11-01

    Normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells were studied using laboratory measurements, wavelet analysis, and numerical simulations of monolayer cell cultures to determine whether microscopic breast cancer can be detected in vitro with high-frequency ultrasound. Pulse-echo waveforms were acquired by immersing a broadband, unfocused 50-MHz transducer in the growth media of cell culture well plates and collecting the first reflection from the well bottoms. The simulations included a multilayer pulse-reflection model and a model of two-dimensional arrays of spherical cells and nuclei. The results show that normal and malignant cells produce time-domain signals and spectral features that are significantly different. PMID:21110531

  10. Culture of hormone-dependent functional epithelial cells from rat thyroids.

    PubMed Central

    Ambesi-Impiombato, F S; Parks, L A; Coon, H G

    1980-01-01

    Primary cultures of rat thyroid cells were made in medium supplemented with 0.1--0.5% calf serum and containing six hormones or growth factors: insulin, thyrotropin, transferrin, hydrocortisone, somatostatin, and glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine acetate. The FRTL strain was purified by successive colonial isolations and was found to maintain highly differentiated features (secretion into the culture medium of physiological amounts of thyroglobulin and concentration of iodide by 100-fold). The FRTL strain has been observed for more than 3 years in continuous culture. It has maintained the same biochemical and morphological characteristics that typified the primary cultures of thyroid follicular cells immediately after their enzymatic release from the rat thyroid. Thyroid epithelial cells that were grown under more conventional cell culture conditions failed to retain these specialized characteristics. We show that maintenance in vitro of these specialized functions of rat thyroid follicular cells is dependent on low serum concentrations and supplementation with hormones in the primary cultures. Our observations indicate that this culture strategem may be aplicable to the general problem of maintenance of differentiated characteristics in cultures of other epithelial cells. Images PMID:6106191

  11. Long-term cultures of polarized airway epithelial cells from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wiszniewski, Ludovic; Jornot, Lan; Dudez, Tecla; Pagano, Alessandra; Rochat, Thierry; Lacroix, Jean Silvain; Suter, Susanne; Chanson, Marc

    2006-01-01

    The poor ability of respiratory epithelial cells to proliferate and differentiate in vitro into a pseudostratified mucociliated epithelium limits the general use of primary airway epithelial cell (AEC) cultures generated from patients with rare diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we describe a procedure to amplify AEC isolated from nasal polyps and generate long-term cultures of the respiratory epithelium. AEC were seeded onto microporous permeable supports that carried on their undersurface a preformed feeder layer of primary human airway fibroblasts. The use of fibroblast feeder layers strongly stimulated the proliferation of epithelial cells, allowing the expansion of the cell pool with successive passages. AEC at increasing passage were seeded onto supports undercoated with airway fibroblasts and exposed to air. Either freshly isolated or amplified AEC could differentiate into a pseudostratified mucociliated epithelium for at least 10 mo. Thus, CF epithelia cultures showed elevated Na+ transport, drastic hyperabsorption of surface liquid, and absence of cAMP-induced Cl- secretion as compared with non-CF cultures. They were also characterized by thick apical secretion that hampered the movement of cell surface debris by cilia. However, CF respiratory epithelia did not show increased production of mucins or IL-8. The method described here is now routinely used in our laboratory to establish long-term cultures of well differentiated respiratory epithelia from human airway biopsies. PMID:16179582

  12. Enhanced growth medium and method for culturing human mammary epithelial cells

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Smith, Helene S.; Hackett, Adeline J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for isolating and culturing human mammary epithelial cells of both normal and malignant origin. Tissue samples are digested with a mixture including the enzymes collagenase and hyaluronidase to produce clumps of cells substantially free from stroma and other undesired cellular material. Growing the clumps of cells in mass culture in an enriched medium containing particular growth factors allows for active cell proliferation and subculture. Clonal culture having plating efficiencies of up to 40% or greater may be obtained using individual cells derived from the mass culture by plating the cells on appropriate substrates in the enriched media. The clonal growth of cells so obtained is suitable for a quantitative assessment of the cytotoxicity of particular treatment. An exemplary assay for assessing the cytotoxicity of the drug adriamycin is presented.

  13. Mitochondria are targets for the antituberculosis drug rifampicin in cultured epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Erokhina, M V; Kurynina, A V; Onishchenko, G E

    2013-10-01

    Rifampicin is a widely used drug for antituberculosis therapy. Its target is the bacterial RNA polymerase. After entry into the human or mammalian organism, rifampicin is accumulated in cells of epithelial origin (kidneys, liver, lungs) where it induces apoptosis, necrosis, and fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the intracellular mechanisms leading to rifampicin-induced pathological changes and cell death. We analyzed the survival and state of the chondriome of cultured epithelial cells of the SPEV line under the influence of rifampicin. Our data show that the drug induces pronounced pathological changes in the network and ultrastructure of mitochondria, and their dysfunction results in excessive production of reactive oxygen species and release of cytochrome c. These data suggest the initiation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Simultaneously, we observed inhibition of cell proliferation and changes in morphology of the epithelial cells toward fibroblast-like appearance, which could indicate induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Thus, mitochondria are the main potential target for rifampicin in cells of epithelial origin. We suggest that similar mechanisms of pathological changes can be induced in vivo in organs and tissues accumulating rifampicin during chemotherapy of bacterial infectious diseases. PMID:24237150

  14. Human Airway Primary Epithelial Cells Show Distinct Architectures on Membrane Supports Under Different Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung Ah; Rosania, Gus R; Shin, Meong Cheol

    2016-06-01

    To facilitate drug development for lung delivery, it is highly demanding to establish appropriate airway epithelial cell models as transport barriers to evaluate pharmacokinetic profiles of drug molecules. Besides the cancer-derived cell lines, as the primary cell model, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells have been used for drug screenings because of physiological relevance to in vivo. Therefore, to accurately interpret drug transport data in NHBE measured by different laboratories, it is important to know biophysical characteristics of NHBE grown on membranes in different culture conditions. In this study, NHBE was grown on the polyester membrane in a different medium and its transport barrier properties as well as cell architectures were fully characterized by functional assays and confocal imaging throughout the days of cultures. Moreover, NHBE cells on inserts in a different medium were subject to either of air-interfaced culture (AIC) or liquid-covered culture (LCC) condition. Cells in the AIC condition were cultivated on the membrane with medium in the basolateral side only, whereas cells with medium in apical and basolateral sides under the LCC condition. Quantitative microscopic imaging with biophysical examination revealed distinct multilayered architectures of differentiated NHBE cells, suggesting NHBE as functional cell barriers for the lung-targeting drug transport. PMID:26818810

  15. Differential crosstalk between epithelial cells, dendritic cells and bacteria in a co-culture model.

    PubMed

    Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Tsakalidou, Effie; Dewulf, Joelle; Pot, Bruno; Grangette, Corinne

    2009-04-30

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) provide a primary physical barrier against commensal and pathogenic bacteria, but the influence of IECs in the regulation of the associated mucosal immune system remains largely unknown. The network of dendritic cells (DCs) in the vicinity of IECs is known to play a crucial role in the regulation of gut homeostasis. We investigated the cross-talk between murine IECs (m-IC(cl2) cell line), bone marrow derived DCs and different bacteria using an in vitro Transwell co-culture model. IECs responded poorly to different gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and to a Staphylococcus aureus strain. In contrast two Escherichia coli strains, including the probiotic strain Nissle 1917, strongly activated IECs, as evidenced by the induction of different chemokines. While a differential maturation of DCs is observed upon direct stimulation with the various bacteria, DC maturation across the epithelial barrier was only observed upon challenge of the apical surface of the IECs with both E. coli strains and LPS. These results suggested that the capacity of bacteria to induce pro-inflammatory signals through the epithelial barrier is not linked to their pathogenic or commensal status, but seem to be dependent on the presence of specific surface factors. As already reported, we confirmed that m-IC(cl2) cells are highly susceptible to LPS. It is highly possible, at least in this model, that free LPS is the "specific factor" key to activate IEC or BMDC. Moreover, IECs are broadly unresponsive to gram-positive bacterial components, notably TLR-2 ligands, in contrast to gram-negative bacterial components. These results suggest that the gut epithelium will sense the commensal bacteria in a different way, and seems to be unresponsive to gram positive bacteria in particular to LAB. PMID:19264370

  16. Methods for culturing retinal pigment epithelial cells: a review of current protocols and future recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Fronk, Aaron H; Vargis, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium is an important part of the vertebrate eye, particularly in studying the causes and possible treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The retinal pigment epithelium is difficult to access in vivo due to its location at the back of the eye, making experimentation with age-related macular degeneration treatments problematic. An alternative to in vivo experimentation is cultivating the retinal pigment epithelium in vitro, a practice that has been going on since the 1970s, providing a wide range of retinal pigment epithelial culture protocols, each producing cells and tissue of varying degrees of similarity to natural retinal pigment epithelium. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers with a ready list of retinal pigment epithelial protocols, their effects on cultured tissue, and their specific possible applications. Protocols using human and animal retinal pigment epithelium cells, derived from tissue or cell lines, are discussed, and recommendations for future researchers included. PMID:27493715

  17. Methods for culturing retinal pigment epithelial cells: a review of current protocols and future recommendations.

    PubMed

    Fronk, Aaron H; Vargis, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium is an important part of the vertebrate eye, particularly in studying the causes and possible treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The retinal pigment epithelium is difficult to access in vivo due to its location at the back of the eye, making experimentation with age-related macular degeneration treatments problematic. An alternative to in vivo experimentation is cultivating the retinal pigment epithelium in vitro, a practice that has been going on since the 1970s, providing a wide range of retinal pigment epithelial culture protocols, each producing cells and tissue of varying degrees of similarity to natural retinal pigment epithelium. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers with a ready list of retinal pigment epithelial protocols, their effects on cultured tissue, and their specific possible applications. Protocols using human and animal retinal pigment epithelium cells, derived from tissue or cell lines, are discussed, and recommendations for future researchers included. PMID:27493715

  18. Autologous Transplantation of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cell Sheets Cultured on an Amniotic Membrane Substrate for Intraoral Mucosal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Amemiya, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kanamura, Narisato

    2015-01-01

    The human amniotic membrane (AM) is a thin intrauterine placental membrane that is highly biocompatible and possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring properties. Using AM, we developed a novel method for cultivating oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets. We investigated the autologous transplantation of oral mucosal epithelial cells cultured on AM in patients undergoing oral surgeries. We obtained specimens of AM from women undergoing cesarean sections. This study included five patients without any history of a medical disorder who underwent autologous cultured oral epithelial transplantation following oral surgical procedures. Using oral mucosal biopsy specimens obtained from these patients, we cultured oral epithelial cells on an AM carrier. We transplanted the resultant cell sheets onto the oral mucosal defects. Patients were followed-up for at least 12 months after transplantation. After 2–3 weeks of being cultured on AM, epithelial cells were well differentiated and had stratified into five to seven layers. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cultured cells expressed highly specific mucosal epithelial cell markers and basement membrane proteins. After the surgical procedures, no infection, bleeding, rejection, or sheet detachment occurred at the reconstructed sites, at which new oral mucous membranes were evident. No recurrence was observed in the long-term follow-up, and the postoperative course was excellent. Our results suggest that AM-cultured oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets represent a useful biomaterial and feasible method for oral mucosal reconstruction. However, our primary clinical study only evaluated their effects on a limited number of small oral mucosal defects. PMID:25915046

  19. Serum-Free and Xenobiotic-Free Preservation of Cultured Human Limbal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Utheim, Oeygunn; Islam, Rakibul; Lyberg, Torstein; Roald, Borghild; Eidet, Jon Roger; de la Paz, Maria Fideliz; Dartt, Darlene A.; Raeder, Sten; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2015-01-01

    Aim/Purpose of the Study To develop a one-week storage method, without serum and xenobiotics, that would maintain cell viability, morphology, and phenotype of cultured human limbal epithelial sheets. Materials and Methods Human limbal explants were cultured on intact human amniotic membranes for two weeks. The sheets were stored in a hermetically sealed container at 23°C in either a serum-free medium with selected animal serum-derived compounds (Quantum 286) or a xenobiotic-free medium (Minimal Essential Medium) for 4 and 7 days. Stored and non-stored cultures were analyzed for cell viability, amniotic membrane and epithelial sheet thickness, and a panel of immunohistochemical markers for immature cells (ΔNp63α, p63, Bmi-1, C/EBP∂, ABCG2 and K19), differentiated cells (K3 and Cx43), proliferation (PCNA), and apoptosis (Caspase-3). Results The cell viability of the cultures was 98 ± 1% and remained high after storage. Mean central thickness of non-stored limbal epithelial sheets was 23 ± 3 μm, and no substantial loss of cells was observed after storage. The non-stored epithelial sheets expressed a predominantly immature phenotype with ΔNp63α positivity of more than 3% in 9 of 13 cultures. After storage, the expression of ABCG2 and C/EBP∂ was reduced for the 7 day Quantum 286-storage group; (P = 0.04), and Bmi-1 was reduced after 4 day Quantum 286-storage; (P = 0.02). No other markers varied significantly. The expression of differentiation markers was unrelated to the thickness of the epithelia and amniotic membrane, apart from ABCG2, which correlated negatively with thickness of limbal epithelia (R = -0.69, P = 0.01) and ΔNp63α, which correlated negatively with amniotic membrane thickness (R = -0.59, P = 0.03). Conclusion Limbal epithelial cells cultured from explants on amniotic membrane can be stored at 23°C in both serum-free and xenobiotic-free media, with sustained cell viability, ultrastructure, and ΔNp63α-positivity after both 4 and 7 days

  20. Sustained in vitro intestinal epithelial culture within a Wnt-dependent stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Ootani, Akifumi; Li, Xingnan; Sangiorgi, Eugenio; Ho, Quoc T; Ueno, Hiroo; Toda, Shuji; Sugihara, Hajime; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Weissman, Irving L; Capecchi, Mario R; Kuo, Calvin J

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro analysis of intestinal epithelium has been hampered by a lack of suitable culture systems. Here we describe robust long-term methodology for small and large intestinal culture, incorporating an air-liquid interface and underlying stromal elements. These cultures showed prolonged intestinal epithelial expansion as sphere-like organoids with proliferation and multilineage differentiation. The Wnt growth factor family positively regulates proliferation of the intestinal epithelium in vivo. Accordingly, culture growth was inhibited by the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) and markedly stimulated by a fusion protein between the Wnt agonist R-spondin-1 and immunoglobulin Fc (RSpo1-Fc). Furthermore, treatment with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine and neurogenin-3 overexpression induced goblet cell and enteroendocrine cell differentiation, respectively, consistent with endogenous Notch signaling and lineage plasticity. Epithelial cells derived from both leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein–coupled receptor-5–positive (Lgr5+) and B lymphoma moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region homolog-1–positive (Bmi1+) lineages, representing putative intestinal stem cell (ISC) populations, were present in vitro and were expanded by treatment with RSpo1-Fc; this increased number of Lgr5+ cells upon RSpo1-Fc treatment was subsequently confirmed in vivo. Our results indicate successful long-term intestinal culture within a microenvironment accurately recapitulating the Wnt- and Notch-dependent ISC niche. PMID:19398967

  1. Sustained in vitro intestinal epithelial culture within a Wnt-dependent stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Ootani, Akifumi; Li, Xingnan; Sangiorgi, Eugenio; Ho, Quoc T; Ueno, Hiroo; Toda, Shuji; Sugihara, Hajime; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Weissman, Irving L; Capecchi, Mario R; Kuo, Calvin J

    2009-06-01

    The in vitro analysis of intestinal epithelium has been hampered by a lack of suitable culture systems. Here we describe robust long-term methodology for small and large intestinal culture, incorporating an air-liquid interface and underlying stromal elements. These cultures showed prolonged intestinal epithelial expansion as sphere-like organoids with proliferation and multilineage differentiation. The Wnt growth factor family positively regulates proliferation of the intestinal epithelium in vivo. Accordingly, culture growth was inhibited by the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) and markedly stimulated by a fusion protein between the Wnt agonist R-spondin-1 and immunoglobulin Fc (RSpo1-Fc). Furthermore, treatment with the gamma-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine and neurogenin-3 overexpression induced goblet cell and enteroendocrine cell differentiation, respectively, consistent with endogenous Notch signaling and lineage plasticity. Epithelial cells derived from both leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor-5-positive (Lgr5(+)) and B lymphoma moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region homolog-1-positive (Bmi1(+)) lineages, representing putative intestinal stem cell (ISC) populations, were present in vitro and were expanded by treatment with RSpo1-Fc; this increased number of Lgr5(+) cells upon RSpo1-Fc treatment was subsequently confirmed in vivo. Our results indicate successful long-term intestinal culture within a microenvironment accurately recapitulating the Wnt- and Notch-dependent ISC niche. PMID:19398967

  2. Lithium chloride induces mesenchymal‑to‑epithelial reverting transition in primary colon cancer cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Costabile, Valeria; Duraturo, Francesca; Delrio, Paolo; Rega, Daniela; Pace, Ugo; Liccardo, Raffaella; Rossi, Giovanni Battista; Genesio, Rita; Nitsch, Lucio; Izzo, Paola; De Rosa, Marina

    2015-05-01

    Epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers stem cell‑like phenotype and more motile properties to carcinoma cells. During EMT, the expression of E‑cadherin decreases, resulting in loss of cell‑cell adhesion and increased migration. Expression of Twist1 and other pleiotropic transcription factors, such as Snail, is known to activate EMT. We established primary colon cancer cell cultures from samples of operated patients and validated cultures by cytogenetic and molecular biology approaches. Western blot assay, quantitative real‑time PCR and immunofluorescence were performed to investigate the expression of E‑cadherin, vimentin, β‑catenin, cytokeratin‑20 and ‑18, Twist1, Snail, CD44, cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX2), Sox2, Oct4 and Nanog. Moreover, cell differentiation was induced by incubation with LiCl‑containing medium for 10 days. We observed that these primary colorectal cancer (CRC) cells lost expression of the E‑cadherin epithelial marker, which was instead expressed in cancer and normal colon mucosa of the same patient, while overexpressed vimentin (mesenchymal marker), Twist1, Snail (EMT markers) and COX2. Cytokeratin‑18 was expressed both in tissues and cell cultures. Expression of stem cell markers, such as CD44, Oct4 and Nanog, were also observed. Following differentiation with the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) inhibitor LiCl, the cells began to express E‑cadherin and, at once, Twist1 and Snail expression was strongly downregulated, suggesting a MET‑reverting process. In conclusion, we established primary colon mesenchymal cancer cell cultures expressing mesenchymal and epithelial biomarkers together with high level of EMT transcription factors. We propose that they could represent a good model for studying EMT and its reverting mechanism, the mesenchymal‑to‑epithelial transition (MET). Our observation indicates that LiCl, a GSK3β inhibitor, induces MET in vitro, suggesting that LiCl and GSK3β could represent

  3. Epithelial morphogenesis of MDCK cells in three-dimensional collagen culture is modulated by interleukin-8.

    PubMed

    Wells, Erika K; Yarborough, OrLando; Lifton, Richard P; Cantley, Lloyd G; Caplan, Michael J

    2013-05-15

    Epithelial morphogenesis is dependent upon a variety of factors, many of which involve complex interactions between cells and their surrounding environments. We analyzed the patterns of differential gene expression associated with Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) renal epithelial cells grown within a collagen gel in three-dimensional (3D) culture compared with those grown atop a collagen gel in two-dimensional (2D) culture. Under these conditions, MDCK cells spontaneously formed either hollow spherical cysts or flat monolayer sheets, respectively. Microarray analysis of gene expression revealed a twofold or greater expression difference in 732 gene sets from MDCK cysts compared with monolayers (false discovery rate or FDR-adjusted P values <0.05). Interleukin-8 (IL-8) was reproducibly found to be among the genes whose expression was most dramatically upregulated, and this behavior was verified through real-time PCR analysis. The level of IL-8 protein expression was significantly increased in 3D MDCK cultures compared with that detected in cells in 2D culture. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induces MDCK cells in 3D culture to form linear tubule-like structures. We found that HGF stimulation caused MDCK cells in 3D culture to decrease the expression of IL-8 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the addition of recombinant IL-8 to HGF-stimulated 3D MDCK cultures was sufficient to partially reverse the tubulogenic effects of HGF, resulting in the formation of cystic structures. These data suggest that IL-8 participates in the formation of cystic structures by MDCK cells in 3D culture and that HGF may stimulate tubulogenesis through the suppression of IL-8. PMID:23485708

  4. Organotypic culture in three dimensions prevents radiation-induced transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Coquelin, Melissa; Luitel, Krishna; Batten, Kimberly; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of radiation in two-dimensional (2D) cell culture conditions may not recapitulate tissue responses as modeled in three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture. In this study, we determined if the frequency of radiation-induced transformation and cancer progression differed in 3D compared to 2D culture. Telomerase immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with shTP53 and mutant KRas expression were exposed to various types of radiation (gamma, +H, 56Fe) in either 2D or 3D culture. After irradiation, 3D structures were dissociated and passaged as a monolayer followed by measurement of transformation, cell growth and expression analysis. Cells irradiated in 3D produced significantly fewer and smaller colonies in soft agar than their 2D-irradiated counterparts (gamma P = 0.0004; +H P = 0.049; 56Fe P < 0.0001). The cell culture conditions did not affect cell killing, the ability of cells to survive in a colony formation assay, and proliferation rates after radiation—implying there was no selection against cells in or dissociated from 3D conditions. However, DNA damage repair and apoptosis markers were increased in 2D cells compared to 3D cells after radiation. Ideally, expanding the utility of 3D culture will allow for a better understanding of the biological consequences of radiation exposure. PMID:27539227

  5. Organotypic culture in three dimensions prevents radiation-induced transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Coquelin, Melissa; Luitel, Krishna; Batten, Kimberly; Shay, Jerry W

    2016-01-01

    The effects of radiation in two-dimensional (2D) cell culture conditions may not recapitulate tissue responses as modeled in three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture. In this study, we determined if the frequency of radiation-induced transformation and cancer progression differed in 3D compared to 2D culture. Telomerase immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with shTP53 and mutant KRas expression were exposed to various types of radiation (gamma, (+)H, (56)Fe) in either 2D or 3D culture. After irradiation, 3D structures were dissociated and passaged as a monolayer followed by measurement of transformation, cell growth and expression analysis. Cells irradiated in 3D produced significantly fewer and smaller colonies in soft agar than their 2D-irradiated counterparts (gamma P = 0.0004; (+)H P = 0.049; (56)Fe P < 0.0001). The cell culture conditions did not affect cell killing, the ability of cells to survive in a colony formation assay, and proliferation rates after radiation-implying there was no selection against cells in or dissociated from 3D conditions. However, DNA damage repair and apoptosis markers were increased in 2D cells compared to 3D cells after radiation. Ideally, expanding the utility of 3D culture will allow for a better understanding of the biological consequences of radiation exposure. PMID:27539227

  6. Three-dimensional Culture Conditions Lead to Decreased Radiation Induced Crytoxicity in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Marianne B.; Chrisler, William B.; Zens, Kyra D.; Ashjian, Emily J.; Opresko, Lee K.

    2010-05-01

    For both targeted and non-targeted exposures, the cellular responses to ionizing radiation have predominantly been measured in two dimensional monolayer cultures. Although convenient for biochemical analysis, the true interactions in vivo depend upon complex interactions between cells themselves and the surrounding extra cellular matrix. This study directly compares the influence of culture conditions on radiation induced cytotoxicity following exposure to low-LET ionizing radiation. Using a three dimensional (3D) human mammary epithelial tissue model, we have found a protective effect of 3D cell culture on cell survival after irradiation. The initial state of the cells (i.e., 2D vs. 3D culture) at the time of irradiation does not alter survival, nor does the presence of extracellular matrix during and after exposure to dose, but long term culture in 3D which offers significant reduction in cytotoxicity at a given dose (e.g. ~4 fold increased survival at 5 Gy). The cell cycle delay induced following exposure to 2 and 5 Gy was almost identical between 2D and 3D culture conditions and cannot account for the observed differences in radiation responses. However the amount of apoptosis following radiation exposure is significantly decreased in 3D culture relative to the 2D monolayer after the same dose. A likely mechanism of the cytoprotective effect afforded by 3D culture conditions is the down regulation of radiation induced apoptosis in 3D structures

  7. Three-Dimensional Culture of Functional Adult Rabbit Lacrimal Gland Epithelial Cells on Decellularized Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Sun, Guoying; He, Hong; Botsford, Benjamin; Li, Mackenzie; Elisseeff, Jennifer H; Yiu, Samuel C

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous tear-deficient dry eye disease is a multifactorial chronic disorder, in which the lacrimal gland fails to produce enough tears to maintain a healthy ocular surface. Some severe cases may develop corneal damage and significant vision loss. Treatment primarily involves palliation using ocular surface lubricants, but can only provide temporary relief. Construction of a bioengineered lacrimal gland having functional secretory epithelial cells is a potentially promising option for providing long-term relief to severe dry eye patients. Using sphere-forming culture techniques, we cultured adult rabbit lacrimal gland progenitor cells and prepared a lacrimal gland scaffold by decellularization. When progenitor cells were seeded onto the decellularized scaffold, they formed duct- and acinar-like structures in the three-dimensional culture system. Lacrimal gland epithelial cells showed good cell viability, cell differentiation, and secretory function in decellularized lacrimal gland matrix, as indicated by morphology, immunostaining, and β-hexosaminidase secretion assay. This study demonstrated the potential suitability of utilizing tissue-specific progenitor cells and a tissue-derived bioscaffold for lacrimal gland restoration. PMID:26414959

  8. Mechanophysical Stimulations of Mucin Secretion in Cultures of Nasal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Even-Tzur Davidovich, Nurit; Kloog, Yoel; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2011-01-01

    Nasal epithelial cells secret mucins and are exposed in vivo to airflow-induced mechanophysical stresses, including wall shear stress (WSS), temperature, and humidity. In this work, human nasal epithelial cells cultured under air-liquid interface conditions were subjected to fields of airflow-induced oscillatory WSS at different temperature and humidity conditions. Changes in mucin secretion due to WSS were measured and the role of the cytoskeleton in mucin secretion was explored. Mucin secretion significantly increased in response to WSS in a magnitude-dependent manner with respect to static cultures and independently of the airflow temperature and humidity. In static cultures, mucin secretion decreased at high humidity with or without elevation of the temperature with respect to cultures at a comfortable climate. In cultures exposed to WSS, mucin secretion increased at high temperature with respect to cultures at comfortable climate conditions. The polymerization of actin microfilaments was shown to increase mucin secretion under WSS, whereas the dynamics of microtubule polymerization did not affect secretion. In conclusion, the data in this study show that mucin secretion is sensitive to oscillatory WSS as well as high temperature and humidity conditions. PMID:21689518

  9. Cell Lineage Identification and Stem Cell Culture in a Porcine Model for the Study of Intestinal Epithelial Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Williamson, Ian; Piedrahita, Jorge A.; Blikslager, Anthony T.; Magness, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Significant advances in intestinal stem cell biology have been made in murine models; however, anatomical and physiological differences between mice and humans limit mice as a translational model for stem cell based research. The pig has been an effective translational model, and represents a candidate species to study intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) driven regeneration. The lack of validated reagents and epithelial culture methods is an obstacle to investigating IESC driven regeneration in a pig model. In this study, antibodies against Epithelial Adhesion Molecule 1 (EpCAM) and Villin marked cells of epithelial origin. Antibodies against Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), Minichromosome Maintenance Complex 2 (MCM2), Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and phosphorylated Histone H3 (pH3) distinguished proliferating cells at various stages of the cell cycle. SOX9, localized to the stem/progenitor cells zone, while HOPX was restricted to the +4/‘reserve’ stem cell zone. Immunostaining also identified major differentiated lineages. Goblet cells were identified by Mucin 2 (MUC2); enteroendocrine cells by Chromogranin A (CGA), Gastrin and Somatostatin; and absorptive enterocytes by carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and sucrase isomaltase (SIM). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated morphologic and sub-cellular characteristics of stem cell and differentiated intestinal epithelial cell types. Quantitative PCR gene expression analysis enabled identification of stem/progenitor cells, post mitotic cell lineages, and important growth and differentiation pathways. Additionally, a method for long-term culture of porcine crypts was developed. Biomarker characterization and development of IESC culture in the porcine model represents a foundation for translational studies of IESC-driven regeneration of the intestinal epithelium in physiology and disease. PMID:23840480

  10. Effects of steroids on the secretion of immunoregulatory factors by thymic epithelial cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Stimson, W H; Crilly, P J

    1981-01-01

    Rat thymic epithelial cells were cultured for 39 days in the presence of various concentrations of oestradiol, testosterone, progesterone and corticosterone and the supernatants assessed for effects on the stimulation of cells from the thymus, bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen, with several agents. All the steroids, except progesterone, were found to significantly regulate the secretion of immunoregulatory factors by the epithelial cells at physiological levels but the effects were dose dependent. Fractionation of active supernatants indicated that the capacity to enhance or depress cellular proliferation was mainly associated with substances having molecular weights greater than 30,000 or less than 1000, respectively. This study supports the idea that certain steroids can influence the immune response indirectly through the thymus. PMID:7298074

  11. Establishment of feline intestinal epithelial cell cultures for the propagation and study of feline enteric coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Vermeulen, Ben L; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is the most feared infectious cause of death in cats, induced by feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). This coronavirus is a virulent mutant of the harmless, ubiquitous feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). To date, feline coronavirus (FCoV) research has been hampered by the lack of susceptible cell lines for the propagation of serotype I FCoVs. In this study, long-term feline intestinal epithelial cell cultures were established from primary ileocytes and colonocytes by simian virus 40 (SV40) T-antigen- and human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT)-induced immortalization. Subsequently, these cultures were evaluated for their usability in FCoV research. Firstly, the replication capacity of the serotype II strains WSU 79-1683 and WSU 79-1146 was studied in the continuous cultures as was done for the primary cultures. In accordance with the results obtained in primary cultures, FCoV WSU 79-1683 still replicated significantly more efficient compared to FCoV WSU 79-1146 in both continuous cultures. In addition, the cultures were inoculated with faecal suspensions from healthy cats and with faecal or tissue suspensions from FIP cats. The cultures were susceptible to infection with different serotype I enteric strains and two of these strains were further propagated. No infection was seen in cultures inoculated with FIPV tissue homogenates. In conclusion, a new reliable model for FCoV investigation and growth of enteric field strains was established. In contrast to FIPV strains, FECVs showed a clear tropism for intestinal epithelial cells, giving an explanation for the observation that FECV is the main pathotype circulating among cats. PMID:23964891

  12. Lens and cataract: clastogenic responses in epithelial cells of the organ-cultured rat lens

    SciTech Connect

    Geard, C.R.; Worgul, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    The epithelial cells of the vertebrate lens have an unique character and a probable involvement in cataract formation, which could be initiated by exogenous stimuli. Individual rat lenses were organ-cultured, and the effects of mitomycin C and gamma rays on sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), chromosomal aberrations, and cellular kinetics assessed in cells from the epithelial monolayer. SCE showed about a 5.5-fold increase over the mitomycin C dose range (0, 17, 83, 170 nM), while chromosomal aberrations increased 38-fold. In cells from untreated lenses, SCE were 1600 times more frequent than aberrations and at a level consistent with in vivo assessments in other cell types. Gamma rays (up to 4 Gy) had a greater inhibiting effect on cellular progression, while 17 nM mitomycin C and 1 Gy induced similar clastogenic responses. This first demonstration of such changes in lens epithelial cells expands on the cell types available for monitoring potential mutagen-carcinogens. Additionally chromosomal changes resulting from lens cellular challenge could be the basis of later cytopathological changes in the lens, of which cataract is the primary concern to humans. Potential cataractogens warrant monitoring, and the study outlined may aid in this endeavor, as well as contributing to an understanding of cataract etiology.

  13. In vitro optimization of the Gallus domesticus oviduct epithelial cells culture.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, K; Bajek, A; Joachimiak, R; Walasik, K; Marszalek, A; Drewa, T; Bednarczyk, M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this experiment was to establish an efficient method for isolation and further culture in vitro of the normal chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) for cell-based research models. Different factors were tested to optimize COEC primary culture for repeatable results: the origin of isolated cells (oviduct Infundibulum or Magnum section); the oviduct tissue dissociation procedure (mechanical scrapping or mincing), tissue digestion times (15, 30 and 45 min), the culture plates coating (colagene I, polystyrene surface or 3T3 feeder layer), the growth media (classic DMEM/Ham's F12 and defined serum-free medium, Lonza Switzerland), incubation temperature (37 °C vs 41°C) and different cell seeding numbers: 0.2M, 0.5M and 1.0M cells/well. The COEC isolated by mincing the Infundibular neck and digestion of tissue for 30 min formed cell aggregates of bright colour and gave proliferating colonies of epithelial-like character which was the best result obtained from all applied procedures in our studies. The fibroblast-like cells considered as contaminants occurred only sporadically up to day 7 of culture. Seeding about 1M cells in 1 mL of serum-free medium onto 12-well dishes gave the optimal growth of colonies resulting in 5 to 7 confluent culture wells from a single oviduct sample. Feeder layer and collagen I did not improve adhesion of the COEC to the culture vessel. Adoption of 37 °C and 41 °C did not reveal apparent differences to the condition of cultured COEC. Cell differentiation and proliferation potential depends on number and replicative capacity of isolated progenitors. The progenitors are responsible for holoclones formation and good culture growth. The percentage of colonies developed from the cells isolated from Infundibulum was greater than that of other samples in our studies. We conclude that the model of COEC primary cultures from different segments of oviduct, in particular infundibulum, should be incorporated to the range of avian cells

  14. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER): a functional parameter to monitor the quality of oviduct epithelial cells cultured on filter supports.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuai; Einspanier, Ralf; Schoen, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Cultivation of oviduct epithelial cells on porous filters fosters in vivo-like morphology and functionality. However, due to the optical properties of the filter materials and the cells' columnar shape, cell quality is hard to assess via light microscopy. In this study, we aim to evaluate transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement as a prognostic quality indicator for the cultivation of porcine oviduct epithelial cells (POEC). POEC were maintained in four different types of media for 3 and 6 w to achieve diverse culture qualities, and TEER was measured before processing samples for histology. Culture quality was scored using morphological criteria (presence of cilia, confluence and cell polarity). We furthermore analyzed the correlation between cellular height (as a measure of apical-basal polarization) and TEER in fully differentiated routine cultures (biological variation) and in cultures with altered cellular height due to hormonal stimulation. Fully differentiated cultures possessed a moderate TEER between 500 and 1100 Ω*cm(2). Only 5% of cultures which exhibited TEER values in this defined range had poor quality. Sub-differentiated cultures showed either very low or excessively high TEER. We unveiled a highly significant (P < 0.0001) negative linear correlation between TEER and epithelial height in well-differentiated cultures (both routine and hormone stimulated group). This may point toward the interaction between tight junction assembly and epithelial apical-basal polarization. In conclusion, TEER is a straightforward quality indicator which could be routinely used to monitor the differentiation status of oviduct epithelial cells in vitro. PMID:26223877

  15. Quantum dot labeling and tracking of cultured limbal epithelial cell transplants in-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Genicio, Nuria; Paramo, Juan Gallo; Shortt, Alex J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Cultured human limbal epithelial cells (HLEC) have shown promise in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency but little is known about their survival, behaviour and long-term fate post transplantation. The aim of this research was to evaluate, in-vitro, quantum dot (QDot) technology as a tool for tracking transplanted HLEC. METHODS In-vitro cultured HLEC were labeled with Qdot nanocrystals. Toxicity was assessed using live-dead assays. The effect on HLEC function was assessed using colony forming efficiency assays and expression of CK3, P63alpha and ABCG2. Sheets of cultured HLEC labeled with Qdot nanocrystals were transplanted onto decellularised human corneo-scleral rims in an organ culture model and observed to investigate the behaviour of transplanted cells. RESULTS Qdot labeling had no detrimental effect on HLEC viability or function in-vitro. Proliferation resulted in a gradual reduction in Qdot signal but sufficient signal was present to allow tracking of cells through multiple generations. Cells labeled with Qdots could be reliably detected and observed using confocal microscopy for at least 2 weeks post transplantation in our organ culture model. In addition it was possible to label and observe epithelial cells in intact human corneas using the Rostock corneal module adapted for use with the Heidelberg HRA. CONCLUSIONS This work demonstrates that Qdots combined with existing clinical equipment could be used to track HLEC for up to 2 weeks post transplantation, however, our model does not permit the assessment of cell labeling beyond 2 weeks. Further characterisation in in-vivo models are required. PMID:26024089

  16. Differentiation of normal and cultured preneoplastic tracheal epithellal cells in rats: importance of epithelial mesenchymal interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Terzaghi, M.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.

    1980-11-01

    Changes in the dependence on mesenchymal tissues for survival and differentiation in inbred F344 female rats were investigated in tracheal epithelial cells exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Fresh suspensions of normal tracheal epithelium or cultured preneoplastic cells were inoculated into isolated organ segments (trachea, esophagus, bladder, or small intestine) or into Dacron containers that were then implanted subdermally into isogenic recipients. At various times after cell inoculation and implantation, tissues were removed for histologic evaluation. Normal cells inoculated into frozen-thawed trachea, esophagus, bladder, and intestine yielded a regular mucociliary epithelium. Normal cell inocula did not, however, survive in trachea previously heated (100/sup 0/C), fixed in ethanol, or digested with collagenese; nor did normal cells survive in Dacron containers unless tracheal fibroblasts plus epithelial cells were inoculated together. DMBA- and TPA-exposed cell populations with increased growth capacity in vitro survived and differentiated on all of the above substrates. For survival and differentiation in vivo, preneoplastic cells appeared to have less stringent substrate requirements than did normal cells. Application of the described techniques to the study of changes occurring early in the development of neoplastic disease is discussed.

  17. Azithromycin: assessment of intrinsic cytotoxic effects on corneal epithelial cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Mencucci, Rita; Pellegrini-Giampietro, Domenico E; Paladini, Iacopo; Favuzza, Eleonora; Menchini, Ugo; Scartabelli, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the cytotoxic effects of preservative-free azithromycin on corneal epithelial cells in vivo with those of preservative-free netilmicin and levofloxacin, and the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods Rabbit corneal epithelial cells in vitro were incubated for 15 minutes or 6 hours with commercially available ophthalmic preservative-free netilmicin 0.3%, levofloxacin 0.3%, or azithromycin 1.5% preparations or different concentrations of unpreserved azithromycin and different concentrations of BAK. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using phase-contrast optics to examine the morphological aspects of cell cultures and quantitative analysis was undertaken by measuring the release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase into the medium immediately and 24 hours after exposure to drugs. Finally, we observed the wound-healing rate of mechanically injured corneal epithelial cells exposed to each antibiotic ophthalmic preparation for 48 hours. Results Our results show that both the commercially available unpreserved mono-dose preparation of azithromycin and ophthalmic preparations of azithromycin up to a concentration of 1.5% were virtually devoid of harmful effects under our experimental conditions. This was not significantly different from the results obtained for the other antibiotic preparations (P > 0.05) tested, but was unlike the results obtained for BAK. Azithromycin 1.5% also showed good recovery properties after a mechanical wound test. Conclusion Under our experimental conditions, unpreserved azithromycin 1.5% showed a much lower toxicity than BAK and did not interfere with the wound-healing process. PMID:23737659

  18. Isolation and Culture of Bovine Oviductal Epithelial Cells for Use in the Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory and Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents methods for the isolation and culture of epithelial cells from the bovine oviduct for use in both research and the teaching laboratory and provides examples of ways that an oviductal cell culture can be incorporated into an undergraduate research program. Cow reproductive tracts are readily available from area butchers, and…

  19. Altered aldose reductase gene regulation in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, D N; Del Monte, M; Greene, D A; Killen, P D

    1993-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR2), a putative "hypertonicity stress protein" whose gene is induced by hyperosmolarity, protects renal medullary cells against the interstitial hyperosmolarity of antidiuresis by catalyzing the synthesis of millimolar concentrations of intracellular sorbitol from glucose. Although AR2 gene induction has been noted in a variety of renal and nonrenal cells subjected to hypertonic stress in vitro, the functional significance of AR2 gene expression in cells not normally exposed to a hyperosmolar milieu is not fully understood. The physiological impact of basal AR2 expression in such cells may be limited to hyperglycemic states in which AR2 promotes pathological polyol accumulation, a mechanism invoked in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Since AR2 overexpression in the retinal pigment epithelium has been associated with diabetic retinopathy, the regulation of AR2 gene expression and associated changes in sorbitol and myo-inositol were studied in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture. The relative abundance of aldehyde reductase (AR1) and AR2 mRNA was quantitated by filter hybridization of RNA from several human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines exposed to hyperglycemic and hyperosmolar conditions in vitro. AR2 but not AR1 mRNA was significantly increased some 11- to 18-fold by hyperosmolarity in several retinal pigment epithelial cell lines. A single cell line with a 15-fold higher basal level of AR2 mRNA than other cell lines tested demonstrated no significant increase in AR2 mRNA in response to hypertonic stress. This cell line demonstrated accelerated and exaggerated production of sorbitol and depletion of myo-inositol upon exposure to 20 mM glucose. Therefore, abnormal AR2 expression may enhance the sensitivity of cells to the biochemical consequences of hyperglycemia potentiating the development of diabetic complications. Images PMID:8349800

  20. PRIMARY CULTURE OF CHOROIDAL EPITHELIAL CELLS: CHARACTERIZATION OF AN IN VITRO MODEL OF BLOOD-CSF BARRIER

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, WEI; ZHAO, QIUQU; GRAZIANO, JOSEPH H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary A primary rat choroidal epithelial cell culture system was developed to investigate mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity on the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier. Epithelial cells were dissociated from choroidal tissue by pronase digestion and cultured in standard DMEM culture media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 10 ng epithelial growth factor per ml. The procedure yielded 2–5 × 104 cells from pooled plexuses of three to four rats, and a viability of 77–85%. The cultures displayed a dominant polygonal type of epithelial cells, with a population doubling time of 2–3 d. The cultures were of distinct choroidal epithelial origins. For example, immunocytochemical studies using monospecific rabbit anti-rat TTR polyclonal antibody revealed a strong positive stain of transthyretin (TTR), a thyroxine transport protein exclusively produced by the choroidal epithelia. Also, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of specific TTR mRNA in the cultures. The cultures were further adapted to grow on a freely permeable membrane sandwiched between two culture chambers. The formation of an impermeable confluent monolayer occurred within 5 d after seeding and was verified by the presence of a steady electrical resistance across the membrane (80 ± 10 ohm per cm2). The epithelial barriers appeared to actively transport [125I]-thyroxine from the basal to apical chamber. These results suggest that this primary cell culture system possesses typical choroidal epithelial characteristics and appears to be a suitable model for in vitro mechanistic investigations of blood–CSF barrier. PMID:9542634

  1. Biocompatibility of microplates for culturing epithelial renal cells evaluated by a microcalorimetric technique.

    PubMed

    Xie, Y; DePierre, J W; Nässberger, L

    2000-09-01

    In the present study we have developed a microcalorimetric procedure which allows convenient investigation of biocompatibility in a microsystem. We examined the biocompatibility of a porcine renal epithelial tubule cell line LLC-PK1 and a human primary renal epithelial tubule cell (RPTEC) with microplates composed of three different materials, i.e. Thermanox, transparent film and titanium. All three materials showed equal biocompatibility with LLC-PK1 cells, judging from the attainment of steady-state power curves and the same rate of heat production per cell (2.5 microW / microg DNA). The human renal cells were poorly biocompatible with the Thermanox and transparent film. However, on titanium the RPTEC cell did adhere, as demonstrated by a steady-state power curve. The human cells also showed a higher metabolic activity (3.0 microW / microg DNA), than did LLC-PK1 cells cultured on the same type of microplates. In research on biocompatibility there is a need for alternatives to experimental animal investigations. The present technique allows studies of cellular interactions with different biomaterials in a rapid and standardized manner and may therefore prove to be a useful screening procedure. PMID:15348389

  2. Evaluation of Differentiated Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Culture Systems for Asthma Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ceri E.; Torr, Elizabeth E.; Mohd Jamili, Nur H.; Bosquillon, Cynthia; Sayers, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate primary (human bronchial epithelial cells, HBEC) and non-primary (Calu-3, BEAS-2B, BEAS-2B R1) bronchial epithelial cell culture systems as air-liquid interface- (ALI-) differentiated models for asthma research. Ability to differentiate into goblet (MUC5AC+) and ciliated (β-Tubulin IV+) cells was evaluated by confocal imaging and qPCR. Expression of tight junction/adhesion proteins (ZO-1, E-Cadherin) and development of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) were assessed. Primary cells showed localised MUC5AC, β-Tubulin IV, ZO-1, and E-Cadherin and developed TEER with, however, a large degree of inter- and intradonor variation. Calu-3 cells developed a more reproducible TEER and a phenotype similar to primary cells although with diffuse β-Tubulin IV staining. BEAS-2B cells did not differentiate or develop tight junctions. These data highlight the challenges in working with primary cell models and the need for careful characterisation and selection of systems to answer specific research questions. PMID:22287976

  3. The mesenchymal substrate influences the epithelial phenotype in a three-dimensional cell culture.

    PubMed

    Merne, Marina; Syrjänen, Stina

    2003-09-01

    Cell-matrix interactions are thought to influence epithelial structure, growth, and differentiation. Three-dimensional cell cultures were used to study the effects of the composition of the dermal equivalent on the morphology of epithelium grown from HaCaT skin keratinocytes. Three commercial preparations, a basement membrane preparation from a tumor (matrix 1), two preparations consisting of collagen type I and III (matrix 3 and 4) and a noncommercial preparation containing collagen type I (matrix 2) were investigated. The effects of fibroblasts of different origin (vaginal mucosa, oral buccal mucosa, and skin) were investigated in connection with matrix 4. The histomorphology and expression of the proteins PCNA, Ki-67, p53, p21, pankeratin, involucrin, cytokeratin 10 (Ck10), Ck17, Ck19 and collagen type IV were evaluated. Three-dimensional cultures of HaCaT cells gave rise to an epithelium with an immature and hyperproliferative character, showing active proliferation with intense PCNA staining. Both matrix 1 and matrix 2 resulted in an epithelium with budding into the matrix and some degree of layering. These epithelia showed only scattered Ck17 and Ck19 expression but a low terminal differentiation potential as indicated by scattered Ck10 and involucrin staining. The epithelia of cocultures with matrices 3 and 4 were positive for Ck17 and Ck19. However, the epithelium on matrix 3 showed strong expression of the terminal differentiation marker Ck10 and involucrin. This methodological study provides evidence of the importance of standardization of the composition of the matrix to avoid confounding effects on epithelial morphology and protein expression in studies using a three-dimensional epithelial culture model. PMID:12898149

  4. Three-dimensional culture sensitizes epithelial ovarian cancer cells to EZH2 methyltransferase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Amatangelo, Michael D.; Garipov, Azat; Li, Hua; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.; Speicher, David W.; Zhang, Rugang

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of EZH2 methyltransferase activity have been demonstrated to selectively suppress the growth of diffused large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells with gain-of-function mutations in EZH2, while exhibiting very limited effects on the growth of DLBCL cells with wild-type EZH2. Given that EZH2 is often overexpressed but not mutated in solid tumors, it is important to investigate the determinants of sensitivity of solid tumor cells to EZH2 inhibitors. In the current study, we show that three-dimensional (3D) culture of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells that overexpress EZH2 sensitizes these cells to EZH2 methyltransferase inhibition. Treatment of EOC cells with GSK343, a specific inhibitor of EZH2 methyltransferase, decreases the level of H3K27Me3, the product of EZH2’s enzymatic activity. However, GSK343 exhibited limited effects on the growth of EOC cells in conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture. In contrast, GSK343 significantly suppressed the growth of EOC cells cultured in 3D matrigel extracellular matrix (ECM), which more closely mimics the tumor microenvironment in vivo. Notably, GSK343 induces apoptosis of EOC cells in 3D but not 2D culture. In addition, GSK343 significantly inhibited the invasion of EOC cells. In summary, we show that the 3D ECM sensitizes EOC cells to EZH2 methyltransferase inhibition, which suppresses cell growth, induces apoptosis and inhibits invasion. Our findings imply that in EZH2 wild-type solid tumors, the ECM tumor microenvironment plays an important role in determining sensitivity to EZH2 inhibition and suggest that targeting the ECM represents a novel strategy for enhancing EZH2 inhibitor efficacy. PMID:23759589

  5. Therapeutic effect of lung mixed culture-derived epithelial cells on lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kensuke; Fujita, Tetsuo; Umezawa, Hiroki; Namiki, Kana; Yoshioka, Kento; Hagihara, Masahiko; Sudo, Tatsuhiko; Kimura, Sadao; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi

    2014-11-01

    Cell-based therapy is recognized as one of potential therapeutic options for lung fibrosis. However, preparing stem/progenitor cells is complicated and not always efficient. Here, we show easily prepared cell populations having therapeutic capacity for lung inflammatory disease that are named as 'lung mixed culture-derived epithelial cells' (LMDECs). LMDECs expressed surfactant protein (SP)-C and gave rise to type I alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) in vitro and in vivo that partly satisfied type II AEC-like characteristics. An intratracheal delivery of not HEK 293 cells but LMDECs to the lung ameliorated bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung injury. A comprehensive analysis of bronchoalveolar fluid by western blot array revealed that LMDEC engraftment could improve the microenvironment in the BLM-instilled lung in association with stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 signaling axis. SDF-1 enhanced both migration activity and differentiating efficiency of LMDECs. Further classification of LMDECs by flow cytometric study showed that a major population of LMDECs (LMDEC(Maj), 84% of total LMDECs) was simultaneously SP-C(+), CD44(+), CD45(+), and hematopoietic cell lineage(+) and that LMDECs included bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) showing SP-C(+)Clara cell secretory protein(+)stem cell antigen (Sca)1(+) as a small population (1.8% of total LMDECs). CD44(+)-sorted LMDEC(Maj) and Sca1(+)-sorted LMDECs equally ameliorated fibrosis induced by BLM like LMDECs did. However, infiltrated neutrophils were observed in Sca1(+)-sorted LMDEC-treated alveoli that was not typical in LMDEC(Maj)- or LMDEC-treated alveoli. These findings suggest that the protective effect of LMDECs against BLM-induced lung injury depends greatly on that of LMDEC(Maj). Furthermore, the cells expressing both alveolar epithelial and hematopoietic cell lineage markers (SP-C(+)CD45(+)) that have characteristics corresponding to LMDEC(Maj) were observed in the alveoli of lung and

  6. Differentiation of cones in cultured rabbit retina: effects of retinal pigment epithelial cell-conditioned medium.

    PubMed

    Mack, Andreas F; Uhlmann, Daniela; Germer, Angela; Szél, Agoston; Enzmann, Volker; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2003-04-24

    This study was aimed at investigating the postnatal differentiation of cone photoreceptors in the rabbit retina in an organotypic explant culture system. Both short wavelength (S) and middle wavelength (M) cone opsins were expressed in culture but M cones appeared only in retinal explants from the dorsal half of the eye. Stimulating the explants with retinal pigment epithelial cell (RPE) conditioned medium resulted in a suppression of opsin expression despite of an increase of the number of presumptive peanut agglutinin-labeled cones. These results suggest that at birth the immature cones are largely undetermined in terms of their final cone identity although some positional information ('dorsal' vs. 'ventral' retina) is present. Furthermore, factors from RPE may inhibit as well as stimulate different steps of cone cell differentiation. PMID:12676342

  7. A bovine mammary endothelial/epithelial cell culture model of the blood/milk barrier.

    PubMed Central

    Guidry, A J; O'Brien, C N; Douglass, L W

    1998-01-01

    The complex nature of the mammary gland has hampered in-depth studies of the relationship of the circulatory system to cells lining the teat ducts and alveoli of the gland. This study reports an in vitro model of endothelial and epithelial cells separated by a subcellular matrix that simulates the blood milk barrier of the bovine mammary gland. Dual chamber culture dishes with a porous membrane separating the upper and lower chamber were used. Endothelial and epithelial cells were cultured on opposite sides of the porous membrane. A collagen and fibroblast subcellular matrix, separating the 2 cell layers, simulated the in vivo interstitial tissue. Changes in surface binding of anti-bodies to polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) following their migration from the upper to the lower chamber simulated the passage of PMN from blood to milk. Changes in the binding of antibodies to PMN agreed with results observed following the migration of PMN from blood to milk in vivo. This gives credence to the model's potential value for studies where more direct observation of the blood/milk barrier is required. The model will be further tested for its usefulness as an assay for determining: 1) antibiotic diffusion from milk to blood and from blood to milk, 2) cytotoxicity of prophylactic and therapeutic mammary infusion products, 3) factors affecting bacterial adhesion and penetration of mammary epithelial tissue, 4) effectiveness of antibodies present in lacteal secretions in preventing bacterial adhesion, and 5) the feasibility of gene constructs to induce synthesis and secretion of mastitis-preventing compounds and prophylactic and therapeutic compounds for treatment of human disorders. PMID:9553710

  8. Increased sulfation of glycoconjugates by cultured nasal epithelial cells from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, P W; Boat, T F; Cranfill, K; Yankaskas, J R; Boucher, R C

    1989-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) respiratory epithelia exhibit abnormal anion transport that may be linked to abnormal lung defense. In these studies, we investigated whether primary cultures of CF respiratory epithelial cells regulate abnormally the sulfate content of high molecular weight glycoconjugates (HMG) participating in airways' mucosal defense. HMG, including glycosaminoglycans and mucin-type glycoproteins released spontaneously into medium and HMG released from cell surfaces by trypsin, were metabolically labeled with 35SO4- and [6-3H]-glucosamine (GlcN) or 35SO4- and [3H]serine. All three classes of HMG from CF cells exhibited 35S/3H labeling ratios 1.5-4-fold greater than HMG from normal or disease control cells. Differences for labeling ratios of HMG from CF cells were shown to be the consequence of increased 35SO4- incorporation rather than decreased peptide synthesis and release or HMG glycosylation. The buoyant density of CF mucin-type HMG also was increased, consistent with increased sulfation. These observations suggest that oversulfation of a spectrum of HMG is a genetically determined characteristic of CF epithelial cells and may play an important pathophysiological role by altering the properties of mucous secretions and/or the interactions between selected bacteria and HMG at the airways' surface. Images PMID:2738159

  9. Primary Endodermal Epithelial Cell Culture from the Yolk Sac Membrane of Japanese Quail Embryos.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Jen; Wang, Siou Huei; Pan, Yu Hui; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    We established an endodermal epithelial cell culture model (EEC) for studying the function of certain enzymes and proteins in mediating nutrient utilization by avian embryos during development. Fertilized Japanese quail eggs were incubated at 37 °C for 5 days and then yolk sac membranes (YSM) were collected to establish the EEC culture system. We isolated the embryonic endoderm layer from YSM, and sliced the membrane into 2 - 3 mm pieces and partially digested with collagenase before seeding in 24-well culture plates. The EECs proliferate out of the tissue and are ready for cell culture studies. We found that the EECs had typical characteristics of YSM in vivo, for example, accumulation of lipid droplets, expression of sterol O-acyltransferase and lipoprotein lipase. The partial digestion treatment significantly increased the successful rate of EEC culture. Utilizing the EECs, we demonstrated that the expression of SOAT1 was regulated by the cAMP dependent protein kinase A related pathway. This primary Japanese quail EEC culture system is a useful tool to study embryonic lipid transportation and to clarify the role of genes involved in mediating nutrient utilization in YSM during avian embryonic development. PMID:27022687

  10. Xenobiotic and steroid biotransformation activities in rainbow trout gill epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Leguen; Carlsson; Perdu-Durand; Prunet; Pärt; Cravedi

    2000-03-01

    The biotransformation of xenobiotics and steroids was investigated in cultured respiratory epithelial cells from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gills. As a first approach, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), chosen as a marker of CYP1A activity, was measured in monolayers of adherent cells. The induction of this enzyme was studied in cells exposed to beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in concentrations ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-12) M. After 24 h, TCDD showed a maximal induction at a concentration of 10(-9) M while BNF showed a maximal induction at a concentration of 10(-7) M. Concurrently, a variety of substrates involved in cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism as well as phase II reactions, namely ethoxycoumarin, aniline and testosterone were incubated with cultured gill cells for 2 or 8 h and with freshly isolated hepatocytes for comparison. Our results revealed a significant cytochrome P450-dependent activity in gill cells with ethoxycoumarin and aniline, but no hydroxylation was observed with testosterone as substrate. No trace of sulfate conjugate was detected. With 2.5 µM aniline as substrate, 2-hydroxyaniline accounted for 32.1% of the radioactivity after 2 h incubation whereas acetanilide amounted to 6.4%. Significant differences were found between gill cells and isolated hepatocytes in the capacity of these systems to conduct oxidative and conjugating metabolic pathways. Qualitatively, the main difference was observed for testosterone which is hydroxylated in position 6beta and 16beta and conjugated to glucuronic acid in liver cells, whereas reductive biotransformation giving rise to dihydrotestosterone and androstanediol and traces of androstenedione were observed in gill cells. Quantitatively, the biotransformation activity in gill epithelial cells, expressed as pmol/h per mg protein, was between 1.5 and 14% of the activity level observed in isolated hepatocytes, depending on the substrate. PMID:10686323

  11. Development and characterization of a primary culture of chicken embryonic tracheal epithelial cells and their use in avian studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major route of infection of avian influenza is through cells of the airway epithelium. To study the molecular mechanism of infection and early host responses we created a primary chicken tracheal cell culture. Epithelial cells were isolated from the trachea of 18 day old chicken embryos and cult...

  12. Commensal Bacteria Modulate Innate Immune Responses of Vaginal Epithelial Cell Multilayer Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Rose, William A.; McGowin, Chris L.; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Pyles, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    The human vaginal microbiome plays a critical but poorly defined role in reproductive health. Vaginal microbiome alterations are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually-transmitted infections (STI) possibly due to related changes in innate defense responses from epithelial cells. Study of the impact of commensal bacteria on the vaginal mucosal surface has been hindered by current vaginal epithelial cell (VEC) culture systems that lack an appropriate interface between the apical surface of stratified squamous epithelium and the air-filled vaginal lumen. Therefore we developed a reproducible multilayer VEC culture system with an apical (luminal) air-interface that supported colonization with selected commensal bacteria. Multilayer VEC developed tight-junctions and other hallmarks of the vaginal mucosa including predictable proinflammatory cytokine secretion following TLR stimulation. Colonization of multilayers by common vaginal commensals including Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. rhamnosus led to intimate associations with the VEC exclusively on the apical surface. Vaginal commensals did not trigger cytokine secretion but Staphylococcus epidermidis, a skin commensal, was inflammatory. Lactobacilli reduced cytokine secretion in an isolate-specific fashion following TLR stimulation. This tempering of inflammation offers a potential explanation for increased susceptibility to STI in the absence of common commensals and has implications for testing of potential STI preventatives. PMID:22412914

  13. Primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells as a potential model for Toxoplasma gondii enteric cycle studies.

    PubMed

    Moura, Marcos de Assis; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; Barbosa, Helene Santos

    2009-09-01

    The primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells from domestic cats is an efficient cellular model to study the enteric cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in a definitive host. The parasite-host cell ratio can be pointed out as a decisive factor that determines the intracellular fate of bradyzoites forms. The development of the syncytial-like forms of T. gondii was observed using the 1:20 bradyzoite-host cell ratio, resulting in similar forms described in in vivo systems. This alternative study potentially opens up the field for investigation into the molecular aspects of this interaction. This can contribute to the development of new strategies for intervention of a main route by which toxoplasmosis spreads. PMID:19876557

  14. Short communication: Ability of cultured mammary epithelial cells in a bicameral system to secrete milk fat.

    PubMed

    Ernens, I; Clegg, R; Schneider, Y-J; Larondelle, Y

    2007-02-01

    Mammary epithelial cells from lactating cows were cultured onto inserts coated with type I collagen. Every second day, the rates of fatty acid synthesis and secretion were determined by measuring the amount of [14C]-labeled sodium acetate incorporated into lipids over a 4-h period. The [14C]-containing lipids were identified by thin layer chromatography fractionation. In parallel, the integrity of the cell layer was evaluated by measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance. The integrity increased progressively to reach a maximum after 8 d of culture. Cells incorporated acetate into lipids; 1.34% of acetate was incorporated into lipids produced by freshly isolated cells. This percentage decreased to 0.5% after 2 d of culture. Moreover, this capacity decreased with the duration in culture; on d 8, the rate of incorporation dropped to about 3% of that on d 2. In the cell extracts, the [14C]-labeled lipids were mainly triglycerides, although the proportion of diglycerides and phospholipids progressively increased as a part of total newly synthesized lipids. The proportion of triglycerides decreased 0.66 times between d 2 and 8 when the proportion of diglycerides and phospholipids increased 1.33 and 2.18 times, respectively. About 28% of the newly synthesized lipids were secreted within 4 h of incubation. Around 65 to 85% of these labeled lipids were found in the apical compartment, suggesting a partially vectorial secretion. But 58 to 80% of labeled lipids found in the apical and basolateral medium were free fatty acids. Functional tight junctions and incorporation of labeled fatty acids into triglycerides are not compatible with an inferred status of complete dedifferentiation of the cell layer. Moreover, triglyceride secretion seems compromised, probably due to the lack of an appropriate cell environment and cell shape. PMID:17235143

  15. Cationorm shows good tolerability on human HCE-2 corneal epithelial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Kati; Kauppinen, Anu; Piippo, Niina; Koistinen, Arto; Toropainen, Elisa; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2014-03-01

    Preservatives have been for a long time known to cause detrimental effects on ocular surface. Cationorm, a preservative-free compound with electrostatic properties is a novel way to solve the problems encountered with traditional benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing eye drops. The aim of this study was to evaluate tolerability of the preservative-free cationic emulsion Cationorm in vitro on corneal epithelial cells. The human corneal epithelial cell (HCE-2) culture line was used to study cellular morphology, cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses after Cationorm diluted 1/10 exposure for 5, 15 and 30 min. Exposures to Systane diluted 1/10 with polyquaternium-1/polidronium chloride 0.001% as preservative, BAK 0.001% or C16 (0.0002%) and normal cell culture medium served as positive and negative references. Cell viability was determined by measuring the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The possible induction of apoptosis was analyzed by measuring the activity of caspase-3, and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to evaluate the number of viable cells after the exposure to test compounds. Furthermore, the tendency of the test compounds to produce inflammatory reaction was determined by analyzing the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, and DNA binding of the p65 subunit of transcription factor NF-κB was measured from cell lysates. HCE-2 cells showed no morphological changes after the exposure to Cationorm, but in cells exposed to BAK, clear cytoplasm vacuolization and loose cell-cell contacts were observed in transmission (TEM) or scanning (SEM) electron microscopic analyses. Cell viability, as measured with the release of LDH, indicated a time dependent increase in LDH expression after exposure to all test compounds but especially with BAK. Moreover, Cationorm and BAK time-dependently decreased the

  16. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; De Napoli, I E; Fedecostante, M; Schophuizen, C M S; Chevtchik, N V; Wilmer, M J; van Asbeck, A H; Croes, H J; Pertijs, J C; Wetzels, J F M; Hilbrands, L B; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Stamatialis, D; Masereeuw, R

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing 'living membranes' for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP(+) uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a 'living membrane' of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  17. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J.; De Napoli, I. E; Fedecostante, M.; Schophuizen, C. M. S.; Chevtchik, N. V.; Wilmer, M. J.; van Asbeck, A. H.; Croes, H. J.; Pertijs, J. C.; Wetzels, J. F. M.; Hilbrands, L. B.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Hoenderop, J. G.; Stamatialis, D.; Masereeuw, R.

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing ‘living membranes’ for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP+ uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a ‘living membrane’ of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  18. Induction of rat jejunal epithelial cell expression of sucrase-isomaltase by glucocorticoids in primary cell culture and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yeh, K Y; Yeh, M; Holt, P R

    1989-01-01

    The cell cycle phase that mediates the induction of intestinal sucrase-isomaltase (SI) expression by glucocorticoids was investigated by measuring migration rates of 3H-DNA-labeled and of SI-containing epithelial cells by autoradiography and indirect immunofluorescent staining after simultaneous administration of [3H]thymidine and cortisone to 12-d-old rat pups. By 24 and 48 h, lead 3H-DNA-labeled cells had migrated 7.8 and 12.4 cell positions higher on the villus than lead cells expressing SI. Cell migration rates from 12 to 24 h and 24 to 48 h were 0.68 and 0.97 cell position/h. Thus, commitment to SI expression occurred in cells 11.5-12.8 h after the S phase, which is calculated to be in the G1 phase. To determine whether committed cells need to replicate to express SI, cell differentiation was examined in primary cultures of crypt cells originating from corticosterone-treated rats. About two-thirds of cultured cells were retarded in the S phase after plating, as judged by no increase of DNA labeling indices, no change in epithelial cell number, and the absence of mitosis (less than 0.01%). The proportion of cells expressing SI increased from 0 to 6-8% between 12 and 24 h, and reached 48% 48 h after plating on collagen-coated dishes. SI expression did not occur in cells plated on glass or plastic surfaces. Pulse labeling with [35S]methionine confirmed that de novo synthesis of SI occurred in cell cultures. Thus, additional cell cycling of committed cells occurring in vivo is not obligatory for the expression of SI. PMID:2736328

  19. Methionine protects against hyperthermia-induced cell injury in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhao-Yu; Mu, Tian; Yang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methionine on cell proliferation, antioxidant activity, apoptosis, the expression levels of related genes (HSF-1, HSP70, Bax and Bcl-2) and the expression levels of protein (HSP70) in mammary epithelial cells, after heat treatment. Methionine (60 mg/L) increased the viability and attenuated morphological damage in hyperthermia-treated bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Additionally, methionine significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase leakage, malondialdehyde formation, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase activity. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymatic activity was increased significantly in the presence of methionine. Bovine mammary epithelial cells also exhibited a certain amount of HSP70 reserve after methionine pretreatment for 24 h, and the expression level of the HSP70 gene and protein further increased with incubation at 42 °C for 30 min. Compared to the control, the expression of HSF-1 mRNA increased, and there was a significantly reduced expression of Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA and a reduced activity of caspase-3 against heat stress. Methionine also increased survival and decreased early apoptosis of hyperthermia-treated BMECs. Thus, methionine has cytoprotective effects on hyperthermia-induced damage in BMECs. PMID:25108357

  20. A NOVEL SYSTEM FOR THE CO-CULTURE OF EPIDIDYMAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AND SPERM FROM ADULT RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To study interactions which occur between the epididymal epithelial cells and sperm within the epididymis during sperm maturation, a specialized co-culture system capable of supporting the differentiated function of these cell types must be utilized. A multifaceted approach has b...

  1. Regulation of tyrosinase expression and activity in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Abul-Hassan, K; Walmsley, R; Tombran-Tink, J; Boulton, M

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regulation of tyrosinase gene expression and activity in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The tyrosinase promoter (Ty.prom) region (400 bp) was PCR amplified and cloned into a modified mammalian expression vector (pcDNA3.1) upstream of a firefly luciferase (Luc) cDNA and was designated 'pcDNA3.1-Ty.prom.Luc'. The plasmid was co-transfected into RPE cells with a second mammalian expression plasmid (pRL-TK) containing a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter region upstream of Renilla Luc in a protocol designated the 'dual luciferase assay' (DLA). After co-transfection, cells were treated with a range of potential melanogenic agents; basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), methyl methane sulphonate, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, verapamil, phorbol myristate acetate, cholera toxin (CT), pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF), and L-tyrosine. The expression of tyrosinase promoter and enzymatic activities were determined 48 hr post-transfection using the DLA and DOPA oxidase assays, respectively. Tyrosinase activity could not be detected in RPE cells with any of the treatments. Tyrosinase promoter activity was significantly up-regulated in RPE cells treated with bFGF, PEDF, verapamil, CT and tyrosine compared with control cells. In conclusion, the tyrosinase gene is not only expressed but can be regulated in response to different chemicals in cultured human RPE cells. However, it appears that RPE cells in culture lack a post-transcriptional and/or translational modification point(s), which are necessary for tyrosinase enzymic activity. PMID:11153695

  2. Serotonin activates cell survival and apoptotic death responses in cultured epithelial thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Cerulo, Giuliana; Tafuri, Simona; De Pasquale, Valeria; Rea, Silviana; Romano, Simona; Costagliola, Anna; Della Morte, Rossella; Avallone, Luigi; Pavone, Luigi Michele

    2014-10-01

    Anatomic and physiological interactions between central serotonergic system and thyroid gland are well established. However, the effects of locally available serotonin on the thyroid functions are poorly known. Here, we first demonstrate the expression of serotonin transporter SERT and 5-HT2A receptor subtype in rat thyroid epithelial cell line FRT both at mRNA and protein levels. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of serotonin action, FRT cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of the amine. Low concentrations of serotonin (up to 5 μM) enhanced FRT cell growth, and ERK1/2 and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation. Cell exposure to the selective 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI recapitulated the effects of 5-HT on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. By contrast, administration of M100907, a specific 5-HT2A receptor inhibitor, prevented 5-HT induced ERK1/2 activation. On the other hand, high doses of serotonin (50 μM up to 1 mM) activated a caspase-3 mediated apoptosis of cells. Overall, our findings demonstrate that low levels of serotonin, interacting with 5-HT2A receptor, are able to activate proliferative signals in the thyroid epithelial cells, while high levels of serotonin cause pro-apoptotic responses, thus suggesting an active role of the amine in the thyroid functions and disorders. PMID:24997405

  3. Development of a primary mouse intestinal epithelial cell monolayer culture system to evaluate factors that modulate IgA transcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Clara; VanDussen, Kelli L.; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

    2013-01-01

    There is significant interest in the use of primary intestinal epithelial cells in monolayer culture to model intestinal biology. However, it has proven to be challenging to create functional, differentiated monolayers using current culture methods, likely due to the difficulty in expanding these cells. Here, we adapted our recently developed method for the culture of intestinal epithelial spheroids to establish primary epithelial cell monolayers from the colon of multiple genetic mouse strains. These monolayers contained differentiated epithelial cells that displayed robust transepithelial electrical resistance. We then functionally tested them by examining IgA transcytosis across Transwells. IgA transcytosis required induction of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) expression, which could be stimulated by a combination of LPS and inhibition of γ-secretase. In agreement with previous studies using immortalized cell lines, we found that TNFα, IL-1β, IL-17 and heat-killed microbes also stimulated pIgR expression and IgA transcytosis. We used wild-type and knockout cells to establish that amongst these cytokines, IL-17 was the most potent inducer of pIgR expression/IgA transcytosis. IFNγ however did not induce pIgR expression, and instead led to cell death. This new method will allow the use of primary cells for studies of intestinal physiology. PMID:24220295

  4. The susceptibility of primary cultured rhesus macaque kidney epithelial cells to rhesus cytomegalovirus strains.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yujuan; Kaur, Amitinder; Lilja, Anders; Diamond, Don J; Walter, Mark R; Barry, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    Kidney epithelial cells are common targets for human and rhesus cytomegalovirus (HCMV and RhCMV) in vivo, and represent an important reservoir for long-term CMV shedding in urine. To better understand the role of kidney epithelial cells in primate CMV natural history, primary cultures of rhesus macaque kidney epithelial cells (MKE) were established and tested for infectivity by five RhCMV strains, including two wild-type strains (UCD52 and UCD59) and three strains containing different coding contents in UL/b'. The latter strains included 180.92 [containing an intact RhUL128-RhUL130-R hUL131 (RhUL128L) locus but deleted for the UL/b' RhUL148-rh167-loci], 68-1 (RhUL128L-defective and fibroblast-tropic) and BRh68-1.2 (the RhUL128L-repaired version of 68-1). As demonstrated by RhCMV cytopathic effect, plaque formation, growth kinetics and early virus entry, we showed that MKE were differentially susceptible to RhCMV infection, related to UL/b' coding contents of the different strains. UCD52 and UCD59 replicated vigorously in MKE, 68-1 replicated poorly, and 180.92 grew with intermediate kinetics. Reconstitution of RhUL128L in 68-1 (BRh68-1.2) restored its replication efficiency in MKE as compared to UCD52 and UCD59, consistent with the essential role of UL128L for HCMV epithelial tropism. Further analysis revealed that the UL/b' UL148-rh167-loci deletion in 180.92 impaired RhUL132 (rh160) expression. Given that 180.92 retains an intact RhUL128L, but genetically or functionally lacks genes from RhUL132 (rh160) to rh167 in UL/b', its attenuated infection efficiency indicated that, along with RhUL128L, an additional protein(s) encoded within the UL/b' RhUL132 (rh160)-rh167 region (potentially, RhUL132 and/or RhUL148) is indispensable for efficient replication in MKE. PMID:26974598

  5. Elevated non-esterified fatty acid concentrations hamper bovine oviductal epithelial cell physiology in three different in vitro culture systems.

    PubMed

    Jordaens, L; Arias-Alvarez, M; Pintelon, I; Thys, S; Valckx, S; Dezhkam, Y; Bols, P E J; Leroy, J L M R

    2015-10-01

    Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) have been recognized as an important link between lipolytic metabolic conditions and impaired fertility in high-yielding dairy cows. However, NEFA effects on the oviductal micro-environment currently remain unknown. We hypothesize that elevated NEFAs may contribute to the complex pathology of subfertility by exerting a negative effect on bovine oviductal epithelial cell (BOEC) physiology. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to elucidate direct NEFA effects on BOEC physiology in three different in vitro cell culture systems. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells (four replicates) were mechanically isolated, pooled, and cultured as conventional monolayers, as explants, and in a polarized cell culture system with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12-based culture medium. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells were exposed to an NEFA mixture of oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids for 24 hours at both physiological and pathologic concentrations. A control (0 μM NEFA) and a solvent control (0 μM NEFA + 0.45% ethanol) group were implemented. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells physiology was assessed by means of cell number and viability, a sperm binding assay, transepithelial electric resistance (TER), and a wound-healing assay. Bovine oviductal epithelial cell morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy on cell polarity, presence of microvilli and cilia, and monolayer integrity. Bovine oviductal epithelial cell number was negatively affected by increasing NEFAs, however, cell viability was not. Sperm binding affinity significantly decreased with increasing NEFAs and tended (P = 0.051) to be more affected by the direction of NEFA exposure in the polarized cell culture system. The absolute TER increase after NEFA exposure in the control (110 ± 11 Ω.cm(2)) was significantly higher than that in all the other treatments and was also different depending on the exposure side. Bidirectional exposed monolayers were even

  6. Effect of different artificial tears against desiccation in cultured human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tost, Frank; Keiss, Ramona; Großjohann, Rico; Jürgens, Clemens; Giebel, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background A large number of artificial tears is widely used to treat dry eye symptoms. To test the efficacy of these drugs independent of individual parameters in vitro models are required. As described previously, we employed a reproducible in vitro cell culture system to evaluate the desiccation protection capability of some artificial tears. In the present paper data is presented of another set of pharmaceutical agents. Material/Methods Conjunctival epithelial cell line Chang 1-5c-4 (series 1) and the corneal cell line 2.040 pRSV-T (series 2) were cultured under standard conditions. Confluent cells were wetted for 20 min with artificial tears (Arufil® Uno, Arufil®, Lacrimal®, Lacophthal® sine, Siccaprotect®, Tears Again®, Vidisept® EDO, Vistil®, Wet Comod®) or PBS as a control. After exposure to a constant air flow for 0, 15, 30 and 45 minutes respectively, cells were incubated with the vital dye alamarBlue. Subsequently, absorption of the oxidised form of the dye was assessed using an ELISA-Reader. Results Cell best survival rates in series 1 after 15 min were found for Lacrimal® (0.89), Wet Comod® (0.84) compared to PBS (0.66) and in series 2 for Vidisept® EDO (0.57) and Lacrimal® (0.56) compared to PBS (0.01). After 45 min highest survival was seen in series 1 for Lacrimal® (0.46) and Lacophthal® sine (0.36) compared to PBS (0.33) and in series 2 for Lacrimal® (−0.06) and Arufil (−0.16) compared to PBS (−0.23). Conclusions Both cell lines tested showed different susceptibility towards desiccation and the artificial tears showed differences in preventing cells from desiccation. PMID:22534701

  7. A chemically defined culture medium containing Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 for the fabrication of stratified squamous epithelial cell grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Aslanova, Afag; Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2015-05-01

    With the development of a culture method for stratified squamous epithelial cells, tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheets have been successfully applied as clinical cell grafts. However, the implementation of these cell sheets without the use of any animal-derived materials is highly desirable. In this study, Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor Y-27632 was used to develop a chemically defined culture medium for the fabrication of stratified epithelial cell grafts consisting of human epidermal and oral keratinocytes, and the proliferation activity, cell morphology, and gene expressions of the keratinocytes were analyzed. The results of a colorimetric assay indicated that Y-27632 significantly promoted the proliferation of the keratinocytes in culture media both with and without fetal bovine serum (FBS), although there were no indications of Y-27632 efficacy on cell morphology and stratification of the keratinocytes in culture medium without any animal-derived materials. The results of quantitative RT-PCR revealed that gene expressions correlated with cell adhesion, cell–cell junction, proliferation markers, and stem/progenitor markers in cultured keratinocytes were not strongly affected by the addition of Y-27632 to the culture medium. Moreover, gene expressions of differentiation markers in stratified keratinocytes cultured in medium without FBS were nearly identical to those of keratinocytes co-cultured with 3T3 feeder cells. Interestingly, the expressions of differentiation markers in cultured stratified keratinocytes were suppressed by FBS, whereas they were reconstructed by either co-culture of a 3T3 feeder layer or addition of Y-27632 into the culture medium containing FBS. These findings indicate that Y-27632 is a useful supplement for the development of a chemically defined culture medium for fabrication of stratified epithelial cell grafts for clinical applications for the purpose of developing the culture medium with a lower risk of pathogen

  8. Comparative Analysis of KnockOut™ Serum with Fetal Bovine Serum for the In Vitro Long-Term Culture of Human Limbal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The limbal epithelial cells can be maintained on 3T3 feeder layer with fetal bovine serum supplemented culture medium, and these cells have been used to successfully treat limbal stem cell deficiency. However, fetal bovine serum contains unknown components and displays quantitative and qualitative lot-to-lot variations. To improve the culture condition, the defined KnockOut serum replacement was investigated to replace fetal bovine serum for culturing human limbal epithelial cell. Human primary limbal epithelial cells were cultured in KnockOut serum and fetal bovine serum supplemented medium, respectively. The cell growth rate, gene expression, and maintenance of limbal epithelial stem cells were studied and compared between these two groups. Human primary limbal epithelial cells were isolated and successfully serially cultivated in this novel KnockOut serum supplemented medium; the cell proliferation and stem cell maintenance were similar to those of cells grown in fetal bovine serum supplemented medium. These data suggests that this KnockOut serum supplemented medium is an efficient replacement to traditional fetal bovine serum supplemented medium for limbal epithelial cell culture, and this medium has great potential for long term maintenance of limbal epithelial cells, limbal epithelial stem cells transplantation, and tissue regeneration. PMID:27446607

  9. Establishment of a Novel Lingual Organoid Culture System: Generation of Organoids Having Mature Keratinized Epithelium from Adult Epithelial Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kanno, Shohei; Tokuyama, Yoko; Komai, Yoshihiro; Ohe, Shuichi; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Omachi, Taichi; Ueno, Hiroo

    2013-11-01

    Despite the strong need for the establishment of a lingual epithelial cell culture system, a simple and convenient culture method has not yet been established. Here, we report the establishment of a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Histological analyses showed that the generated organoids had both a stratified squamous epithelial cell layer and a stratum corneum. Very recently, we showed via a multicolor lineage tracing method that Bmi1-positive stem cells exist at the base of the epithelial basal layer in the interpapillary pit. Using our new culture system, we found that organoids could be generated by single Bmi1-positive stem cells and that in the established organoids, multiple Bmi1-positive stem cells were generated at the outermost layer. Moreover, we observed that organoids harvested at an early point in culture could be engrafted and maturate in the tongue of recipient mice and that the organoids generated from carcinogen-treated mice had an abnormal morphology. Thus, this culture system presents valuable settings for studying not only the regulatory mechanisms of lingual epithelium but also lingual regeneration and carcinogenesis.

  10. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE AND AN ATRAZINE METABOLITE MIXTURE ON DIFFERENTIATED MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL MILK PROTEIN PRODUCTION IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Atrazine and an Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on Differentiated Mammary Epithelial Cell Milk Protein Production in Culture

    E.P. Hines, R. Barbee, M. Blanton, M.S. Pooler, and S.E. Fenton. US EPA, ORD/NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC, 27711, USA.

    Previous studies have ...

  11. Voltage-activated currents recorded from rabbit pigmented ciliary body epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Fain, G L; Farahbakhsh, N A

    1989-01-01

    1. The whole-cell recording mode of the patch-clamp technique was used to investigate the presence of voltage-activated currents in the isolated pigmented cells from the rabbit ciliary body epithelium grown in culture. 2. In Ringer solution with composition similar to that of the rabbit aqueous humour, depolarizing voltage steps activated a transient inward current and a delayed outward current, while hyperpolarization elicited an inwardly rectified current. 3. The depolarization-activated inward current was mainly carried by Na+ and was blocked by submicromolar concentrations of tetrodotoxin. This current in many cells was sufficiently large to produce a regenerative Na+ spike. 4. The depolarization-activated outward current was carried by K+ and blocked by external TEA and Ba2+. Its activation appeared to be Ca2(+)-independent. 5. The hyperpolarization-activated inward current was almost exclusively carried by K+ and was blocked by Ba2+ and Cs+. For large hyperpolarizations below -120 mV, this current exhibited a biphasic activation with a fast transient peak followed by a slower sag, that appeared to be due to K+ depletion. 6. The voltage-dependent K+ conductances probably act to stabilize the cell membrane resting potential and may also play a role in ion transport. The function of the Na(+)-dependent inward current is unclear, but it may permit the electrically coupled epithelial cells of the ciliary body to conduct propagated action potentials. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2621623

  12. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    SciTech Connect

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Toda, Shuji; Joh, Takashi

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment.

  13. Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on Growth of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells in 3D and Monolayer Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Forouharmehr, Ali; Harkinezhad, Taher; Qasemi-Panahi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Many studies have been showed transfer of aflatoxins, toxins produced by Aspergillus flvaus and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi, into milk. These toxins are transferred into the milk through digestive system by eating contaminated food. Due to the toxicity of these materials, it seems that it has side effects on the growth of mammary cells. Therefore, the present work aimed to investigate possible toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on bovine mammary epithelial cells in monolayer and three-dimensional cultures. Methods: Specimens of the mammary tissue of bovine were sized out in size 2×2 cm in slaughterhouse. After disinfection and washing in sterile PBS, primary cell culture was performed by enzymatic digestion of tissue with collagenase. When proper numbers of cells were achieved in monolayer culture, cells were seeded in a 24-well culture plate for three-dimensional (3D) culture in Matrigel matrix. After 21 days of 3D culture and reaching the required number of cells, the concentrations of 15, 25 and 35 µL of AFB1 were added to the culture in quadruplicate and incubated for 8 hours. Cellular cytotoxicity was examined using standard colorimetric assay and finally, any change in the morphology of the cells was studied by microscopic technique. Results: Microscopic investigations showed necrosis of the AFB1-exposed cells compared to the control cells. Also, bovine mammary epithelial cells were significantly affected by AFB1 in dose and time dependent manner in cell viability assays. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that AFB1 can induce cytotoxicity and necrosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:24312827

  14. Culture of fetal alveolar epithelial type II cells in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Fraslon, C; Rolland, G; Bourbon, J R; Rieutort, M; Valenza, C

    1991-11-01

    A serum-free culture medium (defined medium = DM) was elaborated by adding to Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM), non-essential amino acids, transferrin, putrescine, tripeptide glycyl-histidyl-lysine, somatostatin, sodium selenite, ethanolamine, phosphoethanolamine, sodium pyruvate, and metal trace elements. This medium was tested for its ability to support sustained surfactant biosynthesis in fetal alveolar epithelial type II cells. For up to 8 days, ultrastructure was maintained with persistence of lamellar inclusion bodies. Thymidine incorporation into DNA was enhanced about 50% in DM as compared with MEM, whereas it was enhanced 300% in 10% fetal bovine serum. With DM, the incorporation of tritiated choline into phosphatidylcholine (PC) of isolated surfactant material was about twice that with MEM. Deletion experiments evidenced the prominent role of pyruvate, transferrin, and selenium in the stimulation of surfactant PC biosynthesis. The addition of biotin to DM enhanced surfactant PC biosynthesis slightly and nonsurfactant PC biosynthesis markedly. The presence of nucleosides seemed unfavorable to the synthesis of surfactant PC. Type II cells responded to the addition of epidermal growth factor and insulinlike growth factor-I both by increased thymidine incorporation into DNA and choline incorporation into PC. It is concluded that DM represents a useful tool for cultivating type II cells without loss of their specialized properties and for studying the regulation of cell proliferation and surfactant biosynthesis in a controlled environment. PMID:1748624

  15. Vortex or whorl formation of cultured human corneal epithelial cells induced by magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Dua, H S; Singh, A; Gomes, J A; Laibson, P R; Donoso, L A; Tyagi, S

    1996-01-01

    The terms 'vortex keratopathy' and 'hurricane keratopathy' describe two similar conditions affecting the corneal surface. In the former, a vortex or whorl pattern is seen on the corneal surface and is due to the deposition of substances such as pigment, iron or drugs in the epithelial cells. In the latter, a similar pattern is presented by migrating epithelial cells but, unlike the former, the pattern is rendered more visible by fluorescein staining. Both represent the migratory pattern of normal epithelial cells which is otherwise not visible due to the slow rate of epithelial turnover and migration. The whorl pattern has a clockwise predisposition in the majority of cases and is hypothesised to be due to the influence of ocular electro-magnetic fields on the migrating epithelial cells. In this study we tested in vitro the effect of static magnetic fields on corneal epithelial cells. We were able to reproduce dramatic vortex or whorl patterns in response to magnetic fields, but without preferential migration towards the North or South Pole. PMID:8944095

  16. Establishment and characterization of immortalized gingival epithelial and fibroblastic cell lines for the development of organotypic cultures.

    PubMed

    Bao, Kai; Akguel, Baki; Bostanci, Nagihan

    2014-01-01

    In vitro studies using 3D co-cultures of gingival cells can resemble their in vivo counterparts much better than 2D models that typically only utilize monolayer cultures with short-living primary cells. However, the use of 3D gingival models is still limited through lack of appropriate cell lines. We aimed to establish immortalized cell line models of primary human gingival epithelium keratinocytes (HGEK) and gingival fibroblasts (GFB). Immortalized cell lines (HGEK-16 and GFB-16) were induced by E6 and E7 oncoproteins of human papillomavirus. In addition, 3D multilayered organotypic cultures were formed by embedding GFB-16 cells within a collagen (Col) matrix and seeding of HGEK-16 cells on the upper surfaces. Cell growth was analyzed in both immortalized cell lines and their parental primary cells. The expression levels of cell type-specific markers, i.e. cytokeratin (CK) 10, CK13, CK16, CK18, CK19 for HGEK-16 and Col I and Col II for GFB-16, were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Expansion of the primary cultures was impeded at early passages, while the transformed immortalized cell lines could be expanded for more than 30 passages. In 3D cultures, immortalized HGEK formed a multilayer of epithelial cells. qRT-PCR showed that cell-specific marker expression in the 3D cultures was qualitatively and quantitatively closer to that in human gingival tissue than to monolayer cultures. These results indicate that immortalized gingival fibroblastic and epithelial cell lines can successfully form organotypic multilayered cultures and, therefore, may be useful tools for studying gingival tissue in vitro. PMID:25471635

  17. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Claudia; Espinosa, Marisol; Sánchez, María Trinidad; Droguett, Karla; Ríos, Mariana; Fonseca, Ximena; Villalón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT) is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms. PMID:23484122

  18. Ambroxol inhibits rhinovirus infection in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Nadine, Lusamba Kalonji; Ota, Chiharu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2014-04-01

    The mucolytic drug ambroxol hydrochloride reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the frequency of exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the inhibitory effects of ambroxol on rhinovirus infection, the major cause of COPD exacerbations, have not been studied. We examined the effects of ambroxol on type 14 rhinovirus (RV14) infection, a major RV group, in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells. RV14 infection increased virus titers and cytokine content in the supernatants and RV14 RNA in the cells. Ambroxol (100 nM) reduced RV14 titers and cytokine concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the supernatants and RV14 RNA in the cells after RV14 infection, in addition to reducing susceptibility to RV14 infection. Ambroxol also reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the receptor for RV14, and the number of acidic endosomes from which RV14 RNA enters the cytoplasm. In addition, ambroxol reduced the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the nucleus. These results suggest that ambroxol inhibits RV14 infection partly by reducing ICAM-1 and acidic endosomes via the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Ambroxol may modulate airway inflammation by reducing the production of cytokines in rhinovirus infection. PMID:23856970

  19. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO CHARACTERISTICS OF EARLY CARCINOGEN-INDUCED PREMALIGNANT PHENOTYPES IN CULTURED RAT TRACHEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial stages of neoplastic transformation in respiratory tract epithelial cells were defined and studied by characterizing a series of morphologically transformed cell colonies from carcinogen-exposed rat tracheal epithelial (TRE) cell cultures both in vivo and in vitro. RT...

  20. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-let radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui-Hsu Yang, Tracy; Craise, Laurie M.; Prioleau, John C.; Stampfer, Martha R.; Rhim, Johng S.

    1992-07-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude mice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiating cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level.

  1. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tracy Chui-hsu; Craise, L.M; Prioleau, J.C.; Stampfer, M.R.; Rhim, J.S.

    1990-11-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude nice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiation cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-LET radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craise, L. M.; Prioleau, J. C.; Stampfer, M. R.; Rhim, J. S.; Yang, TC-H (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude mice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiating cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level.

  3. Growth and differentiation of primary and passaged equine bronchial epithelial cells under conventional and air-liquid-interface culture conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Horses develop recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) that resembles human bronchial asthma. Differentiated primary equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) in culture that closely mimic the airway cells in vivo would be useful to investigate the contribution of bronchial epithelium in inflammation of airway diseases. However, because isolation and characterization of EBEC cultures has been limited, we modified and optimized techniques of generating and culturing EBECs from healthy horses to mimic in vivo conditions. Results Large numbers of EBEC were obtained by trypsin digestion and successfully grown for up to 2 passages with or without serum. However, serum or ultroser G proved to be essential for EBEC differentiation on membrane inserts at ALI. A pseudo-stratified muco-ciliary epithelium with basal cells was observed at differentiation. Further, transepithelial resistance (TEER) was more consistent and higher in P1 cultures compared to P0 cultures while ciliation was delayed in P1 cultures. Conclusions This study provides an efficient method for obtaining a high-yield of EBECs and for generating highly differentiated cultures. These EBEC cultures can be used to study the formation of tight junction or to identify epithelial-derived inflammatory factors that contribute to lung diseases such as asthma. PMID:21649893

  4. Tamoxifen Induces Expression of Immune Response-Related Genes in Cultured Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schild-Hay, Laura J.; Leil, Tarek A.; Divi, Rao L.; Olivero, Ofelia, A.; Weston, Ainsley; Poirier, Miriam C.

    2008-01-01

    Use of tamoxifen (TAM) is associated with a 50% reduction in breast cancer incidence and an increase in endometrial cancer incidence. Here, we documented TAM-induced gene expression changes in cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMEC strains numbered 5, 16 and 40), established from tissue taken at reduction mammoplasty from 3 individuals. Cells exposed to 0, 10 or 50 μM TAM for 48 hours were evaluated for (E)-α-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-tamoxifen (dG-N2-TAM) adduct formation by TAM-DNA (DNA modified with dG-N2-TAM) chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA), gene expression changes using NCI DNA-oligonucleotide microarray, and real time (RT)-PCR. At 48 hr, cells exposed to 10 μM and 50 μM TAM were 85.6% and 48.4% viable, respectively, and there were no measurable dG-N2-TAM adducts. For microarray, cells were exposed to 10 μM TAM and genes with expression changes of ≥ 3-fold were as follows: thirteen genes up-regulated and one down-related for strain 16; seventeen genes up-regulated for strain 5; and eleven genes up-regulated for strain 40. Interferon-inducible genes (IFITM1, IFIT1, IFNA1, MXI and GIP3), and a potassium ion channel (KCNJ1) were up-regulated in all 3 strains. No significant expression changes were found for genes related to estrogen or xenobiotic metabolism. RT-PCR revealed up-regulation of interferon α (IFNA1) and confirmed the TAM-induced up-regulation of the genes identified by microarray, with the exception of GIP3 and MX1, which were not up-regulated in strain 40. Induction of interferon-related genes in the three NHMEC strains suggests that, in addition to hormonal effects, TAM exposure may enhance immune response in normal breast tissue. PMID:19155303

  5. Culture of porcine hepatocytes or bile duct epithelial cells by inductive serum-free media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A serum-free, feeder-cell-dependent, selective culture system for the long-term culture of porcine hepatocytes or cholangiocytes was developed. Liver cells were isolated from 1 wk old pigs or young adult pigs (25 and 63 kg live weight) and were placed in primary culture on feeder-cell layers of mit...

  6. Effect of oestradiol on PAMP-mediated CCL20/MIP-3α production by mouse uterine epithelial cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Soboll, Gisela; Crane-Godreau, Mardi A; Lyimo, Magdalena A; Wira, Charles R

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish whether mouse uterine epithelial cells produce CCL20/macrophage inflammatory protein 3α (CCL20/MIP-3α) and to determine whether secretion is under hormonal control and influenced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In the absence of PAMPs, polarized uterine epithelial cells grown to confluence on cell culture inserts constitutively secreted CCL20/MIP-3α with preferential accumulation into the apical compartment. When epithelial cells were treated with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists Pam3Cys (TLR2/1), peptidoglycan (TLR2/6) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS; TLR4), CCL20/MIP-3α increased rapidly (4 hr) in both apical and basolateral secretions. Time–course studies indicated that responses to PAMPs added to the apical surface persisted for 12–72 hr. Stimulation with loxoribin (TLR7) and DNA CpG motif (TLR9) increased basolateral but not apical secretion of CCL20/MIP-3α. In contrast, the viral agonist Poly(I:C) (TLR3) had no effect on either apical or basolateral secretion. In other studies, we found that oestradiol added to the culture media decreased the constitutive release of CCL20/MIP-3α. Moreover, when added to the culture media along with LPS, oestradiol inhibited LPS-induced increases in CCL20/MIP-3α secretion into both the apical and basolateral compartments. In summary, these results indicate that CCL20/MIP-3α is produced in response to PAMPs. Since CCL20/MIP-3α is chemotactic for immature dendritic cells, B cells and memory T cells and has antimicrobial properties, these studies suggest that CCL20/MIP-3α production by epithelial cells, an important part of the innate immune defence in the female reproductive tract, is under hormonal control and is responsive to microbial challenge. PMID:16771853

  7. Subunit structure of calgranulins A and B obtained from sputum, plasma, granulocytes and cultured epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Longbottom, D; Sallenave, J M; van Heyningen, V

    1992-04-01

    The calcium-binding proteins calgranulins A and B co-purified with an elastase-specific inhibitor after the affinity and cation-exchange chromatography of the perchloric acid-soluble fraction of pooled sputum collected from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Sallenave, J.-M. and Ryle, A.P. (1991) Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 372, 13-21). The calgranulins were separated from the inhibitor by reverse-phase FPLC. Protein blot analysis of the calgranulin fraction in the absence of reducing agent revealed a band of 25 kDa corresponding to the disulphide-bonded heterodimerization of the two monomer components. Similar results were obtained from the immunoprecipitation and protein blot analysis of plasma, granulocytes and cultured epithelial cells. This implies that the calgranulins exist in the heterodimeric form in secretions in vivo. Their association with pancreatic elastase during the affinity chromatography stage of purification implicates them in the tissue destruction elicited by the inflammatory response in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. PMID:1562590

  8. Effect of D-valine and cytosine arabinoside on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation in rat and rabbit epididymal epithelial cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Orgebin-Crist, M.C.; Jonas-Davies, J.; Storey, P.; Olson, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Epithelial cell enriched primary cultures were established from the rat and the rabbit epididymis. Epithelial cell aggregates, obtained after pronase digestion of minced epididymis, attached to the culture dish and after 72 h in vitro spread out to form discrete patches of cells. These cells have an epithelioid morphology and form a monolayer of closely apposed polygonal cells where DNA synthesis, as judged by (/sup 3/H)thymidine uptake, is very low. In L-valine medium the nonepithelial cell contamination was no more than 10% in rat and rabbit epididymal primary cultures. The labeling index of rat epididymal cells cultured in D-valine medium was significantly lower than that of cells cultured in L-valine medium. In contrast, the labeling index of rabbit epididymal cells cultured in D-valine medium was significantly higher than that of cells cultured in L-valine medium. Cytosine arabinoside decreased the number of labeled cells in both L-valine and D-valine cultures. From these results, it appears that D-valine is a selective agent for rat epididymal epithelial cells, but not for rabbit epithelial cells, and that cytosine arabinoside is a simple and effective means to control the proliferation of fibroblast-like cells in both rat and rabbit epididymal cell cultures.

  9. Arsenic Compromises Conducting Airway Epithelial Barrier Properties in Primary Mouse and Immortalized Human Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Cara L.; Liguori, Andrew E.; Olsen, Colin E.; Lantz, R. Clark; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Boitano, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a lung toxicant that can lead to respiratory illness through inhalation and ingestion, although the most common exposure is through contaminated drinking water. Lung effects reported from arsenic exposure include lung cancer and obstructive lung disease, as well as reductions in lung function and immune response. As part of their role in innate immune function, airway epithelial cells provide a barrier that protects underlying tissue from inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants frequently found in inspired air. We evaluated the effects of a five-day exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic {<4μM [~300 μg/L (ppb)] as NaAsO2} on airway epithelial barrier function and structure. In a primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE) cell model we found that both micromolar (3.9 μM) and submicromolar (0.8 μM) arsenic concentrations reduced transepithelial resistance, a measure of barrier function. Immunofluorescent staining of arsenic-treated MTE cells showed altered patterns of localization of the transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin (Cl) Cl-1, Cl-4, Cl-7 and occludin at cell-cell contacts when compared with untreated controls. To better quantify arsenic-induced changes in tight junction transmembrane proteins we conducted arsenic exposure experiments with an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-). We found that arsenic exposure significantly increased the protein expression of Cl-4 and occludin as well as the mRNA levels of Cl-4 and Cl-7 in these cells. Additionally, arsenic exposure resulted in altered phosphorylation of occludin. In summary, exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can alter both the function and structure of airway epithelial barrier constituents. These changes likely contribute to the observed arsenic-induced loss in basic innate immune defense and increased infection in the airway. PMID:24349408

  10. Paracellular and passive transcellular permeability in immortalized human corneal epithelial cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Toropainen, Elisa; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Palmgrén, Joni; Talvitie, Anu; Laavola, Mirka; Suhonen, Pekka; Hämäläinen, Kaisa Mari; Auriola, Seppo; Urtti, Arto

    2003-09-01

    A cell culture model of human corneal epithelium (HCE-model) was recently introduced [Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42 (2001) 2942] as a tool for ocular drug permeation studies. In this study, passive permeability and esterase activity of the HCE-model were characterised. Immortalised human corneal epithelial cells were grown on collagen coated filters under air-lift. The sensitivity of transcellular permeability to lipophilicity was tested in studies using nine beta-blockers. The size selectivity of the paracellular route was investigated using 16 polyethylene glycol oligomers (PEG). An effusion-like approach was used to estimate porosity and pore sizes of the paracellular space in HCE membrane. Permeability and degradation of fluorescein diacetate to fluorescein in HCE-cells was used to probe the esterase activity of the HCE-model. Drug concentrations were analyzed using HPLC (beta-blockers), LC-MS (PEGs), and fluorometry (fluorescein). Permeabilities were compared to those in the excised rabbit cornea. Penetration of beta-blockers increased with lipophilicity according to a sigmoidal relationship. This was almost similar to the profile in excised cornea. No apical to basolateral directionality was seen in the permeation of beta-blockers. Paracellular permeability of the HCE-model was generally slightly higher than that of the excised rabbit cornea. The HCE-model has larger paracellular pores, but lower pore density than the excised cornea, but the overall paracellular space was fairly similar in both models. The HCE-model shows significant esterase activity (i.e. fluorescein diacetate was converted to free fluorescein). These data on permeability of 27 compounds demonstrate that the barrier of the HCE-model closely resembles that of the excised rabbit cornea. Therefore, the HCE-model is a promising alternative corneal substitute for ocular drug delivery studies. PMID:13678798

  11. CULTURE CONDITIONS AFFECT HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELL RESPONSE TO DIESEL PARTICLE EXPOSURE IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant that may contribute to the health effects of particulate matter inhalation. In vitro studies have shown that DEP exposure induces pro-inflammatory proteins in human airway epithelial cells (HAEC) with varying...

  12. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) on limbal epithelial cell (LEC) cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells. PMID:24204144

  13. Effect of ionizing radiation on acinar morphogenesis of human prostatic epithelial cells under three-dimensional culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; X, S Ma; Kong, D; Yi, H; Wang, X; Liang, B; Xu, H; He, M; Jia, L; Qased, A B; Yang, Y; Liu, X

    2012-01-01

    Homeostasis is maintained by the interplay of multiple factors that directly or indirectly regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Complex multiple interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix occur during acinar morphogenesis and changes in these might indicate carcinogenesis of cells from a normal to a malignant, invasive phenotype. In this study, the human prostatic epithelial cell line RWPE-1 was cultured under three-dimensional (3-D) culture conditions, and the effect of ionizing radiation on acinar morphogenesis and its association with autophagy were discussed. The results illustrated that formation of specific spheroid (acinar) structures was detectable under 3-D culture conditions. Radiation induced the disruption of acini in different cell models using either gene overexpression (Akt) or gene knock-down (Beclin 1 and ATG7). Introduction of Akt not only accelerated the growth of cells (i.e., caused the cells to manifest elongating and microspike-like structures that are obviously different from structures seen in wild-type RWPE-1 cells under two-dimensional conditions), but also changed their morphological characteristics under 3-D culture conditions. Knock-down of autophagy-related genes (Beclin 1 and ATG7) increased the radiosensitivity of cells under 3-D culture conditions, and cells died of non-apoptotic death after radiation. The results suggested that ionizing radiation may change the cell phenotype and the formation of acini. Additionally even the autophagy mechanism may play a role in these processes. PMID:22296497

  14. In situ-forming click-crosslinked gelatin based hydrogels for 3D culture of thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Truong, Vinh X; Hun, Michael L; Li, Fanyi; Chidgey, Ann P; Forsythe, John S

    2016-07-21

    Hydrogels prepared from naturally derived gelatin can provide a suitable environment for cell attachment and growth, making them favourable materials in tissue engineering. However, physically crosslinked gelatin hydrogels are not stable under physiological conditions while chemical crosslinking of gelatin by radical polymerization may be harmful to cells. In this study, we attached the norbornene functional group to gelatin, which was subsequently crosslinked with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker via the nitrile oxide-norbornene click reaction. The rapid crosslinking process allows the hydrogel to be formed within minutes of mixing the polymer solutions under physiological conditions, allowing the gels to be used as injectable materials. The hydrogels properties including mechanical strength, swelling and degradation, can be tuned by changing either the ratio of the reacting groups or the total concentration of the polymer precursors. Murine embryonic fibroblastic cells cultured in soft gels (2 wt% of gelatin and 1 wt% of PEG linker) demonstrated high cell viability as well as similar phenotypic profiles (PDGFRα and MTS15) to Matrigel cultures over 5 days. Thymic epithelial cell and fibroblast co-cultures produced epithelial colonies in these gels following 7 days incubation. These studies demonstrate that gelatin based hydrogels, prepared using "click" crosslinking, provide a robust cell culture platform with retained benefits of the gelatin material, and are therefore suitable for use in various tissue engineering applications. PMID:27217071

  15. Primary airway epithelial cell culture and asthma in children-lessons learnt and yet to come.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Kirsty; Shields, Mike; Power, Ultan; Turner, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Until recently the airway epithelial cell (AEC) was considered a simple barrier that prevented entry of inhaled matter into the lung parenchyma. The AEC is now recognized as having an important role in the inflammatory response of the respiratory system to inhaled exposures, and abnormalities of these responses are thought to be important to asthma pathogenesis. This review first explores how the challenges of studying nasal and bronchial AECs in children have been addressed and then summarizes the results of studies of primary AEC function in children with and without asthma. There is good evidence that nasal AECs may be a suitable surrogate for the study of certain aspects of bronchial AEC function, although bronchial AECs remain the gold standard for asthma research. There are consistent differences between children with and without asthma for nasal and bronchial AEC mediator release following exposure to a range of pro-inflammatory stimulants including interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-4, and IL-13. However, there are inconsistencies between studies, e.g., release of IL-6, an important pro-inflammatory cytokine, is not increased in children with asthma relative to controls in all studies. Future work should expand current understanding of the "upstream" signalling pathways in AEC, study AEC from children before the onset of asthma symptoms and in vitro models should be developed that replicate the in vivo status more completely, e.g., co-culture with dendritic cells. AECs are difficult to obtain from children and collaboration between centers is expected to yield meaningful advances in asthma understanding and ultimately help deliver novel therapies. PMID:26178976

  16. Isolation and culture of adult epithelial stem cells from human skin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiru; Draheim, Kyle; Lyle, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The homeostasis of all self-renewing tissues is dependent on adult stem cells. As undifferentiated stem cells undergo asymmetric divisions, they generate daughter cells that retain the stem cell phenotype and transit-amplifying cells (TA cells) that migrate from the stem cell niche, undergo rapid proliferation and terminally differentiate to repopulate the tissue. Epithelial stem cells have been identified in the epidermis, hair follicle, and intestine as cells with a high in vitro proliferative potential and as slow-cycling label-retaining cells in vivo (1-3). Adult, tissue-specific stem cells are responsible for the regeneration of the tissues in which they reside during normal physiologic turnover as well as during times of stress (4-5). Moreover, stem cells are generally considered to be multi-potent, possessing the capacity to give rise to multiple cell types within the tissue (6). For example, rodent hair follicle stem cells can generate epidermis, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles (7-9). We have shown that stem cells from the human hair follicle bulge region exhibit multi-potentiality (10). Stem cells have become a valuable tool in biomedical research, due to their utility as an in vitro system for studying developmental biology, differentiation, tumorigenesis and for their possible therapeutic utility. It is likely that adult epithelial stem cells will be useful in the treatment of diseases such as ectodermal dysplasias, monilethrix, Netherton syndrome, Menkes disease, hereditary epidermolysis bullosa and alopecias (11-13). Additionally, other skin problems such as burn wounds, chronic wounds and ulcers will benefit from stem cell related therapies (14,15). Given the potential for reprogramming of adult cells into a pluripotent state (iPS cells)(16,17), the readily accessible and expandable adult stem cells in human skin may provide a valuable source of cells for induction and downstream therapy for a wide range of disease including diabetes and

  17. Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Zhou, Zhaozong; Donahue, Jeremiah J.; Guan, Jun; Kennedy, Ann R. . E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of antioxidant agents against space radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of selected concentrations of N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, co-enzyme Q10, {alpha}-lipoic acid, L-selenomethionine, and vitamin E succinate on radiation-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in MCF10 human breast epithelial cells exposed to radiation with X-rays, {gamma}-rays, protons, or high mass, high atomic number, and high energy particles using a dichlorofluorescein assay. Results: The results demonstrated that these antioxidants are effective in protecting against radiation-induced oxidative stress and complete or nearly complete protection was achieved by treating the cells with a combination of these agents before and during the radiation exposure. Conclusion: The combination of antioxidants evaluated in this study is likely be a promising countermeasure for protection against space radiation-induced adverse biologic effects.

  18. Azithromycin induces anti-viral effects in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Mandy; Akbarshahi, Hamid; Bjermer, Leif; Uller, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Rhinovirus infection is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and may contribute to the development into severe stages of COPD. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin may exert anti-viral actions and has been reported to reduce exacerbations in COPD. However, little is known about its anti-viral actions on bronchial epithelial cells at clinically relevant concentrations. Primary bronchial epithelial cells from COPD donors and healthy individuals were treated continuously with azithromycin starting 24 h before infection with rhinovirus RV16. Expression of interferons, RIG-I like helicases, pro-inflammatory cytokines and viral load were analysed. Azithromycin transiently increased expression of IFNβ and IFNλ1 and RIG-I like helicases in un-infected COPD cells. Further, azithromycin augmented RV16-induced expression of interferons and RIG-I like helicases in COPD cells but not in healthy epithelial cells. Azithromycin also decreased viral load. However, it only modestly altered RV16-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Adding budesonide did not reduce interferon-inducing effects of azithromycin. Possibly by inducing expression of RIG-I like helicases, azithromycin increased rhinovirus-induced expression of interferons in COPD but not in healthy bronchial epithelium. These effects would reduce bronchial viral load, supporting azithromycin's emerging role in prevention of exacerbations of COPD. PMID:27350308

  19. Azithromycin induces anti-viral effects in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Mandy; Akbarshahi, Hamid; Bjermer, Leif; Uller, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Rhinovirus infection is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and may contribute to the development into severe stages of COPD. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin may exert anti-viral actions and has been reported to reduce exacerbations in COPD. However, little is known about its anti-viral actions on bronchial epithelial cells at clinically relevant concentrations. Primary bronchial epithelial cells from COPD donors and healthy individuals were treated continuously with azithromycin starting 24 h before infection with rhinovirus RV16. Expression of interferons, RIG-I like helicases, pro-inflammatory cytokines and viral load were analysed. Azithromycin transiently increased expression of IFNβ and IFNλ1 and RIG-I like helicases in un-infected COPD cells. Further, azithromycin augmented RV16-induced expression of interferons and RIG-I like helicases in COPD cells but not in healthy epithelial cells. Azithromycin also decreased viral load. However, it only modestly altered RV16-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Adding budesonide did not reduce interferon-inducing effects of azithromycin. Possibly by inducing expression of RIG-I like helicases, azithromycin increased rhinovirus-induced expression of interferons in COPD but not in healthy bronchial epithelium. These effects would reduce bronchial viral load, supporting azithromycin’s emerging role in prevention of exacerbations of COPD. PMID:27350308

  20. GLUCOSE METABOLITE PATTERNS AS MARKERS OF FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIATION IN FRESHLY ISOLATED AND CULTURED MOUSE MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Emerman, J.T.; Bartley, J.C.; Bissell, M.J.

    1980-06-01

    In the mammary gland of nonruminant animals, glucose is utilized in a characteristic and unique way during lactation. We have measured the incorporation of glucose carbon from [U-{sup 14}C] glucose into intermediary metabolites and metabolic products in mammary epithelial cells from virgin, pregnant, and lactating mice and demonstrate that glucose metabolite patterns can be used to recognize stages of differentiated function. For these cells, the rates of synthesis of glycogen and lactose, the ratio of lactate to alanine, and the ratio of citrate to malate were important parameters in identifying the degree of expression of differentiation. We further show that these patterns can be used as markers to determine the differentiated state of cultured mammary epithelial cells. Cells maintained on plastic substrates lose their distinctive glucose metabolite patterns while those on floating collagen gels do not. Cells from pregnant mice have a pattern similar to freshly isolated cells from pregnant mice. The pattern of cells from lactating mice is different from that of the cells of origin, and resembles that of the cells from pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the floating collagen gels under the culture conditions used in these experiments provide an environment for the functional expression of the pregnant state, while additional factors are needed for the expression of the lactating state.

  1. Evaluation of low-dosage environmental mutagens with a long-term, cultured epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.S.; Lin, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    Polycyclic or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds consisting of at least two fused aromatic rings and are common environmental contaminants in soil, water, and air. Additionally, some PAHs are considered to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, and cytotoxic compounds. BaA (Benz(a)anthracene) and BaP (Benzo(a)pyrene) are the two major unsubstituted PAHs identified by the USEPA as priority pollutants. BaA is suspected to be a human carcinogen by the US Department of Health and Human Services, whereas BaP is regarded as an animal carcinogen. It is estimated that the emission concentrations of BaA and BaP from mainstream cigarette smoke are 20-70 ng per g cigarette and 20-40 ng per g cigarette, respectively, with an average sidestream to mainstream weight ratio of 3. In addition, BaA and BaP are also the main emissions from diesel particulate extracts with mean concentrations of 500 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. From a recent report concerning PAHs in urban areas all over the world, the airborne concentration of BaP was typically found to be in the range of 1-20 ng/m{sup 3} in Europe and 1 ng/m{sup 3} in the U.S.A. For BaA, the concentrations commonly ranged from I to 50 ng/m{sup 3} in Europe and from 0.1 to 1 ng/m{sup 3} in the U.S.A. Therefore, the long term exposure to these two compounds may cause health effects. This study examines long-term cultured epithelial cell lines exposed to BaP or BaA, in vitro, and the frequency of HGPRT mutants. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Propagation of normal human epithelial cell populations using an in vivo culture system. Description and applications.

    PubMed

    Klein-Szanto, A J; Terzaghi, M; Mirkin, L D; Martin, D; Shiba, M

    1982-08-01

    A new model using xenotransplanted human epithelia was developed for the study of toxic and carcinogenic effects of chemicals. Epithelial cells from the respiratory tract of 4 male and 3 female premature and fullterm fetuses were enzymatically removed and inoculated into deepithelialized rat tracheas. These were sealed at both ends and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 3-4 weeks, a normal mucociliary epithelium covered the tracheal lumen. At this stage the epithelial cells could be isolated again and transplanted into new denuded rat tracheas. This passaging could be repeated up to six times, each permitting an amplification factor of approximately 3. Tracheal transplants containing cells of human origin (in vivo Passages 2-4) were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Hyperplasias, squamous metaplasias, and dysplasias were seen 1-8 weeks after initiation of treatment, indicating that the responses of human and rodent epithelial cells to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are similar. Initial experiments with skin and esophageal epithelia suggest that other covering epithelia could also be used in this fashion for evaluation of toxicants and carcinogens that are likely to come into contact with these tissues. PMID:6821529

  3. Expression of the Peptide Antibiotic Human β-Defensin 1 in Cultured Gingival Epithelial Cells and Gingival Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai; Weinberg, Aaron; Perez, Christopher N.; Dale, Beverly A.

    1998-01-01

    Human β-defensin-1 (hBD-1) is a member of the family of small cationic antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in several mucosal epithelia. Because human gingival epithelium is a site that is constantly challenged by oral microorganisms, we examined the expression of hBD-1 in human gingival epithelial and fibroblast cell cultures and tissue samples. Cell cultures were challenged with cell wall extracts of Porphyromonas gingivalis or Fusobacterium nucleatum, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or phorbol myristate acetate. hBD-1 mRNA was detected in unstimulated and stimulated cultures by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR using several primer sets specific for hBD-1. Gingival epithelial cells, but not gingival fibroblasts, expressed a product of the predicted size for hBD-1 mRNA. The sequence of the PCR product was identical to that of hBD-1. hBD-1 mRNA expression was not significantly modulated by any of the stimulants tested. Human gingival tissues from noninflamed and inflamed sites were also analyzed by RT-PCR. hBD-1 mRNA was expressed in all tissue samples. The relative expression of hBD-1 mRNA was similar in noninflamed and inflamed tissues obtained from each of four patients undergoing treatment for periodontitis. However, the relative expression of hBD-1 mRNA varied in gingival biopsies obtained from 15 different normal individuals, and the relative hBD-1 expression was unrelated to interleukin-8 expression. Our findings show the constitutive expression of hBD-1 mRNA in cultured epithelial cells and gingival tissues but not gingival fibroblasts. These findings suggest that expression of hBD-1 may play a role as part of the innate host defenses in maintaining normal gingival health. PMID:9712771

  4. Determination of apical membrane polarity in mammary epithelial cell cultures: The role of cell-cell, cell-substratum, and membrane-cytoskeleton interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, G.; Beck, J.C.; Moss, L.; Bartley, J. ); Ojakian, G.K. )

    1990-06-01

    The membrane glycoprotein, PAS-O, is a major differentiation antigen on mammary epithelial cells and is located exclusively in the apical domain of the plasma membrane. The authors have used 734B cultured human mammary carcinoma cells as a model system to study the role of tight junctions, cell-substratum contacts, and submembranous cytoskeletal elements in restricting PAS-O to the apical membrane. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectronmicroscopy experiments demonstrated that while tight junctions demarcate PAS-O distribution in confluent cultures, apical polarity could be established at low culture densities when cells could not form tight junctions with neighboring cells. They suggest, then, that interactions between vitronectin and its receptor, are responsible for establishment of membrane domains in the absence of tight junctions. The role of cytoskeletal elements in restricting PAS-O distribution was examined by treating cultures with cytochalasin D, colchicine, or acrylamide. Cytochalasin D led to a redistribution of PAS0O while colchicine and acrylamide did not. They hypothesize that PAS-O is restricted to the apical membrane by interactions with a microfilament network and that the cytoskeletal organization is dependent upon cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions.

  5. Genetic Mechanisms Underlying the Pathogenicity of Cold-Stressed Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Cultured Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jigna; Desai, Prerak T.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella encounters various stresses in the environment and in the host during infection. The effects of cold (5°C, 48 h), peroxide (5 mM H2O2, 5 h) and acid stress (pH 4.0, 90 min) were tested on pathogenicity of Salmonella. Prior exposure of Salmonella to cold stress significantly (P < 0.05) increased adhesion and invasion of cultured intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. This increased Salmonella-host cell association was also correlated with significant induction of several virulence-associated genes, implying an increased potential of cold-stressed Salmonella to cause an infection. In Caco-2 cells infected with cold-stressed Salmonella, genes involved in the electron transfer chain were significantly induced, but no simultaneous significant increase in expression of antioxidant genes that neutralize the effect of superoxide radicals or reactive oxygen species was observed. Increased production of caspase 9 and caspase 3/7 was confirmed during host cell infection with cold-stressed Salmonella. Further, a prophage gene, STM2699, induced in cold-stressed Salmonella and a spectrin gene, SPTAN1, induced in Salmonella-infected intestinal epithelial cells were found to have a significant contribution in increased adhesion and invasion of cold-stressed Salmonella in epithelial cells. PMID:25192993

  6. Long-term maintenance of taurocholate uptake by adult rat hepatocytes co-cultured with a liver epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Foliot, A; Glaise, D; Erlinger, S; Guguen-Guillouzo, C

    1985-01-01

    Taurocholate (TC) uptake by adult rat hepatocytes co-cultured with other rat liver epithelial cells (RLEC) was studied comparatively to hepatocytes in primary culture. Cells were cultured on Petri dishes for desired times prior to measuring their ability to transport TC. TC uptake was linear for 150 sec in both culture conditions. In hepatocytes cultured alone, the initial rate of TC uptake at an extracellular concentration of 100 microM was 0.19 +/- 0.02 nmole per min per 10(6) cells after 48 hr of culture and decreased by 75% after 4 to 6 days. In hepatocytes co-cultured with RLEC, the rate of uptake at 48 hr (0.31 +/- 0.01 nmole per min per 10(6) cells) was significantly higher than in hepatocytes cultured alone (p less than 0.01); in addition, TC uptake remained stable at an average rate of 0.17 +/- 0.01 nmole per min per 10(6) cells for up to 56 days. No detectable uptake was found in RLEC cultured alone. TC uptake exhibited both saturable (Vmax = 0.30 +/- 0.03 nmole per min per 10(6) cells and Km = 42.6 +/- 4.4 microM) and nonsaturable components. These kinetic parameters were similar to those previously reported in isolated hepatocytes and in short-term cultured hepatocytes. TC uptake exhibited sodium dependence and was significantly reduced when extracellular sodium was replaced by lithium and sucrose, or in the presence of 1 mM ouabain. After 18 days of co-culture, TC uptake had qualitatively the same characteristics as at 48 hr, with a saturable and a nonsaturable component.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3979952

  7. Two-dimensional culture of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells results in an irreversible transition from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ya'an; Zhang, Ran; Suzuki, Rei; Li, Shao-qiang; Roife, David; Truty, Mark J.; Chatterjee, Deyali; Thomas, Ryan M.; Cardwell, James; Wang, Yu; Wang, Huamin; Katz, Matthew H.; Fleming, Jason B.

    2015-01-01

    Many commercially available cell lines have been in culture for ages, acquiring phenotypes that differ from the original cancers from which these cell lines were derived. Therefore, research on new cell lines could improve the success rates of translational research in cancer. We have developed methods for the isolation and culture of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells from murine xenografts of human PDAC. We hypothesize that phenotypes of PDAC cells are modified by in vitro culture conditions over time and by in vivo implantation. Patient-derived xenografts were created in immunodeficient mice using surgically resected tumor specimens. These murine xenografts were then used to establish human PDAC cell lines in culture. Earlier (<5) passage and later (>20) passage cell lines were evaluated separately regarding proliferation, cell cycle, genetic mutations, invasiveness, chemosensitivity, tumorigenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) status, and proteomics. Later passage cells accelerated their doubling time and colony formation, and were more concentrated in the G0/G1 phase and less in the G2/M checkpoint phase. Later passage cells were more sensitive to gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil than earlier passage cells, but all four new cell lines were more chemo-resistant compared to commercial ATCC cell lines. EMT induction was observed when establishing and passaging cell lines in vitro and furthermore by growing them as subcutaneous tumors in vivo. This study demonstrates a novel approach to the establishment of PDAC cell lines and observes a process by which newly established cell lines undergo phenotypic changes during in vitro culture and in vivo tumorigenesis. This may help explain differences of treatment effects often observed between experiments conducted in vitro, in vivo, and in human clinical trials. PMID:25485535

  8. Glucocorticoid receptors in primary cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells: characterization and modulation by prolactin and cortisol

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, W.; Shyamala, G.

    1985-06-01

    Mammary epithelial cells isolated from midpregant mice and cultured on collagen gels contain soluble glucocorticoid receptors. The kinetics of binding of dexamethasone reveal a saturable binding site (dissociation constant (K /sub d/), approximately 1 nM), and the binding site obeys a steroid specificity characteristic of a glucocorticoid receptor. As with the receptor isolated from intact glands, the receptor from the cultured cells also requires the addition of dithiothreitol for maximal binding of dexamethasone. The receptors are maintained at in vivo levels (approximately 1.3 pmol/mg DNA) for at least a period of 10 days in culture. However, the presence of both cortisol and PRL is required for the maintenance of the receptors, and the effect of both these hormones is dose dependent.

  9. Trehalose-Based Eye Drops Preserve Viability and Functionality of Cultured Human Corneal Epithelial Cells during Desiccation

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Bator, Aneta; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Marycz, Krzysztof; Grzesiak, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of cytoprotective ability of trehalose-based eye drops in comparison with commercially available preparations during the experimental desiccation of cultured human corneal epithelial cells. Cultured human corneal epithelial cells (hCEC) underwent incubation with 7 different, commercially available medicaments used commonly in dry eye syndrome treatment, followed by desiccation trial performed on air under the flow hood for 5, 15, 30, and 45 minutes. Cell viability was quantified by live/dead fluorescent assay, while the presence of apoptotic cells was estimated by immunofluorescent staining for active caspase 3 protein. The preservation of membrane functions was evaluated using neutral red staining, while the preservation of proper morphology and phenotype was determined by fluorescent staining for actin filaments, nuclei, and p63 protein. The trehalose-based eye drops showed the highest efficiency in prevention of cell death from desiccation; moreover, this preparation preserved the normal cellular morphology, functions of cell membrane, and proliferative activity more effectively than other tested medicaments. PMID:24995283

  10. Glucose metabolite patterns as markers of functional differentiation in freshly isolated and cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Emerman, J.T.; Bartley, J.C.; Bissel, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the mammary gland of non-ruminant animals, glucose is utilized in a characteristic and unique way during lacation. By measuring the incorporation of glucose carbon from (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into intermediary metabolitees and metabolic products in mammary epithelia cells from virgin, pregnant, and lacating mice, we domonstrate that glucose metabolite patterns can be used to recognize stages of differentiated function. For these cells, the rates of synthesis of glycogen and lactose, the ratio of lactate to alanine, and the ratio of citrate to malate are important parameters in identifying the degree of expression of differentiation. We further show that these patterns can be used as markers to determine the differentiated state of cultured mammary epithelial cells. Cells maintained on plastic substrates lose their distinctive glucose metabolite patterns while those on floating collagen gels do not. Cells isolated from pregnant mice and cultured on collagen gels have a pattern similar to that of their freshly isolated counter-parts. When isolated from lacating mice, the metabolite patterns of cells cultured on collagen gels are different from that of the cells of origin, and resembles that of freshly isolated cells from pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the floating collagen gels under the culture conditions used in these experiments provide an environment for the functional expression of the pregnant state, while additional factors are needed for the expression of the lactating state.

  11. Medium Calcium Concentration Determines Keratin Intermediate Filament Density and Distribution in Immortalized Cultured Thymic Epithelial Cells (TECs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Sandra S.; Meek, William D.; Hayashi, Jun; Ketchum, Robert J.

    2005-08-01

    Isolation and culture of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) using conventional primary tissue culture techniques under conditions employing supplemented low calcium medium yielded an immortalized cell line derived from the LDA rat (Lewis [Rt1l] cross DA [Rt1a]) that could be manipulated in vitro. Thymi were harvested from 4 5-day-old neonates, enzymically digested using collagenase (1 mg/ml, 37°C, 1 h) and cultured in low calcium WAJC404A medium containing cholera toxin (20 ng/ml), dexamethasone (10 nM), epidermal growth factor (10 ng/ml), insulin (10 [mu]g/ml), transferrin (10 [mu]g/ml), 2% calf serum, 2.5% Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM), and 1% antibiotic/antimycotic. TECs cultured in low calcium displayed round to spindle-shaped morphology, distinct intercellular spaces (even at confluence), and dense reticular-like keratin patterns. In high calcium (0.188 mM), TECs formed cobblestone-like confluent monolayers that were resistant to trypsinization (0.05%) and displayed keratin intermediate filaments concentrated at desmosomal junctions between contiguous cells. Changes in cultured TEC morphology were quantified by an analysis of desmosome/membrane relationships in high and low calcium media. Desmosomes were significantly increased in the high calcium medium. These studies may have value when considering the growth conditions of cultured primary cell lines like TECs.

  12. A Method for the Isolation and Culture of Adult Rat Retinal Pigment Epithelial (RPE) Cells to Study Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Janosch P.; Kwok, Jessica C. F.; Vecino, Elena; Martin, Keith R.; Fawcett, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affect the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and lead to the death of the epithelial cells and ultimately blindness. RPE transplantation is currently a major focus of eye research and clinical trials using human stem cell-derived RPE cells are ongoing. However, it remains to be established to which extent the source of RPE cells for transplantation affects their therapeutic efficacy and this needs to be explored in animal models. Autotransplantation of RPE cells has attractions as a therapy, but existing protocols to isolate adult RPE cells from rodents are technically difficult, time-consuming, have a low yield and are not optimized for long-term cell culturing. Here, we report a newly devised protocol which facilitates reliable and simple isolation and culture of RPE cells from adult rats. Incubation of a whole rat eyeball in 20 U/ml papain solution for 50 min yielded 4 × 104 viable RPE cells. These cells were hexagonal and pigmented upon culture. Using immunostaining, we demonstrated that the cells expressed RPE cell-specific marker proteins including cytokeratin 18 and RPE65, similar to RPE cells in vivo. Additionally, the cells were able to produce and secrete Bruch’s membrane matrix components similar to in vivo situation. Similarly, the cultured RPE cells adhered to isolated Bruch’s membrane as has previously been reported. Therefore, the protocol described in this article provides an efficient method for the rapid and easy isolation of high quantities of adult rat RPE cells. This provides a reliable platform for studying the therapeutic targets, testing the effects of drugs in a preclinical setup and to perform in vitro and in vivo transplantation experiments to study retinal diseases. PMID:26635529

  13. Enhanced pyrimidine dimer repair in cultured murine epithelial cells transfected with the denV gene of bacteriophage T4.

    PubMed

    Kusewitt, D F; Budge, C L; Ley, R D

    1994-04-01

    The patch size for excision repair of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced pyrimidine dimers was determined in cultured murine epithelial cells with normal and enhanced pyrimidine dimer repair capabilities. Cells with enhanced pyrimidine dimer repair were produced by transfecting 308 cells with the denV gene of bacteriophage T4; this gene encodes the enzyme endonuclease V. Pyrimidine dimer repair following exposure to UV from an FS-40 sunlamp was determined by micrococcal dimer-specific nuclease digestion and alkaline sucrose ultracentrifugation. Patch size ws estimated based on the photolytic lability of bromodeoxyuridine-substituted DNA. Excision repair of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in denV-transfected 308 cells was enhanced two- to threefold. Production of mRNA from the denV gene in cell lines with enhanced repair was confirmed by RNA blotting. In control cells, the patch size for excision repair of DNA photoproducts was estimated to be 34 nucleotides per photoproduct removed; in denV-transfected cells, a smaller average patch size of 10-16 nucleotides per photoproduct removed was calculated. Thus, endonuclease V activity appears to alter not only the extent, but also the nature of excision repair in UV-exposed mammalian epithelial cells. PMID:8151125

  14. Low Power Laser Irradiation Stimulates the Proliferation of Adult Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing; Uygun, Basak; Banerjee, Ipsita; Nahmias, Yaakov; Zhang, Quan; Berthiaume, François; Latina, Mark; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of low power laser irradiation on the proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Adult human RPE cells were artificially pigmented by preincubation with sepia melanin, and exposed to a single sublethal laser pulse (590 nm, 1 µs, <200 mJ/cm2). DNA synthesis, cell number, and growth factor activity in irradiated RPE cells were subsequently monitored. The effect of sublethal laser irradiation on the “wound” healing response of an RPE monolayer in an in vitro scratch assay was also investigated. Single pulsed laser irradiation increased DNA synthesis in pigmented RPE cells measured 6 h post-treatment. In the scratch assay, laser irradiation increased the rates of cell proliferation and wound closure. Conditioned medium, collected 48 h following laser treatment, increased cell proliferation of unirradiated cells. Irradiation increased RPE cell secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B chain, and increased mRNA levels of several growth factors and their receptors, including PDGF, transforming growth factor-β1, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, as well as heat shock proteins. This demonstrates, for the first time, that low power single pulsed laser irradiation stimulates the proliferation of RPE cells, and upregulates growth factors that are mitogenic for RPE cells. PMID:26740823

  15. Effects of phenylalanine and threonine oligopeptides on milk protein synthesis in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, M M; Wu, Y M; Liu, H Y; Liu, J X

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of phenylalanine (Phe) and threonine (Thr) oligopeptides on αs1 casein gene expression and milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Primary mammary epithelial cells were obtained from Holstein dairy cows and incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-F12 medium (DMEM/F12) containing lactogenic hormones (prolactin and glucocorticoids). Free Phe (117 μg/ml) was substituted partly with peptide-bound Phe (phenylalanylphenylalanine, phenylalanyl threonine, threonyl-phenylalanyl-phenylalanine) in the experimental media. After incubation with experimental medium, cells were collected for gene expression analysis and medium was collected for milk protein or amino acid determination. The results showed that peptide-bound Phe at 10% (11.7 μg/ml) significantly enhanced αs1 casein gene expression and milk protein synthesis as compared with equivalent amount of free Phe. When 10% Phe was replaced by phenylalanylphenylalanine, the disappearance of most essential amino acids increased significantly, and gene expression of peptide transporter 2 and some amino acid transporters was significantly enhanced. These results indicate that the Phe and Thr oligopeptides are important for milk protein synthesis, and peptide-bound amino acids could be utilised more efficiently in milk protein synthesis than the equivalent amount of free amino acids. PMID:25199802

  16. Salivary α-amylase exhibits antiproliferative effects in primary cell cultures of rat mammary epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most diagnosed cancers in females, frequently with fatal outcome, so that new strategies for modulating cell proliferation in the mammary tissue are urgently needed. There is some, as yet inconclusive evidence that α-amylase may constitute a novel candidate for affecting cellular growth. Methods The present investigation aimed to examine if salivary α-amylase, an enzyme well known for the metabolism of starch and recently introduced as a stress marker, is able to exert antiproliferative effects on the growth of mammary gland epithelial cells. For this purpose, primary epithelial cultures of breast tissue from two different inbred rat strains, Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis, as well as breast tumor cells of human origin were used. Treatment with human salivary α-amylase was performed once daily for 2 days followed by cell counting (trypan blue assay) to determine alterations in cell numbers. Cell senescence after α-amylase treatment was assessed by β-galactosidase assay. Endogenous α-amylase was detected in cells from F344 and Lewis by immunofluorescence. Results Salivary α-amylase treatment in vitro significantly decreased the proliferation of primary cells from F344 and Lewis rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Noticeably, the sensitivity towards α-amylase was significantly higher in Lewis cells with stronger impact on cell growth after 5 and 50 U/ml compared to F344 cells. An antiproliferative effect of α-amylase was also determined in mammary tumor cells of human origin, but this effect varied depending on the donor, age, and type of the cells. Conclusions The results presented here indicate for the first time that salivary α-amylase affects cell growth in rat mammary epithelial cells and in breast tumor cells of human origin. Thus, α-amylase may be considered a novel, promising target for balancing cellular growth, which may provide an interesting tool for tumor prophylaxis and treatment. PMID:22027017

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Cultured Limbal Epithelial Cells on an Intact Amniotic Membrane following Hypothermic Storage in Optisol-GS

    PubMed Central

    Paaske Utheim, Tor; Salvanos, Panagiotis; Aass Utheim, Øygunn; Ræder, Sten; Pasovic, Lara; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Fideliz de la Paz, Maria; Sehic, Amer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying activation of cell death pathways using genome-wide transcriptional analysis in human limbal epithelial cell (HLEC) cultures following conventional hypothermic storage in Optisol-GS. Three-week HLEC cultures were stored in Optisol-GS for 2, 4, and 7 days at 4 °C. Partek Genomics Suite software v.6.15.0422, (Partec Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA) was used to identify genes that showed significantly different (P < 0.05) levels of expression following hypothermic storage compared to non-stored cell sheets. There were few changes in gene expression after 2 days of storage, but several genes were differently regulated following 4 and 7 days of storage. The histone-coding genes HIST1H3A and HIST4H4 were among the most upregulated genes following 4 and 7 days of hypothermic storage. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that these two genes are involved in a functional network highly associated with cell death, necrosis, and transcription of RNA. HDAC1, encoding histone deacetylase 1, was the most downregulated gene after 7 days of storage. Together with other downregulated genes, it is suggested that HDAC1 is involved in a regulating network significantly associated with cellular function and maintenance, differentiation of cells, and DNA repair. Our data suggest that the upregulated expression of histone-coding genes together with downregulated genes affecting cell differentiation and DNA repair may be responsible for increased cell death following hypothermic storage of cultured HLEC. In summary, our results demonstrated that a higher number of genes changed with increasing storage time. Moreover, in general, larger differences in absolute gene expression values were observed with increasing storage time. Further understanding of these molecular mechanisms is important for optimization of storage technology for limbal epithelial sheets. PMID:26901233

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Cultured Limbal Epithelial Cells on an Intact Amniotic Membrane following Hypothermic Storage in Optisol-GS.

    PubMed

    Utheim, Tor Paaske; Salvanos, Panagiotis; Utheim, Øygunn Aass; Ræder, Sten; Pasovic, Lara; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; de la Paz, Maria Fideliz; Sehic, Amer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying activation of cell death pathways using genome-wide transcriptional analysis in human limbal epithelial cell (HLEC) cultures following conventional hypothermic storage in Optisol-GS. Three-week HLEC cultures were stored in Optisol-GS for 2, 4, and 7 days at 4 °C. Partek Genomics Suite software v.6.15.0422, (Partec Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA) was used to identify genes that showed significantly different (P < 0.05) levels of expression following hypothermic storage compared to non-stored cell sheets. There were few changes in gene expression after 2 days of storage, but several genes were differently regulated following 4 and 7 days of storage. The histone-coding genes HIST1H3A and HIST4H4 were among the most upregulated genes following 4 and 7 days of hypothermic storage. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that these two genes are involved in a functional network highly associated with cell death, necrosis, and transcription of RNA. HDAC1, encoding histone deacetylase 1, was the most downregulated gene after 7 days of storage. Together with other downregulated genes, it is suggested that HDAC1 is involved in a regulating network significantly associated with cellular function and maintenance, differentiation of cells, and DNA repair. Our data suggest that the upregulated expression of histone-coding genes together with downregulated genes affecting cell differentiation and DNA repair may be responsible for increased cell death following hypothermic storage of cultured HLEC. In summary, our results demonstrated that a higher number of genes changed with increasing storage time. Moreover, in general, larger differences in absolute gene expression values were observed with increasing storage time. Further understanding of these molecular mechanisms is important for optimization of storage technology for limbal epithelial sheets. PMID:26901233

  19. Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to MUC3 component of cultured intestinal epithelial cells with highest affinity.

    PubMed

    Das, Jugal Kishore; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta; Patro, Shubhransu; Goswami, Chandan; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2016-04-01

    Lactobacillus strains have been shown to adhere to the mucosal components of intestinal epithelial cells. However, established in vitro adhesion assays have several drawbacks in assessing the adhesion of new Lactobacillus strains. The present study aimed to compare the adhesion of four different Lactobacillus strains and select the most adherent microbe, based on in silico approach supported by in vitro results. The mucus-binding proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. fermentum were identified and their capacities to interact with intestinal mucin were compared by molecular docking analysis. Lactobacillus acidophilus had the maximal affinity of binding to mucin with predicted free energy of -6.066 kcal mol(-1) Further, in vitro experimental assay of adhesion was performed to validate the in silico results. The adhesion of L. acidophilus to mucous secreting colon epithelial HT-29 MTX cells was highest at 12%, and it formed biofilm with maximum depth (Z = 84 μm). Lactobacillus acidophilus was determined to be the most adherent strain in the study. All the Lactobacillus strains tested in this study, displayed maximum affinity of binding to MUC3 component of mucus as compared to other gastrointestinal mucins. These findings may have importance in the design of probiotics and health care management. PMID:26946538

  20. Cancer Risk-Assessment of Radiation Damage in Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Breast Epithelial Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, Lisa C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the study of the markers of cellular changes that are found during the onset of carcinogenesis. Several of the biological factors are markers of stress response, oncoprotein expression, and differentiation factors. Oxidative stress response agents such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from oxidative stresses such as ionizing radiation. The onocoprotein HER-2/neu, a specific breast cancer marker, indicates early onset of cancer. Additional structural and morphogenetic markers of differentiation were considered in order to determine initial cellular changes at the initial onset of cancer. As an additional consideration, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), a differentiation agent, was considered because of its known role in regulating normal differentiation and inhibiting tumor proliferation via specific nuclear receptors. This paper discusses study and results of the preliminary analyses of gamma irradiation of AT heterozygous human breast epithelial cells (WH). Comparisons are also made of the effects various RA concentrations post-irradiation.

  1. Cytotoxicity of antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation on epithelial cells when co-cultured with Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Pellissari, Claudia Viviane Guimarães; Pavarina, Ana Claudia; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Mima, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Jorge, Janaina Habib

    2016-05-11

    This study assessed the cytotoxicity of antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation (aPDI), mediated by curcumin, using human keratinocytes co-cultured with Candida albicans. Cells and microorganisms were grown separately for 24 hours and then kept in contact for an additional 24 hours. After this period, aPDI was applied. The conditions tested were: P+L+ (experimental group aPDI); P-L+ (light emitting diode [LED] group); P+L- (curcumin group); and P-L- (cells in co-culture without curcumin nor LED). In addition, keratinocytes and C. albicans were grown separately, were not placed in the co-culture and did not receive aPDI (control group). Cell proliferation was assessed using Alamar Blue, MTT, XTT and CFU tests. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the survival percentages of cells compared to the control group (considered as 100% viability), complemented by multiple comparisons using Tukey's test. A 5% significance level was adopted. The results of this study showed no interference in the metabolism of the cells in co-culture, since no differences were observed between the control group (cultured cells by themselves) and the P-L- group (co-culture cells without aPDI). The aPDI group reached the highest reduction (p = 0.009), which was equivalent to 1.7 log10 when compared to the control group. The P+L-, P-L+, P-L- and control groups were not statistically different (ρ > 0.05). aPDI inhibited the growth of keratinocytes and C. albicans in all tests, so the therapy was considered slightly (inhibition between 25 and 50% compared to the control group) to moderately (inhibition between 50 and 75% compared to the control group) cytotoxic. PMID:27110908

  2. Nonviral in situ green fluorescent protein labeling and culture of primary, adult human hair follicle epithelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Stephan; Koop, Norbert; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Fässler, Reinhard; Paus, Ralf

    2009-11-01

    In this article we show that cloning of the human K15 promoter before a green fluorescence protein (GFP)/geneticin-resistance cassette and transfection of microdissected, organ-cultured adult human scalp hair follicles generates specific K15 promoter-driven GFP expression in their stem cell-rich bulge region. K15-GFP+ cells can be visualized in situ by GFP fluorescence and 2-photon laser scanning microscopy. Vital K15-GFP+ progenitor cells can then be selected by using the criteria of their green fluorescence, adhesion to collagen type IV and fibronectin, and geneticin resistance. Propagated K15-GFP+ cells express epithelial progenitor markers, show the expected differential gene expression profile of human bulge epithelium, and form holoclones. This application of nonretroviral, K15 promoter-driven, GFP labeling to adult human hair follicles facilitates the characterization and manipulation of human epithelial stem cells, both in situ and in vitro, and should be transferable to other complex human tissues. PMID:19750535

  3. High- and low-LET Radiation-induced Chromosome Aberrations in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured in 3-dimensional Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, M.; George K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.

    2008-01-01

    Energetic heavy ions pose a great health risk to astronauts who participate in extended ISS missions and will be an even greater concern for future manned lunar and Mars missions. High-LET heavy ions are particularly effective in causing various biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts and cancer induction. Most of these biological endpoints are closely related to chromosomal damage, which can be utilized as a biomarker for radiation insults. Previously, we had studied low- and high-LET radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells cultured in 2-dimension (2D) using the multicolor banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique. However, it has been realized that the biological response to radiation insult in a 2D in vitro cellular environment can differ significantly from the response in 3-dimension (3D) or at the actual tissue level. In this study, we cultured human epithelial cells in 3D to provide a more suitable model for human tissue. Human mammary epithelial cells (CH184B5F5/M10) were grown in Matrigel to form 3D structures, and exposed to Fe-ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory or 137Cs-gamma radiation source at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. After exposure, cells were allowed to repair for 16hr before dissociation and subcultured at low density in 2D. G2 and metaphase chromosomes in the first cell cycle were collected in the first cell cycle after irradiation using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique, and chromosome aberrations were analyzed using mBAND technique. With this technique, individually painted chromosomal bands on one chromosome allowed the identification of interchromosomal aberrations (translocation to unpainted chromosomes) and intrachromosomal aberrations (inversions and deletions within a single painted chromosome). Our data indicate a significant difference in the

  4. Phagosomal pH and glass fiber dissolution in cultured nasal epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, N F

    1994-01-01

    The dissolution rate of glass fibers has been shown to be pH sensitive using in vitro lung fluid simulant models. The current study investigated whether there is a difference in phagosomal pH (ppH) between rat alveolar macrophages (AM) and rat nasal epithelial cells (RNEC) and whether such a difference would influence the dissolution of glass fibers. The ppH was measured in cultured AM and RNEC using flow cytometric, fluorescence-emission rationing techniques with fluorescein-labeled, amorphous silica particles. Glass fiber dissolution was determined in AM and RNEC cultured for 3 weeks with fast dissolving glass fibers (GF-A) or slow dissolving ones (GF-B). The mean diameters of GF-A were 2.7 microns and of GF-B, 2.6 microns, the average length of both fibers was approximately 22 to 25 microns. Dissolution was monitored by measuring the length and diameter of intracellular fibers and estimating the volume, assuming a cylindrical morphology. The ppH of AM was 5.2 to 5.8, and the ppH of RNEC was 7.0 to 7.5. The GF-A dissolved more slowly in RNEC than in AM, and no dissolution was evident in either cell type with GF-B. The volume loss with GF-A after a 3-week culture with AM was 66% compared to 45% for cultured RNEC. These results are different from those obtained using in vitro lung fluid-simulant models where dissolution is faster at higher pH. This difference suggests that dissolution rates of glass fibers in AM should not be applied to the dissolution of fibers in epithelial cells. Images Figure 1. a Figure 1. b Figure 2. a Figure 2. b Figure 3. a Figure 3. b PMID:7882965

  5. Effect of Storage Temperature on Key Functions of Cultured Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pasovic, Lara; Eidet, Jon Roger; Brusletto, Berit S.; Lyberg, Torstein; Utheim, Tor P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Replacement of the diseased retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with cells capable of performing the specialized functions of the RPE is the aim of cell replacement therapy for treatment of macular degenerative diseases. A storage method for RPE is likely to become a prerequisite for the establishment of such treatment. Herein, we analyze the effect of storage temperature on key functions of cultured RPE cells. Methods. Cultured ARPE-19 cells were stored in Minimum Essential Medium at 4°C, 16°C, and 37°C for seven days. Total RNA was isolated and the gene expression profile was determined using DNA microarrays. Comparison of the microarray expression values with qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes validated the results. Results. Expression levels of several key genes involved in phagocytosis, pigment synthesis, the visual cycle, adherens, and tight junctions, and glucose and ion transport were maintained close to control levels in cultures stored at 4°C and 16°C. Cultures stored at 37°C displayed regulational changes in a larger subset of genes related to phagocytosis, adherens, and tight junctions. Conclusion. RPE cultures stored at 4°C and 16°C for one week are capable of maintaining the expression levels of genes important for key RPE functions close to control levels. PMID:26448872

  6. Selective growth of freshly isolated human breast epithelial cells cultured at low concentrations in the presence or absence of bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Emerman, J T; Stingl, J; Petersen, A; Shpall, E J; Eaves, C J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we show that conditions previously found to promote the selective growth of human breast epithelial cells (HBEC) in serum-free primary cultures established from normal or malignant tissue can be extended to cultures initiated at low seeding densities (< 5000 cells/cm2). The epithelial nature of the cells produced was documented by their positive staining with antibodies specific for keratins 8, 14, and 18, and 2 antibodies that recognize epithelial-specific antigens (Ber-EP4 and HB8630). HBEC growth was not affected, either positively or negatively, by the use of a medium containing a combination of fetal calf and horse serum, which promotes the growth of many types of stromal cells and associated hematopoietic precursors, or by the inclusion in the initial cell suspension of marrow cells at HBEC to marrow cell ratios typical of bone marrow samples from patients with metastatic breast cancer. The presence of fibroblast feeders from a variety of sources enhanced the growth of HBEC to different degrees. In cultures initiated with low numbers of cells obtained from samples of breast carcinoma, HBEC growth was generally reduced by comparison to cultures of normal HBEC. With the detection methods used, it was not possible to determine the extent to which this decreased growth was due to a reduced frequency of malignant HBEC with in vitro precursor activity, or the presence of reduced numbers of residual normal HBEC precursors, or both. However, preliminary data indicate that this approach also allows the detection of some breast carcinoma cells with proliferative ability that are present in the marrow or pleural effusions of some breast cancer patients. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of detecting normal and malignant HBEC with growth potential when these are cultured at low density and/or as rare contaminants of marrow cell suspensions, and provide a starting point for their further characterization. PMID:8944333

  7. Epithelial cells and Von Gierke's disease.

    PubMed

    Negishi, H; Benke, P J

    1977-08-01

    Epithelial cells and not fibroblasts from human liver and amniotic fluid contain inducible glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity. The diagnosis of Von Gierke's disease has been made in a patient with hepatomegaly utilizing cultured epithelial cells grown from a liver biopsy. G-6-Pase activity in epithelial cells from this patient could not be induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline. This is the first use of epithelial cells for diagnosis of a metabolic disease. G-6-Pase activity in cloned epithelial cells from amniotic fluid increases 2- to 3-fold after 24-hr exposure to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline. The prenatal diagnosis of Von Gierke's disease may be possible in a laboratory experienced with these techniques if epithelial cell growth is obtained from amniotic fluid. PMID:196249

  8. Oncostatin M synergises with house dust mite proteases to induce the production of PGE2 from cultured lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Darryl A; Asokananthan, Nithiananthan; Watkins, D Neil; Misso, Neil L A; Thompson, Philip J; Stewart, Geoffrey A

    2000-01-01

    The release of PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO) from the respiratory epithelium may act to dampen inflammation. In other tissues, oncostatin M (OSM), a potent inducer of epithelial antiproteases, has also been shown to interact with IL-1β to stimulate PGE2 release. However, whether OSM interacts with pro-inflammatory cytokines and proteases in the production of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and NO from airway epithelium is unknown.The effect of OSM and the related cytokine leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on PGE2 and NO production by the respiratory epithelial cell line, A549 in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as protease-rich house dust mite (HDM) fractions and a protease-deficient rye grass pollen extract was examined by immunohistochemistry, cell culture, ELISA and enzyme-immunoassay.Cells treated with a mixture of IL-1β, IFNγ and LPS for 48 h produced a 9 fold increase in PGE2 and a 3 fold increase in NO levels (both P<0.05). Both OSM and LIF were without effect. However, OSM added together with the cytokine mixture synergistically enhanced PGE2 production (22 fold, P<0.05). OSM also synergistically enhanced PGE2 production in response to a cysteine protease-enriched, but not serine protease-enriched HDM fraction (P<0.05). Rye grass extract, neither alone nor in combination with OSM, induced PGE2 or NO production, although it did induce the release of GM-CSF.These observations suggest that OSM is an important co-factor in the release of PGE2 and NO from respiratory epithelial cells and may play a role in defense against exogenous proteases such as those derived from HDM. PMID:11015296

  9. TREK-1 Regulates Cytokine Secretion from Cultured Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells Independently of Cytoskeletal Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Roan, Esra; Teng, Bin; Waters, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background TREK-1 deficient alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) secrete less IL-6, more MCP-1, and contain less F-actin. Whether these alterations in cytokine secretion and F-actin content are related remains unknown. We now hypothesized that cytokine secretion from TREK-1-deficient AECs was regulated by cytoskeletal rearrangements. Methods We determined F-actin and α-tubulin contents of control, TREK-1-deficient and TREK-1-overexpressing human A549 cells by confocal microscopy and western blotting, and measured IL-6 and MCP-1 levels using real-time PCR and ELISA. Results Cytochalasin D decreased the F-actin content of control cells. Jasplakinolide increased the F-actin content of TREK-1 deficient cells, similar to the effect of TREK-1 overexpression in control cells. Treatment of control and TREK-1 deficient cells with TNF-α, a strong stimulus for IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion, had no effect on F-actin structures. The combination of TNF-α+cytochalasin D or TNF-α+jasplakinolide had no additional effect on the F-actin content or architecture when compared to cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide alone. Although TREK-1 deficient AECs contained less F-actin at baseline, quantified biochemically, they contained more α-tubulin. Exposure to nocodazole disrupted α-tubulin filaments in control and TREK-1 deficient cells, but left the overall amount of α-tubulin unchanged. Although TNF-α had no effect on the F-actin or α-tubulin contents, it increased IL-6 and MCP-1 production and secretion from control and TREK-1 deficient cells. IL-6 and MCP-1 secretions from control and TREK-1 deficient cells after TNF-α+jasplakinolide or TNF-α+nocodazole treatment was similar to the effect of TNF-α alone. Interestingly, cytochalasin D decreased TNF-α-induced IL-6 but not MCP-1 secretion from control but not TREK-1 deficient cells. Conclusion Although cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide and nocodazole altered the F-actin and α-tubulin structures of control and TREK-1 deficient AEC, the

  10. Human thyroid epithelial cells cultured in monolayers. II. Influence of serum on thyroglobulin and cAMP production.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, A K; Kayser, L; Perrild, H; Brandt, M; Bech, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1996-02-01

    An in vitro system of secondary cultures of human thyroid follicular epithelial cells in monolayer is described. The 72-h influence of serum and six supplements (thyrotropin, insulin, somatostatin, transferrin, hydrocortisone, glycyl-histidyl-lysine acetate) on growth and function in presence of 3-isobutyl-L-methyl-xanthine (IBMX) was investigated. The function of the cells was evaluated by production of the second messenger adenylate cyclase (cAMP) and the end product thyroglobulin (Tg). Growth was measured as the 3H-thymidine uptake of the cells. Three days of TSH-depletion preceeded the experiments. In presence of IBMX TSH stimulated cAMP production, while stimulation of Tg was only present in some cultures. In absence of IBMX TSH always stimulated the Tg production. The stimulation was independent of the presence of the other five investigated nutritional factors in physiological concentrations. TSH in concentrations from 0.1-10 U/1 stimulated the 72ih 3H-thymidine uptake of the cells. The TSH-stimulated production of Tg and cAMP decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of fetal calf serum (0-10%), (tau = 0.49, P < 0.001, n = 6-29 and tau = 0.75, P < 0.001, n = 6-29, respectively). Thus, serum as a complex, variable and not fully characterized mixture of hormones and growth factors was crucial to the attachment of the cells to the substrate, but inhibited differentiated functions of the human thyroid cells. PMID:8647317

  11. Culture of human limbal epithelial stem cells on tenon's fibroblast feeder-layers: a translational approach.

    PubMed

    Scafetta, Gaia; Siciliano, Camilla; Frati, Giacomo; De Falco, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The coculture technique is the standard method to expand ex vivo limbal stem cells (LSCs) by using inactivated embryonic murine feeder layers (3T3). Although alternative techniques such as amniotic membranes or scaffolds have been proposed, feeder layers are still considered to be the best method, due to their ability to preserve some critical properties of LSCs such as cell growth and viability, stemness phenotype, and clonogenic potential. Furthermore, clinical applications of LSCs cultured on 3T3 have taken place. Nevertheless, for an improved Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) compliance, the use of human feeder-layers as well as a fine standardization of the process is strictly encouraged. Here, we describe a translational approach in accordance with GMP regulations to culture LSCs onto human Tenon's fibroblasts (TFs). In this chapter, based on our experience we identify and analyze issues that often are encountered by researchers and discuss solutions to common problems. PMID:25063497

  12. A method for high purity intestinal epithelial cell culture from adult human and murine tissues for the investigation of innate immune function

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Christina L.; Harden, Scott W.; LaPato, Melissa; Nelson, Michael; Amador, Byron; Sorenson, Heather; Frazier, Charles J.; Wallet, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) serve as an important physiologic barrier between environmental antigens and the host intestinal immune system. Thus, IECs serve as a first line of defense and may act as sentinel cells during inflammatory insults. Despite recent renewed interest in IEC contributions to host immune function, the study of primary IEC has been hindered by lack of a robust culture technique, particularly for small intestinal and adult tissues. Here, a novel adaptation for culture of primary IEC is described for human duodenal organ donor tissue as well as duodenum and colon of adult mice. These epithelial cell cultures display characteristic phenotypes and are of high purity. In addition, the innate immune function of human primary IEC, specifically with regard to Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and microbial ligand responsiveness, is contrasted with a commonly used intestinal epithelial cell line (HT-29). Specifically, TLR expression at the mRNA level and production of cytokine (IFNγ and TNFα) in response to TLR agonist stimulation is assessed. Differential expression of TLRs as well as innate immune responses to ligand stimulation is observed in human-derived cultures compared to that of HT-29. Thus, use of this adapted method to culture primary epithelial cells from adult human donors and from adult mice will allow for more appropriate studies of IECs as innate immune effectors. PMID:25193428

  13. Purinergic regulation of cation conductances and intracellular Ca2+ in cultured rat retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Jennifer S; Baldridge, William H; Kelly, Melanie E M

    1999-01-01

    We used whole-cell patch clamp and fluorescent calcium imaging techniques to investigate the effects of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) on membrane currents and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i)in rat retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In 62 % of RPE cells, application of 100 μM ATP elicited a fast inward current at negative membrane potentials. In 38 % of RPE cells recorded, a biphasic response to ATP was observed in which activation of the fast inward current was followed by activation of a delayed outward current. The ATP-activated inward current was a non-selective cation (NSC) current that showed inward rectification, reversed at −1.5 ± 1 mV and was permeable to monovalent cations. The NSC current was insensitive to the P2 purinoceptor antagonists, suramin or PPADS but was activated by the purinoceptor agonists UTP, ADP and 2MeSATP. The outward current activated by ATP reversed at −68 ± 3 mV (equilibrium potential for potassium (EK) = −84 mV) and was blocked by Ba2+ ions, consistent with the activation of a K+ conductance. The outward K+ conductance was also reduced by the maxi-KCa channel blocker iberiotoxin (IbTX; 10 nM), suggesting that ATP activated an outward Ca2+-activated K+ channel in rat RPE cells. The Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca)) was also activated by the purinoceptor agonists UTP, ADP and 2MeSATP. In fluo-3 or fluo-4 loaded RPE cells, ATP and the pyrimidine agonist UTP elevated [Ca2+]i. The increase in Ca2+ was not dependent on extracellular Ca2+ influx, but was sensitive to the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, confirming the involvement of intracellular Ca2+ stores release. These results suggest that rat RPE cells express both P2X purinoceptors that gate activation of a non-selective cation conductance and G protein-coupled P2Y purinoceptors that mediate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and activation of a calcium-activated K+ current. PMID:10545141

  14. Purinergic regulation of cation conductances and intracellular Ca2+ in cultured rat retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J S; Baldridge, W H; Kelly, M E

    1999-11-01

    1. We used whole-cell patch clamp and fluorescent calcium imaging techniques to investigate the effects of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) on membrane currents and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i)in rat retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In 62 % of RPE cells, application of 100 microM ATP elicited a fast inward current at negative membrane potentials. In 38 % of RPE cells recorded, a biphasic response to ATP was observed in which activation of the fast inward current was followed by activation of a delayed outward current. 2. The ATP-activated inward current was a non-selective cation (NSC) current that showed inward rectification, reversed at -1.5 +/- 1 mV and was permeable to monovalent cations. The NSC current was insensitive to the P2 purinoceptor antagonists, suramin or PPADS but was activated by the purinoceptor agonists UTP, ADP and 2MeSATP. 3. The outward current activated by ATP reversed at -68 +/- 3 mV (equilibrium potential for potassium (EK) = -84 mV) and was blocked by Ba2+ ions, consistent with the activation of a K+ conductance. The outward K+ conductance was also reduced by the maxi-KCa channel blocker iberiotoxin (IbTX; 10 nM), suggesting that ATP activated an outward Ca2+-activated K+ channel in rat RPE cells. The Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca)) was also activated by the purinoceptor agonists UTP, ADP and 2MeSATP. 4. In fluo-3 or fluo-4 loaded RPE cells, ATP and the pyrimidine agonist UTP elevated [Ca2+]i. The increase in Ca2+ was not dependent on extracellular Ca2+ influx, but was sensitive to the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, confirming the involvement of intracellular Ca2+ stores release. 5. These results suggest that rat RPE cells express both P2X purinoceptors that gate activation of a non-selective cation conductance and G protein-coupled P2Y purinoceptors that mediate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and activation of a calcium-activated K+ current. PMID:10545141

  15. Indirect Co-Culture with Tendons or Tenocytes Can Program Amniotic Epithelial Cells towards Stepwise Tenogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Barboni, Barbara; Curini, Valentina; Russo, Valentina; Mauro, Annunziata; Di Giacinto, Oriana; Marchisio, Marco; Alfonsi, Melissa; Mattioli, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Background Amniotic epithelial cells (AEC) have potential applications in cell-based therapy. Thus far their ability to differentiate into tenocytes has not been investigated although a cell source providing a large supply of tenocytes remains a priority target of regenerative medicine in order to respond to the poor self-repair capability of adult tendons. Starting from this premise, the present research has been designed firstly to verify whether the co-culture with adult primary tenocytes could be exploited in order to induce tenogenic differentiation in AEC, as previously demonstrated in mesenchymal stem cells. Since the co-culture systems inducing cell differentiation takes advantage of specific soluble paracrine factors released by tenocytes, the research has been then addressed to study whether the co-culture could be improved by making use of the different cell populations present within tendon explants or of the high regenerative properties of fetal derived cell/tissue. Methodology/Principal Findings Freshly isolated AEC, obtained from ovine fetuses at mid-gestation, were co-incubated with explanted tendons or primary tenocytes obtained from fetal or adult calcaneal tendons. The morphological and functional analysis indicated that AEC possessed tenogenic differentiation potential. However, only AEC exposed to fetal-derived cell/tissues developed in vitro tendon-like three dimensional structures with an expression profile of matrix (COL1 and THSB4) and mesenchymal/tendon related genes (TNM, OCN and SCXB) similar to that recorded in native ovine tendons. The tendon-like structures displayed high levels of organization as documented by the cell morphology, the newly deposited matrix enriched in COL1 and widespread expression of gap junction proteins (Connexin 32 and 43). Conclusions/Significance The co-culture system improves its efficiency in promoting AEC differentiation by exploiting the inductive tenogenic soluble factors released by fetal tendon cells or

  16. Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Trzpis, Monika; McLaughlin, Pamela M.J.; de Leij, Lou M.F.H.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2007-01-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, CD326) is a glycoprotein of ∼40 kd that was originally identified as a marker for carcinoma, attributable to its high expression on rapidly proliferating tumors of epithelial origin. Normal epithelia express EpCAM at a variable but generally lower level than carcinoma cells. In early studies, EpCAM was proposed to be a cell-cell adhesion molecule. However, recent insights revealed a more versatile role for EpCAM that is not limited only to cell adhesion but includes diverse processes such as signaling, cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Cell surface expression of EpCAM may actually prevent cell-cell adhesion. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current knowledge on EpCAM biology in relation to other cell adhesion molecules. We discuss the implications of the newly identified functions of EpCAM in view of its prognostic relevance in carcinoma, inflammatory pathophysiology, and tissue development and regeneration as well as its role in normal epithelial homeostasis. PMID:17600130

  17. Carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) for corneal epithelium reconstruction: a histological study.

    PubMed

    Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Oliva, Joan; Wood, Andrew; Hoft, Richard; Pan, Derek; Thropay, Jacquelyn; Makalinao, Andrew; French, Samuel W; Niihara, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the therapeutic effects of carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) transplantation for experimentally induced severe rabbit limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Buccal biopsies were performed and CAOMECS were cultured and transplanted onto diseased corneas. Six-month follow-up examinations indicated that three out of four corneas with CAOMECS grafts showed a decrease in superficial vascularization, while almost all the sham corneas did not show a similar decrease. H&E staining of corneas showed that CAOMECS transplantation reduced blood vessel invasion of central cornea, reduced lymphocyte infiltration and fibrotic tissue formation. DeltaNp63 stained markedly in the grafted cornea and to a lesser extent in the sham corneas. PCNA and Ki-67 staining were much greater in the sham corneas than in the grafted and normal corneas. K3 and K13 staining demonstrated that CAOMECS transplanted corneas had much more K3- and less K13- positive cells compared to the sham corneas. Muc5AC was decreased in the central region of grafted corneas. Very little alpha-smooth muscle actin (aSMA) staining was detected in grafted corneas, while there was a greater amount of aSMA staining in sham corneas. Staining for anti-angiogenic factor TIMP -3 was also increased, and pro-angiogenic factor MMP-3 was decreased in grafted corneas compared to sham corneas. Our results indicate that CAOMECS grafts resulted in improved epithelialization of the corneal surface and decreased vascularization and fibrosis of the diseased corneas. PMID:25881998

  18. Hyperglycemia Does Not Affect Iron Mediated Toxicity of Cultured Endothelial and Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells: Influence of L-Carnosine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiqi; Ntasis, Emmanouil; Kabtni, Sarah; van den Born, Jaap; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; Krämer, Bernhard K; Yard, Benito A; Hauske, Sibylle J

    2016-01-01

    Iron has been suggested to affect the clinical course of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as accompanying increased intracellular iron accumulation may provide an alternative source for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although carnosine has proven its therapeutic efficacy in rodent models of T2DM, little is known about its efficacy to protect cells from iron toxicity. We sought to assess if high glucose (HG) exposure makes cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) more susceptible to metal induced toxicity and if this is ameliorated by L-carnosine. HUVECs and PTECs, cultured under normal glucose (5 mM, NG) or HG (30 mM), were challenged for 24 h with FeCl3. Cell viability was not impaired under HG conditions nor did HG increase susceptibility to FeCl3. HG did not change the expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ferroportin (IREG), and transferrin receptor protein 1 (TFRC). Irrespective of glucose concentrations L-carnosine prevented toxicity in a dose-dependent manner, only if it was present during the FeCl3 challenge. Hence our study indicates that iron induced cytotoxicity is not enhanced under HG conditions. L-Carnosine displayed a strong protective effect, most likely by chelation of iron mediated toxicity. PMID:26788523

  19. Hyperglycemia Does Not Affect Iron Mediated Toxicity of Cultured Endothelial and Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells: Influence of L-Carnosine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiqi; Ntasis, Emmanouil; Kabtni, Sarah; van den Born, Jaap; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Yard, Benito A.; Hauske, Sibylle J.

    2016-01-01

    Iron has been suggested to affect the clinical course of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as accompanying increased intracellular iron accumulation may provide an alternative source for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although carnosine has proven its therapeutic efficacy in rodent models of T2DM, little is known about its efficacy to protect cells from iron toxicity. We sought to assess if high glucose (HG) exposure makes cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) more susceptible to metal induced toxicity and if this is ameliorated by L-carnosine. HUVECs and PTECs, cultured under normal glucose (5 mM, NG) or HG (30 mM), were challenged for 24 h with FeCl3. Cell viability was not impaired under HG conditions nor did HG increase susceptibility to FeCl3. HG did not change the expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ferroportin (IREG), and transferrin receptor protein 1 (TFRC). Irrespective of glucose concentrations L-carnosine prevented toxicity in a dose-dependent manner, only if it was present during the FeCl3 challenge. Hence our study indicates that iron induced cytotoxicity is not enhanced under HG conditions. L-Carnosine displayed a strong protective effect, most likely by chelation of iron mediated toxicity. PMID:26788523

  20. Isolation and Culture of Dental Epithelial Stem Cells from the Adult Mouse Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Miquella G.; Hu, Jimmy; Seidel, Kerstin; Li, Chunying; Jheon, Andrew; Naveau, Adrien; Horst, Orapin; Klein, Ophir D.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie tooth regeneration and renewal has become a topic of great interest1-4, and the mouse incisor provides a model for these processes. This remarkable organ grows continuously throughout the animal's life and generates all the necessary cell types from active pools of adult stem cells housed in the labial (toward the lip) and lingual (toward the tongue) cervical loop (CL) regions. Only the dental stem cells from the labial CL give rise to ameloblasts that generate enamel, the outer covering of teeth, on the labial surface. This asymmetric enamel formation allows abrasion at the incisor tip, and progenitors and stem cells in the proximal incisor ensure that the dental tissues are constantly replenished. The ability to isolate and grow these progenitor or stem cells in vitro allows their expansion and opens doors to numerous experiments not achievable in vivo, such as high throughput testing of potential stem cell regulatory factors. Here, we describe and demonstrate a reliable and consistent method to culture cells from the labial CL of the mouse incisor. PMID:24834972

  1. Krüppel-Like Factor 4 Overexpression Initiates a Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition and Redifferentiation of Human Pancreatic Cells following Expansion in Long Term Adherent Culture

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Hilary M.; McGowan, Neil W. A.; Forbes, Shareen; Heremans, Yves; Forbes, Stuart J.; Heimberg, Harry; Casey, John; Docherty, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    A replenishable source of insulin-producing cells has the potential to cure type 1 diabetes. Attempts to culture and expand pancreatic β-cells in vitro have resulted in their transition from insulin-producing epithelial cells to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) with high proliferative capacity but devoid of any hormone production. The aim of this study was to determine whether the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), could induce a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) of the cultured cells. Islet-enriched pancreatic cells, allowed to dedifferentiate and expand in adherent cell culture, were transduced with an adenovirus containing KLF4 (Ad-Klf4). Cells were subsequently analysed for changes in cell morphology by light microscopy, and for the presence of epithelial and pancreatic markers by immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT/PCR. Infection with Ad-Klf4 resulted in morphological changes, down-regulation of mesenchymal markers, and re-expression of both epithelial and pancreatic cell markers including insulin and transcription factors specific to β-cells. This effect was further enhanced by culturing cells in suspension. However, the effects of Ad-KLf4 were transient and this was shown to be due to increased apoptosis in Klf4-expressing cells. Klf4 has been recently identified as a pioneer factor with the ability to modulate the structure of chromatin and enhance reprogramming/transdifferentiation. Our results show that Klf4 may have a role in the redifferentiation of expanded pancreatic cells in culture, but before this can be achieved the off-target effects that result in increased apoptosis would need to be overcome. PMID:26457418

  2. 3D Organotypic Co-culture Model Supporting Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cell Proliferation, Differentiation and Promiscuous Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sheena; Stark, Hans-Jürgen; Martin, Iris; Boukamp, Petra; Kyewski, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Intra-thymic T cell development requires an intricate three-dimensional meshwork composed of various stromal cells, i.e., non-T cells. Thymocytes traverse this scaffold in a highly coordinated temporal and spatial order while sequentially passing obligatory check points, i.e., T cell lineage commitment, followed by T cell receptor repertoire generation and selection prior to their export into the periphery. The two major resident cell types forming this scaffold are cortical (cTECs) and medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). A key feature of mTECs is the so-called promiscuous expression of numerous tissue-restricted antigens. These tissue-restricted antigens are presented to immature thymocytes directly or indirectly by mTECs or thymic dendritic cells, respectively resulting in self-tolerance. Suitable in vitro models emulating the developmental pathways and functions of cTECs and mTECs are currently lacking. This lack of adequate experimental models has for instance hampered the analysis of promiscuous gene expression, which is still poorly understood at the cellular and molecular level. We adapted a 3D organotypic co-culture model to culture ex vivo isolated mTECs. This model was originally devised to cultivate keratinocytes in such a way as to generate a skin equivalent in vitro. The 3D model preserved key functional features of mTEC biology: (i) proliferation and terminal differentiation of CD80(lo), Aire-negative into CD80(hi), Aire-positive mTECs, (ii) responsiveness to RANKL, and (iii) sustained expression of FoxN1, Aire and tissue-restricted genes in CD80(hi) mTECs. PMID:26275017

  3. Ex vivo expanded autologous limbal epithelial cells on amniotic membrane using a culture medium with human serum as single supplement.

    PubMed

    Shahdadfar, Aboulghassem; Haug, Kristiane; Pathak, Meeta; Drolsum, Liv; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Johnsen, Erik O; Petrovski, Goran; Moe, Morten C; Nicolaissen, Bjørn

    2012-04-01

    In patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), transplantation of ex vivo expanded human limbal epithelial cells (HLECs) can restore the structural and functional integrity of the corneal surface. However, the protocol for cultivation and transplantation of HLECs differ significantly, and in most protocols growth additives such as cholera toxins, exogenous growth factors, hormones and fetal calf serum are used. In the present article, we compare for the first time human limbal epithelial cells (HLECs) cultivated on human amniotic membrane (HAM) in a complex medium (COM) including fetal bovine serum to a medium with human serum as single growth supplement (HSM), and report on our first examinations of HLECs expanded in autologous HSM and used for transplant procedures in patients with LSCD. Expanded HLECs were examined by genome-wide microarray, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and for cell viability, morphology, expression of immunohistochemical markers and colony forming efficiency. Cultivation of HLECs in HSM produced a multilayered epithelium where cells with markers associated with LESCs were detected in the basal layers. There were few transcriptional differences and comparable cell viability between cells cultivated in HSM and COM. The p63 gene associated with LESCs were expressed 3.5 fold more in HSM compared to COM, and Western blotting confirmed a stronger p63α band in HSM cultures. The cornea-specific keratin CK12 was equally found in both culture conditions, while there were significantly more CK3 positive cells in HSM. Cells in epithelial sheets on HAM remaining after transplant surgery of patients with LSCD expressed central epithelial characteristics, and dissociated cells cultured at low density on growth-arrested fibroblasts produced clones containing 21 ± 12% cells positive for p63α (n = 3). In conclusion, a culture medium without growth additives derived from animals or from animal cell cultures and with human serum as single growth supplement

  4. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Characterization in a 3D-cell culture model

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Nicoletta; Celesti, Giuseppe; Tacchini, Lorenza; Pluchino, Stefano; Sforza, Chiarella; Rasile, Marco; Valerio, Vincenza; Laghi, Luigi; Conte, Vincenzo; Procacci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the effect of three-dimensional (3D)-arrangement on the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. METHODS: HPAF-II, HPAC, and PL45 PDAC cells were cultured in either 2D-monolayers or 3D-spheroids. Ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, N-cadherin, collagen type I (COL-I), vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and podoplanin was assayed by confocal microscopy in cells cultured on 12-mm diameter round coverslips and in 3D-spheroids. Gene expression for E-cadherin, Snail, Slug, Twist, Zeb1, and Zeb2 was quantified by real-time PCR. E-cadherin protein level and its electrophoretic pattern were studied by Western blot in cell lysates obtained from cells grown in 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids. RESULTS: The E-cadherin/β-catenin complex was expressed in a similar way in plasma membrane cell boundaries in both 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids. E-cadherin increased in lysates obtained from 3D-spheroids, while cleavage fragments were more evident in 2D-monolayers. N-cadherin expression was observed in very few PDAC cells grown in 2D-monolayers, but was more evident in 3D-spheroids. Some cells expressing COL-I were observed in 3D-spheroids. Podoplanin, expressed in collectively migrating cells, and αSMA were similarly expressed in both experimental conditions. The concomitant maintenance of the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex at cell boundaries supports the hypothesis of a collective migration for these cells, which is consistent with podoplanin expression. CONCLUSION: We show that a 3D-cell culture model could provide deeper insight into understanding the biology of PDAC and allow for the detection of marked differences in the phenotype of PDAC cells grown in 3D-spheroids. PMID:27182158

  5. Challenge for 3D culture technology: Application in carcinogenesis studies with human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Emura, M; Aufderheide, M

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer is still one of the major intractable diseases and we urgently need more efficient preventive and curative measures. Recent molecular studies have provided strong evidence that allows us to believe that classically well-known early airway lesions such as hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ are really precancerous lesions progressing toward cancer but not necessarily transient and reversible alteration. This suggests that adequate early control of the precancerous lesions may lead to improved prevention of lung cancer. This knowledge is encouraging in view of the imminent necessity for additional experimental systems to investigate the causal mechanisms of cancers directly in human cells and tissues. There are many questions with regard to various precancerous lesions of the airways. For example, should cells, before reaching a stage of invasive carcinoma, undergo all precancerous stages such as hyperplasia or metaplasia and dysplasia, or is there any shortcut to bypass one or more of the precancerous stages? For the study of such questions, the emerging 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture technology appears to provide an effective and valuable tool. Though a great challenge, it is expected that this in vitro technology will be rapidly and reliably improved to enable the cultures to be maintained in an in vivo-mimicking state of differentiation for much longer than a period of at best a few months, as is currently the case. With the help of a "causes recombination-Lox" (Cre-lox) technology, it has been possible to trace cells giving rise to specific lung tumor types. In this short review we have attempted to assess the future role of 3D technology in the study of lung carcinogenesis. PMID:26951634

  6. p57KIP2 expression and loss of heterozygosity during immortal conversion of cultured human mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nijjar, Tarlochan; Wigington, Don; Garbe, James C.; Waha, Andreas; Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    1999-08-01

    The authors have uncovered a novel role for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p57KIP2, during the immortalization of cultured human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). HMEC immortalized following chemical carcinogen exposure initially expressed little or no telomerase activity, and their telomeres continued to shorten with passage. Cell populations whose mean terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length declined and exhibited slow heterogeneous growth, and contained many non-proliferative cells. These conditionally immortal HMEC cultures accumulated large quantities of p57 protein. With continued passage, the conditionally immortal cell populations very graduall2048nverted to a fully immortal phenotype of good uniform growth, expression of high levels of telomerase activity, and stabilization of telomere length. The fully immortal good growing HMEC did not accumulate p57 in G0 or during the cell cycle. DNA and RNA analysis of mass populations and individual subclones of conditionally immortal HMEC line 184A1 showed that continued growth of conditionally immortal cells with critically short telomeres was repeatedly accompanied by loss of the expressed p57 allele, and transient expression of the previously imprinted allele. Conditionally immortal 184A1 with mean TRF > 3 kb infected with retroviruses containing the p57 gene exhibited premature slow heterogeneous growth. Conversely, exogenous expression of hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase, in 184A1 with mean TRF > 3 kb prevented both the slow heterogeneous growth phase and accumulation of p57 in cycling populations. These data indicate that in HMEC which have overcome replicative senescence, p57 may provide an additional barrier against indefinite proliferation. Overcoming p57 mediated growth inhibition in these cells may be crucial for acquisition of the unlimited growth potential thought to be critical for malignant progression.

  7. Interphase Chromosome Conformation and Chromatin-Chromatin Interactions in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured Under Different Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Hada, Megumi; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels both in cultured cells and animal models. It has been suggested that the packaging of chromatin fibers in the interphase nucleus is closely related to genome function, and the changes in transcriptional activity are tightly correlated with changes in chromatin folding. This study explores the changes of chromatin conformation and chromatin-chromatin interactions in the simulated microgravity environment, and investigates their correlation to the expression of genes located at different regions of the chromosome. To investigate the folding of chromatin in interphase under various culture conditions, human epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes were fixed in the G1 phase. Interphase chromosomes were hybridized with a multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) probe for chromosome 3 which distinguishes six regions of the chromosome as separate colors. After images were captured with a laser scanning confocal microscope, the 3-dimensional structure of interphase chromosome 3 was reconstructed at multi-mega base pair scale. In order to determine the effects of microgravity on chromosome conformation and orientation, measures such as distance between homologous pairs, relative orientation of chromosome arms about a shared midpoint, and orientation of arms within individual chromosomes were all considered as potentially impacted by simulated microgravity conditions. The studies revealed non-random folding of chromatin in interphase, and suggested an association of interphase chromatin folding with radiation-induced chromosome aberration hotspots. Interestingly, the distributions of genes with expression changes over chromosome 3 in cells cultured under microgravity environment are apparently clustered on specific loci and chromosomes. This data provides important insights into how mammalian cells respond to microgravity at molecular level.

  8. Isospora suis in an epithelial cell culture system - an in vitro model for sexual development in coccidia.

    PubMed

    Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Schwarz, Lukas; Witter, Kirsti; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Joachim, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Coccidian parasites are of major importance in animal production, public health and food safety. The most frequently used representative in basic research on this group is Toxoplasma gondii. Although this parasite is well investigated there is no adequate in vitro model for its sexual development available and knowledge on this important life cycle phase is therefore scarce. The use of Isosporasuis, a sister taxon to T. gondii and the causative agent of piglet coccidiosis, could provide a solution for this. In the present study an in vitro model for neonatal porcine coccidiosis in cells representative for the in vivo situation in the piglet gut was developed and evaluated. The parasite development was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and optimum culture conditions were evaluated. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) adequately representing the natural host cells supported the development of all endogenous life cycle stages of I. suis, including gametocytes and oocysts. A concentration of 5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium led to highest gametocyte densities on day 12 post infection. Low infection doses (≤1 sporozoite for 100 host cells) were best for oocyst and gametocyte development. The presented system can also be used for immunostaining with established antibodies developed against T. gondii (in our case, anti-TgIMC3 antibodies directed against the inner membrane complex 3). The complete life cycle of I. suis in a cell line representing the natural host cell type and species provides a unique model among coccidian parasites and can be used to address a wide range of topics, especially with regard to the sexual development of coccidia. PMID:23861983

  9. Isospora suis in an Epithelial Cell Culture System – An In Vitro Model for Sexual Development in Coccidia

    PubMed Central

    Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Schwarz, Lukas; Witter, Kirsti; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Joachim, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Coccidian parasites are of major importance in animal production, public health and food safety. The most frequently used representative in basic research on this group is Toxoplasma gondii. Although this parasite is well investigated there is no adequate in vitro model for its sexual development available and knowledge on this important life cycle phase is therefore scarce. The use of Isosporasuis, a sister taxon to T. gondii and the causative agent of piglet coccidiosis, could provide a solution for this. In the present study an in vitro model for neonatal porcine coccidiosis in cells representative for the in vivo situation in the piglet gut was developed and evaluated. The parasite development was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and optimum culture conditions were evaluated. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) adequately representing the natural host cells supported the development of all endogenous life cycle stages of I. suis, including gametocytes and oocysts. A concentration of 5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium led to highest gametocyte densities on day 12 post infection. Low infection doses (≤1 sporozoite for 100 host cells) were best for oocyst and gametocyte development. The presented system can also be used for immunostaining with established antibodies developed against T. gondii (in our case, anti-TgIMC3 antibodies directed against the inner membrane complex 3). The complete life cycle of I. suis in a cell line representing the natural host cell type and species provides a unique model among coccidian parasites and can be used to address a wide range of topics, especially with regard to the sexual development of coccidia. PMID:23861983

  10. Plasma Polymer-Coated Contact Lenses for the Culture and Transfer of Corneal Epithelial Cells in the Treatment of Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Karl David; Low, Suet; Mariappan, Indumathi; Abberton, Keren Maree; Short, Robert; Zhang, Hong; Maddileti, Savitri; Sangwan, Virender; Steele, David

    2014-01-01

    Extensive damage to the limbal region of the cornea leads to a severe form of corneal blindness termed as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Whereas most cases of corneal opacity can be treated with full thickness corneal transplants, LSCD requires stem cell transplantation for successful ocular surface reconstruction. Current treatments for LSCD using limbal stem cell transplantation involve the use of murine NIH 3T3 cells and human amniotic membranes as culture substrates, which pose the threat of transmission of animal-derived pathogens and donor tissue-derived cryptic infections. In this study, we aimed to produce surface modified therapeutic contact lenses for the culture and delivery of corneal epithelial cells for the treatment of LSCD. This approach avoids the possibility of suture-related complications and is completely synthetic. We used plasma polymerization to deposit acid functional groups onto the lenses at various concentrations. Each surface was tested for its suitability to promote corneal epithelial cell adhesion, proliferation, retention of stem cells, and differentiation and found that acid-based chemistries promoted better cell adhesion and proliferation. We also found that the lenses coated with a higher percentage of acid functional groups resulted in a higher number of cells transferred onto the corneal wound bed in rabbit models of LSCD. Immunohistochemistry of the recipient cornea confirmed the presence of autologous, transplanted 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells. Hematoxylin staining has also revealed the presence of a stratified epithelium at 26 days post-transplantation. This study provides the first evidence for in vivo transfer and survival of cells transplanted from a contact lens to the wounded corneal surface. It also proposes the possibility of using plasma polymer-coated contact lenses with high acid functional groups as substrates for the culture and transfer of limbal cells in the treatment of LSCD. PMID:24328453

  11. Analysis of TGF-β1- and drug-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cultured alveolar epithelial cell line RLE/Abca3.

    PubMed

    Takano, Mikihisa; Yamamoto, Chieko; Yamaguchi, Koki; Kawami, Masashi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we examined the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and drugs in genetically engineered type II alveolar epithelial cell line RLE/Abca3. Treatment of RLE/Abca3 cells with TGF-β1 induced marked changes in cell morphology from epithelial-like to elongated fibroblast-like morphology. With these morphological changes, mRNA expression of epithelial markers such as cytokeratin 19 (CK19) decreased, while that of mesenchymal markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) increased. TGF-β1 treatment also decreased the mRNA expression of Abca3, a type II cell marker, and formation of lamellar body structures. Interestingly, the effect of TGF-β1 on Abca3 mRNA expression was observed in RLE/Abca3 cells, but not in wild-type RLE-6TN, A549, and H441 cells. Treatment of RLE/Abca3 cells with bleomycin (BLM) and methotrexate (MTX) induced similar morphological and mRNA expression changes. In addition, the increase in α-SMA and the decrease in Abca3 mRNA expression by these drugs were observed only in RLE/Abca3 cells. These findings suggest that, like TGF-β1, BLM and MTX induce EMT in RLE/Abca3 cells, and RLE/Abca3 cells would be a good model to study drug-induced EMT. The effect of pirfenidone, an antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory drug, on EMT induced by TGF-β1 was also discussed. PMID:25760538

  12. Direct particle-to-cell deposition of coarse ambient particulate matter increases the production of inflammatory mediators from cultured human airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Volckens, John; Dailey, Lisa; Walters, Glenn; Devlin, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of cultured cells to particulate matter air pollution is usually accomplished by collecting particles on a solid matrix, extracting the particles from the matrix, suspending them in liquid, and applying the suspension to cells grown on plastic and submerged in medium. The objective of this work was to develop a more physiologically and environmentally relevant model of air pollutant deposition on cultures of human primary airway epithelial cells. We hypothesize that the toxicology of inhaled particulate matter depends strongly on both the particulate dispersion state and the mode of delivery to cells. Our exposure system employs a combination of unipolar charging and electrostatic force to deposit particles directly from the air onto cells grown at an air-liquid interface in a heated, humidified exposure chamber. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to concentrated, coarse ambient particulate matter in this system expressed increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers at 1 hour following exposure and relative to controls exposed to particle-free air. More importantly, these effects are seen at particulate loadings that are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than levels applied using traditional in vitro systems. PMID:19603682

  13. Epithelial organization, cell polarity and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Luke Martin; Macara, Ian G

    2011-12-01

    Epithelial cells comprise the foundation for the majority of organs in the mammalian body, and are the source of approximately 90% of all human cancers. Characteristically, epithelial cells form intercellular adhesions, exhibit apical/basal polarity, and orient their mitotic spindles in the plane of the epithelial sheet. Defects in these attributes result in the tissue disorganization associated with cancer. Epithelia undergo self-renewal from stem cells, which might in some cases be the cell of origin for cancers. The PAR polarity proteins are master regulators of epithelial organization, and are closely linked to signaling pathways such as Hippo, which orchestrate proliferation and apoptosis to control organ size. 3D ex vivo culture systems can now faithfully recapitulate epithelial organ morphogenesis, providing a powerful approach to study both normal development and the initiating events in carcinogenesis. PMID:21782440

  14. Epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Draheim, Kyle M; Lyle, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    It is likely that adult epithelial stem cells will be useful in the treatment of diseases, such as ectodermal dysplasias, monilethrix, Netherton syndrome, Menkes disease, hereditary epidermolysis bullosa, and alopecias. Additionally, other skin problems such as burn wounds, chronic wounds, and ulcers will benefit from stem cell-related therapies. However, there are many questions that need to be answered before this goal can be realized. The most important of these questions is what regulates the adhesion of stem cells to the niche versus migration to the site of injury. We have started to identify the mechanisms involved in this decision-making process. PMID:21618097

  15. Characteristics of taurine transport in cultured renal epithelial cell lines: asymmetric polarity of proximal and distal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jones, D P; Miller, L A; Budreau, A; Chesney, R W

    1992-01-01

    Taurine transport was determined in two continuous, renal epithelial cell lines: LLC-PK1 derived from the proximal tubule of the pig, and the Madin-Darby canine kidney cell (MDCK) from the distal tubule of the dog. In LLC-PK1, taurine transport is maximal at the apical surface, whereas in MDCK cells, transport is greatest at the basolateral surface. Transport is highly dependent on both sodium and chloride in the external medium, and is specific for beta-amino acids. The apical and basolateral surfaces of both cell lines show an adaptive response to extracellular taurine concentration, but only the basolateral surface of the MDCK cell responds to hyperosomolality by increased taurine accumulation. Thus, differential control of the beta-amino acid transport system by substrate and external tonicity exists. The role of the beta-amino acid transport system may differ according to the origin of the cell: in the proximal renal tubular cell, net transepithelial reabsorption of filtered taurine increases the body pool. By contrast, taurine accumulation by distal tubular cells may form a mechanism of cell volume regulation in response to osmotic stress. PMID:1509959

  16. Non-pathogenic bacteria elicit a differential cytokine response by intestinal epithelial cell/leucocyte co-cultures

    PubMed Central

    Haller, D; Bode, C; Hammes, W; Pfeifer, A; Schiffrin, E; Blum, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM—Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are thought to participate in the mucosal defence against bacteria and in the regulation of mucosal tissue homeostasis. Reactivity of IEC to bacterial signals may depend on interactions with immunocompetent cells. To address the question of whether non-pathogenic bacteria modify the immune response of the intestinal epithelium, we co-cultivated enterocyte-like CaCO-2 cells with human blood leucocytes in separate compartments of transwell cultures.
METHODS—CaCO-2/PBMC co-cultures were stimulated with non-pathogenic bacteria and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, monocyte chemoattracting protein 1 (MCP-1), and IL-10 was studied by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (cytokine secretion) and by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS—Challenge of CaCO-2 cells with non-pathogenic E coli and Lactobacillus sakei induced expression of IL-8, MCP-1, IL-1β, and TNF-α mRNA in the presence of underlying leucocytes. Leucocyte sensitised CaCO-2 cells produced TNF-α and IL-1β whereas IL-10 was exclusively secreted by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CaCO-2 cells alone remained hyporesponsive to the bacterial challenge. Lactobacillus johnsonii, an intestinal isolate, showed reduced potential to induce proinflammatory cytokines but increased transforming growth factor beta mRNA in leucocyte sensitised CaCO-2 cells. TNF-α was identified as one of the early mediators involved in cellular cross talk. In the presence of leucocytes, discriminative activation of CaCO-2 cells was observed between enteropathogenic E coli and non-pathogenic bacteria.
CONCLUSION—The differential recognition of non-pathogenic bacteria by CaCO-2 cells required the presence of underlying leucocytes. These results strengthen the hypothesis that bacterial signalling at the mucosal surface is dependent on a network of

  17. Cocaine-induced kidney toxicity: an in vitro study using primary cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Valente, Maria João; Henrique, Rui; Vilas-Boas, Vânia; Silva, Renata; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Carvalho, Félix; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Carvalho, Márcia

    2012-02-01

    Renal failure resulting from cocaine abuse has been well documented, although the underlying mechanisms remain to be investigated. In the present study, primary cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs) of the kidney were used to investigate its ability to metabolize cocaine, as well as the cytotoxicity induced by cocaine and its metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME) and norcocaine (NCOC). Gas chromatography/ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC/IT-MS) analysis of HPTECs exposed to cocaine (1 mM) for 72 h confirmed its metabolism into EME and NCOC, but not BE. EME levels increased along the exposure time to cocaine, while NCOC concentration diminished after reaching a maximum at 6 h, indicating a possible secondary metabolism for this metabolite. Cocaine promoted a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability, whereas BE and EME were found to be non-toxic to HPTECs at the tested conditions. In contrast, NCOC revealed to have higher intrinsic nephrotoxicity than the parent compound. Moreover, cocaine-induced cell death was partially reversed in the presence of ketoconazole (KTZ), a potent CYP3A inhibitor, supporting the hypothesis that NCOC may play a role in cocaine-induced nephrotoxicity. Cocaine-induced cytotoxicity was found to involve intracellular glutathione depletion at low concentrations and to induce mitochondrial damage at higher concentrations. Under the present experimental conditions, HPTECs death pathway followed an apoptotic pattern, which was evident for concentrations as low as 0.1 mM. PMID:21983858

  18. Role of flagella in adherence, internalization, and translocation of Campylobacter jejuni in nonpolarized and polarized epithelial cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, C C; Konkel, M E; Cieplak, W; Tompkins, L S

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies of Campylobacter jejuni have suggested that flagellin is an adhesin for epithelial cells and that motility is a virulence factor of this bacterium. The role of flagella in the interactions of C. jejuni with nonpolarized and polarized epithelial cells was examined with flagellar mutants. Flagellated, nonmotile (flaA flaB+ Mot-) and nonflagellated, nonmotile (flaA flaB Mot-) mutants of C. jejuni were constructed by in vivo homologous recombination and gene replacement techniques. Both classes of mutants were found to adhere to cells of human epithelial origin (INT 407) equally well; however, on the basis of the percentage of the inoculum internalized, internalization of the flaA flaB Mot- mutants was decreased by factors ranging from approximately 30 to 40 compared with the parent. The flaA flaB+ Mot- mutant was internalized by the INT 407 cells at levels six- to sevenfold higher than the flaA flaB Mot- mutants. Both classes of mutants, unlike the parent, were unable to translocate across polarized Caco-2 monolayers. These results indicate that flagella are not involved in C. jejuni adherence to epithelial cells but that they do play a role in internalization. Furthermore, the results suggest that either the motility of C. jejuni or the product of flaA is essential for the bacterium to cross polarized epithelial cell monolayers. Images PMID:8478066

  19. An In Vitro Culture System for Long-Term Expansion of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Salivary Gland Cells: Role of TGF-β1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial and Mesenchymal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Buranaphatthana, Worakanya; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Hays, Aislinn L.; Reyes, Morayma

    2013-01-01

    Despite a pivotal role in salivary gland development, homeostasis, and disease, the role of salivary gland mesenchyme is not well understood. In this study, we used the Col1a1-GFP mouse model to characterize the salivary gland mesenchyme in vitro and in vivo. The Col1a1-GFP transgene was exclusively expressed in the salivary gland mesenchyme. Ex vivo culture of mixed salivary gland cells in DMEM plus serum medium allowed long-term expansion of salivary gland epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The role of TGF-β1 in salivary gland development and disease is complex. Therefore, we used this in vitro culture system to study the effects of TGF-β1 on salivary gland cell differentiation. TGF-β1 induced the expression of collagen, and inhibited the formation of acini-like structures in close proximity to mesenchymal cells, which adapted a fibroblastic phenotype. In contrast, TGF-βR1 inhibition increased acini genes and fibroblast growth factors (Fgf-7 and Fgf-10), decreased collagen and induced formation of larger, mature acini-like structures. Thus, inhibition of TGF-β signaling may be beneficial for salivary gland differentiation; however, due to differential effects of TGF-β1 in salivary gland epithelial versus mesenchymal cells, selective inhibition is desirable. In conclusion, this mixed salivary gland cell culture system can be used to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and the effects of differentiating inducers and inhibitors. PMID:23841093

  20. Senescent bronchial fibroblasts induced to senescence by Cr(VI) promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition when co-cultured with bronchial epithelial cells in the presence of Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Val, Mariana Monteiro; Mendes, Luís André; Alarcão, Ana; Carvalho, Lina; Carreira, Isabel; Rodrigues, Carlos Fernando D; Alpoim, Maria Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Cellular senescence is a physiological process that serves as a powerful barrier for tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells can be deleterious for the tissue microenvironment. Such is the case of senescent fibroblasts that release several pro-tumorigenic factors that promote malignant transformation in the nearby epithelial cells. Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds is a cause of respiratory cancers. Although Cr(VI) is known to induce senescence in human foreskin fibroblasts, the role of senescent fibroblasts in the Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells was never assessed. Thus, to study the evolutionary dynamics generated by the interaction between human bronchial epithelial cells and senescent bronchial fibroblasts, the non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were co-cultured with Cr(VI)-induced senescent human bronchial fibroblasts for 4 weeks. Under the pressure of 0.5 µM Cr(VI), senescent fibroblasts promoted the acquisition of mesenchymal features on BEAS-2B cells, e.g. the fusiform shape and increased Vimentin expression, consistent with the occurrence of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like process. Features of transformed cells including larger nuclei, as well as nuclei with heterogeneous size, were also observed. Altogether the results obtained demonstrate that besides acting over the epithelium, Cr(VI) also affects bronchial fibroblasts driving them senescent. As a consequence, a paracrine communication loop is established with the above-placed epithelium prompting the epithelial cells for malignant transformation and thus facilitating the initial steps of tumorigenesis. PMID:25406472

  1. Primary cultures of female swine genital epithelial cells in vitro: a new approach for the study of hormonal modulation of Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Guseva, Natalia V; Knight, Stephen T; Whittimore, Judy D; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2003-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that female reproductive hormones influence chlamydial infection both in vivo and in vitro. Due to the reduced availability of human genital tissues for research purposes, an alternative hormone-responsive model system was sought to study chlamydial pathogenesis. Mature female swine eliminated from breeding programs were selected as the animals of choice because of the similarity of a sexually transmitted disease syndrome and sequelae in swine to a disease syndrome and sequelae found in humans, because of the near identity of a natural infectious chlamydial isolate from swine to Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D from humans, and because a pig's epithelial cell physiology and the mean length of its estrous cycle are similar to those in humans. Epithelial cells from the cervix, uterus, and horns of the uterus were isolated, cultivated in vitro in Dulbecco's minimum essential medium-Hanks' F-12 (DMEM-F-12) medium with and without exogenous hormone supplementation, and analyzed for Chlamydia suis S-45 infectivity. The distribution of chlamydial inclusions in swine epithelial cells was uneven and was influenced by the genital tract site and hormone status. This study confirmed that, like primary human endometrial epithelial cells, estrogen-dominant swine epithelial cells are more susceptible to chlamydial infection than are progesterone-dominant cells. Further, the more differentiated luminal epithelial cells were more susceptible to infection than were glandular epithelial cells. Interestingly, chlamydial growth in mature luminal epithelia was morphologically more active than in glandular epithelia, where persistent chlamydial forms predominated. Attempts to reprogram epithelial cell physiology and thereby susceptibility to chlamydial infection by reverse-stage, exogenous hormonal supplementation were unsuccessful. Freshly isolated primary pig epithelial cells frozen at -80 degrees C in DMEM-F-12 medium with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide for

  2. The Silk-protein Sericin Induces Rapid Melanization of Cultured Primary Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells by Activating the NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Eidet, J R; Reppe, S; Pasovic, L; Olstad, O K; Lyberg, T; Khan, A Z; Fostad, I G; Chen, D F; Utheim, T P

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to prevent further loss of vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration represents a promising novel treatment modality. Development of RPE transplants, however, requires up to 3 months of cell differentiation. We explored whether the silk protein sericin can induce maturation of primary human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells. Microarray analysis demonstrated that sericin up-regulated RPE-associated transcripts (RPE65 and CRALBP). Upstream analysis identified the NF-κB pathway as one of the top sericin-induced regulators. ELISA confirmed that sericin stimulates the main NF-κB pathway. Increased levels of RPE-associated proteins (RPE65 and the pigment melanin) in the sericin-supplemented cultures were confirmed by western blot, spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. Sericin also increased cell density and reduced cell death following serum starvation in culture. Inclusion of NF-κB agonists and antagonists in the culture medium showed that activation of the NF-κB pathway appears to be necessary, but not sufficient, for sericin-induced RPE pigmentation. We conclude that sericin promotes pigmentation of cultured primary hRPE cells by activating the main NF-κB pathway. Sericin's potential role in culture protocols for rapid differentiation of hRPE cells derived from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells should be investigated. PMID:26940175

  3. The Silk-protein Sericin Induces Rapid Melanization of Cultured Primary Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells by Activating the NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Eidet, J. R.; Reppe, S.; Pasovic, L.; Olstad, O. K.; Lyberg, T.; Khan, A. Z.; Fostad, I. G.; Chen, D. F.; Utheim, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to prevent further loss of vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration represents a promising novel treatment modality. Development of RPE transplants, however, requires up to 3 months of cell differentiation. We explored whether the silk protein sericin can induce maturation of primary human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells. Microarray analysis demonstrated that sericin up-regulated RPE-associated transcripts (RPE65 and CRALBP). Upstream analysis identified the NF-κB pathway as one of the top sericin-induced regulators. ELISA confirmed that sericin stimulates the main NF-κB pathway. Increased levels of RPE-associated proteins (RPE65 and the pigment melanin) in the sericin-supplemented cultures were confirmed by western blot, spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. Sericin also increased cell density and reduced cell death following serum starvation in culture. Inclusion of NF-κB agonists and antagonists in the culture medium showed that activation of the NF-κB pathway appears to be necessary, but not sufficient, for sericin-induced RPE pigmentation. We conclude that sericin promotes pigmentation of cultured primary hRPE cells by activating the main NF-κB pathway. Sericin’s potential role in culture protocols for rapid differentiation of hRPE cells derived from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells should be investigated. PMID:26940175

  4. Cell kinetics of differentiation of Na/sup +/-dependent hexose transport in a cultured renal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.S.; Weiss, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Fully differentiated cells of the renal proximal tubule have the capability of taking up hexoses across their apical borders by transport coupled to the Na/sup +/-electrochemical gradient. This property is also found in postconfluent cultures of the cloned cell line LLC-PK/sub 1/, a morphologically polarized line of renal cells. Postconfluent cells develop the Na/sup +/-dependent capacity to transport hexoses at their apical surface. This function is not observable during the growth phase of the cultures. To analyze the developmental process at the cellular level a method has been derived to separate transporting cells, expressing the differentiated function, from nontransporting cells. The method is based on the swelling of the cells accompanying the uptake of the nonmetabolizable glucose analog alpha methylglucoside. The swollen cells have a lower buoyant density than the undifferentiated cells and may be separated from them on density gradients. Analysis of the distribution of cells on such gradients shows that after the cells reach confluence the undifferentiated subpopulation is recruited onto the differentiation pathway with a rate constant of 0.2 per day, that 5 to 7 days are required for a cell to traverse this pathway to the fully differentiated state, and that once the maximum uptake capacity is achieved the cells do not develop further.

  5. Matrix-based three-dimensional culture of buffalo mammary epithelial cells showed higher induction of genes related to milk protein and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Umesh K; Sharma, Ankita; Sodhi, Monika; Kapila, Neha; Kishore, Amit; Mohanty, Ashok; Kataria, Ranjit; Malakar, Dhruva; Mukesh, Manishi

    2016-02-01

    Demanding transcriptomic studies in livestock animal species could be replaced by good in vitro models mimicking the function of mammary gland. Mammary epithelial cells (MEC) are the functional unit of the mammary gland. Extracellular matrix is known to be a key factor providing normal homeostasis in three-dimensional (3D) environment as important signals are lost when cells are cultured in two-dimensional (2D) environment. The aims of this study were to establish a buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) in 3D culture using extracellular matrix and to determine whether such a 3D culture model has different expression pattern than 2D counterpart. The purified MEC generated after several passages were used to establish 3D culture using Geltrex matrix. The expression of milk casein genes viz., alpha S1-casein (CSN1S1), alpha S2-casein (CSN1S2), beta-casein (CSN2), kappa-casein (CSN3); and fatty acid metabolism genes viz., butyrophilin (BTN1A1), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAM), fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was assessed in 3D culture in comparison to traditional monolayer culture using qRT-PCR. Notable morphological differences were observed for BMECs grown in 3D culture in comparison to 2D culture. Morphologically, epithelial structures grown in Geltrex matrix (3D) environment showed enhanced functional differentiation in comparison to 2D culture. In 3D culture, lumen and dome-like structures were formed by day 5, whereas polarized acinus-like structure were formed within 15 days of culturing. The expression data showed higher mRNA induction of milk casein and fatty acid metabolism genes in 10-day-old 3D BMECs culture in comparison to 2D monolayer culture. The result suggests that 3D organization of epithelial cells has favorable effect on induction of milk and fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Therefore, matrix-based 3D culture of MEC that recapitulate the structural and functional context of normal tissues

  6. Adhesion of human bifidobacterial strains to cultured human intestinal epithelial cells and inhibition of enteropathogen-cell interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Bernet, M F; Brassart, D; Neeser, J R; Servin, A L

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen human bifidobacterial strains were tested for their abilities to adhere to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells in culture. The adhering strains were also tested for binding to the mucus produced by the human mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cell line in culture. A high level of calcium-independent adherence was observed for Bifidobacterium breve 4, for Bifidobacterium infantis 1, and for three fresh human isolates from adults. As observed by scanning electron microscopy, adhesion occurs to the apical brush border of the enterocytic Caco-2 cells and to the mucus secreted by the HT29-MTX mucus-secreting cells. The bacteria interacted with the well-defined apical microvilli of Caco-2 cells without cell damage. The adhesion to Caco-2 cells of bifidobacteria did not require calcium and was mediated by a proteinaceous adhesion-promoting factor which was present both in the bacterial whole cells and in the spent supernatant of bifidobacterium culture. This adhesion-promoting factor appeared species specific, as are the adhesion-promoting factors of lactobacilli. We investigated the inhibitory effect of adhering human bifidobacterial strains against intestinal cell monolayer colonization by a variety of diarrheagenic bacteria. B. breve 4, B. infantis 1, and fresh human isolates were shown to inhibit cell association of enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, diffusely adhering Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium strains to enterocytic Caco-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, B. breve 4 and B. infantis 1 strains inhibited, dose dependently, Caco-2 cell invasion by enteropathogenic E. coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and S. typhimurium strains. Images PMID:8285709

  7. Airway epithelial cell responses to ozone injury

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.; Simpson, L.G.; Zhao, Qiyu

    1995-03-01

    The airway epithelial cell is an important target in ozone injury. Once activated, the airway epithelium responds in three phases. The initial, or immediate phase, involves activation of constitutive cells, often through direct covalent interactions including the formation of secondary ozonolysis products-hydroxyhydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we found hydroxyhydroperoxides to be potent agonists; of bioactive eicosanoid formation by human airway epithelial cells in culture. Other probable immediate events include activation and inactivation of enzymes present on the epithelial surface (e.g., neutral endopeptidase). During the next 2 to 24 hr, or early phase, epithelial cells respond by synthesis and release of chemotactic factors, including chemokines-macrophage inflammatory protein-2, RANTES, and interleukin-8. Infiltrating leukocytes during this period also release elastase, an important agonist of epithelial cell mucus secretion and additional chemokine formation. The third (late) phase of ozone injury is characterized by eosinophil or monocyte infiltration. Cytokine expression leads to alteration of structural protein synthesis, with increases in fibronectin evident by in situ hybridization. Synthesis of epithelial antiproteases, e.g., secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, may also increase locally 24 to 48 hr after elastase concentrations become excessive. Thus, the epithelium is not merely a passive barrier to ozone injury but has a dynamic role in directing the migration, activating, and then counteracting inflammatory cells. Through these complex interactions, epithelial cells can be viewed as the initiators (alpha) and the receptors (omega) of ozone-induced airway disease. 51 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Differential regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor by hydrogen peroxide and flagellin in cultured lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Noriko; Izumi, Shunsuke; Higa-Nakamine, Sayomi; Toku, Seikichi; Kakinohana, Manabu; Sugahara, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2015-02-01

    In previous studies, we found that stimulation of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) by flagellin induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK-2) through activation of the p38 MAPK pathway in cultured alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Our studies strongly suggested that MAPKAPK-2 phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at Ser1047. It has been reported that phosphorylation of Ser1047 after treatment with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced the internalization of EGFR. In the present study, we first found that treatment of A549 cells with hydrogen peroxide induced the activation of MAPKAPK-2 and phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047 within 30 min. This was different from flagellin treatment because hydrogen peroxide treatment induced the phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1173 as well as Ser1047, indicating the activation of EGFR. We also found that KN93, an inhibitor of CaM kinase II, inhibited the hydrogen peroxide-induced phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047 through inhibition of the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, we examined the internalization of EGFR by three different methods. Flow cytometry with an antibody against the extracellular domain of EGFR and biotinylation of cell surface proteins revealed that flagellin, but not hydrogen peroxide, decreased the amount of cell-surface EGFR. In addition, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by EGF treatment was reduced by flagellin pre-treatment. These results strongly suggested that hydrogen peroxide activated the p38 MAPK pathway via activation of CaM kinase II and that flagellin and hydrogen peroxide regulate the functions of EGFR by different mechanisms. PMID:25542757

  9. Characterization of Nipah virus infection in a model of human airway epithelial cells cultured at an air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Vergara, Leoncio A; Wen, Julie W; Long, Dan; Rockx, Barry

    2016-05-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging paramyxovirus that can cause lethal respiratory illness in humans. No vaccine/therapeutic is currently licensed for humans. Human-to-human transmission was previously reported during outbreaks and NiV could be isolated from respiratory secretions, but the proportion of cases in Malaysia exhibiting respiratory symptoms was significantly lower than that in Bangladesh. Previously, we showed that primary human basal respiratory epithelial cells are susceptible to both NiV-Malaysia (M) and -Bangladesh (B) strains causing robust pro-inflammatory responses. However, the cells of the human respiratory epithelium that NiV targets are unknown and their role in NiV transmission and NiV-related lung pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Here, we characterized NiV infection of the human respiratory epithelium using a model of the human tracheal/bronchial (B-ALI) and small airway (S-ALI) epithelium cultured at an air-liquid interface. We show that NiV-M and NiV-B infect ciliated and secretory cells in B/S-ALI, and that infection of S-ALI, but not B-ALI, results in disruption of the epithelium integrity and host responses recruiting human immune cells. Interestingly, NiV-B replicated more efficiently in B-ALI than did NiV-M. These results suggest that the human tracheal/bronchial epithelium is favourable to NiV replication and shedding, while inducing a limited host response. Our data suggest that the small airways epithelium is prone to inflammation and lesions as well as constituting a point of virus entry into the pulmonary vasculature. The use of relevant models of the human respiratory tract, such as B/S-ALI, is critical for understanding NiV-related lung pathogenesis and identifying the underlying mechanisms allowing human-to-human transmission. PMID:26932515

  10. Halofuginone Synergistically Enhances Anti-Proliferation of Rapamycin in T Cells and Reduces Cytotoxicity of Cyclosporine in Cultured Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tony L. H.; Guan, Qiunong; Nguan, Christopher Y. C.; Du, Caigan

    2015-01-01

    Both rapamycin (RAPA) and cyclosporin A (CsA) are commonly used for immunosuppression, however their adverse side effects limit their application. Thus, it is of interest to develop novel means to enhance or preserve the immunosuppressive activity of RAPA or CsA while reducing their toxicity. Halofuginone (HF) has been recently tested as a potential immunosuppressant. This study investigated the interaction of HF with RAPA or with CsA in cell cultures. Cell proliferation in cultures was determined using methylthiazol tetrazolium assay, and cell apoptosis assessed by flow cytometric analysis and Western blot. The drug-drug interaction was determined according to Loewe’s equation or Bliss independence. Here, we showed that addition of HF to anti-CD 3 antibody-stimulated splenocyte cultures induced synergistic suppression of T cell proliferation in the presence of RAPA, indicated by an interaction index (γ) value of < 1.0 between HF and RAPA, but not in those with CsA. The synergistic interaction of RAPA with HF in the suppression of T cell proliferation was also seen in a mixed lymphocyte reaction and Jurkat T cell growth, and was positively correlated with an increase in cell apoptosis, but not with proline depletion. In cultured kidney tubular epithelial cells, HF attenuated the cytotoxicity of CsA. In conclusion, these data indicate that HF synergistically enhances anti-T cell proliferation of RAPA and reduces the nephrotoxicity of CsA in vitro, suggesting the potential use of HF for enhancing anti-T cell proliferation of RAPA and reducing CsA-mediated nephrotoxicity. PMID:26671563

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition of A549 cells is enhanced by co-cultured with THP-1 macrophages under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sueki, Akane; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Iwashita, Chinami; Taira, Chiaki; Ishimine, Nau; Shigeto, Shohei; Kawasaki, Kenji; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Honda, Takayuki

    2014-10-31

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with pulmonary fibrosis, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In this study, we investigated EMT of human pulmonary epithelial-derived cells (A549). A549 cells was either cultured by itself or co-cultured with THP-1 macrophages under normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (2% O2) conditions. We evaluated the presence of EMT by determining the expression of EMT markers, E-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin. To determine the role of TGF-β1 and IL-1β in EMT of the A549 cells, we analyzed the effects of blocking their activity with TGF-β1 inhibitor or IL-1β neutralizing antibody respectively. The A549 cells presented EMT when they were co-cultured with THP-1 macrophages. The EMT of the A549 cells co-cultured with THP-1 macrophages was exacerbated under hypoxia. In addition, the EMT were prevented by the addition of TGF-β1 type I receptor kinase inhibitor. The hypoxic condition increased the mRNA levels of TGF-β1 in A549 cells and THP-1 macrophages and that of IL-1β in THP-1 macrophages when each cells were co-cultured. Anti-IL-1β neutralizing antibody attenuated TGF-β1 secretion in co-culture media under hypoxic conditions. Thus, the IL-1β from THP-1 macrophages up-regulated the TGF-β1 from A549 cells and THP-1 macrophages, and then the TGF-β1 from both cells induced and promoted the EMT of A549 cells when they were co-cultured under hypoxia. Together, these results demonstrate that the interaction between type II pneumocytes and macrophages under hypoxia is necessary for the development of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25445593

  12. Lumen formation by epithelial cell lines in response to collagen overlay: a morphogenetic model in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, H.G.; Farson, D.A.; Bissel, M.J.

    1982-08-01

    Two cells lines--Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and normal murine mammary gland (NMuMG)--growing as monolayers on collagen gels were overlaid with another collagen gel. The cells responded to the overlay by undergoing reorganization resulting in the creation of lumina. MDCK cells formed lumina that coalesced to form large cavities comparable in size with a tubule. NMuMG cells formed clusters surrounding small lumina, which appeared similar to acini of glandular tissue. The characteristic arrangements, described here by light and electron microscopy, resembled the morphology of the tissues of cell line origin. MDCK cells, grown in the presence of serum, formed lumina whether or not serum was removed at the time of overlay, whereas NMuMG cells required either a nondialyzable component of serum or hormonal supplements in serum-free defined media. Lumen formation was delayed by MDCK cells in the presence of the glutamine analog 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine, but this compound did not affect NMuMG lumen formation. In both cell lines, lumen formation was unaffected by the absence of sulfate, the presence of an inhibitor of sulfate glycosaminoglycan synthesis, or an inhibitor of collagen synthesis. DNA synthesis accompanied lumen formation but was not required.

  13. Organotypic three-dimensional culture model of mesenchymal and epithelial cells to examine tissue fusion events.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissue fusion during early mammalian development requires coordination of multiple cell types, the extracellular matrix, and complex signaling pathways. Fusion events during processes including heart development, neural tube closure, and palatal fusion are dependent on signaling ...

  14. Characterization of Na+/H+ exchanger NHE8 in cultured renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianning; Bobulescu, Ion Alexandru; Goyal, Sunita; Aronson, Peter S; Baum, Michel G; Moe, Orson W

    2007-09-01

    NHE8 is expressed in the apical membrane of the proximal tubule and is predicted to be a Na+/H+ exchanger on the basis of its primary amino acid sequence. Functional characterization of native NHE8 in mammalian cells has not been possible to date. We screened a number of polarized renal cell lines for the plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE1, 2, 3, 4, and 8) and found only NHE1 and NHE8 transcripts in NRK cells by RT-PCR. NHE8 protein is expressed in the apical membrane of NRK cells as demonstrated by immunoblots, confocal fluorescent immunocytochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. NHE1, on the other hand, is expressed primarily in the basolateral membrane. Bilateral perfusion of NRK cells grown on permeable supports shows Na+/H+ exchange activity on both the apical and basolateral membranes. NHE8-specific small interfering RNA knocks down NHE8 protein expression but does not affect NHE1 protein levels. Knockdown of NHE8 protein is accompanied by a commensurate reduction in apical NHE activity, without altered basolateral NHE activity. Conversely, transfection of NHE1-specific small interfering RNA knocks down NHE1 protein expression without affecting NHE8 protein levels and reduces basolateral NHE activity without affecting apical NHE activity. NHE8 is the only apical membrane Na+/H+ exchanger in NRK cells. NHE8 activity is Na+ dependent, displaying a cooperative sigmoidal relationship, and is highly sensitive to 5-(N-ethyl-n-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA). NRK cells provide a useful system where NHE8 can be studied in its native environment. PMID:17581925

  15. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  16. Specific entry of Helicobacter pylori into cultured gastric epithelial cells via a zipper-like mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Terry; Backert, Steffen; Schwarz, Heinz; Berger, Jürgen; Meyer, Thomas F

    2002-04-01

    Although Helicobacter pylori has generally been considered an extracellular pathogen, a number of in vitro infection experiments and biopsy examinations have shown that it is capable of occasionally entering mammalian host cells. Here, we characterized this entry process by using AGS cells as a host cell model. In gentamicin protection-invasion assays, the number of H. pylori colonies recovered was lower than that for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium X22, Escherichia coli expressing InvA, and Yersinia enterocolitica YO:9 grown at 25 degrees C but higher than that for Neisseria gonorrhoeae VP1 and Y. enterocolitica YO:9 grown at 37 degrees C. At the ultrastructural level, the entry process was observed to occur via a zipper-like mechanism. Internalized H. pylori was bound in tight LAMP-1-containing vacuoles in close association with condensed filamentous actin and tyrosine phosphorylation signals. Wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and calphostin C, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, both inhibited the entry of H. pylori in a sensitive and dose-dependent manner; however, the level of entry was enhanced by sodium vanadate, an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases and ATPases. Furthermore, the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonized the entry of H. pylori into AGS cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the entry of H. pylori into AGS cells occurs via a zipper-like mechanism which involves various host signal transduction events. PMID:11895977

  17. In-vitro co-culture of early stage caprine embryos with oviduct and uterine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Prichard, J F; Thibodeaux, J K; Pool, S H; Blakewood, E G; Menezo, Y; Godke, R A

    1992-04-01

    Early stage caprine embryos were incubated with goat oviduct and uterine cells to evaluate whether these cells could be used as a somatic cell culture system to enhance development through the developmental block at the 8- to 16-cell stage during in-vitro culture. Following gonadotrophin treatment and natural mating, 2- to 4-cell embryos were surgically recovered from donor females for in-vitro culture studies. In Experiment 1, embryos were equally and randomly allotted to culture treatments of either culture medium plus caprine oviduct cells or culture medium alone. In both treatment groups, embryos were incubated in Medium-199 with 10% fetal bovine serum, 0.25% lactalbumin and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air. In Experiment 2, similar embryos were cultured in the same medium with either caprine oviduct cells, caprine uterine cells or sequentially incubated with oviduct cells and then uterine cells during a corresponding incubation interval. The culture conditions in Experiment 2 were the same as in Experiment 1. Following 72 h in culture, (Experiment 1), significantly more embryos developed through the in-vitro developmental block into blastocysts and hatched blastocysts when cultured with oviduct cells compared with no embryos developing through the in-vitro block when incubated with medium alone. In Experiment 2, caprine embryos co-cultured with oviduct cells alone resulted in more embryos developing into blastocysts and hatched blastocysts compared with those co-cultured with uterine cells alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1522202

  18. Nrf2 activators modulate oxidative stress responses and bioenergetic profiles of human retinal epithelial cells cultured in normal or high glucose conditions.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Roberta; Bucolo, Claudio; Platania, Chiara Maria Bianca; Drago, Filippo; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Motterlini, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial cells exert an important supporting role in the eye and develop adaptive responses to oxidative stress or high glucose levels, as observed during diabetes. Endogenous antioxidant defences are mainly regulated by Nrf2, a transcription factor that is activated by naturally-derived and electrophilic compounds. Here we investigated the effect of the Nrf2 activators dimethylfumarate (DMF) and carnosol on antioxidant pathways, oxygen consumption rate and wound healing in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) cultured in medium containing normal (NG, 5mM) or high (HG, 25 mM) glucose levels. We also assessed wound healing using an in vivo corneal epithelial injury model. We found that Nrf2 nuclear translocation and heme oxygenase activity increased in ARPE cells treated with 10 μM DMF or carnosol irrespective of glucose culture conditions. However, HG rendered retinal cells more sensitive to regulators of glutathione synthesis or inhibition and caused a decrease of both cellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Culture in HG also reduced ATP production and mitochondrial function as measured with the Seahorse XF analyzer and electron microscopy analysis revealed morphologically damaged mitochondria. Acute treatment with DMF or carnosol did not restore mitochondrial function in HG cells; conversely, the compounds reduced cellular maximal respiratory and reserve capacity, which were completely prevented by N-acetylcysteine thus suggesting the involvement of thiols in this effect. Interestingly, the scratch assay showed that wound closure was faster in cells cultured in HG than NG and was accelerated by carnosol. This effect was reversed by an inhibitor of heme oxygenase activity. Moreover, topical application of carnosol to the cornea of diabetic rats significantly accelerated wound healing. In summary, these data indicate that culture of retinal epithelial cells in HG does not affect the activation of the Nrf2/heme oxygenase

  19. A Novel Approach for Ovine Primary Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cell Isolation and Culture from Fresh and Cryopreserved Tissue Obtained from Premature and Juvenile Animals

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkiewicz, Mariola M.; Baker, Sandy T.; Wu, Jichuan; Hubert, Terrence L.; Wolfson, Marla R.

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo ovine model provides a clinically relevant platform to study cardiopulmonary mechanisms and treatments of disease; however, a robust ovine primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell culture model is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize ovine lung tissue cryopreservation and primary ATII cell culture methodologies for the purposes of dissecting mechanisms at the cellular level to elucidate responses observed in vivo. To address this, we established in vitro submerged and air-liquid interface cultures of primary ovine ATII cells isolated from fresh or cryopreserved lung tissues obtained from mechanically ventilated sheep (128 days gestation—6 months of age). Presence, abundance, and mRNA expression of surfactant proteins was assessed by immunocytochemistry, Western Blot, and quantitative PCR respectively on the day of isolation, and throughout the 7 day cell culture study period. All biomarkers were significantly greater from cells isolated from fresh than cryopreserved tissue, and those cultured in air-liquid interface as compared to submerged culture conditions at all time points. Surfactant protein expression remained in the air-liquid interface culture system while that of cells cultured in the submerged system dissipated over time. Despite differences in biomarker magnitude between cells isolated from fresh and cryopreserved tissue, cells isolated from cryopreserved tissue remained metabolically active and demonstrated a similar response as cells from fresh tissue through 72 hr period of hyperoxia. These data demonstrate a cell culture methodology using fresh or cryopreserved tissue to support study of ovine primary ATII cell function and responses, to support expanded use of biobanked tissues, and to further understanding of mechanisms that contribute to in vivo function of the lung. PMID:26999050

  20. A Novel Approach for Ovine Primary Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cell Isolation and Culture from Fresh and Cryopreserved Tissue Obtained from Premature and Juvenile Animals.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Mariola M; Baker, Sandy T; Wu, Jichuan; Hubert, Terrence L; Wolfson, Marla R

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo ovine model provides a clinically relevant platform to study cardiopulmonary mechanisms and treatments of disease; however, a robust ovine primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell culture model is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize ovine lung tissue cryopreservation and primary ATII cell culture methodologies for the purposes of dissecting mechanisms at the cellular level to elucidate responses observed in vivo. To address this, we established in vitro submerged and air-liquid interface cultures of primary ovine ATII cells isolated from fresh or cryopreserved lung tissues obtained from mechanically ventilated sheep (128 days gestation-6 months of age). Presence, abundance, and mRNA expression of surfactant proteins was assessed by immunocytochemistry, Western Blot, and quantitative PCR respectively on the day of isolation, and throughout the 7 day cell culture study period. All biomarkers were significantly greater from cells isolated from fresh than cryopreserved tissue, and those cultured in air-liquid interface as compared to submerged culture conditions at all time points. Surfactant protein expression remained in the air-liquid interface culture system while that of cells cultured in the submerged system dissipated over time. Despite differences in biomarker magnitude between cells isolated from fresh and cryopreserved tissue, cells isolated from cryopreserved tissue remained metabolically active and demonstrated a similar response as cells from fresh tissue through 72 hr period of hyperoxia. These data demonstrate a cell culture methodology using fresh or cryopreserved tissue to support study of ovine primary ATII cell function and responses, to support expanded use of biobanked tissues, and to further understanding of mechanisms that contribute to in vivo function of the lung. PMID:26999050

  1. Effects of steroid hormones on differentiated glandular epithelial and stromal cells in a three dimensional cell culture model of the canine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oestrogens and progesterone have a significant impact on the endometrium during the canine oestrous cycle. Their receptors mediate plasma steroid hormone levels and are expressed in several endometrial cell types. Altered steroid receptor expression patterns are involved in serious uterine diseases; however the mechanisms of hormone action during pathogenesis in these tissues remain unclear. The development of 3D culture systems of canine endometrial cells provides an opportunity for the effects of steroid hormones to be quantitatively assessed in a more in vivo-like setting. The present study aimed to determine the effects of the steroid hormones 17β-estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) on the expression of the oestrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR), and on proliferative activity, in a 3D co-culture system of canine uterine origin, comprising differentiated endometrial glands, and stromal cells (SCs). Results Morphology, differentiation, and apical-basolateral polarity of cultured glandular epithelial cells (GECs) were comparable to those in native uterine tissue as assessed by immunohistochemistry using differentiation markers (β-catenin, laminin), lectin histochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Supplementation of our 3D-culture system with E (at 15, 30 and 100 pg/mL) resulted in constant levels of ER expression in GECs, but reduced expression levels in SCs. PR expression was reduced in both GECs and SCs following treatment with E. 3 ng/mL P resulted in increased ER expression in GECs, but a decrease in SCs. PR expression in GECs increased in all P-treated groups, whereas PRs in SCs decreased with the lowest and highest doses, but increased with the middle dose of treatment. Proliferative activity, assessed by Ki67 staining, remained below 1% in all assays and cell types. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the applicability of our 3D organotypic canine endometrium-derived culture system for cellular-level studies. 3D

  2. Collagen metabolism and basement membrane formation in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells: Induction of assembly on fibrillar type I collagen substrata

    SciTech Connect

    David, G.; van der Schueren, B.; van den Berghe, H. ); Nusgens, B.; Van Cauwenberge, D.; Lapiere, C. )

    1987-06-01

    Collagen metabolism was compared in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells maintained on plastic or fibrillar type I collagen gel substrata. The accumulation of dialysable and non-dialysable ({sup 3}H)hydroxyproline and the identification of the collagens produced suggest no difference between substrata in the allover rates of collagen synthesis and degradation. The proportion of the ({sup 3}H)collagen which accumulates in the monolayers of cultures on collagen, however, markedly exceeds that of cultures on plastic. Cultures on collagen deposit a sheet-like layer of extracellular matrix materials on the surface of the collagen fibers. Transformed cells on collagen produce and accumulate more ({sup 3}H)collage, yet are less effective in basement membrane formation than normal cells, indicting that the accumulation of collagen alone and the effect of interstitial collagen thereupon do not suffice. Thus, exogenous fibrillar collagen appears to enhance, but is not sufficient for proper assembly of collagenous basement membrane components near the basal epithelial cell surface.

  3. Cytotoxic effects and metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in duodenal and ileal epithelial cell cultures. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Quaroni, A.; Isselbacher, K.J.

    1981-12-01

    Two epithelial cell lines have been established from the duodenum (IEC-17) and the ileum (IEC-18) of outbred germfree Crl:CD(SD)GN rats. They have a very similar morphology and ultrastruture, a normal rat diploid karyotype, comparable growth rates, and a similar set of surface antigens as detected with monoclonal antibodies specific for intestinal epithelial cell surface proteins in vivo. Both cell lines do not grow in soft agar and when injected into syngeneic animals do not form tumors. The toxic effects of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were studied in these two cell lines. The IEC-18 cells were found to be much more sensitive to both chemicals than the IEC-17 cells. In paticular, at concentrations greater than 1 ..mu..g/ml, DMBA completely and irreversibly inhibited cell proliferaion in the IEC-18 cells, whereas it produced a less marked and reversible inhibition in the IEC-17 cells. The metabolism of BP and DMBA to water-soluble products was studied; BP was apparently metabolized at similar rates in the two cell lines, whereas a striking difference was observed with DMBA, which was metabolized at a rate 10-15 times greater in the IEC-18 cells than that in the IEC-17 cells. These results suggest that cultured cell lines derived from different portions of the intestinal tract have similar propertes in vitro, but they may have very different responses to chemical carcinogens.

  4. Intracrystalline Proteins Promote Dissolution of Urinary Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Cultured Renal Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Phulwinder K.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Fleming, David E.; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm; Ryall, Rosemary L.

    2007-04-01

    We have proposed that internalized calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals containing intracrystalline proteins would be vulnerable to intracellular dissolution. The aims of this study were (1) to measure non-uniform strain and crystallite size in CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystals containing increasing amounts of intracrystalline crystal matrix extract (CME) and (2) to compare the rates of crystal dissolution in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) cells. CME was isolated by demineralization of COM crystals generated from human urine. Cold and 14C-oxalate-labelled COM crystals were precipitated from ultrafiltered urine containing CME at final concentrations of 0-5mg/L. Non-uniform strain and crystallite size were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with Rietveld whole-pattern peak fitting and profile analysis, and the protein content of the crystals was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting for prothrombin fragment 1. Radiolabeled crystals were added to MDCKII cells and dissolution was expressed as radioactive label released into the medium relative to that in the crystals at zero time. Non-uniform strain increased and crystallite size decreased proportionally with rising CME concentration, reaching saturation between approximately 1 and 5 mg/L, and demonstrating unequivocally the inclusion of increasing quantities of proteins in the crystals. This was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Crystal dissolution also followed saturation kinetics. These findings were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), which showed that the degree of crystal degradation increased relative to CME concentration. We conclude that intracrystalline proteins enhance intracellular dissolution of CaOx crystals and thus may provide a natural defense against stone pathogenesis.

  5. Cultured human airway epithelial cells (calu-3): a model of human respiratory function, structure, and inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Chidekel, Aaron; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the application of the human airway Calu-3 cell line as a respiratory model for studying the effects of gas concentrations, exposure time, biophysical stress, and biological agents on human airway epithelial cells. Calu-3 cells are grown to confluence at an air-liquid interface on permeable supports. To model human respiratory conditions and treatment modalities, monolayers are placed in an environmental chamber, and exposed to specific levels of oxygen or other therapeutic modalities such as positive pressure and medications to assess the effect of interventions on inflammatory mediators, immunologic proteins, and antibacterial outcomes. Monolayer integrity and permeability and cell histology and viability also measure cellular response to therapeutic interventions. Calu-3 cells exposed to graded oxygen concentrations demonstrate cell dysfunction and inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. Modeling positive airway pressure reveals that pressure may exert a greater injurious effect and cytokine response than oxygen. In experiments with pharmacological agents, Lucinactant is protective of Calu-3 cells compared with Beractant and control, and perfluorocarbons also protect against hyperoxia-induced airway epithelial cell injury. The Calu-3 cell preparation is a sensitive and efficient preclinical model to study human respiratory processes and diseases related to oxygen- and ventilator-induced lung injury. PMID:20948883

  6. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

    2013-01-01

    Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. PMID:24204137

  7. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

    2013-01-01

    Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. PMID:24204137

  8. Genotoxic Effects of Low- and High-LET Radiation on Human Epithelial Cells Grown in 2-D Versus 3-D Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Z. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Huff, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Risk estimation for radiation-induced cancer relies heavily on human epidemiology data obtained from terrestrial irradiation incidents from sources such as medical and occupational exposures as well as from the atomic bomb survivors. No such data exists for exposures to the types and doses of high-LET radiation that will be encountered during space travel; therefore, risk assessment for space radiation requires the use of data derived from cell culture and animal models. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. This work compares the genotoxic effects of radiation on normal human epithelial cells grown in standard 2-D monolayer culture compared to 3-D organotypic co-culture conditions. These 3-D organotypic models mimic the morphological features, differentiation markers, and growth characteristics of fully-differentiated normal human tissue and are reproducible using defined components. Cultures were irradiated with 2 Gy low-LET gamma rays or varying doses of high-LET particle radiation and genotoxic damage was measured using a modified cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. Our results revealed a 2-fold increase in residual damage in 2 Gy gamma irradiated cells grown under organotypic culture conditions compared to monolayer culture. Irradiation with high-LET particle radiation gave similar results, while background levels of damage were comparable under both scenarios. These observations may be related to the phenomenon of "multicellular resistance" where cancer cells grown as 3-D spheroids or in vivo exhibit an increased resistance to killing by chemotherapeutic agents compared to the same cells grown in 2-D culture. A variety of factors are likely involved in mediating this process, including increased cell-cell communication, microenvironment influences, and changes in cell cycle kinetics that may promote survival of damaged cells in 3-D culture that would

  9. 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced DNA binding and repair synthesis in susceptible and nonsusceptible mammary epithelial cells in culture. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, L.K.; Russo, J.

    1981-07-01

    The effect of age and parity on the binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) to DNA and the repair of DMBA-damaged DNA have been demonstrated in logarithmic phase and confluent mammary epithelial cell cultures from young virgin (YV), old virgin (OV), and parous (P) noninbred and inbred Sprague-Dawley rats. Excision repair was determined by measuring, in the presence of hydroxyurea and 5-bromodeoxyuridine, tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA during the repair process. These results suggest that age and parity not only lower the binding of DMBA to mammary epithelial cell DNA but also increase the efficiency of DNA repair processes, which may explain the lower susceptibility of OV and P rats to DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression is enhanced in renal parietal epithelial cells of zucker diabetic Fatty rats and is induced by albumin in in vitro primary parietal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; George, Jasmine; Li, Yun; Olufade, Rebecca; Zhao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    As a subfamily of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), gelatinases including MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding their expression level and activity in the diabetic kidney. This study investigated whether and how MMP-9 expression and activity were changed in glomerular epithelial cells upon albumin overload. In situ zymography, immunostaining and Western blot for renal MMP gelatinolytic activity and MMP-9 protein expression were performed in Zucker lean and Zucker diabetic rats. Confocal microscopy revealed a focal increase in gelatinase activity and MMP-9 protein in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. Increased glomerular MMP-9 staining was mainly observed in hyperplastic parietal epithelial cells (PECs) expressing claudin-1 in the diabetic kidneys. Interestingly, increased parietal MMP-9 was often accompanied by decreased staining for podocyte markers (nephrin and podocalyxin) in the sclerotic area of affected glomeruli in diabetic rats. Additionally, urinary excretion of podocyte marker proteins was significantly increased in association with the levels of MMP-9 and albumin in the urine of diabetic animals. To evaluate the direct effect of albumin on expression and activity of MMP-9, primary cultured rat glomerular PECs were incubated with rat serum albumin (0.25 - 1 mg/ml) for 24 - 48 hrs. MMP-9 mRNA levels were significantly increased following albumin treatment. Meanwhile, albumin administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 protein and activity in culture supernatants of PECs. Moreover, albumin activated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in PECs. Inhibition of p44/42 MAPK suppressed albumin-induced MMP-9 secretion from glomerular PECs. Taken together, we have demonstrated that an up-regulation of MMP-9 in activated parietal epithelium is associated with a loss of adjacent podocytes in progressive diabetic nephropathy

  11. Induced pluripotency of human prostatic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongjuan; Sun, Ning; Young, Sarah R; Nolley, Rosalie; Santos, Jennifer; Wu, Joseph C; Peehl, Donna M

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a valuable resource for discovery of epigenetic changes critical to cell type-specific differentiation. Although iPS cells have been generated from other terminally differentiated cells, the reprogramming of normal adult human basal prostatic epithelial (E-PZ) cells to a pluripotent state has not been reported. Here, we attempted to reprogram E-PZ cells by forced expression of Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 using lentiviral vectors and obtained embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like colonies at a frequency of 0.01%. These E-PZ-iPS-like cells with normal karyotype gained expression of pluripotent genes typical of iPS cells (Tra-1-81, SSEA-3, Nanog, Sox2, and Oct4) and lost gene expression characteristic of basal prostatic epithelial cells (CK5, CK14, and p63). E-PZ-iPS-like cells demonstrated pluripotency by differentiating into ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal cells in vitro, although lack of teratoma formation in vivo and incomplete demethylation of pluripotency genes suggested only partial reprogramming. Importantly, E-PZ-iPS-like cells re-expressed basal epithelial cell markers (CD44, p63, MAO-A) in response to prostate-specific medium in spheroid culture. Androgen induced expression of androgen receptor (AR), and co-culture with rat urogenital sinus further induced expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a hallmark of secretory cells, suggesting that E-PZ-iPS-like cells have the capacity to differentiate into prostatic basal and secretory epithelial cells. Finally, when injected into mice, E-PZ-iPS-like cells expressed basal epithelial cell markers including CD44 and p63. When co-injected with rat urogenital mesenchyme, E-PZ-iPS-like cells expressed AR and expression of p63 and CD44 was repressed. DNA methylation profiling identified epigenetic changes in key pathways and genes involved in prostatic differentiation as E-PZ-iPS-like cells converted to differentiated AR- and PSA-expressing cells. Our results suggest that

  12. Small airway epithelial cells exposure to printer-emitted engineered nanoparticles induces cellular effects on human microvascular endothelial cells in an alveolar-capillary co-culture model.

    PubMed

    Sisler, Jennifer D; Pirela, Sandra V; Friend, Sherri; Farcas, Mariana; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Shvedova, Anna; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip; Qian, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The printer is one of the most common office equipment. Recently, it was reported that toner formulations for printing equipment constitute nano-enabled products (NEPs) and contain engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) that become airborne during printing. To date, insufficient research has been performed to understand the potential toxicological properties of printer-emitted particles (PEPs) with several studies using bulk toner particles as test particles. These studies demonstrated the ability of toner particles to cause chronic inflammation and fibrosis in animal models. However, the toxicological implications of inhalation exposures to ENMs emitted from laser printing equipment remain largely unknown. The present study investigates the toxicological effects of PEPs using an in vitro alveolar-capillary co-culture model with Human Small Airway Epithelial Cells (SAEC) and Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMVEC). Our data demonstrate that direct exposure of SAEC to low concentrations of PEPs (0.5 and 1.0 µg/mL) caused morphological changes of actin remodeling and gap formations within the endothelial monolayer. Furthermore, increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and angiogenesis were observed in the HMVEC. Analysis of cytokine and chemokine levels demonstrates that interleukin (IL)-6 and MCP-1 may play a major role in the cellular communication observed between SAEC and HMVEC and the resultant responses in HMVEC. These data indicate that PEPs at low, non-cytotoxic exposure levels are bioactive and affect cellular responses in an alveolar-capillary co-culture model, which raises concerns for potential adverse health effects. PMID:25387250

  13. Epithelial in vitro cell systems in carcinogenesis studies

    SciTech Connect

    Borek, C.

    1983-01-01

    The development of epithelial cells systems to study oncogenic transformation has presented a major challenge in the field of carcinogenesis. Because there exists in man a preponderance of carcinomas over sarcomas, the importance of studying oncogenic transformation in epithelial cells is of great relevance to human disease. The difficulty lies in the fact that different tissues contain epithelial cells with singular differentiated characteristics, which must be defined to assert the different nature of the cells being used. Liver cells in culture are a case in point. By careful maintenance and optimal culture conditions, one can maintain many of the differentiated characteristics of the cells for prolonged periods of time.

  14. Micropatterns of Matrigel for three-dimensional epithelial cultures.

    PubMed

    Sodunke, Temitope R; Turner, Keneshia K; Caldwell, Sarah A; McBride, Kevin W; Reginato, Mauricio J; Noh, Hongseok Moses

    2007-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) epithelial culture models are widely used to promote a physiologically relevant microenvironment for the study of normal and aberrant epithelial organization. Despite the increased use of these models, their potential as a cell-based screening tool for therapeutics has been hindered by the lack of existing platforms for large-scale 3D cellular studies. Current 3D standard culture does not allow for single spheroid or 'acinus' analysis required for high-throughput systems. Here, we present general strategies for creating bulk micropatterns of Matrigel that can be used as a platform for 3D epithelial culture and cell-based assays at the single acinus level. Both buried and free-standing micropatterns of Matrigel were created using modified soft lithography techniques such as microtransfer molding (microTM) and dry lift-off technique. Surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with oxygen plasma followed by treatment with poly(2-hydroxy-ethylmethacrylate) (poly-HEMA) was sufficient to promote deformation-free release of Matrigel patterns. In addition, a novel dual-layer dry lift-off technique was developed to simultaneously generate patterns of Matrigel and poly-HEMA on a single substrate. We also demonstrate that the micropatterned Matrigel can support 3D culture originating from a single normal human mammary epithelial (MCF-10A) cell or a human breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231) with comparable phenotypes to standard 3D culture techniques. Culture of normal MCF-10A cells on micropatterned Matrigel resulted in formation of structures with the characteristic apoptosis of centrally located cells and formation of hollow lumens. Moreover, the carcinoma cell line showed their characteristic formation of disorganized invasive cellular clusters, lacking the normal epithelial architecture on micropatterned Matrigel. Hence, micropatterned Matrigel can be used as a 3D epithelial cell-based platform for a wide variety of applications in epithelial

  15. Cytotoxicity of HBD3 for dendritic cells, normal human epidermal keratinocytes, hTERT keratinocytes, and primary oral gingival epithelial keratinocytes in cell culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Leelakanok, Nattawut; Fischer, Carol L; Bates, Amber M; Guthmiller, Janet M; Johnson, Georgia K; Salem, Aliasger K; Brogden, Kim A; Brogden, Nicole K

    2015-12-01

    Human β-defensin 3 (HBD3) is a prominent host defense peptide. In our recent work, we observed that HBD3 modulates pro-inflammatory agonist-induced chemokine and cytokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), often at 20.0 μM concentrations. Since HBD3 can be cytotoxic in some circumstances, it is necessary to assess its cytotoxicity for DCs, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) keratinocytes, and primary oral gingival epithelial (GE) keratinocytes in different cell culture conditions. Cells, in serum free media with resazurin and in complete media with 10% fetal bovine serum and resazurin, were incubated with 5, 10, 20, and 40 μM HBD3. Cytotoxicity was determined by measuring metabolic conversion of resazurin to resorufin. The lethal dose 50 (LD50, mean μM±Std Err) values were determined from the median fluorescent intensities of test concentrations compared to live and killed cell controls. The LD50 value range of HBD3 was 18.2-35.9 μM in serum-free media for DCs, NHEKs, hTERT keratinocytes, and GE keratinocytes, and >40.0 μM in complete media. Thus, HBD3 was cytotoxic at higher concentrations, which must be considered in future studies of HBD3-modulated chemokine and cytokine responses in vitro. PMID:26367466

  16. Surface-Modified Biodegradable Nanoparticles' Impact on Cytotoxicity and Inflammation Response on a Co-Culture of Lung Epithelial Cells and Human-Like Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Nadège; Hillaireau, Hervé; Vergnaud-Gauduchon, Juliette; Nicolas, Valérie; Tsapis, Nicolas; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia; Fattal, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of polymeric biodegradable nanoparticles was evaluated on a co-culture made from direct contact of human lung alveolar epithelial cells (A459) and macrophages (differentiated THP-1 monocytes). The co-culture was characterized by its phenotype and by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cytokine secretion induced by lipopolysaccharide was synergistically increased in the co-culture confirming cell-cell interactions. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles of 200 nm were prepared in presence of hydrophilic polymers commonly used as stabilizers [poly(vinyl alcohol), chitosan and poloxamer 188] through their interaction with particle surface. Stabilizer-free PLGA nanoparticles and stabilizers alone were also evaluated as controls. Selective uptake kinetics of PLGA nanoparticles by cell subpopulations, as well as apoptosis/necrosis detection, was achieved using a specific label for each cell type, while cytokine secretions were quantified in culture supernatants. Both cell subpopulations took up PLGA nanoparticles with similar profiles, and induced only little cytotoxicity (mostly necrosis). A mild inflammatory response to stabilized nanoparticles was detected (compared to well-known inflammatory compounds), slightly higher than the one observed for stabilizer-free PLGA nanoparticles or stabilizing agents taken individually. These results demonstrate that although biodegradable nanoparticles can be considered as safe, they can internalize compounds such as the stabilizing agents which enhance their toxicity. PMID:27301179

  17. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica L.; Streuli, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell–matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical–basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity. For further reading, please see related articles: ‘ERM proteins at a glance’ by Andrea McClatchey (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3199–3204). ‘Establishment of epithelial polarity – GEF who's minding the GAP?’ by Siu Ngok et al. (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3205–3215). PMID:24994933

  18. Use of a feline respiratory epithelial cell culture system grown at the air-liquid interface to characterize the innate immune response following feline herpesvirus 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Nelli, Rahul K; Maes, Roger; Kiupel, Matti; Hussey, Gisela Soboll

    2016-03-01

    Infection with feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) accounts for 50% of viral upper respiratory diseases in domestic cats and is a significant cause of ocular diseases. Despite the clinical significance and high prevalence of FHV-1 infection, currently available vaccines cannot completely protect cats from infection and lifelong latency. FHV-1 infects via the mucous membranes and replicates in respiratory epithelial cells, but very little is known about the early innate immunity at this site. To address questions about immunity to FHV-1, feline respiratory epithelial cells cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI-FRECs) were established by collecting respiratory tracts from 6 healthy cats after euthanasia. Cells were isolated, cultured and characterized histologically and immunologically before infection with FHV-1. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokine and chemokine responses were measured by real time PCR. ALI-FRECs morphologically resembled the natural airways of cats with multilayered columnar epithelial cells and cilia. Immunological properties of the natural airways were maintained in ALI-FRECs, as evidenced by the expression of TLRs, cytokines, chemokines, interferons, beta-defensins, and other regulatory genes. Furthermore, ALI-FRECs were able to support infection and replication of FHV-1, as well as modulate transcriptional regulation of various immune genes in response to infection. IL-1β and TNFα were increased in ALI-FRECs by 24hpi, whereas expression levels of IFN-α and TLR9 were not increased until 36hpi. In contrast, TLR3, GM-CSF and TGF-1β expression was down-regulated at 36hpi. The data presented show the development of a system ideal for investigating the molecular pathogenesis and immunity of FHV-1 or other respiratory pathogens. PMID:26795546

  19. Novel Compstatin Family Peptides Inhibit Complement Activation by Drusen-Like Deposits in Human Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gorham, Ronald D.; Forest, David L.; Tamamis, Phanourios; de Victoria, Aliana López; Kraszni, Márta; Kieslich, Chris A.; Banna, Christopher D.; Bellows-Peterson, Meghan L.; Larive, Cynthia K.; Floudas, Christodoulos A.; Archontis, Georgios; Johnson, Lincoln V.; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    We have used a novel human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cell-based model that mimics drusen biogenesis and the pathobiology of age-related macular degeneration to evaluate the efficacy of newly designed peptide inhibitors of the complement system. The peptides belong to the compstatin family and, compared to existing compstatin analogs, have been optimized to promote binding to their target, complement protein C3, and to enhance solubility by improving their polarity/hydrophobicity ratios. Based on analysis of molecular dynamics simulation data of peptide-C3 complexes, novel binding features were designed by introducing intermolecular salt bridge-forming arginines at the N-terminus and at position -1 of N-terminal dipeptide extensions. Our study demonstrates that the RPE cell assay has discriminatory capability for measuring the efficacy and potency of inhibitory peptides in a macular disease environment. PMID:23954241

  20. Modeling and Simulation of Mucus Flow in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Cultures - Part I: Idealized Axisymmetric Swirling Flow.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Paula A; Jin, Yuan; Palmer, Erik; Hill, David; Forest, M Gregory

    2016-08-01

    A multi-mode nonlinear constitutive model for mucus is constructed directly from micro- and macro-rheology experimental data on cell culture mucus, and a numerical algorithm is developed for the culture geometry and idealized cilia driving conditions. This study investigates the roles that mucus rheology, wall effects, and HBE culture geometry play in the development of flow profiles and the shape of the air-mucus interface. Simulations show that viscoelasticity captures normal stress generation in shear leading to a peak in the air-mucus interface at the middle of the culture and a depression at the walls. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes can be observed in cultures by varying the hurricane radius and mean rotational velocity. The advection-diffusion of a drug concentration dropped at the surface of the mucus flow is simulated as a function of Peclet number. PMID:27494700

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Mucus Flow in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Cultures – Part I: Idealized Axisymmetric Swirling Flow

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Paula A.; Jin, Yuan; Palmer, Erik; Hill, David; Forest, M. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    A multi-mode nonlinear constitutive model for mucus is constructed directly from micro- and macro-rheology experimental data on cell culture mucus, and a numerical algorithm is developed for the culture geometry and idealized cilia driving conditions. This study investigates the roles that mucus rheology, wall effects, and HBE culture geometry play in the development of flow profiles and the shape of the air-mucus interface. Simulations show that viscoelasticity captures normal stress generation in shear leading to a peak in the air-mucus interface at the middle of the culture and a depression at the walls. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes can be observed in cultures by varying the hurricane radius and mean rotational velocity. The advection-diffusion of a drug concentration dropped at the surface of the mucus flow is simulated as a function of Peclet number. PMID:27494700

  2. Technical note: Isolation and characterization of porcine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dahanayaka, S; Rezaei, R; Porter, W W; Johnson, G A; Burghardt, R C; Bazer, F W; Hou, Y Q; Wu, Z L; Wu, G

    2015-11-01

    Within the mammary gland, functional synthesis of milk is performed by its epithelial (alveolar) cells. The availability of a stable mammary epithelial cell line is essential for biochemical studies to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for nutritional regulation of lactation. Therefore, porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMEC) were isolated from mammary glands of a 9-mo-old nonpregnant and nonlactating gilt and cultured to establish a nonimmortalized cell line. These cells were characterized by expression of cytokeratin-18 (an intermediate filament specific for epithelial cells), β-casein (a specific marker for mammary epithelial cells), and α-lactalbumin. In culture, the PMEC doubled in number every 24 h and maintained a cobblestone morphology, typical for cultured epithelial cells, for at least 15 passages. Addition of 0.2 to 2 μg/mL prolactin to culture medium for 3 d induced the production of β-casein and α-lactalbumin by PMEC in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we have successfully developed a useful PMEC line for future studies of cellular and molecular regulation of milk synthesis by mammary epithelial cells of the sow. PMID:26641038

  3. Perturbations in maturation of secretory proteins and their association with endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in a cell culture model for epithelial ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, G; Bush, K T; Zhang, P L; Nigam, S K

    1996-01-01

    The effects of ischemia on the maturation of secretory proteins are not well understood. Among several events that occur during ischemia-reperfusion are a rapid and extensive decrease in ATP levels and an alteration of cellular oxidative state. Since the normal folding and assembly of secretory proteins are mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones, the function of which depends on ATP and maintenance of an appropriate redox environment, ischemia might be expected to perturb folding of secretory proteins. In this study, whole animal and cultured cell models for the epithelial ischemic state were used to examine this possibility. After acute kidney ischemia, marked increases in the mRNA levels of the ER chaperones glucose-regulated protein (grp)78/immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP), grp94, and ER protein (ERp)72 were noted. Likewise, when cellular ATP was depleted to less than 10% of control with antimycin A, mRNA levels of BiP, ERp72, and grp94 were increased in kidney and thyroid epithelial cell culture models. Since the signal for the up-regulation of these stress proteins is believed to be the accumulation of misfolded/misassembled secretory proteins in the ER, their induction after ischemia in vivo and antimycin treatment of cultured cells suggests that maturation of secretory proteins in the ER lumen might indeed be perturbed. To analyze the effects of antimycin A on the maturation of secretory proteins, we studied the fate of thyroglobulin (Tg), a large oligomeric secretory glycoprotein, the folding and assembly of which seems to require a variety of ER chaperones. Treatment of cultured thyroid epithelial cells with antimycin A greatly inhibited ( > 90%) the secretion of Tg. Sucrose density gradient analysis revealed that in antimycin A-treated cells Tg associates into large macromolecular complexes which, by immunofluorescence, appeared to localize to the ER. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation studies after antimycin A treatment

  4. M-BAND analysis of chromosome aberration induced by Fe-ions in human epithelial cells cultured in 3-dimensional matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    Energetic heavy ions pose a great health risk to astronauts in extended ISS and future lunar and Mars missions. High-LET heavy ions are particularly effective in causing various biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts and cancer induction. Most of these biological endpoints are closely related to chromosomal damage, which can be utilized as a biomarker for radiation insults. Previously, we had studied lowand high-LET radiationinduced chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells cultured in 2-dimension (2D) using the multicolor banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique. However, it has been realized that the biological response to radiation insult in a 2D cellular environment in vitro can differ significantly from the response in 3-dimension (3D) or at the actual tissue level. In this study, we cultured human epithelial cells in 3D to provide a more suitable model for human tissue. Human mammary epithelial cells (CH184B5F5/M10) were grown in Matrigel to form 3D structures, and exposed to Fe-ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory or 137 Cs-gamma radiation source at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. After exposure, cells were allowed to repair for 16hr before dissociation and subcultured at low density in 2D. G2 and metaphase chromosomes in the first cell cycle were collected using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique, and chromosome aberrations were analyzed using mBAND technique. With this technique, individually painted chromosomal bands on one chromosome allowed the identification of interchromosomal aberrations (translocation to unpainted chromosomes) and intrachromosomal aberrations (inversions and deletions within a single painted chromosome). Our data indicate a significant difference of the chromosome aberration yield between 2D and 3D cell cultures for gamma exposures, but not for Fe ion exposures

  5. Formation of lipofuscin in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells exposed to pre-oxidized photoreceptor outer segments.

    PubMed

    Wihlmark, U; Wrigstad, A; Roberg, K; Brunk, U T; Nilsson, S E

    1996-04-01

    Accumulation of lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with increasing age may affect essential supportive functions for the photoreceptors. Earlier, we described a model system for the study of lipofuscinogenesis in RPE cell cultures and showed that mild oxidative stress enhances lipofuscin formation from phagocytized photoreceptor outer segments (POS). In the present study, bovine POS were photo-oxidized, and turned into a lipofuscin-like material, by irradiation with UV light. Transmission electron microscopy of irradiated POS showed loss of the normal stacks of the disk membranes with conversion into an amorphous osmiophilic electron-dense mass. The formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), estimated during the irradiation process, indicated lipid peroxidation. Irradiated POS also showed a strong granular yellow autofluorescence. RPE cell cultures, kept at 21% ambient oxygen, were fed daily for 3, 5 or 7 days with either (i) UV-peroxidized POS, (ii) native POS or (iii) culture medium only. RPE cells fed irradiated POS showed significantly higher levels of lipofuscin-specific autofluorescence compared to cells exposed to native POS after 3 days (p = 0.0056), 5 days (p = 0.0037) and 7 days (p = 0.0020), and to the non-exposed control cells (3 days: p = 0.005, 5 days: p = 0.0037, 7 days: p = 0.0094). The lipofuscin content of cells exposed to irradiated POS increased significantly between days 3 and 7 (p = 0.0335). Ultrastructural studies showed much more numerous and larger lipofuscin-like inclusions in RPE cells fed irradiated POS compared to cells exposed to native POS. In the control cells, lipofuscin-like granules were small and sparse. It appears that exposing RPE cells to previously peroxidized POS, thus artificially converted to lipofuscin and obviously not digestible by the lysosomal enzymes, accelerates the formation of severely lipofuscin-loaded cells. The results will be useful for further studies of possible harmful

  6. Isolation of Cancer Epithelial Cells from Mouse Mammary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara; Chen, Hexin; Lo, Pang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The isolation of cancer epithelial cells from mouse mammary tumor is accomplished by digestion of the solid tumor. Red blood cells and other contaminates are removed using several washing techniques such that primary epithelial cells can further enriched. This procedure yields primary tumor cells that can be used for in vitro tissue culture, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and a wide variety of other experiments (Lo et al., 2012).

  7. Interphase Chromosome Conformation and Chromatin-chromatin Interactions in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured Under Different Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Hada, Megumi; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    On a multi-mega base pair scale of the DNA, the arrangement of chromatin is non-random. In M10 epithelial cells, both telomere regions tend to be located towards the exterior of the chromosome domain, whereas the rest p-arm of the chromatin region towards the interior. In contrast, most of the q-arm of the chromatin is found in the peripheral of the domain. In lymphocytes, the p-arm chromatin regions towards the interior in close proximity with each other, whereas two q-arm regions are nearness in space. It indicates that G0 lymphocytes may lack secondary 3D chromatin folding. There chromatin folding patterns are consistent with our previous finding of non-random distribution of intra-chromosomal exchanges. In simulated microgravity conditions, the chromosome conformation may be altered and new regions in close proximity, especially to region 2 are suggested.

  8. Decreased Laminin Expression by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Cultured in Acellular Lung Scaffolds from Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Lindsay M.; Sandri, Brian J.; Wagner, Darcy E.; Meyer, Carolyn M.; Price, Andrew P.; Akinnola, Ifeolu; Weiss, Daniel J.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The lung changes functionally and structurally with aging. However, age-related effects on the extracellular matrix (ECM) and corresponding effects on lung cell behavior are not well understood. We hypothesized that ECM from aged animals would induce aging-related phenotypic changes in healthy inoculated cells. Decellularized whole organ scaffolds provide a powerful model for examining how ECM cues affect cell phenotype. The effects of age on ECM composition in both native and decellularized mouse lungs were assessed as was the effect of young vs old acellular ECM on human bronchial epithelial cells (hBECs) and lung fibroblasts (hLFs). Native aged (1 year) lungs demonstrated decreased expression of laminins α3 and α4, elastin and fibronectin, and elevated collagen, compared to young (3 week) lungs. Proteomic analyses of decellularized ECM demonstrated similar findings, and decellularized aged lung ECM contained less diversity in structural proteins compared to young ECM. When seeded in old ECM, hBECs and hLFs demonstrated lower gene expression of laminins α3 and α4, respectively, as compared to young ECM, paralleling the laminin deficiency of aged ECM. ECM changes appear to be important factors in potentiating aging-related phenotypes and may provide clues to mechanisms that allow for aging-related lung diseases. PMID:26954258

  9. Ion Channels in Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Lawrence G.

    Ion channels in epithelial cells serve to move ions, and in some cases fluid, between compartments of the body. This function of the transfer of material is fundamentally different from that of the transfer of information, which is the main job of most channels in excitable cells. Nevertheless the basic construction of the channels is similar in many respects in the two tissue types. This chapter reviews the nature of channels in epithelia and discusses how their functions have evolved to accomplish the basic tasks for which they are responsible. I will focus on three channel types: epithelial Na+ channels, inward-rectifier K+ channels, and CFTR Cl- channels.

  10. Failure of propagation of human norovirus in intestinal epithelial cells with microvilli grown in three-dimensional cultures

    PubMed Central

    Takanashi, Sayaka; Saif, Linda J.; Hughes, John H.; Meulia, Tea; Jung, Kwonil; Scheuer, Kelly A.; Wang, Qiuhong

    2013-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. Establishment of a cell culture system for in vitro HuNoV growth remains challenging. Replication of HuNoVs in human intestinal cell lines (INT-407 and Caco-2) that differentiate to produce microvilli in rotation wall vessel (RWV) three-dimensional cultures has been reported (Straub et al., Emerg Infect Dis 13:396–403 2007, J Water Health 9:225–240 2011, and Water Sci Technol 67:863–868 2013). We used a similar RWV system, intestinal cell lines, and the same (Genogroup [G] I.1) plus additional (GII.4 and GII.12) HuNoV strains to test the system’s reproducibility and to expand the earlier findings. Apical microvilli were observed on the surface of both cell lines by light and electron microscopy. However, none of the cell types tested resulted in productive viral replication of any of the HuNoV strains, as confirmed by plateau or declining viral RNA titers in the supernatants and cell lysates of HuNoV-infected cells, determined by real-time reverse transcription PCR. These trends were the same when culture supplements were added that have been reported to be effective for replication of other fastidious enteric viruses in vitro. Additionally, by confocal microscopy and orthoslice analysis, viral capsid proteins were mainly observed above the actin filament signals, which suggested that the majority of viral antigens were on the cell surface. We conclude that even intestinal cells displaying microvilli were not sufficient to support HuNoV replication under the conditions tested. PMID:23974469