Science.gov

Sample records for epithelium promotes milk

  1. Human milk hyaluronan enhances innate defense of the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Rho, Hyunjin K; Kessler, Sean P; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K; de la Motte, Carol A

    2013-10-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  2. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  3. Epithelium

    MedlinePlus

    The term "epithelium" refers to layers of cells that line hollow organs and glands. It is also those cells that make ... Epithelium. In: Kierszenbaum AL, Tres LL. Histology and Cell Biology - An Introduction to Pathology , 3rd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. Luminal Microbes Promote Monocyte–Stem Cell Interactions Across a Healthy Colonic Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Skoczek, Dagmara A.; Walczysko, Petr; Horn, Nikki; Parris, Alyson; Clare, Simon; Williams, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms a vital barrier between luminal microbes and the underlying mucosal immune system. Epithelial barrier function is maintained by continuous renewal of the epithelium and is pivotal for gut homeostasis. Breaching of the barrier causes mobilization of immune cells to promote epithelial restitution. However, it is not known whether microbes at the luminal surface of a healthy epithelial barrier influence immune cell mobilization to modulate tissue homeostasis. Using a mouse colonic mucosal explant model, we demonstrate that close proximity of luminal microbes to a healthy, intact epithelium results in rapid mucus secretion and movement of Ly6C+7/4+ monocytes closer to epithelial stem cells. These early events are driven by the epithelial MyD88-signaling pathway and result in increased crypt cell proliferation and intestinal stem cell number. Over time, stem cell number and monocyte–crypt stem cell juxtapositioning return to homeostatic levels observed in vivo. We also demonstrate that reduced numbers of tissue Ly6C+ monocytes can suppress Lgr5EGFP+ stem cell expression in vivo and abrogate the response to luminal microbes ex vivo. The functional link between monocyte recruitment and increased crypt cell proliferation was further confirmed using a crypt–monocyte coculture model. This work demonstrates that the healthy gut epithelium mediates communication between luminal bacteria and monocytes, and monocytes can modulate crypt stem cell number and promote crypt cell proliferation to help maintain gut homeostasis. PMID:24907348

  5. Breast milk protects against the development of necrotizing enterocolitis through inhibition of Toll Like Receptor 4 in the intestinal epithelium via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Good, Misty; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Egan, Charlotte E.; Afrazi, Amin; Jia, Hongpeng; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Branca, Maria F.; Ma, Congrong; Prindle, Thomas; Mielo, Samantha; Pompa, Anthony; Hodzic, Zerina; Ozolek, John A.; Hackam, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is the most effective strategy to protect infants against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating disease which is characterized by severe intestinal necrosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in NEC development via deleterious effects on mucosal injury and repair. We now hypothesize that breast milk protects against NEC by inhibiting TLR4 within the intestinal epithelium, and sought to determine the mechanisms involved. Breast milk protected against NEC and reduced TLR4 signaling in wild-type neonatal mice, but not in mice lacking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), while selective removal of EGF from breast milk reduced its protective properties, indicating that breast milk inhibits NEC and attenuates TLR4 signaling via EGF/EGFR activation. Over-expression of TLR4 in the intestinal epithelium reversed the protective effects of breast milk. The protective effects of breast milk occurred via inhibition of enterocyte apoptosis and restoration of enterocyte proliferation. Importantly, in IEC-6 enterocytes, breast milk inhibited TLR4 signaling via inhibition of GSK3β. Taken together, these findings offer mechanistic insights into the protective role for breast milk in NEC, and support a link between growth factor and innate immune receptors in NEC pathogenesis. PMID:25899687

  6. Specific-sized hyaluronan fragments promote expression of human β-defensin 2 in intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Kessler, Sean P; Rho, Hyunjin K; Cowman, Mary K; de la Motte, Carol A

    2012-08-31

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in the extracellular matrix of virtually all mammalian tissues. Recent work has suggested a role for small, fragmented HA polymers in initiating innate defense responses in immune cells, endothelium, and epidermis through interaction with innate molecular pattern recognition receptors, such as TLR4. Despite these advances, little is known regarding the effect of fragmented HA at the intestinal epithelium, where numerous pattern recognition receptors act as sentinels of an innate defense response that maintains epithelial barrier integrity in the presence of abundant and diverse microbial challenges. Here we report that HA fragments promote expression of the innate antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 (HβD2) in intestinal epithelial cells. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with HA fragment preparations resulted in time- and dose-dependent up-regulated expression of HβD2 protein in a fragment size-specific manner, with 35-kDa HA fragment preparations emerging as the most potent inducers of intracellular HβD2. Furthermore, oral administration of specific-sized HA fragments promotes the expression of an HβD2 ortholog in the colonic epithelium of both wild-type and CD44-deficient mice but not in TLR4-deficient mice. Together, our observations suggest that a highly size-specific, TLR4-dependent, innate defense response to fragmented HA contributes to intestinal epithelium barrier defense through the induction of intracellular HβD2 protein. PMID:22761444

  7. Epithelium-generated neuropeptide Y induces smooth muscle contraction to promote airway hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanru; Koziol-White, Cynthia; Jude, Joseph; Jiang, Meiqi; Zhao, Hengjiang; Cao, Gaoyuan; Yoo, Edwin; Jester, William; Morley, Michael P; Zhou, Su; Wang, Yi; Lu, Min Min; Panettieri, Reynold A; Morrisey, Edward E

    2016-05-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases globally and can be divided into presenting with or without an immune response. Current therapies have little effect on nonimmune disease, and the mechanisms that drive this type of asthma are poorly understood. Here, we have shown that loss of the transcription factors forkhead box P1 (Foxp1) and Foxp4, which are critical for lung epithelial development, in the adult airway epithelium evokes a non-Th2 asthma phenotype that is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) without eosinophilic inflammation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that loss of Foxp1 and Foxp4 expression induces ectopic expression of neuropeptide Y (Npy), which has been reported to be present in the airways of asthma patients, but whose importance in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Treatment of human lung airway explants with recombinant NPY increased airway contractility. Conversely, loss of Npy in Foxp1- and Foxp4-mutant airway epithelium rescued the AHR phenotype. We determined that NPY promotes AHR through the induction of Rho kinase activity and phosphorylation of myosin light chain, which induces airway smooth muscle contraction. Together, these studies highlight the importance of paracrine signals from the airway epithelium to the underlying smooth muscle to induce AHR and suggest that therapies targeting epithelial induction of this phenotype may prove useful in treatment of noneosinophilic asthma. PMID:27088802

  8. AGEs Promote Oxidative Stress and Induce Apoptosis in Retinal Pigmented Epithelium Cells RAGE-dependently.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Ling; Yu, Tao; Yan, Qi-Chang; Wang, Wei; Meng, Nan; Li, Xue-Jiao; Luo, Ya-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are extremely accumulated in diabetes mellitus, particularly in retinal vascular and epithelium cells, and are confirmed to contribute to diabetic retinopathy (DR). In the present study, we determined the promotion by AGEs to the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in retinal pigmented epithelium ARPE-19 cells and investigated the influence by the knockdown or the overexpression of receptor for AGEs (RAGE) on the AGE-promoted oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, we determined the induction by AGEs to the cell apoptosis and to the activation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) families in the AGE-BSA-induced apoptosis, and examined the RAGE-dependence in such induction. Results demonstrated that AGE-BSA upregulated the hydrogen peroxide production and induced mitochondrial dysfunction in ARPE-19 cells, dose-dependently. And the further investigation indicated that the AGE-RAGE interaction was required for the induction of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, the AGE-BSA treatment promoted a significantly high level of apoptotic cells, and the Bcl-2 family was implicated in the AGE-BSA-induced apoptosis, there was a significant high level of Cyt c release, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) induction, Bcl-2 reduction, and caspase 9 activation in the AGE-BSA-treated cells. In conclusion, the present study recognized the apoptosis induction by AGE-BSAs in the retinal epithelium ARPE-19 cells, RAGE-dependently. The mitochondrial dysfunction was induced, and the Bcl-2 family was deregulated during the AGE-BSA-induced ARPE-19 cell apoptosis. PMID:25682235

  9. Gene expression in the human mammary epithelium during lactation: the milk fat globule transcriptome.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular physiology underlying human milk production is largely unknown because of limitations in obtaining tissue samples. Determining gene expression in normal lactating women would be a potential step toward understanding why some women struggle with or fail at breastfeeding their infants. R...

  10. Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

    2009-04-01

    A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market. PMID:20163593

  11. An Intervention to Promote Breast Milk Production in Mothers of Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Héon, Marjolaine; Goulet, Céline; Garofalo, Carole; Nuyt, Anne Monique; Levy, Emile

    2016-05-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate the effects of a breast milk expression education and support intervention on breast milk production outcomes in mothers of very and extremely preterm infants. Forty mothers of hospitalized preterm infants (<30 weeks of gestation) were randomized to the experimental intervention or standard care for 6 weeks. Duration and frequency of breast milk expressions and volume of expressed breast milk were measured daily. Samples of breast milk were collected thrice during the study and analyzed for their lipid concentration. Mothers in the experimental group had a statistically significant higher duration of breast milk expression in min/day (p= .043). Differences observed between the two groups regarding the frequency of breast milk expression, volume of breast milk, and lipid concentration were not statistically significant. Results suggest that the experimental intervention may promote breast milk production in mothers of very and extremely preterm infants. PMID:25395013

  12. Cathepsin D acts as an essential mediator to promote malignancy of benign prostatic epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Freddie L.; He, Yue; Franco, Omar E.; Jiang, Ming; Cates, Justin M.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Stromal-epithelial interactions are important in both development and prostate cancer. Stromal changes have been shown to be powerful prognostic indicators of prostate cancer progression and of patient death helping to define lethal versus indolent phenotypes. The specific molecular underpinnings of these interactions are incompletely understood. We investigated whether stromal cathepsin D (CathD) overexpression affects prostate tumorigenesis through a paracrine mechanism. METHODS Normal prostate fibroblasts (NPF) were retrovirally transduced to overexpress cyclin D1 (CD1) cells were designated NPFCD1. Cathepsin D expression was knocked down using shRNA in cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) and NPFCD1. We analyzed these stromal cell lines using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and tissue recombination. RESULTS An examination of human prostate tissue revealed significantly increased stromal staining of CathD in malignant prostate tissue. Overexpression of CD1 in normal prostate fibroblasts (NPFCD1) produced a phenotype similar to, but more moderate than, CAF in a tissue recombination model. Knockdown studies revealed that CathD is required for NPFCD1 motility and invasive growth in vitro. BPH-1 cell proliferation was found to be induced when cultured with NPFCD1 conditioned medium, this effect was inhibited when CathD was knocked down in NPFCD1 cells. Overexpression of CathD in prostate stromal cells induced malignancy in adjacent epithelium, and this transformation was inhibited when stromal CathD expression was knocked down in CAF. CONCLUSIONS The study presented here demonstrates increased CathD expression is seen in human CAF. The upregulation of CD1 results in concomitant increases in CathD expression. Elevated CathD expression in the stroma contributes to tumor promotion. PMID:22996917

  13. Mutant Kras Promotes Hyperplasia and Alters Differentiation in the Colon Epithelium But Does Not Expand the Presumptive Stem Cell Pool

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ying; Bommer, Guido T.; Zhao, Jenny; Green, Maranne; Sands, Evan; Zhai, Yali; Brown, Kelly; Burberry, Aaron; Cho, Kathleen R.; Fearon, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Adenomatous polyps are precursors to colorectal cancer (CRC), whereas hyperplastic polyps (HPPs) have a small risk of progression to CRC. Mutations in KRAS are found in ~40% of CRCs and large adenomas and a subset of HPPs. We investigated the reasons that HPPs with KRAS mutations lack malignant potential; we compared the effects of Kras/KRAS activation to those of Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc)/APC inactivation, which promotes adenoma formation. METHODS We activated a KrasG12D mutant allele or inactivated Apc alleles in mouse colon epithelium and analyzed phenotypes and expression of selected genes and proteins. The mouse data were validated using samples of human HPPs and adenomas. Signaling pathways and factors that contribute to Kras/KRAS-induced phenotypes were studied in intestinal epithelial cells. RESULTS Activation of Kras led to hyperplasia and serrated crypt architecture akin to that observed in human HPPs. We also observed loss of Paneth cells and increases in goblet cell numbers. Abnormalities in Kras-mediated differentiation and proliferation required mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and were linked to activation of the Hes1 transcription factor. Human HPPs also had activation of HES1. In contrast to Apc/APC inactivation, Kras/KRAS activation did not increase expression of crypt stem cell markers in colon epithelium or colony formation in vitro. Kras/KRAS activation was not associated with substantial induction of p16INK4a protein expression in mouse colon epithelium or human HPPs. CONCLUSIONS Although Kras/KRAS mutation promotes serrated and hyperplastic morphological features in colon epithelium, it is not able to initiate adenoma development, perhaps in part because activated Kras/KRAS signaling does not increase the number of presumptive stem cells in affected crypts. PMID:21699772

  14. HIV Impairs Lung Epithelial Integrity and Enters the Epithelium to Promote Chronic Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Fernanda; Mandke, Pooja; Chau, Eric; Aggarwal, Neil R.; D’Alessio, Franco R.; Lambert, Allison A.; Kirk, Gregory; Blankson, Joel; Drummond, M. Bradley; Tsibris, Athe M.

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies show that individuals with HIV are at an increased risk for worsened lung function and for the development of COPD, although the mechanism underlying this increased susceptibility is poorly understood. The airway epithelium, situated at the interface between the external environment and the lung parenchyma, acts as a physical and immunological barrier that secretes mucins and cytokines in response to noxious stimuli which can contribute to the pathobiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to determine the effects of HIV on the lung epithelium. We grew primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and primary lung epithelial cells isolated from bronchial brushings of patients to confluence and allowed them to differentiate at an air- liquid interface (ALI) to assess the effects of HIV on the lung epithelium. We assessed changes in monolayer permeability as well as the expression of E-cadherin and inflammatory modulators to determine the effect of HIV on the lung epithelium. We measured E-cadherin protein abundance in patients with HIV compared to normal controls. Cell associated HIV RNA and DNA were quantified and the p24 viral antigen was measured in culture supernatant. Surprisingly, X4, not R5, tropic virus decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased monolayer permeability. While there was some transcriptional regulation of E-cadherin, there was significant increase in lysosome-mediated protein degradation in cells exposed to X4 tropic HIV. Interaction with CXCR4 and viral fusion with the epithelial cell were required to induce the epithelial changes. X4 tropic virus was able to enter the airway epithelial cells but not replicate in these cells, while R5 tropic viruses did not enter the epithelial cells. Significantly, X4 tropic HIV induced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We demonstrate that HIV can enter airway

  15. HIV Impairs Lung Epithelial Integrity and Enters the Epithelium to Promote Chronic Lung Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Brune, Kieran A; Ferreira, Fernanda; Mandke, Pooja; Chau, Eric; Aggarwal, Neil R; D'Alessio, Franco R; Lambert, Allison A; Kirk, Gregory; Blankson, Joel; Drummond, M Bradley; Tsibris, Athe M; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies show that individuals with HIV are at an increased risk for worsened lung function and for the development of COPD, although the mechanism underlying this increased susceptibility is poorly understood. The airway epithelium, situated at the interface between the external environment and the lung parenchyma, acts as a physical and immunological barrier that secretes mucins and cytokines in response to noxious stimuli which can contribute to the pathobiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to determine the effects of HIV on the lung epithelium. We grew primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and primary lung epithelial cells isolated from bronchial brushings of patients to confluence and allowed them to differentiate at an air- liquid interface (ALI) to assess the effects of HIV on the lung epithelium. We assessed changes in monolayer permeability as well as the expression of E-cadherin and inflammatory modulators to determine the effect of HIV on the lung epithelium. We measured E-cadherin protein abundance in patients with HIV compared to normal controls. Cell associated HIV RNA and DNA were quantified and the p24 viral antigen was measured in culture supernatant. Surprisingly, X4, not R5, tropic virus decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased monolayer permeability. While there was some transcriptional regulation of E-cadherin, there was significant increase in lysosome-mediated protein degradation in cells exposed to X4 tropic HIV. Interaction with CXCR4 and viral fusion with the epithelial cell were required to induce the epithelial changes. X4 tropic virus was able to enter the airway epithelial cells but not replicate in these cells, while R5 tropic viruses did not enter the epithelial cells. Significantly, X4 tropic HIV induced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We demonstrate that HIV can enter airway

  16. Milk--A Nutrient System of Mammalian Evolution Promoting mTORC1-Dependent Translation.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    Based on own translational research of the biochemical and hormonal effects of cow's milk consumption in humans, this review presents milk as a signaling system of mammalian evolution that activates the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the pivotal regulator of translation. Milk, a mammary gland-derived secretory product, is required for species-specific gene-nutrient interactions that promote appropriate growth and development of the newborn mammal. This signaling system is highly conserved and tightly controlled by the lactation genome. Milk is sufficient to activate mTORC1, the crucial regulator of protein, lipid, and nucleotide synthesis orchestrating anabolism, cell growth and proliferation. To fulfill its mTORC1-activating function, milk delivers four key metabolic messengers: (1) essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs); (2) glutamine; (3) palmitic acid; and (4) bioactive exosomal microRNAs, which in a synergistical fashion promote mTORC1-dependent translation. In all mammals except Neolithic humans, postnatal activation of mTORC1 by milk intake is restricted to the postnatal lactation period. It is of critical concern that persistent hyperactivation of mTORC1 is associated with aging and the development of age-related disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Persistent mTORC1 activation promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and drives an aimless quasi-program, which promotes aging and age-related diseases. PMID:26225961

  17. Oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelium cells increases exosome secretion and promotes angiogenesis in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Atienzar-Aroca, Sandra; Flores-Bellver, Miguel; Serrano-Heras, Gemma; Martinez-Gil, Natalia; Barcia, Jorge M; Aparicio, Silvia; Perez-Cremades, Daniel; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose M; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel; Romero, Francisco J; Sancho-Pelluz, Javier

    2016-08-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer located between the photoreceptors and the choroid, is constantly damaged by oxidative stress, particularly because of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As the RPE, because of its physiological functions, is essential for the survival of the retina, any sustained damage may consequently lead to loss of vision. Exosomes are small membranous vesicles released into the extracellular medium by numerous cell types, including RPE cells. Their cargo includes genetic material and proteins, making these vesicles essential for cell-to-cell communication. Exosomes may fuse with neighbouring cells influencing their fate. It has been observed that RPE cells release higher amounts of exosomes when they are under oxidative stress. Exosomes derived from cultured RPE cells were isolated by ultracentrifugation and quantified by flow cytometry. VEGF receptors (VEGFR) were analysed by both flow cytometry and Western blot. RT-PCR and qPCR were conducted to assess mRNA content of VEGFRs in exosomes. Neovascularization assays were performed after applying RPE exosomes into endothelial cell cultures. Our results showed that stressed RPE cells released a higher amount of exosomes than controls, with a higher expression of VEGFR in the membrane, and enclosed an extra cargo of VEGFR mRNA. Angiogenesis assays confirmed that endothelial cells increased their tube formation capacity when exposed to stressed RPE exosomes. PMID:26999719

  18. Erlotinib promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Lu; Hu, Lingna; Yang, Baofang; Fang, Xianying; Gao, Zhe; Li, Wanshuai; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xuefeng; Shu, Yongqian; Gu, Yanhong; Wu, Xudong; Xu, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    Erlotinib, a popular drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), causes diarrhea in approximately 55% of patients receiving this drug. In the present study, we found that erlotinib induced barrier dysfunction in rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6) by increasing epithelial permeability and down-regulating E-cadherin. The mRNA levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-25 and Il-17f) were increased after erlotinib treatment in IEC-6 cells. Erlotinib concentration- and time-dependently induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in both IEC-6 and human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoN). Intestinal epithelial injury was also observed in male C57BL/6J mice administrated with erlotinib. Knockdown of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) with small interference RNA partially reversed erlotinib-induced apoptosis, production of IL-6 and down-regulation of E-cadherin in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. In conclusion, erlotinib caused ER stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium, contributing to its side effects of diarrhea in patients. - Highlights: • Erlotinib destroyed barrier integrity both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. • ER stress contributed to erlotinib-induced barrier dysfunction.

  19. Matriptase Proteolytically Activates Influenza Virus and Promotes Multicycle Replication in the Human Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Alexandre; Gravel, Émilie; Cloutier, Alexandre; Marois, Isabelle; Colombo, Éloïc; Désilets, Antoine; Verreault, Catherine; Leduc, Richard; Marsault, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses do not encode any proteases and must rely on host proteases for the proteolytic activation of their surface hemagglutinin proteins in order to fuse with the infected host cells. Recent progress in the understanding of human proteases responsible for influenza virus hemagglutinin activation has led to the identification of members of the type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 and human airway trypsin-like protease; however, none has proved to be the sole enzyme responsible for hemagglutinin cleavage. In this study, we identify and characterize matriptase as an influenza virus-activating protease capable of supporting multicycle viral replication in the human respiratory epithelium. Using confocal microscopy, we found matriptase to colocalize with hemagglutinin at the apical surface of human epithelial cells and within endosomes, and we showed that the soluble form of the protease was able to specifically cleave hemagglutinins from H1 virus, but not from H2 and H3 viruses, in a broad pH range. We showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of matriptase in human bronchial epithelial cells significantly blocked influenza virus replication in these cells. Lastly, we provide a selective, slow, tight-binding inhibitor of matriptase that significantly reduces viral replication (by 1.5 log) of H1N1 influenza virus, including the 2009 pandemic virus. Our study establishes a three-pronged model for the action of matriptase: activation of incoming viruses in the extracellular space in its shed form, upon viral attachment or exit in its membrane-bound and/or shed forms at the apical surface of epithelial cells, and within endosomes by its membrane-bound form where viral fusion takes place. PMID:23365447

  20. Basement membrane proteins promote progression of intraepithelial neoplasia in 3-dimensional models of human stratified epithelium.

    PubMed

    Andriani, Frank; Garfield, Jackie; Fusenig, Norbert E; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2004-01-20

    We have developed novel 3-dimensional in vitro and in vivo tissue models that mimic premalignant disease of human stratified epithelium in order to analyze the stromal contribution of extracellular matrix and basement membrane proteins to the progression of intraepithelial neoplasia. Three-dimensional, organotypic cultures were grown either on a de-epidermalized human dermis with pre-existing basement membrane components on its surface (AlloDerm), on a Type I collagen gel that lacked basement membrane proteins or on polycarbonate membranes coated with purified extracellular matrix proteins. When tumor cells (HaCaT-II4) were mixed with normal keratinocytes (4:1/normals:HaCaT-II4), tumor cells selectively attached, persisted and proliferated at the dermal-epidermal interface in vitro and generated dysplastic tissues when transplanted to nude mice only when grown in the presence of the AlloDerm substrate. This stromal interface was permissive for tumor cell attachment due to the rapid assembly of structured basement membrane. When tumor cells were mixed with normal keratinocytes and grown on polycarbonate membranes coated with individual extracellular matrix or basement membrane components, selective attachment and significant intraepithelial expansion occurred only on laminin 1 and Type IV collagen-coated membranes. This preferential adhesion of tumor cells restricted the synthesis of laminin 5 to basal cells where it was deposited in a polarized distribution. Western blot analysis revealed that tumor cell attachment was not due to differences in the synthesis or processing of laminin 5. Thus, intraepithelial progression towards premalignant disease is dependent on the selective adhesion of cells with malignant potential to basement membrane proteins that provide a permissive template for their persistence and expansion. PMID:14648700

  1. Oestrogen promotes KCNQ1 potassium channel endocytosis and postendocytic trafficking in colonic epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Rapetti-Mauss, Raphael; O'Mahony, Fiona; Sepulveda, Francisco V; Urbach, Valerie; Harvey, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    The cAMP-regulated potassium channel KCNQ1:KCNE3 plays an essential role in transepithelial Cl− secretion. Recycling of K+ across the basolateral membrane provides the driving force necessary to maintain apical Cl− secretion. The steroid hormone oestrogen (17β-oestradiol; E2), produces a female-specific antisecretory response in rat distal colon through the inhibition of the KCNQ1:KCNE3 channel. It has previously been shown that rapid inhibition of the channel conductance results from E2-induced uncoupling of the KCNE3 regulatory subunit from the KCNQ1 channel pore complex. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism required for sustained inhibition of the channel function. We found that E2 plays a role in regulation of KCNQ1 cell membrane abundance by endocytosis. Ussing chamber experiments have shown that E2 inhibits both Cl− secretion and KCNQ1 current in a colonic cell line, HT29cl.19A, when cultured as a confluent epithelium. Following E2 treatment, KCNQ1 was retrieved from the plasma membrane by a clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which involved the association between KCNQ1 and the clathrin adaptor, AP-2. Following endocytosis, KCNQ1 was accumulated in early endosomes. Following E2-induced endocytosis, rather than being degraded, KCNQ1 was recycled by a biphasic mechanism involving Rab4 and Rab11. Protein kinase Cδ and AMP-dependent kinase were rapidly phosphorylated in response to E2 on their activating phosphorylation sites, Ser643 and Thr172, respectively (as previously shown). Both kinases are necessary for the E2-induced endocytosis, because E2 failed to induce KCNQ1 internalization following pretreatment with specific inhibitors of both protein kinase Cδ and AMP-dependent kinase. The ubiquitin ligase Nedd4.2 binds KCNQ1 in response to E2 to induce channel internalization. This study has provided the first demonstration of hormonal regulation of KCNQ1 trafficking. In conclusion, we propose that internalization of KCNQ1 is a key event

  2. Eye drop delivery of pigment epithelium-derived factor-34 promotes retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection and axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Esmaeili, Maryam; Deer, Louise; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Ahmed, Zubair

    2015-09-01

    Axotomised retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die rapidly by apoptosis and fail to regenerate because of the limited availability of neurotrophic factors and a lack of axogenic stimuli. However, we have recently showed that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) promotes RGC survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve crush injury. PEDF has multiple fragments of the native peptide that are neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory. Here we investigated the neuroprotective and axogenic properties of a fragment of PEDF, PEDF-34, in retinal neurons in vitro and when delivered by intravitreal injection and eye drops in vivo. We found that PEDF-34 was 43% more neuroprotective and 52% more neuritogenic than PEDF-44 in vitro. Moreover, in vivo, intravitreal delivery of 1.88nM PEDF-34 was 71% RGC neuroprotective at 21days after optic nerve crush compared to intact controls, whilst daily eye drops containing 1.88nM PEDF-34 promoted 87% RGC survival. After topical eye drop delivery, PEDF-34 was detected in the vitreous body within 30min and attained physiologically relevant concentrations in the retina by 4h peaking at 1.4±0.05nM by 14days. In eye drop- compared to intravitreal-treated PEDF-34 animals, 55% more RGC axons regenerated 250μm beyond the optic nerve lesion. We conclude that daily topical eye drop application of PEDF-34 is superior to weekly intravitreal injections in promoting RGC survival and axon regeneration through both direct effects on retinal neurons and indirect effects on other retinal cells. PMID:26260110

  3. Eye drop delivery of pigment epithelium-derived factor-34 promotes retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection and axon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Esmaeili, Maryam; Deer, Louise; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Ahmed, Zubair

    2015-01-01

    Axotomised retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die rapidly by apoptosis and fail to regenerate because of the limited availability of neurotrophic factors and a lack of axogenic stimuli. However, we have recently showed that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) promotes RGC survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve crush injury. PEDF has multiple fragments of the native peptide that are neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory. Here we investigated the neuroprotective and axogenic properties of a fragment of PEDF, PEDF-34, in retinal neurons in vitro and when delivered by intravitreal injection and eye drops in vivo. We found that PEDF-34 was 43% more neuroprotective and 52% more neuritogenic than PEDF-44 in vitro. Moreover, in vivo, intravitreal delivery of 1.88 nM PEDF-34 was 71% RGC neuroprotective at 21 days after optic nerve crush compared to intact controls, whilst daily eye drops containing 1.88 nM PEDF-34 promoted 87% RGC survival. After topical eye drop delivery, PEDF-34 was detected in the vitreous body within 30 min and attained physiologically relevant concentrations in the retina by 4 h peaking at 1.4 ± 0.05 nM by 14 days. In eye drop- compared to intravitreal-treated PEDF-34 animals, 55% more RGC axons regenerated 250 μm beyond the optic nerve lesion. We conclude that daily topical eye drop application of PEDF-34 is superior to weekly intravitreal injections in promoting RGC survival and axon regeneration through both direct effects on retinal neurons and indirect effects on other retinal cells. PMID:26260110

  4. Regulatory T Cells Promote β-Catenin–Mediated Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition During Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Shanshan; Pan, Xiujie; Xu, Long; Yang, Zhihua; Guo, Renfeng; Gu, Yongqing; Li, Ruoxi; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Du, Li; Zhou, Pingkun; Zhu, Maoxiang

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiation therapy and severely limits radiation therapy approaches. CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}FoxP3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) cells are involved in pulmonary fibrosis induced by multiple factors. However, the mechanisms of Tregs and EMT cells in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Tregs on EMT in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Mice thoraxes were irradiated (20 Gy), and Tregs were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody 2 hours after irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Mice were treated on days 3, 7, and 14 and 1, 3, and 6 months post irradiation. The effectiveness of Treg depletion was assayed via flow cytometry. EMT and β-catenin in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Tregs isolated from murine spleens were cultured with mouse lung epithelial (MLE) 12 cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of β-catenin in MLE 12 cells was used to explore the effects of Tregs on EMT and β-catenin via flow cytometry and Western blotting. Results: Anti-CD25 antibody treatment depleted Tregs efficiently, attenuated the process of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, hindered EMT, and reduced β-catenin accumulation in lung epithelial cells in vivo. The coculture of Tregs with irradiated MLE 12 cells showed that Tregs could promote EMT in MLE 12 cells and that the effect of Tregs on EMT was partially abrogated by β-catenin knockdown in vitro. Conclusions: Tregs can promote EMT in accelerating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This process is partially mediated through β-catenin. Our study suggests a new mechanism for EMT, promoted by Tregs, that accelerates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Production and properties of health-promoting proteins and peptides from bovine colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, H J

    2013-01-01

    The high nutritive value and diverse functional properties of milk proteins are well known. Beyond these qualities, milk proteins have attracted growing scientific and commercial interest as a source of biologically active molecules. Such proteins are found in abundance in colostrum which is the initial milk secreted by mammalian species during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth of the offspring. The best characterized colostrum-based bioactive proteins include alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and growth factors. All of them can nowadays be enriched and purified on an industrial scale from bovine colostral whey or cheese whey. These native proteins exhibit a wide range of biological activities that are known to affect the digestive function, metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients, growth and development of organs and disease resistance. Also, some of these proteins may prove beneficial in reduction of the risks of chronic human diseases reflected by the metabolic syndrome. It is speculated that such potentially beneficial effects are partially attributed to bioactive peptides derived from intact proteins. These peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or fermentation of milk by starter cultures. The efficacy of a few peptides has been established in animal and human studies and the number of commercial products supplemented with specific milk peptides is envisaged to increase on global markets. Bovine colostrum appears as a highly potential source of biologically active native proteins and peptide fractions for inclusion as health-promoting ingredients in various food applications. PMID:24200017

  6. A case study of infant health promotion and corporate marketing of milk substitutes.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2012-06-01

    The mismatch between the demand for, and supply of, health products has led to the increasing involvement of courts worldwide in health promotion and marketing. This study critically examines the implementation of one country's Milk Code within the framework of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, and the efficacy of the judicial process in balancing corporate marketing and state regulatory objectives. Drawing upon the Philippine experience with its own Milk Code, it evaluates the capacities of courts to determine policy costs and risks against the benefits of delineating and containing corporate marketing strategies for milk substitutes and supplements. The study finds that the methodological and information-based challenges faced by courts in resolving multi-dimensional health issues may not be overcome without serious questions concerning the legitimacy of the judicial process itself. Despite the deficiencies of litigation and adjudication, the study notes the catalytic potential of a judicial decision in opening up vital policy space for future renegotiations among rival parties and interests. Third-party intervention is explored relative to this catalytic function. PMID:21656241

  7. Induction of arginase II by intestinal epithelium promotes the uptake of L-arginine from the lumen of C. parvum infected porcine ileum

    PubMed Central

    Gookin, Jody L.; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Coccaro, Maria R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the specific transport system activities and expression of transporter genes responsible for uptake of L-arginine from the lumen of normal and C. parvum infected neonatal porcine ileum and the influence of L-arginine catabolic pathways on L-arginine uptake. Methods Intact sheets of ileal mucosa from control and C. parvum infected neonatal piglets were mounted in Ussing chambers and the uptake of 14C-L-arginine was determined under initial rate conditions and in the presence of transport system-selective inhibitors. Epithelial expression of L-arginine transporter genes was quantified by real time RT-PCR. L-arginine catabolic enzyme expression was examined by immunoblotting epithelial lysates for arginase I and II. The role of intracellular catabolism in promoting uptake of L-arginine was determined by pharmacological inhibition of NOS and arginase activities. Results C. parvum infected ileum transported L-arginine at rates equivalent to uninfected epithelium despite profound villous atrophy. This was attributed to enhanced uptake of L-arginine by individual epithelial cells in the infection. There were no differences in L-arginine transport system activities (y+ and B0,+) or level of transporter gene expression (CAT-1, CAT-2A, and ATB0,+) between uninfected and C. parvum infected epithelial cells. However, infected epithelia had induced expression of the L-arginine hydrolytic enzyme arginase II and lower concentrations of L-arginine. Further, transport of L-arginine by the infected epithelium was significantly inhibited by pharmacological blockade of arginase. Conclusions Intracellular catabolism by arginase II, the induction of which has not been previously described for intestinal epithelium, facilitates uptake of L-arginine by infected epithelium using transport systems that do not differ from that of uninfected cells. Induction of arginase II may limit NO synthesis by competing with NOS for utilization of L-arginine or promote use of L

  8. Encapsulation of ascorbic acid promotes the reduction of Maillard reaction products in UHT milk.

    PubMed

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Vitiello, Daniele; Tsang, Catherine; Fiore, Alberto

    2016-06-15

    The presence of amino groups and carbonyls renders fortified milk with ascorbic acid particularly susceptible to the reduction of available lysine and to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), as Nε-(carboxyethyl)-l-lysine (CEL), Nε-(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine (CML), Amadori products (APs) and off-flavors. A novel approach was proposed to control the Maillard reaction (MR) in fortified milk: ascorbic acid was encapsulated in a lipid coating and the effects were tested after a lab scale UHT treatment. Encapsulation promoted a delayed release of ascorbic acid and a reduction in the formation of MRPs. Total lysine increased up to 45% in milk with encapsulated ascorbic acid, while reductions in CML, CEL and furosine ranged from 10% to 53% compared with control samples. The effects were also investigated towards the formation of amide-AGEs (advanced glycation end products) by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) revealing that several mechanisms coincide with the MR in the presence of ascorbic acid. PMID:27240727

  9. Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor (PEDF) Expression Induced by EGFRvIII Promotes Self-renewal and Tumor Progression of Glioma Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jinlong; Park, Gunwoo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Hong, Jun Hee; Kim, Youn-Jae; Jin, Xiong; Kang, Sangjo; Jung, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Yub; Yun, Hyeongsun; Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Minkyung; Chung, Junho; Kim, Hyunggee; Nakano, Ichiro; Gwak, Ho-Shin; Yoo, Heon; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Jong Heon; Hur, Eun-Mi; Lee, Jeongwu; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Park, Myung-Jin; Park, Jong Bae

    2015-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) has been associated with glioma stemness, but the direct molecular mechanism linking the two is largely unknown. Here, we show that EGFRvIII induces the expression and secretion of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby promoting self-renewal and tumor progression of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Mechanistically, PEDF sustained GSC self-renewal by Notch1 cleavage, and the generated intracellular domain of Notch1 (NICD) induced the expression of Sox2 through interaction with its promoter region. Furthermore, a subpopulation with high levels of PEDF was capable of infiltration along corpus callosum. Inhibition of PEDF diminished GSC self-renewal and increased survival of orthotopic tumor-bearing mice. Together, these data indicate the novel role of PEDF as a key regulator of GSC and suggest clinical implications. PMID:25992628

  10. Sialylated Milk Oligosaccharides Promote Microbiota-Dependent Growth in Models of Infant Undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Mark R; O'Donnell, David; Blanton, Laura V; Totten, Sarah M; Davis, Jasmine C C; Barratt, Michael J; Cheng, Jiye; Guruge, Janaki; Talcott, Michael; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Ilkayeva, Olga; Wu, Chao; Struckmeyer, Tedd; Barile, Daniela; Mangani, Charles; Jorgensen, Josh; Fan, Yue-mei; Maleta, Kenneth; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Per; Newgard, Christopher B; Lebrilla, Carlito; Mills, David A; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2016-02-25

    Identifying interventions that more effectively promote healthy growth of children with undernutrition is a pressing global health goal. Analysis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) from 6-month-postpartum mothers in two Malawian birth cohorts revealed that sialylated HMOs are significantly less abundant in those with severely stunted infants. To explore this association, we colonized young germ-free mice with a consortium of bacterial strains cultured from the fecal microbiota of a 6-month-old stunted Malawian infant and fed recipient animals a prototypic Malawian diet with or without purified sialylated bovine milk oligosaccharides (S-BMO). S-BMO produced a microbiota-dependent augmentation of lean body mass gain, changed bone morphology, and altered liver, muscle, and brain metabolism in ways indicative of a greater ability to utilize nutrients for anabolism. These effects were also documented in gnotobiotic piglets using the same consortium and Malawian diet. These preclinical models indicate a causal, microbiota-dependent relationship between S-BMO and growth promotion. PMID:26898329

  11. A social marketing campaign to promote low-fat milk consumption in an inner-city Latino community.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, H; Wernick, S M

    1992-01-01

    The authors proposed the Lowfat Milk Campaign, a multifaceted social marketing campaign to promote the use of low-fat milk in the Washington Heights-Inwood neighborhood of New York City, a low-income, inner-city, Latino community. The campaign was designed for implementation by the Washington Heights-Inwood Health Heart Program, a community-based cardiovascular disease prevention agency. The first phase of the campaign began in November 1990. A followup phase for the period 1991-92 is in progress. The campaign focuses on a clear, relatively easily accomplished behavioral change, a switch by consumers of whole milk to low-fat milk, which may significantly reduce the fat consumption of persons in such a population, particularly children. The campaign strategy featured a mix of traditional health education methods, intensive local information media publicity, and innovative marketing techniques. In addition to increasing consumer demand for low-fat milk, the campaign successfully promoted institutional changes that are expected to facilitate healthy dietary choices in the future by members of the study population. Schools and other institutions that serve milk have been persuaded to begin offering low-fat milk in addition to, or instead of, whole milk. An essential component of campaign strategy was building support from key community organizations and leaders. Significant assistance was provided by the local school district, parents associations, churches, newspapers, radio stations, fraternal organizations, and a coalition of child care agencies. The campaign demonstrates a cost effective and culturally sensitive approach to promoting important cardiovascular health behavior changes by an underserved population. PMID:1561304

  12. Co-Targeting Prostate Cancer Epithelium and Bone Stroma by Human Osteonectin-Promoter-Mediated Suicide Gene Therapy Effectively Inhibits Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Growth.

    PubMed

    Sung, Shian-Ying; Chang, Junn-Liang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Liu, Yun-Ru; Su, Yen-Hao; Hsueh, Chia-Yen; Chung, Leland W K; Hsieh, Chia-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Stromal-epithelial interaction has been shown to promote local tumor growth and distant metastasis. We sought to create a promising gene therapy approach that co-targets cancer and its supporting stromal cells for combating castration-resistant prostate tumors. Herein, we demonstrated that human osteonectin is overexpressed in the prostate cancer epithelium and tumor stroma in comparison with their normal counterpart. We designed a novel human osteonectin promoter (hON-522E) containing positive transcriptional regulatory elements identified in both the promoter and exon 1 region of the human osteonectin gene. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the hON-522E promoter is highly active in androgen receptor negative and metastatic prostate cancer and bone stromal cells compared to androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells. Moreover, in vivo prostate-tumor-promoting activity of the hON-522E promoter was confirmed by intravenous administration of an adenoviral vector containing the hON-522E promoter-driven luciferase gene (Ad-522E-Luc) into mice bearing orthotopic human prostate tumor xenografts. In addition, an adenoviral vector with the hON-522E-promoter-driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (Ad-522E-TK) was highly effective against the growth of androgen-independent human prostate cancer PC3M and bone stromal cell line in vitro and in pre-established PC3M tumors in vivo upon addition of the prodrug ganciclovir. Because of the heterogeneity of human prostate tumors, hON-522E promoter-mediated gene therapy has the potential for the treatment of hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancers. PMID:27054343

  13. Epithelium-Intrinsic MicroRNAs Contribute to Mucosal Immune Homeostasis by Promoting M-Cell Maturation.

    PubMed

    Nakato, Gaku; Hase, Koji; Sato, Takao; Kimura, Shunsuke; Sakakibara, Sayuri; Sugiyama, Machiko; Obata, Yuuki; Hanazato, Misaho; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of Peyer's patches (PPs) serve as a main portal for external antigens and function as a sentinel in mucosal immune responses. The scarcity of these cells has hampered identification of M cell-specific molecules. Recent efforts have begun to provide insight into antigen transcytosis and differentiation of M cells; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are not fully elucidated. Small non-coding RNAs including microRNA (miRNA) have been reported to regulate gene expression and control various biological processes such as cellular differentiation and function. To evaluate the expression of miRNAs in FAE, including M cells, we previously performed microarray analysis comparing intestinal villous epithelium (VE) and PP FAE. Here we confirmed FAE specific miRNA expression levels by quantitative PCR. To gain insight into miRNA function, we generated mice with intestinal epithelial cell-specific deletion of Dicer1 (DicerΔIEC) and analyzed intestinal phenotypes, including M-cell differentiation, morphology and function. DicerΔIEC mice had a marked decrease in M cells compared to control floxed Dicer mice, suggesting an essential role of miRNAs in maturation of these cells. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that depletion of miRNA caused the loss of endosomal structures in M cells. In addition, antigen uptake by M cells was impaired in DicerΔIEC mice. These results suggest that miRNAs play a significant role in M cell differentiation and help secure mucosal immune homeostasis. PMID:26930511

  14. Epithelium-Intrinsic MicroRNAs Contribute to Mucosal Immune Homeostasis by Promoting M-Cell Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Nakato, Gaku; Hase, Koji; Sato, Takao; Kimura, Shunsuke; Sakakibara, Sayuri; Sugiyama, Machiko; Obata, Yuuki; Hanazato, Misaho; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of Peyer’s patches (PPs) serve as a main portal for external antigens and function as a sentinel in mucosal immune responses. The scarcity of these cells has hampered identification of M cell-specific molecules. Recent efforts have begun to provide insight into antigen transcytosis and differentiation of M cells; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are not fully elucidated. Small non-coding RNAs including microRNA (miRNA) have been reported to regulate gene expression and control various biological processes such as cellular differentiation and function. To evaluate the expression of miRNAs in FAE, including M cells, we previously performed microarray analysis comparing intestinal villous epithelium (VE) and PP FAE. Here we confirmed FAE specific miRNA expression levels by quantitative PCR. To gain insight into miRNA function, we generated mice with intestinal epithelial cell-specific deletion of Dicer1 (DicerΔIEC) and analyzed intestinal phenotypes, including M-cell differentiation, morphology and function. DicerΔIEC mice had a marked decrease in M cells compared to control floxed Dicer mice, suggesting an essential role of miRNAs in maturation of these cells. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that depletion of miRNA caused the loss of endosomal structures in M cells. In addition, antigen uptake by M cells was impaired in DicerΔIEC mice. These results suggest that miRNAs play a significant role in M cell differentiation and help secure mucosal immune homeostasis. PMID:26930511

  15. Association analysis of polymorphism in thyroglobulin gene promoter with milk production traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, P.K.; Goyal, S.; Mishra, S.K.; Yadav, A.K.; Kathiravan, P.; Arora, R.; Malik, R.; Kataria, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism within the promoter region of bovine thyroglobulin has been reported to be associated with milk and meat quality. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation within thyroglobulin promoter region of swamp and riverine buffaloes using PCR–SSCP technique and sequencing, and also analyzing association of polymorphism with the milk production traits. The study revealed four conformational patterns, A, B, C, and D among 323 buffaloes of two riverine breeds and different swamp populations. The frequency of SSCP variant ‘A’ was found to be invariably high among all buffalo populations. Variant ‘C’ was found to be absent in pure swamp population and present with higher frequency among riverine dairy breeds Mehsana and Nili Ravi. Frequency of D variant was observed to be highest in buffalo population, representing riverine and hybrid types. Sequencing of three representative PCR products of each of the SSCP variants, revealed three polymorphic sites responsible, 33C > T, 176G > T and 221C > T, in the buffalo TG promoter region. Further, association studies of SSCP variants with various milk production and milk quality traits indicated significant effect on fat percentage in buffaloes belonging to Mehsana and Nili Ravi dairy breeds. The preliminary results also showed the substantial variations in the distribution of SSCP variants' frequencies across swamp and riverine buffaloes, two distinct populations being reared for meat and milk production, respectively. PMID:26273563

  16. Progenitor Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Marty-Santos, Leilani

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-producing β cells within the vertebrate fetal pancreas acquire their fate in a step-wise manner. Whereas the intrinsic factors dictating the transcriptional or epigenetic status of pancreatic lineages have been intensely examined, less is known about cell–cell interactions that might constitute a niche for the developing β cell lineage. It is becoming increasingly clear that understanding and recapitulating these steps may instruct in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells and/or therapeutic regeneration. Indeed, directed differentiation techniques have improved since transitioning from 2D to 3D cultures, suggesting that the 3D microenvironment in which β cells are born is critical. However, to date, it remains unknown whether the changing architecture of the pancreatic epithelium impacts the fate of cells therein. An emerging challenge in the field is to elucidate how progenitors are allocated during key events, such as the stratification and subsequent resolution of the pre-pancreatic epithelium, as well as the formation of lumens and branches. Here, we assess the progenitor epithelium and examine how it might influence the emergence of pancreatic multipotent progenitors (MPCs), which give rise to β cells and other pancreatic lineages. PMID:26216134

  17. Involvement of activator protein 1 complexes in the epithelium-specific activation of the laminin gamma2-chain gene promoter by hepatocyte growth factor (scatter factor).

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J; Lefebvre, O; Fritsch, C; Troelsen, J T; Orian-Rousseau, V; Kedinger, M; Simon-Assmann, P

    2000-01-01

    Laminin-5 is a trimer of laminin alpha3, beta3 and gamma2 chains that is found in the intestinal basement membrane. Deposition of the laminin gamma2 chain at the basement membrane is of great interest because it undergoes a developmental shift in its cellular expression. Here we study the regulatory elements that control basal and cytokine-activated transcriptional expression of the LAMC2 gene, which encodes the laminin gamma2 chain. By using transient transfection experiments we demonstrated the presence of constitutive and cytokine-responsive cis-elements. Comparison of the transcriptional activity of the LAMC2 promoter in the epithelial HT29mtx cells with that in small-intestinal fibroblastic cells (C20 cells) led us to conclude that two regions with constitutive epithelium-specific activity are present between positions -1.2 and -0.12 kb. This was further validated by transfections of primary foetal intestinal endoderm and mesenchyme. A 2.5 kb portion of the LAMC2 5' flanking region was equally responsive to PMA and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), whereas it was less responsive to transforming growth factor beta1. A minimal promoter limited to the initial 120 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site maintained inducibility by PMA and HGF. This short promoter fragment contains two activator protein 1 (AP-1) elements and the 5'-most of these is a composite AP-1/Sp1 element. The 5'AP-1 element is crucial to the HGF-mediated activity of the promoter; analysis of interacting nuclear proteins demonstrated that AP-1 proteins containing JunD mediate the response to HGF. PMID:10749670

  18. High glucose induces mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelium cells via promoting SOCS1 and Fas/FasL signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Wang, Wei; Ma, Jian; Ye, Panpan; Wang, Kaijun

    2016-02-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), however, the contribution of high glucose (HG) or hyperglycemia to DR is far from fully understanding. In the present study, we examined the expression of Fas/FasL signaling and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 and 3 in HG-induced human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19 cells). And then we investigated the regulatory role of both Fas and SOCS1 in HG-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Results demonstrated that HG with more than 40mM induced mitochondrial dysfunction via reducing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and via inhibiting the Bcl-2 level, which is the upstream signaling of mitochondria in ARPE-19 cells. HG also upreuglated the Fas signaling and SOCS levels probably via promoting JAK/STAT signaling in ARPE-19 cells. Moreover, the exogenous Fas or entogenous overexpressed SOCS1 accentuated the HG-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, whereas the knockdown of either Fas or SOCS1 reduced the HG-induced mitochondria dysfunction and apoptosis. Thus, the present study confirmed that both Fas/FasL signaling and SOCS1 promoted the HG-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. These results implies the key regulatory role of Fas signaling and SOCS in DR. PMID:26700587

  19. Sex-specific association of sequence variants in CBS and MTRR with risk for promoter hypermethylation in the lung epithelium of smokers.

    PubMed

    Flores, Kristina G; Stidley, Christine A; Mackey, Amanda J; Picchi, Maria A; Stabler, Sally P; Siegfried, Jill M; Byers, Tim; Berwick, Marianne; Belinsky, Steven A; Leng, Shuguang

    2012-08-01

    Gene promoter hypermethylation is now regarded as a promising biomarker for the risk and progression of lung cancer. The one-carbon metabolism pathway is postulated to affect deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation because it is responsible for the generation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the methyl donor for cellular methylation reactions. This study investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six one-carbon metabolism-related genes with promoter hypermethylation in sputum DNA from non-Hispanic white smokers in the Lovelace Smokers Cohort (LSC) (n = 907). Logistic regression was used to assess the association of SNPs with hypermethylation using a high/low methylation cutoff. SNPs in the cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR) genes were significantly associated with high methylation in males [CBS rs2850146 (-8283G > C), OR = 4.9; 95% CI: 1.98, 12.2, P = 0.0006] and low methylation in females [MTRR rs3776467 (7068A > G), OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.77, P = 0.0003]. The variant allele of rs2850146 was associated with reduced gene expression and increased plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations. Three plasma metabolites, Hcy, methionine and dimethylglycine, were associated with increased risk for gene methylation. These studies suggest that SNPs in CBS and MTRR have sex-specific associations with aberrant methylation in the lung epithelium of smokers that could be mediated by the affected one-carbon metabolism and transsulfuration in the cells. PMID:22665368

  20. Ultraviolet (UV) and Hydrogen Peroxide Activate Ceramide-ER Stress-AMPK Signaling Axis to Promote Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jin; Bi, Hui-E; Sheng, Yi; Cheng, Li-Bo; Wendu, Ri-Le; Wang, Cheng-Hu; Cao, Guo-Fan; Jiang, Qin

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) impair the physiological functions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells by inducing cell apoptosis, which is the main cause of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The mechanism by which UV/ROS induces RPE cell death is not fully addressed. Here, we observed the activation of a ceramide-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling axis in UV and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated RPE cells. UV and H2O2 induced an early ceramide production, profound ER stress and AMPK activation. Pharmacological inhibitors against ER stress (salubrinal), ceramide production (fumonisin B1) and AMPK activation (compound C) suppressed UV- and H2O2-induced RPE cell apoptosis. Conversely, cell permeable short-chain C6 ceramide and AMPK activator AICAR (5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide) mimicked UV and H2O2’s effects and promoted RPE cell apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that UV/H2O2 activates the ceramide-ER stress-AMPK signaling axis to promote RPE cell apoptosis. PMID:23685869

  1. Milk with and without lactoferrin can influence intestinal damage in a pig model of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Garas, Lydia C; Feltrin, Cristiano; Hamilton, M Kristina; Hagey, Jill V; Murray, James D; Bertolini, Luciana R; Bertolini, Marcelo; Raybould, Helen E; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition remains a leading contributor to the morbidity and mortality of children under the age of five worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood necessitating an appropriate animal model to answer fundamental questions and conduct translational research into optimal interventions. One potential intervention is milk from livestock that more closely mimics human milk by increased levels of bioactive components that can promote a healthy intestinal epithelium. We tested the ability of cow milk and milk from transgenic cows expressing human lactoferrin at levels found in human milk (hLF milk) to mitigate the effects of malnutrition at the level of the intestine in a pig model of malnutrition. Weaned pigs (3 weeks old) were fed a protein and calorie restricted diet for five weeks, receiving cow, hLF or no milk supplementation daily from weeks 3-5. After three weeks, the restricted diet induced changes in growth, blood chemistry and intestinal structure including villous atrophy, increased ex vivo permeability and decreased expression of tight junction proteins. Addition of both cow and hLF milk to the diet increased growth rate and calcium and glucose levels while promoting growth of the intestinal epithelium. In the jejunum hLF milk restored intestinal morphology, reduced permeability and increased expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Overall, this pig model of malnutrition mimics salient aspects of the human condition and demonstrates that cow milk can stimulate the repair of damage to the intestinal epithelium caused by protein and calorie restriction with hLF milk improving this recovery to a greater extent. PMID:26751615

  2. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the bovine lactoferrin gene influence milk somatic cell score and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yongjiang; Zhu, Xiaorui; Xing, Shiyu; Zhang, Meirong; Zhang, Huimin; Wang, Xiaolong; Karrow, Niel; Yang, Liguo; Yang, Zhangping

    2015-12-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein found in cow's milk that plays an important role in preventing mastitis caused by intramammary infection. In this study, 20 Chinese Holstein cows were selected randomly for PCR amplification and sequencing of the bovine lactoferrin gene promoter region and used for SNP discovery in the region between nucleotide positions -461 to -132. Three SNPs (-270T>C, -190G>A and -156A>G) were identified in bovine lactoferrin, then Chinese Holstein cows (n=866) were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY (Sequenom Inc., San Diego, CA) based on the previous SNP information in this study, and the associations between SNPs or haplotype and milk somatic cell score (SCS) and production traits were analyzed by the least squares method in the GLM procedure of SAS. SNPs -270T>C and -156A>G showed close linkage disequilibrium (r(2)=0.76). The SNP -190G>A showed a significant association with SCS, and individuals with genotype GG had higher SCS than genotypes AG and AA. Associations were found between the SNPs -270T>C and -190G>A with SCS and the milk composition. The software MatInspector revealed that these SNPs were located within several potential transcription factor binding sites, including NF-κB p50, KLF7 and SP1, and may alter gene expression, but further investigation will be required to elucidate the biological and practical relevance of these SNPs. PMID:26679804

  3. Enhanced production of IL-18 in butyrate-treated intestinal epithelium by stimulation of the proximal promoter region.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Uwe; Koyama, Noriko; Hosoda, Tomoko; Nuernberger, Heike; Sato, Kazuto; Hoelzer, Dieter; Herweck, Frank; Manigold, Tobias; Singer, Manfred V; Rossol, Siegbert; Böcker, Ulrich

    2002-09-01

    Expression of IL-18 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) has been implicated in Th1 cell-mediated chronic intestinal inflammation and anti-tumor immunity. However, physiological regulatory factors have not been identified. Besides their effects on proliferation and restitution, immunomodulatory functions have been attributed to short chain fatty acids (SCFA). We investigated the effect of SCFA (butyrate, propionate, acetate) on expression of IL-18 in IEC in vitro and in vivo. Expression of IL-18 mRNA and protein in human carcinoma-derived HT-29 and Caco-2 cells was analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. Transcriptional regulation of IL-18 gene expression was determined by transient transfection of wild-type and mutated IL-18 promoter. Further, in vivo expression of IL-18 in the intestine from butyrate-treated and untreated mice was assessed by immunohistochemistry. IL-18 mRNA and the IL-18 protein were expressed in IEC, while IL-18 secretion was not observed. Butyrate and acetate increased intracellular IL-18 content in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. In contrast to proinflammatory stimuli butyrate potently activated the IL-18 promoter, indicating that IL-18 is regulated at the transcriptional level by SCFA. Furthermore, a 108-bp sequence in the proximal region was identified to be essential for IL-18 promoter activation by butyrate. As proof of principle butyrate effects were confirmed in vivo by demonstration of increased IL-18 protein expression in IEC from butyrate-treated mice. In conclusion, SCFA up-regulate IL-18 protein expression in IEC, suggesting a potential regulatory contribution of these luminal constituents to T cell mediated inflammatory and neoplastic intestinal conditions. PMID:12207348

  4. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  5. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  6. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  7. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  8. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  9. Rat milk and dietary long arginine3 insulin-like growth factor I promote intestinal growth of newborn rat pups.

    PubMed

    Staley, M D; Gibson, C A; Herbein, J F; Grosvenor, C E; Baumrucker, C R

    1998-10-01

    Newborn rat pups were artificially reared by the pup in cup (PIC) method to determine whether dietary long arginine3 IGF-I (long R3 IGF-I), an IGF-I analog with high receptor affinity and low IGF binding protein (IGFBP) affinity, had efficacy on intestinal growth. IGF effects are mediated by IGFBP and receptor interactions, hence dietary-induced changes in intestinal IGF-II receptor patterns and IGFBP-3 message levels were investigated. Intestinal micrographs of pups fed rat milk replacer (RMR) for 3 d showed flattened villi with low cell counts and appeared similar to newborn intestines. Mother-fed (MF) controls and long R3 IGF-I-fed pups showed increased villi height and cell counts when compared with RMR pups, with long R3 IGF-I fed pups showing the greatest increase. At birth IGF-II-specific binding was not uniform in the intestine; specific binding was higher in the proximal intestinal section than in the distal intestinal section. However, after 3 d of MF treatment, specific binding had reversed and the distal section showed higher IGF-II-specific binding. Three days of RMR feeding did not change IGF-II-specific binding from that of the newborn pup. An IGFBP-3 message was identified in intestinal epithelium by in situ hybridization. Northern analysis of IGFBP-3 message showed a decline over time, but the change was not influenced by dietary treatments. In summary, milk-borne growth factors have the potential to affect intestinal growth within 3 d of treatment. PMID:9773839

  10. Matrigel and Activin A promote cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoling; Zhu, Deliang; Lian, Ruiling; Han, Yuting; Guo, Yonglong; Li, Zhijie; Tang, Shibo; Chen, Jiansu

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness among the aging population. Currently, replacement of diseased retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with transplanted healthy RPE cells could be a feasible approach for AMD therapy. However, maintaining cell-cell contact and good viability of RPE cells cultured in vitro is difficult and fundamentally determines the success of RPE cell transplantation. This study was conducted to examine the role of Matrigel and Activin A (MA) in regulating cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in human RPE (hRPE) cells, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), immunofluorescence staining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis, Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψ m) assays, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays and Western blotting. hRPE cells cultured in vitro could maintain their epithelioid morphology after MA treatment over at least 4 passages. The contact of N-cadherin to the lateral cell border was promoted in hRPE cells at P2 by MA. MA treatment also enhanced the expression of tight junction-associated genes and proteins, such as Claudin-1, Claudin-3, Occludin and ZO-1, as well as polarized ZO-1 protein distribution and barrier function, in cultured hRPE cells. Moreover, MA treatment decreased apoptotic cells, ROS and Bax and increased △Ψ m and Bcl2 in hRPE cells under serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis. In addition, MA treatment elevated the protein expression levels of β-catenin and its target proteins, including Cyclin D1, c-Myc and Survivin, as well as the gene expression levels of ZO-1, β-catenin, Survivin and TCF-4, all of which could be down-regulated by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV-939. Taken together, MA treatment could effectively promote cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in hRPE cells, partly involving the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. This study

  11. Promoting the selection of low-fat milk in elementary school cafeterias in an inner-city Latino community: evaluation of an intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, H; Basch, C E; Zybert, P; Shea, S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of a school-based intervention designed to promote the consumption of low-fat white milk at lunchtime in 6 elementary schools in an inner-city, primarily Latino neighborhood. METHODS: A multifaceted intervention based on social marketing techniques was delivered at 3 randomly selected schools. The school was the unit of assignment and analysis; 6902 children were involved in the study. Milk selection and consumption were measured by sampling discarded milk and/or tallying milk carton disappearance at baseline, immediately postintervention, and at 3 to 4 months follow-up. RESULTS: Immediately postintervention, the mean proportion of sampled milk cartons that contained low-fat milk increased in the intervention schools, from 25% to 57%, but remained constant at 28% in the control schools. Differences between intervention and control schools remained significant at 3 to 4 months follow-up. The intervention was not associated with a decrease in overall milk consumption. CONCLUSIONS: A school-based intervention can lead to significant increases in student consumption of low-fat milk. PMID:9518975

  12. Engineering Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Soleas, John P.; Paz, Ana; Marcus, Paula; McGuigan, Alison; Waddell, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Airway epithelium is constantly presented with injurious signals, yet under healthy circumstances, the epithelium maintains its innate immune barrier and mucociliary elevator function. This suggests that airway epithelium has regenerative potential (I. R. Telford and C. F. Bridgman, 1990). In practice, however, airway regeneration is problematic because of slow turnover and dedifferentiation of epithelium thereby hindering regeneration and increasing time necessary for full maturation and function. Based on the anatomy and biology of the airway epithelium, a variety of tissue engineering tools available could be utilized to overcome the barriers currently seen in airway epithelial generation. This paper describes the structure, function, and repair mechanisms in native epithelium and highlights specific and manipulatable tissue engineering signals that could be of great use in the creation of artificial airway epithelium. PMID:22523471

  13. Got milk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While celebrities wear white “milk moustaches” in a popular U.S. advertising campaign to promote the drinking of milk, they should also be concerned about the decreased amount of calcium available to many trees.Calcium levels in forest soils have decreased at locations in 10 states in the eastern United States, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released in time for National Arbor Day on April 30.

  14. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk....

  15. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  16. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk....

  17. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  18. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk....

  19. Expression of Active Fluorophore Proteins in the Milk of Transgenic Pigs Bypassing the Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Ayan; Garrels, Wiebke; Talluri, Thirumala R.; Tiedemann, Daniela; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the expression of recombinant fluorescent proteins in the milk of two lines of transgenic pigs generated by Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated genetic engineering. The Sleeping Beauty transposon consisted of an ubiquitously active CAGGS promoter driving a fluorophore cDNA, encoding either Venus or mCherry. Importantly, the fluorophore cDNAs did not encode for a signal peptide for the secretory pathway, and in previous studies of the transgenic animals a cytoplasmic localization of the fluorophore proteins was found. Unexpectedly, milk samples from lactating sows contained high levels of bioactive Venus or mCherry fluorophores. A detailed analysis suggested that exfoliated cells of the mammary epithelium carried the recombinant proteins passively into the milk. This is the first description of reporter fluorophore expression in the milk of livestock, and the findings may contribute to the development of an alternative concept for the production of bioactive recombinant proteins in the udder. PMID:27086548

  20. Expression of Active Fluorophore Proteins in the Milk of Transgenic Pigs Bypassing the Secretory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ayan; Garrels, Wiebke; Talluri, Thirumala R; Tiedemann, Daniela; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the expression of recombinant fluorescent proteins in the milk of two lines of transgenic pigs generated by Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated genetic engineering. The Sleeping Beauty transposon consisted of an ubiquitously active CAGGS promoter driving a fluorophore cDNA, encoding either Venus or mCherry. Importantly, the fluorophore cDNAs did not encode for a signal peptide for the secretory pathway, and in previous studies of the transgenic animals a cytoplasmic localization of the fluorophore proteins was found. Unexpectedly, milk samples from lactating sows contained high levels of bioactive Venus or mCherry fluorophores. A detailed analysis suggested that exfoliated cells of the mammary epithelium carried the recombinant proteins passively into the milk. This is the first description of reporter fluorophore expression in the milk of livestock, and the findings may contribute to the development of an alternative concept for the production of bioactive recombinant proteins in the udder. PMID:27086548

  1. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  2. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  3. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  4. 7 CFR 1160.115 - Milk marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk marketing area. 1160.115 Section 1160.115... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.115 Milk marketing area. Milk marketing area means each area within which...

  5. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  6. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  7. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  8. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  9. 7 CFR 1160.115 - Milk marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk marketing area. 1160.115 Section 1160.115... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.115 Milk marketing area. Milk marketing area means each area within which...

  10. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  11. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  12. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  13. The SNP g.1311T>C associated with the absence of β-casein in goat milk influences CSN2 promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Cosenza, G; Iannaccone, M; Pico, B A; Ramunno, L; Capparelli, R

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative individual differences in the amount of β-casein in goat milk are determined by at least nine alleles. In particular, two alleles (CSN2(0) and CSN2(01) ) are associated with an undetectable amount of this protein in milk. The CSN2(01) allele is characterized by a single nucleotide substitution at position 373 of the seventh exon (AJ011018:g.8915C>T), responsible for the formation of a premature stop codon at the 182 position. Herein, we report the contribution of the SNP g.1311T>C, which demonstrates a linkage with the SNP AJ011018:g.8915C>T, to the promoter transcriptional activity. Particularly, we indicate that the nucleotide C at position 1311 negatively affects the promoter activity of the CSN2 gene. PMID:27392512

  14. Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Alicia M; Roy, Nicole C; McNabb, Warren C; Cookson, Adrian L

    2016-01-01

    Caprine milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, which are structurally similar to human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). This suggests caprine milk oligosaccharides may offer similar protective and developmental effects to that of HMOs. However, to date, studies using oligosaccharides from caprine milk have been limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of a caprine milk oligosaccharide-enriched fraction (CMOF) on barrier function of epithelial cell co-cultures of absorptive enterocytes (Caco-2 cells) and mucus-secreting goblet cells (HT29-MTX cells), that more closely simulate the cell proportions found in the small (90:10) and large intestine (75:25). Treatment of epithelial co-cultures with 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL of CMOF was shown to have no effect on metabolic activity but did enhance cell epithelial barrier integrity as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), in a dose-dependent manner. The CMOF at the maximum concentration tested (4.0 mg/mL) enhanced TEER, mucin gene expression and mucin protein abundance of epithelial co-cultures, all of which are essential components of intestinal barrier function. PMID:27164134

  15. Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Alicia M.; Roy, Nicole C.; McNabb, Warren C.; Cookson, Adrian L.

    2016-01-01

    Caprine milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, which are structurally similar to human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). This suggests caprine milk oligosaccharides may offer similar protective and developmental effects to that of HMOs. However, to date, studies using oligosaccharides from caprine milk have been limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of a caprine milk oligosaccharide-enriched fraction (CMOF) on barrier function of epithelial cell co-cultures of absorptive enterocytes (Caco-2 cells) and mucus-secreting goblet cells (HT29-MTX cells), that more closely simulate the cell proportions found in the small (90:10) and large intestine (75:25). Treatment of epithelial co-cultures with 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL of CMOF was shown to have no effect on metabolic activity but did enhance cell epithelial barrier integrity as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), in a dose-dependent manner. The CMOF at the maximum concentration tested (4.0 mg/mL) enhanced TEER, mucin gene expression and mucin protein abundance of epithelial co-cultures, all of which are essential components of intestinal barrier function. PMID:27164134

  16. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of river buffalo stearoyl CoA desaturase gene (SCD) is associated with milk yield.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Steri, Roberto; Coletta, Angelo; La Battaglia, Antonio; Di Berardino, Dino; Macciotta, Nicolò P P; Ramunno, Luigi

    2012-11-01

    An association study between the milk yield trait and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) polymorphism (g.133A > C) in Italian Mediterranean river buffalo was carried out. A full characterization of the river buffalo SCD promoter region was presented. Genotyping information was provided and a quick method for allelic discrimination was developed. The frequency of the C allele was 0·16. Test-day (TD) records (43 510) of milk production belonging to 226 lactations of 169 buffalo cows were analysed with a mixed linear model in order to estimate the effect of g.133A > C genotype, as well as the effect of parity and calving season. The SCD genotype was significantly associated with milk yield (P = 0·02). The genotype AC showed an over-dominance effect with an average daily milk yield approximately 2 kg/d higher than CC buffaloes. Such a difference represents about 28% more milk/d. The effect of the genotype was constant across lactation stages. The contribution of SCD genotype (r(2)SCD) to the total phenotypic variance in milk yield was equal to 0·12. This report is among the first indications of genetic association between a trait of economic importance in river buffalo. Although such results need to be confirmed with large-scale studies in the same and other buffalo populations, they might offer useful indications for the application of MAS programmes in river buffalo and in the future they might be of great economic interest for the river buffalo dairy industry. PMID:22994977

  17. Equine infectious anemia viral vector-mediated codelivery of endostatin and angiostatin driven by retinal pigmented epithelium-specific VMD2 promoter inhibits choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Kachi, Shu; Binley, Katie; Yokoi, Katsutoshi; Umeda, Naoyasu; Akiyama, Hideo; Muramatu, Daisuke; Iqball, Sharifah; Kan, On; Naylor, Stuart; Campochiaro, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a nonprimate lentivirus that does not cause human disease. Subretinal injection into mice of a recombinant EIAV lentiviral vector in which lacZ is driven by a CMV promoter (EIAV CMV LacZ) resulted in rapid and strong expression of LacZ in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and some other cells including ganglion cells, resulting in the presence of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside within the optic nerve. Substitution of the RPE-specific promoter from the vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD2) gene for the CMV promoter resulted in prolonged (at least 1 year) expression of LacZ that was restricted to RPE cells, albeit reduced 6- to 10-fold compared with the CMV promoter. Similarly, the amount of FLAG-tagged endostatin detected in eyes injected with the EIAV VMD2 Endo(FLAG) vector was similar to that seen in eyes injected with a vector that expressed both endostatin and angiostatin [EIAV VMD2 Endo(FLAG)/Angio]; expression was approximately 6-fold lower than with identical vectors in which the CMV promoter drove expression. Compared with murine eyes treated with a control EIAV vector, subretinal injection of EIAV vectors expressing murine endostatin alone or in combination with angiostatin driven by either the CMV or VMD2 promoter caused significant suppression of choroidal neovascularization (NV) at laser-induced rupture sites in Bruch's membrane. These data support proceeding toward clinical studies with EIAV-based gene therapy for choroidal NV, using the VMD2 promoter to selectively drive expression of a combination of endostatin and angiostatin in RPE cells. PMID:20377369

  18. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  19. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  20. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  1. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  2. Homotrimeric Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Drives Inflammatory Responses in the Corneal Epithelium by Promoting Caveolin-rich Platform Assembly in Response to Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Reidy, Thomas; Rittenberg, Alexander; Dwyer, Markryan; D'Ortona, Samantha; Pier, Gerald; Gadjeva, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Acute inflammation that arises during Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced ocular infection can trigger tissue damage resulting in long term impairment of visual function, suggesting that the appropriate treatment strategy should include the use of anti-inflammatory agents in addition to antibiotics. We recently identified a potential target for modulation during ocular infection, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). MIF deficiency protected mice from inflammatory-mediated corneal damage resulting from acute bacterial keratitis. To gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MIF activity, we analyzed the oligomeric states and functional properties of MIF during infection. We found that in human primary corneal cells infected with P. aeruginosa, MIF is primarily in a homotrimeric state. Homotrimeric MIF levels correlated with the severity of infection in the corneas of infected mice, suggesting that the MIF homotrimers were the functionally active form of MIF. During infection, human primary corneal cells released more IL-8 when treated with recombinant, locked MIF trimers than when treated with lower MIF oligomers. MIF promoted P. aeruginosa–induced IL-8 responses via the formation of caveolin-1-rich “signaling hubs” in the corneal cells that led to elevated MAPK p42/p44 activation and sustained inflammatory signaling. These findings suggest that inhibiting homotrimerization of MIF or the functional activities of MIF homotrimers could have therapeutic benefits during ocular inflammation. PMID:23372160

  3. Optimizing School-Based Health-Promotion Programmes: Lessons from a Qualitative Study of Fluoridated Milk Schemes in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Geraldine R. K.; Tickle, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective: Some districts in the United Kingdom (UK), where the level of child dental caries is high and water fluoridation has not been possible, implement school-based fluoridated milk (FM) schemes. However, process variables, such as consent to drink FM and loss of children as they mature, impede the effectiveness of these…

  4. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. Results We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. Conclusions RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation. PMID:24330573

  5. Neural Stem Cell-based Intraocular Administration of Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor Promotes Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival and Axon Regeneration after Optic Nerve Crush Injury in Rat: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Min; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Gao, Yan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is regarded as a multifunctional protein possessing neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. PEDF has a very short half-life, and it would require multiple injections to maintain a therapeutically relevant level without a delivery system. However, multiple injections are prone to cause local damage or infection. To overcome this, we chose a cell-based system that provided sustained delivery of PEDF and compared the effect of weekly injections of PEDF and neural stem cell (NSC)-based intraocular administration of PEDF on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury. Methods: Seventy-two rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: group with injections of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (n=24), group with weekly injections of PEDF (n=24), and group with NSC-based administration of PEDF (n=24). Western blot was used to analyze the PEDF protein level 2 weeks after injection. Retinal flat mounts and immunohistochemistry were employed to analyze RGC survival and axon regeneration 2 weeks and 4 weeks after injection. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA in SPSS (version 19.0). A P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The PEDF protein level in the group with NSC-based administration of PEDF increased compared with that in the groups with injections of PEDF and PBS (P<0.05). The PEDF-modified NSCs differentiated into GFAP-positive astrocytes andβ-tubulin-III-positive neurons. NSC-based administration of PEDF effectively increased RGC survival and improved the axon regeneration of the optic nerve compared with weekly injections of PEDF. Conclusion: Subretinal space transplantation of PEDF-secreting NSCs sustained high concentrations of PEDF, differentiated into neurons and astrocytes, and significantly promoted RGC survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury. PMID:27582587

  6. Macrophage VLDL Receptor Promotes PAFAH Secretion in Mother’s Milk and Suppresses Systemic Inflammation in Nursing Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yang; Yang, Marie; Wei, Wei; Huynh, HoangDinh; Herz, Joachim; Saghatelian, Alan; Wan, Yihong

    2012-01-01

    Mother’s milk is widely accepted as nutritious and protective to the newborn mammals by providing not only macronutrients but also immune-defensive factors. However, the mechanisms accounting for these benefits are not fully understood. Here we show that maternal very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) deletion in mice causes the production of defective milk containing diminished level of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAFAH). As a consequence, the nursing neonates suffer from alopecia, anemia and growth retardation owing to elevated levels of pro-inflammatory platelet-activating factors (PAFs). VLDLR deletion significantly impairs the expression of phospholipase A2 group 7 (Pla2g7) in macrophages, which decreases PAFAH secretion. Exogenous oral supplementation of neonates with PAFAH effectively rescues the toxicity. These findings not only reveal a novel role of VLDLR in suppressing inflammation by maintaining macrophage PAFAH secretion, but also identify the maternal VLDLR as a key genetic program that ensures milk quality and protects the newborns. PMID:22910354

  7. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A ... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ...

  8. Milk digesta and milk protein fractions influence the adherence of Lactobacillus gasseri R and Lactobacillus casei FMP to human cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Volstatova, Tereza; Havlik, Jaroslav; Potuckova, Miroslava; Geigerova, Martina

    2016-08-10

    Adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is considered an important feature of probiotic bacteria, which may increase their persistence in the intestine, allowing them to exert their beneficial health effect or promote the colonisation process. However, this feature might be largely dependent on the host specificity or diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of selected milks and milk protein fractions on the ability of selected lactobacilli to adhere to the cells of an intestinal model based on co-culture Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell lines. Most milk digesta did not significantly affect bacterial adhesion except for UHT-treated milk and sheep milk. The presence of UHT-treated milk digesta reduced the adhesion of Lactobacillus gasseri R by 61% but not that of Lactobacillus casei FMP. However, sheep milk significantly increased the adherence of L. casei FMP (P < 0.05) but not of L. gasseri R. Among the protein fractions, rennet casein (RCN) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed reproducible patterns and strain-specific effects on bacterial adherence. While RCN reduced the adherence of L. gasseri R to <50% compared to the control, it did not have a significant effect on L. casei FMP. In contrast, BSA reduced L. casei FMP adherence to a higher extent than that of L. gasseri R. Whey protein (WH) tended to increase the adherence of both strains by 130%-180%. Recently, interactions between the host diet and its microbiota have attracted considerable interest. Our results may explain one of the aspects of the role of milk in the development of microbiota or support of probiotic supplements. Based on our data, we conclude that the persistence of probiotic strains supplemented as part of dairy food or constitutional microbiota in the gut might be affected negatively or positively by the food matrix through complex strain or concentration dependent effects. PMID:27435508

  9. Intron V, not intron I of human thrombopoietin, improves expression in the milk of transgenic mice regulated by goat beta-casein promoter.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hao, Hu; Zhou, Mingqian; Zhou, Hongwei; Ye, Jianbin; Ning, Lijun; Ning, Yunshan

    2015-01-01

    Introns near 5' end of genes generally enhance gene expression because of an enhancer /a promoter within their sequence or as intron-mediated enhancement. Surprisingly, our previous experiments found that the vector containing the last intron (intron V) of human thromobopoietin (hTPO) expressed higher hTPO in cos-1 cell than the vector containing intron I regulated by cytomegalovirus promoter. Moreover, regulated by 1.0 kb rat whey acidic protein promoter, hTPO expression was higher in transgenic mice generated by intron V-TPOcDNA than in transgenic mice generated by TPOcDNA and TPOgDNA. However, it is unknown whether the enhancement of hTPO expression by intron I is decreased by uAUG7 at 5'-UTR of hTPO in vivo. Currently, we constructed vectors regulated by stronger 6.5 kb β-casein promoter, including pTPOGA (containing TPOcDNA), pTPOGB (containing TUR-TPOcDNA, TUR including exon1, intron I and non-coding exon2 of hTPO gene), pTPOGC (containing ΔTUR-TPOcDNA, nucleotides of TUR from uAUG7 to physiological AUG were deleted), pTPOGD (containing intron V-TPOcDNA) and pTPOGE (containing TPOgDNA), to evaluate the effect of intron I on hTPO expression and to further verify whether intron V enhances hTPO expression in the milk of transgenic mice. The results demonstrated that intron V, not intron I improved hTPO expression. PMID:26527459

  10. Intron V, not intron I of human thrombopoietin, improves expression in the milk of transgenic mice regulated by goat beta-casein promoter

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Hao, Hu; Zhou, Mingqian; Zhou, Hongwei; Ye, Jianbin; Ning, Lijun; Ning, Yunshan

    2015-01-01

    Introns near 5′ end of genes generally enhance gene expression because of an enhancer /a promoter within their sequence or as intron-mediated enhancement. Surprisingly, our previous experiments found that the vector containing the last intron (intron V) of human thromobopoietin (hTPO) expressed higher hTPO in cos-1 cell than the vector containing intron I regulated by cytomegalovirus promoter. Moreover, regulated by 1.0 kb rat whey acidic protein promoter, hTPO expression was higher in transgenic mice generated by intron V-TPOcDNA than in transgenic mice generated by TPOcDNA and TPOgDNA. However, it is unknown whether the enhancement of hTPO expression by intron I is decreased by uAUG7 at 5′-UTR of hTPO in vivo. Currently, we constructed vectors regulated by stronger 6.5kb β-casein promoter, including pTPOGA (containing TPOcDNA), pTPOGB (containing TUR-TPOcDNA, TUR including exon1, intron I and non-coding exon2 of hTPO gene), pTPOGC (containing ΔTUR-TPOcDNA, nucleotides of TUR from uAUG7 to physiological AUG were deleted), pTPOGD (containing intron V-TPOcDNA) and pTPOGE (containing TPOgDNA), to evaluate the effect of intron I on hTPO expression and to further verify whether intron V enhances hTPO expression in the milk of transgenic mice. The results demonstrated that intron V, not intron I improved hTPO expression. PMID:26527459

  11. Enforcing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes for Better Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Can Lessons Be Learned?

    PubMed

    Barennes, Hubert; Slesak, Guenther; Goyet, Sophie; Aaron, Percy; Srour, Leila M

    2016-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding, one of the best natural resources, needs protection and promotion. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which aims to prevent the undermining of breastfeeding by formula advertising, faces implementation challenges. We reviewed frequently overlooked challenges and obstacles that the Code is facing worldwide, but particularly in Southeast Asia. Drawing lessons from various countries where we work, and following the example of successful public health interventions, we discussed legislation, enforcement, and experiences that are needed to successfully implement the Code. Successful holistic approaches that have strengthened the Code need to be scaled up. Community-based actions and peer-to-peer promotions have proved successful. Legislation without stringent enforcement and sufficient penalties is ineffective. The public needs education about the benefits and ways and means to support breastfeeding. It is crucial to combine strong political commitment and leadership with strict national regulations, definitions, and enforcement. National breastfeeding committees, with the authority to improve regulations, investigate violations, and enforce the laws, must be established. Systematic monitoring and reporting are needed to identify companies, individuals, intermediaries, and practices that infringe on the Code. Penalizing violators is crucial. Managers of multinational companies must be held accountable for international violations, and international legislative enforcement needs to be established. Further measures should include improved regulations to protect the breastfeeding mother: large-scale education campaigns; strong penalties for Code violators; exclusion of the formula industry from nutrition, education, and policy roles; supportive legal networks; and independent research of interventions supporting breastfeeding. PMID:26416439

  12. A milk protein gene promoter directs the expression of human tissue plasminogen activator cDNA to the mammary gland in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Pittius, C.W.; Hennighausen, L.; Lee, E.; Westphal, H.; Nicols, E.; Vitale, J.; Gordon, K. )

    1988-08-01

    Whey acidic protein (WAP) is a major whey protein in mouse milk. Its gene is expressed in the lactating mammary gland and is inducible by steroid and peptide hormones. A series of transgenic mice containing a hybrid gene in which human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) cDNA is under the control of the murine WAP gene promoter had previously been generated. In this study, 21 tissues from lactating and virgin transgenic female mice containing the WAP-tPA hybrid gene were screened for the distribution of murine WAP and human tPA transcripts. Like the endogenous WAP RNA, WAP-tPA RNA was expressed predominantly in mammary gland tissue and appeared to be inducible by lactation. Whereas WAP transcripts were not detected in 22 tissues of virgin mice, low levels of WAP-tPA RNA, which were not modulated during lactation, were found in tongue, kidney, and sublingual gland. These studies demonstrate that the WAP gene promoter can target the expression of a transgene to the mammary gland and that this expression is inducible during lactation.

  13. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  14. Apoptosis and the Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    White, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    The airway epithelium functions as a barrier and front line of host defense in the lung. Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or to environmental toxins, or to drugs. While apoptosis can be induced via activation of death receptors on the cell surface or by disruption of mitochondrial polarity, epithelial cells compared to inflammatory cells are more resistant to apoptotic stimuli. This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways diseases. PMID:22203854

  15. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. PMID:24029787

  16. microRNA-dependent Temporal Gene Expression in the Ureteric Bud Epithelium during Mammalian Kidney Development

    PubMed Central

    Nagalakshmi, Vidya K.; Lindner, Volkhard; Wessels, Andy; Yu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background Our previous study on mouse mutants with the ureteric bud (UB) epithelium-specific Dicer deletion (Dicer UB mutants) demonstrated the significance of UB epithelium-derived miRNAs in UB development. Results Our whole-genome transcriptional profiling showed that the Dicer mutant UB epithelium abnormally retained transcriptional features of the early UB epithelium and failed to express many genes associated with collecting duct differentiation. Further, we identified a temporal expression pattern of early UB genes during UB epithelium development in which gene expression was detected at early developmental stages and became undetectable by E14.5. In contrast, expression of early UB genes persisted at later stages in the Dicer mutant UB epithelium and increased at early stages. Our bioinformatics analysis of the abnormally persistently expressed early genes in the Dicer mutant UB epithelium showed significant enrichment of the let-7 family miRNA targets. We further identified a temporal expression pattern of let-7 miRNAs in the UB epithelium that is anti-parallel to that of some early UB genes during kidney development. Conclusions We propose a model in which the let-7 family miRNAs silence the expression of a subset of early genes in the UB epithelium at later developmental stages in order to promote collecting duct differentiation. PMID:25369991

  17. Baked Milk and Egg Diets for Milk and Egg Allergy Management.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna H

    2016-02-01

    In baked form, cow's milk and egg are less allergenic and are tolerated by most milk- and egg-allergic children. Not only may including baked milk and egg in the diets of children who are tolerant improve nutrition and promote more social inclusion but there is also evidence that inclusion may accelerate the resolution of unheated milk and egg allergy. Further research is needed on biomarkers that can predict baked milk or egg reactivity; however, data suggest casein- and ovomucoid-specific immunoglobulin E levels may be useful. Physician-supervised introduction of baked milk and egg is recommended because anaphylaxis has occurred. PMID:26617232

  18. Clinical applications of bioactive milk components

    PubMed Central

    Newburg, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Milk represents a unique resource for translational medicine: It contains a rich pool of biologically active molecules with demonstrated clinical benefits. The ongoing characterization of the mechanistic process through which milk components promote development and immunity has revealed numerous milk-derived compounds with potential applications as clinical therapies in infectious and inflammatory disease, cancer, and other conditions. Lactoferrin is an effective antimicrobial and antiviral agent in high-risk patient populations and a potentially potent adjuvant to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Enteric nutrition formulas supplemented with transforming growth factor β, a milk cytokine, have been shown to promote remission in pediatric Crohn's disease. A number of milk glycans, including human milk oligosaccharides, show promise in preclinical studies as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. While active preclinical investigations of human milk may soon result in large-scale production of human milk molecules, bovine milk components in many instances represent a practical source of bioactive milk compounds for use in clinical trials. This review summarizes current efforts to translate the compounds derived from human and bovine milk into effective clinical therapies. These efforts suggest a common pathway for the translation of milk-derived compounds into clinical applications. PMID:26011900

  19. Clinical applications of bioactive milk components.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Newburg, David S

    2015-07-01

    Milk represents a unique resource for translational medicine: It contains a rich pool of biologically active molecules with demonstrated clinical benefits. The ongoing characterization of the mechanistic process through which milk components promote development and immunity has revealed numerous milk-derived compounds with potential applications as clinical therapies in infectious and inflammatory disease, cancer, and other conditions. Lactoferrin is an effective antimicrobial and antiviral agent in high-risk patient populations and a potentially potent adjuvant to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Enteric nutrition formulas supplemented with transforming growth factor β, a milk cytokine, have been shown to promote remission in pediatric Crohn's disease. A number of milk glycans, including human milk oligosaccharides, show promise in preclinical studies as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. While active preclinical investigations of human milk may soon result in large-scale production of human milk molecules, bovine milk components in many instances represent a practical source of bioactive milk compounds for use in clinical trials. This review summarizes current efforts to translate the compounds derived from human and bovine milk into effective clinical therapies. These efforts suggest a common pathway for the translation of milk-derived compounds into clinical applications. PMID:26011900

  20. Milk lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk fat conveys a number of desirable qualities to food, and various lipid components contribute to human nutrition and health. Over 96% of milk lipids consist of triacylglycerols, which contain a variety of fatty acids. Di- and monoacylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols, and phospho-, glyco-,...

  1. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques. PMID:17900499

  2. Milk, milk products, and disease free health: an updated overview.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, R; Behare, P V; Kumar, M; Mohania, D; Yadav, M; Jain, S; Menon, S; Parkash, O; Marotta, F; Minelli, E; Henry, C J K; Yadav, H

    2012-01-01

    The cow and its milk have been held sacred in the world since the dawn of human civilization. Indian ancient Vedic texts describe the virtues of milk and dairy products, as is authenticated by modern scientific principles and proofs. Therefore, milk has been considered as one of the most natural and highly nutritive part of a daily balanced diet. Currently, the integration of advanced scientific knowledge with traditional information is gaining incredible momentum toward developing the concept of potential therapeutic foods. Furthermore, new advances toward understanding the therapeutic roles of milk and milk products have also given a new impetus for unraveling the age old secrets of milk. At present, the best-known examples of therapeutic foods are fermented milk products containing health promoting probiotic bacteria. In the present article, we have tried to review the various aspects of the therapeutic nature of milk and fermented dairy products in a highly up-dated manner, and offer an in-depth insight into the development of targeted therapeutic future foods as per the requirements of consumers. PMID:22332596

  3. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Milk” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... following the circled K or U on a product label indicates the presence of milk protein or a ...

  4. The complex microbiota of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Stanton, Catherine; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Here, we review what is known about the microorganisms present in raw milk, including milk from cows, sheep, goats and humans. Milk, due to its high nutritional content, can support a rich microbiota. These microorganisms enter milk from a variety of sources and, once in milk, can play a number of roles, such as facilitating dairy fermentations (e.g. Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Propionibacterium and fungal populations), causing spoilage (e.g. Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Bacillus and other spore-forming or thermoduric microorganisms), promoting health (e.g. lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) or causing disease (e.g. Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter and mycotoxin-producing fungi). There is also concern that the presence of antibiotic residues in milk leads to the development of resistance, particularly among pathogenic bacteria. Here, we comprehensively review these topics, while comparing the approaches, both culture-dependent and culture-independent, which can be taken to investigate the microbial composition of milk. PMID:23808865

  5. Histology of the pouch epithelium and the mammary glands during chemically induced oestrus in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    PubMed Central

    Old, Julie M; Irving, M; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the epithelium of the maternal pouch and the mammary gland of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) were examined after animals were treated to induce ovulation with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), pregnant mares’ serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and oestradiol. The mammary glands were similar in appearance to those described in eutherian mammals and in previous studies on other marsupials. Exposure of possums to these compounds, particularly PSMG, appeared to result in changes in the mammary glands that could be associated with milk/secretion production. In contrast, the pouch epithelium had a similar histological appearance to that of epithelium from other parts of the body regardless of whether the animal was exposed to stimulants. These preliminary observations are discussed in the context of the purported role of the pouch epithelium and the mammary gland in production of secretions at oestrus and provision of immunological protection to the neonatal marsupial. PMID:16011549

  6. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301...

  7. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301...

  8. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health. PMID:21335990

  9. Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Høstmark, Arne T; Harstad, Odd M

    2007-01-01

    Milk and milk products are nutritious food items containing numerous essential nutrients, but in the western societies the consumption of milk has decreased partly due to claimed negative health effects. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Full-fat milk has been shown to increase the mean gastric emptying time compared to half-skimmed milk, thereby increasing the gastrointestinal transit time. Also the low pH in fermented milk may delay the gastric emptying. Hence, it may be suggested that ingesting full-fat milk or fermented milk might be favourable for glycaemic (and appetite?) regulation. For some persons milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may be of health concern. The interaction between carbohydrates (both natural milk sugar and added sugar) and protein in milk exposed to heat may give products, whose effects on health should be further studied, and the increasing use of sweetened milk products should be questioned. The concentration in milk of several nutrients can be manipulated through feeding regimes. There is no evidence that moderate intake of milk fat gives increased risk of diseases. PMID:17894873

  10. Milk Thistle

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2009. Milk thistle ( Silybum marianum ), silymarin. Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on October ... Supplements . National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health Web site. ... Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2007;(4):CD003620. Seeff LB, ...

  11. Optimization of silk films as substrate for functional corneal epithelium growth.

    PubMed

    Jia, Liang; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Kaplan, David L

    2016-02-01

    The corneal epithelium is the first cellular barrier to protect the cornea. Thus, functional tissue engineering of the corneal epithelium is a strategy for clinical transplantation. In this study, the optimization of silk films (SFs) as substrates for functional human corneal epithelium growth was investigated with primary human corneal epithelial cells on SFs, poly-D-lysine (PDL) coated SFs, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) modified SFs and PDL blended SFs. PDL coated SFs significantly promoted cell adhesion at early phases in comparison to the other study groups, while PDL blended SF significantly promoted cell migration in a "wound healing" model. All film modifications promoted cell proliferation and viability, and a multi-layered epithelium was achieved in 4 weeks of culture. The epithelia formed were tightly apposed and maintained an intact barrier function against rose bengal dye penetration. The results suggested that a differentiated human corneal epithelium can be established with primary corneal epithelial cells on SFs in vitro, by optimizing SF composition with PDL. PMID:25891207

  12. Thyroid hormone responsive protein Spot14 enhances catalysis of fatty acid synthase in lactating mammary epithelium[S

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Michael C.; Wellberg, Elizabeth A.; Lewis, Andrew S.; Terrell, Kristina L.; Merz, Andrea L.; Maluf, N. Karl; Serkova, Natalie J.; Anderson, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone responsive protein Spot 14 has been consistently associated with de novo fatty acid synthesis activity in multiple tissues, including the lactating mammary gland, which synthesizes large quantities of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) exclusively via FASN. However, the molecular function of Spot14 remains undefined during lactation. Spot14-null mice produce milk deficient in total triglyceride and de novo MCFA that does not sustain optimal neonatal growth. The lactation defect was rescued by provision of a high fat diet to the lactating dam. Transgenic mice overexpressing Spot14 in mammary epithelium produced total milk fat equivalent to controls, but with significantly greater MCFA. Spot14-null dams have no diminution of metabolic gene expression, enzyme protein levels, or intermediate metabolites that accounts for impaired de novo MCFA. When [13C] fatty acid products were quantified in vitro using crude cytosolic lysates, native FASN activity was 1.6-fold greater in control relative to Spot14-null lysates, and add back of Spot14 partially restored activity. Recombinant FASN catalysis increased 1.4-fold and C = 14:0 yield was enhanced 4-fold in vitro following addition of Spot14. These findings implicate Spot14 as a direct protein enhancer of FASN catalysis in the mammary gland during lactation when maximal MCFA production is needed. PMID:24771867

  13. The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth

    PubMed Central

    Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period. PMID:24785116

  14. Intrachoroidal Neovascularization in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Schwesinger, Catherine; Yee, Charles; Rohan, Richard M.; Joussen, Antonia M.; Fernandez, Antonio; Meyer, Tobias N.; Poulaki, Vassiliki; Ma, Joseph J. K.; Redmond, T. Michael; Liu, Suyan; Adamis, Anthony P.; D’Amato, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration is a frequent and poorly treatable cause of vision loss in elderly Caucasians. This choroidal neovascularization has been associated with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In current animal models choroidal neovascularization is induced by subretinal injection of growth factors or vectors encoding growth factors such as VEGF, or by disruption of the Bruch’s membrane/retinal pigment epithelium complex with laser treatment. We wished to establish a transgenic murine model of age-related macular degeneration, in which the overexpression of VEGF by the retinal pigment epithelium induces choroidal neovascularization. A construct consisting of a tissue-specific murine retinal pigment epithelium promoter (RPE65 promoter) coupled to murine VEGF164 cDNA with a rabbit β-globin-3′ UTR was introduced into the genome of albino mice. Transgene mRNA was expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium at all ages peaking at 4 months. The expression of VEGF protein was increased in both the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. An increase of intravascular adherent leukocytes and vessel leakage was observed. Histopathology revealed intrachoroidal neovascularization that did not penetrate through an intact Bruch’s membrane. These results support the hypothesis that additional insults to the integrity of Bruch’s membrane are required to induce growth of choroidal vessels into the subretinal space as seen in age-related macular degeneration. This model may be useful to screen for inhibitors of choroidal vessel growth. PMID:11238064

  15. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research... promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of, and demand for, dairy products generally....

  16. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research... promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of, and demand for, dairy products generally....

  17. Olfactory epithelium changes in germfree mice

    PubMed Central

    François, Adrien; Grebert, Denise; Rhimi, Moez; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Naudon, Laurent; Rabot, Sylvie; Meunier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal epithelium development is dramatically impaired in germfree rodents, but the consequences of the absence of microbiota have been overlooked in other epithelia. In the present study, we present the first description of the bacterial communities associated with the olfactory epithelium and explored differences in olfactory epithelium characteristics between germfree and conventional, specific pathogen-free, mice. While the anatomy of the olfactory epithelium was not significantly different, we observed a thinner olfactory cilia layer along with a decreased cellular turn-over in germfree mice. Using electro-olfactogram, we recorded the responses of olfactory sensitive neuronal populations to various odorant stimulations. We observed a global increase in the amplitude of responses to odorants in germfree mice as well as altered responses kinetics. These changes were associated with a decreased transcription of most olfactory transduction actors and of olfactory xenobiotic metabolising enzymes. Overall, we present here the first evidence that the microbiota modulates the physiology of olfactory epithelium. As olfaction is a major sensory modality for most animal species, the microbiota may have an important impact on animal physiology and behaviour through olfaction alteration. PMID:27089944

  18. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  19. [Immune stimulative potency of milk proteins].

    PubMed

    Ambroziak, Adam; Cichosz, Grazyna

    2014-02-01

    Milk proteins are characterized by the highest immune stimulative potency from among all the proteins present in human diet. Whey proteins and numerous growth factors that regulate insulin secretion, differentiation of intestine epithelium cells, and also tissue restoration, are priceless in stimulation the immune system. Lactoferrin shows the most comprehensive pro-health properties: antioxidative, anticancer, immune stimulative and even chemopreventive. Also peptides and amino acids formed from casein and whey proteins possess immune stimulative activity. The most valuable proteins, i.e. lactoferrin, immune globulins, lactoperoxidase and lisozyme, together with bioactive peptides, are resistant to pepsin and trypsin activity. This is why they maintain their exceptional biological activity within human organism. Properly high consumption of milk proteins conditions correct function of immune system, especially at children and elderly persons. PMID:24720113

  20. 7 CFR 1160.111 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any program utilizing public relations, advertising or other means devoted to educating consumers... demand for fluid milk products. (b) Advertising, which means any advertising or promotion...

  1. Calcium inhibits the damaging and compensatory proliferative effects of fatty acids on mouse colon epithelium.

    PubMed

    Wargovich, M J; Eng, V W; Newmark, H L

    1984-07-01

    Intrarectal instillations of the fatty acids (FA), lauric, linoleic or oleic acids induce inflammation and superficial lysis of the colon epithelium. This reaction is followed by increases in colonic mitotic activity and the number of cells engaged in DNA synthesis in compensatory regeneration for the cells that were lost. This explains, in part, the promotional effect of dietary fat in carcinogenesis. Concomitant oral administration of calcium salts, as CaCO3, largely reduced the mitogenic effects of fatty acids on colon epithelium, presumably by forming biologically inert calcium soaps. Calcium soap formation of dietary fatty acids may be one natural mechanism by which colon epithelium cells are protected hence reducing the impact of dietary fat on carcinogenesis for this organ. PMID:6744249

  2. Milk nutritional composition and its role in human health.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paula C

    2014-06-01

    Dairy and milk consumption are frequently included as important elements in a healthy and balanced diet. It is the first food for mammals and provides all the necessary energy and nutrients to ensure proper growth and development, being crucial in respect to bone mass formation. However, several controversies arise from consumption of dairy and milk products during adulthood, especially because it refers to milk from other species. Despite these controversies, epidemiologic studies confirm the nutritional importance of milk in the human diet and reinforce the possible role of its consumption in preventing several chronic conditions like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), some forms of cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Lactose malabsorption symptoms and cow milk protein allergy are generally considered to be the adverse reactions to milk consumption. The present article reviews the main aspects of milk nutritional composition and establishes several associations between its nutritious role, health promotion, and disease prevention. PMID:24800664

  3. Dissecting the role of milk components on gut microbiota composition.

    PubMed

    Maga, Elizabeth A; Weimer, Bart C; Murray, James D

    2013-01-01

    The composition of human milk is tailored to contribute to the development of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of newborns and infants. Importantly, human milk contains the antimicrobial compounds lysozyme and lactoferrin that are thought to contribute to the formation of a health-promoting microbiota. As these protective factors are lacking in the milk of dairy animals, we genetically engineered goats expressing human lysozyme in their milk and have recently reported a new animal model to dissect out the role of milk components on gut microbiota formation. Using the pig as a more human-relevant animal model, we demonstrated that consumption of lysozyme-rich milk enriched the abundance of bacteria associated with GI health and decreased those associated with disease, much like human milk. This work demonstrated that the pig is a valid animal model for gut microbiome studies on the effects of dietary components on microbiota composition, host-microbe interactions and state of the intestine. PMID:23235404

  4. Milk stimulates growth of prostate cancer cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Tate, Patricia L; Bibb, Robert; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2011-11-01

    Concern has been expressed about the fact that cows' milk contains estrogens and could stimulate the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors. In this study, organic cows' milk and two commercial substitutes were digested in vitro and tested for their effects on the growth of cultures of prostate and breast cancer cells. Cows' milk stimulated the growth of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in each of 14 separate experiments, producing an average increase in growth rate of over 30%. In contrast, almond milk suppressed the growth of these cells by over 30%. Neither cows' milk nor almond milk affected the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells or AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells significantly. Soy milk increased the growth rate of the breast cancer cells. These data indicate that prostate and breast cancer patients should be cautioned about the possible promotional effects of commercial dairy products and their substitutes. PMID:22043817

  5. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    PubMed

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together. PMID:27056664

  6. Baked milk- and egg-containing diet in the management of milk and egg allergy.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Kim, Jennifer S; Groetch, Marion; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk (CM) and hen's egg allergies are among the most common food allergies in children. With evidence of increasing food allergy prevalence and more persistent disease, it has become vital to improve the management of CM and egg allergies. The ability to tolerate baked milk or egg, such as in a cake or muffin, has been associated with an increased chance of tolerance development. Studies report that about 70% of CM- and egg-allergic children can tolerate baked milk or egg and that incorporating baked milk or egg into the diet is well tolerated. Being able to add baked milk or egg into the diet can also increase quality of life by expanding the diet, boosting nutrition, and promoting inclusion in social activities. There is some debate over how baked milk and egg should be introduced, at home or in a supervised setting. Anaphylaxis and treatment with epinephrine during baked milk or egg challenges have been reported. Study of potential biomarkers to predict tolerability of baked milk and egg, such as serum specific IgE levels and skin prick test wheal diameters, is ongoing. Many parents can reliably report that their CM- or egg-allergic child is already consuming baked goods without symptoms. However, for those who cannot report such tolerance, the most prudent approach is to perform a supervised oral food challenge to determine the tolerability of baked milk and egg. The purpose of this article was to review the pathophysiology, clinical data, and safety of baked milk and egg and provide a practical guide to managing CM allergy and/or egg allergy. Recipes for baked milk and egg challenges and guidance on how to add baked milk and egg if tolerated to the child's regular diet are provided. PMID:25577613

  7. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows.

    PubMed

    Løvendahl, P; Chagunda, M G G

    2011-11-01

    Automatic milking systems allow cows voluntary access to milking and concentrates within set limits. This leads to large variation in milking intervals, both within and between cows, which further affects yield per milking and composition of milk. This study aimed to describe the degree to which differences in milking interval were attributable to individual cows, and how this correlated to individual differences in yield and composition of milk throughout lactation. Data from 288,366 milkings from 664 cow-lactations were used, of which 229,020 milkings had milk composition results. Cows were Holsteins, Red Danes, and Jerseys in parities 1, 2, and 3. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model, with cow-lactation as a random effect and assuming heterogeneous residual variance over the lactation. Cow-lactation variance was fitted using linear spline functions with 5 knot-points. Residual variance was generally greatest in early lactation and declined thereafter. Accordingly, animal-related variance tended to increase with progression of lactation. Milking frequency (the reverse of milking interval) was found to be moderately repeatable throughout lactation. Daily milk yield expressed per milking was found to be highly repeatable in all breeds, with the highest values occurring by the end of lactation. Fat percentage had only moderate repeatability in early to mid lactation but increased toward the end of lactation. Individual level correlations showed that cows with higher milking frequency also had greater yields, but had lower fat percentage. Correlations were slightly weaker in very early lactation than in the remaining parts of lactation. We concluded that individual differences exist among cows milked automatically. Cows with higher yields are milked more often and have lower fat content in their milk. PMID:22032361

  8. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products. PMID:14765806

  9. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. PMID:22226014

  10. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries. PMID:10208658

  11. [Chemical pollution and breast milk: Taking positions].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gómez, N M; Ares, S; Hernández-Aguilar, M T; Ortega-García, J A; Paricio-Talayero, J M; Landa-Rivera, L

    2013-12-01

    Chemical pollution affects all ecosystems of our planet. Human milk has been used as a biomarker of environmental pollution as, due to bioaccumulation processes in fat tissue, many chemical compounds reach measurable concentrations that can be readily tested in breast milk. Quite frequently information about the presence of contaminants in breast milk appears in the media, leading to misunderstanding among parents and health professionals, and in some cases breastfeeding the child is stopped. In this article, the Breastfeeding Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics stresses the importance of promoting breastfeeding as the healthiest option, because its benefits clearly outweigh any health risks associated with chemical contaminants in breast milk. Breast milk contains protective factors that counteract the potential effects related to prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. This article summarises the key recommendations to reduce the level of chemical contaminants in breast milk. It also highlights the importance of government involvement in the development of programs to eliminate or reduce chemical contamination of food and the environment. In this way, the negative effects on child health resulting from exposure to these toxic compounds through the placenta and breast milk may be prevented. PMID:23791806

  12. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called ...

  13. Milk-alkali syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000332.htm Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...

  14. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  15. Ha-ras oncogene expression directed by a milk protein gene promoter: tissue specificity, hormonal regulation, and tumor induction in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, A.C.; Schoenenberger, C.A.; Groner, B.; Henninghausen, L.; LeMeur, M.; Gelinger, P.

    1987-03-01

    The activated human Ha-ras oncogene was subjected to the control of the promoter region of the murine whey acidic protein (Wap) gene, which is expressed in mammary epithelial cells in response to lactogenic hormones. The Wap-ras gene was stably introduced into the mouse germ line of five transgenic mice (one male and four females). Wap-ras expression was observed in the mammary glands of lactating females in two lines derived from female founders. The tissue-directed and hormone-dependent Wap expression was conferred on the Ha-ras oncogene. The signals governing Wap expression are located within 2.5 kilobases of 5' flanking sequence. The other two lines derived from female founders did not express the chimeric gene. In the line derived from the male founder the Wap-ras gene is integrated into the Y chromosome. Expression was found in the salivary gland of male animals only. After a long latency, Wap-ras-expressing mice developed tumors. The tumors arose in tissues expressing Wap-ras - i.e., mammary or salivary glands. Compared to the corresponding nonmalignant tissues, Wap-ras expression was enhanced in the tumors.

  16. Odors Discrimination by Olfactory Epithelium Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingjun; Hu, Ning; Ye, Weiwei; Zhang, Fenni; Wang, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Humans are exploring the bionic biological olfaction to sense the various trace components of gas or liquid in many fields. For achieving the goal, we endeavor to establish a bioelectronic nose system for odor detection by combining intact bioactive function units with sensors. The bioelectronic nose is based on the olfactory epithelium of rat and microelectrode array (MEA). The olfactory epithelium biosensor generates extracellular potentials in presence of odor, and presents obvious specificity under different odors condition. The odor response signals can be distinguished with each other effectively by signal sorting. On basis of bioactive MEA hybrid system and the improved signal processing analysis, the bioelectronic nose will realize odor discrimination by the specific feature of signals response to various odors.

  17. Retinal pigment epithelium in incontinentia pigmenti.

    PubMed

    Mensheha-Manhart, O; Rodrigues, M M; Shields, J A; Shannon, G M; Mirabelli, R P

    1975-04-01

    An 18-month-old white girl with incontinentia pigmenti presented clinically with leukokoria of the right eye. B-scan ultrasound demonstrated a retrolental mass consistent with a detached retina. Histologic examination of the skin revealed changes compatible with the intermediate verrucous phase of the disease. Microscopic examination of the right eye showed retinal detachment and nodular proliferation of the retinal pigment epithelium. The nodules contained macrophages laden with melanin and lipofuscin. An unusually large amount of lipofuscin was present for a child of this age. The basic pigmentary abnormality may affect the retinal pigment epithelium, resulting in changes in the overlying neurosensory retina that may lead to the retinal dysplasia or retinal detachemnt often associated with this condition. PMID:1119517

  18. Mechanically patterning the embryonic airway epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Victor D.; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Miller, Erin; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2015-01-01

    Collections of cells must be patterned spatially during embryonic development to generate the intricate architectures of mature tissues. In several cases, including the formation of the branched airways of the lung, reciprocal signaling between an epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme helps generate these spatial patterns. Several molecular signals are thought to interact via reaction-diffusion kinetics to create distinct biochemical patterns, which act as molecular precursors to actual, physical patterns of biological structure and function. Here, however, we show that purely physical mechanisms can drive spatial patterning within embryonic epithelia. Specifically, we find that a growth-induced physical instability defines the relative locations of branches within the developing murine airway epithelium in the absence of mesenchyme. The dominant wavelength of this instability determines the branching pattern and is controlled by epithelial growth rates. These data suggest that physical mechanisms can create the biological patterns that underlie tissue morphogenesis in the embryo. PMID:26170292

  19. Mechanically patterning the embryonic airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Varner, Victor D; Gleghorn, Jason P; Miller, Erin; Radisky, Derek C; Nelson, Celeste M

    2015-07-28

    Collections of cells must be patterned spatially during embryonic development to generate the intricate architectures of mature tissues. In several cases, including the formation of the branched airways of the lung, reciprocal signaling between an epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme helps generate these spatial patterns. Several molecular signals are thought to interact via reaction-diffusion kinetics to create distinct biochemical patterns, which act as molecular precursors to actual, physical patterns of biological structure and function. Here, however, we show that purely physical mechanisms can drive spatial patterning within embryonic epithelia. Specifically, we find that a growth-induced physical instability defines the relative locations of branches within the developing murine airway epithelium in the absence of mesenchyme. The dominant wavelength of this instability determines the branching pattern and is controlled by epithelial growth rates. These data suggest that physical mechanisms can create the biological patterns that underlie tissue morphogenesis in the embryo. PMID:26170292

  20. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  1. Special Milk Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  2. Milk demystified by chemistry.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    This article traces the decline of milk from a heavenly elixir to a tradeable food. Early cultures regarded milk not as a simple nutrient, but a living fluid. Heroes and gods were believed to have been nurtured by animals after being abandoned. Character traits were assumed to be transmitted by milk; infantile diseases were attributed to "bad milk", whereas "good milk" was used as a remedy. With chemical methods developed at the end of the 18th century, it became known that human milk was higher in sugar and lower in protein than cow's milk. During the 19th century, "scientific" feeding emerged that meant modifying cow's milk to imitate the proportion of nutrients in human milk. In Boston from 1893, Rotch initiated the "percentage" method, requiring a physician's prescription. In Paris from 1894, Budin sterilized bottled infant milk. In Berlin in 1898, Rubner measured oxygen and energy uptake by calorimetry, prompting feeding by calories, and Czerny introduced regulated feeding by the clock. These activities ignored the emotional dimension of infant nutrition and the anti-infective properties of human milk. They may have also enhanced the decline in breastfeeding, which reached an all-time low in 1971. Milk's demystification made artificial nutrition safer, but paved the way for commercially produced infant formula. PMID:24558227

  3. Remodeling of the Fetal Collecting Duct Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Hiatt, Michael J.; Ivanova, Larissa; Toran, Nuria; Tarantal, Alice F.; Matsell, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital urinary tract obstruction induces changes to the renal collecting duct epithelium, including alteration and depletion of intercalated cells. To study the effects of obstruction on the ontogeny of intercalated cell development, we examined normal and obstructed human fetal and postnatal kidneys. In the normal human fetal kidney, intercalated cells originated in the medullary collecting duct at 8 weeks gestation and remained most abundant in the inner medulla throughout gestation. In the cortex, intercalated cells were rare at 18 and 26 weeks gestation and observed at low abundance at 36 weeks gestation. Although early intercalated cells exhibit an immature phenotype, Type A intercalated cells predominated in the inner and outer medullae at 26 and 36 weeks gestation with other intercalated cell subtypes observed rarely. Postnatally, the collecting duct epithelium underwent a remodeling whereby intercalated cells become abundant in the cortex yet absent from the inner medulla. In 18-week obstructed kidneys with mild to moderate injury, the intercalated cells became more abundant and differentiated than the equivalent age-matched normal kidney. In contrast, more severely injured ducts of the late obstructed kidney exhibited a significant reduction in intercalated cells. These studies characterize the normal ontogeny of human intercalated cell development and suggest that obstruction induces premature remodeling and differentiation of the fetal collecting duct epithelium. PMID:20035053

  4. Development of the ovarian follicular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R J; Lavranos, T C; van Wezel, I L; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    1999-05-25

    A lot is known about the endocrine control of the development of ovarian follicles, but a key question now facing researchers is which molecular and cellular processes take part in control of follicular growth and development. The growth and development of ovarian follicles occurs postnatally and throughout adult life. In this review, we focus on the follicular epithelium (membrana granulosa) and its basal lamina. We discuss a model of how granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells and then enter different lineages before differentiation. The structure of the epithelium at the antral stage of development is presented, and the effects that follicle growth has on the behavior of the granulosa cells are discussed. Finally, we discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition. This would be expected if the behavior of the granulosa cells changes, or if the permeability of the basal lamina changes. It will be evident that the follicular epithelium has similarities to other epithelia in the body, but that it is more dynamic, as gross changes occur during the course of follicle development. This basic information will be important for the development of future reproductive technologies in both humans and animals, and possibly for understanding polycystic ovarian syndrome in women. PMID:10411332

  5. Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Pierre M.; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Leriche, Jean C.; Anderson, Marshall W.; Macaulay, Calum E.

    2009-03-01

    Confocal microendoscopy permits the acquisition of high-resolution real-time confocal images of bronchial mucosa via the instrument channel of an endoscope. We report here on the construction and validation of a confocal fluorescence microendoscope and its use to acquire images of bronchial epithelium in vivo. Our objective is to develop an imaging method that can distinguish preneoplastic lesions from normal epithelium to enable us to study the natural history of these lesions and the efficacy of chemopreventive agents without biopsy removal of the lesion that can introduce a spontaneous regression bias. The instrument employs a laser-scanning engine and bronchoscope-compatible confocal probe consisting of a fiber-optic image guide and a graded-index objective lens. We assessed the potential of topical application of physiological pH cresyl violet (CV) as a fluorescence contrast-enhancing agent for the visualization of tissue morphology. Images acquired ex vivo with the confocal microendoscope were first compared with a bench-top confocal fluorescence microscope and conventional histology. Confocal images from five sites topically stained with CV were then acquired in vivo from high-risk smokers and compared to hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of biopsies taken from the same site. Sufficient contrast in the confocal imagery was obtained to identify cells in the bronchial epithelium. However, further improvements in the miniature objective lens are required to provide sufficient axial resolution for accurate classification of preneoplastic lesions.

  6. Gene expression in bovine rumen epithelium during weaning identifies molecular regulators of rumen development and growth.

    PubMed

    Connor, Erin E; Baldwin, Ransom L; Li, Cong-jun; Li, Robert W; Chung, Hoyoung

    2013-03-01

    During weaning, epithelial cell function in the rumen transitions in response to conversion from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant environment to ensure efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. To identify gene networks affected by weaning in bovine rumen, Holstein bull calves were fed commercial milk replacer only (MRO) until 42 days of age, then were provided diets of either milk + orchardgrass hay (MH) or milk + grain-based calf starter (MG). Rumen epithelial RNA was extracted from calves sacrificed at four time points: day 14 (n = 3) and day 42 (n = 3) of age while fed the MRO diet and day 56 (n = 3/diet) and day 70 (n = 3/diet) while fed the MH and MG diets for transcript profiling by microarray hybridization. Five two-group comparisons were made using Permutation Analysis of Differential Expression® to identify differentially expressed genes over time and developmental stage between days 14 and 42 within the MRO diet, between day 42 on the MRO diet and day 56 on the MG or MH diets, and between the MG and MH diets at days 56 and 70. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of differentially expressed genes during weaning indicated the top 5 gene networks involving molecules participating in lipid metabolism, cell morphology and death, cellular growth and proliferation, molecular transport, and the cell cycle. Putative genes functioning in the establishment of the rumen microbial population and associated rumen epithelial inflammation during weaning were identified. Activation of transcription factor PPAR-α was identified by IPA software as an important regulator of molecular changes in rumen epithelium that function in papillary development and fatty acid oxidation during the transition from pre-rumination to rumination. Thus, molecular markers of rumen development and gene networks regulating differentiation and growth of rumen epithelium were identified for selecting targets and methods for improving and assessing rumen development and

  7. Comparative activities of milk components in reversing chronic colitis.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, J R; Kanwar, R K; Stathopoulos, S; Haggarty, N W; MacGibbon, A K H; Palmano, K P; Roy, K; Rowan, A; Krissansen, G W

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a poorly understood chronic immune disorder for which there is no medical cure. Milk and colostrum are rich sources of bioactives with immunomodulatory properties. Here we compared the therapeutic effects of oral delivery of bovine milk-derived iron-saturated lactoferrin (Fe-bLF), angiogenin, osteopontin (OPN), colostrum whey protein, Modulen IBD (Nestle Healthsciences, Rhodes, Australia), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched milk fat in a mouse model of dextran sulfate-induced colitis. The CLA-enriched milk fat significantly increased mouse body weights after 24d of treatment, reduced epithelium damage, and downregulated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and nitrous oxide. Modulen IBD most effectively decreased the clinical score at d 12, and Modulen IBD and OPN most effectively lowered the inflammatory score. Myeloperoxidase activity that denotes neutrophil infiltration was significantly lower in mice fed Modulen IBD, OPN, angiogenin, and Fe-bLF. A significant decrease in the numbers of T cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and a significant decrease in cytokine expression were observed in mice fed the treatment diets compared with dextran sulfate administered mice. The Fe-bLF, CLA-enriched milk fat, and Modulen IBD inhibited intestinal angiogenesis. In summary, each of the milk components attenuated IBD in mice, but with differing effectiveness against specific disease parameters. PMID:26805965

  8. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.114 Promotion. Promotion means actions such as paid advertising, sales... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1150.114 Section 1150.114...

  9. Major advances in milk marketing: government and industry consolidation.

    PubMed

    Stukenberg, D; Blayney, D; Miller, J

    2006-04-01

    Federal dairy programs have been instituted to assist dairy farmers in marketing their milk. Milk marketing licenses were issued for city markets in 1933 during the depression. Federal Milk Orders replaced licenses in 1937 with enactment of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act. Low prices returned in the late 1940s and Congress passed the Agricultural Act of 1949 creating the support program for milk. Congressional involvement in milk marketing was minimal until passage of the 1977 Farm Bill. A support price adjustment to seek favorable political responses from farmers resulted in higher prices and ultimately higher production. Large expenditures and burdensome supplies caused Congress to make major changes to both programs. Other milk marketing programs have evolved from Congressional actions, including export and promotion programs. The exiting and consolidation of the dairy processors and producers has lead to a reduction in the number of marketing orders. PMID:16537953

  10. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing. PMID:23666187

  11. [Investigation of gestagenic effect of raw drone milk in rats].

    PubMed

    Seres, Adrienn; Ducza, Eszter; Gáspár, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Numerous honeybee products are used in traditional medicine. The best-known honeybee products are the honey, the propolis and the royal jelly. Drone milk is a relatively little-known honeybee product. Although, drone milk is traditionally used to treat infertility and to promote vitality in both men and women in certain countries, the literature furnishes no information concerning effects of the drone milk. The oestrogenic and androgenic effects of drone milk have recently been reported in rats and the effective compounds have also been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the putative gestagenic effect of raw drone milk in rats. Maintenance of pregnancy assays revealed that drone milk was able to increase the number of surviving fetuses. This results suggested some gestagenic effects. This effect was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot methods in which the mRNA and protein expressions of gestagen-dependent CRLR (Calcitonin Receptor-Like Receptor) peptide were determined. To determine the efficacy of gestagenic effect of drone milk, spironolactone (weak gestagen compound) was used. The combination of drone milk and spironolactone showed more potent gestagenic effect. These results lead us to suppose that raw drone milk shows weak gestagenic effect and this effect can be increased by another weak gestagen. Further studies are required to clarify the gestagenic mechanisms of action of drone milk. PMID:25167703

  12. Optimization of the analytical extraction of polyamines from milk.

    PubMed

    Rigueira, Juliana Cristina Sampaio; Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Gloria, Maria Beatriz Abreu

    2011-10-30

    Polyamines play an important role as growth promoters, in the maturation of the intestinal tract of infants and in the modulation of the immune response; consequently, the importance of polyamines in the diet of infants and adults is well established. However, information on the occurrence and levels of polyamines in cow's milk and milk from other species (including human milk) is contradictory. Furthermore, the methods used for the extraction of amines from these samples vary widely. Therefore, a method for the accurate analysis of amines in milk from different species and in milk products is needed. A sequential strategy of experimental designs was used to optimize the analytical extraction of polyamines from milk. The dependent variables that significantly affected the recoveries were screened through a Plackett-Burman design. Sulfosalicylic acid (SSA) provided better recoveries compared to trichloroacetic acid. Centrifugation time and speed during extraction were independent variables. The Central Composite Rotational Design used to optimize the dependent variables indicated that the optimal conditions for the extraction of polyamines were 40s vortexing, four successive extractions, and an SSA concentration of 1.5%. These conditions provided recoveries ≥ 92.8% and CV ≤ 5.8%. The experiments confirmed the predicted results, indicating that the optimized conditions and models used were effective in the determination of amines from milk. Samples of raw milk and milk beverages were observed to be poor sources of spermine and spermidine, whereas human milk contained both amines. PMID:22063530

  13. Snai1 regulates cell lineage allocation and stem cell maintenance in the mouse intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Horvay, Katja; Jardé, Thierry; Casagranda, Franca; Perreau, Victoria M; Haigh, Katharina; Nefzger, Christian M; Akhtar, Reyhan; Gridley, Thomas; Berx, Geert; Haigh, Jody J; Barker, Nick; Polo, Jose M; Hime, Gary R; Abud, Helen E

    2015-01-01

    Snail family members regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during invasion of intestinal tumours, but their role in normal intestinal homeostasis is unknown. Studies in breast and skin epithelia indicate that Snail proteins promote an undifferentiated state. Here, we demonstrate that conditional knockout of Snai1 in the intestinal epithelium results in apoptotic loss of crypt base columnar stem cells and bias towards differentiation of secretory lineages. In vitro organoid cultures derived from Snai1 conditional knockout mice also undergo apoptosis when Snai1 is deleted. Conversely, ectopic expression of Snai1 in the intestinal epithelium in vivo results in the expansion of the crypt base columnar cell pool and a decrease in secretory enteroendocrine and Paneth cells. Following conditional deletion of Snai1, the intestinal epithelium fails to produce a proliferative response following radiation-induced damage indicating a fundamental requirement for Snai1 in epithelial regeneration. These results demonstrate that Snai1 is required for regulation of lineage choice, maintenance of CBC stem cells and regeneration of the intestinal epithelium following damage. PMID:25759216

  14. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  15. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  16. Defective Barrier Function in Neosquamous Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Jovov, Biljana; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Orlando, Geraldine S.; Djukic, Zorka; Orlando, Roy C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a common strategy for the prevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). After RFA, the ablated esophagus heals on acid suppressive therapy, and is re-populated with a stratified squamous epithelium, referred to as ‘neosquamous epithelium (NSE).’ Because the ability of the NSE to protect the underlying tissue from recurrent insult by reflux is unclear, we assessed the barrier function of NSE by comparing it to that of the native upper squamous epithelium (USE) in subjects having undergone RFA. METHODS At varying intervals following RFA, the barrier function of NSE and USE were assessed in endoscopic biopsies by light and electron microscopy, and by measurement of electrical resistance (RT) and fluorescein flux in mini-Ussing chambers. Chamber results were further compared with results from control biopsies (healthy distal esophagus). A claudin expression profile in the tight junctions (TJ) of NSE and USE was determined using qRT-PCR. Differential expression of claudin 4 between NSE and USE was assayed by immunoblots. RESULTS USE was histologically normal while NSE showed dilated intercellular spaces and marked eosinophilia. NSE was also more permeable than USE and healthy controls, having lower mean RT and higher fluorescein fluxes. Abnormally low RT values for NSE were unrelated to the time period following RFA (or number of prior RFA sessions), being abnormal even 26 months after RFA. Abnormal permeability in NSE was associated with significantly lower values for claudin-4 and claudin-10 than in USE. CONCLUSIONS NSE commonly exhibits defective barrier function. Since this defect will make it vulnerable to injury, inflammation and destruction by acidic and weakly acidic refluxates, it may in part explain incidences of recurrence of BE following ablation. PMID:23318477

  17. Raw Milk Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, John A.

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk. In some studies, up to a third of all raw milk samples contained pathogens, even when sourced from clinically healthy animals or from milk that appeared to be of good quality. This review critically evaluates some of the popularly suggested benefits of raw milk. Claims related to improved nutrition, prevention of lactose intolerance, or provision of “good” bacteria from the consumption of raw milk have no scientific basis and are myths. There are some epidemiological data that indicate that children growing up in a farming environment are associated with a decreased risk of allergy and asthma; a variety of environmental factors may be involved and there is no direct evidence that raw milk consumption is involved in any “protective” effect. PMID:27340300

  18. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. PMID:26534904

  19. Does milk matter: Is children's intake affected by the type or amount of milk served at a meal?

    PubMed

    Kling, Samantha M R; Roe, Liane S; Sanchez, Christine E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2016-10-01

    Increasing the energy density (ED) and portion size of foods promotes additional energy intake, but the effect of similar changes in milk is unknown. Using a crossover design, we tested the effect of varying the ED and portion size of milk served with lunch on preschool children's intake. Lunch was served in childcare classrooms on 4 days to 125 children aged 3-5 y (67 boys; 58 girls). Across the meals, milk was varied in ED (lower-ED [1% fat]; higher-ED [3.25% fat]) and portion size (100% [183 g]; 150% [275 g]). Foods in the meal were not varied; children ate as much of the meal as they wanted. Serving higher-ED milk did not affect milk intake by weight, but increased energy intake from milk by 31 ± 2 kcal compared to serving lower-ED milk (P < 0.0001). Serving the 150% portion of milk increased milk intake by 20 ± 3 kcal compared to serving the 100% portion (P < 0.0001). Increases in both ED and portion size combined to increase milk intake by 49 ± 4 kcal (63%; P < 0.0001). Across all children, food intake decreased when higher-ED rather than lower-ED milk was served, but meal energy intake (food + milk) did not change significantly. This response varied by sex: for boys, serving higher-ED milk decreased food intake by 43 ± 8 kcal (P < 0.0001) but did not affect meal energy intake, while for girls, higher-ED milk did not reduce food intake so that meal energy intake increased by 24 ± 10 kcal (P = 0.03). Thus, boys adjusted food intake in response to changes in ED of milk consumed with lunch, but girls did not. Serving milk in larger portions promotes intake of this nutrient-dense beverage, but the effects of milk ED on meal intake vary between children. PMID:27338218

  20. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants. PMID:23158513

  1. Histatin-1 Expression in Human Lacrimal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Zeeshan; Jaboori, Assraa Jassim; Jassim, Sarmad H.; Jain, Sandeep; Aakalu, Vinay K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Study of human lacrimal cell biology is limited by poor access to tissue samples, heterogeneous cell composition of tissue and a lack of established lacrimal epithelial markers. In order to further our understanding of lacrimal cell biology, we sought to find a better marker for human lacrimal epithelial cells, compared to what has been reported in the literature. Methods We utilized human Muller’s muscle conjunctival resection (MMCR) specimens containing accessory lacrimal gland (ALG) and cadaveric main lacrimal gland (MLG) as sources of lacrimal tissue. Candidate markers were sought using human ALG tissue from MMCR specimens, isolated by laser capture microdissection (LCM). Affymetrix® analysis was performed on total RNA isolated from FFPE samples to profile transcription in ALG. MMCR tissue sections were assessed by immunofluorescence using antibodies for histatin-1, lactoferrin, E-cadherin (E-cad) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed to analyze the expression of histatin-1, E-cad and lactoferrin from cadaveric MLG. Results Histatin-1 is expressed in ALG and MLG, localizes to lacrimal epithelium, and to a greater degree than do other putative lacrimal epithelial markers. Conclusions Histatin-1 is a good marker for human lacrimal epithelium in ALG and MLG and can be used to identify lacrimal cells in future studies. PMID:26824896

  2. Verification of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked twice daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to verify factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked twice (2x) per d. Milk weights for both milkings were recorded automatically by 30 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors. Data was split into 2 subsets...

  3. Physiological properties of milk ingredients released by fermentation.

    PubMed

    Beermann, Christopher; Hartung, Julia

    2013-02-01

    The demand for health-promoting food ingredients rises within an increasing market worldwide. Different milks fermented with bacteria, yeasts, moulds or enzymes from animal, plant and microbial sources offer a broad range of possibilities to cover different health aspects with new bioactive components. By the fermentation process interesting ingredients are enriched and released from the matrix, like lactoferrin, micro-nutrients, CLA and sphingolipids or synthesized, such as exo-polysaccharides and bioactive peptides. In particular, milk derived bioactive peptides exert several important health-promoting activities, such as anti-hypertensive, anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, immune-modulatory, opioid and mineral-binding properties. Milk-fermentation processes with probiotic bacteria synergistically combine health supporting bacterial and milk ingredient aspects which include new therapeutic solutions concerning hypercholesterolemia, carcinogenic intoxications, treatment of diarrhea, reduction of intestine pathogens, and supporting natural immune defense. Especially, milk-proteins and associated bioactive peptides released during microbial or enzymatic fermentation of milk offer a broad spectrum of new functional properties, for instance anti-hypertensive, anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, immuno-modulatory, opioid and mineral-binding properties. This review aimed at discussing recent research activities on physiological purposes and technical process aspects of functional components from fermented milk with a specific focus on biofunctional peptides released from fermented milk proteins. PMID:23111492

  4. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Modernization Act Food Safety and Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... THIS: Real Stories About the Dangers of Raw Milk “My daughter turned into a completely different person ...

  5. Induction of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Affects the Ruminal Microbiome and Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Joshua C.; Luan, Shaoyu; Cardoso, Felipe C.; Derakhshani, Hooman; Khafipour, Ehsan; Loor, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) negatively impacts the dairy industry by decreasing dry matter intake, milk production, profitability, and increasing culling rate and death loss. Six ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated incomplete Latin square design to determine the effects of SARA induction on the ruminal microbiome and epithelium. Experimental periods were 10 days with days 1–3 for ad libitum intake of control diet, followed by 50% feed restriction on day 4, and ad libitum access on day 5 to the basal diet or the basal diet with an additional 10% of a 50:50 wheat/barley pellet. Based on subsequent ruminal pH, cows were grouped (SARA grouping; SG) as Non-SARA or SARA based on time <5.6 pH (0 and 3.4 h, respectively). Ruminal samples were collected on days 1 and 6 of each period prior to feeding and separated into liquid and solid fractions. Microbial DNA was extracted for bacterial analysis using 16S rRNA gene paired-end sequencing on the MiSeq Illumina platform and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ruminal epithelium biopsies were taken on days 1 and 6 before feeding. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine gene expression in rumen epithelium. Bray–Curtis similarity indicated samples within the liquid fraction separated by day and coincided with an increased relative abundance of genera Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus on day 6 (P < 0.06). Although Firmicutes was the predominant phyla in the solid fraction, a SG × day interaction (P < 0.01) indicated a decrease on day 6 for SARA cows. In contrast, phylum Bacteroidetes increased on day 6 (P < 0.01) for SARA cows driven by greater genera Prevotella and YRC22 (P < 0.01). Streptococcus bovis and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens populations tended to increase on day 6 but were not affected by SG. In ruminal epithelium, CLDN1 and CLDN4 expression increased on day 6 (P < 0.03) 24 h after SARA induction and a tendency for a SG × day interaction (P < 0.10) was

  6. Induction of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Affects the Ruminal Microbiome and Epithelium.

    PubMed

    McCann, Joshua C; Luan, Shaoyu; Cardoso, Felipe C; Derakhshani, Hooman; Khafipour, Ehsan; Loor, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) negatively impacts the dairy industry by decreasing dry matter intake, milk production, profitability, and increasing culling rate and death loss. Six ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated incomplete Latin square design to determine the effects of SARA induction on the ruminal microbiome and epithelium. Experimental periods were 10 days with days 1-3 for ad libitum intake of control diet, followed by 50% feed restriction on day 4, and ad libitum access on day 5 to the basal diet or the basal diet with an additional 10% of a 50:50 wheat/barley pellet. Based on subsequent ruminal pH, cows were grouped (SARA grouping; SG) as Non-SARA or SARA based on time <5.6 pH (0 and 3.4 h, respectively). Ruminal samples were collected on days 1 and 6 of each period prior to feeding and separated into liquid and solid fractions. Microbial DNA was extracted for bacterial analysis using 16S rRNA gene paired-end sequencing on the MiSeq Illumina platform and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ruminal epithelium biopsies were taken on days 1 and 6 before feeding. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine gene expression in rumen epithelium. Bray-Curtis similarity indicated samples within the liquid fraction separated by day and coincided with an increased relative abundance of genera Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus on day 6 (P < 0.06). Although Firmicutes was the predominant phyla in the solid fraction, a SG × day interaction (P < 0.01) indicated a decrease on day 6 for SARA cows. In contrast, phylum Bacteroidetes increased on day 6 (P < 0.01) for SARA cows driven by greater genera Prevotella and YRC22 (P < 0.01). Streptococcus bovis and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens populations tended to increase on day 6 but were not affected by SG. In ruminal epithelium, CLDN1 and CLDN4 expression increased on day 6 (P < 0.03) 24 h after SARA induction and a tendency for a SG × day interaction (P < 0.10) was

  7. Mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Boutinaud, Marion; Herve, Lucile; Lollivier, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Milk is produced in the udder by mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Milk contains MEC, which are gradually exfoliated from the epithelium during lactation. Isolation of MEC from milk using immunomagnetic separation may be a useful non-invasive method to investigate transcriptional regulations in ruminants’ udder. This review aims to describe the process of isolating MEC from milk, to provide an overview on the studies that use this method to analyze gene expression by qRT PCR and to evaluate the validity of this method by analyzing and comparing the results between studies. In several goat and cow studies, consistent reductions in alpha-lactalbumin mRNA levels during once-daily milking (ODM) and in SLC2A1 mRNA level during feed restriction are observed. The effect of ODM on alpha-lactalbumin mRNA level was similarly observed in milk isolated MEC and mammary biopsy. Moreover, we and others showed decreasing alpha-lactalbumin and increasing BAX mRNA levels with advanced stages of lactation in dairy cows and buffalo. The relevance of using the milk-isolated MEC method to analyze mammary gene expression is proven, as the transcript variations were also consistent with milk yield and composition variations under the effect of different factors such as prolactin inhibition or photoperiod. However, the RNA from milk-isolated MEC is particularly sensitive to degradation. This could explain the differences obtained between milk-isolated MEC and mammary biopsy in two studies where gene expression was compared using qRT-PCR or RNA Sequencing analyses. As a conclusion, when the RNA quality is conserved, MEC isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary mRNA to study various factors that impact milk yield and composition (ODM, feeding level, endocrine status, photoperiod modulation, and stage of lactation). PMID:26579195

  8. Behavior, milk yield, and milk composition of machine-and hand-milked Murgese mares.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, M; Albenzio, M; Marino, R; Muscio, A; Zezza, T; Sevi, A

    2007-06-01

    A 25-d trial was performed to assess the effects of machine and hand milking on behavior, and milk yield and composition of mares; the trial involved 8 Murgese mares. Milk yield was higher (7.69 vs. 4.91 kg) and milking time was shorter (1.80 vs. 5.40 min) in machine-milked than in hand-milked mares. Machine milking of mares also resulted in a greater fat content of milk (1.63%) than did hand milking (1.06%). Milking system did not affect casein content, nitrogen fractions, or somatic cell counts. No differences in behavioral activities and in response to humans emerged. Results indicate that machine milking of mares could improve the yield and gross composition of horse milk, without adverse consequences on mare behavior and response to humans. PMID:17517717

  9. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-06-15

    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk. PMID:26927981

  10. Neuropilins: expression and roles in the epithelium.

    PubMed

    Wild, Jonathan R L; Staton, Carolyn A; Chapple, Keith; Corfe, Bernard M

    2012-04-01

    Initially found expressed in neuronal and then later in endothelial cells, it is well established that the transmembrane glycoproteins neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and neuropilin-2 (NRP2) play essential roles in axonal growth and guidance and in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Neuropilin expression and function in epithelial cells has received little attention when compared with neuronal and endothelial cells. Overexpression of NRPs is shown to enhance growth, correlate with invasion and is associated with poor prognosis in various tumour types, especially those of epithelial origin. The contribution of NRP and its ligands to tumour growth and metastasis has spurred a strong interest in NRPs as novel chemotherapy drug targets. Given NRP's role as a multifunctional co-receptor with an ability to bind with disparate ligand families, this has sparked new areas of research implicating NRPs in diverse biological functions. Here, we review the growing body of research demonstrating NRP expression and role in the normal and neoplastic epithelium. PMID:22414290

  11. Adenocarcinoma of the pigmented ciliary epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Sukeda, Aoi; Mori, Taisuke; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the pigmented ciliary epithelium is an exceptionally rare eye tumour, with only a few cases reported to date. We encountered such a case in a 50-year-old woman who reported seeing floaters in her right eye. Fundus examination and MRI revealed an elevated lesion located in the ciliary body compressing the lens. The ciliary body was resected under the diagnosis of ciliary adenoma. On histological examination, the tumour exhibited epithelial features with glandular formation and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. The tumour invaded the subepithelial stroma of the ciliary body. Immunohistochemical findings were positive for cytokeratin OSCAR, AE1/AE3, CK7, EMA, S100, Melan A, HMB45, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. PMID:25015166

  12. Ultrastructure of gingival epithelium in chronic gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Oskolsky, G I; Jurkevich, N V

    2012-03-01

    We studied ultrastructural reorganization of the gingival mucosa in chronic gingivitis. It was found that chronic inflammation leads to significant intracellular reorganization of epitheliocytes in the basal and prickle cell layers of gingival epithelium and their pronounced structural and functional heterogeneity. The main ultrastructural alterations of epitheliocytes in the basal and prickle cell layers include pronounced vacuolization of the perinuclear zone (partial necrosis), formation of thick tonofilament bundles, focal lysis and sequestration of glycogen, and destruction and reduction of intracellular junctions in some cases accompanied by acantholytic alterations. Chronic inflammation in the gingival mucosa induced extensive remodeling of the lamina propria manifested in multiplication of the basement membrane and obturation of blood vessels with collagen fibrils. PMID:22803154

  13. Velocity fields in a collectively migrating epithelium.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, L; Reffay, M; Grasland-Mongrain, E; Poujade, M; Ladoux, B; Buguin, A; Silberzan, P

    2010-05-19

    We report quantitative measurements of the velocity field of collectively migrating cells in a motile epithelium. The migration is triggered by presenting free surface to an initially confluent monolayer by using a microstencil technique that does not damage the cells. To avoid the technical difficulties inherent in the tracking of single cells, the field is mapped using the technique of particle image velocimetry. The main relevant parameters, such as the velocity module, the order parameter, and the velocity correlation function, are then extracted from this cartography. These quantities are dynamically measured on two types of cells (collectively migrating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and fibroblastlike normal rat kidney (NRK) cells), first as they approach confluence, and then when the geometrical constraints are released. In particular, for MDCK cells filling up the patterns, we observe a sharp decrease in the average velocity after the point of confluence, whereas the densification of the monolayer is much more regular. After the peeling off of the stencil, a velocity correlation length of approximately 200 microm is measured for MDCK cells versus only approximately 40 microm for the more independent NRK cells. Our conclusions are supported by parallel single-cell tracking experiments. By using the biorthogonal decomposition of the velocity field, we conclude that the velocity field of MDCK cells is very coherent in contrast with the NRK cells. The displacements in the fingers arising from the border of MDCK epithelia are very oriented along their main direction. They influence the velocity field in the epithelium over a distance of approximately 200 microm. PMID:20441742

  14. Expression of homeobox genes in the mouse olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Marta; Chang, Isabelle; Degl'Innocenti, Andrea; Omura, Masayo

    2016-10-01

    Homeobox genes constitute a large family of genes widely studied because of their role in the establishment of the body pattern. However, they are also involved in many other events during development and adulthood. The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) is an excellent model to study neurogenesis in the adult nervous system. Analyses of homeobox genes during development show that some of these genes are involved in the formation and establishment of cell diversity in the MOE. Moreover, the mechanisms of expression of odorant receptors (ORs) constitute one of the biggest enigmas in the field. Analyses of OR promoters revealed the presence of homeodomain binding sites in their sequences. Here we characterize the expression patterns of a set of 49 homeobox genes in the MOE with in situ hybridization. We found that seven of them (Dlx3, Dlx5, Dlx6, Msx1, Meis1, Isl1, and Pitx1) are zonally expressed. The homeobox gene Emx1 is expressed in three guanylate cyclase(+) populations, two located in the MOE and the third one in an olfactory subsystem known as Grüneberg ganglion located at the entrance of the nasal cavity. The homeobox gene Tshz1 is expressed in a unique patchy pattern across the MOE. Our findings provide new insights to guide functional studies that aim to understand the complexity of transcription factor expression and gene regulation in the MOE. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2713-2739, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27243442

  15. Markets, breastfeeding and trade in mothers' milk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julie P

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to a special issue on the economics of breastfeeding draws attention to the lack of economic justice for women. Human milk is being bought and sold. Commodifying and marketing human milk and breastfeeding risk reinforcing social and gender economic inequities. Yet there are potential benefits for breastfeeding, and some of the world's poorest women might profit. How can we improve on the present situation where everyone except the woman who donates her milk benefits? Breastfeeding is a global food production system with unsurpassed capacity to promote children's food security and maternal and child health, but it is side-lined by trade negotiators who seek instead to expand world markets for cow's milk-based formula. Regulators focus on potential risks of feeding donated human milk, rather than on health risks of exposing infants and young children to highly processed bovine milk. Similarly, policymakers aspire to provide universal health care access that may be unaffordable when two thirds of the world's children are not optimally nourished in infancy, resulting in a global double burden of infectious and chronic disease. Universal breastfeeding requires greater commitment of resources, but such investment remains lacking despite the cost effectiveness of breastfeeding protection, support and promotion in and beyond health services. Women invest substantially in breastfeeding but current policy - epitomised by the G20 approach to the 'gender gap' - fails to acknowledge the economic value of this unpaid care work. Economic incentives for mothers to optimally breastfeed are dwarfed by health system and commercial incentives promoting formula feeding and by government fiscal policies which ignore the resulting economic costs. 'The market' fails to protect breastfeeding, because market prices give the wrong signals. An economic approach to the problem of premature weaning from optimal breastfeeding may help prioritise global maternity protection as

  16. Effects of automatic cluster removal and feeding during milking on milking efficiency, milk yield and milk fat quality.

    PubMed

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Stadtmüller, Larissa; Pickova, Jana; Wiking, Lars; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    In order to increase milking efficiency, the effects of two different cluster take-off levels (200 and 800 g/min) and feeding vs. not feeding during milking were tested in a Latin square design study including 32 cows. Milk yield, milking time, milk flow and milking interval were measured and milk samples were analysed for gross composition, sodium and potassium concentration, free fatty acid (FFA) content, milk fat globule (MFG) size, MFG membrane (MFGM) material and fatty acid composition. Residual milk was harvested to evaluate udder emptying. Increasing the take-off level from 200 to 800 g/min at the whole udder level decreased milking time and increased harvest flow. Udder emptying decreased slightly, but there were no effects on milk yield, FFA content or MFGM. There were interactive effects of take-off level and feeding during milking on content of fatty acids C4:0, C6:0, C16:0, C18:3(n-3) and C20:0. Feeding during milking increased milk yield per day and decreased milking interval. Sodium and potassium concentrations in milk were unaffected by treatments, indicating no loss of tight junction integrity. From these results, it is clear that feeding during milking should be used to increase milk yield and improve milking efficiency, regardless of take-off level used, and that the effect of feeding is more pronounced when a low take-off level is used. Feeding seemed to counteract the effects of the low take-off level on milking time and milking interval. Low take-off levels can therefore be used in combination with feeding. PMID:27210491

  17. Cytolethal Distending Toxin Damages the Oral Epithelium of Gingival Explants

    PubMed Central

    Damek-Poprawa, M.; Haris, M.; Volgina, A.; Korostoff, J.; DiRienzo, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt), expressed by the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, inhibits the proliferation of cultured epithelial cells by arresting the cell cycle. The gingival epithelium is an early line of defense against microbial assault. When damaged, bacteria collectively gain entry into underlying connective tissue where microbial products can affect infiltrating inflammatory cells, leading to the destruction of the attachment apparatus. Histological evaluation of rat and healthy human gingival tissue exposed ex vivo to the Cdt for 36 and 18 hours, respectively, revealed extensive detachment of the keratinized outer layer and distention of spinous and basal cells in the oral epithelium. Treated human tissue also exhibited disruption of rete pegs and dissolution of cell junctions. Cells in the connective tissue appeared unaffected. Primary gingival epithelial cells, but not gingival fibroblasts, isolated from the same healthy human tissue were cell-cycle-arrested when treated with the toxin. These findings provide new evidence that the Cdt severely damages the oral epithelium, ex vivo, by specifically targeting epithelial cells, in situ. The Cdt shows preferential targeting of the epithelium as opposed to connective tissue in animal and human gingival explant models. Abbreviations: cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt), connective tissue (CT), 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC), human gingival explants (HGX), human gingival fibroblasts (HGF), junctional epithelium (JE), oral epithelium (OE), rete pegs (RP), sulcular epithelium (SE) PMID:21471326

  18. The tumor suppressor PTEN and the PDK1 kinase regulate formation of the columnar neural epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Grego-Bessa, Joaquim; Bloomekatz, Joshua; Castel, Pau; Omelchenko, Tatiana; Baselga, José; Anderson, Kathryn V

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis and stability are essential for normal development and organ homeostasis. The mouse neural plate is a cuboidal epithelium that remodels into a columnar pseudostratified epithelium over the course of 24 hr. Here we show that the transition to a columnar epithelium fails in mutant embryos that lack the tumor suppressor PTEN, although proliferation, patterning and apical-basal polarity markers are normal in the mutants. The Pten phenotype is mimicked by constitutive activation of PI3 kinase and is rescued by the removal of PDK1 (PDPK1), but does not depend on the downstream kinases AKT and mTORC1. High resolution imaging shows that PTEN is required for stabilization of planar cell packing in the neural plate and for the formation of stable apical-basal microtubule arrays. The data suggest that appropriate levels of membrane-associated PDPK1 are required for stabilization of apical junctions, which promotes cell elongation, during epithelial morphogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12034.001 PMID:26809587

  19. Death in the intestinal epithelium-basic biology and implications for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Blander, J Magarian

    2016-07-01

    Every 4-5 days, intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are terminated as they reach the end of their life. This process ensures that the epithelium is comprised of the fittest cells that maintain an impermeable barrier to luminal contents and the gut microbiota, as well as the most metabolically able cells that conduct functions in nutrient absorption, digestion, and secretion of antimicrobial peptides. IEC are terminated by apical extrusion-or shedding-from the intestinal epithelial monolayer into the gut lumen. Whether death by apoptosis signals extrusion or death follows expulsion by younger IEC has been a matter of debate. Seemingly a minor detail, IEC death before or after apical extrusion bears weight on the potential contribution of apoptotic IEC to intestinal homeostasis as a consequence of their recognition by intestinal lamina propria phagocytes. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), excessive death is observed in the ileal and colonic epithelium. The precise mode of IEC death in IBD is not defined. A highly inflammatory milieu within the intestinal lamina propria, rich in the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, increases IEC shedding and compromises barrier integrity fueling more inflammation. A milestone in the treatment of IBD, anti-TNF-α therapy, may promote mucosal healing by reversing increased and inflammation-associated IEC death. Understanding the biology and consequences of cell death in the intestinal epithelium is critical to the design of new avenues for IBD therapy. PMID:27250564

  20. GRHL2 coordinates regeneration of a polarized mucociliary epithelium from basal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xia; Bali, Aman S.; Randell, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudostratified airway epithelium of the lung is composed of polarized ciliated and secretory cells maintained by basal stem/progenitor cells. An important question is how lineage choice and differentiation are coordinated with apical–basal polarity and epithelial morphogenesis. Our previous studies indicated a key integrative role for the transcription factor Grainyhead-like 2 (Grhl2). In this study, we present further evidence for this model using conditional gene deletion during the regeneration of airway epithelium and clonal organoid culture. We also use CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in primary human basal cells differentiating into organoids and mucociliary epithelium in vitro. Loss of Grhl2 inhibits organoid morphogenesis and the differentiation of ciliated cells and reduces the expression of both notch and ciliogenesis genes (Mcidas, Rfx2, and Myb) with distinct Grhl2 regulatory sites. The genome editing of other putative target genes reveals roles for zinc finger transcription factor Znf750 and small membrane adhesion glycoprotein in promoting ciliogenesis and barrier function as part of a network of genes coordinately regulated by Grhl2. PMID:26527742

  1. Effect of milking pipeline height on machine milking efficiency and milk quality in sheep.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J R; Peris, C; Rodríguez, M; Molina, M P; Fernández, N

    2004-06-01

    This experiment studied the effect of milking pipeline height (mid- vs. low-level milking system) on milking efficiency and milk composition. The experiment was of 8 wk duration: 2 wk preexperimental period and 6 wk experimental, in crossover design (2 x 2). Ewes were milked in a 2 x 12 milking parlor with 2 milking pipelines set at a milking vacuum of 36 kPa with a pulsation rate of 180 cycle/min and ratio of 50%. Height of the milkline had no effect on yield of milk at the time of milking, yield after stripping, milk composition, SCC, and number of teatcup fall-offs. Nor did milkline height have any effect on milk lipolysis or on the distribution of fatty acids. The level of free fatty acids was higher in evening than in morning milk (60.5 vs. 25.6 mg/L). Likewise, the increase in the degree of lipolysis between the receiver (40.4 mg/L) and the refrigeration tank (45.8 mg/L) underlines the importance of the milk delivery line design. The parameters (time and flow rate) that define the first peak in the milk emission kinetics were statistically different between lines, so care must be taken when comparing milk emission curves from both types of pipeline. PMID:15453479

  2. Cell Jamming in the Airway Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Ah; Fredberg, Jeffrey J

    2016-03-01

    Hallmarks of asthma include chronic airway inflammation, progressive airway remodeling, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The initiation and perpetuation of these processes are attributable at least in part to critical events within the airway epithelium, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. New evidence now suggests that epithelial cells derived from donors without asthma versus donors with asthma, even in the absence of inflammatory cells or mediators, express modes of collective migration that innately differ not only in the amount of migration but also in the kind of migration. The maturing cell layer tends to undergo a transition from a hypermobile, fluid-like, unjammed phase in which cells readily rearrange, exchange places, and flow, to a quiescent, solid-like, jammed phase in which cells become virtually frozen in place. Moreover, the unjammed phase defines a phenotype that can be perpetuated by the compressive stresses caused by bronchospasm. Importantly, in cells derived from donors with asthma versus donors without asthma, this jamming transition becomes substantially delayed, thus suggesting an immature or dysmature epithelial phenotype in asthma. PMID:27027955

  3. Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

    2006-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress. PMID:16475003

  4. Stroma–epithelium crosstalk in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yi-Nong; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2009-01-01

    The critical role played by stroma–epithelium crosstalk in carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer has been increasingly recognized. These interactions are mediated by a variety of paracrine factors secreted by cancer cells and/or stromal cells. In human prostate cancer, reactive stroma is characterized by an increase in myofibroblasts and a corresponding amplification of extracellular matrix production and angiogenesis. Permanent genetic mutations have been reported in stromal cells as well as in tumour cells. Transforming growth factor-β, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factor signalling pathways are involved in the process of angiogenesis, whereas hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, epidermal growth factor, CXC12 and Interleukin-6 play active roles in the progression, androgen-independent conversion and distal metastasis of prostate cancer. Some soluble factors have reciprocal interactions with androgens and the androgen receptor (AR), and can even activate AR in the absence of the androgen ligand. In this article, we review the complex interactions between cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment, and discuss the potential therapeutic targets in the stromal compartment of prostate cancer. PMID:19098934

  5. Biochemical studies of the tracheobronchial epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Mass, M.J.; Kaufman, D.G.

    1984-06-01

    Tracheobronchial epithelium has been a focus of intense investigation in the field of chemical carcinogenesis. We have reviewed some biochemical investigations that have evolved through linkage with carcinogenesis research. These areas of investigation have included kinetics of carcinogen metabolism, identification of carcinogen metabolites, levels of carcinogen binding to DNA, and analysis of carcinogen-DNA adducts. Such studies appear to have provided a reasonable explanation for the susceptibilities of the respiratory tracts of rats and hamsters to carcinogenesis by benzo(a)pyrene. Coinciding with the attempts to understand the initiation of carcinogenesis in the respiratory tract has also been a major thrust aimed at effecting its prevention both in humans and in animal models for human bronchogenic carcinoma. These studies have concerned the effects of derivatives of vitamin A (retinoids) and their influence on normal cell biology and biochemistry of this tissue. Recent investigations have included the effects of retinoid deficiency on the synthesis of RNA and the identification of RNA species associated with this biological state, and also have included the effects of retinoids on the synthesis of mucus-related glycoproteins. Tracheal organ cultures from retinoid-deficient hamsters have been used successfully to indicate the potency of synthetic retinoids by monitoring the reversal of squamous metaplasia. Techniques applied to this tissue have also served to elucidate features of the metabolism of retinoic acid using high pressure liquid chromatography. 94 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Human vomeronasal epithelium development: An immunohistochemical overview.

    PubMed

    Dénes, Lóránd; Pap, Zsuzsanna; Szántó, Annamária; Gergely, István; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2015-06-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is the receptor structure of the vomeronasal system (VNS) in vertebrates. It is found bilaterally in the submucosa of the inferior part of the nasal septum. There are ongoing controversies regarding the functionality of this organ in humans. In this study we propose the immunohistochemical evaluation of changes in components of the human vomeronasal epithelium during foetal development. We used 45 foetuses of different age, which were included in three age groups. After VNO identification immunohistochemical reactions were performed using primary antibodies against the following: neuron specific enolase, calretinin, neurofilament, chromogranin, synaptophysin, cytokeratin 7, pan-cytokeratin and S100 protein. Digital slides were obtained and following colorimetric segmentation, surface area measurements were performed. The VNO was found in less than half of the studied specimens (42.2%). Neuron specific enolase and calretinin immunoexpression showed a decreasing trend with foetal age, while the other neural/neuroendocrine markers were negative in all specimens. Cytokeratin 7 expression increased with age, while Pan-Ctk had no significant variations. S100 protein immunoexpression also decreased around the VNO. The results of the present work uphold the theory of regression of the neuroepithelium that is present during initial stages of foetal development. PMID:26132837

  7. Changes in the adult vertebrate auditory sensory epithelium after trauma.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Elizabeth C

    2013-03-01

    Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

  8. Effects on milk yield of milking interval regularity and teat cup attachment failures with robotic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Busto, Isabel

    2005-02-01

    A database consisting of 35291 milking records from 83 cows was built over a period of 10 months with the objectives of studying the effect of teat cup attachment failures and milking interval regularity on milk production with an automated milking system (AMS). The database collected records of lactation number, days in milk (DIM), milk production, interval between milkings (for both the entire udder and individual quarters in case of a teat cup attachment failure) and average and peak milk flows for each milking. The weekly coefficient of variation (CV) of milking intervals was used as a measure of milking regularity. DIM, milking intervals, and CV of milking intervals were divided into four categories coinciding with the four quartiles of their respective distributions. The data were analysed by analysis of variance with cow as a random effect and lactation number, DIM, the occurrence of a milking failure, and the intervals between milkings or the weekly CV of milking intervals as fixed effects. The incidence of attachment failures was 7.6% of total milkings. Milk production by quarters affected by a milking failure following the failure was numerically greater owing to the longer interval between milkings. When accounting for the effect of milking intervals, milk production by affected quarters following a milking failure was 26% lower than with regular milkings. However, the decrease in milk production by quarters affected by milking failures was more severe as DIM increased. Average and peak milk flows by quarters affected by a milking failure were lower than when milkings occurred normally. However, milk production recovered its former level within seven milkings following a milking failure. Uneven frequency (weekly CV of milking intervals >27%) decreased daily milk yield, and affected multiparous more negatively than primiparous cows. PMID:15747737

  9. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby only breast milk or iron-fortified formula during the first 12 months of life, not ... baby's diet. If breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas provide a healthy diet for your infant. Whether ...

  10. Breast milk jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor before deciding to give your newborn formula. It is best to keep breastfeeding. Babies need their mothers' milk. Although a baby full of formula can be less demanding, formula feeding may cause ...

  11. Milk Thistle (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... thistle can be used to treat cancer. A randomized clinical trial in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia ... children who did not take milk thistle. A randomized clinical trial in men who had surgery to ...

  12. Human Milk Fortification.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born <32 weeks' gestation prior to discharge home. Recent recommended dietary intakes (RDI) have been revised. Up to 4.2 g of protein and 135 kcal/kg per day is recommended for infants born very preterm. Additional supplements are needed to current commercial fortifiers to achieve these RDI and reduce the incidence of ex-uterine growth failure. A human milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population. PMID:26111568

  13. THE ROLE OF EPITHELIUM IN EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNIZATION.

    PubMed

    Sewall, H

    1925-10-01

    When a small amount of blood serum is dropped into the nose of a guinea pig the serum is absorbed by the mucous membrane and, after a definite period of incubation, the animal can be shown to have become profoundly changed. Depending upon the number of instillations, the interval between them and, especially, the quantity of serum instilled, the animal becomes either highly hypersensitive or strongly resistant to a toxic injection given by the vein. This resistance withstands a considerable series of increasing toxic injections and is strengthened with lapse of time,-contrary to the state of tolerance produced by traumatic methods. It is inferred that the absorption of foreign protein by the nose causes the formation of two different antibodies. One of these is allergic and excites to anaphylaxis; the other is protective and leads to true immuuity. The relative amount of either antibody can be regulated by modifying the amount of serum instilled. Added to a state of general allergy it is easy to produce, in the guinea pig, a special sensitization of the respiratory apparatus which leads, under appropriate stimulation, to attacks resembling those of bronchial asthma in man. No conclusion can be drawn at present concerning the nature or mode of action of the protective or immunizing antibody; but the indications are that its relations to the circulation and to tissue fixation resemble those which have been developed by other investigators in regard to the anaphylactic antibody. Evidence has been submitted that the living epithelium mediates between foreign protein and the organism in a way to favor specifically the elaboration of true immunity. PMID:17748743

  14. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling - Toward Understanding the Insulin-Like Properties of Camel Milk.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahman, Abdulrasheed O; Ismael, Mohammad A; Al-Hosaini, Khaled; Rame, Christelle; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Dupont, Joëlle; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases, including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR) and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1) and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2). Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26858689

  15. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling – Toward Understanding the Insulin-Like Properties of Camel Milk

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrahman, Abdulrasheed O.; Ismael, Mohammad A.; Al-Hosaini, Khaled; Rame, Christelle; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M.; Dupont, Joëlle; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases, including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR) and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1) and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2). Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26858689

  16. The role of the epithelium in airway remodeling in asthma.

    PubMed

    Davies, Donna E

    2009-12-01

    The bronchial epithelium is the barrier to the external environment and plays a vital role in protection of the internal milieu of the lung. It functions within the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit to control the local microenvironment and help maintain tissue homeostasis. However, in asthma, chronic perturbation of these homeostatic mechanisms leads to alterations in the structure of the airways, termed remodeling. Damage to the epithelium is now recognized to play a key role in driving airway remodeling. We have postulated that epithelial susceptibility to environmental stress and injury together with impaired repair responses results in generation of signals that act on the underlying mesenchyme to propagate and amplify inflammatory and remodeling responses in the submucosa. Many types of challenges to the epithelium, including pathogens, allergens, environmental pollutants, cigarette smoke, and even mechanical forces, can elicit production of mediators by the epithelium, which can be translated into remodeling responses by the mesenchyme. Several important mediators of remodeling have been identified, most notably transforming growth factor-beta, which is released from damaged/repairing epithelium or in response to inflammatory mediators, such as IL-13. The cross talk between the epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme to drive remodeling responses is considered in the context of subepithelial fibrosis and potential pathogenetic mechanisms linked to the asthma susceptibility gene, a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)33. PMID:20008875

  17. Milk-borne campylobacter infection.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, D A; Jones, D M

    1981-01-01

    The common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. C jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. Pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. In England and Wales 3% of milk retailed is still unpasteurised, and in the light of these findings it is suggested that only pasteurised milk should be sold to the public. PMID:6786504

  18. Protective responses to sublytic complement in the retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li Xuan; Toops, Kimberly A; Lakkaraju, Aparna

    2016-08-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a key site of injury in inherited and age-related macular degenerations. Abnormal activation of the complement system is a feature of these blinding diseases, yet how the RPE combats complement attack is poorly understood. The complement cascade terminates in the cell-surface assembly of membrane attack complexes (MACs), which promote inflammation by causing aberrant signal transduction. Here, we investigated mechanisms crucial for limiting MAC assembly and preserving cellular integrity in the RPE and asked how these are compromised in models of macular degeneration. Using polarized primary RPE and the pigmented Abca4(-/-) Stargardt disease mouse model, we provide evidence for two protective responses occurring within minutes of complement attack, which are essential for maintaining mitochondrial health in the RPE. First, accelerated recycling of the membrane-bound complement regulator CD59 to the RPE cell surface inhibits MAC formation. Second, fusion of lysosomes with the RPE plasma membrane immediately after complement attack limits sustained elevations in intracellular calcium and prevents mitochondrial injury. Cholesterol accumulation in the RPE, induced by vitamin A dimers or oxidized LDL, inhibits these defense mechanisms by activating acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase), which increases tubulin acetylation and derails organelle traffic. Defective CD59 recycling and lysosome exocytosis after complement attack lead to mitochondrial fragmentation and oxidative stress in the RPE. Drugs that stimulate cholesterol efflux or inhibit ASMase restore both these critical safeguards in the RPE and avert complement-induced mitochondrial injury in vitro and in Abca4(-/-) mice, indicating that they could be effective therapeutic approaches for macular degenerations. PMID:27432952

  19. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  20. Camel milk is a safer choice than goat milk for feeding children with cow milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Ehlayel, Mohammad; Bener, Abdulbari; Abu Hazeima, Khalid; Al-Mesaifri, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticaria, 17 (39.5%) atopic dermatitis, 10 (26.3%) anaphylaxis. WBC was 10, 039 ± 4, 735 cells/μL, eosinophil 1, 143 ± 2, 213 cells/μL, IgE 694 ± 921 IU/mL, cow's milk-specific-IgE 23.5 ± 35.6 KU/L. Only 7 children (18.4%) tested positive to camel milk and 24 (63.2%) to goat milk. 6 (15.8%) were positive to camel, goat, and cow milks. Patients with negative SPT tolerated well camel and goat milks. Conclusions. In CMA, SPT indicates low cross-reactivity between camel milk and cow milk, and camel milk is a safer alternative than goat milk. PMID:23724227

  1. [The antihypertensive effect of fermented milks].

    PubMed

    Domínguez González, Karina N; Cruz Guerrero, Alma E; Márquez, Humberto González; Gómez Ruiz, Lorena C; García-Garibay, Mariano; Rodríguez Serrano, Gabriela M

    2014-01-01

    There is a great variety of fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria that present health-promoting properties. Milk proteins are hydrolyzed by the proteolytic system of these microorganisms producing peptides which may also perform other functions in vivo. These peptides are encrypted within the primary structure of proteins and can be released through food processing, either by milk fermentation or enzymatic hydrolysis during gastrointestinal transit. They perform different activities, since they act in the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune and nervous systems. Bioactive peptides that have an antihypertensive, antithrombotic, antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effect on the cardiovascular system can reduce the risk factors for chronic disease manifestation and help improve human health. Most studied bioactive peptides are those which exert an antihypertensive effect by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Recently, the study of these peptides has focused on the implementation of tests to prove that they have an effect on health. This paper focuses on the production of ACEinhibitory antihypertensive peptides from fermented milks, its history, production and in vivo tests on rats and humans, on which its hypotensive effect has been shown. PMID:24721277

  2. How to reintroduce cow's milk?

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    In a child that is allergic to milk, the natural next step, following the elimination diet, is the reintroduction of cow's milk. Several questions may arise. When feasible, this reintroduction has many benefits for the child and his family. However, the disease needs to be well defined by physicians and explained to parents. They need to understand that there are different types of allergy to cow's milk, specifically IgE- and non-IgE-mediated, and each of these may exhibit both a variable duration and frequently an incomplete recovery. Deciding where to first reintroduce cow's milk to a child who has previously followed a milk-free diet, whether it be at home or in a hospital, also frequently presents an issue. Following this first reintroduction, the progressive increase of milk into the diet needs to be managed properly, as not all children will go back to a normal dairy products intake. Recent studies show that most children with milk allergy tolerate products containing baked milk and that their consumption might speed up recovery. Hence, the purpose of the milk challenge in a child on a milk-free diet is becoming, even in a child still reactive to milk, the first step of gradual and individually adapted reintroduction of milk or dairy products. When reintroduction of cow's milk does not work, immunotherapy becomes an option, and this is carried out in specialized centers. PMID:24112424

  3. A Regulatory Loop Involving PAX6, MITF, and WNT Signaling Controls Retinal Pigment Epithelium Development

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Kapil; Gasper, Melanie; Ou, Jingxing; Brucato, Martha; Clore-Gronenborn, Katharina; Pickel, James; Arnheiter, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The separation of the optic neuroepithelium into future retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a critical event in early eye development in vertebrates. Here we show in mice that the transcription factor PAX6, well-known for its retina-promoting activity, also plays a crucial role in early pigment epithelium development. This role is seen, however, only in a background genetically sensitized by mutations in the pigment cell transcription factor MITF. In fact, a reduction in Pax6 gene dose exacerbates the RPE-to-retina transdifferentiation seen in embryos homozygous for an Mitf null allele, and it induces such a transdifferentiation in embryos that are either heterozygous for the Mitf null allele or homozygous for an RPE–specific hypomorphic Mitf allele generated by targeted mutation. Conversely, an increase in Pax6 gene dose interferes with transdifferentiation even in homozygous Mitf null embryos. Gene expression analyses show that, together with MITF or its paralog TFEC, PAX6 suppresses the expression of Fgf15 and Dkk3. Explant culture experiments indicate that a combination of FGF and DKK3 promote retina formation by inhibiting canonical WNT signaling and stimulating the expression of retinogenic genes, including Six6 and Vsx2. Our results demonstrate that in conjunction with Mitf/Tfec Pax6 acts as an anti-retinogenic factor, whereas in conjunction with retinogenic genes it acts as a pro-retinogenic factor. The results suggest that careful manipulation of the Pax6 regulatory circuit may facilitate the generation of retinal and pigment epithelium cells from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:22792072

  4. Capillary electrophoresis of sialylated oligosaccharides in milk from different species.

    PubMed

    Monti, Lucia; Cattaneo, Tiziana Maria Piera; Orlandi, Mario; Curadi, Maria Claudia

    2015-08-28

    Oligosaccharides are relevant components of human milk, which have been quite well studied for their pre-biotic effect and their capacity in stimulating the immune system. Since oligosaccharides from milk of non-human mammals received so far less attention, the aim of this work was the application of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the analysis of sialylated oligosaccharides in cow, goat and equine (mare and donkey) milk to possibly identify potential sources of oligosaccharides to use as health promoting ingredients in functional foods. Human milk was used as reference milk. A recent CE technique was applied to resolve and quantify 3-sialyllactose (3-SL), 6-sialyllactose (6-SL) and disialyl-lacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT). Analysis of non-human milk samples confirmed differences among species and individuals: DSLNT, which was the most abundant compound in human milk (455-805μg/mL) was missing in most of the samples. In most cases, 3-SL showed to be the most concentrated of the quantified analytes, with values ranging from 12 to 77μg/mL. PMID:26228851

  5. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  6. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  7. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  8. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  10. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  11. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  12. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  13. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  14. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  15. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  16. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  17. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  18. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  19. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  1. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk....

  2. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  3. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  4. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  5. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  6. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  7. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  11. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  12. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  13. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  14. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  16. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  17. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  18. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  19. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  20. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  1. Milk and Soy Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical that a review of CMA would be linked to a review of soy allergy, as soy formula is often an alternative source of nutrition for infants who do not tolerate cow’s milk. The close resemblance between the proteins from soy and other related plants like peanut, and the resulting cross-reactivity and lack of predictive values for clinical reactivity, often make the diagnosis of soy allergy far more challenging. This review examines the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history and diagnosis of cow’s milk and soy allergy. Cross-reactivity and management of milk allergy are also discussed. PMID:21453810

  2. Lack of Efficacy of a Salience Nudge for Substituting Selection of Lower-Calorie for Higher-Calorie Milk in the Work Place

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Amy L.; Bogomolova, Svetlana; Buckley, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower-calorie) in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline). A sign with the message “Pick me! I am low calorie” was then placed on the low-fat milk and selection was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001) with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12). During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22), with low-fat milk selection remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p < 0.001) and no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.41). However, sub-analysis of the first two weeks of the intervention period indicated an increase in selection of both milk types (p = 0.03), but with a greater increase in low-fat milk selection (p = 0.01, milk-type × time interaction). However, milk selection then returned towards baseline during the rest of the intervention period. Thus, in the present setting, salience nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk selection, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices. PMID:26043033

  3. Lack of efficacy of a salience nudge for substituting selection of lower-calorie for higher-calorie milk in the work place.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Amy L; Bogomolova, Svetlana; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower calorie) in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline). A sign with the message "Pick me! I am low calorie" was then placed on the low-fat milk and consumption was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001) with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12). During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22), with low-fat milk consumption remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p < 0.001) and no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.41). However, sub-analysis of the first two weeks of the intervention period indicated an increase in selection of both milk types (p = 0.03), but with a greater increase in low-fat milk selection (p = 0.01, milk-type × time interaction). However, milk selection then returned towards baseline during the rest of the intervention period. Thus, in the present setting, salience nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk consumption, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices. PMID:26043033

  4. Characterization of side population cells from human airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Tillie-Louise; Shaheen, Furquan; Johnson, Andrew; Wadsworth, Samuel; Pechkovsky, Dmitri V; Jacoby, David B; Kicic, Anthony; Stick, Stephen M; Knight, Darryl A

    2008-10-01

    The airway epithelium is the first line of contact with the inhaled external environment and is continuously exposed to and injured by pollutants, allergens, and viruses. However, little is known about epithelial repair and in particular the identity and role of tissue resident stem/progenitor cells that may contribute to epithelial regeneration. The aims of the present study were to identify, isolate, and characterize side population (SP) cells in human tracheobronchial epithelium. Epithelial cells were obtained from seven nontransplantable healthy lungs and four asthmatic lungs by pronase digestion. SP cells were identified by verapamil-sensitive efflux of the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342. Using flow cytometry, CD45(-) SP, CD45(+) SP, and non-SP cells were isolated and sorted. CD45(-) SP cells made up 0.12% +/- 0.01% of the total epithelial cell population in normal airway but 4.1% +/- 0.06% of the epithelium in asthmatic airways. All CD45(-) SP cells showed positive staining for epithelial-specific markers cytokeratin-5, E-cadherin, ZO-1, and p63. CD45(-) SP cells exhibited stable telomere length and increased colony-forming and proliferative potential, undergoing population expansion for at least 16 consecutive passages. In contrast with non-SP cells, fewer than 100 CD45(-) SP cells were able to generate a multilayered and differentiated epithelium in air-liquid interface culture. SP cells are present in human tracheobronchial epithelium, exhibit both short- and long-term proliferative potential, and are capable of generation of differentiated epithelium in vitro. The number of SP cells is significantly greater in asthmatic airways, providing evidence of dysregulated resident SP cells in the asthmatic epithelium. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. PMID:18653771

  5. [Breast milk substitutes based on cow milk].

    PubMed

    Kofoed, P E

    1990-08-20

    "Adapted" or "humanized" breast-milk substitutes based on cows' milk are manufactured according to directives from a publication issued by the Ministry of Agriculture. The accepted recommendations for the daily intake (RDA) of nutrients is adjusted to the neonates' relatively low tolerance and provides a certain margin of safety in case of illness and slight inaccuracies in preparation. The recommendations are, however, often based on animal experiments, studies of pathological conditions etc. because the needs of the neonate are not known. There is a fundamental difference between RDA for chemical energy and various nutrients as the energy requirement is stated on the basis of average values while the requirements for specific nutrients are gives as upper and lower limiting values. In addition to nutrients, a long series of hormones, enzymes and antimicrobial factors are transferred to the infant via breast-milk. The nutritional significance of these is entirely or partially unknown. It is thus impossible to give the bottle-fed infant a diet which is quantitatively and qualitatively identical with that of a breastfed baby. Nevertheless, experience has shown that bottle-feeding usually proceeds satisfactorily. Galactosaemia and certain forms of medication in the mother constitute absolute contraindications to breast-feeding while phenylketonuria, certain maternal infections are relative contraindications to breast-feeding. Mothers should be prepared for breast-feeding already during pregnancy but in the cases where the mother cannot, should not or does not wish to breast-feed, it is important to counteract any feelings of guilt, neglect or incompetence and, on the other hand, give her thorough training in artificial feeding of the infant. PMID:2205958

  6. Apical electrolyte concentration modulates barrier function and tight junction protein localization in bovine mammary epithelium.

    PubMed

    Quesnell, Rebecca R; Erickson, Jamie; Schultz, Bruce D

    2007-01-01

    In vitro mammary epithelial cell models typically fail to form a consistently tight barrier that can effectively separate blood from milk. Our hypothesis was that mammary epithelial barrier function would be affected by changes in luminal ion concentration and inflammatory cytokines. Bovine mammary epithelial (BME-UV cell line) cells were grown to confluence on permeable supports with a standard basolateral medium and either high-electrolyte (H-elec) or low-electrolyte (L-elec) apical medium for 14 days. Apical media were changed to/from H-elec medium at predetermined times prior to assay. Transepithelial electrical resistance (R(te)) was highest in monolayers continuously exposed to apical L-elec. A time-dependent decline in R(te) began within 24 h of H-elec medium exposure. Change from H-elec medium to L-elec medium time-dependently increased R(te). Permeation by FITC-conjugated dextran was elevated across monolayers exposed to H-elec, suggesting compromise of a paracellular pathway. Significant alteration in occludin distribution was evident, concomitant with the changes in R(te), although total occludin was unchanged. Neither substitution of Na(+) with N-methyl-d-glucosamine (NMDG(+)) nor pharmacological inhibition of transcellular Na(+) transport pathways abrogated the effects of apical H-elec medium on R(te). Tumor necrosis factor alpha, but not interleukin-1beta nor interleukin-6, in the apical compartment caused a significant decrease in R(te) within 8 h. These results indicate that mammary epithelium is a dynamic barrier whose cell-cell contacts are acutely modulated by cytokines and luminal electrolyte environment. Results not only demonstrate that BME-UV cells are a model system representative of mammary epithelium but also provide critical information that can be applied to other mammary model systems to improve their physiological relevance. PMID:16885391

  7. Effect of changes in milking routine on milking related behaviour and milk removal in Tunisian dairy dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Atigui, Moufida; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Ayeb, Naziha; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    We studied the effects of changes in the milking routine (lack or presence of 30-s prestimulation, 0 or 1, 2 or 4-min delay between preparation and cluster attachment) and environmental perturbation (unusual loud sounds capable of frightening animals just after stall entry or during the course of milking) on milk removal and milking-related behaviour in dairy dromedary camels. A 30-s prestimulation decreased incidence of bimodal milk flow curves and increased occurrence of the best milk ejection patterns with higher milk flow but had limited effect on milk production in our well-trained animals within a good machine milking setting. However, unusual sounds heard from the beginning of milking or even after milk ejection caused inhibition or disruption of milk removal and modification of camels' behaviour. Milk ejection was significantly delayed (1·58±0·17 min), residual milk increased over 40% of total milk yield and average and peak milk flow rates were significantly lowered when unusual noises were heard from the beginning of milking. These environmental perturbations increased signs of vigilance and the number of attempts to escape the milking parlour. Delaying cluster attachment for over 1 min after the end of udder preparation caused serious milk losses. Up to 62% of total milk was withheld in the udder when the delay reached 4 min. Average and peak milk flow rates also decreased significantly with delayed milking. Signs of vigilance and attempts to escape from the milking parlour appeared when camels waited for over 2 min. After a 4-min delay, camels showed signs of acute stress. Defaecation prior to milk ejection (solid faeces) and rumination during milking can be used to assess camels' milk ejection during milking. Animal welfare and milking efficiency can be ensured when camels are pre-stimulated, milked in calm conditions and with cluster attachment within a maximum of a 1-min delay after stimulation. PMID:25234858

  8. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments. PMID:23178068

  9. Adoption of milk cooling technology among smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Factors influencing adoption of milk cooling technology were studied with data for 90 smallholder dairy farmers who were randomly selected from seven dairy cooperative societies in Kiambu County, Kenya. Logistic regression identified the age of the household head, daily household milk consumption, freehold land ownership, fodder production area, number of female calves, cooperative membership and cooperative services as significant factors influencing farmers' willingness to invest in milk cooling technology. These findings offer an entry point for increased interventions by policy makers and various dairy sector stakeholders in promoting milk cooling technology with the aim of significantly reducing post-harvest losses and increasing the sector's competitiveness. PMID:24048823

  10. Olfactory Epithelium Grafts in the Cerebral Cortex: An Immunohistochemical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Eric H.; DiNardo, Laurence J.; Costanzo, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop an alternative model for studying the regenerative capacity of olfactory neurons. Study Design An immunohistochemical analysis of mouse olfactory epithelium transplanted to the cerebral cortex. Methods Strips of olfactory epithelium removed from donor mice at postnatal day 5 to day 20 were inserted into the parietal cortex of adult mice. Recipient animals were allowed to survive for 25 to 120 days and then perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde 1 hour after bromodeoxyuridine injection. The brains were processed, and frozen sections were obtained. Sections through transplant tissue were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and compared with normal olfactory epithelium. Results Graft survival approached 85% with mature olfactory neurons detected in 35% of the transplants stained for olfactory marker protein. Transplant epithelium resembled normal olfactory epithelium containing mature olfactory neurons and axon bundles. Conclusions Studies of olfactory neuron regeneration have been limited by the inability to produce cultures with long-term viability. Olfactory epithelial grafts to the cerebral cortex provide an alternative approach to the study of olfactory neuron regeneration. PMID:11801979

  11. Meckel's diverticulum and ectopic epithelium: Evaluation of a complex relationship

    PubMed Central

    Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad; Khaing, Phue

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, for any incidentally discovered Meckel's diverticulum, the management approach is based on weighing the statistical odds of future complications against the risks of a diverticulectomy. Materials and Methods: The temporal relationship between age at Meckel's diverticulectomy and the presence of ectopic epithelium was evaluated in our series. A meta-analysis of all reported recent literature on this condition was subsequently performed to evaluate the strength of the relationship between ectopic epithelium and symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum. Results: There was a paucity of ectopic epithelium in Meckel's diverticulectomy specimens in infants operated on at less than 1 year of age. Having two or more ectopic epithelia in a diverticulum does not appear to carry an additive risk for complications. The meta-analysis confirmed that ectopic epithelium was the most significant factor that influenced surgical intervention in all series of Meckel's diverticulum. Conclusion: The relationship between ectopic epithelium and the development of symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum is complex. Further understanding of the development of ectopic rests in the diverticulum will facilitate elucidating the pathophysiology in symptomatic cases. PMID:24741211

  12. Histopathological study on changes of bronchial epithelium among chromate workers

    SciTech Connect

    Mikami, H.

    1982-09-01

    There have been many reports on lung cancer among chromate workers. Chromate compounds are thought to be a carcinogen and lung cancer among chromate workers is considered one of the occupational lung cancers. Recently, it is debated that metaplastic and hyperplastic changes of bronchial epithelium are revealed or not to the development of bronchogenic carcinoma. Histopathological study on changes of bronchial epithelium among chromate workers was performed in order to clarify the effect of chromate compounds to bronchial epithelium. The subjects were 14 cases of lung cancer among chromate workers. As a control, 18 cases of non cancer among chromate workers. Lung tissue which was obtained at necropsy or surgery was fixed by formalin and was produced cross-sections and was stained on Haematoxylin-Eosin. The results were as follows. 1. Of examined 235 cross-sections, basal cell hyperplasia of bronchial epithelium was found in 13 per cent. Squamous metaplasia was found in 29 per cent, on the contrary, atypical metaplastic changes were observed in 34 per cent. 2. Of four cases of carcinoma in situ and two cases of small invasive carcinoma, four cases revealed development from atypical squamous metaplasia to precancerous changes. 3. These cases developed invasive carcinoma from atypical squamous metaplasia for a long period, of which were found by successive exfoliative cytology of sputum. From these findings, it was concluded that inhalation of chromate dust affected bronchial epithelium and caused highly atypical squamous metaplasia which developed to carcinoma in situ and finally to invasive carcinoma.

  13. Milk Lacking α-Casein Leads to Permanent Reduction in Body Size in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Andreas F.; Huber, Reinhard C.; Lillico, Simon G.; Carlisle, Ailsa; Robinson, Claire J.; Neil, Claire; Petrie, Linda; Sorensen, Dorte B.; Olsson, I. Anna S.; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The major physiological function of milk is the transport of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals to mammalian offspring. Caseins, the major milk proteins, are secreted in the form of a micelle consisting of protein and calcium-phosphate. We have analysed the role of the milk protein α-casein by inactivating the corresponding gene in mice. Absence of α-casein protein significantly curtails secretion of other milk proteins and calcium-phosphate, suggesting a role for α-casein in the establishment of casein micelles. In contrast, secretion of albumin, which is not synthesized in the mammary epithelium, into milk is not reduced. The absence of α-casein also significantly inhibits transcription of the other casein genes. α-Casein deficiency severely delays pup growth during lactation and results in a life-long body size reduction compared to control animals, but has only transient effects on physical and behavioural development of the pups. The data support a critical role for α-casein in casein micelle assembly. The results also confirm lactation as a critical window of metabolic programming and suggest milk protein concentration as a decisive factor in determining adult body weight. PMID:21789179

  14. Pterygium epithelium abnormal differentiation related to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Juan; Sha, Xiang-Yin; Liu, Yi; Yang, Rui-Ming; Wen, Ye

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether the abnormal differentiation of the pterygium epithelium is related to the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in vitro. METHODS The expression levels of phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK), keratin family members including K19 and K10 and the ocular master control gene Pax-6 were measured in 16 surgically excised pterygium tissues and 12 eye bank conjunctiva. In colony-forming cell assays, the differences in clone morphology and in K10, K19, P-ERK and Pax-6 expression between the head and body were investigated. When cocultured with the ERK signaling pathway inhibitor PD98059, the changes in clone morphology, colony-forming efficiency, differentiated marker K10, K19 and Pax-6 expression and P-ERK protein expression level were examined by immunoreactivity and Western blot analysis. RESULTS The expression of K19 and Pax-6 decreased in the pterygium, especially in the head. No staining of K10 was found in the normal conjunctiva epithelium, but it was found to be expressed in the superficial cells in the head of the pterygium. Characteristic upregulation of P-ERK was observed by immunohistochemistry. The clone from the head with more differentiated cells in the center expressed more K10, and the clone from the body expressed more K19. The P-ERK protein level increased in the pterygium epithelium compared with conjunctiva and decreased when cocultured with PD98059. The same medium with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 was more effective in promoting clonal growth than conventional medium with 3T3 murine feeder layers. It was observed that the epithelium clone co-cultured with the inhibitor had decreased K10 expression and increased K19 and Pax-6 expression. CONCLUSION We suggest ERK signaling pathway activation might play a role in the pterygium epithelium abnormal differentiation. PMID:26682158

  15. Properties of odour-binding glycoproteins from rat olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, E E; Novoselov, V I; Bystrova, M F

    1988-01-22

    The specific membrane glycoproteins with high affinity for camphor and decanal were isolated from rat olfactory epithelium. Antibodies to these glycoproteins inhibited both the electroolfactogram and the binding of odorants. The enzyme immunoassay has shown these glycoproteins to be present in the olfactory epithelium of rat, mouse, guinea-pig and hamster but not in that of frog and carp. The molecular mass of the odour-binding glycoproteins from rat olfactory epithelium solubilized by Triton X-100 was approx. 140 kDa. They consisted of two subunits (88 and 55 kDa). The 88 kDa subunit was capable of binding odorants. The data obtained suggest that the glycoproteins isolated have some properties that make them plausible candidates for olfactory receptor molecules. PMID:3337807

  16. In vivo survival and stratification of cultured limbal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Anees; Vemuganti, Geeta K; Iftekhar, Ghazala; Rao, Gullapalli N; Sangwan, Virender S

    2007-01-01

    A 6-year-old Bangladeshi girl presented with total limbal stem cell deficiency in the left eye, secondary to a 6-month-old chemical injury. The patient had also previously undergone two limbal transplantation surgeries. At the authors' centre the child underwent autologous cultured limbal epithelium transplantation, on human amniotic membrane, without the use of air-lift technique. Symptomatic relief, re-epithelialization of the ocular surface, regression of corneal pannus and slight improvement in vision were all noted. The corneal button obtained at the time of keratoplasty (performed 4 months later) revealed stratified epithelium with basement membrane. Thirty-seven months post keratoplasty, the best-corrected visual acuity was 6/15 with clear graft and stable ocular surface. Herein, a case of limbal stem cell deficiency successfully managed by monolayer of cultured limbal epithelium is presented. PMID:17300583

  17. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  18. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  19. Microstructure of milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fat and protein in milk may be examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and any bacteria present may be viewed by light microscopy. The fat exists as globules, the bulk of the protein is in the form of casein micelles, a...

  20. STAT6-Dependent Collagen Synthesis in Human Fibroblasts Is Induced by Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Kippenberger, Stefan; Zöller, Nadja; Kleemann, Johannes; Müller, Jutta; Kaufmann, Roland; Hofmann, Matthias; Bernd, August; Meissner, Markus; Valesky, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Since the domestication of the urus, 10.000 years ago, mankind utilizes bovine milk for different purposes. Besides usage as a nutrient also the external application of milk on skin has a long tradition going back to at least the ancient Aegypt with Cleopatra VII as a great exponent. In order to test whether milk has impact on skin physiology, cultures of human skin fibroblasts were exposed to commercial bovine milk. Our data show significant induction of proliferation by milk (max. 2,3-fold, EC50: 2,5% milk) without toxic effects. Surprisingly, bovine milk was identified as strong inducer of collagen 1A1 synthesis at both, the protein (4-fold, EC50: 0,09% milk) and promoter level. Regarding the underlying molecular pathways, we show functional activation of STAT6 in a p44/42 and p38-dependent manner. More upstream, we identified IGF-1 and insulin as key factors responsible for milk-induced collagen synthesis. These findings show that bovine milk contains bioactive molecules that act on human skin cells. Therefore, it is tempting to test the herein introduced concept in treatment of atrophic skin conditions induced e.g. by UV light or corticosteroids. PMID:26134630

  1. STAT6-Dependent Collagen Synthesis in Human Fibroblasts Is Induced by Bovine Milk.

    PubMed

    Kippenberger, Stefan; Zöller, Nadja; Kleemann, Johannes; Müller, Jutta; Kaufmann, Roland; Hofmann, Matthias; Bernd, August; Meissner, Markus; Valesky, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Since the domestication of the urus, 10.000 years ago, mankind utilizes bovine milk for different purposes. Besides usage as a nutrient also the external application of milk on skin has a long tradition going back to at least the ancient Aegypt with Cleopatra VII as a great exponent. In order to test whether milk has impact on skin physiology, cultures of human skin fibroblasts were exposed to commercial bovine milk. Our data show significant induction of proliferation by milk (max. 2,3-fold, EC50: 2,5% milk) without toxic effects. Surprisingly, bovine milk was identified as strong inducer of collagen 1A1 synthesis at both, the protein (4-fold, EC50: 0,09% milk) and promoter level. Regarding the underlying molecular pathways, we show functional activation of STAT6 in a p44/42 and p38-dependent manner. More upstream, we identified IGF-1 and insulin as key factors responsible for milk-induced collagen synthesis. These findings show that bovine milk contains bioactive molecules that act on human skin cells. Therefore, it is tempting to test the herein introduced concept in treatment of atrophic skin conditions induced e.g. by UV light or corticosteroids. PMID:26134630

  2. Lactobacillus GG-fermented milk prevents DSS-induced colitis and regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yoda, Kazutoyo; Miyazawa, Kenji; Hosoda, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Yan, Fang; He, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background Fermented milk is considered one of the best sources for efficient consumption of probiotic strains by hosts to promote good health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of orally administering LGG-fermented milk (LGG milk) on intestinal inflammation and injury and to study the mechanisms of LGG milk's action. Methods LGG milk and non-LGG-fermented milk (non-LGG milk) were administered through gavage to mice before and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal injury and colitis. Inflammatory/injury score and colon length were assessed. Intestinal epithelial cells were treated with the soluble fraction of LGG milk to detect its effects on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its down stream target, Akt activation, cytokine-induced apoptosis, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced disruption of tight junctions. Results LGG milk treatment significantly reduced DSS-induced colonic inflammation and injury, and colon shortening in mice, compared to that in non-LGG milk-treated and untreated mice. The soluble fraction of LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, stimulated activation of EGFR and Akt in a concentration-dependent manner, suppressed cytokine-induced apoptosis, and attenuated H2O2-induced disruption of tight junction complex in the intestinal epithelial cells. These effects of LGG milk were blocked by the EGFR kinase inhibitor. LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, contained two soluble proteins, p40 and p75, which have been reported to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells through activation of EGFR. Depletion of p40 and p75 from LGG milk abolished the effects of LGG milk on prevention of cytokine-induced apoptosis and H2O2-induced disruption of tight junctions. Conclusions These results suggest that LGG milk may regulate intestinal epithelial homeostasis and potentially prevent intestinal inflammatory diseases through activation of EGFR by LGG-derived proteins. PMID:23468308

  3. Abnormal Ion Permeation through Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, M. R.; Stutts, M. J.; Spock, A.; Fischer, N.; Gatzy, J. T.; Boucher, R. C.

    1983-09-01

    The epithelium of nasal tissue excised from subjects with cystic fibrosis exhibited higher voltage and lower conductance than tissue from control subjects. Basal sodium ion absorption by cystic fibrosis and normal nasal epithelia equaled the short-circuit current and was amiloride-sensitive. Amiloride induced chloride ion secretion in normal but not cystic fibrosis tissue and consequently was more effective in inhibiting the short-circuit current in cystic fibrosis epithelia. Chloride ion-free solution induced a smaller hyperpolarization of cystic fibrosis tissue. The increased voltage and amiloride efficacy in cystic fibrosis reflect absorption of sodium ions across an epithelium that is relatively impermeable to chloride ions.

  4. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  5. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  6. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  7. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-driven survival.

    PubMed

    François, Adrien; Laziz, Iman; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Durieux, Didier; Pajot-Augy, Edith; Meunier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226). We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population toward detection of environmental odorants. PMID:24399931

  8. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-driven survival

    PubMed Central

    François, Adrien; Laziz, Iman; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Durieux, Didier; Pajot-Augy, Edith; Meunier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226). We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population toward detection of environmental odorants. PMID:24399931

  9. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression in the Epithelium of Inflammatory Periapical Lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, R.; Perrotta, R.E.; Musumeci, G.; Crimi, S.; dos Santos, J.N.; Rusu, M.C.; Bufo, P.; Barbato, E.; Pannone, G.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are essential for the innate immune response against invading pathogens and have been described in immunocompetent cells of areas affected by periapical disease. Besides initiating the inflammatory response, they also directly regulate epithelial cell proliferation and survival in a variety of settings. This study evaluates the in situ expression of TLR4 in periapical granulomas (PG) and radicular cysts, focusing on the epithelial compartment. Twenty-one periapical cysts (PC) and 10 PG were analyzed; 7 dentigerous non-inflamed follicular cyst (DC) served as control. TLR4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. TLR4 immunoreaction products were detected in the epithelium of all specimens, with a higher percentage of immunostained cells in PG. Although TLR4 overexpression was detected in both PG and PC, there were differences that seemed to be related to the nature of the lesion, since in PG all epithelial cells of strands, islands and trabeculae were strongly immunoreactive for TLR4, whereas in PC only some areas of the basal and suprabasal epithelial layers were immunostained. This staining pattern is consistent with the action of TLR4: in PG it could promote formation of epithelial cell rests of Malassez and in epithelial strands and islands the enhancement of cell survival, proliferation and migration, whereas in PC TLR4 could protect the lining epithelium from extensive apoptosis. These findings go some way towards answering the intriguing question of why many epithelial strands or islands in PG and the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after non-surgical endodontic therapy, and suggest that TLR4 plays a key role in the pathobiology of the inflammatory process related to periapical disease. PMID:26708181

  10. Derivation of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked three times daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked three times (3x) per d. Milk weights for all three milkings were recorded automatically by 8 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors on test-day. Following edits, 196,725...

  11. Wnt/β-catenin signaling modulates corneal epithelium stratification via inhibition of Bmp4 during mouse development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujin; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Zhang, Suohui; Call, Mindy; Yuan, Yong; Yasunaga, Mayu; Kao, Winston W-Y; Liu, Chia-Yang

    2015-10-01

    The development of organs with an epithelial parenchyma relies on reciprocal mesenchymal-epithelial communication. Mouse corneal epithelium stratification is the consequence of a coordinated developmental process based on mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. The molecular mechanism underlying these interactions remains unclear. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in fundamental aspects of development through the regulation of various growth factors. Here, we show that conditional ablation of either β-catenin (Ctnnb1(cKO)) or co-receptors Lrp5/6 (Lrp5/6(cKO)) in corneal stromal cells results in precocious stratification of the corneal epithelium. By contrast, ectopic expression of a murine Ctnnb1 gain-of-function mutant (Ctnnb1(cGOF)) retards corneal epithelium stratification. We also discovered that Bmp4 is upregulated in the absence of β-catenin in keratocytes, which further triggers ERK1/2 (Mapk3/1) and Smad1/5 phosphorylation and enhances transcription factor p63 (Trp63) expression in mouse corneal basal epithelial cells and in a human corneal epithelial cell line (HTCE). Interestingly, mouse neonates given a subconjunctival BMP4 injection displayed a phenotype resembling that of Ctnnb1(cKO). Conditional ablation of Bmp4 eradicates the phenotype produced in Ctnnb1(cKO) mice. Furthermore, ChIP and promoter-luciferase assays show that β-catenin binds to and suppresses Bmp4 promoter activity. These data support the concept that cross-talk between the Wnt/β-catenin/Bmp4 axis (in the stromal mesenchyme) and Bmp4/p63 signaling (in the epithelium) plays a pivotal role in epithelial stratification during corneal morphogenesis. PMID:26443636

  12. Human milk and the nutritional needs of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Tudehope, David I

    2013-03-01

    Key principles underpinning feeding guidelines for preterm infants include support for developmental care, breastfeeding, milk expression, and creating feeding plans. Early trophic feeding with colostrum and transitional milk improves immune protection and promotes gut maturation. Studies of preterm infants demonstrate that feeding mother's milk (MM) decreases the incidence of infection and necrotizing enterocolitis and improves neurodevelopmental outcome but may decrease ponderal and linear growth. Standard practice in neonatal units is to promote mother's own milk as the feed of choice for all infants. However, it is not feasible or prudent to do so for all preterm infants. Mothers of preterm infants have lower rates of successful breastfeeding compared with those of term infants. MM can contain harmful bacterial or viral pathogens. Although preterm human milk (HM) contains higher concentrations of protein, sodium, zinc, and calcium than mature HM, it falls short of supplying adequate quantities of nutrients required by preterm infants. Therefore, HM supplemented with nutrients is recommended for all infants born before 32 weeks gestation and for certain infants born at 32-36 weeks of gestation. HM is the preferred feed, but preterm formula is an appropriate option when there is an inadequate supply of MM. PMID:23445843

  13. Raw milk consumption and health.

    PubMed

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. PMID:25845259

  14. Nutritional and Therapeutic Characteristics of Camel Milk in Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zibaee, Said; Hosseini, Syed Musa al-reza; Yousefi, Mahdi; Taghipour, Ali; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Noras, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Camel milk is the closest to a human mother’s milk. Camel milk is different from other milks, however, having low sugar and cholesterol, high minerals (sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium, and vitamin C). The milk is considered have medicinal characteristics as well. This systematic review is aimed at determining and reporting nutritional values and medicinal characteristics of camel milk in children. Methods The search strategy of the current review is “(camel AND milk) AND (autism OR food allergy OR milk allergy OR children OR diarrhea.” The search was conducted via PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar. Also two Persian scientific databases (SID and Iranmedex) and international congresses were investigated. Full-text papers and abstracts on the topic of camel milk, evaluating nutritional value and medicinal properties, were included in this systematic review. Results Out of the 472 records found in the resources, 35 related studies were included in the final analysis. The result showed that camel milk is highly nutritious and is safe for consumption by children. Conclusion It seems that many researchers did not follow a specific guideline for reporting and confirming the therapeutic properties of camel milk in children, but there is evidence denoting the importance, trials, and investigations of its usability and benefits. Camel milk as a supplemental treatment seems less invasive and costly than specialist care, medications, alternative treatments, and behavioral interventions. Based on our findings, camel milk is safer for children, effective in the treatment of autism, improves general well-being, promotes body natural defenses, is a good nutritional source, and can helps the daily nutritional needs of humans. PMID:26767108

  15. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  16. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated milk. (a) Description. Concentrated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of...

  17. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  18. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  19. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk. 131.110 Section 131.110 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.110 Milk. (a) Description. Milk is the lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, obtained by the complete...

  20. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acidified milk. 131.111 Section 131.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.111 Acidified milk. (a) Description. Acidified milk is the food produced by souring one or more of the optional dairy...

  1. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  2. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  3. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acidified milk. 131.111 Section 131.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.111 Acidified milk. (a) Description. Acidified milk is the food produced by souring one or more of the optional dairy...

  4. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acidified milk. 131.111 Section 131.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.111 Acidified milk. (a) Description. Acidified milk is the food produced by souring one or more of the optional dairy...

  5. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  6. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  7. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  8. Cigarette smoke inhibition of ion transport in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    To determine the effect of cigarette smoke on airway epithelial ion transport, the electrical properties and transepithelial Na and Cl fluxes were measured in canine tracheal epithelium. In vivo, the inhalation of the smoke from one cigarette acutely and reversibly decreased the electrical potential difference across the tracheal epithelium. In vitro, exposure of the mucosal surface of the epithelium to cigarette smoke decreased the short circuit current and transepithelial resistance. The decrease in short circuit current was due to an inhibition of the rate of Cl secretion with minimal effect on the rate of Na absorption. The effect of cigarette smoke was reversible, was not observed upon exposure of the submucosal surface to smoke, and was most pronounced when secretion was stimulated. The particulate phase of smoke was largely responsible for the inhibitory effect, since filtering the smoke minimized the effect. The effect of cigarette smoke was not prevented by addition of antioxidants to the bathing solutions, suggesting that the inhibition of Cl secretion cannot be entirely attributed to an oxidant mechanism. These results indicate that cigarette smoke acutely inhibits active ion transport by tracheal epithelium, both in vivo and in vitro. This effect may explain, in part, both the abnormal mucociliary clearance and the airway disease observed in cigarette smokers.

  9. Examination of the reticular epithelium of the bovine pharyngeal tonsil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoid), located at the posterior of the nasopharynx is ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular composition of this important epithe...

  10. Quantum Dot Distribution in the Olfactory Epithelium After Nasal Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzotto, D.; De Marchis, S.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are used in a wide range of human applications from industrial to bio-medical fields. However, the unique characteristics of nanoparticles, such as the small size, large surface area per mass and high reactivity raises great concern on the adverse effects of these particles on ecological systems and human health. There are several pioneer studies reporting translocation of inhaled particulates to the brain through a potential neuronal uptake mediated by the olfactory nerve (1, 2, 3). However, no direct evidences have been presented up to now on the pathway followed by the nanoparticles from the nose to the brain. In addition to a neuronal pathway, nanoparticles could gain access to the central nervous system through extracellular pathways (perineuronal, perivascular and cerebrospinal fluid paths). In the present study we investigate the localization of intranasally delivered fluorescent nanoparticles in the olfactory epithelium. To this purpose we used quantum dots (QDs), a model of innovative fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals commonly used in cell and animal biology (4). Intranasal treatments with QDs were performed acutely on adult CD1 mice. The olfactory epithelium was collected and analysed by confocal microscopy at different survival time after treatment. Data obtained indicate that the neuronal components of the olfactory epithelium are not preferentially involved in QDs uptake, thus suggesting nanoparticles can cross the olfactory epithelium through extracellular pathways.

  11. Coelomic epithelium-derived cells in visceral morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Laura; Carmona, Rita; Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    Coelomic cavities of vertebrates are lined by a mesothelium which develops from the lateral plate mesoderm. During development, the coelomic epithelium is a highly active cell layer, which locally is able to supply mesenchymal cells that contribute to the mesodermal elements of many organs and provide signals which are necessary for their development. The relevance of this process of mesenchymal cell supply to the developing organs is becoming clearer because genetic lineage tracing techniques have been developed in recent years. Body wall, heart, liver, lungs, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract are populated by cells derived from the coelomic epithelium which contribute to their connective and vascular tissues, and sometimes to specialized cell types such as the stellate cells of the liver, the Cajal interstitial cells of the gut or the Sertoli cells of the testicle. In this review we collect information about the contribution of coelomic epithelium derived cells to visceral development, their developmental fates and signaling functions. The common features displayed by all these processes suggest that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the embryonic coelomic epithelium is an underestimated but key event of vertebrate development, and probably it is shared by all the coelomate metazoans. PMID:26638186

  12. BMP signaling and cellular dynamics during regeneration of airway epithelium from basal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Tomomi; Gao, Xia; Hong, Charles C.; Hotten, Danielle; Hogan, Brigid L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The pseudostratified epithelium of the lung contains ciliated and secretory luminal cells and basal stem/progenitor cells. To identify signals controlling basal cell behavior we screened factors that alter their self-renewal and differentiation in a clonal organoid (tracheosphere) assay. This revealed that inhibitors of the canonical BMP signaling pathway promote proliferation but do not affect lineage choice, whereas exogenous Bmp4 inhibits proliferation and differentiation. We therefore followed changes in BMP pathway components in vivo in the mouse trachea during epithelial regeneration from basal cells after injury. The findings suggest that BMP signaling normally constrains proliferation at steady state and this brake is released transiently during repair by the upregulation of endogenous BMP antagonists. Early in repair, the packing of epithelial cells along the basal lamina increases, but density is later restored by active extrusion of apoptotic cells. Systemic administration of the BMP antagonist LDN-193189 during repair initially increases epithelial cell number but, following the shedding phase, normal density is restored. Taken together, these results reveal crucial roles for both BMP signaling and cell shedding in homeostasis of the respiratory epithelium. PMID:26811382

  13. Enhancing effects of sericin on corneal wound healing in rat debrided corneal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Murao, Takatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Sasaki, Masahiro

    2009-05-01

    The protein sericin is the main constituent of silk. We demonstrate the effects of sericin on corneal wound healing in rat debrided corneal epithelium. We also determined the effects of sericin on cell adhesion and proliferation in a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Epithelium was removed from the corneas of rats with a BD Micro-Sharp, and wounded corneas were dyed with a 1% fluorescein solution. The corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera. The corneal wound of rats instilled with saline was approximately 10% healing at 12 h, and approximately 65% healing at 24 h after corneal epithelial abrasion. The corneal wounds of rats instilled with saline showed almost complete healing by 36 h after corneal epithelial abrasion. On the other hand, the corneal healing rate of rats instilled with sericin solution was higher than that of rats instilled with saline, and the corneal healing rate constant increased with increasing sericin concentration. In addition, the adhesion and proliferation of HCE-T cells treated with 0.01-0.5% sericin solutions were enhanced, reaching a maximum at treatments with 0.2 and 0.1% sericin solutions, respectively. The present study demonstrates that the instillation of sericin solution has a potent effect in promoting wound healing and wound-size reduction in rats, probably caused by increasing cell movement and proliferation. PMID:19420767

  14. Effects of ozone and endotoxin coexposure on rat airway epithelium: potentiation of toxicant-induced alterations.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J G; Hotchkiss, J A; Harkema, J R

    2001-08-01

    of these results indicates that epithelial and inflammatory responses to coexposure of these two pollutants are greater than those elicited by either agent alone. Interestingly, each toxicant enhances the epithelial alterations induced by the other. Furthermore, the synergistic effects elicited by coexposure to ozone and endotoxin are mediated partly by neutrophils. These studies provided some new insights into how inhaled co-pollutants interact to initiate and promote alterations of airway epithelium. Further studies with these and other air pollutants will help define their true risk to human health. PMID:11544169

  15. Effects of ozone and endotoxin coexposure on rat airway epithelium: potentiation of toxicant-induced alterations.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, J G; Hotchkiss, J A; Harkema, J R

    2001-01-01

    of these results indicates that epithelial and inflammatory responses to coexposure of these two pollutants are greater than those elicited by either agent alone. Interestingly, each toxicant enhances the epithelial alterations induced by the other. Furthermore, the synergistic effects elicited by coexposure to ozone and endotoxin are mediated partly by neutrophils. These studies provided some new insights into how inhaled co-pollutants interact to initiate and promote alterations of airway epithelium. Further studies with these and other air pollutants will help define their true risk to human health. PMID:11544169

  16. Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine β-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine β-casein (10-8,000 μg/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was <1% when tested against yak milk. The linear range of adulterant concentration was 1 to 80% (vol/vol) and the minimum detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation <10%) and we detected no significant differences between known and estimated values. Therefore, this assay is appropriate for the routine analysis of yak milk adulterated with cow milk. PMID:25151876

  17. Milk-Derived Tripeptides IPP (Ile-Pro-Pro) and VPP (Val-Pro-Pro) Promote Adipocyte Differentiation and Inhibit Inflammation in 3T3-F442A Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Subhadeep; Wu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Milk derived tripeptides IPP (Ile-Pro-Pro) and VPP (Val-Pro-Pro) have shown promise as anti-hypertensive agents due to their inhibitory effects on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Due to the key inter-related roles of hypertension, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, there is growing interest in investigating established anti-hypertensive agents for their effects on insulin sensitivity and inflammation. In this study, we examined the effects of IPP and VPP on 3T3-F442A murine pre-adipocytes, a widely used model for studying metabolic diseases. We found that both IPP and VPP induced beneficial adipogenic differentiation as manifested by intracellular lipid accumulation, upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and secretion of the protective lipid hormone adiponectin by these cells. The observed effects were similar to those induced by insulin, suggesting potential benefits in the presence of insulin resistance. IPP and VPP also inhibited cytokine induced pro-inflammatory changes such as reduction in adipokine levels and activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Taken together, our findings suggest that IPP and VPP exert insulin-mimetic adipogenic effects and prevent inflammatory changes in adipocytes, which may offer protection against metabolic disease. PMID:25714093

  18. Management strategies for promoting successful breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bear, K; Tigges, B B

    1993-06-01

    Clinicians can promote a successful breastfeeding experience by providing support, anticipatory guidance and practical information. This article presents the components of early follow-up and guidelines for assessment. Management strategies for common problems are discussed, such as nipple soreness, cracked nipples, plugged ducts and mastitis, insufficient infant weight gain, perceived inadequacy of milk supply, breast-milk jaundice, sexual adjustment and failure at breastfeeding. Breastfeeding guidelines for employed mothers and adoptive mothers are indicated. PMID:8341432

  19. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  20. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  1. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  2. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  3. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  4. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  5. Human Milk Fortification in India.

    PubMed

    Kler, Neelam; Thakur, Anup; Modi, Manoj; Kaur, Avneet; Garg, Pankaj; Soni, Arun; Saluja, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Human milk fortification in preterm babies has become a standard of care in developed countries. Use of human milk fortifier (HMF) in very-low-birthweight infants is not a routine practice in India. There are concerns about high osmolality, feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, risk of contamination and added cost associated with use of HMF. There are limited data from India which address the issue of safety and short-term benefits of human milk fortification. This chapter highlights the issues related to human milk fortification in our country. PMID:26111571

  6. Invited review: reduced milking frequency: milk production and management implications.

    PubMed

    Stelwagen, K; Phyn, C V C; Davis, S R; Guinard-Flament, J; Pomiès, D; Roche, J R; Kay, J K

    2013-06-01

    Most dairy cows throughout the world are milked twice daily. In intensive dairying systems, however, it is not uncommon to increase milking frequency to between 3 and 6 times daily to increase milk production. Reducing milking frequency is much less common; however, once-daily milking of dairy cows, practiced either strategically during certain parts of the lactation or for the entire lactation, is not uncommon in key dairying countries where less emphasis is placed on milk production per cow. The practice fits well with more extensive dairy production systems, particularly those based on grazed pasture. A feature of once-daily milking is that it reduces milk yield by approximately 22%, depending on stage of lactation, breed, and parity, and it may adversely affect lactation length and persistency. However, it can offer several positive farm management options, especially related to labor requirements and farm working expenses. In addition, it may provide a tool to better manage the metabolism and energy balance of cows during early lactation or during periods of pasture deficit, and it may help to improve reproductive performance and animal health and welfare. Once-daily milking, representing one extreme of the mammary function spectrum, has attracted considerable research interest over the years. Consequently, substantial scientific information is available on its effects on mammary function, at both the physiological and molecular levels. This review focuses instead on the management of the cow milked once daily, covering the production response in relation to breed, stage of lactation, and parity, and its effect on energy status, reproduction, health and welfare, as well as on milk composition and processability. PMID:23548302

  7. Uptake and Function Studies of Maternal Milk-derived MicroRNAs*

    PubMed Central

    Title, Alexandra C.; Denzler, Rémy; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cell-autonomous gene expression that influence many biological processes. They are also released from cells and are present in virtually all body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, sweat, and milk. The functional role of nutritionally obtained extracellular miRNAs is controversial, and irrefutable demonstration of exogenous miRNA uptake by cells and canonical miRNA function is still lacking. Here we show that miRNAs are present at high levels in the milk of lactating mice. To investigate intestinal uptake of miRNAs in newborn mice, we employed genetic models in which newborn miR-375 and miR-200c/141 knockout mice received milk from wild-type foster mothers. Analysis of the intestinal epithelium, blood, liver, and spleen revealed no evidence for miRNA uptake. miR-375 levels in hepatocytes were at the limit of detection and remained orders of magnitude below the threshold for target gene regulation (between 1000 and 10,000 copies/cell). Furthermore, our study revealed rapid degradation of milk miRNAs in intestinal fluid. Together, our results indicate a nutritional rather than gene-regulatory role of miRNAs in the milk of newborn mice. PMID:26240150

  8. Uptake and Function Studies of Maternal Milk-derived MicroRNAs.

    PubMed

    Title, Alexandra C; Denzler, Rémy; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-09-25

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cell-autonomous gene expression that influence many biological processes. They are also released from cells and are present in virtually all body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, sweat, and milk. The functional role of nutritionally obtained extracellular miRNAs is controversial, and irrefutable demonstration of exogenous miRNA uptake by cells and canonical miRNA function is still lacking. Here we show that miRNAs are present at high levels in the milk of lactating mice. To investigate intestinal uptake of miRNAs in newborn mice, we employed genetic models in which newborn miR-375 and miR-200c/141 knockout mice received milk from wild-type foster mothers. Analysis of the intestinal epithelium, blood, liver, and spleen revealed no evidence for miRNA uptake. miR-375 levels in hepatocytes were at the limit of detection and remained orders of magnitude below the threshold for target gene regulation (between 1000 and 10,000 copies/cell). Furthermore, our study revealed rapid degradation of milk miRNAs in intestinal fluid. Together, our results indicate a nutritional rather than gene-regulatory role of miRNAs in the milk of newborn mice. PMID:26240150

  9. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. PMID:26867520

  10. Cell stress-regulated human major histocompatibility complex class I gene expressed in gastrointestinal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Groh, V; Bahram, S; Bauer, S; Herman, A; Beauchamp, M; Spies, T

    1996-01-01

    Conventional major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes encode molecules that present intracellular peptide antigens to T cells. They are ubiquitously expressed and regulated by interferon gamma. Two highly divergent human MHC class I genes, MICA and MICB, are regulated by promoter heat shock elements similar to those of HSP70 genes. MICA encodes a cell surface glycoprotein, which is not associated with beta 2-microglobulin, is conformationally stable independent of conventional class I peptide ligands, and almost exclusively expressed in gastrointestinal epithelium. Thus, this MHC class I molecule may function as an indicator of cell stress and may be recognized by a subset of gut mucosal T cells in an unusual interaction. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8901601

  11. Prohibitin as the Molecular Binding Switch in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sripathi, Srinivas R; Sylvester, O'Donnell; He, Weilue; Moser, Trevor; Um, Ji-Yeon; Lamoke, Folami; Ramakrishna, Wusirika; Bernstein, Paul S; Bartoli, Manuela; Jahng, Wan Jin

    2016-02-01

    Previously, our molecular binding study showed that prohibitin interacts with phospholipids, including phosphatidylinositide and cardiolipin. Under stress conditions, prohibitin interacts with cardiolipin as a retrograde response to activate mitochondrial proliferation. The lipid-binding switch mechanism of prohibitin with phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate and cardiolipin may suggest the role of prohibitin effects on energy metabolism and age-related diseases. The current study examined the region-specific expressions of prohibitin with respect to the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A detailed understanding of prohibitin binding with lipids, nucleotides, and proteins shown in the current study may suggest how molecular interactions control apoptosis and how we can intervene against the apoptotic pathway in AMD. Our data imply that decreased prohibitin in the peripheral RPE is a significant step leading to mitochondrial dysfunction that may promote AMD progression. PMID:26661103

  12. Excess NF-κB induces ectopic odontogenesis in embryonic incisor epithelium.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, J; Kawasaki, K; Porntaveetus, T; Kawasaki, M; Otsuka-Tanaka, Y; Miake, Y; Ota, M S; Watanabe, M; Hishinuma, M; Nomoto, T; Oommen, S; Ghafoor, S; Harada, F; Nozawa-Inoue, K; Maeda, T; Peterková, R; Lesot, H; Inoue, J; Akiyama, T; Schmidt-Ullrich, R; Liu, B; Hu, Y; Page, A; Ramírez, Á; Sharpe, P T; Ohazama, A

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling plays critical roles in many physiological and pathological processes, including regulating organogenesis. Down-regulation of NF-κB signaling during development results in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. The roles of NF-κB signaling in tooth development, however, are not fully understood. We examined mice overexpressing IKKβ, an essential component of the NF-κB pathway, under keratin 5 promoter (K5-Ikkβ). K5-Ikkβ mice showed supernumerary incisors whose formation was accompanied by up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. Apoptosis that is normally observed in wild-type incisor epithelium was reduced in K5-Ikkβ mice. The supernumerary incisors in K5-Ikkβ mice were found to phenocopy extra incisors in mice with mutations of Wnt inhibitor, Wise. Excess NF-κB activity thus induces an ectopic odontogenesis program that is usually suppressed under physiological conditions. PMID:25376721

  13. Milk quality and automatic milking: fat globule size, natural creaming, and lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Abeni, F; Degano, L; Calza, F; Giangiacomo, R; Pirlo, G

    2005-10-01

    Thirty-eight Italian Friesian first-lactation cows were allocated to 2 groups to evaluate the effect of 1) an automatic milking system (AMS) vs. milking in a milking parlor (MP) on milk fat characteristics; and 2) milking interval (< or =480, 481 to 600, 601 to 720, and >720 min) on the same variables. Milk fat was analyzed for content (% vol/vol), natural creaming (% of fat), and free fatty acids (FFA, mEq/100 g of fat). Distribution of milk fat globule size was evaluated to calculate average fat globule diameter (d(1)), volume-surface average diameter (d(32)), specific globule surface area, and mean interglobular distance. Milk yield was recorded to calculate hourly milk and milk fat yield. Milking system had no effect on milk yield, milk fat content, and hourly milk fat yield. Milk from AMS had less natural creaming and more FFA content than milk from MP. Fat globule size, globular surface area, and interglobular distance were not affected by milking system per se. Afternoon MP milkings had more fat content and hourly milk fat yield than AMS milkings when milking interval was >480 min. Milk fat FFA content was greater in AMS milkings when milking interval was < or =480 min than in milkings from MP and from AMS when milking interval was >600 min. Milking interval did not affect fat globule size, expressed as d32. Results from this experiment indicate a limited effect of AMS per se on milk fat quality; a more important factor seems to be the increase in milking frequency, generally associated with AMS. PMID:16162526

  14. The role of p21 Waf1/Cip1 in large airway epithelium in smokers with and without COPD.

    PubMed

    Chiappara, Giuseppina; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Virzì, Alessia; Sciarrino, Serafina; Ferraro, Maria; Bruno, Andreina; Montalbano, Angela Marina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Minervini, Marta Ida; Pipitone, Loredana; Pace, Elisabetta

    2013-10-01

    Airway epithelium alterations, including squamous cell metaplasia, characterize smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The p21 regulates cell apoptosis and differentiation and its role in COPD is largely unknown. Molecules regulating apoptosis (cytoplasmic p21, caspase-3), cell cycle (nuclear p21), proliferation (Ki67/PCNA), and metaplasia (survivin) in central airways from smokers (S), smokers-COPD (s-COPD) and non-smokers (Controls) were studied. The role of cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) in p21, survivin, apoptosis (caspase-3 and annexin-V binding) and proliferation was assessed in a bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE). Immunohistochemistry, image analysis in surgical samples and flow-cytometry and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester proliferative assay in 16HBE with/without CSE were applied. Cytoplasmic and nuclear p21, survivin, and Ki67 expression significantly increased in large airway epithelium in S and in s-COPD in comparison to Controls. Caspase-3 was similar in all the studied groups. p21 correlated with epithelial metaplasia, PCNA, and Ki67 expression. CSE increased cytoplasmic p21 and survivin expression but not apoptosis and inhibited the cell proliferation in 16HBE. In large airway epithelium of smokers with and without COPD, the cytoplasmic p21 inhibits cell apoptosis, promotes cell proliferation and correlates with squamous cell metaplasia thus representing a potential pre-oncogenic hallmark. PMID:23639631

  15. Lead content of milk and infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.

    1980-03-01

    Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

  16. Associations among milk quality indicators in raw bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, J C F; Reinemann, D J; Ruegg, P L

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine characteristics and associations among bulk milk quality indicators from a cohort of dairies that used modern milk harvest, storage, and shipment systems and participated in an intensive program of milk quality monitoring. Bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), total bacteria count (TBC), coliform count (CC), and laboratory pasteurization count (LPC) were monitored between July 2006 and July 2007. Bulk milk samples were collected 3 times daily (n = 3 farms), twice daily (n = 6 farms), once daily (n = 4 farms), or once every other day (n = 3 farms). Most farms (n = 11) had direct loading of milk into tankers on trucks, but 5 farms had stationary bulk tanks. The average herd size was 924 cows (range = 200 to 2,700), and daily milk produced per herd was 35,220 kg (range = 7,500 to 105,000 kg). Thresholds for increased bacterial counts were defined according to the 75th percentile and were >8,000 cfu/mL for TBC, >160 cfu/mL for CC, and >or=310 cfu/mL for LPC. Means values were 12,500 (n = 7,241 measurements), 242 (n = 7,275 measurements), and 226 cfu/mL (n = 7,220 measurements) for TBC, CC, and LPC, respectively. Increased TBC was 6.3 times more likely for bulk milk loads with increased CC compared with loads containing fewer coliforms. Increased TBC was 1.3 times more likely for bulk milk with increased LPC. The odds of increased TBC increased by 2.4% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC in the same milk load. The odds of increased CC increased by 4.3% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC. The odds of increased CC increased by 1% for every 0.1 degrees C increase in the milk temperature upon arrival at the dairy plant (or at pickup for farms with bulk tank). Laboratory pasteurization count was poorly associated with other milk quality indicators. Seasonal effects on bacterial counts and milk temperature varied substantially among farms. Results of this study can be used to aid the interpretation and analysis of

  17. Estimating efficiency in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Castro, A; Pereira, J M; Amiama, C; Bueno, J

    2012-02-01

    Milking data of 34 single automatic milking system (AMS) units on 29 Galician dairy farms were analyzed to determine the system capacity in each farm under actual working conditions. Number of cows, milk yield, milkings per cow per day, actual milking time, rejected milking time, cleaning time, and machine downtime were used to determine the number of cows milked per AMS unit to obtain the optimal values of milkings per cow and milk production. Multiple linear regression data analysis was used to model the linear relationship between the dependent variable, milk yield per AMS per year, and the predictor variables: number of cows per AMS, milkings per cow per day, milk flow rate, and rejections per AMS per year. An AMS unit milked 52.7±9.0 cows daily at 2.69±0.28 milkings per cow, with a total milking downtime of 1,947±978 h/yr and a milk yield of 549,734±126,432 kg/yr. The predictor variables cow and milk flow rate had a greater level of influence on the milk yield per AMS than milkings per cow and rejections, and explained the 87% of the variation. The AMS in Galician dairy farms could facilitate an increase of 16±8.5 cows per AMS without impairing milking performance; in this way, the quantity of milk obtained per robot annually could be increased (185,460±137,460 kg). This would make it possible to recoup the cost of the system earlier. In the present situation, the daily milking throughput could be maximized at 2.4 to 2.6 milkings per cow. PMID:22281358

  18. [Hormone-mediated reactions in the endosalpinx epithelium].

    PubMed

    Glukhovets, B I; Ukhov, Iu I; Lebedev, S S; Plastun, G A; Bulaeva, V P

    1983-07-01

    The epithelium of normal uterine tubes resected in 38 young women of the child-bearing age during the periods of the maximal physiological fluctuations of the ovarian steroid hormones levels has been studied. The correlative dependence between the morphometrical data and the results of quanitative biochemical analysis of the estrogen excretion has been investigated. The morphometric method reliably reflects the hormone-dependent variabilities of the oviduct epithelium and makes it possible to perform an objective morphological evaluation of the ovarian functional activity. The height and specific density of cells in the epithelial layer, portion of the aciliary cells and nuclear volume of the ciliary cells are the most important for diagnosis as compared to the excretory level of the estrogenic hormones. PMID:6625907

  19. Responses of the rat olfactory epithelium to retronasal air flow.

    PubMed

    Scott, John W; Acevedo, Humberto P; Sherrill, Lisa; Phan, Maggie

    2007-03-01

    Responses of the rat olfactory epithelium were assessed with the electroolfactogram while odorants were presented to the external nares with an artificial sniff or to the internal nares by positive pressure. A series of seven odorants that varied from very polar, hydrophilic odorants to very nonpolar, hydrophobic odorants were used. Although the polar odorants activated the dorsal olfactory epithelium when presented by the external nares (orthonasal presentation), they were not effective when forced through the nasal cavity from the internal nares (retronasal presentation). However, the nonpolar odorants were effective in both stimulus modes. These results were independent of stimulus concentration or of humidity of the carrier air. Similar results were obtained with multiunit recordings from olfactory bulb. These results help to explain why human investigations often report differences in the sensation or ability to discriminate odorants presented orthonasally versus retronasally. The results also strongly support the importance of odorant sorption in normal olfactory processes. PMID:17215498

  20. Odorant-evoked potassium changes in the frog olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Khayari, A; Math, F; Trotier, D

    1991-01-18

    Electroolfactogram (EOG) and extracellular potassium activity (aK) measurements were carried out in frog olfactory epithelia in vivo. Odorant-evoked changes in aK were characterized on the basis of depth profile analysis. Following an olfactory stimulation with butanol vapours, an increase in aK was measured in the mucus and the proximal part of the epithelium; this response started after the beginning of the EOG and was proportional to the amplitude of the latter. In the deeper part of the epithelium, the aK response had complex waveforms showing an initial K decrease which was suppressed by local application of ouabain, suggesting the existence of a pumping mechanism at this level. The results are discussed in terms of extracellular accumulation of K ions following neuroreceptor activation with respect to EOG generation theories. PMID:2015495

  1. Responses of the Rat Olfactory Epithelium to Retronasal Air Flow

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John W.; Acevedo, Humberto P.; Sherrill, Lisa; Phan, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    Responses of the rat olfactory epithelium were assessed with the electroolfactogram while odorants were presented to the external nares with an artificial sniff or to the internal nares by positive pressure. A series of seven odorants that varied from very polar, hydrophilic odorants to very non-polar, hydrophobic odorants were used. While the polar odorants activated the dorsal olfactory epithelium when presented by the external nares (orthonasal presentation), they were not effective when forced through the nasal cavity from the internal nares (retronasal presentation). However, the non-polar odorants were effective in both stimulus modes. These results were independent of stimulus concentration or of humidity of the carrier air. Similar results were obtained with multiunit recording from olfactory bulb. These results help to explain why human investigations often report differences in the sensation or ability to discriminate odorants presented orthonasally vs. retronasally. The results also strongly support the importance of odorant sorption in normal olfactory processes. PMID:17215498

  2. Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.

  3. Morphological study of fetal nasopharyngeal epithelium in man.

    PubMed

    Gulisano, M; Montella, A; Orlandini, S Z; Pacini, P

    1992-01-01

    In 30 human fetuses between 8 and 13 weeks of intrauterine life the lateral wall of the nasopharynx was examined by light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In the subjects between 8 and 9 weeks in utero the mucosa displays still an immature appearance, being mono- or bistratified and lacking the characteristic structures of the respiratory epithelium. Nevertheless, signs of differentiation are to be noticed, with the presence of two distinct cellular types that, in the later periods, will give rise to ciliated cells and microvillus-provided cells. An almost complete differentiation will be reached at 12-13 weeks in utero, even if goblet cells are still lacking in the examined zone during the considered period. Nonrespiratory types of epithelium, such as transitional or squamous, were never found in the studied subjects. PMID:1514372

  4. Nested expression domains for odorant receptors in zebrafish olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Weth, F; Nadler, W; Korsching, S

    1996-11-12

    The mapping of high-dimensional olfactory stimuli onto the two-dimensional surface of the nasal sensory epithelium constitutes the first step in the neuronal encoding of olfactory input. We have used zebrafish as a model system to analyze the spatial distribution of odorant receptor molecules in the olfactory epithelium by quantitative in situ hybridization. To this end, we have cloned 10 very divergent zebrafish odorant receptor molecules by PCR. Individual genes are expressed in sparse olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of the position of labeled cells in a simplified coordinate system revealed three concentric, albeit overlapping, expression domains for the four odorant receptors analyzed in detail. Such regionalized expression should result in a corresponding segregation of functional response properties. This might represent the first step of spatial encoding of olfactory input or be essential for the development of the olfactory system. PMID:8917589

  5. Liquid Movement Across the Surface Epithelium of Large Airways

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Lucy A.; Rollins, Brett M.; Tarran, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis conductance regulator CFTR gene is found on chromosome 7 (Kerem et al., 1989; Riordan et al., 1989) and encodes for a 1,480 amino acid protein which is present in the plasma membrane of epithelial cells (Anderson et al., 1992). This protein appears to have many functions, but a unifying theme is that it acts as a protein kinase C- and cyclic AMP-regulated Cl- channel (Winpenny et al., 1995; Jia et al., 1997). In the superficial epithelium of the conducting airways, CFTR is involved in Cl- secretion (Boucher, 2003) and also acts as a regulator of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and hence Na+ absorption (Boucher et al., 1986; Stutts et al., 1995). In this chapter, we will discuss the regulation of these two ion channels, and how they can influence liquid movement across the superficial airway epithelium. PMID:17692578

  6. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  7. Mammals, milk, molecules, and micelles.

    PubMed

    Fox, P F

    2011-01-01

    After a brief description of my family background and school days, my professional career as a dairy scientist is described under three headings: research, teaching, and writing. My research activities fall into four areas: biochemistry of cheese, fractionation and characterization of milk proteins, heat stability of milk, and dairy enzymology. Finally, I offer some advice to young scientists. PMID:22129372

  8. Coordinate Control of Expression of Nrf2-Modulated Genes in the Human Small Airway Epithelium Is Highly Responsive to Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Ralf-Harto; Schwartz, Jamie D; De Bishnu, P; Ferris, Barbara; Omberg, Larsson; Mezey, Jason G; Hackett, Neil R; Crystal, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an oxidant-responsive transcription factor known to induce detoxifying and antioxidant genes. Cigarette smoke, with its large oxidant content, is a major stress on the cells of small airway epithelium, which are vulnerable to oxidant damage. We assessed the role of cigarette smoke in activation of Nrf2 in the human small airway epithelium in vivo. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was used to sample the small airway epithelium in healthy-nonsmoker and healthy-smoker, and gene expression was assessed using microarrays. Relative to nonsmokers, Nrf2 protein in the small airway epithelium of smokers was activated and localized in the nucleus. The human homologs of 201 known murine Nrf2-modulated genes were identified, and 13 highly smoking-responsive Nrf2-modulated genes were identified. Construction of an Nrf2 index to assess the expression levels of these 13 genes in the airway epithelium of smokers showed coordinate control, an observation confirmed by quantitative PCR. This coordinate level of expression of the 13 Nrf2-modulated genes was independent of smoking history or demographic parameters. The Nrf2 index was used to identify two novel Nrf2-modulated, smoking-responsive genes, pirin (PIR) and UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1-family polypeptide A4 (UGT1A4). Both genes were demonstrated to contain functional antioxidant response elements in the promoter region. These observations suggest that Nrf2 plays an important role in regulating cellular defenses against smoking in the highly vulnerable small airway epithelium cells, and that there is variability within the human population in the Nrf2 responsiveness to oxidant burden. PMID:19593404

  9. Cell proliferation in the human gallbladder epithelium: effect of distension.

    PubMed Central

    Putz, P; Willems, G

    1979-01-01

    DNA synthesis activity in the epithelium of the human gallbladder was studied through in vitro labelling of mucosal specimens with 3H-thymidine and autoradiography. The specimens were taken at the time of a surgical operation. Eight 'normal' gallbladders and six distended gallbladders from patients with carcinomatous obstruction of the common bile duct were examined. Proliferative activity was very low in the normal and significantly higher in the distended gallbladders. Images Figure PMID:437558

  10. Intraocular involvement with subretinal pigment epithelium infiltrates by mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed Central

    Erny, B. C.; Egbert, P. R.; Peat, I. M.; Shorrock, K.; Rosenthal, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    We report a case of intraocular mycosis fungoides in a 48-year-old man. The patient presented with decreased visual acuity, white subretinal lesions, and vitritis. Post-mortem histopathology revealed malignant T cell infiltrates consistent with mycosis fungoides in the retina, vitreous, and between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane Focal atrophy of the RPE, along with the sub-RPE infiltrates, correlated with the clinically visible fundus lesions. Images PMID:1751471

  11. Primary adenocarcinoma of pigmented ciliary epithelium in a phthisical eye.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jaya B; Proia, Alan D; Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi; Sharma, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of adenocarcinoma of the pigmented ciliary epithelium arising in a phthisical eye. A 92-year-old man who initially presented with severe ocular pain had calcification extending from the posterior pole to ciliary body on B-scan ultrasonography to a degree not previously reported. We highlight the importance of screening for intraocular neoplasms in adults with a long-standing phthisical eye. PMID:26597037

  12. [Medical application of breast milk banks].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Hong; Ding, Zong-Yi

    2014-07-01

    The history of breast milk banks is over 100 years. Most of the milk banks were closed because of HIV in the 80's. But more and more milk banks are re-opening and new ones are being established as the composition and superiority of breast milk are recognized again. The Human Milk Banking Association of North America and European Milk Bank Association have been set up and they have established and revised the standards and guidelines of breast milk banks. There is no doubt of the clinical effects of donor human milk on preterm infants worldwide. The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommended that the preterm infants should use donor human milk when their own mothers' milk is not enough. The first breast milk bank was set up in China in 2013, and its clinical and social significance is worthy of further study. PMID:25008871

  13. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health. PMID:26877644

  14. Galactooligosaccharide and Sialyllactose Content in Commercial Lactose Powders from Goat and Cow Milk

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung-Seob; Oh, Chang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used infant formulas contain lactose originating from cow milk. Goat milk has recently been claimed to be nutritionally more effective for infants than other milks. In baby foods, much emphasis is placed on the concentrations of intestinal microflora-promoting oligosaccharides, which are generally transferred into lactose from milk during crystallization process. Here we show that higher level of free sialic acid is present in goat lactose powder compared to cow lactose powder. Without proteinase K treatment, the amount of 3-sialyllactose and 6-sialyllactose were similar in goat and cow lactose powders. However, after proteolysis, 6-sialyllactose was present at higher levels in goat than in cow lactose powder. Galactooligosaccharides, a group of prebiotics, are present in milk in the form of glycoproteins. Galactooligosaccharide content was also higher in goat lactose powder than in cow lactose powder. PMID:26761881

  15. Factors affecting breast milk composition and potential consequences for development of the allergic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Munblit, D; Boyle, R J; Warner, J O

    2015-03-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to allergic sensitization and disease. The factors in breast milk which influence these processes are still unclear and under investigation. We know that colostrum and breast milk contain a variety of molecules which can influence immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of a neonate. This review summarizes the evidence that variations in colostrum and breast milk composition can influence allergic outcomes in the infant, and the evidence that maternal and environmental factors can modify milk composition. Taken together, the data presented support the possibility that maternal dietary interventions may be an effective way to promote infant health through modification of breast milk composition. PMID:25077553

  16. Milk-derived ribonuclease 5 preparations induce myogenic differentiation in vitro and muscle growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Knight, Matthew I; Tester, Angus M; McDonagh, Matthew B; Brown, Andrew; Cottrell, Jeremy; Wang, Jianghui; Hobman, Peter; Cocks, Benjamin G

    2014-12-01

    Ribonuclease 5, also known as angiogenin, is a stable and abundant ribonuclease in milk whey protein, which is able to regulate several cellular functions, including capillary formation, neuron survival, and epithelial cell growth. Ribonuclease 5 is important for protein synthesis directly stimulating rRNA synthesis in the nucleolus. Here, we show that biologically active RNase5 can be purified from bovine milk. Furthermore, we show that milk-derived RNase5 directly stimulates muscle cell differentiation in vitro, inducing C2C12 cell differentiation and myogenesis. When supplemented into the diet of healthy adult mice, milk-derived RNase5 preparations promoted muscle weight gain and grip strength. Collectively, these data indicate that milk-derived RNase5 preparations exhibit a novel role in skeletal muscle cell function. PMID:25282415

  17. Candida albicans Ultrastructure: Colonization and Invasion of Oral Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Julie A.; Squier, Christopher A.

    1980-01-01

    The colonization and invasion of various animal oral mucosae by Candida albicans were examined in an organ culture model. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the oral epithelium between 12 and 30 h after inoculation with the fungus revealed the morphological relationships between host and parasite. Examination of the fungi in thin sections showed five distinct layers in the cell wall of C. albicans within the epithelium, but changes were evident in the organization and definition of the outer cell wall layers in budding hyphae and in hyphae participating in colonization and invasion of the epithelial cells. Adherence of the fungus to the superficial cells of the oral mucosa appeared to involve intimate contact between the epithelial cell surface and the deeper layers of the fungal cell wall. During invasion a close seal was maintained between the invading hyphae and the surrounding epithelial cell envelope, there being no other evidence of damage to the host cell surface except at the site of entry. Within the epithelial cells there was only occasional loss of cytoplasmic components in the vicinity of the invading hyphae. These findings would suggest that enzymatic lysis associated with the invasive process is localized and that the mechanical support provided by surface adherence and the intimate association between the fungus and the epithelial cell envelope may permit growth of Candida on through the epithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6995338

  18. Zinc uptake in vitro by human retinal pigment epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.A.; Rothman, R.J.

    1987-11-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, is present in unusually high concentrations in the chorioretinal complex relative to most other tissues. Because little has been known about the interactions between the retinal pigment epithelium and free or protein-associated zinc, we studied /sup 65/Zn uptake by human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro. When monolayers were exposed to differing concentrations from 0 to 30 microM /sup 65/Zn in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 5.4 gm/l glucose at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C, we observed a temperature-dependent saturable accumulation of the radiolabel. With 15 microM /sup 65/Zn, we saw a biphasic pattern of uptake with a rapid first phase and a slower second phase over 120 min. Uptake of /sup 65/Zn was inhibited by iodacetate and cold, and reduced approximately 50% by the addition of 2% albumin to the labelling medium. Neither ouabain nor 2-deoxyglucose inhibited uptake. Cells previously exposed to /sup 65/Zn retained approximately 70% of accumulated /sup 65/Zn 60 min after being changed to radiolabel-free medium. Following removal of cells from the extracellular matrix adherent to the dish bottom, a variable amount of nonspecific binding of /sup 65/Zn to the residual matrix was demonstrated. These observations are consistent with a facilitated type of transport and demonstrate the ability of human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro to accumulate and retain zinc.

  19. Expression of cytokeratins in the epithelium of canine odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Nemec, A; Vapniarsky, N; Naydan, D K; Verstraete, F J M

    2011-11-01

    Odontogenic tumours are considered to be relatively rare; however, several histologically distinct types have been identified in dogs. The more common canine odontogenic tumours are peripheral odontogenic fibroma and canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) has been established for the human dental germ and odontogenic tumours. The aim of the present study was to describe the immunohistochemical expression of a panel of CKs in the epithelium of the canine dental germ, normal gingiva and odontogenic tumours arising in this species. Samples from 20 odontogenic tumours, 12 tooth germs and three normal gingival tissues were obtained. Each sample was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and subjected to immunohistochemistry for CK expression. The typical expression pattern of CKs in the odontogenic epithelium and gingiva of dogs was CK14 and CK5/6. CKs 7, 8, 18 and 20 were generally absent from the canine dental germ, gingiva and odontogenic tumours. Dogs and man therefore exhibit similar CK expression in the odontogenic epithelium. PMID:21511272

  20. Biomechanics of liquid-epithelium interactions in pulmonary airways.

    PubMed

    Ghadiali, Samir N; Gaver, Donald P

    2008-11-30

    The delicate structure of the lung epithelium makes it susceptible to surface tension induced injury. For example, the cyclic reopening of collapsed and/or fluid-filled airways during the ventilation of injured lungs generates hydrodynamic forces that further damage the epithelium and exacerbate lung injury. The interactions responsible for epithelial injury during airway reopening are fundamentally multiscale, since air-liquid interfacial dynamics affect global lung mechanics, while surface tension forces operate at the molecular and cellular scales. This article will review the current state-of-knowledge regarding the effect of surface tension forces on (a) the mechanics of airway reopening and (b) epithelial cell injury. Due to the complex nature of the liquid-epithelium system, a combination of computational and experimental techniques are being used to elucidate the mechanisms of surface-tension induced lung injury. Continued research is leading to an integrated understanding of the biomechanical and biological interactions responsible for cellular injury during airway reopening. This information may lead to novel therapies that minimize ventilation induced lung injury. PMID:18511356

  1. Pathohistological changes of tracheal epithelium in laryngectomized patients.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Marinela; Prgomet, Drago; Marjanović, Ksenija; Pušeljić, Silvija; Kraljik, Nikola

    2015-11-01

    Total laryngectomy results in a permanent disconnection of the upper and lower airways. Thus, the upper airways are bypassed and can no longer condition, humidify, and filter the inhaled air, leading to damage of the tracheobronchial epithelium. There is little scientific information available about the effects of tracheostoma breathing and the degree of mucosal damage in laryngectomized patients. The aims of this study were to determine the histopathologic findings and investigate the potential impact of using a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) on the tracheal epithelium in long-term tracheostomy patients. Tracheal mucosal biopsies were taken from a total of 70 patients. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by a light microscope. Normal pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium was found in only 9 (12.9%) cases; while, 17 (24.3%) cases had some degree of basal cell hyperplasia. Squamous metaplasia was the most common finding (50%). Pre-invasive lesions (mild and moderate squamous dysplasia) were found in only one patient who used an HME, and in eight (11.4%) non-users. Although the HME cannot completely restore the physiological functions of the upper respiratory track, it delivers a better quality of air to the lower airways and has a positive effect on tracheal mucosa. PMID:25399353

  2. Regeneration of tracheal epithelium using mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshie, Susumu; Otsuki, Koshi; Miyake, Masao; Hazama, Akihiro; Wada, Ikuo; Omori, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion The findings demonstrated the potential use of induced pluripotent stem cells for regeneration of tracheal epithelium. Objective Autologous tissue implantation techniques using skin or cartilage are often applied in cases of tracheal defects with laryngeal inflammatory lesions and malignant tumor invasion. However, these techniques are invasive with an unstable clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to investigate regeneration in a tracheal defect site of nude rats after implantation of ciliated epithelium that was differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells. Method Embryoid bodies were formed from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. They were cultured with growth factors for 5 days, and then cultured at the air-liquid interface. The degree of differentiation achieved prior to implantation was determined by histological findings and the results of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Embryoid bodies including ciliated epithelium were embedded into collagen gel that served as an artificial scaffold, and then implanted into nude rats, creating an 'air-liquid interface model'. Histological evaluation was performed 7 days after implantation. Results The ciliated epithelial structure survived on the lumen side of regenerated tissue. It was demonstrated histologically that the structure was composed of ciliated epithelial cells. PMID:26755348

  3. Cultured lung epithelium: A cellular model for lung preservation.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y; Matsumoto-Pon, J; Widdicombe, J H

    1997-11-01

    Cellular models have helped with the development of conditions needed for hypothermic preservation of kidney, liver, and heart. Recently, highly differentiated cultured lung epithelial cell lines grown with basolateral side feeding technique have become available that can mimic airspace, epithelium, and interstitium of lung parenchyma. Cultured lung epithelium coupled with Ussing's short-circuit current technique was used as a cellular model system for lung preservation. A parametric study was conducted to correlate the effects of luminal fluid composition (University of Wisconsin (UW) solution and phosphate-buffered saline) and storage gas (air vs nitrogen) at 4 degrees C for 24 h on postischemic electrogenic properties (transepithelial ion transport and resistance). The results showed that cells were better preserved with the UW solution on both sides as measured by their transepithelial resistance, an indicator of tight junction integrity (Rte approximately 65% of control values approximately 135 Omega cm2). In addition, they responded better to mediators that stimulate chloride secretion than cells preserved with other conditions. Cells preserved with no additional fluid on the apical side had substantially lowered Rte (<20%) than those preserved with an additional thin layer of fluid ( approximately 35-65%). This cellular model system is a realistic representation of lung epithelium and can provide an accurate assessment of preservation quality through the measurements of tight junction integrity and active ion transport. PMID:9367609

  4. In vitro biology of corneal epithelium and endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Yanoff, M

    1975-01-01

    Four main areas are explored: (1) the proper culture medium for corneal tissue; (2) the effect of serum on in vitro tissue growth; (3) the in vitro interrelationships between corneal epithelium and endothelium; and (4) the biology of cultures of whole corneas (organ cultures). Modified Eagle's minimal essential medium (MEM) proved to be an excellent culture fluid. Corneal tissue could be grown in MEM without serum or clot, thus providing a defined culture medium. The in vitro biology of outgrowths of multilayered corneal epithelium and monolayered corneal endothelium are discussed. Contact inhibition between epithelium and endothelium is demonstrated in whole corneal (organ) cultures. Images FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 15 A FIGURE 15 B FIGURE 16 A FIGURE 16 B FIGURE 17 A FIGURE 17 B FIGURE 17 C FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B PMID:1246815

  5. Impairing autophagy in retinal pigment epithelium leads to inflammasome activation and enhanced macrophage-mediated angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Copland, David A.; Theodoropoulou, Sofia; Chiu, Hsi An Amy; Barba, Miriam Durazo; Mak, Ka Wang; Mack, Matthias; Nicholson, Lindsay B.; Dick, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decreases in autophagy contribute to the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We have now studied the interaction between autophagy impaired in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the responses of macrophages. We find that dying RPE cells can activate the macrophage inflammasome and promote angiogenesis. In vitro, inhibiting rotenone-induced autophagy in RPE cells elicits caspase-3 mediated cell death. Co-culture of damaged RPE with macrophages leads to the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6 and nitrite oxide. Exogenous IL-6 protects the dysfunctional RPE but IL-1β causes enhanced cell death. Furthermore, IL-1β toxicity is more pronounced in dysfunctional RPE cells showing reduced IRAK3 gene expression. Co-culture of macrophages with damaged RPE also elicits elevated levels of pro-angiogenic proteins that promote ex vivo choroidal vessel sprouting. In vivo, impaired autophagy in the eye promotes photoreceptor and RPE degeneration and recruitment of inflammasome-activated macrophages. The degenerative tissue environment drives an enhanced pro-angiogenic response, demonstrated by increased size of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions. The contribution of macrophages was confirmed by depletion of CCR2+ monocytes, which attenuates CNV in the presence of RPE degeneration. Our results suggest that the interplay between perturbed RPE homeostasis and activated macrophages influences key features of AMD development. PMID:26847702

  6. AID-expressing epithelium is protected from oncogenic transformation by an NKG2D surveillance pathway.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Arantxa; Pérez-Durán, Pablo; Wossning, Thomas; Sernandez, Isora V; Mur, Sonia M; Cañamero, Marta; Real, Francisco X; Ramiro, Almudena R

    2015-10-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates secondary antibody diversification in germinal center B cells, giving rise to higher affinity antibodies through somatic hypermutation (SHM) or to isotype-switched antibodies through class switch recombination (CSR). SHM and CSR are triggered by AID-mediated deamination of cytosines in immunoglobulin genes. Importantly, AID activity in B cells is not restricted to Ig loci and can promote mutations and pro-lymphomagenic translocations, establishing a direct oncogenic mechanism for germinal center-derived neoplasias. AID is also expressed in response to inflammatory cues in epithelial cells, raising the possibility that AID mutagenic activity might drive carcinoma development. We directly tested this hypothesis by generating conditional knock-in mouse models for AID overexpression in colon and pancreas epithelium. AID overexpression alone was not sufficient to promote epithelial cell neoplasia in these tissues, in spite of displaying mutagenic and genotoxic activity. Instead, we found that heterologous AID expression in pancreas promotes the expression of NKG2D ligands, the recruitment of CD8(+) T cells, and the induction of epithelial cell death. Our results indicate that AID oncogenic potential in epithelial cells can be neutralized by immunosurveillance protective mechanisms. PMID:26282919

  7. AID-expressing epithelium is protected from oncogenic transformation by an NKG2D surveillance pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-García, Arantxa; Pérez-Durán, Pablo; Wossning, Thomas; Sernandez, Isora V; Mur, Sonia M; Cañamero, Marta; Real, Francisco X; Ramiro, Almudena R

    2015-01-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates secondary antibody diversification in germinal center B cells, giving rise to higher affinity antibodies through somatic hypermutation (SHM) or to isotype-switched antibodies through class switch recombination (CSR). SHM and CSR are triggered by AID-mediated deamination of cytosines in immunoglobulin genes. Importantly, AID activity in B cells is not restricted to Ig loci and can promote mutations and pro-lymphomagenic translocations, establishing a direct oncogenic mechanism for germinal center-derived neoplasias. AID is also expressed in response to inflammatory cues in epithelial cells, raising the possibility that AID mutagenic activity might drive carcinoma development. We directly tested this hypothesis by generating conditional knock-in mouse models for AID overexpression in colon and pancreas epithelium. AID overexpression alone was not sufficient to promote epithelial cell neoplasia in these tissues, in spite of displaying mutagenic and genotoxic activity. Instead, we found that heterologous AID expression in pancreas promotes the expression of NKG2D ligands, the recruitment of CD8+ T cells, and the induction of epithelial cell death. Our results indicate that AID oncogenic potential in epithelial cells can be neutralized by immunosurveillance protective mechanisms. PMID:26282919

  8. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk. PMID:24955355

  9. Bacteriological examination of milk and milk products sold in Harare.

    PubMed

    Igumbor, E O; Obi, C L; Milingo, T

    2000-01-01

    A study to assess the bacteriological quality of milk and ice cream was conducted using the direct plate count method and the methylene blue dye reduction test. A total of 105 milk and 95 ice cream samples were obtained form two factories (depots) and distributing supermarkets (outlets) in Harare. Under the methylene blue test, all milk and ice cream samples passed the hour and 2 hour tests respectively. However, 99% of the milk and 69% of the ice cream samples reduced the dye after 5.5 and 4 hrs respectively. The results from the direct plate counts revealed the presence of both pathogens and non-pathogens. The median plate counts in the milk and ice cream were found 400 cfu / ml and 100 cfu / ml respectively. Organisms isolated in both samples and in all outlets were similar, these included Bacillus spp. Coagulase Staphlococcus spp., microcuccus spp., Steptococcus spp., Diphthroids, Fusiform bacterial Klebsiella spp., and Citrobacter spp. No significant differences were found in the plate counts of the samples obtained from the depots and outlets for the milk (P = 0.542, df = 1)) and ice cream samples (P = 0.377, df = 1). Results further revealed that there was no significant difference in isolates obtained form strawberry ice cream (0.0096). The study has therefore, revealed that milk and milk product sold in various outlets in Harare contained a variety of bacteria of public health importance and also that the methylene blue dye reduction test is not reliable for the detection of bacterial contaminants in dairy products. It is thus suggested that the use of methylene blue dyes be adapted in combination with other tests such as the plate count in assessing bacterial contaminants in milk products. PMID:17650038

  10. Induced lactation in heifers: Effects of dexamethasone and age at induction on milk yield and composition.

    PubMed

    Macrina, A L; Kauf, A C W; Pape-Zambito, D A; Kensinger, R S

    2014-03-01

    greater for 18- compared with 14-mo-old heifers, and was not different due to DEX treatment. Administration of DEX to heifers induced into lactation increased initial milk production during the first 2 wk of lactation but this effect did not persist through 305 DIM. Treatment with DEX appeared to stimulate mammary cell differentiation but did not change the rate of decline of milk IgG concentrations. Higher milk yield in 18-mo-old heifers may be due to greater mammary epithelium, higher body mass, or both. PMID:24440271

  11. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  12. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the...

  13. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  14. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  15. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  16. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the...

  17. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the...

  18. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136....

  19. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136....

  20. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  1. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  2. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  3. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  4. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  5. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  6. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  7. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  8. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136....

  9. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  10. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  11. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  12. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the...

  13. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136....

  14. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  15. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136....

  16. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the...

  17. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  18. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  19. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  20. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  1. Analysis of the breast milk of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the preparation of substitutes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Lan, Jingchao; Wang, Hairui; Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Takatsu, Zenta; Kobayashi, Toyokazu; Koie, Hiroshi; Kamata, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Kiichi; Watanabe, Toshi

    2016-06-01

    The first milk substitute for giant panda cubs was developed in 1988 based on limited data about giant panda breast milk and that of certain types of bear. Mixtures of other formulas have also been fed to cubs at some facilities. However, they are not of sufficient nutritional quality for promoting growth in panda cubs. Here, we report analysis of giant panda breast milk and propose new milk substitutes for cubs, which were developed based on the results of our analysis. The Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding obtained breast milk samples from three giant pandas. Up to 30 ml of breast milk were collected from each mother by hand. Then, the milk samples were frozen and sent to Nihon University. The levels of protein, fat, carbohydrates, ash, moisture, vitamins, minerals, total amino acids, fatty acids, lactose and other carbohydrates in the milk were analyzed. The breast milk samples exhibited the following nutritional values: protein: 6.6-8.5%, fat: 6.9-16.4%, carbohydrates: 2.5-9.1%, ash: 0.9-1.0% and moisture: 67-83%. We designed two kinds of milk substitutes based on the data obtained and the nutritional requirements of dogs, cats and rodents. The nutritional composition of the milk substitutes for the first and second stages was as follows: protein: 38 and 26%, fat: 40 and 40%, carbohydrates: 13 and 25%, ash: 6 and 6% and moisture: 3 and 3%, respectively. In addition, the substitutes contained vitamins, minerals, taurine, docosahexaenoic acid, lactoferrin, nucleotides and other nutrients. PMID:26781707

  2. Analysis of the breast milk of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the preparation of substitutes

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Zhihe; HOU, Rong; LAN, Jingchao; WANG, Hairui; KUROKAWA, Hiroyuki; TAKATSU, Zenta; KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; KAMATA, Hiroshi; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; WATANABE, Toshi

    2016-01-01

    The first milk substitute for giant panda cubs was developed in 1988 based on limited data about giant panda breast milk and that of certain types of bear. Mixtures of other formulas have also been fed to cubs at some facilities. However, they are not of sufficient nutritional quality for promoting growth in panda cubs. Here, we report analysis of giant panda breast milk and propose new milk substitutes for cubs, which were developed based on the results of our analysis. The Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding obtained breast milk samples from three giant pandas. Up to 30 ml of breast milk were collected from each mother by hand. Then, the milk samples were frozen and sent to Nihon University. The levels of protein, fat, carbohydrates, ash, moisture, vitamins, minerals, total amino acids, fatty acids, lactose and other carbohydrates in the milk were analyzed. The breast milk samples exhibited the following nutritional values: protein: 6.6–8.5%, fat: 6.9–16.4%, carbohydrates: 2.5–9.1%, ash: 0.9–1.0% and moisture: 67–83%. We designed two kinds of milk substitutes based on the data obtained and the nutritional requirements of dogs, cats and rodents. The nutritional composition of the milk substitutes for the first and second stages was as follows: protein: 38 and 26%, fat: 40 and 40%, carbohydrates: 13 and 25%, ash: 6 and 6% and moisture: 3 and 3%, respectively. In addition, the substitutes contained vitamins, minerals, taurine, docosahexaenoic acid, lactoferrin, nucleotides and other nutrients. PMID:26781707

  3. Milk metabolites and neurodegeneration: Is there crosstalk?

    PubMed

    Thakur, Keshav; Anand, Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Milk has been considered as a natural source of nutrition for decades. Milk is known to be nutrient-rich which aids the growth and development of the human body. Milk contains both macro- and micronutrients. Breast milk is widely regarded as the optimal source of neonatal nutrition due to its composition of carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and antibodies. However, despite the wide use of milk products, investigations into the role of milk in degenerative diseases have been limited. This review will examine the relationship between the β-casein gene found in bovine milk and disease states by using age-related macular degeneration as an example. PMID:26526864

  4. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-04-25

    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented. PMID:25313944

  5. Sensitization of heat-treated Listeria monocytogenes to added lysozyme in milk.

    PubMed Central

    Kihm, D J; Leyer, G J; An, G H; Johnson, E A

    1994-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes was highly resistant to hen egg white lysozyme in whole milk but was sensitive in media and in phosphate buffer. Methods to sensitize the pathogen to lysozyme in milk were investigated. Treatment of whole milk by cation exchange to remove minerals, particularly Ca2+ and Mg2+, slightly promoted inactivation of L. monocytogenes by lysozyme at 4 degrees C over a period of 6 days. Heat treatment (62.5 degrees C for 15 s) strongly sensitized L. monocytogenes to lysozyme in demineralized milk and in MES [2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid] buffer. Addition of Ca2+ or Mg2+ to the demineralized milk restored resistance to lysozyme. Cells were more rapidly heat inactivated at 55 degrees C in demineralized milk containing lysozyme, and addition of Ca2+ to the demineralized milk restored the resistance to heat. The results indicate that minerals or mineral-associated components protect L. monocytogenes from inactivation by lysozyme and heat in milk, probably by increasing cell surface stability. The heat treatment of foods containing added lysozyme can probably play a significant role in producing microbiologically safe foods. Images PMID:7986052

  6. Kruppel-like factor 5 controls villus formation and initiation of cytodifferentiation in the embryonic intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sheila M; Zhang, Liqian; Xu, Yan; Besnard, Valerie; Wert, Susan E; Shroyer, Noah; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2013-03-15

    Kruppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) is a transcription factor expressed by embryonic endodermal progenitors that form the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. A Klf5 floxed allele was efficiently deleted from the intestinal epithelium by a Cre transgene under control of the Shh promoter resulting in the inhibition of villus morphogenesis and epithelial differentiation. Although proliferation of the intestinal epithelium was maintained, the expression of Elf3, Pparγ, Atoh1, Ascl2, Neurog3, Hnf4α, Cdx1, and other genes associated with epithelial cell differentiation was inhibited in the Klf5-deficient intestines. At E18.5, Klf5(Δ/Δ) fetuses lacked the apical brush border characteristic of enterocytes, and a loss of goblet and enteroendocrine cells was observed. The failure to form villi was not attributable to the absence of HH or PDGF signaling, known mediators of this developmental process. Klf5-deletion blocked the decrease in FoxA1 and Sox9 expression that accompanies normal villus morphogenesis. KLF5 directly inhibited activity of the FoxA1 promoter, and in turn FOXA1 inhibited Elf3 gene expression in vitro, linking the observed loss of Elf3 with the persistent expression of FoxA1 observed in Klf5-deficient mice. Genetic network analysis identified KLF5 as a key transcription factor regulating intestinal cell differentiation and cell adhesion. These studies indicate a novel requirement for KLF5 to initiate morphogenesis of the early endoderm into a compartmentalized intestinal epithelium comprised of villi and terminally differentiated cells. PMID:23266329

  7. Kruppel-like factor 5 Controls Villus Formation and Initiation of Cytodifferentiation in the Embryonic Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Sheila. M.; Zhang, Liqian; Xu, Yan; Besnard, Valerie; Wert, Susan E.; Shroyer, Noah; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Kruppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) is a transcription factor expressed by embryonic endodermal progenitors that form the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. A Klf5 floxed allele was efficiently deleted from the intestinal epithelium by a Cre transgene under control of the Shh promoter resulting in the inhibition of villus morphogenesis and epithelial differentiation. Although proliferation of the intestinal epithelium was maintained, the expression of Elf3, Pparγ, Atoh1, Ascl2, Neurog3, Hnf4α, Cdx1, and other genes associated with epithelial cell differentiation was inhibited in the Klf5-deficient intestines. At E18.5, Klf5Δ/Δ fetuses lacked the apical brush border characteristic of enterocytes, and a loss of goblet and enteroendocrine cells was observed. The failure to form villi was not attributable to the absence of HH or PDGF signaling, known mediators of this developmental process. Klf5-deletion blocked the decrease in FoxA1 and Sox9 expression that accompanies normal villus morphogenesis. KLF5 directly inhibited activity of the FoxA1 promoter, and in turn FOXA1 inhibited Elf3 gene expression in vitro, linking the observed loss of Elf3 with the persistent expression of FoxA1 observed in Klf5-deficient mice. Genetic network analysis identified KLF5 as a key transcription factor regulating intestinal cell differentiation and cell adhesion. These studies indicate a novel requirement for KLF5 to initiate morphogenesis of the early endoderm into a compartmentalized intestinal epithelium comprised of villi and terminally differentiated cells. PMID:23266329

  8. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level. PMID:14740859

  9. A novel interleukin 33/ST2 signaling regulates inflammatory response in human corneal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Zhang, Lili; Zhao, Guiqiu; Su, Zhitao; Deng, Ruzhi; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Li, De-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL) 33, a member of IL-1 cytokine family, is well known to promote Th2 type immune responses by signaling through its receptor ST2. However, it is not clear whether ST2 is expressed by mucosal epithelium, and how it responds to IL-33 to induce inflammatory mediators. This study was to identify the presence and function of ST2 and explore the role of IL-33/ST2 signaling in regulating the inflammatory cytokine production in corneal epithelial cells. Human corneal tissues and cultured primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were treated with IL-33 in different concentrations without or with different inhibitors to evaluate the expression, location and signaling pathways of ST2 in regulating production of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine. The mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription and real time PCR, and protein production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining. ST2 mRNA and protein were detected in donor corneal epithelium and cultured HCECs, and ST2 signal was enhanced by exposure to IL-33. IL-33 significantly stimulated the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and chemokine IL-8 by HCECs at both mRNA and protein levels. The stimulated production of inflammatory mediators by IL-33 was blocked by ST2 antibody or soluble ST2 protein. Interestingly, the IκB-α inhibitor BAY11-7082 or NF-κB activation inhibitor quinazoline blocked NF-κB p65 protein phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and also suppressed the production of these inflammatory cytokines and chemokine induced by IL-33. These findings demonstrate that ST2 is present in human corneal epithelial cells, and IL-33/ST2 signaling plays an important role in regulating IL-33 induced inflammatory responses in ocular surface. PMID:23585867

  10. A Novel Interleukin 33/ST2 Signaling Regulates Inflammatory Response in Human Corneal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jing; Zhang, Lili; Zhao, Guiqiu; Su, Zhitao; Deng, Ruzhi; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL) 33, a member of IL-1 cytokine family, is well known to promote Th2 type immune responses by signaling through its receptor ST2. However, it is not clear whether ST2 is expressed by mucosal epithelium, and how it responds to IL-33 to induce inflammatory mediators. This study was to identify the presence and function of ST2 and explore the role of IL-33/ST2 signaling in regulating the inflammatory cytokine production in corneal epithelial cells. Human corneal tissues and cultured primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were treated with IL-33 in different concentrations without or with different inhibitors to evaluate the expression, location and signaling pathways of ST2 in regulating production of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine. The mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription and real time PCR, and protein production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining. ST2 mRNA and protein were detected in donor corneal epithelium and cultured HCECs, and ST2 signal was enhanced by exposure to IL-33. IL-33 significantly stimulated the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and chemokine IL-8 by HCECs at both mRNA and protein levels. The stimulated production of inflammatory mediators by IL-33 was blocked by ST2 antibody or soluble ST2 protein. Interestingly, the IκB-α inhibitor BAY11-7082 or NF-κB activation inhibitor quinazoline blocked NF-κB p65 protein phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and also suppressed the production of these inflammatory cytokines and chemokine induced by IL-33. These findings demonstrate that ST2 is present in human corneal epithelial cells, and IL-33/ST2 signaling plays an important role in regulating IL-33 induced inflammatory responses in ocular surface. PMID:23585867

  11. The pathogenic role of persistent milk signaling in mTORC1- and milk-microRNA-driven type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    Milk, the secretory product of the lactation genome, promotes growth of the newborn mammal. Milk delivers insulinotropic amino acids, thus maintains a molecular crosstalk with the pancreatic β-cell of the milk recipient. Homeostasis of β-cells and insulin production depend on the appropriate magnitude of mTORC1 signaling. mTORC1 is activated by branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), glutamine, and palmitic acid, abundant nutrient signals of cow´s milk. Furthermore, milk delivers bioactive exosomal microRNAs. After milk consumption, bovine microRNA-29b, a member of the diabetogenic microRNA-29- family, reaches the systemic circulation and the cells of the milk consumer. MicroRNA-29b downregulates branchedchain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase, a potential explanation for increased BCAA serum levels, the metabolic signature of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In non-obese diabetic mice, microRNA-29b downregulates the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1, which leads to early β-cell death. In all mammals except Neolithic humans, milk-driven mTORC1 signaling is physiologically restricted to the postnatal period. In contrast, chronic hyperactivated mTORC1 signaling has been associated with the development of age-related diseases of civilization including T2DM. Notably, chronic hyperactivation of mTORC1 enhances endoplasmic reticulum stress that promotes apoptosis. In fact, hyperactivated β-cell mTORC1 signaling induced early β-cell apoptosis in a mouse model. The EPIC-InterAct Study demonstrated an association between milk consumption and T2DM in France, Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, and Sweden. In contrast, fermented milk products and cheese exhibit an inverse correlation. Since the early 1950´s, refrigeration technology allowed widespread consumption of fresh pasteurized milk, which facilitates daily intake of bioactive bovine microRNAs. Persistent uptake of cow´s milk-derived microRNAs apparently transfers an overlooked epigenetic diabetogenic program

  12. The Pathogenic Role of Persistent Milk Signaling in mTORC1- and Milk-MicroRNA-Driven Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    Milk, the secretory product of the lactation genome, promotes growth of the newborn mammal. Milk delivers insulinotropic amino acids, thus maintains a molecular crosstalk with the pancreatic β-cell of the milk recipient. Homeostasis of β-cells and insulin production depend on the appropriate magnitude of mTORC1 signaling. mTORC1 is activated by branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), glutamine, and palmitic acid, abundant nutrient signals of cow´s milk. Furthermore, milk delivers bioactive exosomal microRNAs. After milk consumption, bovine microRNA-29b, a member of the diabetogenic microRNA-29-family, reaches the systemic circulation and the cells of the milk consumer. MicroRNA-29b downregulates branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase, a potential explanation for increased BCAA serum levels, the metabolic signature of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In non-obese diabetic mice, microRNA-29b downregulates the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1, which leads to early β-cell death. In all mammals except Neolithic humans, milk-driven mTORC1 signaling is physiologically restricted to the postnatal period. In contrast, chronic hyperactivated mTORC1 sig-naling has been associated with the development of age-related diseases of civilization including T2DM. Notably, chronic hyperactivation of mTORC1 enhances endoplasmic reticulum stress that promotes apoptosis. In fact, hyperactivated β-cell mTORC1 signaling induced early β-cell apoptosis in a mouse model. The EPIC-InterAct Study demonstrated an association between milk consumption and T2DM in France, Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, and Sweden. In contrast, fermented milk products and cheese exhibit an inverse correlation. Since the early 1950´s, refrigeration technology allowed widespread consumption of fresh pasteurized milk, which facilitates daily intake of bioactive bovine microRNAs. Persistent uptake of cow´s milk-derived microRNAs apparently transfers an overlooked epigenetic diabetogenic program

  13. Effects of increased milking frequency on gene expression in the bovine mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Erin E; Siferd, Stephen; Elsasser, Theodore H; Evock-Clover, Christina M; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Sonstegard, Tad S; Fernandes, Violet M; Capuco, Anthony V

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated that increased milking frequency of dairy cattle during the first few weeks of lactation enhances milk yield, and that the effect persists throughout the entire lactation period. The specific mechanisms controlling this increase in milk production are unknown, but suggested pathways include increased mammary epithelial cell number, secretory capacity, and sensitivity to lactogenic hormones. We used serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and microarray analysis to identify changes in gene expression in the bovine mammary gland in response to 4× daily milking beginning at d 4 of lactation (IMF4) relative to glands milked 2× daily (Control) to gain insight into physiological changes occurring within the gland during more frequent milking. Results Results indicated changes in gene expression related to cell proliferation and differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, metabolism, nutrient transport, and immune function in IMF4 versus Control cows. In addition, pathways expected to promote neovascularization within the gland appeared to be up regulated in IMF4 cows. To validate this finding, immunolocalization of Von Willebrandt's factor (VWF), an endothelial cell marker, and its co-localization with the nuclear proliferation antigen Ki67 were evaluated in mammary tissue sections at approximately d 7 and d 14 of lactation in cows milked 4× daily versus Controls to estimate endothelial cell abundance and proliferation within the gland. Consistent with expression of genes related to neovascularization, both abundance of VWF and its co-localization with Ki67 appeared to be elevated in cows milked 4× daily, suggesting persistent increased milk yield in response to increased milking frequency may be mediated or complemented by enhanced mammary ECM remodeling and neovascularization within the gland. Conclusion Additional study is needed to determine whether changes in ECM remodeling and neovascularization of the

  14. In vitro reconstruction of human junctional and sulcular epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Dabija-Wolter, G; Bakken, V; Cimpan, M R; Johannessen, A C; Costea, D E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to develop and characterize standardized in vitro three-dimensional organotypic models of human junctional epithelium (JE) and sulcular epithelium (SE). METHODS Organotypic models were constructed by growing human normal gingival keratinocytes on top of collagen matrices populated with gingival fibroblasts (GF) or periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PLF). Tissues obtained were harvested at different time points and assessed for epithelial morphology, proliferation (Ki67), expression of JE-specific markers (ODAM and FDC-SP), cytokeratins (CK), transglutaminase, filaggrin, and basement membrane proteins (collagen IV and laminin1). RESULTS The epithelial component in 3- and 5-day organotypics showed limited differentiation and expressed Ki-67, ODAM, FDC-SP, CK 8, 13, 16, 19, and transglutaminase in a similar fashion to control JE samples. PLF supported better than GF expression of CK19 and suprabasal proliferation, although statistically significant only at day 5. Basement membrane proteins started to be deposited only from day 5. The rate of proliferating cells as well as the percentage of CK19-expressing cells decreased significantly in 7- and 9-day cultures. Day 7 organotypics presented higher number of epithelial cell layers, proliferating cells in suprabasal layers, and CK expression pattern similar to SE. CONCLUSION Both time in culture and fibroblast type had impact on epithelial phenotype. Five-day cultures with PLF are suggested as JE models, 7-day cultures with PLF or GF as SE models, while 9-day cultures with GF as gingival epithelium (GE) models. Such standard, reproducible models represent useful tools to study periodontal bacteria–host interactions in vitro. PMID:22947066

  15. Expression of Signaling Components in Embryonic Eyelid Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qinghang; Jin, Chang; Chen, Yinglei; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Closure of an epithelium opening is a critical morphogenetic event for development. An excellent example for this process is the transient closure of embryonic eyelid. Eyelid closure requires shape change and migration of epithelial cells at the tip of the developing eyelids, and is dictated by numerous signaling pathways. Here we evaluated gene expression in epithelial cells isolated from the tip (leading edge, LE) and inner surface epithelium (IE) of the eyelid from E15.5 mouse fetuses by laser capture microdissection (LCM). We showed that the LE and IE cells are different at E15.5, such that IE had higher expression of muscle specific genes, while LE acquired epithelium identities. Despite their distinct destinies, these cells were overall similar in expression of signaling components for the “eyelid closure pathways”. However, while the LE cells had more abundant expression of Fgfr2, Erbb2, Shh, Ptch1 and 2, Smo and Gli2, and Jag1 and Notch1, the IE cells had more abundant expression of Bmp5 and Bmpr1a. In addition, the LE cells had more abundant expression of adenomatosis polyposis coli down-regulated 1 (Apcdd1), but the IE cells had high expression of Dkk2. Our results suggest that the functionally distinct LE and IE cells have also differential expression of signaling molecules that may contribute to the cell-specific responses to morphogenetic signals. The expression pattern suggests that the EGF, Shh and NOTCH pathways are preferentially active in LE cells, the BMP pathways are effective in IE cells, and the Wnt pathway may be repressed in LE and IE cells via different mechanisms. PMID:24498290

  16. Response of macaque bronchiolar epithelium to ambient concentrations of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Harkema, J.R.; Plopper, C.G.; Hyde, D.M.; St. George, J.A.; Wilson, D.W.; Dungworth, D.L. )

    1993-09-01

    Recently, we reported that exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone, near the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (0.12 ppm), induced significant nasal epithelial lesions in a non-human primate, the bonnet monkey. The present study defines the effects of ambient concentrations of ozone on the surface epithelium lining respiratory bronchioles and on the underlying bronchiolar interstitium in these same monkeys. Bonnet monkeys were exposed to filtered air or to 0.15 or 0.30 ppm ozone 8 hours/day for 6 or 90 days. At the end of exposures, monkeys were anesthetized and killed by exsanguination. Microdissected bronchiolar airways of infusion-fixed lungs were evaluated morphometrically by light microscopy and quantitatively by scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ozone-induced epithelial changes. Hyperplasia of nonciliated, cuboidal epithelial cells and intraluminal accumulation of macrophages characterized ozone-induced lesions in respiratory bronchioles. There were no significant differences in epithelial thickness or cell numbers among ozone-exposed groups. Ozone-exposed epithelium was composed of 80% cuboidal and 20% squamous cells compared with 40% cuboidal and 60% squamous cells in filtered air controls. In addition, the arithmetic mean thickness of the surface epithelium, a measure of tissue mass per unit area of basal lamina, was significantly increased in all of the ozone-exposed groups. The number of cuboidal epithelial cells per surface area of basal lamina was increased above control values by 780% after 6 days exposure to 0.15 ppm, 777% after 90 days to 0.15 ppm, and 996% after 90 days exposure to 0.30 ppm. There was also a significant ozone-induced increase in the thickness of the bronchiolar interstitium that was due to an increase in both cellular and acellular components.

  17. Lack of Dystrophin Affects Bronchial Epithelium in mdx Mice.

    PubMed

    Morici, Giuseppe; Rappa, Francesca; Cappello, Francesco; Pace, Elisabetta; Pace, Andrea; Mudò, Giuseppa; Crescimanno, Grazia; Belluardo, Natale; Bonsignore, Maria R

    2016-10-01

    Mild exercise training may positively affect the course of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Training causes mild bronchial epithelial injury in both humans and mice, but no study assessed the effects of exercise in mdx mice, a well known model of DMD. The airway epithelium was examined in mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx) mice, and in wild type (WT, C57BL/10ScSc) mice either under sedentary conditions (mdx-SD, WT-SD) or during mild exercise training (mdx-EX, WT-EX). At baseline, and after 30 and 45 days of training (5 d/wk for 6 weeks), epithelial morphology and markers of regeneration, apoptosis, and cellular stress were assessed. The number of goblet cells in bronchial epithelium was much lower in mdx than in WT mice under all conditions. At 30 days, epithelial regeneration (PCNA positive cells) was higher in EX than SD animals in both groups; however, at 45 days, epithelial regeneration decreased in mdx mice irrespective of training, and the percentage of apoptotic (TUNEL positive) cells was higher in mdx-EX than in WT-EX mice. Epithelial expression of HSP60 (marker of stress) progressively decreased, and inversely correlated with epithelial apoptosis (r = -0.66, P = 0.01) only in mdx mice. Lack of dystrophin in mdx mice appears associated with defective epithelial differentiation, and transient epithelial regeneration during mild exercise training. Hence, lack of dystrophin might impair repair in bronchial epithelium, with potential clinical consequences in DMD patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2218-2223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26868633

  18. Cell cycle of globose basal cells in rat olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Huard, J M; Schwob, J E

    1995-05-01

    The olfactory epithelium of adult mammals has the unique property of generating olfactory sensory neurons throughout life. Cells of the basal compartment, which include horizontal and globose basal cells, are responsible for the ongoing process of neurogenesis in this system. We report here that the globose basal cells in olfactory epithelium of rats, as in mice, are the predominant type of proliferating cell, and account for 97.6% of the actively dividing cells in the basal compartment of the normal epithelium. Globose basal cells have not been fully characterized in terms of their proliferative properties, and the dynamic aspects of neurogenesis are not well understood. As a consequence, it is uncertain whether cell kinetic properties are under any regulation that could affect the rate of neurogenesis. To address this gap in our knowledge, we have determined the duration of both the synthesis phase (S-phase) and the full cell cycle of globose basal cells in adult rats. The duration of the S-phase was found to be 9 hr in experiments utilizing sequential injections of either IdU followed by BrdU or 3H-thy followed by BrdU. The duration of the cell cycle was determined by varying the time interval between the injections of 3H-thy and BrdU and tracking the set of cells that exit S shortly after the first injection. With this paradigm, the interval required for these cells to traverse G2, M, G1, and a second S-phase, is equivalent to the duration of one mitotic cycle and equals 17 hr. These observations serve as the foundation to assess whether the cell cycle duration is subject to regulation in response to experimental injury, and whether such regulation is partly responsible for changes in the rate of neurogenesis in such settings. PMID:7647371

  19. Effects of feeding a calf starter on molecular adaptations in the ruminal epithelium and liver of Holstein dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Laarman, A H; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Sugino, T; Guan, L L; Oba, M

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of feeding a calf starter on the volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile in the rumen and on expression of genes involved in epithelial intracellular pH regulation, butyrate metabolism, and hepatic urea cycle during the weaning transition. Twenty Holstein bull calves were fed either milk replacer and hay (MR) or milk replacer, hay, and a commercial texturized calf starter (MR+S) in a randomized complete block design. All calves were fed 750 g/d of milk replacer as the basal diet. Calves on the MR+S treatment were also fed starter ad libitum, and the energy intake of calves within blocks was maintained by supplementing the MR group with extra milk replacer that was equivalent to the energy intake from calf starter. Calves were killed 3 d after they consumed 680 g/d of calf starter for 3 consecutive days. Calves fed MR+S had higher VFA concentrations in the rumen (99.1±8.1 vs. 64.6±8.6 mM) and a higher molar proportion of butyrate (15.6±1.7 vs. 7.9±1.9%) than calves fed MR. Relative abundance of mRNA for monocarboxylate transporter isoform 1 was higher (1.45 vs. 0.53), and that of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (0.37 vs. 0.82) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl synthase isoform 1 (0.40 vs. 0.94) lower for the MR+S treatment compared with the MR treatment. In the liver, relative mRNA abundances of argininosuccinate synthetase isoform 1 (2.67 vs. 1.56), argininosuccinate lyase (1.44 vs. 0.99), and arginase isoform 1 (3.21 vs. 1.74) were greater for MR+S than for MR calves. Calf starter consumption appeared to increase fermentation in the rumen and affected expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and intracellular pH regulation in ruminal epithelium, and those involved in urea cycle in the liver. PMID:22541487

  20. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial on probiotic soy milk and soy milk: effects on epigenetics and oxidative stress in patients with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Mitra; Salehi, Rasoul; Feizi, Awat; Mirlohi, Maryam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Habibi, Nahal

    2015-11-01

    This clinical trial aimed to discover the effects of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on MLH1 and MSH2 promoter methylation, and oxidative stress among type II diabetic patients. Forty patients with type II diabetes mellitus aged 35-68 years were assigned to two groups in this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Patients in the intervention group consumed 200 ml/day of probiotic soy milk containing Lactobacillus plantarum A7, while those in the control group consumed 200 ml/d of conventional soy milk for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and 24-h dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the study, respectively. Probiotic soy milk significantly decreased promoter methylation in proximal and distal MLH1 promoter region (P < 0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively) compared with the baseline values, while plasma concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) decreased significantly compared with soy milk (P < 0.05). In addition, a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was observed in probiotic soy milk group compared with baseline value (P < 0.01). There were no significant changes from baseline in the promoter methylation of MSH2 within either group (P > 0.05). The consumption of probiotic soy milk improved antioxidant status in type II diabetic patients and may decrease promoter methylation among these patients, indicating that probiotic soy milk is a promising agent for diabetes management. PMID:26577825

  1. Expression of stanniocalcin in the epithelium of human choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Franzén, A M; Zhang, K Z; Westberg, J A; Zhang, W M; Arola, J; Olsen, H S; Andersson, L C

    2000-12-29

    Stanniocalcin (STC) is a 28 kD glycoprotein hormone originally found in bony fish in which it regulates calcium/phosphate homeostasis and protects against hypercalcemia. The recently characterized mammalian STC shows about 70% homology with fish STC. The epithelial cells of proximal tubuli in human and rat kidney and brain neurons have been found to express STC. Here we show that the epithelium of the choroid plexus, already at 16 weeks of fetal age, and of plexus papillomas, synthesize and express STC. Our findings suggest that STC may be of importance for the distribution of calcium and phosphate between the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. PMID:11134638

  2. Microwave effect on camphor binding to rat olfactory epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Philippova, T.M.; Novoselov, V.I.; Bystrova, M.F.; Alekseev, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    Microwave radiation decreased specific camphor binding to a membrane fraction of rat epithelium but not to a Triton X-100 extract of this fraction. Inhibition of the ligand binding did not depend on the modulation frequency of the microwave field in the region 1-100 Hz and was not a linear function of specific absorption rate (SAR). The decreased ligand binding was due to a shedding or release of the specific camphor-binding protein from the membrane into solution. It is highly probable that several other membrane proteins may be shed into solution during microwave exposure.

  3. Immune defense mechanisms in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells provide an essential line of defense for Caenorhabditis elegans against ingested pathogens. Because nematodes consume microorganisms as their food source, there has presumably been selection pressure to evolve and maintain immune defense mechanisms within the intestinal epithelium. Here we review recent advances that further define the immune signaling network within these cells and suggest mechanisms used by the nematode to monitor for infection. In reviewing studies of pathogenesis that use this simple model system, we hope to illustrate some of the basic principles of epithelial immunity that may also be of relevance in higher order hosts. PMID:22236697

  4. Diet, Microbiome, and the Intestinal Epithelium: An Essential Triumvirate?

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Javier Rivera; Conlin, Victoria Susan; Jobin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents a critical barrier protecting the host against diverse luminal noxious agents, as well as preventing the uncontrolled uptake of bacteria that could activate an immune response in a susceptible host. The epithelial monolayer that constitutes this barrier is regulated by a meshwork of proteins that orchestrate complex biological function such as permeability, transepithelial electrical resistance, and movement of various macromolecules. Because of its key role in maintaining host homeostasis, factors regulating barrier function have attracted sustained attention from the research community. This paper will address the role of bacteria, bacterial-derived metabolism, and the interplay of dietary factors in controlling intestinal barrier function. PMID:23586037

  5. Breast milk - pumping and storing

    MedlinePlus

    ... bottle. DO NOT use everyday plastic bags or formula bottle bags. They leak. Store your breast milk. ... means not giving any other food, drinks, or formula. If you use formula, still breastfeed and give ...

  6. Breast milk breaks new boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Sioned

    2012-01-01

    It is widely understood that breast milk is best for babies, but groundbreaking research continues to be conducted by the world's leading researchers to ensure we have the most recent knowledge to help breastfeeding mothers and give health professionals up to date guidance. This article provides a report from the recent International Breastfeeding and Lactation Symposium, hosted by Medela, touching on some of the key findings that were presented. This year's symposium revealed some exciting news for the breastfeeding world and here our reporter gives us a snap shot of the three most significant updates: further understanding of stem cells in breast milk, findings that have unlocked the power of human milk and insights into medication and breast milk. PMID:22908502

  7. Nonnutritive Sweeteners in Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Gardner, Alexandra L; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E; Garraffo, H Martin; Walter, Peter J; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants' milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications. PMID:26267522

  8. Annotation and structural elucidation of bovine milk oligosaccharides and determination of novel fucosylated structures

    PubMed Central

    Aldredge, Danielle L; Geronimo, Maria R; Hua, Serenus; Nwosu, Charles C; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Barile, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMOs) are recognized by the dairy and food industries, as well as by infant formula manufacturers, as novel, high-potential bioactive food ingredients. Recent studies revealed that bovine milk contains complex oligosaccharides structurally related to those previously thought to be present in only human milk. These BMOs are microbiotic modulators involved in important biological activities, including preventing pathogen binding to the intestinal epithelium and serving as nutrients for a selected class of beneficial bacteria. Only a small number of BMO structures are fully elucidated. To better understand the potential of BMOs as a class of biotherapeutics, their detailed structure analysis is needed. This study initiated the development of a structure library of BMOs and a comprehensive evaluation of structure-related specificity. The bovine milk glycome was profiled by high-performance mass spectrometry and advanced separation techniques to obtain a comprehensive catalog of BMOs, including several novel, lower abundant neutral and fucosylated oligosaccharides that are often overlooked during analysis. Structures were identified using isomer-specific tandem mass spectroscopy and targeted exoglycosidase digestions to produce a BMO library detailing retention time, accurate mass and structure to allow their rapid identification in future studies. PMID:23436288

  9. Cholesterol-mediated activation of acid sphingomyelinase disrupts autophagy in the retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Toops, Kimberly A.; Tan, Li Xuan; Jiang, Zhichun; Radu, Roxana A.; Lakkaraju, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential mechanism for clearing damaged organelles and proteins within the cell. As with neurodegenerative diseases, dysfunctional autophagy could contribute to blinding diseases such as macular degeneration. However, precisely how inefficient autophagy promotes retinal damage is unclear. In this study, we investigate innate mechanisms that modulate autophagy in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a key site of insult in macular degeneration. High-speed live imaging of polarized adult primary RPE cells and data from a mouse model of early-onset macular degeneration identify a mechanism by which lipofuscin bisretinoids, visual cycle metabolites that progressively accumulate in the RPE, disrupt autophagy. We demonstrate that bisretinoids trap cholesterol and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, an acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) cofactor, within the RPE. ASMase activation increases cellular ceramide, which promotes tubulin acetylation on stabilized microtubules. Live-imaging data show that autophagosome traffic and autophagic flux are inhibited in RPE with acetylated microtubules. Drugs that remove excess cholesterol or inhibit ASMase reverse this cascade of events and restore autophagosome motility and autophagic flux in the RPE. Because accumulation of lipofuscin bisretinoids and abnormal cholesterol homeostasis are implicated in macular degeneration, our studies suggest that ASMase could be a potential therapeutic target to ensure the efficient autophagy that maintains RPE health. PMID:25378587

  10. Evidence for Baseline Retinal Pigment Epithelium Pathology in the Trp1-Cre Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Aristomenis; Morizane, Yuki; Murakami, Yusuke; Giani, Andrea; Mantopoulos, Dimosthenis; Kayama, Maki; Roh, Mi In; Michaud, Norman; Pawlyk, Basil; Sandberg, Michael; Young, Lucy H.; Miller, Joan W.; Vavvas, Demetrios G.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing popularity of the Cre/loxP recombination system has led to the generation of numerous transgenic mouse lines in which Cre recombinase is expressed under the control of organ- or cell-specific promoters. Alterations in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a multifunctional cell monolayer that separates the retinal photoreceptors from the choroid, are prevalent in the pathogenesis of a number of ocular disorders, including age-related macular degeneration. To date, six transgenic mouse lines have been developed that target Cre to the RPE under the control of various gene promoters. However, multiple lines of evidence indicate that high levels of Cre expression can be toxic to mammalian cells. In this study, we report that in the Trp1-Cre mouse, a commonly used transgenic Cre strain for RPE gene function studies, Cre recombinase expression alone leads to RPE dysfunction and concomitant disorganization of RPE layer morphology, large areas of RPE atrophy, retinal photoreceptor dysfunction, and microglial cell activation in the affected areas. The phenotype described herein is similar to previously published reports of conditional gene knockouts that used the Trp1-Cre mouse, suggesting that Cre toxicity alone could account for some of the reported phenotypes and highlighting the importance of the inclusion of Cre-expressing mice as controls in conditional gene targeting studies. PMID:22429967

  11. Mycoplasma gallisepticum modifies the pathogenesis of influenza A virus in the avian tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sid, Hicham; Hartmann, Sandra; Petersen, Henning; Ryll, Martin; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2016-05-01

    Multiple respiratory infections have a significant impact on health and economy. Pathogenesis of co-infecting viruses and bacteria and their interaction with mucosal surfaces are poorly characterized. In this study we established a co-infection model based on pre-incubation of tracheal organ cultures (TOC) with Mycoplasma (M.) gallisepticum and a subsequent infection with avian influenza virus (AIV). Mycoplasma gallisepticum modified the pathogenesis of AIV as demonstrated in TOC of two different avian species (chickens and turkeys). Co-infection promoted bacterial growth in tracheal epithelium. Depending on the interaction time of M. gallisepticum with the host cells, AIV replication was either promoted or suppressed. M. gallisepticum inhibited the antiviral gene expression and affected AIV attachment to the host cell by desialylation of α-2,3 linked sialic acids. Ultrastructural analysis of co-infected TOC suggests that both pathogens may attach to and possibly infect the same epithelial cell. The obtained results contribute to better understanding of the interaction dynamics between M. gallisepticum and AIV. They highlight the importance of the time interval between infections as well as the biological properties of the involved pathogens as influencing factors in the outcome of respiratory infections. PMID:27079856

  12. Milk-derived proteins and peptides in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials are reviewed, involving proteins and peptides derived from milk (predominantly bovine), with the exception of lactoferrin, which will be the subject of another article. The most explored milk fraction is α-lactalbumin (LA), which is often applied with glycomacropeptide (GMP) - a casein degradation product. These milk constituents are used in health-promoting infant and adult formulae as well as in a modified form (HAMLET) to treat cancer. Lactoperoxidase (LCP) is used as an additive to mouth hygiene products and as a salivary substitute. Casein derivatives are applied, in addition, in the dry mouth syndrome. On the other hand, casein hydrolysates, containing active tripeptides, found application in hypertension and in type 2 diabetes. Lysozyme is routinely used for food conservation and in pharmaceutical products. It was successfully used in premature infants with concomitant diseases to improve health parameters. When used as prophylaxis in patients with scheduled surgery, it significantly reduced the incidence of hepatitis resulting from blood transfusion. Lysozyme was also used in infected children as an antimicrobial agent showing synergistic effects in combination with different antibiotics. Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) was introduced to therapy of Alzheimer's disease patients. The therapeutic value of PRP was proved in several clinical trials and supported by studies on its mechanism of action. Concentrated immunoglobulin preparations from colostrum and milk of hyperimmunized cows showed efficacy in prevention of infections by bacteria, viruses and protozoa. A nutrition formula with milk-derived TGF-β2 (Modulen IBD®) found application in treatment of pediatric Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the preparations containing milk-derived products are safe and effective measures in prevention and treatment of infections as well as autoimmune and neoplastic diseases. PMID:24018446

  13. Milking the 30,000-pound herd.

    PubMed

    Mein, G A; Thompson, P D

    1993-10-01

    The principles for milking the 13,600-kg (30,000-lb) cow are the same as for any other dairy cow: she should be milked gently, quickly, and completely with minimal machine stripping or over-milking. The application of these principles may differ, however, because high producing cows have 1) lower premilking stimulus requirements than low producers, 2) higher peak milking rates and higher average flow rates (yet longer times to milkout), 3) higher incidence of teat orifice lesions such as hyperkeratosis, and 4) higher risk of new mastitis infections. Existing national and international standards for construction and performance of milking systems may not be adequate to manage the higher expected flow rates through the milking unit and milklines. Such standards need to be reviewed and perhaps revised to ensure appropriate sizing and flow characteristics based on sound engineering principles and physiological requirements. Milking four times per day increases daily milk production compared with twice per day, and milking eight times per day increased daily production compared with four times per day. Cows milked more than four times per day might not require complete milking out at every milking. More frequent milking (or milking on demand) may be achieved with robot milkers, provided that robots can match the reliability of human milkers. PMID:8227649

  14. Impact of the removal of chocolate milk from school milk programs for children in Saskatoon, Canada.

    PubMed

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Phillips, Theodosia; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Studies in the United States report inclusion of flavoured milk in the diets of children and youth improves nutrient intakes. No research has investigated the contribution of flavoured milk to overall milk intake or the milk preferences of Canadian children. The objective of the study was to measure milk consumption (plain milk and flavoured milk) by children in an elementary school environment and investigate factors contributing to milk choice. A mixed-method research design was applied across 6 schools for 12 weeks. Milk waste was measured in grades 1-8 for 12 weeks. Weeks 1-4 (phase 1) and 9-12 (phase 3) provided both plain milk and flavoured milk as chocolate milk while weeks 5-8 (phase 2) provided plain milk only. Beverage Frequency Questionnaires were used in each phase (in grades 5-8 only) to assess usual beverage consumption. Statistical nutrient modelling was conducted to determine the effects of removing chocolate milk during phase 2 as a milk choice. Later, focus groups were conducted with students in grades 5-8 to determine what influences them to choose/not choose to drink milk. Total milk intake decreased by 12.3% when chocolate milk was removed from the schools (26.6% ± 5.2% to 14.31% ± 1.6%, p < 0.001). Milk choice was influenced by environmental factors as well as taste, cost, convenience, and variety. Total milk intake was associated with location (p = 0.035) and cost (p < 0.001), with rural students and/or those students receiving free milk drinking the greatest amount of milk. Nutrient modelling revealed chocolate milk is more cost-efficient and convenient at providing nutrients than alternative food/drink combinations. PMID:25585706

  15. Acanthamoebae bind to glycolipids of rabbit corneal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Panjwani, N; Zhao, Z; Baum, J; Pereira, M; Zaidi, T

    1992-01-01

    By use of a thin-layer chromatogram (TLC) overlay procedure, 35S-labeled acanthamoebae were shown to bind to seven glycolipids of rabbit corneal epithelium. Corneal epithelial cells were grown in culture and were subjected to Folch extraction to isolate a chloroform-rich lower phase containing neutral glycosphingolipids (NGSL) and an aqueous upper phase containing gangliosides, i.e., sialic acid-containing glycolipids. Thin-layer chromatography of the upper phase revealed the presence of 10 ganglioside components. Acanthamoebae were shown to bind to four of these components, referred to as 2, 3, 6, and 7. On TLC plates, ganglioside components 2 and 3 migrated slightly ahead of the glycolipid standard GD1a, component 7 comigrated with standard GM3, and component 6 migrated a little more slowly than GM3. Likewise, of the 10 NGSL known to be present in the lower phase, acanthamoebae bound to components 1, 5, and 6. NGSL components 1, 5, and 6 migrated on TLC plates with relative mobilities similar to those of standards asialo GM1, asialo GM2, and ceramidetrihexoside, respectively. We propose that one or more of the Acanthamoeba-reactive glycolipids of corneal epithelium identified in this study may play a role in the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis by mediating the adherence of the parasites to the cornea. Images PMID:1639517

  16. Sessile alveolar macrophages communicate with alveolar epithelium to modulate immunity.

    PubMed

    Westphalen, Kristin; Gusarova, Galina A; Islam, Mohammad N; Subramanian, Manikandan; Cohen, Taylor S; Prince, Alice S; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2014-02-27

    The tissue-resident macrophages of barrier organs constitute the first line of defence against pathogens at the systemic interface with the ambient environment. In the lung, resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a sentinel function against inhaled pathogens. Bacterial constituents ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on AMs, causing AMs to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that activate alveolar epithelial receptors, leading to recruitment of neutrophils that engulf pathogens. Because the AM-induced response could itself cause tissue injury, it is unclear how AMs modulate the response to prevent injury. Here, using real-time alveolar imaging in situ, we show that a subset of AMs attached to the alveolar wall form connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junction channels with the epithelium. During lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the AMs remained sessile and attached to the alveoli, and they established intercommunication through synchronized Ca(2+) waves, using the epithelium as the conducting pathway. The intercommunication was immunosuppressive, involving Ca(2+)-dependent activation of Akt, because AM-specific knockout of Cx43 enhanced alveolar neutrophil recruitment and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage. A picture emerges of a novel immunomodulatory process in which a subset of alveolus-attached AMs intercommunicates immunosuppressive signals to reduce endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. PMID:24463523

  17. An Apical-Membrane Chloride Channel in Human Tracheal Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Michael J.

    1986-06-01

    The mechanism of chloride transport by airway epithelia has been of substantial interest because airway and sweat gland-duct epithelia are chloride-impermeable in cystic fibrosis. The decreased chloride permeability prevents normal secretion by the airway epithelium, thereby interfering with mucociliary clearance and contributing to the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Because chloride secretion depends on and is regulated by chloride conductance in the apical cell membrane, the patch-clamp technique was used to directly examine single-channel currents in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelium. The cells contained an anion-selective channel that was not strongly voltage-gated or regulated by calcium in cell-free patches. The channel was also blocked by analogs of carboxylic acid that decrease apical chloride conductance in intact epithelia. When attached to the cell, the channel was activated by isoproterenol, although the channel was also observed to open spontaneously. However, in some cases, the channel was only observed after the patch was excised from the cell. These results suggest that this channel is responsible for the apical chloride conductance in airway epithelia.

  18. Sessile alveolar macrophages communicate with alveolar epithelium to modulate immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphalen, Kristin; Gusarova, Galina A.; Islam, Mohammad N.; Subramanian, Manikandan; Cohen, Taylor S.; Prince, Alice S.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2014-02-01

    The tissue-resident macrophages of barrier organs constitute the first line of defence against pathogens at the systemic interface with the ambient environment. In the lung, resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a sentinel function against inhaled pathogens. Bacterial constituents ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on AMs, causing AMs to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that activate alveolar epithelial receptors, leading to recruitment of neutrophils that engulf pathogens. Because the AM-induced response could itself cause tissue injury, it is unclear how AMs modulate the response to prevent injury. Here, using real-time alveolar imaging in situ, we show that a subset of AMs attached to the alveolar wall form connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junction channels with the epithelium. During lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the AMs remained sessile and attached to the alveoli, and they established intercommunication through synchronized Ca2+ waves, using the epithelium as the conducting pathway. The intercommunication was immunosuppressive, involving Ca2+-dependent activation of Akt, because AM-specific knockout of Cx43 enhanced alveolar neutrophil recruitment and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage. A picture emerges of a novel immunomodulatory process in which a subset of alveolus-attached AMs intercommunicates immunosuppressive signals to reduce endotoxin-induced lung inflammation.

  19. Electrodeposition of pronectin for titanium to augment gingival epithelium adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Shingo; Asano, Kazunari; Miyazawa, Atsuko; Satoh, Tazuko; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2013-05-01

    This paper is one trial of surface modification of titanium with pronectin F+ (PN) of an artificial protein to enhance gingival adhesion. Titanium plates were electrodeposited in the PN solution to prepare PN-electrodeposited titanium plates. When PN detachment from the PN-electrodeposited titanium plates was investigated, no detachment was observed, in contrast to the case of titanium plates simply coated with PN. A cell culture experiment demonstrated that electrodeposited PN had an inherent ability to enhance the initial attachment of gingival epithelial cells. The PN-electrodeposited titanium plates were implanted between the gingival epithelium and the underlying bone tissue of rabbits to evaluate epithelial growth on the plates and their gingival adhesion. Non-treated and PN-coated titanium plates were used as controls. PN electrodeposition enhanced epithelial growth and adhesion of titanium plates to a significantly great extent compared with PN-coated plates. These findings demonstrate that PN electrodeposition is a promising method to enhance epithelium adhesion onto a titanium surface. PMID:22294437

  20. Choline transport in the isolated rabbit corneal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, isolated epithelial sheets were obtained by performing two sequential anterior keratectomies, three weeks apart, on rabbit corneas. Light microscopy of the isolated sheets revealed a multilayered epithelium with an intact basal cell layer without contamination from other cell types. The accumulation of ({sup 3}H)choline into the epithelial sheets was studied at substrate concentrations varying from 1 to 100 {mu}Moles with and without the addition of specific metabolic and stereochemical inhibitors. Accumulation of ({sup 3}H)choline into these sheets was saturable. Kinetic analysis, performed by estimation from double-reciprocal plots, revealed a single component system with a K{sub m} of 24.9 {mu}M. The metabolic inhibitors potassium cyanide and ouabain showed no effect on the uptake of ({sup 3}H)choline; however, the stereochemical inhibitor hemicholinium-3 significantly reduced the accumulation of radiolabel at both high and low substrate concentrations. The results suggest a non-energy dependent yet a highly specific transport system for the accumulation of choline into the rabbit epithelium.

  1. Selective gene expression by rat gastric corpus epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, M.; Stengel, A.; Sachs, G.

    2011-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is divided into several segments that have distinct functional properties, largely absorptive. The gastric corpus is the only segment thought of as largely secretory. Microarray hybridization of the gastric corpus mucosal epithelial cells was used to compare gene expression with other segments of the columnar GI tract followed by statistical data subtraction to identify genes selectively expressed by the rat gastric corpus mucosa. This provides a means of identifying less obvious specific functions of the corpus in addition to its secretion-related genes. For example, important properties found by this GI tract comparative transcriptome reflect the energy demand of acid secretion, a role in lipid metabolism, the large variety of resident neuroendocrine cells, responses to damaging agents and transcription factors defining differentiation of its epithelium. In terms of overlap of gastric corpus genes with the rest of the GI tract, the distal small bowel appears to express many of the gastric corpus genes in contrast to proximal small and large bowel. This differential map of gene expression by the gastric corpus epithelium will allow a more detailed description of major properties of the gastric corpus and may lead to the discovery of gastric corpus cell differentiation genes and those mis-regulated in gastric carcinomas. PMID:21177383

  2. Coordination of Cellular Dynamics Contributes to Tooth Epithelium Deformations.

    PubMed

    Morita, Ritsuko; Kihira, Miho; Nakatsu, Yousuke; Nomoto, Yohei; Ogawa, Miho; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Kensaku; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Morishita, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The morphologies of ectodermal organs are shaped by appropriate combinations of several deformation modes, such as invagination and anisotropic tissue elongation. However, how multicellular dynamics are coordinated during deformation processes remains to be elucidated. Here, we developed a four-dimensional (4D) analysis system for tracking cell movement and division at a single-cell resolution in developing tooth epithelium. The expression patterns of a Fucci probe clarified the region- and stage-specific cell cycle patterns within the tooth germ, which were in good agreement with the pattern of the volume growth rate estimated from tissue-level deformation analysis. Cellular motility was higher in the regions with higher growth rates, while the mitotic orientation was significantly biased along the direction of tissue elongation in the epithelium. Further, these spatio-temporal patterns of cellular dynamics and tissue-level deformation were highly correlated with that of the activity of cofilin, which is an actin depolymerization factor, suggesting that the coordination of cellular dynamics via actin remodeling plays an important role in tooth epithelial morphogenesis. Our system enhances the understanding of how cellular behaviors are coordinated during ectodermal organogenesis, which cannot be observed from histological analyses. PMID:27588418

  3. The skin of fish as a transport epithelium: a review.

    PubMed

    Glover, Chris N; Bucking, Carol; Wood, Chris M

    2013-10-01

    The primary function of fish skin is to act as a barrier. It provides protection against physical damage and assists with the maintenance of homoeostasis by minimising exchange between the animal and the environment. However in some fish, the skin may play a more active physiological role. This is particularly true in species that inhabit specialised environmental niches (e.g. amphibious and air-breathing fish such as the lungfish), those with physiological characteristics that may subvert the need for the integument as a barrier (e.g. the osmoconforming hagfish), and/or fish with anatomical modifications of the epidermis (e.g. reduced epithelial thickness). Using examples from different fish groups (e.g. hagfishes, elasmobranchs and teleosts), the importance of fish skin as a transport epithelium for gases, ions, nitrogenous waste products, and nutrients was reviewed. The role of the skin in larval fish was also examined, with early life stages often utilising the skin as a surrogate gill, prior to the development of a functional branchial epithelium. PMID:23660826

  4. Regulation of gene expression in the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Camilla A; Breault, David T

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression within the intestinal epithelium is complex and controlled by various signaling pathways that regulate the balance between proliferation and differentiation. Proliferation is required both to grow and to replace cells lost through apoptosis and attrition, yet in all but a few cells, differentiation must take place to prevent uncontrolled growth (cancer) and to provide essential functions. In this chapter, we review the major signaling pathways underlying regulation of gene expression within the intestinal epithelium, based primarily on data from mouse models, as well as specific morphogens and transcription factor families that have a major role in regulating intestinal gene expression, including the Hedgehog family, Forkhead Box (FOX) factors, Homeobox (HOX) genes, ParaHox genes, GATA transcription factors, canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, EPH/Ephrins, Sox9, BMP signaling, PTEN/PI3K, LKB1, K-RAS, Notch pathway, HNF, and MATH1. We also briefly highlight important emerging areas of gene regulation, including microRNA (miRNA) and epigenetic regulation. PMID:21075346

  5. Nanotopography follows force in TGF-β1 stimulated epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoelking, Gerold; Reiss, Bjoern; Wegener, Joachim; Oberleithner, Hans; Pavenstaedt, Hermann; Riethmuller, Christoph

    2010-07-01

    Inflammation and cellular fibrosis often imply an involvement of the cytokine TGF-β1. TGF-β1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT), a term describing the loss of epithelium-specific function. Indicative for this process are an elongated cell shape parallel to stress fibre formation. Many signalling pathways of TGF-β1 have been discovered, but mechanical aspects have not yet been investigated. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyse surface topography and mechanical properties of EMT in proximal kidney tubule epithelium (NRK52E). Elongated cells, an increase of stress fibre formation and a loss of microvillus compatible structures were observed as characteristic signs of EMT. Furthermore, AFM could identify an increase in stiffness by 71% after six days of stimulation with TGF-β1. As a novel topographical phenomenon, nodular protrusions emerged at the cell-cell junctions. They occurred preferentially at sites where stress fibres cross the border. Since these nodular protrusions were sensitive to inhibitors of force generation, they can indicate intracellular tension. The results demonstrate a manifest impact of elevated tension on the cellular topography.

  6. Visual scoring of milk mixed with blood.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten D; Bjerring, Martin

    2005-08-01

    Sorting of normal and abnormal milk at time of milking is done visually for conventional milking systems, but more concrete standards are needed when milking is done in automatic milking systems (AMS). Several panel tests were carried out to find out how different consumer groups, milkers and advisors look at and respond to the visual appearance of milk mixed with blood, in order to set a limit for what they think is acceptable. It is concluded from the test panel results that milk samples with 0.4% or more of blood all will be scored as pink and samples with 0.1% blood (about 6 microM-haemoglobin or 100 mg/l) can be visually detected if they are compared with milk samples without blood. The consumer group scored fewer of the samples with 0-1% blood as normal than did the professional groups. The test panel scored 65% of the samples with 1% blood as normal when milk was presented in a black strip cup, which is the reference method when foremilking takes place in a conventional parlour. Only 2% of the milk samples with 2% blood (about 120 microM-haemoglobin or 2000 mg/l) were scored as normal in a black strip cup and should consequently be detected by conventional as well as automatic systems. One model of AMS was tested for its ability to detect and separate milk coloured by blood. The model separated milk with > or = 6 microM-haemoglobin. Milk mixed with blood injected into the milk stream for a short time at the beginning of milking was not separated. We lack data on how blood is naturally expelled into milk and in what amount. We propose that cow composite milk with > 6 microM-haemoglobin should be separated because at this level milk will have a red tinge. PMID:16174354

  7. Cell signaling and ion transport across the fish gill epithelium.

    PubMed

    Evans, David H

    2002-08-01

    A large array of circulating and local signaling agents modulate transport of ions across the gill epithelium of fishes by either affecting transport directly or by altering the size and distribution of transporting cells in the epithelium. In some cases, these transport effects are in addition to cardiovascular effects of the same agents, which may affect the perfusion pathways in the gill vasculature and, in turn, affect epithelial transport indirectly. Prolactin is generally considered to function in freshwater, because it is the only agent that allows survival of some hypophysectomized fish species in freshwater. It appears to function by either reducing branchial permeability, Na,K-activated ATPase activity, or reducing the density of chloride cells. Cortisol was initially considered to produce virtually opposite effects (e.g., stimulation of Na,K-activated ATPase and of chloride cell size and density), but more recent studies have found that this steroid stimulates ionic uptake in freshwater fishes, as well as the activity of H-ATPase, an enzyme thought to be central to ionic uptake. Thus, cortisol may function in both high and low salinities. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor appear to act synergistically to affect ion regulation in seawater fishes, stimulating both Na,K-activated ATPase and Na-K-2Cl co-transporter activity, and chloride cell size, independent of their effects on growth. Some of the effects of the GH-IGF axis may be via stimulation of the number of cortisol receptors. Thyroid hormones appear to affect seawater ion regulation indirectly, by stimulating the GH-IGF axis. Natriuretic peptides were initially thought to stimulate gill ionic extrusion, but recent studies have not corroborated this finding, so it appears that the major mode of action of these peptides may be reduction of salt loading by inhibition of oral ingestion and intestinal ionic uptake. Receptors for both arginine vasotocin and angiotensin have been described in

  8. Isoelectric focusing and ELISA for detecting adulteration of donkey milk with cow milk.

    PubMed

    Pizzano, Rosa; Salimei, Elisabetta

    2014-06-25

    Donkey milk has been recently revalued intensely due to its nutritional properties. Moreover, donkey milk has been proposed as an effective alternative food for some infants with cow milk allergy. Two fast analytical methods were proposed to detect the fraudulent practice of blending cow milk to donkey milk. Detection of cow αs1-casein bands along the profiles of experimental donkey-cow milk mixtures analyzed by isoelectric focusing was adequate to estimate cow milk used as adulterant of donkey milk starting from 5% (v/v). An ELISA-based method using the antipeptide antibodies raised against the 1-28 sequence stretch of cow β-casein was also developed for an accurate definition of composition of donkey-cow milk mixtures. The presence of cow milk at levels as low as 0.5% (v/v) was detected in donkey-cow milk mixtures prepared at laboratory scale and assayed by ELISA. PMID:24892189

  9. Dietary molasses increases ruminal pH and enhances ruminal biohydrogenation during milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Martel, C A; Titgemeyer, E C; Mamedova, L K; Bradford, B J

    2011-08-01

    . Molasses also increased ruminal pH (5.73 vs. 5.87±0.06), decreased the yield of trans-10 C18:1, and increased the yield of trans-11 C18:1 in milk fat. These data provide evidence that molasses may promote mammary de novo fatty acid synthesis in cows fed high-energy rations by moderating ruminal pH and altering ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation pathways. PMID:21787935

  10. [First year of life. Human milk and human milk substitutes].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M

    2016-09-01

    The nutritional improvement of mothers and their children is one of the most cost-effective tools to achieve optimal human growth and development. The World Health Organization recommends offering «exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, and then begin the introduction of safe and nutritious food while breastfeeding continues until the second year of life.» Since the second half of the 20th century to date extraordinary progress in the manufacturing and formulation of substitutes for human milk has been accomplished, these being partial or complete substitutes for human milk, whether or not suitable for this purpose. Whole (cow´s) milk is not an adequate substitute for human milk during the first six months of life because of its great nutritional disparity and excess solutes with potential deleterious effects in infants. Therefore, it is an ethical responsibility of health professional to educate and advise parents and caregivers on the proper and timely use of human milk substitutes available in our country. PMID:27603882

  11. Factors associated with increased milk production for automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are increasingly popular throughout the world. Our objective was to analyze 635 North American dairy farms with AMS for (risk) factors associated with increased milk production per cow per day and milk production per robot per day. We used multivariable generalized mixed linear regressions, which identified several significant risk factors and interactions of risk factors associated with milk production. Free traffic was associated with increased production per cow and per robot per day compared with forced systems, and the presence of a single robot per pen was associated with decreased production per robot per day compared with pens using 2 robots. Retrofitted farms had significantly less production in the first 4 yr since installation compared with production after 4 yr of installation. In contrast, newly built farms did not see a significant change in production over time since installation. Overall, retrofitted farms did not produce significantly more or less milk than newly constructed farms. Detailed knowledge of factors associated with increased production of AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers looking to transition to an AMS and maximize their production. PMID:26898275

  12. [Milk and food security].

    PubMed

    Díaz Yubero, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    In the history of food security in the EU there is a before and after the White Paper published in January 2000; since then we are witnessing radical new approaches in the Commission strategy to ensure the highest standards of food safety for EU citizens, based on a more coordinated and integrated organization. The basic principle was to extend the application of control measures at all stages of the production chain, which was summarized in the slogan which has since been repeated regularly: 'From Farm to Consumer'. The new guidelines for action were the answer to a series of food crises (dioxin, hormones, BSE...) that called into question the European agri-food system and, what was even more severe, produced a deep distrust of consumers by health risks attached to feeding. Beef and cow's milk, two basic components of the European diet, were the products most affected by the aforementioned crisis, which showed that in those years very few companies paid attention to the quality from the source. In this paper a review of the issues presented at the time, the measures implemented by the White Paper and the path travelled is done, while it raised the need to use safe and quality raw materials, so that consumers have absolute confidence in their food. PMID:25862327

  13. Genetically engineering milk.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Joshi, Akshay; Kumar, Satish; Lillico, Simon G; Proudfoot, Chris

    2016-02-01

    It has been thirty years since the first genetically engineered animal with altered milk composition was reported. During the intervening years, the world population has increased from 5bn to 7bn people. An increasing demand for protein in the human diet has followed this population expansion, putting huge stress on the food supply chain. Many solutions to the grand challenge of food security for all have been proposed and are currently under investigation and study. Amongst these, genetics still has an important role to play, aiming to continually enable the selection of livestock with enhanced traits. Part of the geneticist's tool box is the technology of genetic engineering. In this Invited Review, we indicate that this technology has come a long way, we focus on the genetic engineering of dairy animals and we argue that the new strategies for precision breeding demand proper evaluation as to how they could contribute to the essential increases in agricultural productivity our society must achieve. PMID:26869106

  14. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  15. Human milk miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary gland resulting in unique miRNA profiles of fractionated milk

    PubMed Central

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.; Kakulas, Foteini

    2016-01-01

    Human milk (HM) contains regulatory biomolecules including miRNAs, the origin and functional significance of which are still undetermined. We used TaqMan OpenArrays to profile 681 mature miRNAs in HM cells and fat, and compared them with maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma, and bovine and soy infant formulae. HM cells and PBMCs (292 and 345 miRNAs, respectively) had higher miRNA content than HM fat and plasma (242 and 219 miRNAs, respectively) (p < 0.05). A strong association in miRNA profiles was found between HM cells and fat, whilst PBMCs and plasma were distinctly different to HM, displaying marked inter-individual variation. Considering the dominance of epithelial cells in mature milk of healthy women, these results suggest that HM miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary epithelium, whilst the maternal circulation may have a smaller contribution. Our findings demonstrate that unlike infant formulae, which contained very few human miRNA, HM is a rich source of lactation-specific miRNA, which could be used as biomarkers of the performance and health status of the lactating mammary gland. Given the recently identified stability, uptake and functionality of food- and milk-derived miRNA in vivo, HM miRNA are likely to contribute to infant protection and development. PMID:26854194

  16. Milk flow-dependent vacuum loss in high-line milking systems: effects on milking characteristics and teat tissue condition.

    PubMed

    Ambord, S; Bruckmaier, R M

    2010-08-01

    To study the effects of a milking system that partially compensates for milk flow-dependent vacuum loss compared with a standard (high-line) milking unit in a tie-stall barn, milk flow and vacuum patterns were recorded in 10 cows during machine milking with 2 milking systems in a crossover design for 7 d each. Before and after each treatment period postmilking teat condition was recorded by ultrasound cross-sectioning. Additionally, 2 methods to measure teat tissue condition were compared: longitudinal teat ultrasound cross-sectioning and teat tissue density measurements with the spring-loaded caliper (cutimeter method). The partial compensation of milk flow-dependent vacuum loss caused an elevation of the peak flow rate (4.74+/-0.08 vs. 4.29+/-0.07 kg/min) and a shorter duration of plateau (1.57+/-0.06 vs. 1.96+/-0.07 min) compared with the standard milking system. Total milk yield, duration of incline and decline of milk flow, average milk flow, time until peak flow rate, main milking time, and total milking time did not differ between treatments (overall means: 13.75+/-0.17 kg; 0.65+/-0.01 min; 2.88+/-0.09 min; 2.82+/-0.05 kg/min; 1.65+/-0.03 min; 5.23+/-0.09 min, and 5.30+/-0.10 min, respectively). The vacuum drop in the short milk tube during periods of high milk flow was less in the compensating vacuum than in the standard milking system (11+/-1.1 vs. 15+/-0.7 kPa). Teat measures as determined by ultrasound remained unchanged over the entire experimental period with both milking systems. Postmilking teat tissue measures including their recovery within 20 min after the end of milking show a correlation (0.85 and 0.71, respectively) between the methods used (ultrasound and cutimeter method). In conclusion, a more constant vacuum at the teat tip (within the short milk tube) during periods of high milk flow affected milk flow patterns, mainly increasing peak flow rate. However, the reduced vacuum loss did not increase the overall speed of milking. In addition

  17. Pdx1 inactivation restricted to the intestinal epithelium in mice alters duodenal gene expression in enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin; Fang, Rixun; Davis, Corrine; Maravelias, Charalambos; Sibley, Eric

    2009-12-01

    Null mutant mice lacking the transcription factor pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) are apancreatic and survive only a few days after birth. The role of Pdx1 in regulating intestinal gene expression has therefore yet to be determined in viable mice with normal pancreatic development. We hypothesized that conditional inactivation of Pdx1 restricted to the intestinal epithelium would alter intestinal gene expression and cell differentiation. Pdx1(flox/flox);VilCre mice with intestine-specific Pdx1 inactivation were generated by crossing a transgenic mouse strain expressing Cre recombinase, driven by a mouse villin 1 gene promoter fragment, with a mutant mouse strain homozygous for loxP site-flanked Pdx1. Pdx1 protein is undetectable in all epithelial cells in the intestinal epithelium of Pdx1(flox/flox);VilCre mice. Goblet cell number and mRNA abundance for mucin 3 and mucin 13 genes in the proximal small intestine are comparable between Pdx1(flox/flox);VilCre and control mice. Similarly, Paneth cell number and expression of Paneth cell-related genes Defa1, Defcr-rs1, and Mmp7 in the proximal small intestine remain statistically unchanged by Pdx1 inactivation. Although the number of enteroendocrine cells expressing chromogranin A/B, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (Gip), or somatostatin (Sst) is unaffected in the Pdx1(flox/flox);VilCre mice, mRNA abundance for Gip and Sst is significantly reduced in the proximal small intestine. Conditional Pdx1 inactivation attenuates intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity in the duodenal epithelium, consistent with an average 91% decrease in expression of the mouse enterocyte IAP gene, alkaline phosphatase 3 (a novel Pdx1 target candidate), in the proximal small intestine following Pdx1 inactivation. We conclude that Pdx1 is necessary for patterning appropriate gene expression in enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells of the proximal small intestine. PMID:19808654

  18. Pdx1 inactivation restricted to the intestinal epithelium in mice alters duodenal gene expression in enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Rixun; Davis, Corrine; Maravelias, Charalambos; Sibley, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Null mutant mice lacking the transcription factor pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) are apancreatic and survive only a few days after birth. The role of Pdx1 in regulating intestinal gene expression has therefore yet to be determined in viable mice with normal pancreatic development. We hypothesized that conditional inactivation of Pdx1 restricted to the intestinal epithelium would alter intestinal gene expression and cell differentiation. Pdx1flox/flox;VilCre mice with intestine-specific Pdx1 inactivation were generated by crossing a transgenic mouse strain expressing Cre recombinase, driven by a mouse villin 1 gene promoter fragment, with a mutant mouse strain homozygous for loxP site-flanked Pdx1. Pdx1 protein is undetectable in all epithelial cells in the intestinal epithelium of Pdx1flox/flox;VilCre mice. Goblet cell number and mRNA abundance for mucin 3 and mucin 13 genes in the proximal small intestine are comparable between Pdx1flox/flox;VilCre and control mice. Similarly, Paneth cell number and expression of Paneth cell-related genes Defa1, Defcr-rs1, and Mmp7 in the proximal small intestine remain statistically unchanged by Pdx1 inactivation. Although the number of enteroendocrine cells expressing chromogranin A/B, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (Gip), or somatostatin (Sst) is unaffected in the Pdx1flox/flox;VilCre mice, mRNA abundance for Gip and Sst is significantly reduced in the proximal small intestine. Conditional Pdx1 inactivation attenuates intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity in the duodenal epithelium, consistent with an average 91% decrease in expression of the mouse enterocyte IAP gene, alkaline phosphatase 3 (a novel Pdx1 target candidate), in the proximal small intestine following Pdx1 inactivation. We conclude that Pdx1 is necessary for patterning appropriate gene expression in enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells of the proximal small intestine. PMID:19808654

  19. Response of macaque bronchiolar epithelium to ambient concentrations of ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Harkema, J. R.; Plopper, C. G.; Hyde, D. M.; St George, J. A.; Wilson, D. W.; Dungworth, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, we reported that exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone, near the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (0.12 ppm), induced significant nasal epithelial lesions in a non-human primate, the bonnet monkey. The present study defines the effects of ambient concentrations of ozone on the surface epithelium lining respiratory bronchioles and on the underlying bronchiolar interstitium in these same monkeys. Bonnet monkeys were exposed to filtered air or to 0.15 or 0.30 ppm ozone 8 hours/day for 6 or 90 days. At the end of exposures, monkeys were anesthetized and killed by exsanguination. Microdissected bronchiolar airways of infusion-fixed lungs were evaluated morphometrically by light microscopy and quantitatively by scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ozone-induced epithelial changes. Hyperplasia of nonciliated, cuboidal epithelial cells and intraluminal accumulation of macrophages characterized ozone-induced lesions in respiratory bronchioles. There were no significant differences in epithelial thickness or cell numbers among ozone-exposed groups. Ozone-exposed epithelium was composed of 80% cuboidal and 20% squamous cells compared with 40% cuboidal and 60% squamous cells in filtered air controls. In addition, the arithmetic mean thickness of the surface epithelium, a measure of tissue mass per unit area of basal lamina, was significantly increased in all of the ozone-exposed groups. The number of cuboidal epithelial cells per surface area of basal lamina was increased above control values by 780% after 6 days exposure to 0.15 ppm, 777% after 90 days to 0.15 ppm, and 996% after 90 days exposure to 0.30 ppm. There was also a significant ozone-induced increase in the thickness of the bronchiolar interstitium that was due to an increase in both cellular and acellular components. These results demonstrate that exposure to low ambient concentrations of ozone, near the current. National Ambient Air Quality Standard, induces pulmonary lesions

  20. ATP-sensitive K(+) channels in rat colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Pouokam, Ervice; Bader, Sandra; Brück, Brigitta; Schmidt, Bärbel; Diener, Martin

    2013-06-01

    ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels couple the metabolic state of a cell to its electrical activity. They consist of a hetero-octameric complex with pore-forming Kir6.x (Kir6.1, Kir6.2) and regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. Functional data indicate that KATP channels contribute to epithelial K(+) currents at colonic epithelia. However, their molecular identity and their properties are largely unknown. Therefore, changes in short-circuit current (I sc) induced by the KATP channel opener pinacidil (5 10(-4) mol l(-1)) were measured in Ussing chambers under control conditions and in the presence of different blockers of KATP channels. The channel subunits expressed by the colonic epithelium were identified by immunohistochemistry and by RT-PCR. The K(+) channel opener, when administered at the serosal side, induced an increase in I sc consistent with the induction of transepithelial Cl(-) secretion after activation of basolateral K(+) channels, whereas mucosal administration of pinacidil resulted in a negative I sc. The increase in I sc evoked by serosal pinacidil was inhibited by serosal administration of glibenclamide (5 10(-4) mol l(-1)) and gliclazide (10(-6) mol l(-1)), but was resistant even against a high concentration (10(-2) mol l(-1)) of tolbutamide. In contrast, none of these inhibitors (administered at the mucosal side) reduced significantly the negative I sc induced by mucosal pinacidil. Instead, pinacidil inhibited Cl(-) currents across apical Cl(-) channels in basolaterally depolarized epithelia indicating that the negative I sc induced by mucosal pinacidil is due to a transient inhibition of Cl(-) secretion. In mRNA prepared from isolated colonic crypts, messenger RNA for both pore-forming subunits, Kir6.1 and Kir6.2, and two regulatory subunits (SUR1 and SUR2B) was found. Expression within the colonic epithelium was confirmed for these subunits by immunohistochemistry. In consequence, KATP channels are present in the basolateral membrane

  1. The effect of pre-milking teat-brushing on milk processing time in an automated milking system.

    PubMed

    Jago, Jenny G; Davis, Kendra L; Copeman, Peter J; Woolford, Murray M

    2006-05-01

    Cow throughput in an automatic milking system (AMS) is limited by system parameters such as the time required for pre-milking udder preparation and cup attachment, physiological responses of the cow (such as milk let-down and milking-out rate), milking machine features and cow behaviour. A single-factor cross-over design was used to investigate the effect of pre-milking teat brushing on milk processing time in an AMS operating in an extensive grazing farming system. Teat brushing consisted of two roller brushes tracking up each teat three times (total brushing time of up to 45 s/cow). Cows were allocated to one of two treatment groups with either no brushing (NB) or brushing (B) for a 4-week period before being changed to the other treatment. Teat brushing resulted in shorter average cups-on-time (B = 506.1 s, NB = 541.0 s, P = 0.0001), longer average milk processing time (B = 10.30 min, NB = 9.76 min, P = 0.001) and no difference in daily milk yield (B = 14.67, NB = 14.71 kg/cow, P = 0.826). There was no difference between the two treatments in the success of cup attachment (B = 3.76%, NB = 5.10% unsuccessful milking attempts, P = 0.285). The estimated time cost of pre-milking teat brushing was 53 min for every 100 milkings, equivalent to an additional 5-6 milkings for every 100 milkings by an AMS. The importance of these potential time savings is discussed in relation to automatic milking in farming systems that aim for a lower per cow milking frequency and high ratio of cows to AMS. PMID:16476173

  2. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  3. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  4. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  5. 21 CFR 131.147 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry whole milk. 131.147 Section 131.147 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.147 Dry whole milk. (a) Description. Dry whole milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk, as...

  6. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  7. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  8. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... permitted in the preparation of the dough is milk or, as an alternative, a combination of dairy products...

  9. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  10. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... permitted in the preparation of the dough is milk or, as an alternative, a combination of dairy products...

  11. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  12. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  13. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  14. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  15. 7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  16. 7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  17. 7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  18. 7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  1. 7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  2. 75 FR 1027 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Milk and Milk Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Milk and Milk Products AGENCY: Office for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and... draft United States positions that will be discussed at the 9th Session of the Codex Committee on Milk and Milk Products (CCMMP) of the Codex ] Alimentarius Commission (Codex), which will be held...

  3. 7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  4. 7 CFR 1001.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1001.75 Section 1001.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  5. 7 CFR 1001.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1001.75 Section 1001.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  6. 7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  7. 7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  8. 7 CFR 1124.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1124.75 Section 1124.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  9. 7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  10. 7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  11. 7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  12. 7 CFR 1001.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1001.75 Section 1001.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  13. 7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  14. 7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  16. 7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  17. 7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  18. 7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  19. 7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  20. 7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  1. 7 CFR 1124.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1124.75 Section 1124.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  2. 7 CFR 1124.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1124.75 Section 1124.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  3. 7 CFR 1001.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1001.75 Section 1001.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  4. 7 CFR 1124.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1124.75 Section 1124.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  5. 7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  6. 7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  7. 7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  8. 7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  9. 7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  10. 7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  11. 7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  12. Fear of people by cows and effects on milk yield, behavior, and heart rate at milking.

    PubMed

    Rushen, J; De Passillé, A M; Munksgaard, L

    1999-04-01

    To examine the ability of cows to recognize people and the effects of the fear of people by cows at milking, cows (n = 14) were handled by two people; one handled the cows gently, and the other handled them aversively. The handlers wore clothes of different color. After handling, the cows stood further from the aversive handler than from the gentle handler. When the handlers changed the color of their clothing, the cows did not discriminate between them. The gentle handler stood close to the cows for one milking, and the aversive handler stood close to the cows for another milking. For two control milkings, neither handler was present. Measurements included milking duration, milk yield, residual milk, heart rates, incidence of movement, and kicking behavior of the cows. Compared with control milkings, the presence of the gentle handler did not change milk yield or residual milk. The presence of the aversive handler increased residual milk by 70%. Kicking behavior of cows during milking was reduced with either handler present, and kicking during udder preparation was reduced with the aversive handler present. For cows that best discriminated between the handlers, the presence of the aversive handler increased movement and heart rate during milking. For cows that did not discriminate well between the handlers, the presence of either handler increased heart rate and decreased movement during milking. Cows recognized individual people, and the fear of people who are present during milking may reduce milk yield. PMID:10212458

  13. Developmental changes in the milk fat globule membrane proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics is a tool that will help identify proteins important to milk production, secretion, as well as specific components in milk. Identification of proteins associated with various aspects of milk production and secretion will provide a foundation for new research in lactation biology. Milk f...

  14. 7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  15. 7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  16. 7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  17. 7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  18. 7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  19. 7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  20. 7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...