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Sample records for epoxide hydrolase inhibition

  1. Evaluation of fish models of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, J W; Denton, D L; Morisseau, C; Koger, C S; Wheelock, C E; Hinton, D E; Hammock, B D

    2001-01-01

    Substituted ureas and carbamates are mechanistic inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We screened a set of chemicals containing these functionalities in larval fathead minnow (Pimphales promelas) and embryo/larval golden medaka (Oryzias latipes) models to evaluate the utility of these systems for investigating sEH inhibition in vivo. Both fathead minnow and medaka sEHs were functionally similar to the tested mammalian orthologs (murine and human) with respect to substrate hydrolysis and inhibitor susceptibility. Low lethality was observed in either larval or embryonic fish exposed to diuron [N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl), N'-dimethyl urea], desmethyl diuron [N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl), N'-methyl urea], or siduron [N-(1-methylcyclohexyl), N'-phenyl urea]. Dose-dependent inhibition of sEH was a sublethal effect of substituted urea exposure with the potency of siduron < desmethyl diuron = diuron, differing from the observed in vitro sEH inhibition potency of siduron > desmethyl diuron > diuron. Further, siduron exposure synergized the toxicity of trans-stilbene oxide in fathead minnows. Medaka embryos exposed to diuron, desmethyl diuron, or siduron displayed dose-dependent delays in hatch, and elevated concentrations of diuron and desmethyl diuron produced developmental toxicity. The dose-dependent toxicity and in vivo sEH inhibition correlated, suggesting a potential, albeit undefined, relationship between these factors. Additionally, the observed inversion of in vitro to in vivo potency suggests that these fish models may provide tools for investigating the in vivo stability of in vitro inhibitors while screening for untoward effects. PMID:11171526

  2. Dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase synergistically suppresses primary tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guodong; Panigrahy, Dipak; Hwang, Sung Hee; Yang, Jun; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Wettersten, Hiromi I.; Liu, Jun-Yan; Wang, Yanru; Ingham, Elizabeth S.; Tam, Sarah; Kieran, Mark W.; Weiss, Robert H.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandins derived from the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) from the cytochrome P450/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway are important eicosanoids that regulate angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors, which block the formation of prostaglandins, suppress tumor growth, whereas sEH inhibitors, which increase endogenous EETs, stimulate primary tumor growth and metastasis. However, the functional interactions of these two pathways in cancer are unknown. Using pharmacological inhibitors as probes, we show here that dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH synergistically inhibits primary tumor growth and metastasis by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. COX-2/sEH dual pharmacological inhibitors also potently suppress primary tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via selective inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. These results demonstrate a critical interaction of these two lipid metabolism pathways on tumorigenesis and suggest dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:25024195

  3. Opposite Effects of Gene Deficiency and Pharmacological Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase on Cardiac Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Hammock, Bruce D.; Ai, Ding; Zhu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Arachidonic acid-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are important regulators of cardiac remodeling; manipulation of their levels is a potentially useful pharmacological strategy. EETs are hydrolyzed by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form the corresponding diols, thus altering and reducing the activity of these oxylipins. To better understand the phenotypic impact of sEH disruption, we compared the effect of EPHX2 gene knockout (EPHX2−/−) and sEH inhibition in mouse models. Measurement of plasma oxylipin profiles confirmed that the ratio of EETs/DHETs was increased in EPHX2−/− and sEH-inhibited mice. However, plasma concentrations of 9, 11, 15, 19-HETE were elevated in EPHX2−/− but not sEH-inhibited mice. Next, we investigated the role of this difference in cardiac dysfunction induced by Angiotensin II (AngII). Both EPHX2 gene deletion and inhibition protected against AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Interestingly, cardiac dysfunction was attenuated by sEH inhibition rather than gene deletion. Histochemical staining revealed that compared with pharmacological inhibition, EPHX2 deletion aggravated AngII-induced myocardial fibrosis; the mRNA levels of fibrotic-related genes were increased. Furthermore, cardiac inflammatory response was greater in EPHX2−/− than sEH-inhibited mice with AngII treatment, as evidenced by increased macrophage infiltration and expression of MCP-1 and IL-6. In vitro, AngII-upregulated MCP-1 and IL-6 expression was significantly attenuated by sEH inhibition but promoted by EPHX2 deletion in cardiofibroblasts. Thus, compared with pharmacological inhibition of sEH, EPHX2 deletion caused the shift in arachidonic acid metabolism, which may led to pathological cardiac remodeling, especially cardiac fibrosis. PMID:24718617

  4. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Deficiency or Inhibition Attenuates MPTP-Induced Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaocui; Wu, Qiaoqi; Lin, Lifang; Sun, Aimin; Liu, Shuhu; Li, Xiaowen; Cao, Xiong; Gao, Tianming; Luo, Pengcheng; Zhu, Xinhong; Wang, Xuemin

    2015-08-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibition has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on various diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and brain ischemia. However, whether sEH inhibition has therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease is still unknown. In this paper, we found that sEH expression is increased in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro pyridine (MPTP)-treated mice, and sEH deficiency and inhibition significantly attenuated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cell loss and improved rotarod performance. The substrate of sEH, 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET), protected TH-positive cells and alleviated the rotarod performance deficits of wild-type mice but not sEH-knockout mice. Moreover, the 14,15-EET antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (14,15-EEZE) abolished the neuronal protective effects of sEH deficiency. In primary cultured cortical neurons, MPP(+) induced significant Akt inactivation in neurons from sEH wild-type mice, and this effect was not observed in neurons from knockout mice. Our data indicate that sEH deficiency and inhibition increased 14,15-EET in MPTP-treated mice, which activated the Akt-mediated protection of TH-positive neurons and behavioral functioning. We also found that sEH deficiency attenuated TH-positive cell loss in a paraquat-induced mouse model of Parkinson's. Our data suggest that sEH inhibition might be a powerful tool to protect dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25128026

  5. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition is antinociceptive in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karen; Yang, Jun; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is currently an insufficiently treated clinical condition. There remains a critical need for efficacious therapies without severe side effects to treat the uniquely persistent and tonic pain of neuropathy. Inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzyme which stabilize endogenous epoxy fatty acids have demonstrated antihyperalgesia in clinical chronic inflammatory pain and modeled neuropathic pain. Recently, the conditioned place preference (CPP) assay has been used to evaluate the tonic nature of neuropathy in several animal models. The current experiments use the CPP assay alongside withdrawal thresholds to investigate the antihyperalgesic efficacy of sEH inhibitors in a murine model of diabetic neuropathy. Here, the sEH inhibitor t-TUCB at 10 mg/kg induced a robust place preference in diabetic neuropathic mice representative of pain relief. Importantly, this effect was absent both in control mice and in sEH knockout mice at the same dose indicating t-TUCB is not positively reinforcing or rewarding. When compared to gabapentin, t-TUCB elicited a similar degree of withdrawal threshold improvement without the same degree of spontaneous locomotion decline in neuropathic mice. Overall, these experiments show that inhibiting the sEH attenuates chronic pain and offers an alternative to current side-effect limited therapies to meet this clinical need. PMID:24924124

  6. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase activity by compounds isolated from the aerial parts of Glycosmis stenocarpa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Tai, Bui Huu; Van, Doan Thi; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to search for soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors from natural plants, bioassay-guided fractionation of lipophilic n-hexane and chloroform layers of an extract of the aerial parts of Glycosmis stenocarpa led to the isolation of 12 compounds (1-12) including murrayafoline-A (1), isomahanine (2), bisisomahanine (3), saropeptate (4), (24 S)-ergost-4-en-3,6-dione (5), stigmasta-4-en-3,6-dion (6), stigmast-4-en-3-one (7), β-sitosterol (8), 24-methylpollinastanol (9), trans-phytol (10), neosarmentol III (11) and (+)-epiloliolide (12). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Among them, neosarmentol III (11) was isolated from nature for the first time. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against sEH. Among isolated carbazole-type compounds, isomahanine (2) and bisisomahanine (3) were identified as a potent inhibitor of sEH, with IC50 values of 22.5 ± 1.7 and 7.7 ± 1.2 µM, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory action of 2 and 3 represented mixed-type enzyme inhibition. PMID:26444316

  7. Inhibiting an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Protects CFTR.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Christopher D; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Stanton, Bruce A; Hammock, Bruce D; Morisseau, Christophe; Madden, Dean R

    2015-08-17

    Opportunistic pathogens exploit diverse strategies to sabotage host defenses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes the CFTR inhibitory factor Cif and thus triggers loss of CFTR, an ion channel required for airway mucociliary defense. However, the mechanism of action of Cif has remained unclear. It catalyzes epoxide hydrolysis, but there is no known role for natural epoxides in CFTR regulation. It was demonstrated that the hydrolase activity of Cif is strictly required for its effects on CFTR. A small-molecule inhibitor that protects this key component of the mucociliary defense system was also uncovered. These results provide a basis for targeting the distinctive virulence chemistry of Cif and suggest an unanticipated role of physiological epoxides in intracellular protein trafficking. PMID:26136396

  8. Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Limits Mitochondrial Damage and Preserves Function Following Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Akhnokh, Maria K.; Yang, Feng Hua; Samokhvalov, Victor; Jamieson, Kristi L.; Cho, Woo Jung; Wagg, Cory; Takawale, Abhijit; Wang, Xiuhua; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Seubert, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Myocardial ischemia can result in marked mitochondrial damage leading to cardiac dysfunction, as such identifying novel mechanisms to limit mitochondrial injury is important. This study investigated the hypothesis that inhibiting soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), responsible for converting epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids protects mitochondrial from injury caused by myocardial infarction. Methods: sEH null and WT littermate mice were subjected to surgical occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery or sham operation. A parallel group of WT mice received an sEH inhibitor, trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-y1-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (tAUCB; 10 mg/L) or vehicle in the drinking water 4 days prior and 7 days post-MI. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography prior- and 7-days post-surgery. Heart tissues were dissected into infarct, peri-, and non-infarct regions to assess ultrastructure by electron microscopy. Complexes I, II, IV, citrate synthase, PI3K activities, and mitochondrial respiration were assessed in non-infarct regions. Isolated working hearts were used to measure the rates of glucose and palmitate oxidation. Results: Echocardiography revealed that tAUCB treatment or sEH deficiency significantly improved systolic and diastolic function post-MI compared to controls. Reduced infarct expansion and less adverse cardiac remodeling were observed in tAUCB-treated and sEH null groups. EM data demonstrated mitochondrial ultrastructure damage occurred in infarct and peri-infarct regions but not in non-infarct regions. Inhibition of sEH resulted in significant improvements in mitochondrial respiration, ATP content, mitochondrial enzymatic activities and restored insulin sensitivity and PI3K activity. Conclusion: Inhibition or genetic deletion of sEH protects against long-term ischemia by preserving cardiac function and maintaining mitochondrial efficiency. PMID:27375480

  9. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase in mice promotes reverse cholesterol transport and regression of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Peng, Hongchun; Peng, Ran; Fan, Qingsong; Zhao, Shuiping; Xu, Danyan; Morisseau, Christophe; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-04-01

    Adipose tissue is the body largest free cholesterol reservoir and abundantly expresses ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which maintains plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. HDLs have a protective role in atherosclerosis by mediating reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The sEH is highly expressed in adipocytes, and it converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) into less bioactive dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. We previously showed that increasing EETs levels with a sEH inhibitor (sEHI) (t-AUCB) resulted in elevated ABCA1 expression and promoted ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present study investigates the impacts of t-AUCB in mice deficient for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (Ldlr(-/-) mice) with established atherosclerotic plaques. The sEH inhibitor delivered in vivo for 4 weeks decreased the activity of sEH in adipose tissue, enhanced ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux from adipose depots, and consequently increased HDL levels. Furthermore, t-AUCB enhanced RCT to the plasma, liver, bile and feces. It also showed the reduction of plasma LDL-C levels. Consistently, t-AUCB-treated mice showed reductions in the size of atherosclerotic plaques. These studies establish that raising adipose ABCA1 expression, cholesterol efflux, and plasma HDL levels with t-AUCB treatment promotes RCT, decreasing LDL-C and atherosclerosis regression, suggesting that sEH inhibition may be a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:25733327

  10. Pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase provides cardioprotection in hyperglycemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmino, Kathleen; Jackson, Kaleena; Harris, Todd R.; Vu, Vincent; Dong, Hua; Dutrow, Gavin; Evans, James E.; Graham, James; Cummings, Bethany P.; Havel, Peter J.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Despa, Sanda; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Glycemic regulation improves myocardial function in diabetic patients, but finding optimal therapeutic strategies remains challenging. Recent data have shown that pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), an enzyme that decreases the endogenous levels of protective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), improves glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant mice. Here, we tested whether the administration of sEH inhibitors preserves cardiac myocyte structure and function in hyperglycemic rats. University of California-Davis-type 2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rats with nonfasting blood glucose levels in the range of 150–200 mg/dl were treated with the sEH inhibitor 1-(1-acetypiperidin-4-yl)-3-adamantanylurea (APAU) for 6 wk. Administration of APAU attenuated the progressive increase of blood glucose concentration and preserved mitochondrial structure and myofibril morphology in cardiac myocytes, as revealed by electron microscopy imaging. Fluorescence microscopy with Ca2+ indicators also showed a 40% improvement of cardiac Ca2+ transients in treated rats. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content was decreased in both treated and untreated rats compared with control rats. However, treatment limited this reduction by 30%, suggesting that APAU may protect the intracellular Ca2+ effector system. Using Western blot analysis on cardiac myocyte lysates, we found less downregulation of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), the main route of Ca2+ reuptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and lower expression of hypertrophic markers in treated versus untreated UCD-T2DM rats. In conclusion, APAU enhances the therapeutic effects of EETs, resulting in slower progression of hyperglycemia, efficient protection of myocyte structure, and reduced Ca2+ dysregulation and SERCA remodeling in hyperglycemic rats. The results suggest that sEH/EETs may be an effective therapeutic target for cardioprotection in insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:22865388

  11. Structure-activity relationships of the plasminogen modulator SMTP with respect to the inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Naoki; Suzuki, Eriko; Tsujihara, Kota; Nishimura, Yuuichi; Hasumi, Keiji

    2015-11-01

    A family of fungal metabolites, SMTP, is a small-molecule plasminogen modulator that enhances plasminogen activation, leading to thrombolysis. We recently demonstrated that SMTP-7 effectively treats ischemic stroke due to its thrombolytic activity as well as anti-inflammatory action, which is attributable to soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibition. In this paper, we studied detailed structure-activity relationships of plasminogen modulation and sEH inhibition using 25 SMTP congeners including six newly synthesized ones. The results clearly demonstrate that the structure of the N-linked side chain of SMTP congeners markedly affect their activities toward plasminogen modulation and inhibitions of the two activities of sEH (C-terminal epoxide hydrolase and N-terminal phosphatase). A slight change in the N-linked side chain results in affording selectivity of SMTP congeners. Many congeners, which lacked plasminogen modulation activity, differently inhibited the two sEH activities depending on the structures of the N-linked side chain. Some congeners were active in plasminogen modulation and inhibition of both activities of sEH. These results help comprehensive understanding of ideal design of a drug useful for ischemic diseases that are associated with inflammation, such as stroke. PMID:25966853

  12. Soluble epoxide hydrolase contamination of specific catalase preparations inhibits epoxyeicosatrienoic acid vasodilation of rat renal arterioles.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Kathryn M; Olson, Lauren; Harder, Adam; Isbell, Marilyn; Imig, John D; Gutterman, David D; Falck, J R; Campbell, William B

    2011-10-01

    Cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), are important signaling molecules in the kidney. In renal arteries, EETs cause vasodilation whereas H(2)O(2) causes vasoconstriction. To determine the physiological contribution of H(2)O(2), catalase is used to inactivate H(2)O(2). However, the consequence of catalase action on EET vascular activity has not been determined. In rat renal afferent arterioles, 14,15-EET caused concentration-related dilations that were inhibited by Sigma bovine liver (SBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml) but not Calbiochem bovine liver (CBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml). SBL catalase inhibition was reversed by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor tAUCB (1 μM). In 14,15-EET incubations, SBL catalase caused a concentration-related increase in a polar metabolite. Using mass spectrometry, the metabolite was identified as 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-DHET), the inactive sEH metabolite. 14,15-EET hydrolysis was not altered by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-ATZ; 10-50 mM), but was abolished by the sEH inhibitor BIRD-0826 (1-10 μM). SBL catalase EET hydrolysis showed a regioisomer preference with greatest hydrolysis of 14,15-EET followed by 11,12-, 8,9- and 5,6-EET (V(max) = 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.23 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 ng DHET·U catalase(-1)·min(-1), respectively). Of five different catalase preparations assayed, EET hydrolysis was observed with two Sigma liver catalases. These preparations had low specific catalase activity and positive sEH expression. Mass spectrometric analysis of the SBL catalase identified peptide fragments matching bovine sEH. Collectively, these data indicate that catalase does not affect EET-mediated dilation of renal arterioles. However, some commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with sEH, and these contaminated preparations diminish the biological activity of H(2)O(2) and EETs. PMID:21753077

  13. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Dimerization Is Required for Hydrolase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jonathan W.; Subrahmanyan, Rishi M.; Summers, Sol A.; Xiao, Xiangshu; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in the metabolic conversion of the protective eicosanoid 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid to 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid. Accordingly, inhibition of sEH hydrolase activity has been shown to be beneficial in multiple models of cardiovascular diseases, thus identifying sEH as a valuable therapeutic target. Recently, a common human polymorphism (R287Q) was identified that reduces sEH hydrolase activity and is localized to the dimerization interface of the protein, suggesting a relationship between sEH dimerization and activity. To directly test the hypothesis that dimerization is essential for the proper function of sEH, we generated mutations within the sEH protein that would either disrupt or stabilize dimerization. We quantified the dimerization state of each mutant using a split firefly luciferase protein fragment-assisted complementation system. The hydrolase activity of each mutant was determined using a fluorescence-based substrate conversion assay. We found that mutations that disrupted dimerization also eliminated hydrolase enzymatic activity. In contrast, a mutation that stabilized dimerization restored hydrolase activity. Finally, we investigated the kinetics of sEH dimerization and found that the human R287Q polymorphism was metastable and capable of swapping dimer partners faster than the WT enzyme. These results indicate that dimerization is required for sEH hydrolase activity. Disrupting sEH dimerization may therefore serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for reducing sEH hydrolase activity. PMID:23362272

  14. Soluble epoxide hydrolase dimerization is required for hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jonathan W; Subrahmanyan, Rishi M; Summers, Sol A; Xiao, Xiangshu; Alkayed, Nabil J

    2013-03-15

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in the metabolic conversion of the protective eicosanoid 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid to 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid. Accordingly, inhibition of sEH hydrolase activity has been shown to be beneficial in multiple models of cardiovascular diseases, thus identifying sEH as a valuable therapeutic target. Recently, a common human polymorphism (R287Q) was identified that reduces sEH hydrolase activity and is localized to the dimerization interface of the protein, suggesting a relationship between sEH dimerization and activity. To directly test the hypothesis that dimerization is essential for the proper function of sEH, we generated mutations within the sEH protein that would either disrupt or stabilize dimerization. We quantified the dimerization state of each mutant using a split firefly luciferase protein fragment-assisted complementation system. The hydrolase activity of each mutant was determined using a fluorescence-based substrate conversion assay. We found that mutations that disrupted dimerization also eliminated hydrolase enzymatic activity. In contrast, a mutation that stabilized dimerization restored hydrolase activity. Finally, we investigated the kinetics of sEH dimerization and found that the human R287Q polymorphism was metastable and capable of swapping dimer partners faster than the WT enzyme. These results indicate that dimerization is required for sEH hydrolase activity. Disrupting sEH dimerization may therefore serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for reducing sEH hydrolase activity. PMID:23362272

  15. Protection from hypertension in mice by the Mediterranean diet is mediated by nitro fatty acid inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Rebecca L.; Rudyk, Olena; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Kamynina, Alisa; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Eaton, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is inhibited by electrophilic lipids by their adduction to Cys521 proximal to its catalytic center. This inhibition prevents hydrolysis of the enzymes’ epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) substrates, so they accumulate inducing vasodilation to lower blood pressure (BP). We generated a Cys521Ser sEH redox-dead knockin (KI) mouse model that was resistant to this mode of inhibition. The electrophilic lipid 10-nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA) inhibited hydrolase activity and also lowered BP in an angiotensin II-induced hypertension model in wild-type (WT) but not KI mice. Furthermore, EET/dihydroxy-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid isomer ratios were elevated in plasma from WT but not KI mice following NO2-OA treatment, consistent with the redox-dead mutant being resistant to inhibition by lipid electrophiles. sEH was inhibited in WT mice fed linoleic acid and nitrite, key constituents of the Mediterranean diet that elevates electrophilic nitro fatty acid levels, whereas KIs were unaffected. These observations reveal that lipid electrophiles such as NO2-OA mediate antihypertensive signaling actions by inhibiting sEH and suggest a mechanism accounting for protection from hypertension afforded by the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24843165

  16. Gene deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase confers resilience to repeated social defeat stress

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Qian; Ma, Min; Ishima, Tamaki; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Wagner, Karen M.; Zhang, Ji-chun; Yang, Chun; Yao, Wei; Dong, Chao; Han, Mei; Hammock, Bruce D.; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a severe and chronic psychiatric disease, affecting 350 million subjects worldwide. Although multiple antidepressants have been used in the treatment of depressive symptoms, their beneficial effects are limited. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in the inflammation that is involved in depression. Thus, we examined here the role of sEH in depression. In both inflammation and social defeat stress models of depression, a potent sEH inhibitor, TPPU, displayed rapid antidepressant effects. Expression of sEH protein in the brain from chronically stressed (susceptible) mice was higher than of control mice. Furthermore, expression of sEH protein in postmortem brain samples of patients with psychiatric diseases, including depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, was higher than controls. This finding suggests that increased sEH levels might be involved in the pathogenesis of certain psychiatric diseases. In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with TPPU prevented the onset of depression-like behaviors after inflammation or repeated social defeat stress. Moreover, sEH KO mice did not show depression-like behavior after repeated social defeat stress, suggesting stress resilience. The sEH KO mice showed increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylation of its receptor TrkB in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, but not nucleus accumbens, suggesting that increased BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus confer stress resilience. All of these findings suggest that sEH plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression, and that epoxy fatty acids, their mimics, as well as sEH inhibitors could be potential therapeutic or prophylactic drugs for depression. PMID:26976569

  17. 3-D QSAR ANALYSIS OF INHIBITION OF MURINE SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (MSEH) BY BENZOYLUREAS, ARYLUREAS, AND THEIR ANALOGUES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two hundred and seventy-one compounds including benzoylureas, arylureas and related compounds were assayed using recombinant murine soluble epoxide hydrolase (MsEH) produced from a baculovirus expression system. Among all the insect growth regulators assayed, 18 benzoylphenylu...

  18. Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanying; Li, Haonan; Dong, Hua; Liao, Jie; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2013-12-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyses/inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their corresponding diols, and targeting sEH leads to strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemical approach, a significant increase of sEH expression was identified in ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The effects of deficiency in the sEH gene were determined on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis-induced carcinogenesis. The effects of EETs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages were analyzed in vitro. With extensive histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses, compared to wild-type mice, sEH(-/-) mice exhibited a significant decrease in tumor incidence (13/20 vs. 6/19, p<0.05) and a markedly reduced average tumor size (59.62±20.91 mm(3) vs. 22.42±11.22 mm(3)), and a significant number of pre-cancerous dysplasia (3±1.18 vs. 2±0.83, p<0.01). The inflammatory activity, as measured by the extent/proportion of erosion/ulceration/dense lymphoplasmacytosis (called active colitis index) in the colon, was significantly lower in sEH(-/-) mice (44.7%±24.9% vs. 20.2%±16.2%, p<0.01). The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays demonstrated significantly low levels of cytokines/chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vasopressin-activated calcium-mobilizing (VCAM-1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). In vitro, LPS-activated macrophages treated with 14,15-EET showed a significant reduction of LPS-triggered IL-1β and TNF-α expression. Eicosanoic acid metabolic profiling revealed a significant increase of the ratios of EETs/ dihydroeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and epoxyoctadecennoic acid/dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (EpOMEs/DiHOMEs). These results indicate that sEH plays an important role in the development of colitis and in inducing carcinogenesis

  19. Role of haem oxygenase in the renoprotective effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Elmarakby, Ahmed A; Faulkner, Jessica; Pye, Chelsey; Rouch, Katelyn; Alhashim, Abdulmohsin; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Baban, Babak

    2013-10-01

    We have shown previously that inhibition of sEH (soluble epoxide hydrolase) increased EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids) levels and reduced renal injury in diabetic mice and these changes were associated with induction of HO (haem oxygenase)-1. The present study determines whether the inhibition of HO negates the renoprotective effect of sEH inhibition in diabetic SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats). After 6 weeks of induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, SHR were divided into the following groups: untreated, treated with the sEH inhibitor t-AUCB {trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid}, treated with the HO inhibitor SnMP (stannous mesoporphyrin), and treated with both inhibitors for 4 more weeks; non-diabetic SHR served as a control group. Induction of diabetes significantly increased renal sEH expression and decreased the renal EETs/DHETEs (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid) ratio without affecting HO-1 activity or expression in SHR. Inhibition of sEH with t-AUCB increased the renal EETs/DHETEs ratio and HO-1 activity in diabetic SHR; however, it did not significantly alter systolic blood pressure. Treatment of diabetic SHR with t-AUCB significantly reduced the elevation in urinary albumin and nephrin excretion, whereas co-administration of the HO inhibitor SnMP with t-AUCB prevented these changes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed elevations in renal fibrosis as indicated by increased renal TGF-β (transforming growth factor β) levels and fibronectin expression in diabetic SHR and these changes were reduced with sEH inhibition. Co-administration of SnMP with t-AUCB prevented its ability to reduce renal fibrosis in diabetic SHR. In addition, SnMP treatment also prevented t-AUCB-induced decreases in renal macrophage infiltration, IL-17 expression and MCP-1 levels in diabetic SHR. These findings suggest that HO-1 induction is involved in the protective effect of sEH inhibition against diabetic renal injury. PMID:23611540

  20. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect of antimicrobial triclocarban in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun-Yan; Qiu, Hong; Morisseau, Christophe; Hwang, Sung Hee; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Ulu, Arzu; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of the anti-microbial triclocarban (TCC) in personal care products (PCPs) has resulted in concern regarding environmental pollution. TCC is a potent inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Inhibitors of sEH (sEHIs) are anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive and cardio-protective in multiple animal models. However, the in vivo effects anticipated from a sEHI have not been reported for TCC. Here we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects in vivo of TCC in a murine model. TCC was employed in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged murine model. Systolic blood pressure, plasma levels of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, and metabolomic profile of plasma oxylipins were determined. TCC significantly reversed LPS-induced morbid hypotension in a time-dependent manner. TCC significantly repressed the increased release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine caused by LPS. Furthermore, TCC significantly shifted the oxylipin profile in vivo in a time-dependent manner towards resolution of inflammation as expected from a sEHI. These results demonstrated that at the doses used TCC is anti-inflammatory in the murine model. This study suggests that TCC may provide some benefits in humans in addition to its antimicrobial activities due to its potent inhibition of sEH. It may be a promising starting point for developing new low volume high value applications of TCC. However these biological effects also caution against the general over use of TCC in PCPs. PMID:21741984

  1. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates hepatic fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Todd R.; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Kodani, Sean; Dong, Hua; Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Haj, Fawaz G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-07-15

    Liver fibrosis is a pathological condition in which chronic inflammation and changes to the extracellular matrix lead to alterations in hepatic tissue architecture and functional degradation of the liver. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce fibrosis in the heart, pancreas and kidney in several disease models. In this study, we assess the effect of sEH inhibition on the development of fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced mouse model by monitoring changes in the inflammatory response, matrix remolding and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) was administered in drinking water. Collagen deposition in the liver was increased five-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group, and this was returned to control levels by TPPU treatment. Hepatic expression of Col1a2 and 3a1 mRNA was increased over fifteen-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group relative to the Control group, and this increase was reduced by 50% by TPPU treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress observed in the livers of CCl{sub 4}-treated animals was attenuated by TPPU treatment. In order to support the hypothesis that TPPU is acting to reduce the hepatic fibrosis and ER stress through its action as a sEH inhibitor we used a second sEH inhibitor, trans-4-(4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy)-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), and sEH null mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the sEH may play an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl{sub 4}, presumably by reducing endogenous fatty acid epoxide chemical mediators acting to reduce ER stress. - Highlights: • We administer an inhibitor of sEH in a CCl4 murine model. • sEH inhibition reduces liver collagen deposition and pro-fibrotic gene expression. • sEH inhibition induces MMP-1a activity.

  2. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition and gene deletion are protective against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo.

    PubMed

    Motoki, Atsuko; Merkel, Matthias J; Packwood, William H; Cao, Zhiping; Liu, Lijuan; Iliff, Jeffrey; Alkayed, Nabil J; Van Winkle, Donna M

    2008-11-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. EETs are formed from arachidonic acid during myocardial ischemia and play a protective role against ischemic cell death. Deletion of sEH has been shown to be protective against myocardial ischemia in the isolated heart preparation. We tested the hypothesis that sEH inactivation by targeted gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition reduces infarct size (I) after regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo. Male C57BL\\6J wild-type or sEH knockout mice were subjected to 40 min of left coronary artery (LCA) occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. Wild-type mice were injected intraperitoneally with 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid butyl ester (AUDA-BE), a sEH inhibitor, 30 min before LCA occlusion or during ischemia 10 min before reperfusion. 14,15-EET, the main substrate for sEH, was administered intravenously 15 min before LCA occlusion or during ischemia 5 min before reperfusion. The EET antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (EEZE) was given intravenously 15 min before reperfusion. Area at risk (AAR) and I were assessed using fluorescent microspheres and triphenyltetrazolium chloride, and I was expressed as I/AAR. I was significantly reduced in animals treated with AUDA-BE or 14,15-EET, independent of the time of administration. The cardioprotective effect of AUDA-BE was abolished by the EET antagonist 14,15-EEZE. Immunohistochemistry revealed abundant sEH protein expression in left ventricular tissue. Strategies to increase 14,15-EET, including sEH inactivation, may represent a novel therapeutic approach for cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:18835921

  3. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect of antimicrobial triclocarban in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Junyan; Qiu Hong; Morisseau, Christophe; Hwang, Sung Hee; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Ulu, Arzu; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2011-09-01

    The increasing use of the antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) in personal care products (PCPs) has resulted in concern regarding environmental pollution. TCC is a potent inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Inhibitors of sEH (sEHIs) are anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive and cardio-protective in multiple animal models. However, the in vivo effects anticipated from a sEHI have not been reported for TCC. Here we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects in vivo of TCC in a murine model. TCC was employed in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged murine model. Systolic blood pressure, plasma levels of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, and metabolomic profile of plasma oxylipins were determined. TCC significantly reversed LPS-induced morbid hypotension in a time-dependent manner. TCC significantly repressed the increased release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine caused by LPS. Furthermore, TCC significantly shifted the oxylipin profile in vivo in a time-dependent manner towards resolution of inflammation as expected from a sEHI. These results demonstrated that at the doses used TCC is anti-inflammatory in the murine model. This study suggests that TCC may provide some benefits in humans in addition to its antimicrobial activities due to its potent inhibition of sEH. It may be a promising starting point for developing new low volume high value applications of TCC. However these biological effects also caution against the general over use of TCC in PCPs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: > Anti-microbial triclocarban (TCC) is anti-inflammatory in a murine model. > TCC significantly shifted the oxylipin profile in vivo as expected from a sEHI. > TCC significantly reversed LPS-induced morbid hypotension in a time-dependent manner. > TCC significantly repressed LPS-induced increased release of inflammatory cytokines.

  4. Lysophosphatidic acids are new substrates for the phosphatase domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase[S

    PubMed Central

    Oguro, Ami; Imaoka, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme that has a C-terminus epoxide hydrolase domain and an N-terminus phosphatase domain. The endogenous substrates of epoxide hydrolase are known to be epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, but the endogenous substrates of the phosphatase activity are not well understood. In this study, to explore the substrates of sEH, we investigated the inhibition of the phosphatase activity of sEH toward 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate by using lecithin and its hydrolyzed products. Although lecithin itself did not inhibit the phosphatase activity, the hydrolyzed lecithin significantly inhibited it, suggesting that lysophospholipid or fatty acid can inhibit it. Next, we investigated the inhibition of phosphatase activity by lysophosphatidyl choline, palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid, monopalmitoyl glycerol, and palmitic acid. Palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid and fatty acid efficiently inhibited phosphatase activity, suggesting that lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) are substrates for the phosphatase activity of sEH. As expected, palmitoyl, stearoyl, oleoyl, and arachidonoyl LPAs were efficiently dephosphorylated by sEH (Km, 3–7 μM; Vmax, 150–193 nmol/min/mg). These results suggest that LPAs are substrates of sEH, which may regulate physiological functions of cells via their metabolism. PMID:22217705

  5. Bacterial Expression and HTS Assessment of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Klingler, Franca-Maria; Wolf, Markus; Wittmann, Sandra; Gribbon, Philip; Proschak, Ewgenij

    2016-08-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme that possesses an epoxide hydrolase and lipid phosphatase activity (sEH-P) at two distinct catalytic domains. While the physiological role of the epoxide hydrolase domain is well understood, the consequences of the phosphatase activity remain unclear. Herein we describe the bacterial expression of the recombinant N-terminal domain of sEH-P and the development of a high-throughput screening protocol using a sensitive and commercially available substrate fluorescein diphosphate. The usability of the assay system was demonstrated and novel inhibitors of sEH-P were identified. PMID:27009944

  6. Orally Bioavailable Potent Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung Hee; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Liu, Jun-Yan; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    A series of N,N′-disubstituted ureas having a conformationally restricted cis- or trans-1,4-cyclohexane α to the urea were prepared and tested as soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors. This series of compounds showed low nanomolar to picomolar activities against recombinant human sEH. Both isomers showed similar potencies, but the trans isomers were more metabolically stable in human hepatic microsomes. Furthermore, these new potent inhibitors show a greater metabolic stability in vivo than previously described sEH inhibitors. We demonstrated that trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid 13g (t-AUCB, IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.05 nM) had excellent oral bioavailability (98%, n = 2) and blood area under the curve in dogs and was effective in vivo to treat hypotension in lipopolysaccharide challenged murine models. PMID:17616115

  7. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Vito, Stephen T.; Austin, Adam T.; Banks, Christopher N.; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A.; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Rogawski, Michael A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  8. Inhibition of mutant KrasG12D-initiated murine pancreatic carcinoma growth by a dual c-Raf and soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor t-CUPM.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jie; Hwang, Sung Hee; Li, Haonan; Yang, Yihe; Yang, Jun; Wecksler, Aaron T; Liu, Jun-Yan; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-02-28

    Mutant Kras and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathological events involved in human pancreatic cancer. It has been demonstrated that c-Raf is responsible for transmitting signals from mutant Ras to its downstream signals including MEK-ERK and for initiating carcinogenesis. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory and anti-pain epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we have synthesized a novel compound of trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM) via modifying the central phenyl ring of sorafenib and confirmed its dual inhibition of sEH and c-Raf by recombinant kinase activity assay. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that oral dosing of t-CUPM resulted in higher blood levels than that of sorafenib throughout the complete time course (48 h). The effect of t-CUPM on the inhibition of mutant Kras(G12D)-initiated murine pancreatic cancer cell growth was determined using the mouse pancreatic carcinoma cell model obtained from LSL-Kras(G12D)/Pdx1-Cre mice and showed that t-CUPM significantly inhibited this murine pancreatic carcinoma cell growth both in vitro and in mice in vivo. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylations of cRAF/MEK/ERK was demonstrated in these pancreatic cancer cells using Western blot assay and immunohistochemical approach. Modulation of oxylipin profile, particularly increased EETs/DHET ratio by sEH inhibition, was observed in mice treated with t-CUPM. These results indicate that t-CUPM is a highly potential agent to treat pancreatic cancer via simultaneously targeting c-Raf and sEH. PMID:26683769

  9. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition ameliorates proteinuria-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition by regulating the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3β signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yaoxian; Jing, Ziyang; Deng, Hui; Li, Zhengqian; Zhuang, Zhen; Wang, Song; Wang, Yue

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays an essential role in chronic kidney disease by hydrolyzing renoprotective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to the corresponding inactive dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. However, there have been few mechanistic studies elucidating the role of sEH in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The present study investigated, in vitro and in vivo, the role of sEH in proteinuria-induced renal tubular EMT and the underlying signaling pathway. We report that urinary protein (UP) induced EMT in cultured NRK-52E cells, as evidenced by decreased E-cadherin expression, increased alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, and the morphological conversion to a myofibroblast-like phenotype. UP incubation also resulted in upregulated sEH, activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling and increased phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). The PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β as well as blocking EMT. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of sEH with 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl- ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) markedly suppressed PI3K-Akt activation and GSK-3β phosphorylation. EMT associated E-cadherin suppression, α-SMA elevation and phenotypic transition were also attenuated by AUDA. Furthermore, in rats with chronic proteinuric renal disease, AUDA treatment inhibited PI3K-Akt activation and GSK-3β phosphorylation, while attenuating levels of EMT markers. Overall, our findings suggest that sEH inhibition ameliorates proteinuria-induced renal tubular EMT by regulating the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3β signaling pathway. Targeting sEH might be a potential strategy for the treatment of EMT and renal fibrosis. PMID:25986738

  10. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase enhances the anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin and 5-lipoxygenase activation protein inhibitor in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Yan; Yang, Jun; Inceoglu, Bora; Qiu, Hong; Ulu, Arzu; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D

    2010-03-15

    Inflammation is a multi-staged process whose expansive phase is thought to be driven by acutely released arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), or soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is known to be anti-inflammatory. Inhibition of sEH stabilizes the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) products epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Here we used a non-selective COX inhibitor aspirin, a 5-lipoxygenase activation protein (FLAP) inhibitor MK886, and a sEH inhibitor t-AUCB to selectively modulate the branches of AA metabolism in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged murine model. We used metabolomic profiling to simultaneously monitor representative AA metabolites of each branch. In addition to the significant crosstalk among branches of the AA cascade during selective modulation of COX, LOX, or sEH, we demonstrated that co-administration of t-AUCB enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin or MK886, which was evidenced by the observations that co-administration resulted in favorable eicosanoid profiles and better control of LPS-mediated hypotension as well as hepatic protein expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX. Targeted disruption of the sEH gene displayed a parallel profile to that produced by t-AUCB. These observations demonstrate a significant level of crosstalk among the three major branches of the AA cascade and that they are not simply parallel pathways. These data illustrate that inhibition of sEH by both pharmacological intervention and gene knockout enhances the anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin and MK886, suggesting the possibility of modulating multiple branches to achieve better therapeutic effects. PMID:19896470

  11. Potent Urea and Carbamate Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisseau, Christophe; Goodrow, Marvin H.; Dowdy, Deanna; Zheng, Jiang; Greene, Jessica F.; Sanborn, James R.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    1999-08-01

    The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a significant role in the biosynthesis of inflammation mediators as well as xenobiotic transformations. Herein, we report the discovery of substituted ureas and carbamates as potent inhibitors of sEH. Some of these selective, competitive tightbinding inhibitors with nanomolar Ki values interacted stoichiometrically with the homogenous recombinant murine and human sEHs. These inhibitors enhance cytotoxicity of trans-stilbene oxide, which is active as the epoxide, but reduce cytotoxicity of leukotoxin, which is activated by epoxide hydrolase to its toxic diol. They also reduce toxicity of leukotoxin in vivo in mice and prevent symptoms suggestive of acute respiratory distress syndrome. These potent inhibitors may be valuable tools for testing hypotheses of involvement of diol and epoxide lipids in chemical mediation in vitro or in vivo systems.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF METABOLICALLY STABLE INHIBITORS OF MAMMALIAN MICROSOMAL EPOXIDE HYDROLASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) plays a significant role in the metabolism of xenobiotics such as polyaromatic toxicants. Additionally, polymorphism studies have underlined a potential role of this enzyme in relation to a number of diseases, such as emphysema, spontaneous abortion, eclampsia ...

  13. Peptidyl-urea based inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We prepared a series of amino acid derived cyclohexyl and adamantyl ureas and tested them as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase, and obtained very potent compounds (K(I)=15nM) that are >10-fold more soluble than previously described sEH inhibitors. While our lead compound 2 showed low...

  14. Epoxide hydrolase activities and epoxy fatty acids in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Mamatha, Dadala M.

    2015-01-01

    Culex mosquitoes have emerged as important model organisms for mosquito biology, and are disease vectors for multiple mosquito-borne pathogens, including West Nile virus. We characterized epoxide hydrolase activities in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, which suggested multiple forms of epoxide hydrolases were present. We found EH activities on epoxy eicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs and other eicosanoids are well-established lipid signaling molecules in vertebrates. We showed EETs can be synthesized in vitro from arachidonic acids by mosquito lysate, and EETs were also detected in vivo both in larvae and adult mosquitoes by LC-MS/MS. The EH activities on EETs can be induced by blood feeding, and the highest activity was observed in the midgut of female mosquitoes. The enzyme activities on EETs can be inhibited by urea-based inhibitors designed for mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases (sEH). The sEH inhibitors have been shown to play diverse biological roles in mammalian systems, and they can be useful tools to study the function of EETs in mosquitoes. Besides juvenile hormone metabolism and detoxification, insect epoxide hydrolases may also play a role in regulating lipid signaling molecules, such as EETs and other epoxy fatty acids, synthesized in vivo or obtained from blood feeding by female mosquitoes. PMID:25686802

  15. Discovery of enantioselectivity of urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Manoj; Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Boggu, PullaReddy; Venkateswararao, Eeda; Jalani, Hitesh B; Kim, Nam-Doo; Lee, Seul Ki; Jeon, Jang Su; Kim, Sang Kyum; Jung, Sang-Hun

    2016-07-19

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyzes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid and has been considered as an important therapeutic target for chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and inflammation. Although many urea derivatives are known as sEH inhibitors, the enantioselectivity of the inhibitors is not highlighted in spite of the stereoselective hydrolysis of EETs by sEH. In an effort to explore the importance of enantioselectivity in the urea scaffold, a series of enantiomers with the stereocenter adjacent to the urea nitrogen atom were prepared. The selectivity of enantiomers of 1-(α-alkyl-α-phenylmethyl)-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureas showed wide range differences up to 125 fold with the low IC50 value up to 13 nM. The S-configuration with planar phenyl and small alkyl groups at α-position is crucial for the activity and selectivity. However, restriction of the free rotation of two α-groups with indan-1-yl or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl moiety abolishes the selectivity between the enantiomers, despite the increase in activity up to 13 nM. The hydrophilic group like sulfonamido group at para position of 3-phenylpropyl motif of 1-(α-alkyl-α-phenylmethyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)urea improves the activity as well as enantiomeric selectivity. All these ureas are proved to be specific inhibitor of sEH without inhibition against mEH. PMID:27092411

  16. Soluble epoxide hydrolase: A potential target for metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    He, Jinlong; Wang, Chunjiong; Zhu, Yi; Ai, Ding

    2016-05-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), important lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid, have many beneficial effects in metabolic diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and kidney disease. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids can be further hydrolyzed to less active diols by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Increasing evidence suggests that inhibition of sEH increases levels of EETs, which have anti-inflammatory effects and can prevent the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart failure, fatty liver, and multiple organ fibrosis. Arachidonic acid is the most abundant omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and shares the same set of enzymes with omega-3 PUFAs, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The omega-3 PUFAs and metabolites, such as regioisomeric epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids and epoxydocosapentaenoic acids, have been reported to have strong vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, sEH may be a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. In this review, we focus on our and other recent studies of the functions of sEH, including the effects of its eicosanoid products from both omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs, in various metabolic diseases. We also discuss the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of sEH. PMID:26621325

  17. Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency ameliorates acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce; Haj, Fawaz

    2014-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a frequent gastrointestinal disorder that causes significant morbidity and its incidence has been progressively increasing. AP starts as a local inflammation in the pancreas that often leads to systemic inflammatory response and complications. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition in murine models has beneficial effects in inflammatory diseases, but its significance in AP remains unexplored. To investigate whether sEH may have a causal role in AP we utilized sEH knockout (KO) mice to determine the effects of sEH deficiency on ceruelin- and arginine-induced AP. sEH expression increased at the protein and messenger RNA levels, as well as sEH activity in the early phase of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP in mice. In addition, amylase and lipase levels were lower in cerulein-treated sEH KO mice compared with non-treated controls. Moreover, pancreatic mRNA and serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-6 were lower in sEH KO mice compared with controls. Further, sEH KO mice exhibited decreased cerulein- and arginine-induced NF-?B inflammatory response, MAPKs activation and decreased cell death. These findings demonstrate a novel role for sEH in the progression of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP. PMID:26461340

  18. Isolation and characterization of Xenopus soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Purba, Endang R; Oguro, Ami; Imaoka, Susumu

    2014-07-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) contributes to cell growth, but the contribution of sEH to embryonic development is not well understood. In this study, Xenopus sEH cDNA was isolated from embryos of Xenopus laevis. The Xenopus sEH was expressed in Escherichia coli and was purified. The epoxide hydrolase and phosphatase activities of purified sEH were investigated. The Xenopus sEH did not show phosphatase activity toward 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate or several lysophosphatidic acids although it had EH activity. The amino acid sequence of Xenopus sEH was compared with that reported previously. We found amino acid substitutions of the 29th Thr to Asn and the 146th Arg to His and prepared a sEH mutant (N29T/H146R), designed as mutant 1. Neither wild-type sEH nor mutant 1 had phosphatase activity. Additional substitution of the 11th Gly with Asp was found by comparison with human sEH which has phosphatase activity, but the Xenopus sEH mutant G11D prepared as mutant 2 did not have phosphatase activity. The epoxide hydrolase activity of sEH seemed to be similar to that of human sEH, while Xenopus sEH did not have phosphatase activity toward several substrates that human sEH metabolizes. PMID:24681163

  19. Soluble epoxide hydrolase: Gene structure, expression and deletion

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Todd R.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) converts epoxides to their corresponding diols through the addition of a water molecule. sEH readily hydrolyzes lipid signaling molecules, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), epoxidized lipids produced from arachidonic acid by the action of cytochrome p450s. Through its metabolism of the EETs and other lipid mediators, sEH contributes to the regulation of vascular tone, nociception, angiogenesis and the inflammatory response. Because of its central physiological role in disease states such as cardiac hypertrophy, diabetes, hypertension, and pain sEH is being investigated as a therapeutic target. This review begins with a brief introduction to sEH protein structure and function. sEH evolution and gene structure are then discussed before human small nucleotide polymorphisms and mammalian gene expression are described in the context of several disease models. The review ends with an overview of studies that have employed the sEH knockout mouse model. PMID:23701967

  20. Discovery of a Novel Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase-Catalyzed Hydration of a Spiro Oxetane.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Qing; Hayes, Martin A; Grönberg, Gunnar; Berggren, Kristina; Castagnoli, Neal; Weidolf, Lars

    2016-08-01

    Oxetane moieties are increasingly being used by the pharmaceutical industry as building blocks in drug candidates because of their pronounced ability to improve physicochemical parameters and metabolic stability of drug candidates. The enzymes that catalyze the biotransformation of the oxetane moiety are, however, not well studied. The in vitro metabolism of a spiro oxetane-containing compound AZD1979 [(3-(4-(2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptan-6-ylmethyl)phenoxy)azetidin-1-yl)(5-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methanone] was studied and one of its metabolites, M1, attracted our interest because its formation was NAD(P)H independent. The focus of this work was to elucidate the structure of M1 and to understand the mechanism(s) of its formation. We established that M1 was formed via hydration and ring opening of the oxetanyl moiety of AZD1979. Incubations of AZD1979 using various human liver subcellular fractions revealed that the hydration reaction leading to M1 occurred mainly in the microsomal fraction. The underlying mechanism as a hydration, rather than an oxidation reaction, was supported by the incorporation of (18)O from H2 (18)O into M1. Enzyme kinetics were performed probing the formation of M1 in human liver microsomes. The formation of M1 was substantially inhibited by progabide, a microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, but not by trans-4-[4-(1-adamantylcarbamoylamino)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid, a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor. On the basis of these results, we propose that microsomal epoxide hydrolase catalyzes the formation of M1. The substrate specificity of microsomal epoxide hydrolase should therefore be expanded to include not only epoxides but also the oxetanyl ring system present in AZD1979. PMID:27256986

  1. Expression and characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae with high activity on epoxy fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    In insects, epoxide hydrolases (EHs) play critical roles in the metabolism of xenobiotic epoxides from the food resources and in the regulation of endogenous chemical mediators, such as juvenile hormones. Using the baculovirus expression system, we expressed and characterized an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae (AgEH) that is distinct in evolutionary history from insect juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolases (JHEHs). We partially purified the enzyme by ion exchange chromatography and isoelectric focusing. The experimentally determined molecular weight and pI were estimated to be 35kD and 6.3 respectively, different than the theoretical ones. The AgEH had the greatest activity on long chain epoxy fatty acids such as 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (14,15-EET) and 9,10-epoxy-12Z-octadecenoic acids (9,10-EpOME or leukotoxin) among the substrates evaluated. Juvenile hormone III, a terpenoid insect growth regulator, was the next best substrate tested. The AgEH showed kinetics comparable to the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases, and the activity could be inhibited by AUDA [12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid], a urea-based inhibitor designed to inhibit the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases. The rabbit serum generated against the soluble epoxide hydrolase of Mus musculus can both cross-react with natural and denatured forms of the AgEH, suggesting immunologically they are similar. The study suggests there are mammalian sEH homologs in insects, and epoxy fatty acids may be important chemical mediators in insects. PMID:25173592

  2. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of piperidine-derived non-urea soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Pecic, Stevan; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Newcomer, Marcia E.; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Rinderspacher, Alison; Deng, Shi-Xian

    2013-09-27

    A series of potent amide non-urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is disclosed. The inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase leads to elevated levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and thus inhibitors of sEH represent one of a novel approach to the development of vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory drugs. Structure–activities studies guided optimization of a lead compound, identified through high-throughput screening, gave rise to sub-nanomolar inhibitors of human sEH with stability in human liver microsomal assay suitable for preclinical development.

  3. A novel activity of microsomal epoxide hydrolase: metabolism of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Nithipatikom, Kasem; Endsley, Michael P.; Pfeiffer, Adam W.; Falck, John R.; Campbell, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1, EC 3.3.2.9) is a highly abundant α/β-hydrolase enzyme that is known for its catalytical epoxide hydrolase activity. A wide range of EPHX1 functions have been demonstrated including xenobiotic metabolism; however, characterization of its endogenous substrates is limited. In this study, we present evidence that EPHX1 metabolizes the abundant endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to free arachidonic acid (AA) and glycerol. The EPHX1 metabolism of 2-AG was demonstrated using commercially available EPHX1 microsomes as well as PC-3 cells overexpressing EPHX1. Conversely, EPHX1 siRNA markedly reduced the EPHX1 expression and 2-AG metabolism in HepG2 cells and LNCaP cells. A selective EPHX1 inhibitor, 10-hydroxystearamide, inhibited 2-AG metabolism and hydrolysis of a well-known EPHX1 substrate, cis-stilbene oxide. Among the inhibitors studied, a serine hydrolase inhibitor, methoxy-arachidonyl fluorophosphate, was the most potent inhibitor of 2-AG metabolism by EPHX1 microsomes. These results demonstrate that 2-AG is an endogenous substrate for EPHX1, a potential role of EPHX1 in the endocannabinoid signaling and a new AA biosynthetic pathway. PMID:24958911

  4. Catalysis of potato epoxide hydrolase, StEH1

    PubMed Central

    Elfström, Lisa T.; Widersten, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    The kinetic mechanism of epoxide hydrolase (EC 3.3.2.3) from potato, StEH1 (Solanum tuberosum epoxide hydrolase 1), was studied by presteady-state and steady-state kinetics as well as by pH dependence of activity. The specific activities towards the different enantiomers of TSO (trans-stilbene oxide) as substrate were 43 and 3 μmol·min−1·mg−1 with the R,R- or S,S-isomers respectively. The enzyme was, however, enantioselective in favour of the S,S enantiomer due to a lower Km value. The pH dependences of kcat with R,R or S,S-TSO were also distinct and supposedly reflecting the pH dependences of the individual kinetic rates during substrate conversion. The rate-limiting step for TSO and cis- and trans-epoxystearate was shown by rapid kinetic measurements to be the hydrolysis of the alkylenzyme intermediate. Functional characterization of point mutants verified residues Asp105, Tyr154, Tyr235 and His300 as crucial for catalytic activity. All mutants displayed drastically decreased enzymatic activities during steady state. Presteady-state measurements revealed the base-deficient H300N (His300→Asn) mutant to possess greatly reduced efficiencies in catalysis of both chemical steps (alkylation and hydrolysis). PMID:15882148

  5. Expanding the Catalytic Triad in Epoxide Hydrolases and Related Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Potato epoxide hydrolase 1 exhibits rich enantio- and regioselectivity in the hydrolysis of a broad range of substrates. The enzyme can be engineered to increase the yield of optically pure products as a result of changes in both enantio- and regioselectivity. It is thus highly attractive in biocatalysis, particularly for the generation of enantiopure fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. The present work aims to establish the principles underlying the activity and selectivity of the enzyme through a combined computational, structural, and kinetic study using the substrate trans-stilbene oxide as a model system. Extensive empirical valence bond simulations have been performed on the wild-type enzyme together with several experimentally characterized mutants. We are able to computationally reproduce the differences between the activities of different stereoisomers of the substrate and the effects of mutations of several active-site residues. In addition, our results indicate the involvement of a previously neglected residue, H104, which is electrostatically linked to the general base H300. We find that this residue, which is highly conserved in epoxide hydrolases and related hydrolytic enzymes, needs to be in its protonated form in order to provide charge balance in an otherwise negatively charged active site. Our data show that unless the active-site charge balance is correctly treated in simulations, it is not possible to generate a physically meaningful model for the enzyme that can accurately reproduce activity and selectivity trends. We also expand our understanding of other catalytic residues, demonstrating in particular the role of a noncanonical residue, E35, as a “backup base” in the absence of H300. Our results provide a detailed view of the main factors driving catalysis and regioselectivity in this enzyme and identify targets for subsequent enzyme design efforts. PMID:26527505

  6. Epoxide hydrolase of Trichoderma reesei: Biochemical properties and conformational characterization.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Stephani; Adriani, Patricia Pereira; Borges, Flavia Garcia; Lopes, Adriana Rios; Campana, Patricia T; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2016-08-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that are present in all living organisms and catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. EHs have biotechnological potential in chiral chemistry. We report the cloning, purification, enzymatic activity, and conformational analysis of the TrEH gene from Trichoderma reesei strain QM9414 using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The EH gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 343 amino acid residues, resulting in a molecular mass of 38.2kDa. The enzyme presents an optimum pH of 7.2, and it is highly active at temperatures ranging from 23 to 50°C and thermally inactivated at 70°C (t1/2=7.4min). The Michaelis constants (Km) were 4.6mM for racemic substrate, 21.7mM for (R)-(+)-styrene oxide and 3.0mM for (S)-(-)-styrene oxide. The kcat/Km analysis indicated that TrEH is enantioselective and preferentially hydrolyzes (S)-(-)-styrene oxide. The conformational stability studies suggested that, despite the extreme conditions (high temperatures and extremely acid and basic pHs), TrEH is able to maintain a considerable part of its regular structures, including the preservation of the native cores in some cases. The recombinant protein showed enantioselectivity that was distinct from other fungus EHs, making this protein a potential biotechnological tool. PMID:27177457

  7. Soluble epoxide hydrolase as an anti-inflammatory target of the thrombolytic stroke drug SMTP-7.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Naoki; Suzuki, Eriko; Ishikawa, Makoto; Shirafuji, Takumi; Hasumi, Keiji

    2014-12-26

    Although ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, only a small fraction of patients benefit from the current thrombolytic therapy due to a risk of cerebral hemorrhage caused by inflammation. Thus, the development of a new strategy to combat inflammation during thrombolysis is an urgent demand. The small molecule thrombolytic SMTP-7 effectively treats ischemic stroke in several animal models with reducing cerebral hemorrhage. Here we revealed that SMTP-7 targeted soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to suppress inflammation. SMTP-7 inhibited both of the two sEH enzyme activities: epoxide hydrolase (which inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxy-fatty acids) and lipid phosphate phosphatase. SMTP-7 suppressed epoxy-fatty acid hydrolysis in HepG2 cells in culture, implicating the sEH inhibition in the anti-inflammatory mechanism. The sEH inhibition by SMTP-7 was independent of its thrombolytic activity. The simultaneous targeting of thrombolysis and sEH by a single molecule is a promising strategy to revolutionize the current stroke therapy. PMID:25361765

  8. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase as an Anti-inflammatory Target of the Thrombolytic Stroke Drug SMTP-7*

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Naoki; Suzuki, Eriko; Ishikawa, Makoto; Shirafuji, Takumi; Hasumi, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Although ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, only a small fraction of patients benefit from the current thrombolytic therapy due to a risk of cerebral hemorrhage caused by inflammation. Thus, the development of a new strategy to combat inflammation during thrombolysis is an urgent demand. The small molecule thrombolytic SMTP-7 effectively treats ischemic stroke in several animal models with reducing cerebral hemorrhage. Here we revealed that SMTP-7 targeted soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to suppress inflammation. SMTP-7 inhibited both of the two sEH enzyme activities: epoxide hydrolase (which inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxy-fatty acids) and lipid phosphate phosphatase. SMTP-7 suppressed epoxy-fatty acid hydrolysis in HepG2 cells in culture, implicating the sEH inhibition in the anti-inflammatory mechanism. The sEH inhibition by SMTP-7 was independent of its thrombolytic activity. The simultaneous targeting of thrombolysis and sEH by a single molecule is a promising strategy to revolutionize the current stroke therapy. PMID:25361765

  9. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase does not improve the course of congestive heart failure and the development of renal dysfunction in rats with volume overload induced by aorto-caval fistula

    PubMed Central

    Červenka, Luděk; Melenovský, Vojtěch; Husková, Zuzana; Sporková, Alexandra; Bürgelová, Marcela; Škaroupková, Petra; Hwang, Sung Hee; Hammock, Bruce D.; Imig, John D.; Sadowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    The detailed mechanisms determining the course of congestive heart failure (CHF) and associated renal dysfunction remain unclear. In a volume overload model of CHF induced by creation of aorto-caval fistula (ACF) in Hannover Sprague-Dawley (HanSD) rats we explored the putative pathogenetic contribution of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), active products of CYP-450 dependent epoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism, and compared it with the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Chronic treatment with cis-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid (c-AUCB, 3 mg/L in drinking water), an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) which normally degrades EETs, increased intrarenal and myocardial EETs to levels observed in sham-operated HanSD rats, but did not improve the survival or renal function impairment. In contrast, chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEi, trandolapril, 6 mg/L in drinking water) increased renal blood flow, fractional sodium excretion and markedly improved survival, without affecting left ventricular structure and performance. Hence, renal dysfunction rather than cardiac remodeling determines long-term mortality in advanced stage of CHF due to volume overload. Strong protective actions of ACEi were associated with suppression of the vasoconstrictor/sodium retaining axis and activation of vasodilatory/natriuretic axis of the renin-angiotensin system in the circulating blood and kidney tissue. PMID:26047375

  10. Inhibition of Chronic Pancreatitis and Murine Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia by a Dual Inhibitor of c-RAF and Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in LSL-KrasG12D/Pdx-1-Cre Mice

    PubMed Central

    LIAO, JIE; HWANG, SUNG HEE; LI, HAONAN; LIU, JUN-YAN; HAMMOCK, BRUCE D.; YANG, GUANG-YU

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis. In the process of long-standing chronic inflammation, aberrant metabolites of arachidonic acid play a crucial role in promoting carcinogenesis, in which the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), as a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we determined the effect of our newly-synthesized novel compound trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM), a dual inhibitor of sEH and RAF1 proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (c-RAF), on inhibiting the development of pancreatitis and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPanIN) in LSL-KrasG12D/Pdx1-Cre mice. The results showed that t-CUPM significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis, as measured by the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The progression of low-grade mPanIN I to high-grade mPanIN II/III was significantly suppressed. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase’s kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases was demonstrated in pancreatic tissues by western blots. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that t-CUPM treatment significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis facor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as vascular adhesion molecule-1, and the levels of Sonic hedgehog and Gli transcription factor (Hedgehog pathway). Analysis of the eicosanoid profile revealed a significant increase of the EETs/dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids ratio, which further confirmed sEH inhibition by t-CUPM. These results indicate that simultaneous inhibition of sEH and c-RAF by t-CUPM is important in preventing chronic pancreatitis and carcinogenesis

  11. Inhibition of Chronic Pancreatitis and Murine Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia by a Dual Inhibitor of c-RAF and Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in LSL-KrasG¹²D/Pdx-1-Cre Mice.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jie; Hwang, Sung Hee; Li, Haonan; Liu, Jun-Yan; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis. In the process of long-standing chronic inflammation, aberrant metabolites of arachidonic acid play a crucial role in promoting carcinogenesis, in which the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), as a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we determined the effect of our newly-synthesized novel compound trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM), a dual inhibitor of sEH and RAF1 proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (c-RAF), on inhibiting the development of pancreatitis and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPanIN) in LSL-Kras(G12D)/Pdx1-Cre mice. The results showed that t-CUPM significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis, as measured by the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The progression of low-grade mPanIN I to high-grade mPanIN II/III was significantly suppressed. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase's kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases was demonstrated in pancreatic tissues by western blots. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that t-CUPM treatment significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis facor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as vascular adhesion molecule-1, and the levels of Sonic hedgehog and Gli transcription factor (Hedgehog pathway). Analysis of the eicosanoid profile revealed a significant increase of the EETs/dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids ratio, which further confirmed sEH inhibition by t-CUPM. These results indicate that simultaneous inhibition of sEH and c-RAF by t-CUPM is important in preventing chronic pancreatitis and carcinogenesis

  12. Ingestion of the epoxide hydrolase inhibitor AUDA modulates immune responses of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus during blood feeding.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Kamita, Shizuo G; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-09-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that play roles in metabolizing xenobiotic epoxides from the environment, and in regulating lipid signaling molecules, such as juvenile hormones in insects and epoxy fatty acids in mammals. In this study we fed mosquitoes with an epoxide hydrolase inhibitor AUDA during artificial blood feeding, and we found the inhibitor increased the concentration of epoxy fatty acids in the midgut of female mosquitoes. We also observed ingestion of AUDA triggered early expression of defensin A, cecropin A and cecropin B2 at 6 h after blood feeding. The expression of cecropin B1 and gambicin were not changed more than two fold compared to controls. The changes in gene expression were transient possibly because more than 99% of the inhibitor was metabolized or excreted at 42 h after being ingested. The ingestion of AUDA also affected the growth of bacteria colonizing in the midgut, but did not affect mosquito longevity, fecundity and fertility in our laboratory conditions. When spiked into the blood, EpOMEs and DiHOMEs were as effective as the inhibitor AUDA in reducing the bacterial load in the midgut, while EETs rescued the effects of AUDA. Our data suggest that epoxy fatty acids from host blood are immune response regulators metabolized by epoxide hydrolases in the midgut of female mosquitoes, inhibition of which causes transient changes in immune responses, and affects growth of microbes in the midgut. PMID:27369469

  13. Conformational diversity and enantioconvergence in potato epoxide hydrolase 1.

    PubMed

    Bauer, P; Carlsson, Å Janfalk; Amrein, B A; Dobritzsch, D; Widersten, M; Kamerlin, S C L

    2016-06-28

    Potato epoxide hydrolase 1 (StEH1) is a biocatalytically important enzyme that exhibits rich enantio- and regioselectivity in the hydrolysis of chiral epoxide substrates. In particular, StEH1 has been demonstrated to enantioconvergently hydrolyze racemic mixes of styrene oxide (SO) to yield (R)-1-phenylethanediol. This work combines computational, crystallographic and biochemical analyses to understand both the origins of the enantioconvergent behavior of the wild-type enzyme, as well as shifts in activities and substrate binding preferences in an engineered StEH1 variant, R-C1B1, which contains four active site substitutions (W106L, L109Y, V141K and I155V). Our calculations are able to reproduce both the enantio- and regioselectivities of StEH1, and demonstrate a clear link between different substrate binding modes and the corresponding selectivity, with the preferred binding modes being shifted between the wild-type enzyme and the R-C1B1 variant. Additionally, we demonstrate that the observed changes in selectivity and the corresponding enantioconvergent behavior are due to a combination of steric and electrostatic effects that modulate both the accessibility of the different carbon atoms to the nucleophilic side chain of D105, as well as the interactions between the substrate and protein amino acid side chains and active site water molecules. Being able to computationally predict such subtle effects for different substrate enantiomers, as well as to understand their origin and how they are affected by mutations, is an important advance towards the computational design of improved biocatalysts for enantioselective synthesis. PMID:27049844

  14. Data set of optimal parameters for colorimetric red assay of epoxide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Stephani; Adriani, Patricia Pereira; Borges, Flavia Garcia; Lopes, Adriana Rios; Campana, Patricia T; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Epoxide hydrolase of Trichoderma reesei: Biochemical properties and conformational characterization" [1]. Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. This article describes the optimal parameters for the colorimetric red assay to determine the enzymatic activity, with an emphasis on the characterization of the kinetic parameters, pH optimum and thermal stability of this enzyme. The effects of reagents that are not resistant to oxidation by sodium periodate on the reactions can generate false positives and interfere with the final results of the red assay. PMID:27366781

  15. Soluble epoxide hydrolase expression in a porcine model of arteriovenous graft stenosis and anti-inflammatory effects of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, William G.; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Cheung, Alfred K.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic arteriovenous (AV) grafts, placed between an artery and vein, are used for hemodialysis but often fail due to stenosis, typically at the vein-graft anastomosis. This study recorded T lymphocyte and macrophage accumulation at the vein-graft anastomosis, suggesting a role for inflammation in stenosis development. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), products of cytochrome P-450 epoxidation of arachidonic acid, have vasculoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects including inhibition of platelet activation, cell migration, and adhesion. EETs are hydrolyzed by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to less active diols. The effects of a specific inhibitor of sEH (sEHI) on cytokine release from human monocytes and mouse bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMMΦ) from wild-type (WT) and sEH knockout (KO) animals were investigated. Expression of sEH protein increased over time at the anastomosis as evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Pre-exposure of adherent human monocytes to sEHI (5 μM) significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α and enhanced the EET-to-diol ratio. Release of MCP-1 from WT BMMΦ was significantly inhibited but release from sEH KO BMMΦ was not attenuated indicating the specificity of the sEHI. In contrast, sEHI did not inhibit the release of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 or interleukin-6. Nuclear translocation of NF-κB, as assessed by immunocytochemical staining, was not decreased with sEHI in monocytes, but the phosphorylation of JNK was completely abrogated, suggesting this pathway is the target of sEHI effects in monocytes. These results suggest that sEHI may be useful for inhibition of inflammation and subsequently stenosis in AV grafts. PMID:22621785

  16. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Homologs in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Suggest a Gene Duplication Event and Subsequent Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Todd R.; Aronov, Pavel A.

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a multidomain enzyme composed of C- and N-terminal regions that contain active sites for epoxide hydrolase (EH) and phosphatase activities, respectively. We report the cloning of two 60 kDa multidomain enzymes from the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus displaying significant sequence similarity to both the N- and C-terminal domains of the mammalian sEH. While one urchin enzyme did not exhibit EH activity, the second enzyme hydrolyzed several lipid messenger molecules metabolized by the mammalian sEH, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Neither of the urchin enzymes displayed phosphatase activity. The urchin EH was inhibited by small molecule inhibitors of the mammalian sEH and is the likely ancestor of the enzyme. Sequence comparisons suggest that the urchin sEH homologs are the result of a gene fusion event between a gene encoding for an EH and a gene for an enzyme of undetermined function. This fusion event was followed by a duplication event to produce the urchin enzymes. PMID:18554159

  17. Disrupting Dimerization Translocates Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase to Peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jonathan W.; Das, Anjali J.; Barnes, Anthony P.; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2016-01-01

    The epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) neutralizing enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a neuronal enzyme, which has been localized in both the cytosol and peroxisomes. The molecular basis for its dual localization remains unclear as sEH contains a functional peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS). Recently, a missense polymorphism was identified in human sEH (R287Q) that enhances its peroxisomal localization. This same polymorphism has also been shown to generate weaker sEH homo-dimers. Taken together, these observations suggest that dimerization may mask the sEH PTS and prevent peroxisome translocation. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that dimerization is a key regulator of sEH subcellular localization. Specifically, we altered the dimerization state of sEH by introducing substitutions in amino acids responsible for the dimer-stabilizing salt-bridge. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) fusions of each of mutants were co-transfected into mouse primary cultured cortical neurons together with a PTS-linked red fluorescent protein to constitutively label peroxisomes. Labeled neurons were analyzed using confocal microscopy and co-localization of sEH with peroxisomes was quantified using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We find that dimer-competent sEH constructs preferentially localize to the cytosol, whereas constructs with weakened or disrupted dimerization were preferentially targeted to peroxisomes. We conclude that the sEH dimerization status is a key regulator of its peroxisomal localization. PMID:27203283

  18. GENETIC VARIATION IN SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (EPHX2) AND RISK OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE: THE ATHEROSCLEROSIS RISK IN COMMUNITIES (ARIC) STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Soluble epoxide hydrolase metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the vasculature and regulates endothelial function. We sought to determine whether genetic variation in soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2) was ass...

  19. Genetic variation in soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2) and risk of coronary heart disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Soluble epoxide hydrolase metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the vasculature and regulates endothelial function. We sought to determine whether genetic variation in soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2) was ass...

  20. Soluble epoxide hydrolase limits mechanical hyperalgesia during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytochrome-P450 (CYP450) epoxygenases metabolise arachidonic acid (AA) into four different biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regioisomers. Three of the EETs (i.e., 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-EET) are rapidly hydrolysed by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Here, we investigated the role of sEH in nociceptive processing during peripheral inflammation. Results In dorsal root ganglia (DRG), we found that sEH is expressed in medium and large diameter neurofilament 200-positive neurons. Isolated DRG-neurons from sEH-/- mice showed higher EET and lower DHET levels. Upon AA stimulation, the largest changes in EET levels occurred in culture media, indicating both that cell associated EET concentrations quickly reach saturation and EET-hydrolyzing activity mostly effects extracellular EET signaling. In vivo, DRGs from sEH-deficient mice exhibited elevated 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-EET-levels. Interestingly, EET levels did not increase at the site of zymosan-induced inflammation. Cellular imaging experiments revealed direct calcium flux responses to 8,9-EET in a subpopulation of nociceptors. In addition, 8,9-EET sensitized AITC-induced calcium increases in DRG neurons and AITC-induced calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release from sciatic nerve axons, indicating that 8,9-EET sensitizes TRPA1-expressing neurons, which are known to contribute to mechanical hyperalgesia. Supporting this, sEH-/- mice showed increased nociceptive responses to mechanical stimulation during zymosan-induced inflammation and 8,9-EET injection reduced mechanical thresholds in naive mice. Conclusion Our results show that the sEH can regulate mechanical hyperalgesia during inflammation by inactivating 8,9-EET, which sensitizes TRPA1-expressing nociceptors. Therefore we suggest that influencing the CYP450 pathway, which is actually highly considered to treat cardiovascular diseases, may cause pain side effects. PMID:21970373

  1. Chemical constituents from the root of Polygonum multiflorum and their soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya Nan; Li, Wei; Kim, Jang Hoon; Yan, Xi Tao; Kim, Ji Eun; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-06-01

    Fourteen compounds were isolated from a methanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum roots, and their structures were elucidated by comparing spectroscopic data to published spectra. The inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were then evaluated. Compounds 1-7 inhibited sEH activity potently, with IC50 values ranging from 6.2 ± 0.5 to 48.6 ± 3.1 μM. Moreover, a kinetic analysis of compounds 1-7 revealed that the inhibitory actions of compounds 1, 3 and 4 were non-competitive, whereas those of compounds 2 and 5-7 were mixed-type. PMID:25413971

  2. Rapid purification of cytosolic epoxide hydrolase from normal and clofibrate-treated animals by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Prestwich, G D; Hammock, B D

    1985-01-01

    Epoxide hydrolase from liver cytosol (cEH) of both normal and clofibrate-treated mice can be bioselectively adsorbed onto an affinity column prepared from epoxy-activated Sepharose and 7-methoxycitronellyl thiol. The free ligand is a modest inhibitor of cEH (I50, approximately equal to 3 X 10(-4) M) and lacks the epoxide function necessary for it to be turned over as a substrate. This study demonstrates that a methoxy group can be used to mimic an oxirane in a vertebrate system. Bioselective elution of cEH can be accomplished with several chalcone oxides, which are selective potent inhibitors (I50, 1-50 X 10(-7) M), and activity can be recovered by dialysis. This procedure thus enhances the purification by offering independent opportunities for selective binding and selective elution. Conservatively, a 40%-80% recovery of partially inhibited enzyme activity can be achieved in 4-48 hr with a 30- to 90-fold purification. The purified cEH from clofibrate-induced animals was essentially homogeneous by NaDodSO4/PAGE and had an apparent subunit molecular weight of 58,000. The cEHs from normal and clofibrate-induced animals appeared identical by NaDodSO4/PAGE. Since the cEH activity in normal and clofibrate-treated animals is due to the same enzyme, the increase in cEH activity caused by selected hypolipidemic agents appears to be true induction. Images PMID:3856846

  3. EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RECOMBINANT JUVENILE HORMONE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (JHEH) FROM MANDUCA SEXTA. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cDNA of the microsomal Juvenile Hormone Epoxide Hydrolase (JHEH) from Manduca sexta was expressed in vitro in the baculovirus system. In insect cell culture, the recombinant enzyme (Ms-JHEH) was produced at a high level (100 fold over background EH catalytic activit...

  4. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase: Sex Differences and Role in Endothelial Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nandita C.; Davis, Catherine M.; Nelson, Jonathan W.; Young, Jennifer M.; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Sex differences in cerebral ischemic injury are in part due to differences in cerebrovascular perfusion. We determined if brain microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) isolated from female (F) brain are more resistant to ischemic injury compared to male (M) ECs, and if the difference is due to lower expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and higher levels of vasoprotective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). We also determined if protection by EETs is linked to inhibition of Rho-kinase (ROCK). METHODS EC ischemic damage was measured after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) using propidium iodide (PI) and cleaved caspase-3 labeling. Expression of sEH was determined by quantitative PCR and immunocytochemistry, EETs levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and ROCK activity by ELISA. RESULTS EC damage was higher in M vs. F ECs, which correlated with higher sEH mRNA, stronger immunoreactivity and lower EETs compared to F ECs. Inhibition of sEH abolished the sex difference in EC damage. ROCK activity was higher in M vs. F ECs after OGD, and sex differences in EC damage and ROCK activity were abolished by 14,15-EET and ROCK inhibition. CONCLUSION Sex differences in ischemic brain injury are in part due to differences in EETs-mediated inhibition of EC ROCK activation after ischemia. PMID:22723436

  5. Urea and amide-based inhibitors of the juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Severson, Tonya F; Goodrow, Marvin H; Morisseau, Christophe; Dowdy, Deanna L; Hammock, Bruce D

    2002-12-01

    A new class of inhibitors of juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) of Manduca sexta and further in vitro characterization of the enzyme are reported. The compounds are based on urea and amide pharmacophores that were previously demonstrated as effective inhibitors of mammalian soluble and microsomal epoxide hydrolases. The best inhibitors against JHEH activity so far within this class are N-[(Z)-9-octadecenyl]-N'-propylurea and N-hexadecyl-N'-propylurea, which inhibited hydrolysis of a surrogate substrate (t-DPPO) with an IC(50) around 90 nM. The importance of substitution number and type was investigated and results indicated that N, N'-disubstitution with asymmetric alkyl groups was favored. Potencies of pharmacophores decreased as follows: amide>urea>carbamate>carbodiimide>thiourea and thiocarbamate for N, N'-disubstituted compounds with symmetric substituents, and urea>amide>carbamate for compounds with asymmetric N, N'-substituents. JHEH hydrolyzes t-DPPO with a K(m) of 65.6 microM and a V(max) of 59 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) and has a substantially lower K(m) of 3.6 microM and higher V(max) of 322 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for JH III. Although none of these compounds were potent inhibitors of hydrolysis of JH III by JHEH, they are the first leads toward inhibitors of JHEH that are not potentially subject to metabolism through epoxide degradation. PMID:12429126

  6. 1,3-Disubstituted and 1,3,3-trisubstituted adamantyl-ureas with isoxazole as soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Burmistrov, Vladimir; Morisseau, Christophe; Danilov, Dmitry; Harris, Todd R; Dalinger, Igor; Vatsadze, Irina; Shkineva, Tatiana; Butov, Gennady M; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-12-01

    Adamantyl ureas are good soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors; however they have limited solubility and rapid metabolism, thus limiting their usefulness in some therapeutic indications. Herein, we test the hypothesis that nodal substitution on the adamantane will help solubilize and stabilize the compounds. A series of compounds containing adamantane derivatives and isoxazole functional groups were developed. Overall, the presence of methyl on the nodal positions of adamantane yields higher water solubility than previously reported urea-based sEH inhibitors while maintaining high inhibition potency. However, it did not improve microsomal stability. PMID:26520661

  7. Effects of a Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu-Qing; Ma, Yong-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is suggested as a vital pharmacologic target for inflammation. In this study, we determined whether a sEH inhibitor, AUDA, exerts lung protection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice. Methods Male BALB/c mice were randomized to receive AUDA or vehicle intraperitoneal injection 4 h after LPS or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) intratracheal instillation. Samples were harvested 24 h post LPS or PBS administration. Results AUDA administration decreased the pulmonary levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Improvement of oxygenation and lung edema were observed in AUDA treated group. AUDA significantly inhibited sEH activity, and elevated epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) levels in lung tissues. Moreover, LPS induced the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was markedly dampened in AUDA treated group. Conclusion Administration of AUDA after the onset of LPS-induced ALI increased pulmonary levels of EETs, and ameliorated lung injury. sEH is a potential pharmacologic target for ALI. PMID:27490848

  8. Effect of soluble epoxide hydrolase polymorphism on substrate and inhibitor selectivity and dimer formation[S

    PubMed Central

    Morisseau, Christophe; Wecksler, Aaron T.; Deng, Catherine; Dong, Hua; Yang, Jun; Lee, Kin Sing S.; Kodani, Sean D.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Epoxy FAs (EpFAs) are important lipid mediators that are mainly metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Thus, sEH inhibition is a promising therapeutic target to treat numerous ailments. Several sEH polymorphisms result in amino acid substitutions and alter enzyme activity. K55R and R287Q are associated with inflammatory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. R287Q seems to affect sEH activity through reducing formation of a catalytically active dimer. Thus, understanding how these SNPs affect the selectivity of sEH for substrates and inhibitors is of potential clinical importance. We investigated the selectivity of four sEH SNPs toward a series of EpFAs and inhibitors. We found that the SNPs alter the catalytic activity of the enzyme but do not alter the relative substrate and inhibitor selectivity. We also determined their dimer/monomer constants (KD/M). The WT sEH formed a very tight dimer, with a KD/M in the low picomolar range. Only R287Q resulted in a large change of the KD/M. However, human tissue concentrations of sEH suggest that it is always in its dimer form independently of the SNP. These results suggest that the different biologies associated with K55R and R287Q are not explained by alteration in dimer formation or substrate selectivity. PMID:24771868

  9. Characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengfei; Leeson, Cristian; Zhi, Xiaoduo; Leng, Fenfei; Pierce, Richard H; Henry, Michael S; Rein, Kathleen S

    2016-02-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EH, EC 3.3.2.3) have been proposed to be key enzymes in the biosynthesis of polyether (PE) ladder compounds such as the brevetoxins which are produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. These enzymes have the potential to catalyze kinetically disfavored endo-tet cyclization reactions. Data mining of K. brevis transcriptome libraries revealed two classes of epoxide hydrolases: microsomal and leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolases. A microsomal EH was cloned and expressed for characterization. The enzyme is a monomeric protein with molecular weight 44kDa. Kinetic parameters were evaluated using a variety of epoxide substrates to assess substrate selectivity and enantioselectivity, as well as its potential to catalyze the critical endo-tet cyclization of epoxy alcohols. Monitoring of EH activity in high and low toxin producing cultures of K. brevis over a three week period showed consistently higher activity in the high toxin producing culture implicating the involvement of one or more EH in brevetoxin biosynthesis. PMID:26626160

  10. Engineering of an epoxide hydrolase for efficient bioresolution of bulky pharmaco substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xu-Dong; Yuan, Shuguang; Li, Lin; Chen, She; Xu, Jian-He; Zhou, Jiahai

    2014-01-01

    Optically pure epoxides are essential chiral precursors for the production of (S)-propranolol, (S)-alprenolol, and other β-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs. Although the enzymatic production of these bulky epoxides has proven difficult, here we report a method to effectively improve the activity of BmEH, an epoxide hydrolase from Bacillus megaterium ECU1001 toward α-naphthyl glycidyl ether, the precursor of (S)-propranolol, by eliminating the steric hindrance near the potential product-release site. Using X-ray crystallography, mass spectrum, and molecular dynamics calculations, we have identified an active tunnel for substrate access and product release of this enzyme. The crystal structures revealed that there is an independent product-release site in BmEH that was not included in other reported epoxide hydrolase structures. By alanine scanning, two mutants, F128A and M145A, targeted to expand the potential product-release site displayed 42 and 25 times higher activities toward α-naphthyl glycidyl ether than the wild-type enzyme, respectively. These results show great promise for structure-based rational design in improving the catalytic efficiency of industrial enzymes for bulky substrates. PMID:25331869

  11. Erectogenic and Aphrodisiac Property of Moringa oleifera: Involvement of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Dethe, Shekhar M; Gururaj, Giligar M; Jamwal, Rohitash; Bhaskar, Anirban; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit

    2016-07-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors have been reported to improve penile erection; therefore, sEH could be useful for management of erectile dysfunction. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of 30 Indian medicinal plants were screened for their sEH inhibition potential. Fifteen extracts showed >50% inhibition when screened at 50 µg/mL in sEH inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) seeds (MEMO) was most potent with IC50 1.7 ± 0.1 µg/mL and was selected for in vitro studies on isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and in vivo sexual behaviour studies on healthy and diabetic rats. Rats were divided into five groups, each containing six animals and treated orally with either water, vehicle (1% Tween-20), MEMO (45 and 90 mg/kg/day for 21 days), and standard drug, sildenafil (5 mg/kg/day for 7 days). An equal number of female rats were used, and the effect of MEMO and sildenafil was compared with that of vehicle. MEMO significantly relaxed isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle at 0.1-100 µg/mL in vitro and significantly increased (p < 0.05) sexual activity, intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure in normal and diabetic rats. The increase in erectile function of rats by MEMO could be because of its sEH inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27020843

  12. Dysregulation of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase and Lipidomic Profiles in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Pei-an Betty; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; German, J. Bruce; Van Zeeland, Ashley; Armando, Aaron M.; Quehenberger, Oswald; Bergen, Andrew W.; Magistretti, Pierre; Berrettini, Wade; Halmi, Katherine Ann; Schork, Nicholas; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kaye, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict eating and become emaciated. AN tend to have an aversion to foods rich in fat. Because Epoxide Hydrolase 2 (EPHX2) was identified as a novel AN susceptibility gene, and because its protein product, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), converts bioactive epoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to the corresponding diols, lipidomic and metabolomic targets of EPHX2 were assessed to evaluate the biological functions of EPHX2 and their role in AN. Epoxide substrates of sEH and associated oxylipins were measured in ill AN, recovered AN, and gender- and race-matched controls. PUFA and oxylipin markers were tested as potential biomarkers for AN. Oxylipin ratios were calculated as proxy markers of in vivo sEH activity. Several free- and total PUFAs were associated with AN diagnosis and with AN recovery. AN displayed elevated n-3 PUFAs and may differ from controls in PUFA elongation and desaturation processes. Cytochrome P450 pathway oxylipins from arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid PUFAs are associated with AN diagnosis. The diol:epoxide ratios suggest the sEH activity is higher in AN compared to controls. Multivariate analysis illustrates normalization of lipidomic profiles in recovered ANs. EPHX2 influences AN risk through in vivo interaction with dietary PUFAs. PUFA composition and concentrations as well as sEH activity may contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of AN. Our data support the involvement of EPHX2-associated lipidomic and oxylipin dysregulations in AN, and reveal their potential as biomarkers to assess responsiveness to future intervention or treatment. PMID:25824304

  13. Dysregulation of soluble epoxide hydrolase and lipidomic profiles in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Shih, P B; Yang, J; Morisseau, C; German, J B; Zeeland, A A Scott-Van; Armando, A M; Quehenberger, O; Bergen, A W; Magistretti, P; Berrettini, W; Halmi, K A; Schork, N; Hammock, B D; Kaye, W

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict eating and become emaciated. They tend to have an aversion to foods rich in fat. Because epoxide hydrolase 2 (EPHX2) was identified as a novel AN susceptibility gene, and because its protein product, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), converts bioactive epoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to the corresponding diols, lipidomic and metabolomic targets of EPHX2 were assessed to evaluate the biological functions of EPHX2 and their role in AN. Epoxide substrates of sEH and associated oxylipins were measured in ill AN, recovered AN and gender- and race-matched controls. PUFA and oxylipin markers were tested as potential biomarkers for AN. Oxylipin ratios were calculated as proxy markers of in vivo sEH activity. Several free- and total PUFAs were associated with AN diagnosis and with AN recovery. AN displayed elevated n-3 PUFAs and may differ from controls in PUFA elongation and desaturation processes. Cytochrome P450 pathway oxylipins from arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid PUFAs are associated with AN diagnosis. The diol:epoxide ratios suggest the sEH activity is higher in AN compared with controls. Multivariate analysis illustrates normalization of lipidomic profiles in recovered ANs. EPHX2 influences AN risk through in vivo interaction with dietary PUFAs. PUFA composition and concentrations as well as sEH activity may contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of AN. Our data support the involvement of EPHX2-associated lipidomic and oxylipin dysregulations in AN, and reveal their potential as biomarkers to assess responsiveness to future intervention or treatment. PMID:25824304

  14. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor Attenuates Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Bratt, Jennifer; Franzi, Lisa; Liu, Jun-Yan; Zhang, Guodong; Zeki, Amir A.; Vogel, Christoph F. A.; Williams, Keisha; Dong, Hua; Lin, Yanping; Hwang, Sung Hee; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Control of airway inflammation is critical in asthma treatment. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has recently been demonstrated as a novel therapeutic target for treating inflammation, including lung inflammation. We hypothesized that pharmacological inhibition of sEH can modulate the inflammatory response in a murine ovalbumin (OVA) model of asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized and exposed to OVA over 6 weeks. A sEH inhibitor (sEHI) was administered for 2 weeks. Respiratory system compliance, resistance, and forced exhaled nitric oxide were measured. Lung lavage cell counts were performed, and selected cytokines and chemokines in the lung lavage fluid were measured. A LC/MS/MS method was used to measure 87 regulatory lipids mediators in plasma, lung tissue homogenates, and lung lavage fluid. The pharmacological inhibition of sEH increased concentrations of the antiinflammatory epoxy eicosatrienoic acids and simultaneously decreased the concentrations of the proinflammatory dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids and dihydroxyoctadecenoic acids. All monitored inflammatory markers, including FeNO levels, and total cell and eosinophil numbers in the lung lavage of OVA-exposed mice were reduced by sEHI. The type 2 T helper cell (Th2) cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) and chemokines (Eotaxin and RANTES) were dramatically reduced after sEHI administration. Resistance and dynamic lung compliance were also improved by sEHI. We demonstrated that sEHI administration attenuates allergic airway inflammation and airway responsiveness in a murine model. sEHI may have potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for allergic asthma. PMID:24922186

  15. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor attenuates inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Bratt, Jennifer; Franzi, Lisa; Liu, Jun-Yan; Zhang, Guodong; Zeki, Amir A; Vogel, Christoph F A; Williams, Keisha; Dong, Hua; Lin, Yanping; Hwang, Sung Hee; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    Control of airway inflammation is critical in asthma treatment. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has recently been demonstrated as a novel therapeutic target for treating inflammation, including lung inflammation. We hypothesized that pharmacological inhibition of sEH can modulate the inflammatory response in a murine ovalbumin (OVA) model of asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized and exposed to OVA over 6 weeks. A sEH inhibitor (sEHI) was administered for 2 weeks. Respiratory system compliance, resistance, and forced exhaled nitric oxide were measured. Lung lavage cell counts were performed, and selected cytokines and chemokines in the lung lavage fluid were measured. A LC/MS/MS method was used to measure 87 regulatory lipids mediators in plasma, lung tissue homogenates, and lung lavage fluid. The pharmacological inhibition of sEH increased concentrations of the antiinflammatory epoxy eicosatrienoic acids and simultaneously decreased the concentrations of the proinflammatory dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids and dihydroxyoctadecenoic acids. All monitored inflammatory markers, including FeNO levels, and total cell and eosinophil numbers in the lung lavage of OVA-exposed mice were reduced by sEHI. The type 2 T helper cell (Th2) cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) and chemokines (Eotaxin and RANTES) were dramatically reduced after sEHI administration. Resistance and dynamic lung compliance were also improved by sEHI. We demonstrated that sEHI administration attenuates allergic airway inflammation and airway responsiveness in a murine model. sEHI may have potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for allergic asthma. PMID:24922186

  16. Involvement of cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, and epoxide hydrolase in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and relevance to risk of human liver cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Guengerich, F P; Johnson, W W; Ueng, Y F; Yamazaki, H; Shimada, T

    1996-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in the effect of variations in activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on cancer incidence. This interest has accelerated with the development of methods for analyzing genetic polymorphisms. However, progress in epidemiology has been slow and the contributions of polymorphisms to risks from individual chemicals and mixtures are often controversial. A series of studies is presented to show the complexities encountered with a single chemical, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). AFB1 is oxidized by human cytochrome P450 enzymes to several products. Only one of these, the 8,9-exo-epoxide, appears to be mutagenic and the others are detoxication products. P450 3A4, which can both activate and detoxicate AFB1, is found in the liver and the small intestine. In the small intestine, the first contact after oral exposure, epoxidation would not lead to liver cancer. The (nonenzymatic) half-life of the epoxide has been determined to be approximately 1 sec at 23 degrees C and neutral pH. Although the half-life is short, AFB1-8,9-exo-epoxide does react with DNA and glutathione S-transferase. Levels of these conjugates have been measured and combined with the rate of hydrolysis in a kinetic model to predict constants for binding of the epoxide with DNA and glutathione S-transferase. A role for epoxide hydrolase in alteration of AFB1 hepatocarcinogenesis has been proposed, although experimental evidence is lacking. Some inhibition of microsome-generated genotoxicity was observed with rat epoxide hydrolase; further information on the extent of contribution of this enzyme to AFB1 metabolism is not yet available. PMID:8781383

  17. Human microsomal epoxide hydrolase: genetic polymorphism and functional expression in vitro of amino acid variants

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, Christopher; Aicher, Lauri; Sidhu, Jaspreet S.

    2016-01-01

    Human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a biotransformation enzyme that metabolizes reactive epoxide intermediates to more water-soluble trans-dihydrodiol derivatives. We compared protein-coding sequences from six full-length human mEH DNA clones and assessed potential amino acid variation at seven positions. The prevalence of these variants was assessed in at least 37 unrelated individuals using polymerase chain reaction experiments. Only Tyr/His 113 (exon 3) and His/Arg 139 (exon 4) variants were observed. The genotype frequencies determined for residue 113 alleles indicate that this locus may not be in Hardy – Weinberg equilibrium, whereas frequencies observed for residue 139 alleles were similar to expected values. Nucleotide sequences coding for the variant amino acids were constructed in an mEH cDNA using site-directed mutagenesis, and each was expressed in vitro by transient transfection of COS-1 cells. Epoxide hydrolase mRNA level, catalytic activity, and immunoreactive protein were evaluated for each construct. The results of these analyses demonstrated relatively uniform levels of mEH RNA expression between the constructs. mEH enzymatic activity and immunoreactive protein were strongly correlated, indicating that mEH specific activity was similar for each variant. However, marked differences were noted in the relative amounts of immunoreactive protein and enzymatic activity resulting from the amino acid substitutions. These data suggest that common human mEH amino acid polymorphisms may alter enzymatic function, possibly by modifying protein stability. PMID:7516776

  18. Stable EET urea agonist and soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor regulate rat pulmonary arteries through TRPCs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Wang, Ruifang; Li, Jing; Rao, Jingjing; Li, Weiyang; Falck, John R; Manthati, Vijay L; Medhora, Meetha; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Zhu, Daling

    2011-05-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), cytochrome P450-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid, have been reported to increase intracellular calcium concentration in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). As EETs are labile, we synthesized a new stable urea EET analog with agonist and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor properties. We refer to this analog, 12-(3-hexylureido)dodec-8-enoic acid, as 8-HUDE. Measuring tension of vascular rings, intracellular calcium signaling by confocal laser scanning microscopy and gene expression by reverse-transcription-PCR and western blots, we examined the effects of 8-HUDE on pulmonary vascular tone and calcium signaling in rat pulmonary artery (PA) SMCs (PASMCs). 8-HUDE increased the tension of rat PAs to 145% baseline, whereas it had no effect on the tension of mesenteric arteries (MAs). The 8-HUDE-induced increase in vascular tone was abolished by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or by pretreatment with either La(3+) or SKF96365, which are inhibitors of canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs). Furthermore, 8-HUDE-evoked increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs could be blunted by inhibition of TRPC with SKF96365, removal of extracellular calcium or depletion of intracellular calcium stores with caffeine, cyclopiazonic acid or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, but not by the voltage-activated calcium channel blocker nifedipine. In addition to immediate effects on calcium signaling, 8-HUDE upregulated the expression of TRPC1 and TRPC6 at both mRNA and protein levels in rat PASMCs, whereas it suppressed the expression of sEH. Our observations suggest that 8-HUDE increases PA vascular tone through increased release of calcium from intracellular stores, enhanced [Ca(2+)](i) influx in PASMCs through store-operated Ca(2+) channels and modulated the expression of TRPC and sEH proteins in a proconstrictive manner. PMID:21307870

  19. Cloning and characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from Cupriavidus metallidurans-CH34.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjai; Wani, Shadil Ibrahim; Chauhan, Nar Singh; Sharma, Rakesh; Sareen, Dipti

    2011-09-01

    A putative epoxide hydrolase-encoding gene was identified from the genome sequence of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli with His(6)-tag at its N-terminus. The epoxide hydrolase (CMEH) was purified to near homogeneity and was found to be a homodimer, with subunit molecular weight of 36 kDa. The CMEH had broad substrate specificity as it could hydrolyze 13 epoxides, out of 15 substrates tested. CMEH had high specific activity with 1,2-epoxyoctane, 1,2-epoxyhexane, styrene oxide (SO) and was also found to be active with meso-epoxides. The enzyme had optimum pH and temperature of 7.5 and 37°C respectively, with racemic SO. Biotransformation of 80 mM SO with recombinant whole E. coli cells expressing CMEH led to 56% ee(P) of (R)-diol with 77.23% conversion in 30 min. The enzyme could hydrolyze (R)-SO, ∼2-fold faster than (S)-SO, though it accepted both (R)- and (S)-SO with similar affinity as K(m)(R) and K(m)(S) of CMEH were 2.05±0.42 and 2.11±0.16 mM, respectively. However, the k(cat)(R) and k(cat)(S) for the two enantiomers of SO were 4.80 and 3.34 s(-1), respectively. The wide substrate spectrum exhibited by CMEH combined with the fast conversion rate makes it a robust biocatalyst for industrial use. Regioselectivity studies with enantiopure (R)- and (S)-SO revealed that with slightly altered regioselectivity, CMEH has a high potential to synthesize an enantiopure (R)-PED, through an enantioconvergent hydrolytic process. PMID:21515382

  20. Heavy chain single-domain antibodies to detect native human soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yongliang; Li, Dongyang; Morisseau, Christophe; Dong, Jie-Xian; Yang, Jun; Wan, Debin; Rossotti, Martín A; Gee, Shirley J; González-Sapienza, Gualberto G; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-09-01

    The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a potential pharmacological target for treating hypertension, vascular inflammation, pain, cancer, and other diseases. However, there is not a simple, inexpensive, and reliable method to estimate levels of active sEH in tissues. Toward developing such an assay, a polyclonal variable domain of heavy chain antibody (VHH) sandwich immunoassay was developed. Ten VHHs, which are highly selective for native human sEH, were isolated from a phage-displayed library. The ten VHHs have no significant cross-reactivity with human microsomal epoxide hydrolase, rat and mouse sEH, and denatured human sEH. There is a high correlation between protein levels of the sEH determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the catalytic activity of the enzyme in S9 fractions of human tissues (liver, kidney, and lung). The VHH-based ELISA appears to be a new reliable method for monitoring the sEH and may be useful as a diagnostic tool for diseases influenced by sEH. This study also demonstrates the broad utility of VHH in biochemical and pharmacological research. PMID:26229025

  1. The Cloning and Characterization of a Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Harris, T. R.; Morisseau, C.; Walzem, R. L.; Ma, S. J.; Hammock, B. D.

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure and vascular homeostasis through its hydrolysis of the endothelial-derived messenger molecules, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. This study reports the cloning and expression of a sEH homolog from chicken liver. The resulting 63-kDa protein has an isoelectric point of 6.1. The recombinant enzyme displayed epoxide hydrolase activity when assayed with [3H]-trans-1,3-diphenylpropene oxide (t-DPPO), as well as trans-9,10-epoxystearate and the cis-8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15- epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. The chicken enzyme displayed a lower kcat:Km for t-DPPO than the mammalian enzymes. The enzyme was sensitive to urea-based inhibitors developed for mammalian sEH. Such compounds could be used to study the role of chicken sEH in conditions in which endothelial-derived vasodilation is believed to be impaired, such as pulmonary hypertension syndrome. PMID:16523628

  2. Bioactive lipid profiling reveals drug target engagement of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor in a murine model of tobacco smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    Nording, Malin L.; Yang, Jun; Hoang, Laura; Zamora, Vanessa; Uyeminami, Dale; Espiritu, Imelda; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Luria, Ayala

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory process underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be caused by tobacco smoke (TS) exposure. Previous studies show that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) possess promising anti-inflammatory properties, therefore stabilization of EETs and other fatty acid epoxides through inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) was investigated in mouse models of acute and sub-chronic inflammation caused by TS exposure. During the entire TS exposure, the potent sEH inhibitor 1-(1-methylsulfonyl-piperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-urea (TUPS) was given via drinking water. To assess drug target engagement of TUPS, a tandem mass spectrometry method was used for bioactive lipid profiling of a broad range of fatty acid metabolites, including EETs, and their corresponding diols (DHETs) derived from arachidonic acid, as well as epoxides and diols derived from other fatty acids. Several, but not all, plasma epoxide/diol ratios increased in mice treated with sEH inhibitor, compared to non-treated mice suggesting a wider role for sEH involving more fatty acid precursors besides arachidonic acid. This study supports qualitative use of epoxide/diol ratios explored by bioactive lipid profiling to indicate drug target engagement in mouse models of TS exposure relevant to COPD, which may have ramifications for future therapeutic interventions of sEH. PMID:27076918

  3. The Molecular Structure of Epoxide Hydrolase B From And Its Complex With Urea-Based Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Biswal, B.K.; Morisseau, C.; Garen, G.; Cherney, M.M.; Garen, C.; Niu, C.; Hammock, B.D.; James, M.N.G.

    2009-05-11

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the intracellular pathogen that infects macrophages primarily, is the causative agent of the infectious disease tuberculosis in humans. The Mtb genome encodes at least six epoxide hydrolases (EHs A to F). EHs convert epoxides to trans-dihydrodiols and have roles in drug metabolism as well as in the processing of signaling molecules. Herein, we report the crystal structures of unbound Mtb EHB and Mtb EHB bound to a potent, low-nanomolar (IC(50) approximately 19 nM) urea-based inhibitor at 2.1 and 2.4 A resolution, respectively. The enzyme is a homodimer; each monomer adopts the classical alpha/beta hydrolase fold that composes the catalytic domain; there is a cap domain that regulates access to the active site. The catalytic triad, comprising Asp104, His333 and Asp302, protrudes from the catalytic domain into the substrate binding cavity between the two domains. The urea portion of the inhibitor is bound in the catalytic cavity, mimicking, in part, the substrate binding; the two urea nitrogen atoms donate hydrogen bonds to the nucleophilic carboxylate of Asp104, and the carbonyl oxygen of the urea moiety receives hydrogen bonds from the phenolic oxygen atoms of Tyr164 and Tyr272. The phenolic oxygen groups of these two residues provide electrophilic assistance during the epoxide hydrolytic cleavage. Upon inhibitor binding, the binding-site residues undergo subtle structural rearrangement. In particular, the side chain of Ile137 exhibits a rotation of around 120 degrees about its C(alpha)-C(beta) bond in order to accommodate the inhibitor. These findings have not only shed light on the enzyme mechanism but also have opened a path for the development of potent inhibitors with good pharmacokinetic profiles against all Mtb EHs of the alpha/beta type.

  4. Determinants of Reactivity and Selectivity in Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase from Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Modeling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an enzyme involved in drug metabolism that catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxides to form their corresponding diols. sEH has a broad substrate range and shows high regio- and enantioselectivity for nucleophilic ring opening by Asp333. Epoxide hydrolases therefore have potential synthetic applications. We have used combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) umbrella sampling molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (at the AM1/CHARMM22 level) and high-level ab initio (SCS-MP2) QM/MM calculations to analyze the reactions, and determinants of selectivity, for two substrates: trans-stilbene oxide (t-SO) and trans-diphenylpropene oxide (t-DPPO). The calculated free energy barriers from the QM/MM (AM1/CHARMM22) umbrella sampling MD simulations show a lower barrier for phenyl attack in t-DPPO, compared with that for benzylic attack, in agreement with experiment. Activation barriers in agreement with experimental rate constants are obtained only with the highest level of QM theory (SCS-MP2) used. Our results show that the selectivity of the ring-opening reaction is influenced by several factors, including proximity to the nucleophile, electronic stabilization of the transition state, and hydrogen bonding to two active site tyrosine residues. The protonation state of His523 during nucleophilic attack has also been investigated, and our results show that the protonated form is most consistent with experimental findings. The work presented here illustrates how determinants of selectivity can be identified from QM/MM simulations. These insights may also provide useful information for the design of novel catalysts for use in the synthesis of enantiopure compounds. PMID:22280021

  5. Soluble epoxide hydrolase gene deletion improves blood flow and reduces infarct size after cerebral ischemia in reproductively senescent female mice

    PubMed Central

    Zuloaga, Kristen L.; Zhang, Wenri; Roese, Natalie E.; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a key enzyme in the metabolism of vasodilatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), is sexually dimorphic, suppressed by estrogen, and contributes to underlying sex differences in cerebral blood flow and injury after cerebral ischemia. We tested the hypothesis that sEH inhibition or gene deletion in reproductively senescent (RS) female mice would increase cerebral perfusion and decrease infarct size following stroke. RS (15–18 month old) and young (3–4 month old) female sEH knockout (sEHKO) mice and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to 45 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with laser Doppler perfusion monitoring. WT mice were treated with vehicle or a sEH inhibitor t-AUCB at the time of reperfusion and every 24 h thereafter for 3 days. Differences in regional cerebral blood flow were measured in vivo using optical microangiography (OMAG). Infarct size was measured 3 days after reperfusion. Infarct size and cerebral perfusion 24 h after MCAO were not altered by age. Both sEH gene deletion and sEH inhibition increased cortical perfusion 24 h after MCAO. Neither sEH gene deletion nor sEH inhibition reduced infarct size in young mice. However, sEH gene deletion, but not sEH inhibition of the hydrolase domain of the enzyme, decreased infarct size in RS mice. Results of these studies show that sEH gene deletion and sEH inhibition enhance cortical perfusion following MCAO and sEH gene deletion reduces damage after ischemia in RS female mice; however this neuroprotection in absent is young mice. PMID:25642188

  6. THE SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE GENE HARBORS SEQUENCE VARIATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AND PROTECTION FROM INCIDENT ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stroke is the leading cause of severe disability and the third leading cause of death, accounting for one of every 15 deaths in the USA. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the soluble epoxide hydrolase gene (EPHX2) with incident ischemic stroke in African-Americans and Whites. Twelv...

  7. Ovarian expressed microsomal epoxide hydrolase: role in detoxification of 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide and regulation by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Sen, Nivedita; Hoyer, Patricia B; Keating, Aileen F

    2012-01-01

    4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is a metabolite of 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH) which has the potential to be formed in the ovary through CYP2E1 activity. VCD specifically destroys primordial and small primary follicles in the rodent ovary. Mouse ovaries exposed to VCD demonstrate increased mRNA and protein expression of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), and an inactive tetrol metabolite (4-(1,2-dihydroxy)ethyl-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexane) can be formed in mouse ovarian follicles, potentially through detoxification action of mEH. In contrast, mEH can bioactivate another ovotoxic chemical, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to a more toxic compound, DMBA-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide. Thus, the present study evaluated a functional role for mEH during detoxification of VCD. Additionally, because inhibition of the phosphatidyinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway in a previous study protected primordial follicles from VCD-induced destruction, but accelerated DMBA-induced ovotoxicity, a role for PI3K in ovarian mEH regulation was evaluated. Using a post-natal day (PND) 4 Fischer 344 rat whole ovary culture system inhibition of mEH using cyclohexene oxide during VCD exposure resulted in a greater (P<0.05) loss of primordial and small primary follicles relative to VCD-treated ovaries. Also, relative to controls, meh mRNA was increased (P<0.05) on day 4 of VCD (30 μM) exposure, followed by increased (P<0.05) mEH protein after 6 days. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K signaling increased mEH mRNA and protein expression. Thus, these results support a functional role for mEH in the rat ovary, and demonstrate the involvement of PI3K signaling in regulation of ovarian xenobiotic metabolism by mEH. PMID:22061827

  8. Ovarian expressed microsomal epoxide hydrolase: role in detoxification of 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide and regulation by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Sen, Nivedita; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Keating, Aileen F.

    2011-01-01

    4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is a metabolite of 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH) which has the potential to be formed in the ovary through CYP2E1 activity. VCD specifically destroys primordial and small primary follicles in the rodent ovary. Mouse ovaries exposed to VCD demonstrate increased mRNA and protein expression of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), and an inactive tetrol metabolite (4-(1,2-dihydroxy)ethyl-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexane) can be formed in mouse ovarian follicles, potentially through detoxification action of mEH. In contrast, mEH can bioactivate another ovotoxic chemical, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to a more toxic compound, DMBA-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide. Thus, the present study evaluated a functional role for mEH during detoxification of VCD. Additionally, because inhibition of the phosphatidyinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway in a previous study protected primordial follicles from VCD-induced destruction, but accelerated DMBA-induced ovotoxicity, a role for PI3K in ovarian mEH regulation was evaluated. Using a post-natal day (PND) 4 Fischer 344 rat whole ovary culture system inhibition of mEH using cyclohexene oxide during VCD exposure resulted in a greater (P < 0.05) loss of primordial and small primary follicles relative to VCD-treated ovaries. Also, relative to controls, meh mRNA was increased (P < 0.05) on day 4 of VCD (30 μM) exposure, followed by increased (P < 0.05) mEH protein after 6 days. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K signaling increased mEH mRNA and protein expression. Thus, these results support a functional role for mEH in the rat ovary, and demonstrate the involvement of PI3K signaling in regulation of ovarian xenobiotic metabolism by mEH. PMID:22061827

  9. Peroxisomal translocation of soluble epoxide hydrolase protects against ischemic stroke injury

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jonathan W; Zhang, Wenri; Alkayed, Nabil J; Koerner, Ines P

    2015-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) contributes to cardiovascular disease, including stroke, although the exact mechanism remains unclear. While primarily a cytosolic enzyme, sEH can translocate into peroxisomes. The relevance of this for stroke injury is not understood. We tested the hypothesis that sEH-mediated injury is tied to the cytoplasmic localization. We found that a human sEH variant possessing increased affinity to peroxisomes reduced stroke injury in sEH-null mice, whereas infarcts were significantly larger when peroxisomal translocation of sEH was disrupted. We conclude that sEH contributes to stroke injury only when localized in the cytoplasm, while peroxisomal sEH may be protective. PMID:26126869

  10. Molecular and biochemical characterization of juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Rui; Xu, Wei-Hua; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Li, Sheng

    2005-02-01

    One major route of insect juvenile hormone (JH) degradation is epoxide hydration by JH epoxide hydrolase (JHEH). A full-length cDNA (1536 bp) encoding a microsomal JHEH was isolated from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Bommo-JHEH cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a 461-amino acid protein (52 kDa), which reveals a high degree of similarity to the previously reported insect JHEHs. The residues Tyr298, Tyr373, and the HGWP motif corresponding to the oxyanion hole of JHEHs and the residues Asp227, His430, and Glu403 in the catalytic triad are well conserved in Bommo-JHEH. Bommo-JHEH was highly expressed in the fat body, where its mRNA expression pattern was in contrast to the pattern of hemolymph levels of JH during the larval development, suggesting that Bommo-JHEH plays an important role in JH degradation. Recombinant Bommo-JHEH (52 kDa) expressed in Sf9 insect cells was membrane-bound and had a high level of enzyme activity (300-fold over the control activity). This Bommo-JHEH study provides a better understanding of how JH levels are regulated in the domesticated silkworm. PMID:15681225

  11. Microbiological Transformations. 33. Fungal Epoxide Hydrolases Applied to the Synthesis of Enantiopure Para-Substituted Styrene Oxides. A Mechanistic Approach.

    PubMed

    Pedragosa-Moreau, S.; Morisseau, C.; Zylber, J.; Archelas, A.; Baratti, J.; Furstoss, R.

    1996-10-18

    The biohydrolysis of differently para-substituted styrene oxide derivatives was studied, using whole cells of the fungi Aspergillus niger or Beauveria sulfurescens. These microorganisms proved to be equipped with epoxide hydrolases which are able to achieve these hydrolyses with high enantioselectivity. This allowed the preparation of the optically active epoxides and of the corresponding vicinal diols which were obtained with good to excellent enantiomeric purity. These two microorganisms proved to be enantiocomplementary. A mechanistic study, carried out using a crude lyophilized enzymatic extract from A.niger, indicated via Hammet coefficient plotting that this hydrolysis is very probably due to a general base-catalyzed process. PMID:11667667

  12. Compositional profile of α/β-hydrolase fold proteins in mangrove soil metagenomes: prevalence of epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in oil-contaminated sites

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Ottoni, Júlia Ronzella; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant α/β-hydrolases in mangrove soil microbial communities was assessed using data obtained by whole-metagenome sequencing of four mangroves areas, denoted BrMgv01 to BrMgv04, in São Paulo, Brazil. The sequences (215 Mb in total) were filtered based on local amino acid alignments against the Lipase Engineering Database. In total, 5923 unassembled sequences were affiliated with 30 different α/β-hydrolase fold superfamilies. The most abundant predicted proteins encompassed cytosolic hydrolases (abH08; ∼ 23%), microsomal hydrolases (abH09; ∼ 12%) and Moraxella lipase-like proteins (abH04 and abH01; < 5%). Detailed analysis of the genes predicted to encode proteins of the abH08 superfamily revealed a high proportion related to epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in polluted mangroves BrMgv01-02-03. This suggested selection and putative involvement in local degradation/detoxification of the pollutants. Seven sequences that were annotated as genes for putative epoxide hydrolases and five for putative haloalkane dehalogenases were found in a fosmid library generated from BrMgv02 DNA. The latter enzymes were predicted to belong to Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Our integrated approach thus identified 12 genes (complete and/or partial) that may encode hitherto undescribed enzymes. The low amino acid identity (< 60%) with already-described genes opens perspectives for both production in an expression host and genetic screening of metagenomes. PMID:25171437

  13. Compositional profile of α / β-hydrolase fold proteins in mangrove soil metagenomes: prevalence of epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in oil-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Ottoni, Júlia Ronzella; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant α/β-hydrolases in mangrove soil microbial communities was assessed using data obtained by whole-metagenome sequencing of four mangroves areas, denoted BrMgv01 to BrMgv04, in São Paulo, Brazil. The sequences (215 Mb in total) were filtered based on local amino acid alignments against the Lipase Engineering Database. In total, 5923 unassembled sequences were affiliated with 30 different α/β-hydrolase fold superfamilies. The most abundant predicted proteins encompassed cytosolic hydrolases (abH08; ∼ 23%), microsomal hydrolases (abH09; ∼ 12%) and Moraxella lipase-like proteins (abH04 and abH01; < 5%). Detailed analysis of the genes predicted to encode proteins of the abH08 superfamily revealed a high proportion related to epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in polluted mangroves BrMgv01-02-03. This suggested selection and putative involvement in local degradation/detoxification of the pollutants. Seven sequences that were annotated as genes for putative epoxide hydrolases and five for putative haloalkane dehalogenases were found in a fosmid library generated from BrMgv02 DNA. The latter enzymes were predicted to belong to Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Our integrated approach thus identified 12 genes (complete and/or partial) that may encode hitherto undescribed enzymes. The low amino acid identity (< 60%) with already-described genes opens perspectives for both production in an expression host and genetic screening of metagenomes. PMID:25171437

  14. Effect of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase on the Modulation of Coronary Reactive Hyperemia: Role of Oxylipins and PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Ahmad; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C; Morisseau, Christophe; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary reactive hyperemia (CRH) is a physiological response to ischemic insult that prevents the potential harm associated with an interruption of blood supply. The relationship between the pharmacologic inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and CRH response to a brief ischemia is not known. sEH is involved in the main catabolic pathway of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are converted into dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). EETs protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury and have numerous beneficial physiological effects. We hypothesized that inhibition of sEH by t-AUCB enhances CRH in isolated mouse hearts through changing the oxylipin profiles, including an increase in EETs/DHETs ratio. Compared to controls, t-AUCB-treated mice had increased CRH, including repayment volume (RV), repayment duration, and repayment/debt ratio (p < 0.05). Treatment with t-AUCB significantly changed oxylipin profiles, including an increase in EET/DHET ratio, increase in EpOME/DiHOME ratio, increase in the levels of HODEs, decrease in the levels of mid-chain HETEs, and decrease in prostanoids (p < 0.05). Treatment with MS-PPOH (CYP epoxygenase inhibitor) reduced CRH, including RV (p < 0.05). Involvement of PPARγ in the modulation of CRH was demonstrated using a PPARγ-antagonist (T0070907) and a PPARγ-agonist (rosiglitazone). T0070907 reduced CRH (p < 0.05), whereas rosiglitazone enhanced CRH (p < 0.05) in isolated mouse hearts compared to the non-treated. These data demonstrate that sEH inhibition enhances, whereas CYP epoxygenases-inhibition attenuates CRH, PPARγ mediate CRH downstream of the CYP epoxygenases-EET pathway, and the changes in oxylipin profiles associated with sEH-inhibition collectively contributed to the enhanced CRH. PMID:27583776

  15. Metabolic products of soluble epoxide hydrolase are essential for monocyte chemotaxis to MCP-1 in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Suman; Roome, Talat; Bhattacharjee, Ashish; Carnevale, Kevin A.; Yakubenko, Valentin P.; Zhang, Renliang; Hwang, Sung Hee; Hammock, Bruce D.; Cathcart, Martha K.

    2013-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)-induced monocyte chemotaxis is a major event in inflammatory disease. Our prior studies have demonstrated that MCP-1-dependent chemotaxis requires release of arachidonic acid (AA) by activated cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). Here we investigated the involvement of AA metabolites in chemotaxis. Neither cyclooxygenase nor lipoxygenase pathways were required, whereas pharmacologic inhibitors of both the cytochrome-P450 (CYP) and the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathways blocked monocyte chemotaxis to MCP-1. To verify specificity, we demonstrated that the CYP and sEH products epoxyeiscosatrienoic acids (EETs) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), respectively, restored chemotaxis in the presence of the inhibitors, indicating that sEH-derived products are essential for MCP-1-driven chemotaxis. Importantly, DHETs also rescued chemotaxis in cPLA2-deficient monocytes and monocytes with blocked Erk1/2 activity, because Erk controls cPLA2 activation. The in vitro findings regarding the involvement of CYP/sEH pathways were further validated in vivo using two complementary approaches measuring MCP-1-dependent chemotaxis in mice. These observations reveal the importance of sEH in MCP-1-regulated monocyte chemotaxis and may explain the observed therapeutic value of sEH inhibitors in treatment of inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, pain, and even carcinogenesis. Their effectiveness, often attributed to increasing EET levels, is probably influenced by the impairment of DHET formation and inhibition of chemotaxis. PMID:23160182

  16. Evaluation of epichlorohydrin (ECH) genotoxicity. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase-dependent deactivation of ECH mutagenicity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A M; Migliore, L; Loprieno, N; Romano, M; Salmona, M

    1983-04-01

    The mutagenic effect of epichlorohydrin (ECH) on the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe was studied in vitro in the presence of mouse-liver S9 mix and microsomal and cytosolic fractions. The incubations were always performed in the absence of NADPH-generating systems. S9 mix and microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated mice significantly reduced ECH mutagenicity, whereas the cytosol did not result in any deactivating effect. The various protein contents of the subcellular fractions were not involved in any scavenger effect as regards ECH mutagenic activity. Moreover, the addition of reduced glutathione to the incubation mixtures indicated that it did not play an important role, either per se or through the enzyme(s) glutathione-S-epoxide transferase(s), in preventing ECH genotoxicity. Our results suggest that microsomal epoxide hydrolase(s) represents the major step in the detoxifying pathway of ECH. These observations were supported by measurements of the specific epoxide hydrolase activity in the various fractions on the same substrate. PMID:6835236

  17. Expression and activity of microsomal epoxide hydrolase in follicles isolated from mouse ovaries.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Ellen A; Dyer, Cheryl A; Christian, Patricia J; Sipes, I Glenn; Hoyer, Patricia B

    2002-07-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics that are or can form epoxide metabolites, including the ovotoxicant, 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH). This industrial chemical is bioactivated by hepatic CYP450 to the diepoxide metabolite, VCD, which destroys mouse small preantral follicles (F1). Since ovarian mEH may play a role in VCD detoxification, these studies investigated the expression and activity of mEH in isolated ovarian fractions. Mice were given 1 or 15 daily doses (ip) of VCH (7.4 mmol/kg/day) or VCD (0.57 mmol/kg/day); 4 h following the final dose, ovaries were removed, distinct populations of intact follicles (F1, 25-100 microm; F2, 100-250 microm; F3, > 250 microm) and interstitial cells (Int) were isolated, and total RNA and protein were extracted. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and the substrate cis-stilbene oxide (CSO; 12.5 microM) were used to evaluate expression and specific activity of mEH, respectively. Confocal microscopy evaluated ovarian distribution of mEH protein. Expression of mRNA encoding mEH was increased in F1 (410 +/- 5% VCH; 292 +/- 5% VCD) and F2 (1379 +/- 4% VCH; 381 +/- 11% VCD) follicles following repeated dosing with VCH or VCD. Catalytic activity of mEH increased in F1 follicles following repeated dosing with VCH/VCD (381 +/- 11% VCH; 384 +/- 27% VCD). Visualized by confocal microscopy, mEH protein was distributed throughout the ovary with the greatest staining intensity in the interstitial cells and staining in the theca cells that was increased by dosing (56 +/- 0.8% VCH; 29 +/- 0.9% VCD). We conclude that mEH is expressed and is functional in mouse ovarian follicles. Additionally,in vivo dosing with VCH and VCD affects these parameters. PMID:12075107

  18. Ovarian expressed microsomal epoxide hydrolase: Role in detoxification of 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide and regulation by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Sen, Nivedita; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Keating, Aileen F.

    2012-01-01

    4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is a metabolite of 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH) which has the potential to be formed in the ovary through CYP2E1 activity. VCD specifically destroys primordial and small primary follicles in the rodent ovary. Mouse ovaries exposed to VCD demonstrate increased mRNA and protein expression of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), and an inactive tetrol metabolite (4-(1,2-dihydroxy)ethyl-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexane) can be formed in mouse ovarian follicles, potentially through detoxification action of mEH. In contrast, mEH can bioactivate another ovotoxic chemical, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to a more toxic compound, DMBA-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide. Thus, the present study evaluated a functional role for mEH during detoxification of VCD. Additionally, because inhibition of the phosphatidyinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway in a previous study protected primordial follicles from VCD-induced destruction, but accelerated DMBA-induced ovotoxicity, a role for PI3K in ovarian mEH regulation was evaluated. Using a post-natal day (PND) 4 Fischer 344 rat whole ovary culture system inhibition of mEH using cyclohexene oxide during VCD exposure resulted in a greater (P < 0.05) loss of primordial and small primary follicles relative to VCD-treated ovaries. Also, relative to controls, meh mRNA was increased (P < 0.05) on day 4 of VCD (30 μM) exposure, followed by increased (P < 0.05) mEH protein after 6 days. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K signaling increased mEH mRNA and protein expression. Thus, these results support a functional role for mEH in the rat ovary, and demonstrate the involvement of PI3K signaling in regulation of ovarian xenobiotic metabolism by mEH. -- Highlights: ► Ovarian mEH functions to metabolize VCD to a less toxic compound. ► mEH expression is increased in a temporal pattern in response to VCD exposure. ► PI3K signaling is involved in regulation of ovarian mEH expression.

  19. EHPred: an SVM-based method for epoxide hydrolases recognition and classification.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jia; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Zi-Zhang

    2006-01-01

    A two-layer method based on support vector machines (SVMs) has been developed to distinguish epoxide hydrolases (EHs) from other enzymes and to classify its subfamilies using its primary protein sequences. SVM classifiers were built using three different feature vectors extracted from the primary sequence of EHs: the amino acid composition (AAC), the dipeptide composition (DPC), and the pseudo-amino acid composition (PAAC). Validated by 5-fold cross tests, the first layer SVM classifier can differentiate EHs and non-EHs with an accuracy of 94.2% and has a Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.84. Using 2-fold cross validation, PAAC-based second layer SVM can further classify EH subfamilies with an overall accuracy of 90.7% and MCC of 0.87 as compared to AAC (80.0%) and DPC (84.9%). A program called EHPred has also been developed to assist readers to recognize EHs and to classify their subfamilies using primary protein sequences with greater accuracy. PMID:16365918

  20. An insect farnesyl phosphatase homologous to the N-terminal domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Li; Zhang, Ping; Grant, David F.

    2009-01-01

    In insects, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) is converted to juvenile hormone (JH) via a conserved pathway consisting of isoprenoid derived metabolites. The first step of this pathway is presumed to be hydrolysis of FPP to farnesol in the ring gland. Based on alignment of putative phosphatases from D. melanogaster with the phosphatase domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase, Phos2680 and Phos15739 with conserved phosphatase motifs were identified, cloned and purified. Both D. melanogaster phosphatases hydrolyzed para-nitrophenyl phosphate, however, Phos15739 also hydrolyzed FPP with a Kcat/Km of 2.1 X 105 M−1s−1. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Phos15739 was expressed in the ring gland and its expression was correlated with JHIII titer during development of D. melanogaster. N-acetyl-S-geranylgeranyl-L-cysteine was found to be a potent inhibitor of Phos15739 with an IC50 value of 4.4 μM. Thus, our data identify Phos15739 as a FPP phosphatase that likely catalyzes the hydrolysis of FPP to farnesol in D. melanogaster. PMID:19168029

  1. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase as a Potential Key Factor for Human Prenatal Development.

    PubMed

    Cizkova, Katerina; Rajdova, Aneta; Ehrmann, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) converts highly active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) generated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases from arachidonic acid to less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. Because of the role of EETs in processes potentially relevant to the development of organisms, EETs could be suggested as potential morphogens. Unfortunately, only little is known about sEH expression during human intrauterine development (IUD). We investigated the spatio-temporal expression pattern of sEH in human embryonic/foetal intestines, liver and kidney from the 6th to the 20th week of IUD by two-step immunohistochemistry. sEH was expressed during the whole tested period of prenatal development and its level of expression remained more or less the same during the estimated period of IUD. Distribution of CYP epoxygenases and sEH in the intestinal epithelium and the nephrogenic zone of the kidney suggests an influence of EETs on cell proliferation and differentiation and, consequently, on the development of intestines and kidney. Thus, alterations in the strict spatio-temporal pattern of expression of CYP epoxygenases and/or sEH during human prenatal development by xenobiotics could have a harmful impact for developing organisms. PMID:27144772

  2. Colorectal polyp type and the association with charred meat consumption, smoking, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N; Newcomb, Polly A; Mandelson, Margaret T; Adams, Scott V; Wernli, Karen J; Shadman, Mazyar; Wurscher, Michelle A; Makar, Karen W

    2011-01-01

    We determined the association between charred meat consumption, cigarette smoking, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) polymorphisms (rs1051740 and rs2234922), and colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps (HPs) and explored gene-environment interactions. Men and women with colorectal adenomas (n = 519), HPs (n = 691), or concurrently with both types of polyps (n = 227) and polyp-free controls (n = 772) receiving a colonoscopy from December 2004 to September 2007 were recruited. Participants completed telephone interviews and provided buccal cell samples; genotyping of mEH was completed using Taqman assays. We conducted polytomous regression and calculated odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Interactions were evaluated using Wald chi-square tests. Consumption of >3 servings of charred meat per week was associated with distal HPs (OR = 2.0, 1.2-3.4) but not adenomas nor either type of proximal polyp. Heavy cigarette smoking (≥ 22 pack-years) was associated with an increased risk for colorectal adenomas (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.4), HPs (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.7-3.3), and both types (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.8-4.3) with the strongest association for distal polyps. There was no association between mEH genotype and colorectal polyps, nor were any statistically significant gene-environment interactions identified. Future investigation of BaP exposure and colorectal neoplasia should analyze whether associations are dependent upon anatomic location. PMID:21598178

  3. Induction of epoxide hydrolase, glucuronosyl transferase, and sulfotransferase by phenethyl isothiocyanate in male Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Mohd Noor, Noramaliza; Konsue, Nattaya

    2014-01-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an isothiocyanate found in watercress as the glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin). The isothiocyanate is converted from the glucosinolate by intestinal microflora or when contacted with myrosinase during the chopping and mastication of the vegetable. PEITC manifested protection against chemically-induced cancers in various tissues. A potential mechanism of chemoprevention is by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens so as to promote deactivation. The principal objective of this study was to investigate in rats the effect of PEITC on carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems such as sulfotransferase (SULT), N-acetyltransferase (NAT), glucuronosyl transferase (UDP), and epoxide hydrolase (EH) following exposure to low doses that simulate human dietary intake. Rats were fed for 2 weeks diets supplemented with PEITC at 0.06 µmol/g (low dose, i.e., dietary intake), 0.6 µmol/g (medium dose), and 6.0 µmol/g (high dose), and the enzymes were monitored in rat liver. At the Low dose, no induction of the SULT, NAT, and EH was noted, whereas UDP level was elevated. At the Medium dose, only SULT level was increased, whereas at the High dose marked increase in EH level was observed. It is concluded that PEITC modulates carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems at doses reflecting human intake thus elucidating the mechanism of its chemoprevention. PMID:24592387

  4. Rational Design of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Seiya; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Niu, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D; Madden, Dean R; Morisseau, Christophe

    2016-05-26

    The virulence factor cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is the founding member of a distinct class of epoxide hydrolases (EHs) that triggers the catalysis-dependent degradation of the CFTR. We describe here the development of a series of potent and selective Cif inhibitors by structure-based drug design. Initial screening revealed 1a (KB2115), a thyroid hormone analog, as a lead compound with low micromolar potency. Structural requirements for potency were systematically probed, and interactions between Cif and 1a were characterized by X-ray crystallography. On the basis of these data, new compounds were designed to yield additional hydrogen bonding with residues of the Cif active site. From this effort, three compounds were identified that are 10-fold more potent toward Cif than our first-generation inhibitors and have no detectable thyroid hormone-like activity. These inhibitors will be useful tools to study the pathological role of Cif and have the potential for clinical application. PMID:27120257

  5. ROLE OF SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE IN AGE-RELATED VASCULAR COGNITIVE DECLINE

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jonathan W.; Young, Jennifer M.; Borkar, Rohan; Woltjer, Randy L.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Silbert, Lisa C.; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2014-01-01

    P450 eicosanoids are important regulators of the cerebral microcirculation, but their role in cerebral small vessel disease is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is linked to reduced cerebral microvascular eicosanoid signaling. We analyzed human brain tissue from individuals formerly enrolled in the Oregon Brain Aging Study, who had a history of cognitive impairment histopathological evidence of microvascular disease. VCI subjects had significantly higher lesion burden both on premortem MRI and postmortem histopathology compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Mass spectrometry-based eicosanoid analysis revealed that 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHET) was elevated in cortical brain tissue from VCI subjects. Immunoreactivity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), the enzyme responsible for 14,15-DHET formation, was localized to cerebral microvascular endothelium, and was enhanced in microvessels of affected tissue. Finally, we evaluated the genotype frequency of two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms of sEH gene EPHX2 in VCI and control groups. Our findings support a role for sEH and a potential benefit from sEH inhibitors in age-related VCI. PMID:25277097

  6. Induction of Epoxide Hydrolase, Glucuronosyl Transferase, and Sulfotransferase by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate in Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Noor, Noramaliza; Konsue, Nattaya

    2014-01-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an isothiocyanate found in watercress as the glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin). The isothiocyanate is converted from the glucosinolate by intestinal microflora or when contacted with myrosinase during the chopping and mastication of the vegetable. PEITC manifested protection against chemically-induced cancers in various tissues. A potential mechanism of chemoprevention is by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens so as to promote deactivation. The principal objective of this study was to investigate in rats the effect of PEITC on carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems such as sulfotransferase (SULT), N-acetyltransferase (NAT), glucuronosyl transferase (UDP), and epoxide hydrolase (EH) following exposure to low doses that simulate human dietary intake. Rats were fed for 2 weeks diets supplemented with PEITC at 0.06 µmol/g (low dose, i.e., dietary intake), 0.6 µmol/g (medium dose), and 6.0 µmol/g (high dose), and the enzymes were monitored in rat liver. At the Low dose, no induction of the SULT, NAT, and EH was noted, whereas UDP level was elevated. At the Medium dose, only SULT level was increased, whereas at the High dose marked increase in EH level was observed. It is concluded that PEITC modulates carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems at doses reflecting human intake thus elucidating the mechanism of its chemoprevention. PMID:24592387

  7. Anti-Ulcer Efficacy of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor TPPU on Diclofenac-Induced Intestinal Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Wan, Debin; Yang, Jun; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A.; Morisseau, Christophe; Kodani, Sean D.; Yang, Guang-Yu; Inceoglu, Bora

    2016-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole (OME) reduce the severity of gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but can also increase the chance of dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that preventive use of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEHI) such as TPPU can decrease NSAID-induced ulcers by increasing anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Dose- [10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, by mouth (PO)] and time-dependent (6 and 18 hours) ulcerative effects of diclofenac sodium (DCF, an NSAID) were studied in the small intestine of Swiss Webster mice. Dose-dependent effects of TPPU (0.001–0.1 mg/kg per day for 7 days, in drinking water) were evaluated in DCF-induced intestinal toxicity and compared with OME (20 mg/kg, PO). In addition, the effect of treatment was studied on levels of Hb in blood, EETs in plasma, inflammatory markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) in intestinal tissue homogenates, and tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum. DCF dose dependently induced ulcers that were associated with both a significant (P < 0.05) loss of Hb and an increase in the level of MPO and TNF-α, with severity of ulceration highest at 18 hours. Pretreatment with TPPU dose dependently prevented ulcer formation by DCF, increased the levels of epoxy fatty acids, including EETs, and TPPU’s efficacy was comparable to OME. TPPU significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the effect of DCF on the level of Hb, MPO, and TNF-α. Thus sEHI might be useful in the management of NSAID-induced ulcers. PMID:26989141

  8. Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ye; Blum, Maximilian; Hoff, Uwe; Wesser, Tim; Fechner, Mandy; Westphal, Christina; Gürgen, Dennis; Catar, Rusan Ali; Philippe, Aurelie; Wu, Kaiyin; Bubalo, Gordana; Rothe, Michael; Weldon, Steven M.; Dragun, Duska; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Aim 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent eicosanoids that play opposite roles in the regulation of vascular tone, inflammation, and apoptosis. 20-HETE aggravates, whereas EETs ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced organ damage. EETs are rapidly metabolized to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We hypothesized that sEH gene (EPHX2) deletion would increase endogenous EET levels and thereby protect against I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods Kidney damage was evaluated in male wildtype (WT) and sEH-knockout (KO)-mice that underwent 22-min renal ischemia followed by two days of reperfusion. CYP-eicosanoids were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results Contrary to our initial hypothesis, renal function declined more severely in sEH-KO mice as indicated by higher serum creatinine and urea levels. The sEH-KO-mice also featured stronger tubular lesion scores, tubular apoptosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Plasma and renal EET/DHET-ratios were higher in sEH-KO than WT mice, thus confirming the expected metabolic consequences of sEH deficiency. However, CYP-eicosanoid profiling also revealed that renal, but not plasma and hepatic, 20-HETE levels were significantly increased in sEH-KO compared to WT mice. In line with this finding, renal expression of Cyp4a12a, the murine 20-HETE-generating CYP-enzyme, was up-regulated both at the mRNA and protein level, and Cyp4a12a immunostaining was more intense in the renal arterioles of sEH-KO compared with WT mice. Conclusion These results indicate that the potential beneficial effects of reducing EET degradation were obliterated by a thus far unknown mechanism leading to kidney-specific up-regulation of 20-HETE formation in sEH-KO-mice. PMID:26727266

  9. Characterization of two juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolases by RNA interference in the Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    Lü, Feng-Gong; Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-10-10

    In insect, juvenile hormone (JH) titers are tightly regulated in different development stages through synthesis and degradation pathways. During JH degradation, JH epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) converts JH to JH diol, and hydrolyses JH acid to JH acid diol. In this study, two full length LdJHEH cDNAs were cloned from Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and were provisionally designated LdJHEH1 and LdJHEH2. Both mRNAs were detectable in the thoracic muscles, brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complex, foregut, midgut, hindgut, ventral ganglia, Malpighian tubules, fat bodies, epidermis, and hemocytes of the day 2 fourth-instar larvae, and in female ovaries as well as male reproductive organs of the adults. Moreover, both LdJHEH1 and LdJHEH2 were expressed throughout all larval life, with the highest peaks occurring 32h after ecdysis of the final (fourth) instar larvae. Four double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) (dsJHEH1-1, dsJHEH1-2, dsJHEH2-1, dsJHEH2-2) respectively targeting LdJHEH1 and LdJHEH2 were constructed and bacterially expressed. Ingestion of dsJHEH1-1, dsJHEH1-2, dsJHEH2-1, dsJHEH2-2, and a mixture of dsJHEH1-1+dsJHEH2-1 successfully knocked down corresponding target gene function, and significantly increased JH titer and upregulated Krüppel homolog 1 (LdKr-h1) mRNA level. Knockdown of either LdJHEH1 or LdJHEH2, or both genes slightly reduced larval weight and delayed larval development, and significantly impaired adult emergence. Therefore, it is suggested that knockdown LdJHEH1 and LdJHEH2 affected JH degradation in the Colorado potato beetle. PMID:26079572

  10. Anti-Ulcer Efficacy of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor TPPU on Diclofenac-Induced Intestinal Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Wan, Debin; Yang, Jun; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A; Morisseau, Christophe; Kodani, Sean D; Yang, Guang-Yu; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole (OME) reduce the severity of gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but can also increase the chance of dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that preventive use of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEHI) such as TPPU can decrease NSAID-induced ulcers by increasing anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Dose- [10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, by mouth (PO)] and time-dependent (6 and 18 hours) ulcerative effects of diclofenac sodium (DCF, an NSAID) were studied in the small intestine of Swiss Webster mice. Dose-dependent effects of TPPU (0.001-0.1 mg/kg per day for 7 days, in drinking water) were evaluated in DCF-induced intestinal toxicity and compared with OME (20 mg/kg, PO). In addition, the effect of treatment was studied on levels of Hb in blood, EETs in plasma, inflammatory markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) in intestinal tissue homogenates, and tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum. DCF dose dependently induced ulcers that were associated with both a significant (P < 0.05) loss of Hb and an increase in the level of MPO and TNF-α, with severity of ulceration highest at 18 hours. Pretreatment with TPPU dose dependently prevented ulcer formation by DCF, increased the levels of epoxy fatty acids, including EETs, and TPPU's efficacy was comparable to OME. TPPU significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the effect of DCF on the level of Hb, MPO, and TNF-α Thus sEHI might be useful in the management of NSAID-induced ulcers. PMID:26989141

  11. Role of juvenile hormone esterase and epoxide hydrolase in reproduction of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Sayed M S; Anspaugh, Douglas D; Michael Roe, R

    2006-07-01

    The role of juvenile hormone (JH) esterase (JHE) and epoxide hydrolase (EH) in reproduction of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea, was investigated. Peak emergence of male and female bollworm adults occurred early in the scotophase. Female adults were added to males in a 1:2 ratio, respectively, at the beginning of the first photophase after emergence (d0). The highest oviposition rates for mated females were noted on d 2-4. The in vitro JH III esterase and JH III EH activity was measured in whole body homogenates of virgin and mated females from d0 to d8 post-emergence. Maximal JHE activity for virgin females occurred on d2 (1.09+/-0.14(+/-1 SEM) nmol of JH III degraded/min/mg protein), which was approximately twice that of mated females on the same day. The same results were observed for EH where the activity peaked on d2 at 0.053+/-0.003 as compared to 0.033+/-0.003 nmol of JH III degraded/min/mg protein, respectively. By d4, both JHE and JH EH activities declined significantly in virgin and mated females and were the same through d7. The developmental changes and effects of mating on JH degradation were similar when measured per insect. The highest levels of JHE and JH EH activity/min/mg protein in d2 virgin and mated females was found in ovaries followed by the carcass and then haemolymph; no EH activity was found in haemolymph as expected. For ovary, the JHE and JH EH activity was highest in virgin compared to mated females. The role of both enzymes in the regulation of reproduction is discussed. PMID:16678198

  12. Effect of N-acetylcysteine in COPD patients with different microsomal epoxide hydrolase genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Qing; Zhang, Jia-Qiang; Liu, Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Huan; Fang, Li-Zhou; Liu, Ling; Fu, Wei-Ping; Shu, Jing-Kui; Feng, Jia-Gang; Dai, Lu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been clarified as yet. In early studies, we found that the proportion of smokers with COPD having extremely slow/slow microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) enzyme activity is significantly higher than that in healthy smokers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether different EPHX1 enzyme activity is related to differential therapeutic effects of treatment with NAC in COPD. Methods A total of 219 patients with COPD were randomly allocated to an extremely slow/slow EPHX1 enzyme activity group (n=157) or a fast/normal EPHX1 enzyme activity group (n=62) according to their EPHX1 enzyme activity. Both groups were treated with NAC 600 mg twice daily for one year. The main study parameters, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and yearly exacerbation rate, were measured at baseline and at 6-month intervals for one year. Results Both FEV1 and SGRQ symptom scores were improved after treatment with NAC in the slow activity group when compared with the fast activity group. Further, changes in FEV1 and SGRQ symptom score in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD were more significant than those in patients with severe-to-very severe COPD. The yearly exacerbation rates were reduced in both groups, but the reduction in the slow activity group was significantly lower than in the fast activity group. Conclusion NAC treatment in COPD patients with extremely slow/slow EPHX1 enzyme activity improves FEV1 and the SGRQ symptom score, especially in those with mild-to-moderate COPD, and polymorphism in the EPHX1 gene may have a significant role in differential responses to treatment with NAC in patients with COPD. PMID:25999707

  13. Colorectal polyp type and the association with charred meat consumption, smoking, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Mandelson, Margaret T.; Adams, Scott V.; Wernli, Karen J.; Shadman, Mazyar; Wurscher, Michelle A.; Makar, Karen W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We determined the association between charred meat consumption, cigarette smoking, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) polymorphisms [rs1051740 and rs2234922], and colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps (HPs) and explored gene-environment interactions. Methods Men and women with colorectal adenomas (n=519), HPs (n=691), or concurrently with both types of polyps (n=227) and polyp-free controls (n=772) receiving a colonoscopy from 12/04-9/07 were recruited. Participants completed telephone interviews and provided buccal cell samples; genotyping of mEH was completed using Taqman assays. We conducted polytomous regression and calculated odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Interactions were evaluated using Wald chi-square tests. Results Consumption of >3 servings of charred meat per week was associated with distal HPs (OR=2.0, 1.2–3.4) but not adenomas nor either type of proximal polyp. Heavy cigarette smoking (≥22 pack-years) was associated with an increased risk for colorectal adenomas (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.4), HPs (OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.7–3.3), and both types (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.8–4.3) with the strongest association for distal polyps. There was no association between mEH genotype and colorectal polyps, nor were any statistically significant gene-environment interactions identified. Discussion Future investigation of BaP exposure and colorectal neoplasia should analyze whether associations are dependent upon anatomic location. PMID:21598178

  14. In vitro and in vivo metabolism of N-adamantyl substituted urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Yan; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Morisseau, Christophe; Lango, Jozsef; Hwang, Sung Hee; Watanabe, Takaho; Kim, In-Hae; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-12-15

    N,N'-disubstituted urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are promising therapeutics for hypertension, inflammation, and pain in multiple animal models. The drug absorption and pharmacological efficacy of these inhibitors have been reported extensively. However, the drug metabolism of these inhibitors is not well described. Here we reported the metabolic profile and associated biochemical studies of an N-adamantyl urea-based sEH inhibitor 1-adamantan-1-yl-3-(5-(2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethoxy)pentyl)urea (AEPU) in vitro and in vivo. The metabolites of AEPU were identified by interpretation of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and/or NMR. In vitro, AEPU had three major positions for phase I metabolism including oxidations on the adamantyl moiety, urea nitrogen atoms, and cleavage of the polyethylene glycol chain. In a rodent model, the metabolites from the hydroxylation on the adamantyl group and nitrogen atom were existed in blood while the metabolites from cleavage of polyethylene glycol chain were not found in urine. The major metabolite found in rodent urine was 3-(3-adamantyl-ureido)-propanoic acid, a presumably from cleavage and oxidation of the polyethylene glycol moiety. All the metabolites found were active but less potent than AEPU at inhibiting human sEH. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 was found to be a major enzyme mediating AEPU metabolism. In conclusion, the metabolism of AEPU resulted from oxidation by CYP could be shared with other N-adamantyl-urea-based compounds. These findings suggest possible therapeutic roles for AEPU and new strategies for drug design in this series of possible drugs. PMID:26494425

  15. Characterization of Hovi-mEH1, a microsomal epoxide hydrolase from the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis.

    PubMed

    Kamita, Shizuo G; Oshita, Grant H; Wang, Peng; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D; Nandety, Raja Sekhar; Falk, Bryce W

    2013-08-01

    Epoxide hydrolase (EH) is an enzyme in the α/β-hydrolase fold superfamily that uses a water molecule to transform an epoxide to its corresponding diol. In insects, EHs metabolize among other things critical developmental hormones called juvenile hormones (JHs). EHs also play roles in the detoxification of toxic compounds that are found in the insect's diet or environment. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding an epoxide hydrolase, Hovi-mEH1, was obtained from the xylem-feeding insect Homalodisca vitripennis. H. vitripennis, commonly known as the glassy-winged sharpshooter, is an economically important vector of plant pathogenic bacteria such as Xylella fastidiosa. Hovi-mEH1 hydrolyzed the general EH substrates cis-stilbene oxide and trans-diphenylpropene oxide with specific activities of 47.5 ± 6.2 and 1.3 ± 0.5 nmol of diol formed min⁻¹ mg⁻¹, respectively. Hovi-mEH1 metabolized JH III with a Vmax of 29.3 ± 1.6 nmol min⁻¹ mg⁻¹, kcat of 0.03 s⁻¹, and KM of 13.8 ± 2.0 μM. These Vmax and kcat values are similar to those of known JH metabolizing EHs from lepidopteran and coleopteran insects. Hovi-mEH1 showed 99.1% identity to one of three predicted EH-encoding sequences that were identified in the transcriptome of H. vitripennis. Of these three sequences only Hovi-mEH1 clustered with known JH metabolizing EHs. On the basis of biochemical, phylogenetic, and transcriptome analyses, we hypothesize that Hovi-mEH1 is a biologically relevant JH-metabolizing enzyme in H. vitripennis. PMID:23704009

  16. Soybean epoxide hydrolase: identification of the catalytic residues and probing of the reaction mechanism with secondary kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Blée, Elizabeth; Summerer, Stephan; Flenet, Martine; Rogniaux, Hélène; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Schuber, Francis

    2005-02-25

    Soybean epoxide hydrolase catalyzes the oxirane ring opening of 9,10-epoxystearate via a two-step mechanism involving the formation of an alkylenzyme intermediate, which, in contrast to most epoxide hydrolases studied so far, was found to be the rate-limiting step. We have probed residues potentially involved in catalysis by site-directed mutagenesis. Mutation of His(320), a residue predicted from sequence analysis to belong to the catalytic triad of the enzyme, considerably slowed down the second half-reaction. This kinetic manipulation provoked an accumulation of the reaction intermediate, which could be trapped and characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. As expected, mutation of Asp(126) totally abolished the activity of the enzyme from its crucial function as nucleophile involved in the formation of the alkylenzyme. In line with its role as the partner of His(320) in the "charge relay system," mutation of Asp(285) dramatically reduced the rate of catalysis. However, the mutant D285L still exhibited a very low residual activity, which, by structural analysis and mutagenesis, has been tentatively attributed to Glu(195), another acidic residue of the active site. Our studies have also confirmed the fundamental role of the conserved Tyr(175) and Tyr(255) residues, which are believed to activate the oxirane ring. Finally, we have determined the secondary tritium kinetic isotope effects on the epoxide opening step of 9,10-epoxystearate. The large observed values, i.e. (T)(V/K(m)) approximately 1.30, can be interpreted by the occurrence of a very late transition state in which the epoxide bond is broken before the nucleophilic attack by Asp(126) takes place. PMID:15596432

  17. The 2014 Bernard B. Brodie award lecture-epoxide hydrolases: drug metabolism to therapeutics for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Kodani, Sean D; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-05-01

    Dr. Bernard Brodie's legacy is built on fundamental discoveries in pharmacology and drug metabolism that were then translated to the clinic to improve patient care. Similarly, the development of a novel class of therapeutics termed the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors was originally spurred by fundamental research exploring the biochemistry and physiology of the sEH. Here, we present an overview of the history and current state of research on epoxide hydrolases, specifically focusing on sEHs. In doing so, we start with the translational project studying the metabolism of the insect juvenile hormone mimic R-20458 [(E)-6,7-epoxy-1-(4-ethylphenoxy)-3,7-dimethyl-2-octene], which led to the identification of the mammalian sEH. Further investigation of this enzyme and its substrates, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, led to insight into mechanisms of inflammation, chronic and neuropathic pain, angiogenesis, and other physiologic processes. This basic knowledge in turn led to the development of potent inhibitors of the sEH that are promising therapeutics for pain, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, arthritis, and other disorders. PMID:25762541

  18. The 2014 Bernard B. Brodie Award Lecture—Epoxide Hydrolases: Drug Metabolism to Therapeutics for Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Bernard Brodie’s legacy is built on fundamental discoveries in pharmacology and drug metabolism that were then translated to the clinic to improve patient care. Similarly, the development of a novel class of therapeutics termed the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors was originally spurred by fundamental research exploring the biochemistry and physiology of the sEH. Here, we present an overview of the history and current state of research on epoxide hydrolases, specifically focusing on sEHs. In doing so, we start with the translational project studying the metabolism of the insect juvenile hormone mimic R-20458 [(E)-6,7-epoxy-1-(4-ethylphenoxy)-3,7-dimethyl-2-octene], which led to the identification of the mammalian sEH. Further investigation of this enzyme and its substrates, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, led to insight into mechanisms of inflammation, chronic and neuropathic pain, angiogenesis, and other physiologic processes. This basic knowledge in turn led to the development of potent inhibitors of the sEH that are promising therapeutics for pain, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, arthritis, and other disorders. PMID:25762541

  19. Genetic analysis of the soluble epoxide hydrolase gene, EPHX2, in subclinical cardiovascular disease in the Diabetes Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    BURDON, KATHRYN P; LEHTINEN, ALLISON B; LANGEFELD, CARL D; CARR, J JEFFREY; RICH, STEPHEN S; FREEDMAN, BARRY I; HERRINGTON, DAVID; BOWDEN, DONALD W

    2016-01-01

    Epoxide hydrolase is involved in metabolism of vasoactive and anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to their corresponding diols. Consequently, epoxide hydrolase 2 (EPHX2) is a candidate cardiovascular disease (CVD) gene. We investigated EPHX2 for association with subclinical CVD in European American (EA) and African American (AA) families from the Diabetes Heart Study. The R287Q polymorphism was associated with carotid artery calcified plaque (CarCP) in EAs. Other EPHX2 polymorphisms were associated with coronary artery calcified plaque (CorCP), CarCP or carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Polymorphism rs7837347 was associated with all traits in the AAs (p=0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). Polymorphism rs7003694 displayed association with IMT (p=0.017) and, along with rs747276, a trend towards association with CorCP in diabetic EAs (p=0.057 and 0.080, respectively). These results provide additional evidence that EPHX2 contributes to the risk of subclinical CVD, although the true trait defining polymorphisms may not be identified and the effect size could be small. PMID:18537101

  20. Altered Behavioral Phenotypes In Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Knockout Mice: Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gruzdev, Artiom; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2014-01-01

    After traumatic brain injury (TBI), arachidonic acid (ArA) is released from damaged cell membranes and metabolized to many bioactive eicosanoids, including several epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH) appears to be the predominant pathway for EET metabolism to less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoates (DHETs). Prior studies indicate that brain levels of EETs increase transiently after TBI and EETs have antiinflammatory and neuroprotective activities which may benefit the injured brain. If the net effect of increased EET levels in the injured brain is beneficial to recovery, then Ephx2 gene disruption would be expected to enhance elevated EET levels and improve recovery in the injured brain. Thus, Ephx2-KO (Ephx2−/− bred onto pure C57Bl/6 background) mice were compared to wild-type controls in a unilateral controlled cortical impact model of TBI. Before injury, animals behaved comparably in open field activity and neurologic reflexes. Interestingly, the Ephx2-KO mice showed improved motor coordination on a beam walk task, yet showed indications of defective learning in a test of working spatial memory. After surgery, brain-injured Ephx2-KO mice again had less of a deficit in the beam walk than wild-type, and the difference in latency (post – pre) showed a trend of protection for Ephx2-KO mice after TBI. Brain-injured mice showed no genotype differences in working memory. Surprisingly, sham-operated Ephx2-KO mice exhibited an injured phenotype for working memory, compared to sham-operated wild-type mice. Brain eicosanoid levels were measured using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 20 eicosanoids evaluated, only 8,9-EET was elevated in the Ephx2-KO cerebral cortex (37d post-surgery, in both sham and injured). Tissue DHET levels were below the limit of quantification. These results reflect a significant contribution of sEH deficiency in coordination of ambulatory movements and working spatial memory in the

  1. ADMINISTRATION OF A SUBSTITUTED ADAMANTLY-UREA INHIBITOR OF THE SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE PROTECTS THE KIDNEY FROM DAMAGE IN HYPERTENSIVE GOTO-KAKIZAKI RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypertension and type II diabetes are co-morbid diseases that lead to the development of nephropathy. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are reported to provide protection from renal injury. We hypothesized that the sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid (AUDA) protects ...

  2. Predictive model for epoxide hydrolase-generated stereochemistry in the biosynthesis of nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Horsman, Geoffrey P; Lechner, Anna; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Moore, Bradley S; Shen, Ben

    2013-08-01

    Nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotics C-1027, neocarzinostatin (NCS), and kedarcidin (KED) possess enediyne cores to which activity-modulating peripheral moieties are attached via (R)- or (S)-vicinal diols. We have previously shown that this stereochemical difference arises from hydrolysis of epoxide precursors by epoxide hydrolases (EHs) with different regioselectivities. The inverting EHs, such as SgcF, hydrolyze an (S)-epoxide substrate to yield an (R)-diol in C-1027 biosynthesis, whereas the retaining EHs, such as NcsF2 and KedF, hydrolyze an (S)-epoxide substrate to yield an (S)-diol in NCS and KED biosynthesis. We now report the characterization of a series of EH mutants and provide a predictive model for EH regioselectivity in the biosynthesis of the nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotics. A W236Y mutation in SgcF increased the retaining activity toward (S)-styrene oxide by 3-fold, and a W236Y/Q237M double mutation in SgcF, mimicking NcsF2 and KedF, resulted in a 20-fold increase in the retaining activity. To test the predictive utility of these mutations, two putative enediyne biosynthesis-associated EHs were identified by genome mining and confirmed as inverting enzymes, SpoF from Salinospora tropica CNB-440 and SgrF (SGR_625) from Streptomyces griseus IFO 13350. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of EHs revealed a familial classification according to inverting versus retaining activity. Taken together, these results provide a predictive model for vicinal diol stereochemistry in enediyne biosynthesis and set the stage for further elucidating the origins of EH regioselectivity. PMID:23844627

  3. A predictive model for epoxide hydrolase-generated stereochemistry in the biosynthesis of 9-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Horsman, Geoffrey P.; Lechner, Anna; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Moore, Bradley S.; Shen, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotics C-1027, neocarzinostatin (NCS), and kedarcidin (KED) possess enediyne cores to which activity-modulating peripheral moieties are attached via (R)- or (S)-vicinal diols. We have previously shown that this stereochemical difference arises from hydrolysis of epoxide precursors by epoxide hydrolases (EHs) with different regioselectivities – the “inverting” EH, such as SgcF, hydrolyzes an (S)-epoxide substrate to yield an (R)-diol in C-1027 biosynthesis, while the “retaining” EHs, such as NcsF2 and KedF, hydrolyze an (S)-epoxide substrate to yield an (S)-diol in NCS and KED biosynthesis. We now report the characterization of a series of EH mutants and provide a predictive model for EH regioselectivity in the biosynthesis of the 9-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotics. A W236Y mutation in SgcF increased the retaining activity towards (S)-styrene oxide 3-fold, and a W236Y/Q237M double mutation in SgcF, mimicking NcsF2 and KedF, resulted in a 20-fold increase in the retaining activity. To test the predictive utility of these mutations, two putative enediyne biosynthesis-associated EHs were identified by genome mining and confirmed as inverting enzymes – SpoF from Salinospora tropica CNB-440 and SgrF (SGR_625) from Streptomyces griseus IFO 13350. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of EHs revealed a familial classification according to inverting versus retaining activity. Taken together, these results provide a predictive model for the vicinal diol stereochemistry in enediyne biosynthesis and set the stage for further elucidating the origins of EH regioselectivity. PMID:23844627

  4. Oral treatment of rodents with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor 1-(1-propanoylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]urea (TPPU): Resulting drug levels and modulation of oxylipin pattern.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Annika I; Herbers, Jan; Willenberg, Ina; Chen, Rongjun; Hwang, Sung Hee; Greite, Robert; Morisseau, Christophe; Gueler, Faikah; Hammock, Bruce D; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2015-09-01

    Epoxides from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are potent lipid mediators. In vivo stabilization of these epoxides by blockade of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) leads to anti-inflammatory, analgesic and normotensive effects. Therefore, sEH inhibitors (sEHi) are a promising new class of drugs. Herein, we characterized pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic properties of a commercially available potent sEHi 1-(1-propanoylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]urea (TPPU). Cell culture studies suggest its high absorption and metabolic stability. Following administration in drinking water to rats (0.2, 1, and 5mg TPPU/L with 0.2% PEG400), TPPU's blood concentration increased dose dependently within the treatment period to reach an almost steady state after 8 days. TPPU was found in all the tissues tested. The linoleic epoxide/diol ratios in most tissues were dose dependently increased, indicating significant sEH inhibition. Overall, administration of TPPU with the drinking water led to systemic distribution as well as high drug levels and thus makes chronic sEH inhibition studies possible. PMID:26117215

  5. Reduction of Inflammatory Bowel Disease-induced Tumor Development in IL-10 Knockout Mice with Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Gene Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wanying; Liao, Jie; Li, Haonan; Dong, Hua; Bai, Han; Yang, Allison; Hammock, Bruce D.; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) quickly inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by converting them to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). Inhibition of sEH has shown effects against inflammation, but little is studied about the role of sEH in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its induced carcinogenesis. In the present study, the effect of sEH gene deficiency on the development of IBD-induced tumor development was determined in IL-10 knockout mice combined with sEH gene deficiency. Tumor development in the bowel was examined at the age of 25 weeks for male mice and 35 weeks for female mice. Compared to IL-10(−/−) mice, sEH (−/−)/IL-10 (−/−) mice exhibited a significant decrease of tumor multiplicity (2 ± 0.9 vs. 1 ± 0.3 tumors/mouse) and tumor size (344.55±71.73 vs. 126.94±23.18 mm3), as well as a marked decrease of precancerous dysplasia. The significantly lower inflammatory scores were further observed in the bowel in sEH(−/−)/IL-10(−/−) mice as compared to IL-10(−/−) mice, including parameters of inflammation-involved area (0.70±0.16 vs 1.4±0.18), inflammation cell infiltration (1.55±0.35 vs 2.15±0.18), and epithelial hyperplasia (0.95±0.21 vs 1.45±0.18), as well as larger ulcer formation. qPCR and western blotting assays demonstrated a significant down-regulation of cytokines/chemokines (TNFα, MCP1, and IL-12, 17 and 23) and NF-kB signals. Eicosanoid acid metabolic profiling revealed a significant increase of ratios of EETs to DHETs and EpOMEs to DiOMEs. These results indicate that sEH plays an important role in IBD and its-induced carcinogenesis and could serve as a highly potential target of chemoprevention and treatment for IBD. PMID:22517541

  6. Change in soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) during cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in mice.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Terumasa; Fang, Yang-Il; Ohata, Hisayuki; Honda, Kazuo

    2015-08-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents against various types of cancers; however, it is also associated with nephrotoxicity. Recently, it was reported that inflammatory mechanisms play a key role in the development of nephrotoxicity. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have an anti-inflammatory effect and are metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH: encoded by EPHX2 gene). Here, we determined the change in sEH activity and EPHX2 expression in renal tissue associated with the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin administration decreased hydrolase activity accompanied by down-regulation of sEH and EPHX2 expression. The down-regulation occurred prior to the elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene expression or at treatment with low dose cisplatin. In addition, a negative correlation was found between EPHX2 expression and renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and edaravone, a radical scavenger, administration did not down-regulate expression of this gene. The results of this study suggest that cisplatin decreased sEH activity through the down-regulation of sEH and EPHX2 expression, and this down-regulation was involved in a negative feedback loop to protect renal tissue from further damage. Thus, sEH is a potential therapeutic target of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:26165641

  7. The 5-substituted piperazine as a novel secondary pharmacophore greatly improving the physical properties of urea-based inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Yi; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2006-10-01

    The inhibition of the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a promising new therapy in the treatment of hypertention and inflammation. The problems of limited water solubility and high melting points commonly displayed by the active 1,3-disubstituted ureas prevent the further development of potent urea-based sEH inhibitors. Therefore, a new class of potent inhibitors of sEH were designed and synthesized by the introduction of a polar constrained piperazino group in the right side of adasmantyl urea to increase the water solubility. A facile and general synthesis was established to prepare a series of 1-adamantan-1-yl-3-(2-piperazin-2-yl-ethyl)-ureas (1a-d) with various 5-substitutions on the 2-piperazino ring, which will advance the SAR study by the efficient making of structurally diverse analogs. The effect of the 5-substitution on the activity and the water solubility was examined. The best potency was exhibited by the 5-benzyl-substituted-piperazine-containing urea with an IC50 value of 1.37 microM against human sEH and good water solubility (S=7.46 mg/mL) and low melting point, in which the 5-substituted piperazine serves as a favorable secondary pharmacophore and a water-solubility enhancing group. Our present work provides a promising new template for the design of orally available therapeutic agents for the disorders that can be addressed by changing the in vivo concentration of the chemical mediators that contain an epoxide. PMID:16784862

  8. Regulation of JH epoxide hydrolase versus JH esterase activity in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, by juvenile hormone and xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, Douglas D; Roe, R Michael

    2005-05-01

    JH III esterase and JH III epoxide hydrolase (EH) in vitro activity was compared in whole body Trichoplusia ni homogenates at each stage of development (egg, larva, pupa and adult). While activity of both enzymes was detected at all ages tested, JH esterase was significantly higher than EH activity except for day three of the fifth (last) stadium (L5D3). For both enzymes, activity was highest in eggs. Adult virgin females had 4.6- and 4.0-fold higher JH esterase and EH activities, respectively, than adult virgin males. JH III metabolic activity also was measured in whole body homogenates of fifth stadium T. ni that were fed a nutritive diet (control) or starved on a non-nutritive diet of alphacel, agar and water. With larvae that were starved for 6, 28 and 52 h, EH activity per insect equivalent was 48%, 5% and 1%, respectively, of the control insects. At the same time points, JH esterase activity levels in starved T. ni were 29%, 4% and 3% of that of insects fed the nutritive diet. Selected insect hormones and xenobiotics were administered topically or orally to fifth stadium larvae for up to 52 h, and the effects on whole body EH and JH esterase activity analyzed. JH III increased the JH III esterase activity as high as 2.2-fold, but not the JH III EH activity. The JH analog, methoprene, increased both JH esterase and EH activity as high as 2.5-fold. The JH esterase inhibitor, 3-octylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one (OTFP), had no impact on EH activity. The epoxides trans- and cis-stilbene oxide (TSO and CSO) in separate experiments increased the EH activity approximately 2.0-fold. TSO did not alter JH esterase levels when topically applied, but oral administration reduced activity to 70% of the control at 28 h, and then increased the activity 1.8-fold at 52 h after the beginning of treatment. CSO had no effect on JH esterase activity. Phenobarbital increased EH activity by 1.9-fold, but did not change JH esterase levels. Clofibrate and cholesterol 5alpha,6alpha-epoxide

  9. Potent Natural Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors from Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon: Synthesis, Quantification, and Measurement of Biological Activities In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Seiya; Morisseau, Christophe; Inceoglu, Bora; Kamita, Shizuo G.; De Nicola, Gina R.; Nyegue, Maximilienne; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    We describe here three urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors from the root of the plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana. The concentration of these ureas in the root was quantified by LC-MS/MS, showing that 1, 3-bis (4-methoxybenzyl) urea (MMU) is the most abundant (42.3 μg/g dry root weight). All of the ureas were chemically synthesized, and their inhibitory activity toward recombinant human and recombinant rat sEH was measured. The most potent compound, MMU, showed an IC50 of 92 nM via fluorescent assay and a Ki of 54 nM via radioactivity-based assay on human sEH. MMU effectively reduced inflammatory pain in a rat nociceptive pain assay. These compounds are among the most potent sEH inhibitors derived from natural sources. Moreover, inhibition of sEH by these compounds may mechanistically explain some of the therapeutic effects of P. brazzeana. PMID:25659109

  10. Crystal Structure of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Inhibitory Factor Cif Reveals Novel Active-Site Features of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Bahl, C.; Morisseau, C; Bomberger, J; Stanton, B; Hammock, B; O' Toole, G; Madden, D

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces the quantity of CFTR in the apical membrane of human airway epithelial cells. Initial sequence analysis suggested that Cif is an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but its sequence violates two strictly conserved EH motifs and also is compatible with other {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase family members with diverse substrate specificities. To investigate the mechanistic basis of Cif activity, we have determined its structure at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The catalytic triad consists of residues Asp129, His297, and Glu153, which are conserved across the family of EHs. At other positions, sequence deviations from canonical EH active-site motifs are stereochemically conservative. Furthermore, detailed enzymatic analysis confirms that Cif catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxide compounds, with specific activity against both epibromohydrin and cis-stilbene oxide, but with a relatively narrow range of substrate selectivity. Although closely related to two other classes of {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase in both sequence and structure, Cif does not exhibit activity as either a haloacetate dehalogenase or a haloalkane dehalogenase. A reassessment of the structural and functional consequences of the H269A mutation suggests that Cif's effect on host-cell CFTR expression requires the hydrolysis of an extended endogenous epoxide substrate.

  11. Development of monoclonal antibodies to human microsomal epoxide hydrolase and analysis of "preneoplastic antigen"-like molecules.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongying; Yoshimura, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Nobuharu; Sugiyama, Kazuo; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Yoshiro; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D; Akatsuka, Toshitaka

    2012-04-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a drug metabolizing enzyme which resides on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and catalyzes the hydration of reactive epoxide intermediates that are formed by cytochrome P450s. mEH is also thought to have a role in bile acid transport on the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. It is speculated that efficient execution of such multiple functions is secured by its orientation and association with cytochrome P450 enzymes on the ER membrane and formation of a multiple transport system on the plasma membrane. In certain disease status, mEH loses its association with the membrane and can be detected as distinct antigens in the cytosol of preneoplastic foci of liver (preneoplastic antigen), in the serum in association with hepatitis C virus infection (AN antigen), or in some brain tumors. To analyze the antigenic structures of mEH in physiological and pathological conditions, we developed monoclonal antibodies against different portions of mEH. Five different kinds of antibodies were obtained: three, anti-N-terminal portions; one anti-C-terminal; and one, anti-conformational epitope. By combining these antibodies, we developed antigen detection methods which are specific to either the membrane-bound form or the linearized form of mEH. These methods detected mEH in the culture medium released from a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and a glioblastoma cell line, which was found to be a multimolecular complex with a unique antigenic structure different from that of the membrane-bound form of mEH. These antibodies and antigen detection methods may be useful to study pathological changes of mEH in various human diseases. PMID:22310175

  12. Stereochemical features of the hydrolysis of 9,10-epoxystearic acid catalysed by plant and mammalian epoxide hydrolases.

    PubMed Central

    Summerer, Stephan; Hanano, Abdulsamie; Utsumi, Shigeru; Arand, Michael; Schuber, Francis; Blée, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    cis-9,10-epoxystearic acid was used as a tool to probe the active sites of epoxide hydrolases (EHs) of mammalian and plant origin. We have compared the stereochemical features of the hydrolysis of this substrate catalysed by soluble and membrane-bound rat liver EHs, by soluble EH (purified to apparent homogeneity) obtained from maize seedlings or celeriac roots, and by recombinant soybean EH expressed in yeast. Plant EHs were found to differ in their enantioselectivity, i.e. their ability to discriminate between the two enantiomers of 9,10-epoxystearic acid. For example, while the maize enzyme hydrated both enantiomers at the same rate, the EH from soybean exhibited very high enantioselectivity in favour of 9R,10S-epoxystearic acid. This latter enzyme also exhibited a strict stereoselectivity, i.e. it hydrolysed the racemic substrate with a very high enantioconvergence, yielding a single chiral diol product, threo-9R,10R-dihydroxystearic acid. Soybean EH shared these distinctive stereochemical features with the membrane-bound rat liver EH. The stereochemical outcome of these enzymes probably results from a stereoselective attack by the nucleophilic residue on the oxirane ring carbon having the (S)-configuration, leading to the presumed (in plant EH) covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate. In sharp contrast, the reactions catalysed by cytosolic rat liver EH exhibited a complete absence of enantioselectivity and enantioconvergence; this latter effect might be ascribed to a regioselective formation of the acyl-enzyme intermediate involving C-10 of 9,10-epoxystearic acid, independent of its configuration. Thus, compared with soybean EH, the active site of rat liver soluble EH displays a very distinct means of anchoring the oxirane ring of the fatty acid epoxides, and therefore appears to be a poor model for mapping the catalytic domain of plant EHs. PMID:12020347

  13. Stereochemical features of the hydrolysis of 9,10-epoxystearic acid catalysed by plant and mammalian epoxide hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Summerer, Stephan; Hanano, Abdulsamie; Utsumi, Shigeru; Arand, Michael; Schuber, Francis; Blée, Elizabeth

    2002-09-01

    cis-9,10-epoxystearic acid was used as a tool to probe the active sites of epoxide hydrolases (EHs) of mammalian and plant origin. We have compared the stereochemical features of the hydrolysis of this substrate catalysed by soluble and membrane-bound rat liver EHs, by soluble EH (purified to apparent homogeneity) obtained from maize seedlings or celeriac roots, and by recombinant soybean EH expressed in yeast. Plant EHs were found to differ in their enantioselectivity, i.e. their ability to discriminate between the two enantiomers of 9,10-epoxystearic acid. For example, while the maize enzyme hydrated both enantiomers at the same rate, the EH from soybean exhibited very high enantioselectivity in favour of 9R,10S-epoxystearic acid. This latter enzyme also exhibited a strict stereoselectivity, i.e. it hydrolysed the racemic substrate with a very high enantioconvergence, yielding a single chiral diol product, threo-9R,10R-dihydroxystearic acid. Soybean EH shared these distinctive stereochemical features with the membrane-bound rat liver EH. The stereochemical outcome of these enzymes probably results from a stereoselective attack by the nucleophilic residue on the oxirane ring carbon having the (S)-configuration, leading to the presumed (in plant EH) covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate. In sharp contrast, the reactions catalysed by cytosolic rat liver EH exhibited a complete absence of enantioselectivity and enantioconvergence; this latter effect might be ascribed to a regioselective formation of the acyl-enzyme intermediate involving C-10 of 9,10-epoxystearic acid, independent of its configuration. Thus, compared with soybean EH, the active site of rat liver soluble EH displays a very distinct means of anchoring the oxirane ring of the fatty acid epoxides, and therefore appears to be a poor model for mapping the catalytic domain of plant EHs. PMID:12020347

  14. Role of soluble epoxide hydrolase in exacerbation of stroke by streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jouihan, Sari A; Zuloaga, Kristen L; Zhang, Wenri; Shangraw, Robert E; Krasnow, Stephanie M; Marks, Daniel L; Alkayed, Nabil J

    2013-10-01

    Hyperglycemia worsens stroke, yet rigorous glycemic control does not improve neurologic outcome. An alternative is to target downstream molecular mediator(s) triggered by hyperglycemia but independent of prevailing glycemia. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a potential mediator of injury via its metabolism of neuroprotective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). We tested whether hyperglycemia exacerbates cerebral injury by upregulating sEH and decreasing brain EET levels. Type 1 diabetes mellitus was modeled by streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally, 5 days) in male mice. At 4 weeks, STZ-treated and control mice underwent 45-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with or without sEH blockade by trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB; 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally daily for 6 days before MCAO). The STZ-treated mice had increased sEH mRNA expression in cerebral vessels and decreased EET concentrations in brain. There was no difference in cortical perfusion between groups. The STZ-treated mice sustained larger brain infarct than controls. Pretreatment with t-AUCB eliminated the difference in infarct size and EETs concentration between STZ-treated mice and controls, without altering glycemia. We conclude that type 1 diabetes mellitus upregulates sEH mRNA and decreases concentrations of neuroprotective EETs within the brain, leading to worse stroke outcome. The data indicate that sEH antagonism may be beneficial in the setting of hyperglycemic stroke. PMID:23899929

  15. Development of monoclonal antibodies to human microsomal epoxide hydrolase and analysis of “preneoplastic antigen”-like molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Hongying; Yoshimura, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Nobuharu; Sugiyama, Kazuo; Sawada, Jun-ichi; Saito, Yoshiro; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Akatsuka, Toshitaka

    2012-04-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a drug metabolizing enzyme which resides on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and catalyzes the hydration of reactive epoxide intermediates that are formed by cytochrome P450s. mEH is also thought to have a role in bile acid transport on the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. It is speculated that efficient execution of such multiple functions is secured by its orientation and association with cytochrome P450 enzymes on the ER membrane and formation of a multiple transport system on the plasma membrane. In certain disease status, mEH loses its association with the membrane and can be detected as distinct antigens in the cytosol of preneoplastic foci of liver (preneoplastic antigen), in the serum in association with hepatitis C virus infection (AN antigen), or in some brain tumors. To analyze the antigenic structures of mEH in physiological and pathological conditions, we developed monoclonal antibodies against different portions of mEH. Five different kinds of antibodies were obtained: three, anti-N-terminal portions; one anti-C-terminal; and one, anti-conformational epitope. By combining these antibodies, we developed antigen detection methods which are specific to either the membrane-bound form or the linearized form of mEH. These methods detected mEH in the culture medium released from a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and a glioblastoma cell line, which was found to be a multimolecular complex with a unique antigenic structure different from that of the membrane-bound form of mEH. These antibodies and antigen detection methods may be useful to study pathological changes of mEH in various human diseases. -- Highlights: ► Monoclonal antibodies against different portions of mEH were developed. ► They discriminate between the membrane-bound and the linearized forms of mEH. ► We analyze the antigenic structure of the altered form of mEH in tumor cells. ► Preneoplastic antigen is a multimolecular complex of mEH with

  16. In vivo activity of epoxide hydrolase according to sequence variation affects the progression of human IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Pyo; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Dong Ki; Lee, Hajeong; Kim, Bora; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Paik, Jin Ho; Kim, Myounghee; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su

    2011-06-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regulates the functional integrity of the endothelium. It is hypothesized that the activity of epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2), which determines EET concentration through hydrolysis, may affect the progression of glomerulonephritis. Here, we evaluated the relationship between genetic variations, the in vivo activity of EPHX2, and progression of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [rs41507953 (K55R), rs751141 (R287Q), and rs1042032] were traced in 401 IgAN patients and 402 normal healthy controls. The in vivo activity of EPHX2 was assessed by measuring substrates/metabolites of the enzyme. None of the polymorphism frequencies differed significantly between patients and controls. However, patients carrying the variant allele (A) of rs751141 possessed better kidney survival than those with the wild-type allele (G; P < 0.001). This association remained significant after adjustment for several risk factors (hazard ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.96, P = 0.014). Vascular damage was more prominent in kidney biopsies from patients carrying the G allele of rs751141. The in vivo activity of EPHX2, assessed by the epoxyoctadecenoic acid/dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid ratio using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, was elevated in patients with the G allele. The expression of EPHX2 in the human kidney was independent of the sequence variation of the rs751141 allele. Variant rs41507953 was not present in this cohort, and rs1042032 was not associated with progression. Thus the specific measures which regulate EPHX2 activity should be designed for potential therapeutics. PMID:21429967

  17. Alkylphloroglucinol derivatives and triterpenoids with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity from Callistemon citrinus.

    PubMed

    Khanh, Pham Ngoc; Duc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Son, Ninh The; Ha, Vu Thi; Van, Doan Thi; Tai, Bui Huu; Kim, Ji Eun; Jo, Ah Reum; Kim, Young Ho; Cuong, Nguyen Manh

    2016-03-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the leaves and stems of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels led to the isolation of two new alkylphloroglucinols, gallomyrtucommulone E and F (1 and 2), along with four other known alkylphloroglucinol derivatives, gallomyrtucommulone A (3), endoperoxide G3 (4), myrtucommulone B (5), callistenone B (6) and five known triterpenoids, including betulinic acid (7), 3β-acetylmorolic acid (8), 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-13(28)-olide (9), diospyrolide (10) and ursolic acid (11). The structures of the natural compounds were determined from the spectroscopic evidences including 1D-/2D-NMR and HR-MS spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were assessed for the effects on the sEH inhibitory activity. The acylphloroglucinols myrtucommulone B (5)/callistenone B (6) (in mixture), and two triterpenoids, ursolic acid (11) and 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-13(28)-olide (9) displayed strong inhibition of sEH activity, with IC50 values of 0.7, 11.2 and 24.8 μM, respectively. PMID:26548595

  18. Characterization of the SgcF epoxide hydrolase supporting an (R)-vicinal diol intermediate for enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027 biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuangjun; Horsman, Geoffrey P; Chen, Yihua; Li, Wenli; Shen, Ben

    2009-11-18

    C-1027 is a chromoprotein antitumor antibiotic consisting of an apoprotein and the C-1027 chromophore. The C-1027 chromophore possesses four distinct structural moieties-an enediyne core, a deoxy aminosugar, a benzoxazolinate, and an (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-beta-tyrosine-the latter two of which are proposed to be appended to the enediyne core via a convergent biosynthetic strategy. Here we report the in vitro characterization of SgcF, an epoxide hydrolase from the C-1027 biosynthetic gene cluster that catalyzes regio- and stereospecific hydrolysis of styrene oxide, serving as an enediyne core epoxide intermediate mimic, to form a vicinal diol. Abolishment of C-1027 production in the DeltasgcF mutant strain Streptomyces globisporus SB1010 unambiguously establishes that sgcF plays an indispensable role in C-1027 biosynthesis. SgcF efficiently hydrolyzes (S)-styrene oxide, displaying an apparent K(m) of 0.6 +/- 0.1 mM and k(cat) of 48 +/- 1 min(-1), via attack at the alpha-position to exclusively generate the (R)-phenyl vicinal diol, consistent with the stereochemistry of the C-1027 chromophore. These findings support the role of SgcF in the proposed convergent pathway for C-1027 biosynthesis, unveiling an (R)-vicinal diol as a key intermediate. Interestingly, SgcF can also hydrolyze (R)-styrene oxide to afford preferentially the (R)-phenyl vicinal diol via attack at the beta-position, albeit with significantly reduced efficiency (apparent K(m) of 2.0 +/- 0.4 mM and k(cat) = 4.3 +/- 0.3 min(-1)). Although the latter activity unlikely contributes to C-1027 biosynthesis in vivo, such enantioconvergence arising from complementary regioselective hydrolysis of a racemic substrate could be exploited to engineer epoxide hydrolases with improved regio- and/or enantiospecificity. PMID:19856960

  19. Inhibition of peptidoglycan hydrolase activity in vivo and in vitro by energy uncouplers in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rodionov, D G; Ishiguro, E E

    1996-01-01

    The effects of energy uncouplers on in vivo and in vitro peptidoglycan hydrolase activities in Escherichia coli were determined. Sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone all inhibited ampicillin-induced lysis of exponential phase cultures, even when they were added to lysis-committed cultures. These energy uncouplers also inhibited the solubilization of radiolabeled peptidoglycan by bacterial suspensions that had been treated with 5% trichloroacetic acid by the method of Hartmann et al.3 to activate the peptidoglycan hydrolases. Therefore, the in vivo and in vitro activities of peptidoglycan hydrolases in E. coli are dependent on membrane energization. PMID:9158735

  20. Effect of fungal mycelia on the HPLC-UV and UV-vis spectrophotometric assessment of mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolase using glycidyl phenyl ether.

    PubMed

    Dolcet, Marta M; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2016-06-25

    The use of mycelia as biocatalysts has technical and economic advantages. However, there are several difficulties in obtaining accurate results in mycelium-catalysed reactions. Firstly, sample extraction, indispensable because of the presence of mycelia, can bring into the extract components with a similar structure to that of the analyte of interest; secondly, mycelia can influence the recovery of the analyte. We prepared calibration standards of 3-phenoxy-1,2-propanediol (PPD) in the pure solvent and in the presence of mycelia (spiked before or after extraction) from five fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus terreus). The quantification of PPD was carried out by HPLC-UV and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The manuscript shows that the last method is as accurate as the HPLC method. However, the colorimetric method led to a higher data throughput, which allowed the study of more samples in a shorter time. Matrix effects were evaluated visually from the plotted calibration data and statistically by simultaneously comparing the intercept and slope of calibration curves performed with solvent, post-extraction spiked standards and pre-extraction spiked standards. Significant differences were found between the post- and pre-extraction spiked matrix-matched functions. Pre-extraction spiked matrix-matched functions based on A. tubingensis mycelia, selected as the reference, were validated and used to compensate for low recoveries. These validated functions were successfully applied to the quantification of PPD achieved during the hydrolysis of glycidyl phenyl ether by mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolases and equivalent hydrolysis yields were determined by HPLC-UV and UV-vis spectrophotometry. This study may serve as starting point to implement matrix effects evaluation when mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolases are studied. PMID:26902669

  1. Effects of poloxamer 407-induced hyperlipidemia on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine and its 10,11-epoxide metabolite in rats: Impact of decreased expression of both CYP3A1/2 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sun; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Sang Geon; Lee, Inchul; Lee, Myung Gull; Kang, Hee Eun

    2012-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its active 10,11-epoxide metabolite (CBZ-E) were evaluated after intravenous and oral administration of 5 mg/kg CBZ to rats with hyperlipidemia induced by poloxamer 407 (HL rats) and controls. The total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of CBZ in HL rats after intravenous administration was significantly greater than that in controls due to their slower non-renal clearance (CL(NR)). This was due to slower hepatic CL(int) for metabolism of CBZ to CBZ-E in HL rats via CYP3A1/2. This result was consistent with a previous study indicating reduced hepatic CYP3A1/2 expression in HL rats. Interestingly, the AUC of CBZ-E was also increased in HL rats, while AUC(CBZ-E)/AUC(CBZ) ratios remained unchanged. These results suggested that further metabolism of CBZ-E to the inactive metabolite trans-10,11-dihydoxyl-10,11-dihydro-CBZ (CBZ-D) via microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) was also slowed in HL rats. The significantly reduced hepatic mRNA level and expression of mEH protein in HL rats compared to controls confirmed the above hypothesis. Similar pharmacokinetic changes were observed in HL rats after oral administration of CBZ. These findings have potential therapeutic implications assuming that the HL rat model qualitatively reflects similar changes in patients with hyperlipidemia. Caution is required regarding pharmacotherapy in the hyperlipidemic state in cases where drugs that are metabolized principally by CYP3A1/2 or mEH and have a narrow therapeutic range are in use. PMID:22137858

  2. Effect of CYP2E1 gene deletion in mice on expression of microsomal epoxide hydrolase in response to VCD exposure.

    PubMed

    Keating, Aileen F; Rajapaksa, Kathila S; Sipes, I Glenn; Hoyer, Patricia B

    2008-10-01

    Females are born with a finite number of primordial follicles. 4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is a metabolite formed by epoxidation of 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH) via its two monoepoxides 1,2- and 7,8-4-vinylcyclohexene monoepoxide (VCM). VCD specifically destroys small preantral (primordial and small primary) follicles in the rodent ovary. The phase I enzyme, cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) is involved in ovarian metabolism of VCM to VCD. Further, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) can detoxify VCD to an inactive tetrol (4-(1,2-dihydroxy)ethyl-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexane). This study evaluated the effects of VCD-induced ovotoxicity on mEH in CYP2E1+/+ and -/- mice (129S(1)/SvImJ background strain) using a postnatal day 4 mouse whole ovary culture system. The hypothesis of our study is that there is a relationship between CYP2E1 and mEH gene expression in the mouse ovary. Relative to control, VCD exposure caused follicle loss (p < 0.05) in ovaries from both genotypes; however, after 15 days, this loss was greater (p < 0.05) in CYP2E1+/+ ovaries. In a time course (2-15 days), relative to control, VCD (5 microM) caused an increase (p < 0.05) in mEH mRNA by 0.5-fold (day 10) and 1.84-fold (day 15) in CYP2E1-/- but not +/+ ovaries. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) also destroys ovarian follicles but, unlike VCD, is bioactivated by mEH to an ovotoxic 3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide metabolite. Incubation of ovaries in increasing concentrations of DMBA (0.5-1 microM, 15 days) resulted in greater (p < 0.05) follicle loss in CYP2E1-/-, relative to +/+ ovaries. With greater mEH (CYP2E1-/-), increased follicle loss with DMBA (bioactivation) and decreased follicle loss with VCD (detoxification) support that ovarian expression of CYP2E1 and mEH may be linked. PMID:18622027

  3. Comparative metabolism of methacrylonitrile and acrylonitrile to cyanide using cytochrome P4502E1 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase-null mice

    SciTech Connect

    El Hadri, L.; Chanas, B.; Ghanayem, B.I. . E-mail: ghanayem@niehs.nih.gov

    2005-06-01

    Methacrylonitrile (MAN) and acrylonitrile (AN) are metabolized via glutathione (GSH) conjugation or epoxide formation. We have recently shown that CYP2E1 is essential for AN epoxidation and subsequent cyanide liberation. Current studies were designed to compare the enzymatic basis of MAN vs. AN metabolism to cyanide using wild-type (WT), CYP2E1-, and mEH-null mice. Mice received a single gavage dose of 0.047, 0.095, 0.19, or 0.38 mmol/kg of MAN or AN, and blood cyanide was measured at 1 or 3 h later. Blood cyanide levels in WT mice treated with AN or MAN were dose and time dependent. At equimolar doses, significantly higher levels of cyanide were detected in the blood of MAN- vs. AN-treated mice. Further, while significant reduction in blood cyanide levels occurred in MAN-treated CYP2E1-null vs. WT mice, AN metabolism to cyanide was largely abolished in CYP2E1-null mice. Pretreatment of mice with 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT, CYP inhibitor) demonstrated that CYPs other than CYP2E1 also contribute to MAN metabolism to cyanide. Blood cyanide levels in mEH-null mice treated with aliphatic nitriles are generally lower than levels in similarly treated WT mice. Western blot analysis showed that expression of sEH was greater in male vs. female mice. The role of various epoxide hydrolases (EHs) in the production of cyanide from aliphatic nitriles is apparently structure and dose dependent. Regardless of genotype, significantly higher levels of cyanide were measured in the blood of male vs. female mice treated with MAN or AN. In conclusion, these data showed that (1) at equimolar doses, higher blood cyanide levels were detected in mice treated with MAN vs. AN; (2) while CYP2E1 is the only enzyme responsible for AN metabolism to cyanide, other CYPs also contribute to MAN metabolism; and (3) significantly higher levels of cyanide were measured in the blood of male vs. female treated with either nitrile. Higher blood cyanide levels in male vs. female mice and in MAN- vs. AN

  4. N-Benzylbenzamides: A Novel Merged Scaffold for Orally Available Dual Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase/Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Modulators.

    PubMed

    Blöcher, René; Lamers, Christina; Wittmann, Sandra K; Merk, Daniel; Hartmann, Markus; Weizel, Lilia; Diehl, Olaf; Brüggerhoff, Astrid; Boß, Marcel; Kaiser, Astrid; Schader, Tim; Göbel, Tamara; Grundmann, Manuel; Angioni, Carlo; Heering, Jan; Geisslinger, Gerd; Wurglics, Mario; Kostenis, Evi; Brüne, Bernhard; Steinhilber, Dieter; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Kahnt, Astrid S; Proschak, Ewgenij

    2016-01-14

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multifactorial disease cluster that consists of dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity. MetS patients are strongly exposed to polypharmacy; however, the number of pharmacological compounds required for MetS treatment can be reduced by the application of multitarget compounds. This study describes the design of dual-target ligands that target soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type γ (PPARγ). Simultaneous modulation of sEH and PPARγ can improve diabetic conditions and hypertension at once. N-Benzylbenzamide derivatives were determined to fit a merged sEH/PPARγ pharmacophore, and structure-activity relationship studies were performed on both targets, resulting in a submicromolar (sEH IC50 = 0.3 μM/PPARγ EC50 = 0.3 μM) modulator 14c. In vitro and in vivo evaluations revealed good ADME properties qualifying 14c as a pharmacological tool compound for long-term animal models of MetS. PMID:26595749

  5. Differential sub-cellular distribution and co-localization of the microsomal (mEH) and soluble epoxide hydrolases (sEH) in cultured neonatal rat brain cortical astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Seema; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Shivachar, Amruthesh C

    2013-01-01

    The microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzymes exist in a variety of cells and tissues, including liver, kidney and testis. However, very little is known about brain epoxide hydrolases. Here we report the expression, localization and subcellular distribution of mEH and sEH in cultured neonatal rat cortical astrocytes by immunocytochemistry, subcellular fractionation, western blotting and radiometric enzyme assays. Our results showed a diffused immunofluorescence pattern for mEH, which co-localized with the astroglial cytoskeletal marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The GFAP-positive cells also expressed sEH which was mainly localized in the cytoplasm especially in and around the nucleus. Western blot analyses, revealed a distinct protein band with a molecular mass of ~50 kDa, the signal intensity of which increased about 1.5-fold in the microsomal fraction over the whole cell lysate and other subcellular fractions. The polyclonal anti-human sEH rabbit serum recognized a protein band with a molecular mass similar to that of purified sEH protein (~62 kDa), and the signal intensity increased 1.7-fold in the 105,000×g supernatant fraction over the cell lysate. Although the corresponding mEH enzyme activities generally corroborated with the immunocytochemical and western blotting data a low sEH enzyme activity was detected especially in the total cell lysate and in the soluble fractions. These results suggest that rat brain cortical astrocytes differentially co-express mEH and sEH enzymes. The differential subcellular localization of mEH and sEH may play a role in the cerebrovascular functions that are known to be affected by brain-derived vasoactive epoxides. PMID:18711743

  6. Inhibition of Diabrotica Larval Growth by Patatin, the Lipid Acyl Hydrolase from Potato Tubers.

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, J. A.; Orr, G. L.; Walsh, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    Patatin, the nonspecific lipid acyl hydrolase from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, dose-dependently inhibits the growth of southern corn rootworm (SCR) and western corn rootworm when fed to them on artificial diet. The 50% growth reduction levels are somewhat cultivar dependent, ranging from 60 to 150 [mu]g/g diet for neonate SCR larvae. A single patatin isoform also inhibits larval growth. Neonate SCR continuously exposed to patatin are halted in larval development. Treatment with di-isopropylfluorophosphate essentially eliminates patatin's phospholipase, galactolipase, and acyl hydrolase activities. SCR growth inhibition is eliminated also, indicating that patatin's serine hydrolase activity is responsible for the observed activities. Patatin-mediated phospholipolysis is highly pH and cultivar dependent, with specific activities up to 300-fold less at pH 5.5 than at pH 8.5. Esterase or phospholipase activities do not correlate with insect growth inhibition. Galactolipase activity, being cultivar and pH independent, correlates significantly with SCR growth inhibition. Insect-growth inhibition of patatin is significantly reduced with increased dietary cholesterol levels. In conclusion, patatin represents a new class of insect-control proteins with a novel mode of action possibly involving lipid metabolism. PMID:12228621

  7. Inhibition of Diabrotica Larval Growth by Patatin, the Lipid Acyl Hydrolase from Potato Tubers.

    PubMed

    Strickland, J. A.; Orr, G. L.; Walsh, T. A.

    1995-10-01

    Patatin, the nonspecific lipid acyl hydrolase from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, dose-dependently inhibits the growth of southern corn rootworm (SCR) and western corn rootworm when fed to them on artificial diet. The 50% growth reduction levels are somewhat cultivar dependent, ranging from 60 to 150 [mu]g/g diet for neonate SCR larvae. A single patatin isoform also inhibits larval growth. Neonate SCR continuously exposed to patatin are halted in larval development. Treatment with di-isopropylfluorophosphate essentially eliminates patatin's phospholipase, galactolipase, and acyl hydrolase activities. SCR growth inhibition is eliminated also, indicating that patatin's serine hydrolase activity is responsible for the observed activities. Patatin-mediated phospholipolysis is highly pH and cultivar dependent, with specific activities up to 300-fold less at pH 5.5 than at pH 8.5. Esterase or phospholipase activities do not correlate with insect growth inhibition. Galactolipase activity, being cultivar and pH independent, correlates significantly with SCR growth inhibition. Insect-growth inhibition of patatin is significantly reduced with increased dietary cholesterol levels. In conclusion, patatin represents a new class of insect-control proteins with a novel mode of action possibly involving lipid metabolism. PMID:12228621

  8. Expression of ovarian microsomal epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase during onset of VCD-induced ovotoxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Aileen F.; Sipes, I. Glenn; Hoyer, Patricia B.

    2008-07-01

    4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) specifically destroys small pre-antral follicles in the rodent ovary. VCD can be detoxified to an inactive tetrol by microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), or by conjugation to glutathione (GSH) by glutathione S-transferase (GST). Formation of VCD-GSH adducts in the mouse ovary 4 h after VCD exposure (0.57 mmol/kg/day) has been demonstrated. Because the mouse ovary expresses both mEH and GST, expression of mEH and GST pi and mu during a time-course of VCD-induced ovotoxicity was evaluated in a neonatal mouse ovarian culture system. Ovaries from postnatal day 4 (PND4) B6C3F{sub 1} mice were incubated with VCD (15 {mu}M) for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 15 days. Following incubation, ovaries were histologically evaluated, or assessed for mRNA or protein expression. VCD did not cause follicle loss (p > 0.05) on days 2, 4, or 6 of culture. At days 8, 10, 12, and 15, VCD reduced (p < 0.05) both primordial and primary follicle numbers. Increased (p < 0.05) expression of mEH, GST pi and GST mu mRNA was detected after 4 days of VCD exposure. This expression was reduced on days 6 and 8, when follicle loss was underway, but increased (p < 0.05) after 10 days of exposure. mEH and GST pi proteins were elevated (p < 0.05) following 8 days of VCD-exposure however there was no increase in GST mu protein. These findings suggest that with continuous exposure to VCD, increased expression of detoxification enzymes may participate in retarding the onset of follicle loss, but that this loss cannot ultimately be prevented.

  9. Interaction of hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolase derived from a recombinant baculovirus expression system with an azarene oxide and an aziridine substrate analogue.

    PubMed

    Lacourciere, G M; Vakharia, V N; Tan, C P; Morris, D I; Edwards, G H; Moos, M; Armstrong, R N

    1993-03-16

    A recombinant baculovirus (vEHX) encoding rat hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolase has been constructed. Infection of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells with the recombinant virus results in the expression of the enzyme at a level estimated to be between 5% and 10% of the cellular protein. The enzyme, which can be purified in 15% yield by a simple three-step procedure involving detergent extraction, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and removal of the detergent on hydroxylapatite, has physical and kinetic properties very close to those of the enzyme obtained from rat liver microsomes. The interaction of the enzyme with two nitrogen-containing analogues of the substrate phenanthrene 9,10-oxide (1) was investigated in order to delineate the contributions of the oxirane group and the hydrophobic surface of the substrate to substrate recognition. The enzyme exhibits altered kinetic properties toward 1,10-phenanthroline 5,6-oxide (2) in which the biphenyl group of 1 is replaced with a bipyridyl group, suggesting that hydrophobic interaction between the complementary surfaces of the substrate and active site has an influence on catalysis. The conjugate acid of the aziridine analogue of 1, phenanthrene 9,10-imine (3), in which the oxirane oxygen is replaced with NH, has a pKa of 6.1, which allows the characterization of both the neutral and protonated aziridine (3H+) as substrate analogues for the enzyme. The pH dependence of the solvolysis reveals that 3H+ rearranges to a 65/35 mixture of 9-aminophenanthrene and 9-amino-10-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene 10(3)-fold faster than does 3. The neutral aziridine is a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 26 microM) of the enzyme at pH 8.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8383521

  10. Expression of ovarian microsomal epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase during onset of VCD-induced ovotoxicity in B6C3F(1) mice.

    PubMed

    Keating, Aileen F; Sipes, I Glenn; Hoyer, Patricia B

    2008-07-01

    4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) specifically destroys small pre-antral follicles in the rodent ovary. VCD can be detoxified to an inactive tetrol by microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), or by conjugation to glutathione (GSH) by glutathione S-transferase (GST). Formation of VCD-GSH adducts in the mouse ovary 4 h after VCD exposure (0.57 mmol/kg/day) has been demonstrated. Because the mouse ovary expresses both mEH and GST, expression of mEH and GST pi and mu during a time-course of VCD-induced ovotoxicity was evaluated in a neonatal mouse ovarian culture system. Ovaries from postnatal day 4 (PND4) B6C3F(1) mice were incubated with VCD (15 microM) for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 15 days. Following incubation, ovaries were histologically evaluated, or assessed for mRNA or protein expression. VCD did not cause follicle loss (p>0.05) on days 2, 4, or 6 of culture. At days 8, 10, 12, and 15, VCD reduced (p<0.05) both primordial and primary follicle numbers. Increased (p<0.05) expression of mEH, GST pi and GST mu mRNA was detected after 4 days of VCD exposure. This expression was reduced on days 6 and 8, when follicle loss was underway, but increased (p<0.05) after 10 days of exposure. mEH and GST pi proteins were elevated (p<0.05) following 8 days of VCD-exposure however there was no increase in GST mu protein. These findings suggest that with continuous exposure to VCD, increased expression of detoxification enzymes may participate in retarding the onset of follicle loss, but that this loss cannot ultimately be prevented. PMID:18407309

  11. Genetic variation in cytochrome P450 2J2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase and risk of ischemic stroke in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Laxi; Ding, Hu; Yan, Jiangtao; Hui, Rutai; Wang, Wei; Kissling, Grace E.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Wang, Dao Wen

    2008-01-01

    Objective Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids have been recognized for their protective effects on the cardiovascular system. This study investigated whether two common polymorphisms in genes believed to be influential in regulating circulating levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, namely cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) G-50T and soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2) G860A, were associated with ischemic stroke risk in a Chinese population. Methods and results Screening of 200 patients with ischemic stroke and 350 control participants revealed that CYP2J2−50T allele frequency was not significantly different in ischemic stroke cases versus controls. In contrast, EPHX2 860A allele frequency was 16.8% in ischemic stroke cases versus 21.7% in controls (P = 0.047), and the presence of this variant allele was associated with a significantly lower risk of ischemic stroke after adjustment for sex, age and multiple cardiovascular risk factors (adjusted odds ratio = 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.29−0.86). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the EPHX2 G860A polymorphism, smoking and ischemic stroke risk such that nonsmokers carrying the EPHX2 G860A variant allele were at the lowest risk of ischemic stroke (odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval, 0.17−0.67, P = 0.002), whereas no significant association was observed in smokers. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate a protective influence of the G860A polymorphism of EPHX2 on ischemic stroke in Chinese nonsmokers. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 00:000−000 PMID:18216721

  12. Early postnatal treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 prevents prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal high saturated fat diet induced programmed hypertension in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Chen; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Li-Tung; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure, postnatal high-fat (HF) intake, and arachidonic acid pathway are closely related to hypertension. We tested whether a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) therapy can rescue programmed hypertension in the DEX+HF two-hit model. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were studied: control, DEX+HF, AUDA, and 15dPGJ2. Dexamethasone (0.1mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally administered to pregnant rats from gestational day 16-22. Male offspring received high-fat diet (D12331, Research Diets) from weaning to 4 months of age. In AUDA group, mother rats received 25mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the 15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5mg/kg BW by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. We found postnatal HF diet aggravated prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension, which was similarly prevented by early treatment with AUDA or 15dPGJ2. The beneficial effects of AUDA and 15d-PGJ2 therapy include inhibition of SEH, increases of renal angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) protein levels, and restoration of nitric oxide bioavailability. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway in the two-hit model will help prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to corticosteroids and postnatal HF intake. PMID:27210044

  13. A 3’-UTR Polymorphism in Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Gene Is Associated with Acute Rejection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Gervasini, Guillermo; García-Cerrada, Montserrat; Coto, Eliecer; Vergara, Esther; García-Pino, Guadalupe; Alvarado, Raul; Fernández-Cavada, Maria Jesús; Suárez-Álvarez, Beatriz; Barroso, Sergio; Doblaré, Emilio; Díaz-Corte, Carmen; López-Larrea, Carlos; Cubero, Juan Jose

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are arachidonic acid metabolites that play a protective role against damaging processes that may occur after re-oxygenation of the graft. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of functional polymorphisms in the gene encoding soluble epoxy hydrolase (EPHX2), which metabolizes EETs to less active compounds, may play a role in the outcome of renal transplantation. Methods In a group of 259 Caucasian renal transplant recipients and 183 deceased donors, we determined the presence of three common EPHX2 SNPs, namely rs41507953 (K55R), rs751141 (R287Q) and rs1042032 A/G. Associations with parameters of graft function and the incidence of acute rejection were retrospectively investigated throughout the first year after grafting by logistic regression adjusting for clinical and demographic variables. Results Carriers of the rs1042032 GG genotype displayed significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (38.15 ± 15.57 vs. 45.99 ± 16.05; p = 0.04) and higher serum creatinine values (1.57 ± 0.58 vs. 1.30 ± 0.47 g/dL; p=0.02) one year after grafting, compared to patients carrying the wildtype A-allele. The same GG genotype was also associated to increased risk of acute rejection. Interestingly, this association was observed for the genotype of both recipients [OR =6.34 (1.35-29.90); p = 0.015] and donors [OR = 5.53 (1.10-27.80); p=0.042]. A statistical model including both genotypes along with other meaningful demographic and clinical variables resulted in an increased significance for the association with the recipients’ genotype [OR=8.28 (1.21-74.27); p=0.031]. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic variability in the EETs-metabolizing gene, EPHX2, may have a significant impact on the outcome of deceased-donor renal transplantation. PMID:26230946

  14. Strategies to reduce end-product inhibition in family 48 glycoside hydrolases

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Mo; Bu, Lintao; Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Xu, Qi; Lunin, Vladimir V.; Brady, John W.; Crowley, Michael F.; Himmel, Michael E.; Bomble, Yannick J.

    2016-02-01

    Family 48 cellobiohydrolases are some of the most abundant glycoside hydrolases in nature. They are able to degrade cellulosic biomass and therefore serve as good enzyme candidates for biofuel production. Family 48 cellulases hydrolyze cellulose chains via a processive mechanism, and produce end products composed primarily of cellobiose as well as other cellooligomers (dp ≤ 4). The challenge of utilizing cellulases in biofuel production lies in their extremely slow turnover rate. A factor contributing to the low enzyme activity is suggested to be product binding to enzyme and the resulting performance inhibition. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the productmore » inhibitory effect of four family 48 glycoside hydrolases using molecular dynamics simulations and product expulsion free-energy calculations. We also suggested a series of single mutants of the four family 48 glycoside hydrolases with theoretically reduced level of product inhibition. As a result, the theoretical calculations provide a guide for future experimental studies designed to produce mutant cellulases with enhanced activity.« less

  15. Buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis, induces expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase and markers of cellular hypertrophy in a rat cardiomyoblast cell line: roles of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Ghada; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggests that upregulation of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is associated with the development of myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. However, the upregulation mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we treated H9C2 cells with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to explore whether oxidative stress upregulates sEH gene expression and to identify the molecular and cellular mechanisms behind this upregulatory response. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were used to measure mRNA and protein expression, respectively. We demonstrated that BSO significantly upregulated sEH at mRNA levels in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, leading to a significant increase in the cellular hypertrophic markers, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Furthermore, BSO significantly increased the cytosolic phosphorylated IκB-α and translocation of NF-κB p50 subunits, as measured by Western blot analysis. This level of translocation was paralleled by an increase in the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB P50 subunits. Moreover, our results demonstrated that pretreatment with the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC significantly inhibited BSO-mediated induction of sEH and cellular hypertrophic marker gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were transiently phosphorylated by BSO treatment. To understand further the role of MAPKs pathway in BSO-mediated induction of sEH mRNA, we examined the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-JunN-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK. Indeed, treatment with the MEK/ERK signal transduction inhibitor, PD98059, partially blocked the activation of IκB-α and translocation of NF-κB p50 subunits induced by BSO. Moreover, pretreatment with MEK/ERK signal transduction inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, significantly inhibited BSO-mediated induction of sEH and cellular hypertrophic marker gene expression

  16. [Inhibition of adherence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to human buccal epithelium by glycoside hydrolases from marine hydrobiontes].

    PubMed

    Zaporozhets, T S; Makarenkova, I D; Bakunina, I Iu; Burtseva, Iu V; Kusaĭkin, M I; Balabanova, L A; Zviagintseva, T N; Besednova, N N; Rasskazov, V A

    2010-01-01

    A possibility of adhesion inhibition of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to human buccal epithelium by glycoside hydrolases of marine hydrobiontes was investigated using alpha-galactosidase from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. KMM 701, total enzyme preparation and beta-1,3-glucanase from marine fungi Chaetomium, total enzyme preparation and beta-1,3-glucanase from marine mollusk Littorina kurila, and total enzyme preparation from crystalline style of marine mollusk Spisula sachalinensis were used. The enzymes were added to test-tubes containing buccal epithelial cells and/or the toxigenic bacterial strain C. diphtheriae No 1129, v. gravis. All the investigated enzymes were able to abort C. diphtheriae adherence, to human buccal epithelocytes. Inhibition of adhesion was more pronounced in the case of treatment of epithelocytes with highly purified enzymes of marine hydrobiontes in comparison with total enzyme preparations. The significant inhibition of C. diphtheriae adhesion was observed when the enzymes were added to the epithelocytes with the attached microorganisms. The results obtained show that glycoside hydrolases of marine hydrobiontes degrade any carbohydrates expressed on cell surface of bacterium or human buccal epithelocytes, impair unique lectin-carbohydrate interaction and prevent the adhesion. PMID:20695214

  17. Inhibition of endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase increases atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Friedrich Felix; Khoury, Mona; Slomka, Heike; Kebschull, Moritz; Lerner, Raissa; Lutz, Beat; Schott, Hans; Lütjohann, Dieter; Wojtalla, Alexandra; Becker, Astrid; Zimmer, Andreas; Nickenig, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The role of endocannabinoids such as anandamide during atherogenesis remains largely unknown. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) represents the key enzyme in anandamide degradation, and its inhibition is associated with subsequent higher levels of anandamide. Here, we tested whether selective inhibition of FAAH influences the progression of atherosclerosis in mice. Selective inhibition of FAAH using URB597 resulted in significantly increased plasma levels of anandamide compared to control, as assessed by mass spectrometry experiments in mice. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed a high-fat, cholesterol-rich diet to induce atherosclerotic conditions. Simultaneously, mice received either the pharmacological FAAH inhibitor URB597 1mg/kg body weight (n=28) or vehicle (n=25) via intraperitoneal injection three times a week. After eight weeks, mice were sacrificed, and experiments were performed. Vascular superoxide generation did not differ between both groups, as measured by L012 assay. To determine whether selective inhibition of FAAH affects atherosclerotic plaque inflammation, immunohistochemical staining of the aortic root was performed. Atherosclerotic plaque formation, vascular macrophage accumulation, as well as vascular T cell infiltration did not differ between both groups. Interestingly, neutrophil cell accumulation was significantly increased in mice receiving URB597 compared to control. Vascular collagen structures in atherosclerotic plaques were significantly diminished in mice treated with URB597 compared to control, as assessed by picro-sirius-red staining. This was accompanied by an increased aortic expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase does not influence plaque size but increases plaque vulnerability in mice. PMID:24286707

  18. Computational insights into function and inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Cavalli, Andrea; De Vivo, Marco

    2015-02-16

    The Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme is a membrane-bound serine hydrolase responsible for the deactivating hydrolysis of a family of naturally occurring fatty acid amides. FAAH is a critical enzyme of the endocannabinoid system, being mainly responsible for regulating the level of its main cannabinoid substrate anandamide. For this reason, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH, which increases the level of endogenous anandamide, is a promising strategy to cure a variety of diseases including pain, inflammation, and cancer. Much structural, mutagenesis, and kinetic data on FAAH has been generated over the last couple of decades. This has prompted several informative computational investigations to elucidate, at the atomic-level, mechanistic details on catalysis and inhibition of this pharmaceutically relevant enzyme. Here, we review how these computational studies - based on classical molecular dynamics, full quantum mechanics, and hybrid QM/MM methods - have clarified the binding and reactivity of some relevant substrates and inhibitors of FAAH. We also discuss the experimental implications of these computational insights, which have provided a thoughtful elucidation of the complex physical and chemical steps of the enzymatic mechanism of FAAH. Finally, we discuss how computations have been helpful for building structure-activity relationships of potent FAAH inhibitors. PMID:25240419

  19. 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid targets PPARγ and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase to mediate its anti-inflammatory effects in the lung: role of soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Morin, Caroline; Sirois, Marco; Echavé, Vincent; Albadine, Roula; Rousseau, Eric

    2010-11-01

    This study sought to assess putative pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EpETE), as measured by a decrease in the contractile reactivity and Ca(2+) sensitivity of TNF-α-pretreated human bronchi. Tension measurements performed in the presence of 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA), a soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH)-specific inhibitor, demonstrated that 17,18-EpETE reduced the reactivity of TNF-α-pretreated tissues. The overexpression of sEH detected in patients with asthma and TNF-α-treated bronchi contributed to the maintenance of hyperresponsiveness in our models, which involved intracellular proinflammatory cascades. The inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ by GW9662 abolished 17,18-EpETE + AUDA-mediated anti-inflammatory effects by inducing IκBα degradation and cytokine synthesis, indicating that PPARγ is a molecular target of epoxy-eicosanoids. Western blot analysis revealed that 17,18-EpETE pretreatment reversed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) induced by TNF-α in human bronchi. The Ca(2+) sensitivity of human bronchial explants was also quantified on β-escin permeabilized preparations. The presence of SB203580, a p38-MAPK inhibitor, reversed the effect induced by epoxy-eicosanoid in the presence of AUDA on TNF-α-triggered Ca(2+) hypersensitivity by increasing the phosphorylation level of PKC Potentiated Inhibitor Protein-17 (CPI-17) regulatory protein. Moreover, PPARγ ligands, such as rosiglitazone and 17,18-EpETE, decreased the expression of CPI-17, both at the mRNA and protein levels, whereas this effect was countered by GW9662 treatment in TNF-α-treated bronchi. These results demonstrate that 17,18-EpETE is a potent regulator of human lung inflammation and concomitant hyperresponsiveness, and may represent a valuable asset against critical inflammatory bronchial disorder. PMID:20008283

  20. The Molecular Basis for Dual Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH)/Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Favia, Angelo D; Convertino, Marino; De Vivo, Marco

    2016-06-20

    The design of multitarget-directed ligands is a promising strategy for discovering innovative drugs. Here, we report a mechanistic study that clarifies key aspects of the dual inhibition of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes by a new multitarget-directed ligand named ARN2508 (2-[3-fluoro-4-[3-(hexylcarbamoyloxy)phenyl]phenyl]propanoic acid). This potent dual inhibitor combines, in a single scaffold, the pharmacophoric elements often needed to block FAAH and COX, that is, a carbamate moiety and the 2-arylpropionic acid functionality, respectively. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that ARN2508 uses a noncovalent mechanism of inhibition to block COXs, while inhibiting FAAH via the acetylation of the catalytic Ser241, in line with previous experimental evidence for covalent FAAH inhibition. This study proposes the molecular basis for the dual FAAH/COX inhibition by this novel hybrid scaffold, stimulating further experimental studies and offering new insights for the rational design of novel anti-inflammatory agents that simultaneously act on FAAH and COX. PMID:26593700

  1. The Precise Structures and Stereochemistry of Trihydroxy-linoleates Esterified in Human and Porcine Epidermis and Their Significance in Skin Barrier Function: IMPLICATION OF AN EPOXIDE HYDROLASE IN THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF LINOLEATE.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Takahito; Thomas, Christopher P; Calcutt, M Wade; Boeglin, William E; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Brash, Alan R

    2016-07-01

    Creation of an intact skin water barrier, a prerequisite for life on dry land, requires the lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of the essential fatty acid linoleate, which is esterified to the ω-hydroxyl of an epidermis-specific ceramide. Oxidation of the linoleate moiety by lipoxygenases is proposed to facilitate enzymatic cleavage of the ester bond, releasing free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein, thus forming the corneocyte lipid envelope, a key component of the epidermal barrier. Herein, we report the transformations of esterified linoleate proceed beyond the initial steps of oxidation and epoxyalcohol synthesis catalyzed by the consecutive actions of 12R-LOX and epidermal LOX3. The major end product in human and porcine epidermis is a trihydroxy derivative, formed with a specificity that implicates participation of an epoxide hydrolase in converting epoxyalcohol to triol. Of the 16 possible triols arising from hydrolysis of 9,10-epoxy-13-hydroxy-octadecenoates, using LC-MS and chiral analyses, we identify and quantify specifically 9R,10S,13R-trihydroxy-11E-octadecenoate as the single major triol esterified in porcine epidermis and the same isomer with lesser amounts of its 10R diastereomer in human epidermis. The 9R,10S,13R-triol is formed by SN2 hydrolysis of the 9R,10R-epoxy-13R-hydroxy-octadecenoate product of the LOX enzymes, a reaction specificity characteristic of epoxide hydrolase. The high polarity of triol over the primary linoleate products enhances the concept that the oxidations disrupt corneocyte membrane lipids, promoting release of free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein and sealing of the waterproof barrier. PMID:27151221

  2. Engineered bacterial polyester hydrolases efficiently degrade polyethylene terephthalate due to relieved product inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Schmidt, Juliane; Meier, René; Barth, Markus; Then, Johannes; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies on the enzymatic degradation of synthetic polyesters have shown the potential of polyester hydrolases from thermophilic actinomycetes for modifying or degrading polyethylene terephthalate (PET). TfCut2 from Thermobifida fusca KW3 and LC-cutinase (LCC) isolated from a compost metagenome are remarkably active polyester hydrolases with high sequence and structural similarity. Both enzymes exhibit an exposed active site in a substrate binding groove located at the protein surface. By exchanging selected amino acid residues of TfCut2 involved in substrate binding with those present in LCC, enzyme variants with increased PET hydrolytic activity at 65°C were obtained. The highest activity in hydrolyzing PET films and fibers were detected with the single variant G62A and the double variant G62A/I213S. Both variants caused a weight loss of PET films of more than 42% after 50 h of hydrolysis, corresponding to a 2.7-fold increase compared to the wild type enzyme. Kinetic analysis based on the released PET hydrolysis products confirmed the superior hydrolytic activity of G62A with a fourfold higher hydrolysis rate constant and a 1.5-fold lower substrate binding constant than those of the wild type enzyme. Mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate is a strong inhibitor of TfCut2. A determination of the Rosetta binding energy suggested a reduced interaction of G62A with 2PET, a dimer of the PET monomer ethylene terephthalate. Indeed, G62A revealed a 5.5-fold lower binding constant to the inhibitor than the wild type enzyme indicating that its increased PET hydrolysis activity is the result of a relieved product inhibition by mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1658-1665. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26804057

  3. Acylpeptide Hydrolase Inhibition as Targeted Strategy to Induce Proteasomal Down-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Luini, Alberto; Ruvo, Menotti; Gogliettino, Marta; Langella, Emma; Saviano, Michele; Hegde, Ramanath N.; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Rossi, Mose

    2011-01-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH), one of the four members of the prolyl oligopeptidase class, catalyses the removal of N-acylated amino acids from acetylated peptides and it has been postulated to play a key role in protein degradation machinery. Disruption of protein turnover has been established as an effective strategy to down-regulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and as a promising approach in anticancer therapy. Here, we illustrate a new pathway modulating UPS and proteasome activity through inhibition of APEH. To find novel molecules able to down-regulate APEH activity, we screened a set of synthetic peptides, reproducing the reactive-site loop of a known archaeal inhibitor of APEH (SsCEI), and the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. A 12-mer SsCEI peptide and the trans10-cis12 isomer of CLA, were identified as specific APEH inhibitors and their effects on cell-based assays were paralleled by a dose-dependent reduction of proteasome activity and the activation of the pro-apoptotic caspase cascade. Moreover, cell treatment with the individual compounds increased the cytoplasm levels of several classic hallmarks of proteasome inhibition, such as NFkappaB, p21, and misfolded or polyubiquitinylated proteins, and additive effects were observed in cells exposed to a combination of both inhibitors without any cytotoxicity. Remarkably, transfection of human bronchial epithelial cells with APEH siRNA, promoted a marked accumulation of a mutant of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), herein used as a model of misfolded protein typically degraded by UPS. Finally, molecular modeling studies, to gain insights into the APEH inhibition by the trans10-cis12 CLA isomer, were performed. Our study supports a previously unrecognized role of APEH as a negative effector of proteasome activity by an unknown mechanism and opens new perspectives for the development of strategies aimed at modulation of cancer progression. PMID:22016782

  4. Loss of a Biofilm-Inhibiting Glycosyl Hydrolase during the Emergence of Yersinia pestis▿

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, David L.; Jarrett, Clayton O.; Callison, Julie A.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, forms a biofilm in the foregut of its flea vector to produce a transmissible infection. The closely related Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, from which Y. pestis recently evolved, can colonize the flea midgut but does not form a biofilm in the foregut. Y. pestis biofilm in the flea and in vitro is dependent on an extracellular matrix synthesized by products of the hms genes; identical genes are present in Y. pseudotuberculosis. The Yersinia Hms proteins contain functional domains present in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus proteins known to synthesize a poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine biofilm matrix. In this study, we show that the extracellular matrices (ECM) of Y. pestis and staphylococcal biofilms are antigenically related, indicating a similar biochemical structure. We also characterized a glycosyl hydrolase (NghA) of Y. pseudotuberculosis that cleaved β-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues and reduced biofilm formation by staphylococci and Y. pestis in vitro. The Y. pestis nghA ortholog is a pseudogene, and overexpression of functional nghA reduced ECM surface accumulation and inhibited the ability of Y. pestis to produce biofilm in the flea foregut. Mutational loss of this glycosidase activity in Y. pestis may have contributed to the recent evolution of flea-borne transmission. PMID:18931111

  5. Inhibition of xenobiotic-degrading hydrolases by organophosphinates. Annual progress report No. 1 Jul 82-1 Jul 83

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.M.; Zimmerman, J.K.; Bryson, P.K.; Grothusen, J.R.

    1983-07-01

    Organophosphinate pretreatment agents for chemical warfare defense inhibited carboxylester hydrolase from porcine liver and from rabbit liver. Recovery of rabbit liver monomeric carboxylester hydrolase to at least 30% of its initial activity was observed 48 hr. after inhibition by certain 4-nitrophenyl alkyl(phenyl)phosphinates and analogues. When ranked according to the initial rates at which their phosphinylated enzymes recovered, they were methyl(phenyl)>methyl(2-thienyl)>methyl(2-furyl)>ethyl(phenyl)>di-2-thienyl>diphenyl. Recovery was less than 20% in 96 hr. following inhibition by methyl(naphthyl),di-2-furyl, isopropyl(phenyl), dichloromethyl(phenyl), and bis chloromethyl substituted analogues. High performance liquid chromatography on silica using 10% to 20% 2-propanol in hexane as mobile phase resulted in satisfactory chromatograms for all except the most polar phosphinates. This method was useful in determining purity and decomposition of the compounds. Arylester hydrolase was purified 30-fold from rabbit serum by a sequence of polyethylene glycol fractionation, ion exchange chromatography, ammonium sulfate fractionation, molecular exclusion chromatography and pseudo-affinity chromatography. The partially purified enzyme was activated by 2.5 mM divalent calcium.

  6. Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by naturally occurring plant phenols: Exceptional activity of ellagic acid

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Alexander W.; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Chang, Richard L.; Newmark, Harold L.; Lehr, Roland E.; Yagi, Haruhiko; Sayer, Jane M.; Jerina, Donald M.; Conney, Allan H.

    1982-01-01

    Ferulic, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ellagic acids, four naturally occurring plant phenols, inhibit the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of (±)-7β,8α-dihydroxy-9α, 10α-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2), the only known ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene. The mutagenicity of 0.05 nmol of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 in strain TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium is inhibited 50% by incubation of the bacteria and the diol epoxide with 150 nmol of ferulic acid, 75 nmol of caffeic acid, 50 nmol of chlorogenic acid or, most strikingly, 1 nmol of ellagic acid in the 0.5-ml incubation mixture. A 3-nmol dose of ellagic acid inhibits mutation induction by 90%. Ellagic acid is also a potent antagonist of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 in Chinese hamster V79 cells. Mutations to 8-azaguanine resistance induced by 0.2 μM diol epoxide are reduced by 50% when tissue culture media also contains 2 μM ellagic acid. Similar to results obtained with the bacteria, ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids are approximately two orders of magnitude less active than ellagic acid in the mammalian cell assay. The antimutagenic effects of the plant phenols result from their direct interaction with B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2, because a concentration-dependent increase in the rate of diol epoxide disappearance in cell-free solutions of 1:9 dioxane/water, pH 7.0, is observed with all four phenols. In parallel with the mutagenicity studies, ellagic acid is 80-300 times more effective than the other phenols in accelerating the disappearance of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2. Ellagic acid at 10 μM increases the disappearance of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 by approximately 20-fold relative to the spontaneous and hydronium ion-catalyzed hydrolysis of the diol epoxide at pH 7.0. Ellagic acid is a highly potent inhibitor of the mutagenic activity of bay-region diol epoxides of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, but higher

  7. Cellular viability effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition on cerebellar neurons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide (ANA) participates in the control of cell death inducing the formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the ANA degrading enzyme, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), would induce cellular death. Experiments were performed in cerebellar granule neurons cultured with the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 (25, 50 or 100 nM) as well as endogenous lipids such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) or palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and cellular viability was determined by MTT test. Neurons cultured with URB597 (25, 50 or 100 nM) displayed a decrease in cellular viability. In addition, if cultured with OEA (25 nM) or PEA (100 nM), cellular death was found. These results further suggest that URB597, OEA or PEA promote cellular death. PMID:21854612

  8. Long-term consequences of perinatal fatty acid amino hydrolase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Morgan, Daniel; Jew, Chris P; Haskins, Chris; Andrews, Mary-Jeanette; Leishman, Emma; Spencer, Corinne M; Czyzyk, Traci; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeFatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors show promise as a treatment for anxiety, depression and pain. Here we investigated whether perinatal exposure to URB597, a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, alters brain development and affects behaviour in adult mice. Experimental ApproachMouse dams were treated daily from gestational day 10.5 to 16.5 with 1, 3 or 10 mg kg−1 URB597. MS was used to measure a panel of endocannabinoids and related lipid compounds and brain development was assessed at embryonic day 16.5. Separate cohorts of mouse dams were treated with 10 mg kg−1 URB597, from gestational day 10.5 to postnatal day 7, and the adult offspring were assessed with a battery of behavioural tests. Key ResultsPerinatal URB597 exposure elevated anandamide and related N-acyl amides. URB597 did not induce signs of toxicity or affect dam weight gain, neurogenesis or axonal development at embryonic day 16.5. It did lead to subtle behavioural deficits in adult offspring, manifested by reduced cocaine-conditioned preference, increased depressive behaviours and impaired working memory. Anxiety levels, motor function and sensory-motor gating were not significantly altered. Conclusions and ImplicationsTaken together, the present results highlight how exposure to elevated levels of anandamide and related N-acyl amides during brain development can lead to subtle alterations in behaviour in adulthood. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6 PMID:24730060

  9. DsRNA-mediated silencing of Nudix hydrolase in Trichinella spiralis inhibits the larval invasion and survival in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai Bing; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong Quan; Long, Shao Rong; Liu, Ruo Dan; Zhang, Xi; Yang, Wei; Ren, Hui Jun; Cui, Jing

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of Trichinella spiralis Nudix hydrolase (TsNd) during the larval invasion of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), development and survival in host by RNAi. The TsNd-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was designed to silence the expression of TsNd in T. spiralis larvae. DsRNA were delivered to the larvae by soaking incubation or electroporation. Silencing effect of TsNd transcription and expression was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The infectivity of larvae treated with dsRNA was investigated by the in vitro larval invasion of IECs and experimental infection in mice. After being soaked with 40 ng/μl of dsRNA-TsNd, the transcription and expression level of TsNd gene was inhibited 65.8% and 56.4%, respectively. After being electroporated with 40 ng/μl of dsRNA-TsNd, the transcription and expression level of TsNd gene was inhibited 74.2% and 58.2%, respectively. Silencing TsNd expression by both soaking and electroporation inhibited significantly the larval invasion of IECs in a dose-dependent manner (r1 = -0.96798, r2 = -0.98707). Compared with the mice inoculated with untreated larvae, mice inoculated with larvae soaked with TsNd dsRNA displayed a 49.9% reduction in adult worms and 39.9% reduction in muscle larvae, while mice inoculated with larvae electroporated with TsNd dsRNA displayed a 83.4% reduction in adult worms and 69.5% reduction in muscle larvae, indicating that electroporation has a higher efficiency than soaking in inhibiting the larval development and survival in mice. Our results showed that silencing TsNd expression in T. spiralis inhibited significantly the larval invasion and survival in host. PMID:26778819

  10. The relationship between inhibition of vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide reductase and reduction of clotting factor activity with warfarin.

    PubMed Central

    Choonara, I A; Malia, R G; Haynes, B P; Hay, C R; Cholerton, S; Breckenridge, A M; Preston, F E; Park, B K

    1988-01-01

    1 The effect of low dose steady state warfarin (0.2 mg and 1 mg daily) on clotting factor activity and vitamin K1 metabolism was studied in seven healthy volunteers. 2 Steady state plasma warfarin concentrations were 41-99 ng ml-1 for the 0.2 mg dose and 157-292 ng ml-1 for the 1 mg dose. 3 There was a significant prolongation of the mean prothrombin time (0.9 s) after 1 mg warfarin daily, but no significant change in prothrombin time after 0.2 mg warfarin daily. There was no significant change in individual clotting factor activity (II, VII, IX or X) with either dose of warfarin. 4 Following the administration of a pharmacological dose of vitamin K1 (10 mg), all seven volunteers had detectable levels of vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide with both doses of warfarin (Cpmax 31-409 ng ml-1). 5 Both the Cpmax and the AUC for vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide were significantly greater on 1 mg of warfarin daily than 0.2 mg daily (P less than 0.01). 6 The apparent dissociation between inhibition of vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide reductase and reduction of clotting factor activity, produced by warfarin, may reflect the insensitivity of functional clotting factor assays to a small reduction in clotting factor concentration. PMID:3370190

  11. Superfamily-wide portrait of serine hydrolase inhibition achieved by library-versus-library screening.

    PubMed

    Bachovchin, Daniel A; Ji, Tianyang; Li, Weiwei; Simon, Gabriel M; Blankman, Jacqueline L; Adibekian, Alexander; Hoover, Heather; Niessen, Sherry; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2010-12-01

    Serine hydrolases (SHs) are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in mammals. They play fundamental roles in virtually all physiological processes and are targeted by drugs to treat diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite this, we lack biological understanding for most of the 110+ predicted mammalian metabolic SHs, in large part because of a dearth of assays to assess their biochemical activities and a lack of selective inhibitors to probe their function in living systems. We show here that the vast majority (> 80%) of mammalian metabolic SHs can be labeled in proteomes by a single, active site-directed fluorophosphonate probe. We exploit this universal activity-based assay in a library-versus-library format to screen 70+ SHs against 140+ structurally diverse carbamates. Lead inhibitors were discovered for ∼40% of the screened enzymes, including many poorly characterized SHs. Global profiles identified carbamate inhibitors that discriminate among highly sequence-related SHs and, conversely, enzymes that share inhibitor sensitivity profiles despite lacking sequence homology. These findings indicate that sequence relatedness is not a strong predictor of shared pharmacology within the SH superfamily. Finally, we show that lead carbamate inhibitors can be optimized into pharmacological probes that inactivate individual SHs with high specificity in vivo. PMID:21084632

  12. Superfamily-wide portrait of serine hydrolase inhibition achieved by library-versus-library screening

    PubMed Central

    Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Ji, Tianyang; Li, Weiwei; Simon, Gabriel M.; Blankman, Jacqueline L.; Adibekian, Alexander; Hoover, Heather; Niessen, Sherry; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Serine hydrolases (SHs) are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in mammals. They play fundamental roles in virtually all physiological processes and are targeted by drugs to treat diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite this, we lack biological understanding for most of the 110+ predicted mammalian metabolic SHs, in large part because of a dearth of assays to assess their biochemical activities and a lack of selective inhibitors to probe their function in living systems. We show here that the vast majority (> 80%) of mammalian metabolic SHs can be labeled in proteomes by a single, active site-directed fluorophosphonate probe. We exploit this universal activity-based assay in a library-versus-library format to screen 70+ SHs against 140+ structurally diverse carbamates. Lead inhibitors were discovered for ∼40% of the screened enzymes, including many poorly characterized SHs. Global profiles identified carbamate inhibitors that discriminate among highly sequence-related SHs and, conversely, enzymes that share inhibitor sensitivity profiles despite lacking sequence homology. These findings indicate that sequence relatedness is not a strong predictor of shared pharmacology within the SH superfamily. Finally, we show that lead carbamate inhibitors can be optimized into pharmacological probes that inactivate individual SHs with high specificity in vivo. PMID:21084632

  13. Competitive Activity-Based Protein Profiling Identifies Aza-β-Lactams as a Versatile Chemotype for Serine Hydrolase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Zuhl, Andrea M.; Mohr, Justin T.; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Niessen, Sherry; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Berlin, Jacob M.; Dochnahl, Maximilian; López-Alberca, María P.; Fu, Gregory C.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2012-01-01

    Serine hydrolases are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in Nature. Most serine hydrolases lack selective inhibitors, which are needed for assigning functions to these enzymes. We recently discovered a set of aza-β-lactams (ABLs) that act as potent and selective inhibitors of the mammalian serine hydrolase protein-phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1). The ABLs inactivate PME-1 by covalent acylation of the enzyme’s serine nucleophile, suggesting that they could offer a general scaffold for serine hydrolase inhibitor discovery. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by screening ABLs more broadly against cell and tissue proteomes by competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), leading to the discovery of lead inhibitors for several serine hydrolases, including the uncharacterized enzyme alpha, beta-hydrolase-10 (ABHD10). ABPP-guided medicinal chemistry yielded a compound ABL303 that potently (IC50 value ~ 30 nM) and selectively inactivated ABHD10 in vitro and in living cells. A comparison of optimized inhibitors for PME-1 and ABHD10 indicates that modest structural changes that alter steric bulk can tailor the ABL to selectively react with distinct, sequence-unrelated serine hydrolases. Our findings, taken together, designate the ABL as a versatile reactive group for creating first-in-class serine hydrolase inhibitors. PMID:22400490

  14. Competitive activity-based protein profiling identifies aza-β-lactams as a versatile chemotype for serine hydrolase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zuhl, Andrea M; Mohr, Justin T; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Niessen, Sherry; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Berlin, Jacob M; Dochnahl, Maximilian; López-Alberca, María P; Fu, Gregory C; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2012-03-21

    Serine hydrolases are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in Nature. Most serine hydrolases lack selective inhibitors, which are valuable probes for assigning functions to these enzymes. We recently discovered a set of aza-β-lactams (ABLs) that act as potent and selective inhibitors of the mammalian serine hydrolase protein-phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1). The ABLs inactivate PME-1 by covalent acylation of the enzyme's serine nucleophile, suggesting that they could offer a general scaffold for serine hydrolase inhibitor discovery. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by screening ABLs more broadly against cell and tissue proteomes by competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), leading to the discovery of lead inhibitors for several serine hydrolases, including the uncharacterized enzyme α,β-hydrolase domain-containing 10 (ABHD10). ABPP-guided medicinal chemistry yielded a compound ABL303 that potently (IC(50) ≈ 30 nM) and selectively inactivated ABHD10 in vitro and in living cells. A comparison of optimized inhibitors for PME-1 and ABHD10 indicates that modest structural changes that alter steric bulk can tailor the ABL to selectively react with distinct, distantly related serine hydrolases. Our findings, taken together, designate the ABL as a versatile reactive group for creating first-in-class serine hydrolase inhibitors. PMID:22400490

  15. Heptachlor epoxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Heptachlor epoxide ; CASRN 1024 - 57 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  16. Full Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Combined with Partial Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibition: Augmented and Sustained Antinociceptive Effects with Reduced Cannabimimetic Side Effects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Kinsey, Steven G.; Liu, Qing-song; Hruba, Lenka; McMahon, Lance R.; Grim, Travis W.; Merritt, Christina R.; Wise, Laura E.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Selley, Dana E.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzymes for the respective endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), produces antinociception but with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Although selective inhibitors of either enzyme often show partial efficacy in various nociceptive models, their combined blockade elicits augmented antinociceptive effects, but side effects emerge. Moreover, complete and prolonged MAGL blockade leads to cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor functional tolerance, which represents another challenge in this potential therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the present study tested whether full FAAH inhibition combined with partial MAGL inhibition would produce sustained antinociceptive effects with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Accordingly, we tested a high dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-​3-​pyridinyl-​4-​[[3-​[[5-​(trifluoromethyl)-​2-​pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-​1-​piperidinecarboxamide; 10 mg/kg) given in combination with a low dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate] (4 mg/kg) in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. This combination of inhibitors elicited profound increases in brain AEA levels (>10-fold) but only 2- to 3-fold increases in brain 2-AG levels. This combination produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects than single enzyme inhibition and did not elicit common cannabimimetic effects (e.g., catalepsy, hypomotility, hypothermia, and substitution for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the drug-discrimination assay), although these side effects emerged with high-dose JZL184 (i.e., 100 mg/kg). Finally, repeated administration of this combination did not lead to tolerance to its antiallodynic actions in the carrageenan assay or CB1 receptor functional tolerance. Thus, full FAAH inhibition combined

  17. Increases in Levels of Epoxyeicosatrienoic and Dihydroxyeicosatrienoic Acids (EETs and DHETs) in Liver and Heart in Vivo by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and in Hepatic EET:DHET Ratios by Cotreatment with TCDD and the Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor AUDA

    PubMed Central

    Diani-Moore, Silvia; Ma, Yuliang; Gross, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    The environmental toxin and carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) binds and activates the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), inducing CYP1 family cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP1A2 and its avian ortholog CYP1A5 are highly active arachidonic acid epoxygenases. Epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and selected monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). EETs can be further metabolized by epoxide hydrolases to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). As P450–arachidonic acid metabolites affect vasoregulation, responses to ischemia, inflammation, and metabolic disorders, identification of their production in vivo is needed to understand their contribution to biologic effects of TCDD and other AHR activators. Here we report use of an acetonitrile-based extraction procedure that markedly increased the yield of arachidonic acid products by lipidomic analysis over a standard solid-phase extraction protocol. We show that TCDD increased all four EETs (5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-), their corresponding DHETs, and 18- and 20-HETE in liver in vivo and increased 5,6-EET, the four DHETs, and 18-HETE in heart, in a chick embryo model. As the chick embryo heart lacks arachidonic acid–metabolizing activity, the latter findings suggest that arachidonic acid metabolites may travel from their site of production to a distal organ, i.e., heart. To determine if the TCDD–arachidonic acid–metabolite profile could be altered pharmacologically, chick embryos were treated with TCDD and the soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA). Cotreatment with AUDA increased hepatic EET-to-DHET ratios, indicating that the in vivo profile of P450–arachidonic acid metabolites can be modified for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:24311719

  18. Increases in levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs and DHETs) in liver and heart in vivo by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and in hepatic EET:DHET ratios by cotreatment with TCDD and the soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor AUDA.

    PubMed

    Diani-Moore, Silvia; Ma, Yuliang; Gross, Steven S; Rifkind, Arleen B

    2014-02-01

    The environmental toxin and carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) binds and activates the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), inducing CYP1 family cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP1A2 and its avian ortholog CYP1A5 are highly active arachidonic acid epoxygenases. Epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and selected monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). EETs can be further metabolized by epoxide hydrolases to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). As P450-arachidonic acid metabolites affect vasoregulation, responses to ischemia, inflammation, and metabolic disorders, identification of their production in vivo is needed to understand their contribution to biologic effects of TCDD and other AHR activators. Here we report use of an acetonitrile-based extraction procedure that markedly increased the yield of arachidonic acid products by lipidomic analysis over a standard solid-phase extraction protocol. We show that TCDD increased all four EETs (5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-), their corresponding DHETs, and 18- and 20-HETE in liver in vivo and increased 5,6-EET, the four DHETs, and 18-HETE in heart, in a chick embryo model. As the chick embryo heart lacks arachidonic acid-metabolizing activity, the latter findings suggest that arachidonic acid metabolites may travel from their site of production to a distal organ, i.e., heart. To determine if the TCDD-arachidonic acid-metabolite profile could be altered pharmacologically, chick embryos were treated with TCDD and the soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA). Cotreatment with AUDA increased hepatic EET-to-DHET ratios, indicating that the in vivo profile of P450-arachidonic acid metabolites can be modified for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:24311719

  19. The general anesthetic propofol increases brain N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) content and inhibits fatty acid amide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sachin; Wohlfeil, Eric R; Rademacher, David J; Carrier, Erica J; Perry, LaToya J; Kundu, Abhijit; Falck, J R; Nithipatikom, Kasem; Campbell, William B; Hillard, Cecilia J

    2003-01-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is widely used as a general anesthetic and for the maintenance of long-term sedation. We have tested the hypothesis that propofol alters endocannabinoid brain content and that this effect contributes to its sedative properties. A sedating dose of propofol in mice produced a significant increase in the whole-brain content of the endocannabinoid, N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide), when administered intraperitoneally in either Intralipid or emulphor-ethanol vehicles. In vitro, propofol is a competitive inhibitor (IC50 52 μM; 95% confidence interval 31, 87) of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which catalyzes the degradation of anandamide. Within a series of propofol analogs, the critical structural determinants of FAAH inhibition and sedation were found to overlap. Other intravenous general anesthetics, including midazolam, ketamine, etomidate, and thiopental, do not affect FAAH activity at sedative-relevant concentrations. Thiopental, however, is a noncompetitive inhibitor of FAAH at a concentration of 2 mM. Pretreatment of mice with the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 (1 mg kg−1, i.p.) significantly reduced the number of mice that lost their righting reflex in response to propofol. Pretreatment of mice with the CB1 receptor agonist, Win 55212-2 (1 mg kg−1, i.p.), significantly potentiated the loss of righting reflex produced by propofol. These data indicate that CB1 receptor activity contributes to the sedative properties of propofol. These data suggest that propofol activation of the endocannabinoid system, possibly via inhibition of anandamide catabolism, contributes to the sedative properties of propofol and that FAAH could be a novel target for anesthetic development. PMID:12839875

  20. The cytotoxic activity of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor is inhibited by leukotriene A4 hydrolase and metallopeptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Menard, A; Papini, E; Mock, M; Montecucco, C

    1996-01-01

    The lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis is central to the pathogenesis of anthrax. Its mechanism of action is still unknown. Recently, on the basis of sequence similarities, we suggested that lethal factor might act similarly to leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4), a bifunctional enzyme also endowed with a metallopeptidase activity. Here we show that some inhibitors of the LTA4 hydrolase and metallopeptidase activities of LTA4 hydrolase also affect the cytotoxicity of the anthrax lethal factor on macrophage cell lines, without interfering with the ability of the lethal factor to enter cells. These results support the proposal that anthrax lethal factor might display in the cytosol of intoxicated cells a peptidase activity similar to that of LTA4 hydrolase. PMID:8973585

  1. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

  2. Simultaneous Inhibition of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Monoacylglycerol Lipase Shares Discriminative Stimulus Effects with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hruba, Lenka; Seillier, Alexandre; Zaki, Armia; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors exert preclinical effects indicative of therapeutic potential (i.e., analgesia). However, the extent to which MAGL and FAAH inhibitors produce unwanted effects remains unclear. Here, FAAH and MAGL inhibition was examined separately and together in a Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC; 5.6 mg/kg i.p.) discrimination assay predictive of subjective effects associated with cannabis use, and the relative contribution of N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and caudate putamen to those effects was examined. Δ9-THC dose-dependently increased Δ9-THC appropriate responses (ED50 value = 2.8 mg/kg), whereas the FAAH inhibitors PF-3845 [N-3-pyridinyl-4-[[3-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-1-piperidinecarboxamide] and URB597 [(3′-​(aminocarbonyl)[1,​1′-​biphenyl]-​3-​yl)-​cyclohexylcarbamate] or a MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-​nitrophenyl-​4-​(dibenzo[d][1,​3]dioxol-​5-​yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-​1-​carboxylate] alone did not substitute for the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus. The nonselective FAAH/MAGL inhibitors SA-57 [4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester] and JZL195 [4-​nitrophenyl 4-​(3-​phenoxybenzyl)piperazine-​1-​carboxylate] fully substituted for Δ9-THC with ED50 values equal to 2.4 and 17 mg/kg, respectively. Full substitution for Δ9-THC was also produced by a combination of JZL184 and PF-3845, but not by a combination of JZL184 and URB597 (i.e., 52% maximum). Cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist rimonabant attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of Δ9-THC, SA-57, JZL195, and the combined effects of JZL184 and PF-3845. Full substitution for the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus occurred only when both 2-AG and AEA were significantly elevated, and the patterns of increased endocannabinoid content were

  3. Cephalosporin-induced alteration in hepatic glutathione redox state. A potential mechanism for inhibition of hepatic reduction of vitamin K1,2,3-epoxide in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, M C; Mallat, A; Lipsky, J J

    1990-01-01

    Hypoprothrombinemia is a serious adverse effect of antimicrobial therapy that occurs after administration of some second- and third-generation cephalosporins which contain the methyltetrazole-thiol (MTT) group. Previous studies have shown that in vitro MTT directly inhibits microsomal gamma-carboxylation of a synthetic pentapeptide. Since MTT is a thiocarbamide, a type of compound that can increase oxidation of glutathione, the present studies were carried out to determine whether alterations in hepatic glutathione redox state might interfere with vitamin K metabolism. Dose-related increases in biliary efflux and hepatic concentration of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) occurred after intravenous administration of MTT or MTT-containing antibiotics to rats. This finding suggested that these compounds could alter the hepatic glutathione redox state in vivo. Microsomal reduction of vitamin K epoxide occurred in the presence of 100 microM dithiothreitol (DTT), but was inhibited by preincubation with GSSG at concentrations as low as 10 microM. At higher concentrations of DTT (1.0 mM) inhibition by GSSG persisted, but higher concentrations were required, suggesting that the thiol/disulfide ratio, rather than the absolute concentration of GSSG was important. By contrast, GSSG did not effect microsomal gamma-carboxylation of a pentapeptide, using either vitamin K1 or its hydroquinone as a cofactor. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for the hypoprothrombinemia occurring after administration of MTT-containing antibiotics. PMID:1978724

  4. Epoxide-metabolizing enzymes in mammary gland and liver from BALB/c mice and effects of inducers on enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Silva, M H; Wixtrom, R N; Hammock, B D

    1988-03-15

    Epoxide hydrolases (EC 3.3.2.3) (EH) are hydrolytic enzymes which may play an important role in the activation and detoxification of mammary carcinogens. In this study, microsomal, cytosolic, and cholesterol epoxide hydrolases along with glutathione S-transferase were characterized in liver and mammary gland from nulliparous and lactating BALB/c mice and from mice transplanted with preneoplastic hyperplastic outgrowths. Clofibrate, butylated hydroxyanisole, and beta-naphthoflavone were used to induce EH. Significant epoxide hydrolysis was observed in microsomal and cytosolic subcellular fractions assayed with cis- and trans-stilbene oxide, benzo(a)pyrene-4,5-oxide, and cholesterol epoxide. The hydrolysis rates were significantly different for nulliparous and lactating animals, in both mammary gland and liver. Clofibrate increased the activity of all forms of EH in liver, but not mammary gland. Butylated hydroxyanisole and beta-naphthoflavone appeared to induce cytosolic glutathione S-transferase as well as some, but not all, forms of EH in liver and mammary gland regardless of hormonal stimuli. The inducers produced different effects in mammary gland as compared with liver. This may be due to either differing amounts of inducer reaching the target site or different regulation of the enzymes in mammary gland and liver. Hyperplastic outgrowths and liver from hyperplastic outgrowth-transplanted animals demonstrated significantly different EH and cytosolic glutathione S-transferase activities from those of nulliparous and lactating animals. This observation offers preliminary evidence that levels of epoxide-metabolizing enzymes are altered when mammary tissue is transformed. Mammary gland cytosolic EH was purified by affinity chromatography and compared to that from liver by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, isoelectric focusing, and enzyme inhibition by 4-phenylchalcone oxide. Cytosolic EH

  5. Effect of epoxides and α-methylene-γ-lactone skeleton of sesquiterpenes from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves on caspase-dependent apoptosis and NF-κB inhibition in human cercival cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Siriwan, Dalad; Naruse, Takayuki; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the cytotoxicity of enhydrin (1), uvedalin (2) and sonchifolin (3) in cervical cancer cells. We have found that SLs 1-3 in doses in range of 0.22-10 μM inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both a dose- and time-dependent fashion. A significant cell death induction was supported by morphological studies. The apoptotic effect is associated with caspase-3/7 activation and NF-кB inhibition. Interestingly, enhydrin possessing two epoxide units was found to be the most cytotoxic compound. Therefore it can be assumed that number of epoxides and existence of α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety are essential for the acceleration of apoptosis. PMID:21787849

  6. Teratogen metabolism: activation of thalidomide and thalidomide analogues to products that inhibit the attachment of cells to concanavalin A coated plastic surfaces. Revised version

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, A.G.; Weinreb, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    Thalidomide metabolites inhibit the attachment of tumor cells to concanavalin A coated polyethylene surfaces. Thalidomide, itself, is non-inhibitory. Thalidomide activation to inhibitory products requires hepatic microsomes, an NADPH generating system and molecular oxygen. Production of inhibitory metabolites is unaffected by either epoxide hydrolase or TCPO, an inhibitor of epoxide hydrolase endogenous to hepatic S9 fraction. Therefore the attachment inhibitor is probably not an arene oxide. Inhibition is not accompanied by cytotoxicity as judged by trypan blue exclusion. Although uninduced hepatic microsomes from mice, rats and dogs have similar ability to activate thalidomide, microsomes from Aroclor 1254 induced rats are relatively inactive in the system. Inhibitory metabolites can be generated from the thalidomide analogues EM8, EM12, EM16, EM87, EM136, EM255, E350, phthalimide, phthalimido-phthalimide, indan, 1-indanone and 1,3-indandione. Glutarimide, glutamic acid and phthalic acid do not activate to inhibitory products.

  7. Assays for the classification of two types of esterases: carboxylic ester hydrolases and phosphoric triester hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, Douglas D; Roe, R Michael

    2002-11-01

    Assays for the Classification of Two Types of Esterases: Carboxylic Ester Hydrolase and Phosphoric Triester Hydrolase (Douglas D. Anspaugh and Michael Roe, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina). This unit describes assays that quantitate two types of esterase the carboxylic ester hydrolases and the phosphoric triester hydrolases. Carboxylic ester hydrolases include the B-esterases, which are inhibited by organophosphorus compounds. Among the phosphoric triester hydrolases is aryldialkylphosphatase, which has been called A-esterase or paraoxonase due to its ability to oxidize paraoxon and other organophosphates. These assays are colorimetric and miniaturized for rapid simultaneous testing of multiple, small-volume samples in a microtiter plate format. There is also a discussion of the history of esterase nomenclature and the reasons why this large group of enzymes is so difficult to classify. PMID:20945297

  8. Selective Inhibition of Alpha/Beta-Hydrolase Domain 6 Attenuates Neurodegeneration, Alleviates Blood Brain Barrier Breakdown, and Improves Functional Recovery in a Mouse Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tchantchou, Flaubert

    2013-01-01

    Abstract 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) is the most abundant endocannabinoid in the central nervous system and is elevated after brain injury. Because of its rapid hydrolysis, however, the compensatory and neuroprotective effect of 2-AG is short-lived. Although inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase, a principal enzyme for 2-AG degradation, causes a robust increase of brain levels of 2-AG, it also leads to cannabinoid receptor desensitization and behavioral tolerance. Alpha/beta hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is a novel 2-AG hydrolytic enzyme that accounts for a small portion of 2-AG hydrolysis, but its inhibition is believed to elevate the levels of 2-AG within the therapeutic window without causing side effect. Using a mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we found that post-insult chronic treatment with a selective ABHD6 inhibitor WWL70 improved motor coordination and working memory performance. WWL70 treatment reduced lesion volume in the cortex and neurodegeneration in the dendate gyrus. It also suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and enhanced the expression of arginase-1 in the ipsilateral cortex at 3 and 7 days post-TBI, suggesting microglia/macrophages shifted from M1 to M2 phenotypes after treatment. The blood-brain barrier dysfunction at 3 and 7 days post-TBI was dramatically reduced. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of WWL70 involved up-regulation and activation of cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors and were attributable to the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase and the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT. This study indicates that the fine-tuning of 2-AG signaling by modulating ABHD6 activity can exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in TBI. PMID:23151067

  9. Selective inhibition of alpha/beta-hydrolase domain 6 attenuates neurodegeneration, alleviates blood brain barrier breakdown, and improves functional recovery in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tchantchou, Flaubert; Zhang, Yumin

    2013-04-01

    2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) is the most abundant endocannabinoid in the central nervous system and is elevated after brain injury. Because of its rapid hydrolysis, however, the compensatory and neuroprotective effect of 2-AG is short-lived. Although inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase, a principal enzyme for 2-AG degradation, causes a robust increase of brain levels of 2-AG, it also leads to cannabinoid receptor desensitization and behavioral tolerance. Alpha/beta hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is a novel 2-AG hydrolytic enzyme that accounts for a small portion of 2-AG hydrolysis, but its inhibition is believed to elevate the levels of 2-AG within the therapeutic window without causing side effect. Using a mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we found that post-insult chronic treatment with a selective ABHD6 inhibitor WWL70 improved motor coordination and working memory performance. WWL70 treatment reduced lesion volume in the cortex and neurodegeneration in the dendate gyrus. It also suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and enhanced the expression of arginase-1 in the ipsilateral cortex at 3 and 7 days post-TBI, suggesting microglia/macrophages shifted from M1 to M2 phenotypes after treatment. The blood-brain barrier dysfunction at 3 and 7 days post-TBI was dramatically reduced. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of WWL70 involved up-regulation and activation of cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors and were attributable to the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase and the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT. This study indicates that the fine-tuning of 2-AG signaling by modulating ABHD6 activity can exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in TBI. PMID:23151067

  10. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    DOEpatents

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  11. Succinic anhydrides from epoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, Geoffrey W.; Rowley, John M.

    2013-07-09

    Catalysts and methods for the double carbonylation of epoxides are disclosed. Each epoxide molecule reacts with two molecules of carbon monoxide to produce a succinic anhydride. The reaction is facilitated by catalysts combining a Lewis acidic species with a transition metal carbonyl complex. The double carbonylation is achieved in single process by using reaction conditions under which both carbonylation reactions occur without the necessity of isolating or purifying the product of the first carbonylation.

  12. Succinic anhydrides from epoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, Geoffrey W; Rowley, John M

    2014-12-30

    Catalysts and methods for the double carbonylation of epoxides are disclosed. Each epoxide molecule reacts with two molecules of carbon monoxide to produce a succinic anhydride. The reaction is facilitated by catalysts combining a Lewis acidic species with a transition metal carbonyl complex. The double carbonylation is achieved in single process by using reaction conditions under which both carbonylation reactions occur without the necessity of isolating or purifying the product of the first carbonylation.

  13. Changes of blood endocannabinoids during anaesthesia: a special case for fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition by propofol?

    PubMed Central

    Jarzimski, Carina; Karst, Matthias; Zoerner, Alexander A; Rakers, Christin; May, Marcus; Suchy, Maria T; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Krauss, Joachim K; Scheinichen, Dirk; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    AIMS The aim of our study was to describe the time course of endocannabinoids during different anaesthesia protocols in more detail, and to challenge the hypothesis that propofol acts as a FAAH inhibitor. METHODS Endocannabinoids were measured during the first hour of anaesthesia in 14 women and 14 men undergoing general anaesthesia with propofol and in 14 women and 14 men receiving thiopental/sevoflurane. We also incubated whole human blood samples ex vivo with propofol and the known FAAH inhibitor oloxa and determined FAAH enzyme kinetics. RESULTS Plasma anandamide decreased similarly with propofol and thiopental/sevoflurane anaesthesia, and reached a nadir after 10 min. Areas under the curve for anandamide (mean and 95% CI) were 53.3 (47.4, 59.2) nmol l−1 60 min with propofol and 48.5 (43.1, 53.8) nmol l−1 60 min with thiopental/sevoflurane (P = NS). Anandamide and propofol plasma concentrations were not correlated at any time point. Ex vivo FAAH activity was not inhibited by propofol. Enzyme kinetics (mean ± SD) of recombinant human FAAH were Km= 16.9 ± 8.8 µmol l−1 and Vmax= 44.6 ± 15.8 nmol mg–1 min–1 FAAH without, and Km= 16.6 ± 4.0 µmol l−1 and Vmax= 44.0 ± 7.6 nmol mg–1 min−1 FAAH with 50 µmol l−1 propofol (P = NS for both). CONCLUSIONS Our findings challenge the idea that propofol anaesthesia and also propofol addiction are directly mediated by FAAH inhibition, but we cannot exclude other indirect actions on cannabinoid receptors. PMID:22242687

  14. The Role of Long Chain Fatty Acids and Their Epoxide Metabolites in Nociceptive Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karen; Vito, Steve; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid derived mediators contribute to inflammation and the sensing of pain. The contributions of omega-6 derived prostanoids in enhancing inflammation and pain sensation are well known. Less well explored are the opposing anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the omega-6 derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Far less has been described about the epoxidized metabolites derived from omega-3 long chain fatty acids. The epoxide metabolites are turned over rapidly with enzymatic hydrolysis by the soluble epoxide hydrolase being the major elimination pathway. Despite this, the overall understanding of the role of lipid mediators in the pathology of chronic pain is growing. Here we review the role of long chain fatty acids and their metabolites in alleviating both acute and chronic pain conditions. We focus specifically on the epoxidized metabolites of omega-6 and omega-3 long chain fatty acids as well as a novel strategy to modulate their activity in vivo. PMID:25240260

  15. Acute and subacute effects of miconazole nitrate on hepatic styrene oxide hydrolase and cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activities in male and female AKR/J mice.

    PubMed

    James, M O

    1988-08-01

    The imidazole-containing anti-fungal drug, miconazole nitrate, was shown to enhance hepatic microsomal styrene oxide hydrolase and inhibit several cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activities in the AKR/J mouse. Miconazole was a more potent inhibitor of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activities in microsomes from male than female mice, and inhibitory potency also varied with substrate. When administered in vivo miconazole nitrate stimulated epoxide hydrolase activity, but had a substrate-dependent biphasic effect on cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activities. Monooxygenase activities with benzo[a]pyrene and benzphetamine were inhibited to varying degrees in liver homogenate and hepatic microsomes from mice sacrificed 45 min after miconazole administration. After repeated administration of miconazole, liver weight, microsomal protein yield and cytochrome P-450 were increased, as were specific monooxygenase activities with ethoxycoumarin and ethoxyresorufin, but benzphetamine N-demethylase activity was decreased. These results suggested that a metabolite of miconazole was responsible for the inhibition of benzphetamine N-demethylase. It was of special interest that ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was induced in the AKR/J mouse by miconazole, since the AKR/J mouse is not responsive to induction by aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:3394155

  16. Friction reducing properties and stability of epoxidized oleochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have studied the properties of epoxidized oleochemical methyl esters including epoxidized soybean oil, epoxidized methyl oleate, epoxidized methyl linoleate, and epoxidized methyl linolenate. We have compared these materials to a similar series of unmodified olefins. Several interesting trends ...

  17. Microbial production of epoxides

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Thomas R.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2003-06-10

    A method for microbial production of epoxides and other oxygenated products is disclosed. The method uses a biocatalyst of methanotrophic bacteria cultured in a biphasic medium containing a major amount of a non-aqueous polar solvent. Regeneration of reducing equivalents is carried out by using endogenous hydrogenase activity together with supplied hydrogen gas. This method is especially effective with gaseous substrates and cofactors that result in liquid products.

  18. Inverting hydrolases and their use in enantioconvergent biotransformations

    PubMed Central

    Schober, Markus; Faber, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the more abundant occurrence of racemic compounds compared to prochiral or meso forms, most enantiomerically pure products are obtained via racemate resolution. This review summarizes (chemo)enzymatic enantioconvergent processes based on the use of hydrolytic enzymes, which are able to invert a stereocenter during catalysis that can overcome the 50%-yield limitation of kinetic resolution. Recent developments are presented in the fields of inverting or retaining sulfatases, epoxide hydrolases and dehalogenases, which allow the production of secondary alcohols or vicinal diols at a 100% theoretical yield from a racemate via enantioconvergent processes. PMID:23809848

  19. Experimental colitis in mice is attenuated by changes in the levels of endocannabinoid metabolites induced by selective inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)

    PubMed Central

    Sałaga, M; Mokrowiecka, A; Zakrzewski, P K; Cygankiewicz, A; Leishman, E; Sobczak, M; Zatorski, H; Małecka-Panas, E; Kordek, R; Storr, M; Krajewska, W M; Bradshaw, H B; Fichna, J

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Pharmacological treatment and/or maintenance of remission in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is currently one of the biggest challenge in the field of gastroenterology. Available therapies are mostly limited to overcoming the symptoms, but not the cause of the disease. Recently, the endocannabinoid system has been proposed as a novel target in the treatment of IBD. Here we aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory action of the novel fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor PF-3845 and its effect on the endocannabinoid and related lipid metabolism during the course of experimental colitis. Methods We used two models of experimental colitis in mice (TNBS- and DSS-induced) and additionally, we employed LC/MS/MS spectrometry to determine the changes in biolipid levels in the mouse colon during inflammation. Results We showed that the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 reduced experimental TNBS-induced colitis in mice and its anti-inflammatory action is associated with altering the levels of selected biolipids (arachidonic and oleic acid derivatives, prostaglandins and biolipids containing glycine in the mouse colon). Conclusions We show that FAAH is a promising pharmacological target and the FAAH-dependent biolipids play a major role in colitis. Our results highlight and promote therapeutic strategy based on targeting FAAH-dependent metabolic pathways in order to alleviate intestinal inflammation. PMID:24530133

  20. S-Mercuration of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 through Cys152 by methylmercury causes inhibition of its catalytic activity and reduction of monoubiquitin levels in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Takashi; Abiko, Yumi; Katayama, Yuko; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental electrophile that covalently modifies cellular proteins. In this study, we identified proteins that undergo S-mercuration by MeHg. By combining two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, atomic absorption spectrometry and ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS), we revealed that ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a target for S-mercuration in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed to MeHg (1 µM, 9 hr). The modification site of UCH-L1 by MeHg was Cys152, as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. MeHg was shown to inhibit the catalytic activity of recombinant human UCH-L1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Knockdown of UCH-L1 indicated that this enzyme plays a critical role in regulating mono-ubiquitin (monoUb) levels in SH-SY5Y cells and exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to MeHg caused a reduction in the level of monoUb in these cells. These observations suggest that UCH-L1 readily undergoes S-mercuration by MeHg through Cys152 and this covalent modification inhibits UCH-L1, leading to the potential disruption of the maintenance of cellular monoUb levels. PMID:26558469

  1. Epoxide-Mediated Differential Packaging of Cif and Other Virulence Factors into Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Ballok, Alicia E.; Filkins, Laura M.; Bomberger, Jennifer M.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain a number of secreted bacterial proteins, including phospholipases, alkaline phosphatase, and the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Previously, Cif, an epoxide hydrolase, was shown to be regulated at the transcriptional level by epoxides, which serve as ligands of the repressor, CifR. Here, we tested whether epoxides have an effect on Cif levels in OMVs. We showed that growth of P. aeruginosa in the presence of specific epoxides but not a hydrolysis product increased Cif packaging into OMVs in a CifR-independent fashion. The outer membrane protein, OprF, was also increased under these conditions, but alkaline phosphatase activity was not significantly altered. Additionally, we demonstrated that OMV shape and density were affected by epoxide treatment, with two distinct vesicle fractions present when cells were treated with epibromohydrin (EBH), a model epoxide. Vesicles isolated from the two density fractions exhibited different protein profiles in Western blotting and silver staining. We have shown that a variety of clinically or host-relevant treatments, including antibiotics, also alter the proteins packaged in OMVs. Proteomic analysis of purified OMVs followed by an analysis of transposon mutant OMVs yielded mutants with altered vesicle packaging. Finally, epithelial cell cytotoxicity was reduced in the vesicles formed in the presence of EBH, suggesting that this epoxide alters the function of the OMVs. Our data support a model whereby clinically or host-relevant signals mediate differential packaging of virulence factors in OMVs, which results in functional consequences for host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25112474

  2. Click-generated triazole ureas as ultrapotent in vivo-active serine hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Adibekian, Alexander; Martin, Brent R; Wang, Chu; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Niessen, Sherry; Hoover, Heather; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2011-07-01

    Serine hydrolases are a diverse enzyme class representing ∼1% of all human proteins. The biological functions of most serine hydrolases remain poorly characterized owing to a lack of selective inhibitors to probe their activity in living systems. Here we show that a substantial number of serine hydrolases can be irreversibly inactivated by 1,2,3-triazole ureas, which show negligible cross-reactivity with other protein classes. Rapid lead optimization by click chemistry-enabled synthesis and competitive activity-based profiling identified 1,2,3-triazole ureas that selectively inhibit enzymes from diverse branches of the serine hydrolase class, including peptidases (acyl-peptide hydrolase, or APEH), lipases (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase-2, or PAFAH2) and uncharacterized hydrolases (α,β-hydrolase-11, or ABHD11), with exceptional potency in cells (sub-nanomolar) and mice (<1 mg kg(-1)). We show that APEH inhibition leads to accumulation of N-acetylated proteins and promotes proliferation in T cells. These data indicate 1,2,3-triazole ureas are a pharmacologically privileged chemotype for serine hydrolase inhibition, combining broad activity across the serine hydrolase class with tunable selectivity for individual enzymes. PMID:21572424

  3. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2013-02-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  4. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2011-04-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  5. Photopolymerizations of multicomponent epoxide and acrylate/epoxide hybrid systems for controlled kinetics and enhanced material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Ho Seop

    2011-12-01

    . These conclusions are consistent with physical property results. The enhanced fracture toughness and impact resistance were attributed to multimodal network chain-length distribution of copolymers containing the oligomer content between 70% and 80%. For acrylate/epoxide hybrid mixtures, diacrylate oligomers significantly suppressed reactivities of cycloaliphatic mono/diepoxides, which was attributed to high mixture viscosity and highly crosslinked acrylate network. In this case, the dual photoinitiator system did not favor the epoxide reaction. Depending on the monovinyl acrylate secondary functionalities, enhanced reactivity and ultimate conversion of the diepoxide were attributed to a combined effect of a reduced viscosity and the radical-promoted cationic polymerization associated with the dual photoinitiator. The retarded and inhibited diepoxide reactivities with ether and urethane secondary groups were attributed to solvation and nucleophilicity/basicity effects, respectively. The influence of the diepoxide on the acrylate reactivity was attributed to dilution and polarity effects. In this case, high concentration of the free-radical photoinitiator is required for the dual photoinitiator system. Physical properties of hybrid polymers also varied with acrylate structures and monomer composition. Dynamic modulation methods were proposed to enhance the diepoxide reactivity and final properties in the presence of urethane acrylates.

  6. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are viable cosolvents for enzyme-catalyzed epoxide hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Diana; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Widersten, Mikael

    2010-06-01

    A special group of ionic liquids, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been tested as cosolvents in enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of a chiral (1,2)-trans-2-methylstyrene oxide. The choline chloride:ethane diol (ET), choline chloride:glycerol (GLY) and choline:chloride:urea (REL) DESs were included in the reaction mixtures with epoxide and the potato epoxide hydrolase StEH1. The effect of the DESs on enzyme function was primarily elevations of K(M) (up to 20-fold) and with lesser effects on turnover numbers (twofold variation). The regioselectivity in hydrolysis of the (1R,2R)-2-trans-methylstyrene oxide was altered in the presence of GLY or ET to favor epoxide ring opening at the benzylic carbon (R=2.33), enhancing the regioselectivity observed in buffer-only systems (R=1.35). The DES solutions dissolved 1.5-fold higher epoxide concentrations as compared to phosphate buffer. The total conversion of high concentration (40 g/l) of (1S,2S)-MeSO was not negatively affected by addition of 40% GLY. PMID:20438773

  7. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    van Heijenoort, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The review summarizes the abundant information on the 35 identified peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases of Escherichia coli classified into 12 distinct families, including mainly glycosidases, peptidases, and amidases. An attempt is also made to critically assess their functions in PG maturation, turnover, elongation, septation, and recycling as well as in cell autolysis. There is at least one hydrolytic activity for each bond linking PG components, and most hydrolase genes were identified. Few hydrolases appear to be individually essential. The crystal structures and reaction mechanisms of certain hydrolases having defined functions were investigated. However, our knowledge of the biochemical properties of most hydrolases still remains fragmentary, and that of their cellular functions remains elusive. Owing to redundancy, PG hydrolases far outnumber the enzymes of PG biosynthesis. The presence of the two sets of enzymes acting on the PG bonds raises the question of their functional correlations. It is difficult to understand why E. coli keeps such a large set of PG hydrolases. The subtle differences in substrate specificities between the isoenzymes of each family certainly reflect a variety of as-yet-unidentified physiological functions. Their study will be a far more difficult challenge than that of the steps of the PG biosynthesis pathway. PMID:22126997

  8. Cyclic interconversion of vitamin K1 and vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide in man.

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, H; Trenk, D; Meinertz, T; Rowland, M; Jähnchen, E

    1983-01-01

    The disposition of a single intravenous bolus dose of 10 mg vitamin K1 and vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide were studied in two healthy subjects without and with 12 h pretreatment dose of phenprocoumon (0.4 mg/kg). For each compound administered alone the plasma concentration-time profile was adequately fitted by a biexponential equation, with an average terminal half-life of 2.0 and 1.15 h for the administered vitamin K and its 2,3-epoxide respectively. While vitamin K1 was measurable in plasma following administration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide, the epoxide was not detectable following administration of vitamin K1. Following pretreatment with phenprocoumon and after intravenous administration of vitamin K1, both the average half-life and area under the plasma concentration-time profile of vitamin K1 were marginally reduced to 1.5 h and 1.76 mg l-1 h respectively, while the plasma concentration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide was readily measurable and its half-life markedly prolonged to 14.7 h. Following pretreatment with phenprocoumon and after oral administration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide, no vitamin K1 was detectable in plasma and the half-life of the epoxide was 13.8 h. Based on area considerations the data suggest that either phenprocoumon does more than just inhibit the reduction of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide to vitamin K1, or that the simple model describing the interconversion between vitamin K1 and its epoxide is inadequate. The same conclusion is drawn from the analysis of comparable data in dogs, obtained by Carlisle & Blaschke (1981). PMID:6661354

  9. Re-characterization of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate hydrolase belonging to the serine hydrolase family.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Makoto; Imaoka, Takuya; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Takao

    2016-08-01

    A novel bacterium assimilating di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate as a sole carbon source was isolated, and identified as a Rhodococcus species and the strain was named EG-5. The strain has a mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) hydrolase (EG-5 MehpH), which exhibits some different enzymatic features when compared with the previously reported MEHP hydrolase (P8219 MehpH) from Gordonia sp. These differences include different pH optimum activity, maximal reaction temperature and heat stability. The Km and Vmax values of EG-5 MehpH were significantly higher than those of P8219 MehpH. The primary structure of EG-5 MehpH showed the highest sequence identity to that of P8219 MehpH (39%) among hydrolases. The phylogenetic tree suggested that EG-5 MehpH and P8219 MehpH were categorized in different groups of the novel MEHP hydrolase family. Mutation of a conserved R(109) residue of EG-5 MehpH to a hydrophobic residue resulted in a dramatic reduction in the Vmax value towards MEHP without affecting the Km value. These results indicate that this residue may neutralize the negative charge of a carboxylate anion of MEHP, and thus inhibit the catalytic nucleophile from attacking the ester bond. In other words, the R residue blocks inhibition from the carboxylate anion of MEHP. Recently, registered hypothetical proteins exhibiting 98% or 99% identities for EG-5 MehpH or for P8219 MehpH were found from some pathogens belonging to Actinomycetes. The protein may have other activities besides MEHP hydrolysis and function in other physiological reactions in some Actinomycetes. PMID:26868518

  10. Mechanistic Investigations of Unsaturated Glucuronyl Hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens*

    PubMed Central

    Jongkees, Seino A. K.; Yoo, Hayoung; Withers, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to probe the details of the hydration-initiated hydrolysis catalyzed by the Clostridium perfringens unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase of glycoside hydrolase family 88 in the CAZy classification system. Direct 1H NMR monitoring of the enzymatic reaction detected no accumulated reaction intermediates in solution, suggesting that rearrangement of the initial hydration product occurs on-enzyme. An attempt at mechanism-based trapping of on-enzyme intermediates using a 1,1-difluoro-substrate was unsuccessful because the probe was too deactivated to be turned over by the enzyme. Kinetic isotope effects arising from deuterium-for-hydrogen substitution at carbons 1 and 4 provide evidence for separate first-irreversible and overall rate-determining steps in the hydration reaction, with two potential mechanisms proposed to explain these results. Based on the positioning of catalytic residues in the enzyme active site, the lack of efficient turnover of a 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-substrate, and several unsuccessful attempts at confirmation of a simpler mechanism involving a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, the most plausible mechanism is one involving an intermediate bearing an epoxide on carbons 1 and 2. PMID:24573682

  11. Mechanistic investigations of unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Jongkees, Seino A K; Yoo, Hayoung; Withers, Stephen G

    2014-04-18

    Experiments were carried out to probe the details of the hydration-initiated hydrolysis catalyzed by the Clostridium perfringens unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase of glycoside hydrolase family 88 in the CAZy classification system. Direct (1)H NMR monitoring of the enzymatic reaction detected no accumulated reaction intermediates in solution, suggesting that rearrangement of the initial hydration product occurs on-enzyme. An attempt at mechanism-based trapping of on-enzyme intermediates using a 1,1-difluoro-substrate was unsuccessful because the probe was too deactivated to be turned over by the enzyme. Kinetic isotope effects arising from deuterium-for-hydrogen substitution at carbons 1 and 4 provide evidence for separate first-irreversible and overall rate-determining steps in the hydration reaction, with two potential mechanisms proposed to explain these results. Based on the positioning of catalytic residues in the enzyme active site, the lack of efficient turnover of a 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-substrate, and several unsuccessful attempts at confirmation of a simpler mechanism involving a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, the most plausible mechanism is one involving an intermediate bearing an epoxide on carbons 1 and 2. PMID:24573682

  12. Plant Microsomal Phospholipid Acyl Hydrolases Have Selectivities for Uncommon Fatty Acids.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, U.; Banas, A.; Stymne, S.

    1995-01-01

    Developing endosperms and embryos accumulating triacylglycerols rich in caproyl (decanoyl) groups (i.e. developing embryos of Cuphea procumbens and Ulmus glabra) had microsomal acyl hydrolases with high selectivities toward phosphatidylcholine with this acyl group. Similarly, membranes from Euphorbia lagascae and Ricinus communis endosperms, which accumulate triacylglycerols with vernoleate (12-epoxy-octadeca-9-enoate) and ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoate), respectively, had acyl hydrolases that selectively removed their respective oxygenated acyl group from the phospholipids. The activities toward phospholipid substrates with epoxy, hydroxy, and medium-chain acyl groups varied greatly between microsomal preparations from different plant species. Epoxidated and hydroxylated acyl groups in sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidylcholine and in sn-1-lysophosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed to a similar extent, whereas the hydrolysis of caproyl groups was highly dependent on the positional localization. PMID:12228415

  13. Organocatalyzed enantioselective desymmetrization of aziridines and epoxides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Enantioselective desymmetrization of meso-aziridines and meso-epoxides with various nucleophiles by organocatalysis has emerged as a cutting-edge approach in recent years. This review summarizes the origin and recent developments of enantioselective desymmetrization of meso-aziridines and meso-epoxides in the presence of organocatalysts. PMID:24062828

  14. Polyglycine hydrolases secreted by pathogenic fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogens are known to produce proteases that target host defense proteins. Here we describe polyglycine hydrolases, fungal proteases that selectively cleave glycine-glycine peptide bonds within the polyglycine interdomain linker of targeted plant defense chitinases. Polyglycine hydrolases were puri...

  15. Mutagenic characterization of cholesterol epoxides in Chinese hamster V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Peterson, A R; Peterson, H; Spears, C P; Trosko, J E; Sevanian, A

    1988-10-01

    The uptake, metabolism and alkylating properties of the diastereomeric cholesterol epoxides were studied using Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells). Specific emphasis is given to the comparative cyto- and geno-toxic effects of cholesterol 5 beta,6 beta-epoxide (beta CE) and cholesterol 5 alpha,6 alpha-epoxide (alpha CE) and data are provided for the first time indicating that beta CE can induce more 6-thioguanine-resistant cells than alpha CE. Cholesterol 5 beta,6 beta-epoxide induced colonies of cells resistant to 6-thioguanine at 2-3-fold the frequencies observed with the alpha-isomer, but neither compound produced ouabain-resistant colonies. The cytotoxicity (LD50) of alpha CE was estimated to be 45-50 microM whereas beta CE displayed an LD50 of 25-29 microM. Inhibition of DNA synthesis (IC50) was observed over the same dose ranges as the LD50 for each epoxide isomer. The epoxides were assimilated by cells to an equal extent, however, beta CE was metabolized to cholestane 3 beta,5 alpha-6 beta-triol twice as rapidly as the alpha-isomer. Both epoxides reacted with 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine to a similar extent, and with identical nucleophilic selectivity at pH 7.4, but their alkylating activity was estimated on this basis to be two orders of magnitude less than methyl methanesulfonate. Binding experiments with the DNA or cultured V79 cells or with calf-thymus DNA indicated that interactions were noncovalent and DNA binding did not correlate with the potency of the epoxides to induce the 6-thioguanine-resistant phenotype. Our results could be interpreted as indicating that both cholesterol epoxide isomers are weak mutagens or that they might induce some epigenetic event repressing the hypoxanthine guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase gene. The similarity of the epoxides' alkylating activity and their DNA-binding properties are inconsistent with their different potencies in inducing the 6-thioguanine-resistant phenotype, suggesting that the mechanism leading

  16. Toluene Monooxygenase-Catalyzed Epoxidation of Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    McClay, Kevin; Fox, Brian G.; Steffan, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Several toluene monooxygenase-producing organisms were tested for their ability to oxidize linear alkenes and chloroalkenes three to eight carbons long. Each of the wild-type organisms degraded all of the alkenes that were tested. Epoxides were produced during the oxidation of butene, butadiene, and pentene but not hexene or octadiene. A strain of Escherichia coli expressing the cloned toluene-4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 was able to oxidize butene, butadiene, pentene, and hexene but not octadiene, producing epoxides from all of the substrates that were oxidized. A T4MO-deficient variant of P. mendocina KR1 oxidized alkenes that were five to eight carbons long, but no epoxides were detected, suggesting the presence of multiple alkene-degrading enzymes in this organism. The alkene oxidation rates varied widely (ranging from 0.01 to 0.33 μmol of substrate/min/mg of cell protein) and were specific for each organism-substrate pair. The enantiomeric purity of the epoxide products also varied widely, ranging from 54 to >90% of a single epoxide enantiomer. In the absence of more preferred substrates, such as toluene or alkenes, the epoxides underwent further toluene monooxygenase-catalyzed transformations, forming products that were not identified. PMID:10788354

  17. Hierarchical classification of glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Naumoff, D G

    2011-06-01

    This review deals with structural and functional features of glycoside hydrolases, a widespread group of enzymes present in almost all living organisms. Their catalytic domains are grouped into 120 amino acid sequence-based families in the international classification of the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy database). At a higher hierarchical level some of these families are combined in 14 clans. Enzymes of the same clan have common evolutionary origin of their genes and share the most important functional characteristics such as composition of the active center, anomeric configuration of cleaved glycosidic bonds, and molecular mechanism of the catalyzed reaction (either inverting, or retaining). There are now extensive data in the literature concerning the relationship between glycoside hydrolase families belonging to different clans and/or included in none of them, as well as information on phylogenetic protein relationship within particular families. Summarizing these data allows us to propose a multilevel hierarchical classification of glycoside hydrolases and their homologs. It is shown that almost the whole variety of the enzyme catalytic domains can be brought into six main folds, large groups of proteins having the same three-dimensional structure and the supposed common evolutionary origin. PMID:21639842

  18. Purification of a vitamin K epoxide reductase that catalyzes conversion of vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-phytyl-2,3-dihydronaphthoquinone.

    PubMed Central

    Mukharji, I; Silverman, R B

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme from bovine liver microsomes that catalyzes the reduction of vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to 2- and 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-phytyl-2,3-dihydronaphthoquinone was purified 1152-fold to apparent homogeneity. Microsomes were solubilized with 3-[3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), and the enzyme was purified by chromatography on PBE-94 ion exchanger, hydroxylapatite, and DEAE-cellulose, and then gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200. The homogeneity of the final preparation was established by polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The molecular weight of the native enzyme is 25,000 and that of denatured enzyme is 12,400, which suggests that the enzyme is a dimer with identical subunits. No chromophoric cofactors are associated with the enzyme. Dithiothreitol and CHAPS are essential for activity, but high concentrations of glycerol reduces the activity. The enzyme is not inhibited by warfarin, a potent inhibitor of the vitamin K epoxide reductase, which catalyzes the conversion of vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to vitamin K. Evidence is presented indicating that the purified enzyme is not simply a fragment of the warfarin-sensitive vitamin K epoxide reductase. Images PMID:3857611

  19. MICROSOMAL EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (EPHX) POLYMORPHISM AND RISK OF SPONTANEOUS ABORTION. (R825818)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Monoclonal antibodies reveal multiple forms of expression of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Hongying; Takagi, Akira; Kayano, Hidekazu; Koyama, Isamu; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Akatsuka, Toshitaka

    2012-04-01

    In a previous study, we developed five kinds of monoclonal antibodies against different portions of human mEH: three, anti-N-terminal; one, anti-C-terminal; one, anti-conformational epitope. Using them, we stained the intact and the permeabilized human cells of various kinds and performed flow cytometric analysis. Primary hepatocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed remarkable differences. On the surface, hepatocytes exhibited 4 out of 5 epitopes whereas PBMC did not show any of the epitopes. mEH was detected inside both cell types, but the most prominent expression was observed for the conformational epitope in the hepatocytes and the two N-terminal epitopes in PBMC. These differences were also observed between hepatocyte-derived cell lines and mononuclear cell-derived cell lines. In addition, among each group, there were several differences which may be related to the cultivation, the degree of differentiation, or the original cell subsets. We also noted that two glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked expression of the conformational epitope on the surface which seemed to correlate with the brain tumor-associated antigen reported elsewhere. Several cell lines also underwent selective permeabilization before flow cytometric analysis, and we noticed that the topological orientation of mEH on the ER membrane in those cells was in accordance with the previous report. However, the orientation on the cell surface was inconsistent with the report and had a great variation between the cells. These findings show the multiple mode of expression of mEH which may be possibly related to the multiple roles that mEH plays in different cells. -- Highlights: ► We examine expression of five mEH epitopes in human cells. ► Remarkable differences exist between hepatocytes and PBMC. ► mEH expression in cell lines differs depending on several factors. ► Some glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked surface expression of mEH. ► Topology of mEH on the cell surface has great variation between the cells.

  1. Variation in the human soluble epoxide hydrolase gene and risk of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kullmann, Silke; Binner, Priska; Rackebrandt, Kirsten; Huge, Andreas; Haltern, Georg; Lankisch, Mark; Füth, Reiner; von Hodenberg, Eberhard; Bestehorn, Hans-Peter; Scheffold, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Restenosis represents the major limiting factor for the long-term efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Several genetic factors involved in the regulation of the vascular system have been described to play a role in the pathogenesis of restenosis. We investigated whether the EPHX2 K55R polymorphism, previously linked to significantly higher risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), was associated with the occurrence of restenosis after PCI. The association with incident CHD should have been confirmed and a potential correlation of the EPHX2 K55R variant to an increased risk of hypertension was analysed. Methods An overall cohort of 706 patients was studied: This cohort comprised of 435 CHD patients who had undergone successful PCI. Follow-up coronary angiography in all patients was performed 6 months after intervention. Another 271 patients in whom CHD had been excluded by coronary angiography served as controls. From each patient EDTA-blood was drawn at the baseline ward round. Genomic DNA was extracted from these samples and genotyping was performed by real-time PCR and subsequent melting curve analysis. Results In CHD patients 6 month follow-up coronary angiography revealed a restenosis rate of 29.4%, classified as late lumen loss as well as lumen re-narrowing ≥ 50%. Statistical analysis showed an equal genotype distribution in restenosis patients and non-restenosis patients (A/A 82.0% and A/G + G/G 18.0% versus A/A 82.1% and A/G + G/G 17.9%). Moreover, neither a significant difference in the genotype distribution of CHD patients and controls nor an association with increased risk of hypertension was found. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the EPHX2 K55R polymorphism is not associated with restenosis after PCI, with incidence of CHD, or with an increased risk of hypertension and therefore, can not serve as a predictor for risk of CHD or restenosis after PCI. PMID:19814804

  2. POTENT UREA AND CARBAMATE INHIBITORS OF SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. In Vivo Anti-Tumor Activity and Toxicological Evaluations of Perillaldehyde 8,9-Epoxide, a Derivative of Perillyl Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Luciana Nalone; Amaral, Ricardo Guimarães; Dória, Grace Anne Azevedo; Fonseca, Cecília Santos; da Silva, Tayane Kayane Mariano; Albuquerque Júnior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcante; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; do Nascimento, Lázaro Gomes; Carvalho, Adriana Andrade; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the high cytotoxicity of p-menthane derivatives against human tumor cells. In this study, the substance perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide, a p-menthane class derivative obtained from (S)-(−)-perillyl alcohol, was selected in order to assess antitumor activity against experimental sarcoma 180 tumors. Toxicological effects related to the liver, spleen, kidneys and hematology were evaluated in mice submitted to treatment. The tumor growth inhibition rate was 38.4%, 58.7%, 35.3%, 45.4% and 68.1% at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide, perillyl alcohol and 25 mg/kg/day for 5-FU intraperitoneal treatments, respectively. No toxicologically significant effect was found in liver and kidney parameters analyzed in Sarcoma 180-inoculated mice treated with perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide. Histopathological analyses of the liver, spleen, and kidneys were free from any morphological changes in the organs of the animals treated with perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide. In conclusion, the data suggest that perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide possesses significant antitumor activity without systemic toxicity for the tested parameters. By comparison, there was no statistical difference for the antitumor activity between perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide and perillyl alcohol. PMID:26742032

  4. Indirubin 3'-Epoxide Induces Caspase-Independent Cell Death in Human Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Masahiro; Hanada, Satoshi; Ichimaru, Yoshimi; Saito, Hiroaki; Tabata, Keiichi; Asami, Satoru; Miyairi, Shinichi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Indirubin inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases by binding to their ATP-binding site, thereby exerting potent cytotoxicity on some tumor cells. We examined the anti-tumor effect of indirubin 3'-epoxide on human neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR-32, SK-N-SH, and NB-39). The results revealed potent cytotoxicity of indirubin 3'-epoxide against the IMR-32 (IC50: 0.16 µM) and SK-N-SH (IC50: 0.07 µM) cells. Furthermore, it also induced an increase of the sub-G1 population in the IMR-32 cells. Examination by Hoechst 33342 staining revealed apoptosis characterized by cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation and nuclear fragmentation in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) double-staining revealed an increase in the percentage of early apoptotic cells following treatment of the cells with indirubin 3'-epoxide without activation of caspases. In addition, significant decreases in the protein level of survivin and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), and increase in that of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were found in the nuclei of the cells. These results suggest that indirubin 3'-epoxide induced caspase-independent apoptosis through mechanisms involving DNA fragmentation and inhibition of DNA repair. PMID:27251501

  5. Kinetic Resolution in Asymmetric Epoxidation using Iminium Salt Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The first reported examples of kinetic resolution in epoxidation reactions using iminium salt catalysis are described, providing up to 99% ee in the epoxidation of racemic cis-chromenes. PMID:23862687

  6. SARS coronavirus protein 7a interacts with human Ap4A-hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) open reading frame 7a (ORF 7a) encodes a 122 amino acid accessory protein. It has no significant sequence homology with any other known proteins. The 7a protein is present in the virus particle and has been shown to interact with several host proteins; thereby implicating it as being involved in several pathogenic processes including apoptosis, inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, and activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. In this study we present data demonstrating that the SARS-CoV 7a protein interacts with human Ap4A-hydrolase (asymmetrical diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase, EC 3.6.1.17). Ap4A-hydrolase is responsible for metabolizing the "allarmone" nucleotide Ap4A and therefore likely involved in regulation of cell proliferation, DNA replication, RNA processing, apoptosis and DNA repair. The interaction between 7a and Ap4A-hydrolase was identified using yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation from cultured human cells transiently expressing V5-His tagged 7a and HA tagged Ap4A-hydrolase. Human tissue culture cells transiently expressing 7a and Ap4A-hydrolase tagged with EGFP and Ds-Red2 respectively show these proteins co-localize in the cytoplasm. PMID:20144233

  7. Discovery of Triterpenoids as Reversible Inhibitors of α/β-hydrolase Domain Containing 12 (ABHD12)

    PubMed Central

    Parkkari, Teija; Haavikko, Raisa; Laitinen, Tuomo; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Rytilahti, Roosa; Vaara, Miia; Lehtonen, Marko; Alakurtti, Sami; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Nevalainen, Tapio; Savinainen, Juha R.; Laitinen, Jarmo T.

    2014-01-01

    Background α/β-hydrolase domain containing (ABHD)12 is a recently discovered serine hydrolase that acts in vivo as a lysophospholipase for lysophosphatidylserine. Dysfunctional ABHD12 has been linked to the rare neurodegenerative disorder called PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinosis pigmentosa, cataract). In vitro, ABHD12 has been implicated in the metabolism of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Further studies on ABHD12 function are hampered as no selective inhibitor have been identified to date. In contrast to the situation with the other endocannabinoid hydrolases, ABHD12 has remained a challenging target for inhibitor development as no crystal structures are available to facilitate drug design. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the unexpected discovery that certain triterpene-based structures inhibit human ABHD12 hydrolase activity in a reversible manner, the best compounds showing submicromolar potency. Based on structure activity relationship (SAR) data collected for 68 natural and synthetic triterpenoid structures, a pharmacophore model has been constructed. A pentacyclic triterpene backbone with carboxyl group at position 17, small hydrophobic substituent at the position 4, hydrogen bond donor or acceptor at position 3 accompanied with four axial methyl substituents was found crucial for ABHD12 inhibitor activity. Although the triterpenoids typically may have multiple protein targets, we witnessed unprecedented selectivity for ABHD12 among the metabolic serine hydrolases, as activity-based protein profiling of mouse brain membrane proteome indicated that the representative ABHD12 inhibitors did not inhibit other serine hydrolases, nor did they target cannabinoid receptors. Conclusions/Significance We have identified reversibly-acting triterpene-based inhibitors that show remarkable selectivity for ABHD12 over other metabolic serine hydrolases. Based on SAR data, we have constructed the first pharmacophore

  8. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun Ping; Swain, Elisabeth; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I′, II, II′) were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, Km, Vmax) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:16652959

  9. Effect of warfarin on plasma and liver vitamin K levels and vitamin K epoxide reductase activity in relation to plasma clotting factor levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Y; Yamano, M; Yasunaga, K; Shike, T; Uchida, K

    1990-01-15

    Changes in plasma and liver vitamin K1 and vitamin K1 epoxide levels, liver microsomal vitamin K epoxide reductase activity, and plasma clotting factor II and VII levels were determined in rats after a single injection of warfarin (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.). The plasma and liver vitamin K1 levels gradually decreased after warfarin injection, attaining the lowest values at 2-3 hrs and remaining low for 48 hrs. They then returned to the control levels at 72 hrs. The changes in vitamin K1 epoxide levels were opposite, with an increase being seen soon after the warfarin injection, the highest values at 3 hrs and a gradual decrease to the initial levels occurring subsequently. The combined levels of vitamin K1 plus vitamin K1 epoxide, however, remained almost constant in both plasma and liver after the warfarin injection. The liver vitamin K epoxide reductase activity decreased to its lowest level soon after the injection and then gradually increased after 12 hrs, but the activity at 72 hrs was only about 30% of the initial activity. The plasma clotting factor levels gradually decreased after the injection, bottomed at 24 hrs and then began to increase, recovering almost to the initial levels at 72 hrs. A positive correlation was found between plasma and liver levels for both vitamin K1 and vitamin K1 epoxide, and the slope of the vitamin K1 epoxide curve was steeper than that for vitamin K1 in the warfarin-treated rats. A similar positive correlation was found for both vitamin K1 and vitamin K1 epoxide after vitamin K1 injection in normal untreated rats, but the slope of the vitamin K1 epoxide curve was much shallower. These results suggest that warfarin inhibits vitamin K epoxide reductase and decreases blood clotting factor synthesis, thus increasing plasma and liver vitamin K1 epoxide levels. A vitamin K epoxide reductase activity one third of that in normal rats is sufficient to maintain normal reduction of vitamin K1 epoxide and synthesis of blood clotting factors. PMID

  10. Alkene epoxidation employing metal nitro complexes

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, M.A.; Cheng, C.W.; Kelley, K.P.

    1982-07-15

    Process for converting alkenes to form epoxides utilizes transition metal nitro complexes of the formula: M(RCN)/sub 2/XNO/sub 2/ wherein M is palladium or platinum, R is an alkyl or aryl group containing up to 12 carbon atoms, and X is a monoanionic, monodentate ligand such as chlorine, optionally in the presence of molecular oxygen.

  11. Epoxidation of Methyl Oleate using Heterogeneous Catalyst

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work we studied the catalytic activity of commercial alumina, and laboratory synthesized alumina doped with Lewis acid metals, in the epoxidation of methyl oleate with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. It was observed that the reaction yields increased when the amount of catalyst, the quantity of ...

  12. Determination of equivalent weight of epoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, W.S.

    1987-01-15

    Hydrogen bromide is generated in situ by the addition of perchloric acid to quaternary ammonium bromide. The HBr rapidly opens the oxirane (epoxide) ring. The excess hydrogen bromide is sensed and indicated by the electrode couple in the potentiometric titration. 2 refs.

  13. Epoxidation of methyl oleate using heterogeneous catalyst

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of synthetic processes have been reported, utilizing epoxidized soybean oil and corresponding epoxy fatty ester systems, as intermediates to obtain industrially significant materials, e.g. bio-based polymers, emollients, chemical solvents, fuel additives, and lubricants. One of the reason...

  14. Polymerization of epoxidized triglycerides with fluorosulfonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of triglycerides as agri-based renewable raw materials for the development of new products is highly desirable in view of uncertain future petroleum prices. A new method of polymerizing epoxidized soybean oil has been devised with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the reaction con...

  15. Functionalization of Oleyl Carbonate by Epoxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing interest in commercial applications due to their physical properties and relatively straightforward synthesis. Herein, oleyl carbonate (1), an olechemical-based compound derived from oleyl alcohol, was epoxidized utilizing performic acid generated in situ from formic acid and 50% H2O2. ...

  16. Identification of oxidized protein hydrolase of human erythrocytes as acylpeptide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Fujino, T; Watanabe, K; Beppu, M; Kikugawa, K; Yasuda, H

    2000-03-16

    Partial amino acid sequence of 80 kDa oxidized protein hydrolase (OPH), a serine protease present in human erythrocyte cytosol (Fujino et al., J. Biochem. 124 (1998) 1077-1085) that is adherent to oxidized erythrocyte membranes and preferentially degrades oxidatively damaged proteins (Beppu et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1196 (1994) 81-87; Fujino et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1374 (1998) 47-55) was determined. The N-terminal amino acid of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP)-labeled OPH was suggested to be masked. Six peptide fragments of OPH obtained by digestion of DFP-labeled OPH with lysyl endopeptidase were isolated by use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the sequence of more than eight amino acids from the N-terminal position of each peptide was determined. Results of homology search of amino acid sequence of each peptide strongly suggested that the protein was identical with human liver acylpeptide hydrolase (ACPH). OPH showed ACPH activity when N-acetyl-L-alanine p-nitroanilide and N-acetylmethionyl L-alanine were used as substrates. Glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged recombinant ACPH (rACPH) was prepared by use of baculovirus expression system as a 107-kDa protein from cDNA of human erythroleukemic cell line K-562. rACPH reacted with anti-OPH antiserum from rabbit. rACPH showed OPH activity when hydrogen peroxide-oxidized or glycated bovine serum albumin was used as substrates. As well as the enzyme activities of OPH, those of rACPH were inhibited by DFP. The results clearly demonstrate that ACPH, whose physiological function has not yet been well characterized, can play an important role as OPH in destroying oxidatively damaged proteins in living cells. PMID:10719179

  17. Searching for monooxygenases and hydrolases in bacteria from an extreme environment.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Georgiana F; Angolini, Célio F F; de Oliveira, Luciana G; Lopes, Patrícia F; de Vasconcellos, Suzan P; Crespim, Elaine; de Oliveira, Valéria M; dos Santos Neto, Eugênio V; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2010-06-01

    Microbial oxidation potentials of extremophiles recovered from Pampo Sul oil field, Campos Basin, Brazil, in pure culture or in consortia, were investigated using high-throughput screening (HTS) and multibioreactions. Camphor (1), cis-jasmone (2), 2-methyl-cyclohexanone (3), 1,2-epoxyoctane (4), phenylethyl acetate (5), phenylethyl propionate (6), and phenylethyl octanoate (7) were used to perform multibioreaction assays. Eighty-two bacterial isolates were recovered from oil and formation water samples and those presenting outstanding activities in HTS assays were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. These results revealed that most microorganisms belonged to the genus Bacillus and presented alcohol dehydrogenase, monooxygenase, epoxide hydrolase, esterase, and lipase activities. PMID:20204614

  18. Sulfonyl fluoride inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Alapafuja, Shakiru O; Nikas, Spyros P; Bharathan, Indu T; Shukla, Vidyanand G; Nasr, Mahmoud L; Bowman, Anna L; Zvonok, Nikolai; Li, Jing; Shi, Xiaomeng; Engen, John R; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2012-11-26

    Sulfonyl fluorides are known to inhibit esterases. Early work from our laboratory has identified hexadecyl sulfonylfluoride (AM374) as a potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We now report on later generation sulfonyl fluoride analogs that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of FAAH. Using recombinant rat and human FAAH, we show that 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)pentanesulfonyl fluoride (AM3506) has similar inhibitory activity for both the rat and the human enzyme, while rapid dilution assays and mass spectrometry analysis suggest that the compound is a covalent modifier for FAAH and inhibits its action in an irreversible manner. Our SAR results are highlighted by molecular docking of key analogs. PMID:23083016

  19. Click-generated triazole ureas as ultrapotent, in vivo-active serine hydrolase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Adibekian, Alexander; Martin, Brent R.; Wang, Chu; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Niessen, Sherry; Hoover, Heather; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2011-01-01

    Serine hydrolases (SHs) are a diverse enzyme class representing > 1% of all human proteins. The biological functions for most SHs remain poorly characterized due to a lack of selective inhibitors to probe their activity in living systems. Here, we show that a substantial number of SHs can be irreversibly inactivated by 1,2,3-triazole ureas, which exhibit negligible cross-reactivity with other protein classes. Rapid lead optimization by click chemistry-enabled synthesis and competitive activity-based profiling identified 1,2,3-triazole ureas that selectively inhibit enzymes from diverse branches of the SH superfamily, including peptidases (acyl-peptide hydrolase or APEH), lipases (platelet-activating factor acetylhyrolase-2 or PAFAH2), and uncharacterized hydrolases (α, β-hydrolase 11 or ABHD11), with exceptional potency in cells (sub-nM) and mice (< 1 mg/kg). We show that APEH inhibition leads to accumulation of N-acetylated proteins and promotes proliferation in T-cells. These data designate 1,2,3-triazole ureas as a pharmacologically privileged chemotype for SH inhibition that shows broad activity across the SH class coupled with tunable selectivity for individual enzymes. PMID:21572424

  20. Stereochemistry of the epoxidation of internal perfluoroalkenes with sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Filyakova, T.I.; Peschanskii, N.V.; Kodess, M.I.; Zapevalov, A.Ya.; Kolenko, I.P.

    1988-07-20

    The authors studied the epoxidation of the mixture of cis and trans isomers of internal disubstituted perfluoroalkenes with sodium hypochlorite. Epoxidation was realized with an alkaline aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite in the presence of acetonitrile. The epoxidation of the geometric isomers of internal disubstituted perfluoroalkenes by sodium hypochlorite is stereospecific. The /sup 19/F NMR spectra of the cis and trans isomers of internal perfluoroolefin oxides were obtained, and the relationships are discussed.

  1. Epoxide composites with thermally reduced graphite oxide and their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzov, A. A.; Muradyan, V. E.; Tarasov, B. P.; Sokolov, E. A.; Babenko, S. D.

    2016-05-01

    The properties of epoxide composites modified by thermal reduced graphite oxide are studied. The dielectric permittivities of epoxide composites with additives of up to 1.5 wt % of reduced graphite oxide are studied at a frequency of 9.8 GHz. It is shown that despite its low electrical conductivity, the large specific surface area of reduced graphite oxide allows us to create epoxide composites with high complex dielectric permittivities and dielectric loss tangents.

  2. A remarkable activity of human leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) toward unnatural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Byzia, Anna; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Salvesen, Guy S; Drag, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H--EC 3.3.2.6) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme, which processes LTA4 through an epoxide hydrolase activity and is also able to trim one amino acid at a time from N-terminal peptidic substrates via its aminopeptidase activity. In this report, we have utilized a library of 130 individual proteinogenic and unnatural amino acid fluorogenic substrates to determine the aminopeptidase specificity of this enzyme. We have found that the best proteinogenic amino acid recognized by LTA4H is arginine. However, we have also observed several unnatural amino acids, which were significantly better in terms of cleavage rate (k cat/K m values). Among them, the benzyl ester of aspartic acid exhibited a k cat/K m value that was more than two orders of magnitude higher (1.75 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) as compared to L-Arg (1.5 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). This information can be used for design of potent inhibitors of this enzyme, but may also suggest yet undiscovered functions or specificities of LTA4H. PMID:24573245

  3. Simple Epoxide Formation for the Organic Laboratory Using Oxone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broshears, Williams C.; Esteb, John J.; Richter, Jeremy; Wilson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    Epoxide chemistry is widely used in organic synthesis and regularly discussed in organic chemistry textbooks. An experiment to generate dimethyldioxirane in situ from acetone using Oxone is explained.

  4. The electron-impact promoted fragmentation of aurone epoxides.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, B. A.; O'Sullivan, W. I.; Duffield, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    The mass spectra of six aurone epoxides have been rationalized with the aid of high resolution mass spectrometry and metastable ion evidence. These compounds fragment in a well defined manner and mechanisms are proposed for the formation of their characteristic ions. Some similarity was observed between the mass spectra of 6-methoxyaurone epoxide (II), 4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-phenylcoumarin (VII) and 7-methoxyflavonol (IX). The possibility that VII and IX are intermediates in the fragmentation of epoxide II is discussed. Thermal rearrangement of aurone epoxide II was shown to yield the corresponding flavonol IX and coumarin VII.

  5. Expression and characterization of styrene monooxygenases of Rhodococcus sp. ST-5 and ST-10 for synthesizing enantiopure (S)-epoxides.

    PubMed

    Toda, Hiroshi; Imae, Ryouta; Komio, Tomoko; Itoh, Nobuya

    2012-10-01

    Styrene monooxygenase (StyA, SMOA)- and flavin oxidoreductase (StyB, SMOB)-coding genes of styrene-assimilating bacteria Rhodococcus sp. ST-5 and ST-10 were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Determined amino acid sequences of StyAs and StyBs of ST-5 and ST-10 showed more similarity with those of Pseudomonas than with self-sufficient styrene monooxygenase (StyA2B) of Rhodococcus. Recombinant enzymes were purified from E. coli cells as functional proteins, and their properties were characterized in detail. StyBs (flavin oxidoreductase) of strains ST-5 and ST-10 have similar enzymatic properties to those of Pseudomonas, but StyB of strain ST-10 exhibited higher temperature stability than that of strain ST-5. StyAs of strains ST-5 and ST-10 catalyzed the epoxidation of vinyl side-chain of styrene and its derivatives and produced (S)-epoxides from styrene derivatives and showed high stereoselectivity. Both StyAs showed higher specific activity on halogenated styrene derivatives than on styrene itself. Additionally, the enzymes could catalyze the epoxidation of short-chain 1-alkenes to the corresponding (S)-epoxides. Aromatic compounds including styrene, 3-chlorostyrene, styrene oxide, and benzene exhibited marked inhibition of SMO reaction, although linear 1-alkene showed no inhibition of SMO activity at any concentration. PMID:22258641

  6. Effect of Bile Salt Hydrolase Inhibitors on a Bile Salt Hydrolase from Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Negga, Rekek; Zeng, Ximin; Smith, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Bile salt hydrolase (BSH), a widely distributed function of the gut microbiota, has a profound impact on host lipid metabolism and energy harvest. Recent studies suggest that BSH inhibitors are promising alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) for enhanced animal growth performance and food safety. Using a high-purity BSH from Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we have identified a panel of BSH inhibitors. However, it is still unknown if these inhibitors also effectively inhibit the function of the BSH enzymes from other bacterial species with different sequence and substrate spectrum. In this study, we performed bioinformatics analysis and determined the inhibitory effect of identified BSH inhibitors on a BSH from L. acidophilus. Although the L. acidophilus BSH is phylogenetically distant from the L. salivarius BSH, sequence analysis and structure modeling indicated the two BSH enzymes contain conserved, catalytically important amino residues and domain. His-tagged recombinant BSH from L. acidophilus was further purified and used to determine inhibitory effect of specific compounds. Previously identified BSH inhibitors also exhibited potent inhibitory effects on the L. acidophilus BSH. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the BSH from L. salivarius is an ideal candidate for screening BSH inhibitors, the promising alternatives to AGP for enhanced feed efficiency, growth performance and profitability of food animals. PMID:25526498

  7. Hydrolase-catalyzed biotransformations in deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Gorke, Johnathan T; Srienc, Friedrich; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2008-03-14

    Hydrolases show good catalytic activity in deep eutectic solvents, despite the presence of urea, which can denature enzymes, or alcohols, which can interfere with hydrolase-catalyzed reactions. PMID:18309428

  8. 40 CFR 721.2675 - Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). 721.2675 Section 721.2675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.2675 Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2675 - Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). 721.2675 Section 721.2675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.2675 Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2675 - Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). 721.2675 Section 721.2675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.2675 Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2675 - Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). 721.2675 Section 721.2675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.2675 Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2675 - Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). 721.2675 Section 721.2675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.2675 Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  13. Identification of Epoxide-Derived Metabolite(s) of Benzbromarone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Hui; Peng, Ying; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Benzbromarone (BBR) is a benzofuran derivative that has been quite useful for the treatment of gout; however, it was withdrawn from European markets in 2003 because of reported serious incidents of drug-induced liver injury. BBR-induced hepatotoxicity has been suggested to be associated with the formation of a quinone intermediate. The present study reported epoxide-derived intermediate(s) of BBR. An N-acetylcysteine (NAC) conjugate derived from epoxide metabolite(s) was detected in both microsomal incubations of BBR and urine samples of mice treated with BBR. The NAC conjugate was identified as 6-NAC BBR. Ketoconazole suppressed the bioactivation of BBR to the epoxide intermediate(s), and the CYP3A subfamily was the primary enzyme responsible for the formation of the epoxide(s). The present study provided new information on metabolic activation of BBR. PMID:26792818

  14. Epoxides--is there a human health problem?

    PubMed Central

    Manson, M M

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to consider whether epoxides represent a hazard to human health. Possible means of occupational and non-occupational exposure are discussed with reference to the production and uses of industrially important compounds and other epoxides, such as naturally occurring plant and fungal products. In addition to epoxides themselves, unsaturated compounds that may be metabolised in vivo to epoxides are included, since this appears to be a further important means of exposure. The toxicology, in particular carcinogenicity and mutagenicity, is discussed, along with a brief outline of the biochemistry such as metabolism, binding to cell constituents, and DNA repair mechanisms. The question of interactions between different epoxides in vivo is also raised. PMID:7004476

  15. Regiospecific Epoxidation of Carvone: A Discovery-Oriented Experiment for Understanding the Selectivity and Mechanism of Epoxidation Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Lai, Y. M.; Siu, Yuk-Hong

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a discovery-oriented experiment for demonstrating the selectivity of two epoxidation reactions. Peroxy acids and alkaline H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] are two commonly used reagents for alkene epoxidation. The former react preferentially with electron-rich alkenes while the latter works better with alpha,beta-unsaturated…

  16. Twisting of glycosidic bonds by hydrolases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patterns of scissile bond twisting have been found in crystal structures of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that are complexed with substrates and inhibitors. To estimate the increased potential energy in the substrates that results from this twisting, we have plotted torsion angles for the scissile bond...

  17. Structure and function of polyglycine hydrolases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyglycine hydrolases (PGH)s are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave polyglycine linkers of targeted plant defense chitinases. Unlike typical endoproteases that cleave a specific peptide bond, these 640 amino acid glycoproteins selectively cleave one of multiple peptide bonds within polyglyci...

  18. PLANT FATTY ACID (ETHANOL) AMIDE HYDROLASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) plays a central role in modulating endogenous N-acylethanolamine (NAE) levels in vertebrates, and, in part, constitutes an “endocannabinoid” signaling pathway that regulates diverse physiological and behavioral processes in animals. Recently, an Arabidopsis FAAH hom...

  19. Inhibitory activity of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors against human cytomegalovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Snoeck, R; Andrei, G; Neyts, J; Schols, D; Cools, M; Balzarini, J; De Clercq, E

    1993-07-01

    Various acyclic and carbocyclic adenosine analogues, which are apparently targeted at the S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase have been reported to inhibit the replication of a number of pox-, rhabdo-, paramyxo-, arena-, and reoviruses. Here we show that this activity spectrum extends to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Of the compounds tested, neplanocin A, 3-deazaneplanocin A, 6'-C-methylneplanocin A and 5'-noraristeromycin were found to be the most potent inhibitors of HCMV replication in vitro. Their 50% inhibitory concentration ranged from 0.05 to 1.35 micrograms/ml. In general, the anti-HCMV activity of the adenosine analogues correlated well with their affinity (Ki) for AdoHcy hydrolase, suggesting that AdoHcy hydrolase may be considered as a target enzyme for anti-HCMV agents. For four compounds (3-deazaneplanocin A, 6'-C-methylneplanocin A (isomers I and II) and 3-deazaadenosine), anti-HCMV potency was greater than could be expected solely from their interaction with AdoHcy hydrolase, suggesting that these compounds may be functioning by an additional mechanism. PMID:8215298

  20. In Silico Investigation of Flavonoids as Potential Trypanosomal Nucleoside Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Christina Hung Hung; Fatima, Ayesha; Gaurav, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis is endemic to 37 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by two related species of Trypanosoma brucei. Current therapies suffer from resistance and public accessibility of expensive medicines. Finding safer and effective therapies of natural origin is being extensively explored worldwide. Pentamidine is the only available therapy for inhibiting the P2 adenosine transporter involved in the purine salvage pathway of the trypanosomatids. The objective of the present study is to use computational studies for the investigation of the probable trypanocidal mechanism of flavonoids. Docking experiments were carried out on eight flavonoids of varying level of hydroxylation, namely, flavone, 5-hydroxyflavone, 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, apigenin, kaempferol, fisetin, and quercetin. Using AutoDock 4.2, these compounds were tested for their affinity towards inosine-adenosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase and the inosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase, the major enzymes of the purine salvage pathway. Our results showed that all of the eight tested flavonoids showed high affinities for both hydrolases (lowest free binding energy ranging from −10.23 to −7.14 kcal/mol). These compounds, especially the hydroxylated derivatives, could be further studied as potential inhibitors of the nucleoside hydrolases. PMID:26640486

  1. Purification and Characterization of TrzF: Biuret Hydrolysis by Allophanate Hydrolase Supports Growth

    PubMed Central

    Shapir, Nir; Cheng, Gang; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2006-01-01

    TrzF, the allophanate hydrolase from Enterobacter cloacae strain 99, was cloned, overexpressed in the presence of a chaperone protein, and purified to homogeneity. Native TrzF had a subunit molecular weight of 65,401 and a subunit stoichiometry of α2 and did not contain significant levels of metals. TrzF showed time-dependent inhibition by phenyl phosphorodiamidate and is a member of the amidase signature protein family. TrzF was highly active in the hydrolysis of allophanate but was not active with urea, despite having been previously considered a urea amidolyase. TrzF showed lower activity with malonamate, malonamide, and biuret. The allophanate hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, AtzF, was also shown to hydrolyze biuret slowly. Since biuret and allophanate are consecutive metabolites in cyanuric acid metabolism, the low level of biuret hydrolase activity can have physiological significance. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain containing atzD, encoding cyanuric acid hydrolase that produces biuret, and atzF grew slowly on cyanuric acid as a source of nitrogen. The amount of growth produced was consistent with the liberation of 3 mol of ammonia from cyanuric acid. In vitro, TrzF was shown to hydrolyze biuret to liberate 3 mol of ammonia. The biuret hydrolyzing activity of TrzF might also be physiologically relevant in native strains. E. cloacae strain 99 grows on cyanuric acid with a significant accumulation of biuret. PMID:16597948

  2. Purification and specificity of a human microsomal epoxide hydratase

    PubMed Central

    Oesch, Franz

    1974-01-01

    Epoxide hydratase was solubilized from human liver microsomal fractions and purified to an extent where the specific activity was 40-fold greater than that of the liver homogenate. Combination of homogenate and purified preparation showed that the increase in activity was not due to the removal of an inhibitor. Monosubstituted oxiranes with a lipophilic substituent larger than an ethyl group (isopropyl, t-butyl, n-hexyl, phenyl) readily interacted as substrates or inhibitors with this purified human epoxide hydratase, whereas those with a small substituent (methyl, ethyl, vinyl) were inactive, probably reflecting greater affinity of the former epoxides owing to lipophilic binding sites near the active site of the enzyme. In a series of oxiranes having a lipophilic substituent of sufficient size (styrene oxides), monosubstituted as well as 1,1- and cis-1,2-disubstituted oxiranes readily served as substrates or inhibitors of the enzyme, but not the trans-1,2-disubstituted, tri- or tetra-substituted oxiranes. trans-Substitution at the oxirane ring apparently prevents access of the oxirane ring to the active site by steric hindrance. Epoxide hydratase was also solubilized from microsomal fractions of rat and guinea-pig liver and purified by the same procedure. Structural requirements for effective interaction of substrates, inhibitors and activators were qualitatively identical for epoxide hydratase from the three sources. However, several quantitative differences were observed. Thus human hepatic epoxide hydratase seems to be very similar to, although not identical with, the enzyme from guinea pig or rat. Studies with epoxide hydratase from the latter two species therefore appear to be significant with respect to man. In addition, knowledge of structural requirements for epoxides to serve as substrates for human epoxide hydratase may prove useful for drug design. Compounds which need aromatic or olefinic moieties for their desired effect would not be expected to lead

  3. Oxime esters as selective, covalent inhibitors of the serine hydrolase retinoblastoma-binding protein 9 (RBBP9).

    PubMed

    Bachovchin, Daniel A; Wolfe, Monique R; Masuda, Kim; Brown, Steven J; Spicer, Timothy P; Fernandez-Vega, Virneliz; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter S; Rosen, Hugh; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2010-04-01

    We recently described a fluorescence polarization platform for competitive activity-based protein profiling (fluopol-ABPP) that enables high-throughput inhibitor screening for enzymes with poorly characterized biochemical activity. Here, we report the discovery of a class of oxime ester inhibitors for the unannotated serine hydrolase RBBP9 from a full-deck (200,000+ compound) fluopol-ABPP screen conducted in collaboration with the Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network (MLSCN). We show that these compounds covalently inhibit RBBP9 by modifying enzyme's active site serine nucleophile and, based on competitive ABPP in cell and tissue proteomes, are selective for RBBP9 relative to other mammalian serine hydrolases. PMID:20207142

  4. Carcinogenicity and mechanistic insights on the behavior of epoxides and epoxide-forming chemicals.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Ronald L

    2002-12-01

    Many epoxides and their precursors are high production volume chemicals that have major uses in the polymer industry and as intermediates in the manufacture of other chemicals. Several of these chemicals were demonstrated to be carcinogenic in laboratory animal studies conducted by the Ramazzini Foundation (e.g., vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile, styrene, styrene oxide, and benzene) and by the National Toxicology Program (e.g., ethylene oxide, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, chloroprene, acrylonitrile, glycidol, and benzene). The most common sites of tumor induction were lung, liver, harderian gland, and circulatory system in mice; Zymbal's gland and brain in rats; and mammary gland and forestomach in both species. Differences in cancer outcome among studies of epoxide chemicals may be related to differences in study design (e.g., dose, duration, and route of exposure; observation period; animal strains), as well as biological factors affecting target organ dosimetry of the DNA-reactive epoxide (toxicokinetics) and tissue response (toxicodynamics). N7-Alkylguanine, N1-alkyladenine, and cyclic etheno adducts, as well as K-ras and p53 mutations, have been detected in animals and/or workers exposed to several of these chemicals. The classifications of these chemical carcinogens by IARC and NTP are based on animal and human data and results of mechanistic studies. Reducing occupational and environmental exposures to these chemicals will certainly reduce human cancer risks. PMID:12562636

  5. Epoxide based inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus non-structural 2 autoprotease

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Joseph; Fishwick, Colin W.G.; Harris, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural 2 (NS2) encodes an essential protease activity responsible for processing at the NS2–NS3 junction which represents an attractive antiviral target. Attempts to inhibit the NS2 autoprotease with mechanism-based protease inhibitors and substrate peptides have had limited success. We report a series of epoxide-containing small molecules capable of blocking NS2–NS3 proteolysis in vitro and demonstrate the potential for selectivity towards the NS2 autoprotease. A compound within this series was able to perturb HCV genome replication in a subgenomic replicon system only when polyprotein processing was dependent on NS2 autoprotease activity, in addition it inhibited replication of full length HCV. These findings suggest blocking HCV polyprotein processing through inhibition of the NS2 autoprotease represents a viable route to exert an antiviral effect. PMID:25703928

  6. Molecular Epoxidation Reactions Catalyzed by Rhenium, Molybdenum, and Iron Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kück, Jens W; Reich, Robert M; Kühn, Fritz E

    2016-02-01

    Epoxidations are of high relevance in many organic syntheses, both in industry and academia. In this personal account, the development of rhenium, molybdenum, and iron complexes in molecular epoxidation catalysis is presented. Methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) is the benchmark catalyst for these reactions, with a thoroughly investigated mechanism and reactivity profile. More recently, highly active molecular molybdenum and iron catalysts have emerged, challenging the extraordinary role of MTO in epoxidation catalysis with high turnover frequencies (TOFs). This development is highlighted in its use of cheaper, more readily available metals, and the challenges of using base metals in catalysis are discussed. These results show the promise that relatively cheap and abundant metals, such as molybdenum and iron, hold for the future of epoxidation catalysis. PMID:26776087

  7. Investigation of copper(II) tetrafluoroborate catalysed epoxide opening

    PubMed Central

    Capes, Amy S.; Crossman, Arthur T.; Webster, Lauren A.; Ferguson, Michael A.J.; Gilbert, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    We report the extension of the copper(II) tetrafluoroborate catalysed opening of epoxides with alcohols to include a wider variety of alcohols, a range of solvents and a method to purify the products from the reaction. PMID:22505782

  8. Esterase SeE of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is a Novel Non-specific Carboxylic Ester Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Liu, Mengyao; Zhu, Hui; Lei, Benfang

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular carboxylic ester hydrolases are produced by many bacterial pathogens and have been shown recently to be important for virulence of some pathogens. However, these hydrolases are poorly characterized in enzymatic activity. This study prepared and characterized the secreted ester hydrolase of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (designated SeE for S. equi esterase). SeE hydrolyzes ethyl acetate, acetylsalicylic acid, and tributyrin but not ethyl butyrate. This substrate specificity pattern does not match those of the three conventional types of non-specific carboxylic ester hydrolases (carboxylesterases, arylesterases, and acetylesterases). To determine whether SeE has lipase activity, a number of triglycerides and vinyl esters were tested in SeE-catalyzed hydrolysis. SeE does not hydrolyze triglycerides and vinyl esters of long chain carboxylic acids nor display interfacial activation, indicating that SeE is not a lipase. Like the conventional carboxylesterases, SeE is inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate. These findings indicate that SeE is a novel non-specific carboxylic ester hydrolase that has broader substrate specificity than the conventional carboxylesterases. PMID:19054107

  9. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-10-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. PMID:26187963

  10. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. PMID:26187963

  11. Partial purification and characterization of an inducible indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid hydrolase from Enterobacter agglomerans

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jyh-Ching |; Cohen, J.D.; Mulbry, W.W.

    1996-11-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-amino acid conjugate hydrolases are believed to be important in the regulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) metabolism in plants and therefore have potential uses for the alteration of plant IAA metabolism. To isolate bacterial strains exhibiting significant indole-3-acetyl-aspartate (IAA-Asp) hydrolase activity, a sewage sludge inoculation was cultured under conditions in which IAA-Asp served as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. One isolate, Enterobacter agglomerans, showed hydrolase activity inducible by IAA-L-Asp or N-acetyl-L-Asp but not by IAA, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, urea, or indoleacetamide. Among a total of 17 IAA conjugates tested as potential substrates, the enzyme had an exclusively high substrate specificity for IAA-L-Asp of 13.5 mM. The optimal pH for this enzyme was between 8.0 and 8.5. In extraction buffer containing 0.8 mM Mg{sup 2+} the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 80% by 1 mM dithiothreitol and to 60% by 1 mm CuSO{sub 4}; the activity was increased by 40% with 1mM MnSO{sub 4}. However, in extraction buffer with no trace elements, the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 50% by either 1 mM dithiothreitol or 1% Triton X-100 (Sigma). These results suggest that disulfide bonding might be essential for enzyme activity. Purification of the hydrolase by hydroxyapatite and TSK-phenyl (HP-Genenchem, South San Francisco, CA) preparative high-performance liquid chromatography yielded a major 45-kD polypeptide as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Structures and Mechanisms of Nudix Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Mildvan,A.; Xia, Z.; Azurmendi, H.; saraswat, V.; Legler, P.; Massiah, M.; Gabelli, S.; Bianchet, M.; Kang, L.; Amzel, L.

    2005-01-01

    Nudix hydrolases are a family of proteins that contain the characteristic sequence GX(5)EX(7)REUXEEXG(I/L/V), the Nudix box. They catalyze the hydrolysis of a variety of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives such as ADP-ribose, Ap(n)A (3 hydrolases from several species, ranging from bacteria to humans, have been characterized, including, in some cases, the determination of their three-dimensional structures. The product of the Rv1700 gene of M. tuberculosis is a Nudix hydrolase specific for ADP-ribose (ADPR). We have determined the crystal structures of MT-ADPRase alone, and in complex with substrate, with substrate and the nonactivating metal ion Gd(3+), and in complex with a nonhydrolyzable ADPR analog and the activating metal ion Mn(2+). These structures, refined with data extending to resolutions between 2.0 and 2.3 A, showed that there are sequence differences in binding site residues between MT-ADPRase and a human homolog that may be exploited for antituberculosis drug development.

  13. Product formation controlled by substrate dynamics in leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Tholander, Fredrik; Kumar, Ramakrishnan B; Qureshi, Abdul Aziz; Niegowski, Damian; Hasan, Mahmudul; Thunnissen, Marjolein; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes

    2014-02-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase (LTA4H) (EC 3.3.2.6) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme with both an epoxide hydrolase and an aminopeptidase activity. LTA4H from the African claw toad, Xenopus laevis (xlLTA4H) has been shown to, unlike the human enzyme, convert LTA4 to two enzymatic metabolites, LTB4 and another biologically active product Δ(6)-trans-Δ(8)-cis-LTB4 (5(S),12R-dihydroxy-6,10-trans-8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid). In order to study the molecular aspect of the formation of this product we have characterized the structure and function of xlLTA4H. We solved the structure of xlLTA4H to a resolution of 2.3Å. It is a dimeric structure where each monomer has three domains with the active site in between the domains, similar as to the human structure. An important difference between the human and amphibian enzyme is the phenylalanine to tyrosine exchange at position 375. Our studies show that mutating F375 in xlLTA4H to tyrosine abolishes the formation of the LTB4 isomeric product Δ(6)-trans-Δ(8)-cis-LTB4. In an attempt to understand how one amino acid exchange leads to a new product profile as seen in the xlLTA4H, we performed a conformer analysis of the triene part of the substrate LTA4. Our results show that the Boltzmann distribution of substrate conformers correlates with the observed distribution of products. We suggest that the observed difference in product profile between the human and the xlLTA4H arises from different level of discrimination between substrate LTA4 conformers. PMID:24333438

  14. Characterization of tunable piperidine and piperazine carbamates as inhibitors of endocannabinoid hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jonathan Z.; Jin, Xin; Adibekian, Alexander; Li, Weiwei; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are two enzymes from the serine hydrolase superfamily that degrade the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide, respectively. We have recently discovered that MAGL and FAAH are both inhibited by carbamates bearing an N-piperidine/piperazine group. Piperidine/piperazine carbamates show excellent in vivo activity, raising brain endocannabinoid levels and producing CB1-dependent behavioral effects in mice, suggesting that they represent a promising class of inhibitors for studying the endogenous functions of MAGL and FAAH. Herein, we disclose a full account of the syntheses, structure-activity relationships, and inhibitory activities of piperidine/piperazine carbamates against members of the serine hydrolase family. These scaffolds can be tuned for MAGL-selective or dual MAGL-FAAH inhibition by the attachment of an appropriately substituted bisarylcarbinol or aryloxybenzyl moiety, respectively, on the piperidine/piperazine ring. Modifications to the piperidine/piperazine ring ablated inhibitory activity, suggesting a strict requirement for a six-member ring to maintain potency. PMID:20099888

  15. Carbocyclic adenosine analogues as S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors and antiviral agents: recent advances.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, E

    1998-01-01

    Various carbocyclic analogues of adenosine, including aristeromycin (carbocyclic adenosine), carbocyclic 3-deazaadenosine, neplanocin A, 3-deazaneplanocin A, the 5'-nor derivatives of aristeromycin, carbocylic 3-deazaadenosine, neplanocin A and 3-deazaneplanocin A, and the 2-halo (i.e., 2-fluoro) and 6'-R-alkyl (i.e., 6'-R-methyl) derivatives of neplanocin A have been recognized as potent inhibitors of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase. This enzyme plays a key role in methylation reactions depending on S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as methyl donor. AdoHcy hydrolase inhibitors have been shown to exert broad-spectrum antiviral activity against pox-, paramyxo-, rhabdo-, filo-, bunya-, arena-, and reoviruses. They also interfere with the replication of human immunodeficiency virus through inhibition of the Tat transactivation process. PMID:9708366

  16. Dual roles of brain serine hydrolase KIAA1363 in ether lipid metabolism and organophosphate detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Daniel K.; Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Issa, Roger S.; Ward, Anna M.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Casida, John E.

    2008-04-01

    Serine hydrolase KIAA1363 is an acetyl monoalkylglycerol ether (AcMAGE) hydrolase involved in tumor cell invasiveness. It is also an organophosphate (OP) insecticide-detoxifying enzyme. The key to understanding these dual properties was the use of KIAA1363 +/+ (wildtype) and -/- (gene deficient) mice to define the role of this enzyme in brain and other tissues and its effectiveness in vivo in reducing OP toxicity. KIAA1363 was the primary AcMAGE hydrolase in brain, lung, heart and kidney and was highly sensitive to inactivation by chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) (IC{sub 50} 2 nM) [the bioactivated metabolite of the major insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF)]. Although there was no difference in hydrolysis product monoalkylglycerol ether (MAGE) levels in +/+ and -/- mouse brains in vivo, isopropyl dodecylfluorophosphonate (30 mg/kg) and CPF (100 mg/kg) resulted in 23-51% decrease in brain MAGE levels consistent with inhibition of AcMAGE hydrolase activity. On incubating +/+ and -/- brain membranes with AcMAGE and cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine, the absence of KIAA1363 activity dramatically increased de novo formation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and lyso-PAF, signifying that metabolically-stabilized AcMAGE can be converted to this bioactive lipid in brain. On considering detoxification, KIAA1363 -/- mice were significantly more sensitive than +/+ mice to ip-administered CPF (100 mg/kg) and parathion (10 mg/kg) with increased tremoring and mortality that correlated for CPF with greater brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Docking AcMAGE and CPO in a KIAA1363 active site model showed similar positioning of their acetyl and trichloropyridinyl moieties, respectively. This study establishes the relevance of KIAA1363 in ether lipid metabolism and OP detoxification.

  17. Organocatalytic asymmetric epoxidation and tandem epoxidation/Passerini reaction under eco-friendly reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Deobald, Anna Maria; Corrêa, Arlene G; Rivera, Daniel G; Paixão, Márcio Weber

    2012-10-14

    An eco-friendly synthesis of highly functionalized epoxides and their incorporation into an organocatalytic multicomponent approach are reported. For this, a modified class of diarylprolinol silyl ethers was designed to enable high catalytic activity in an environmentally benign solvent system. The one-pot procedure showed great efficiency in promoting stereoselective multicomponent transformations in a tandem, 'green' fashion. Because of its non-residual, efficient and selective character, this synthetic design shows promise for large-scale applications in both diversity and target-oriented syntheses. PMID:22918441

  18. Presence of epoxide hydrolase activity in Aspergillus niger: Hydrolysis of 6', 7'-epoxybergamottin to 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 6', 7'-epoxybergamottin (EB) is one of major furanocoumarins in grapefruit. Previously, we have shown that Aspergillus niger has a capability of metabolizing EB into 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), which is further metabolized to bergaptol and bergaptol-5-sulfate in vivo. In this study, we at...

  19. Effect of short-term exposure to dichlorvos on synaptic plasticity of rat hippocampal slices: Involvement of acylpeptide hydrolase and {alpha}{sub 7} nicotinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Olmos, Cristina; Sandoval, Rodrigo; Rozas, Carlos; Navarro, Sebastian; Wyneken, Ursula; Zeise, Marc; Morales, Bernardo; Pancetti, Floria

    2009-07-01

    Dichlorvos is the active molecule of the pro-drug metrifonate used to revert the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. A few years ago it was reported that dichlorvos inhibits the enzyme acylpeptide hydrolase at lower doses than those necessary to inhibit acetylcholinesterase to the same extent. Therefore, the aim of our investigation was to test the hypothesis that dichlorvos can enhance synaptic efficacy through a mechanism that involves acylpeptide hydrolase instead of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. We used long-term potentiation induced in rat hippocampal slices as a model of synaptic plasticity. Our results indicate that short-term exposures (20 min) to 50 {mu}M dichlorvos enhance long-term potentiation in about 200% compared to the control condition. This effect is correlated with approximately 60% inhibition of acylpeptide hydrolase activity, whereas acetylcholinesterase activity remains unaffected. Paired-pulse facilitation and inhibition experiments indicate that dichlorvos does not have any presynaptic effect in the CA3 {yields} CA1 pathway nor affect gabaergic interneurons. Interestingly, the application of 100 nM methyllicaconitine, an {alpha}{sub 7} nicotinic receptor antagonist, blocked the enhancing effect of dichlorvos on long-term potentiation. These results indicate that under the exposure conditions described above, dichlorvos enhances long-term potentiation through a postsynaptic mechanism that involves (a) the inhibition of the enzyme acylpeptide hydrolase and (b) the modulation of {alpha}{sub 7} nicotinic receptors.

  20. Thermostable Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingyan; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2009-01-01

    Cyanuric acid, a metabolic intermediate in the degradation of many s-triazine compounds, is further metabolized by cyanuric acid hydrolase. Cyanuric acid also accumulates in swimming pools due to the breakdown of the sanitizing agents di- and trichloroisocyanuric acid. Structurally stable cyanuric acid hydrolases are being considered for usage in pool water remediation. In this study, cyanuric acid hydrolase from the thermophile Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. The recombinant enzyme was found to have a broader temperature range and greater stability, at both elevated and low temperatures, than previously described cyanuric acid hydrolases. The enzyme had a narrow substrate specificity, acting only on cyanuric acid and N-methylisocyanuric acid. The M. thermoacetica enzyme did not require metals or other discernible cofactors for activity. Cyanuric acid hydrolase from M. thermoacetica is the most promising enzyme to use for cyanuric acid remediation applications. PMID:19767460

  1. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN P-09... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN P-09... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN P-09... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN P-09... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized,...

  5. Formation of furan fatty alkyl esters from their bis-epoxide fatty esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epoxidation of vegetable oils and consecutive epoxide ring-opening reaction is a widely investigated path for producing biobased lubricants and polymers. The reaction mechanism and products are considered well-studied and known. In the current study, the reactions of epoxidized alkyl soyate with fou...

  6. Sulfuric acid as a catalyst for ring-opening of biobased bis-epoxides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils can be relatively and easily transformed into bio-based epoxides. Because of this, the acid-catalyzed epoxide ring-opening has been explored for the preparation of bio-based lubricants and polymers. Detailed model studies are carried out only with mono-epoxide made from methyl oleate,...

  7. Identification of Neutral Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase, a Key Enzyme Removing Cholesterol from Macrophages*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Masaki; Nishi, Makiko; Sekiya, Motohiro; Tajima, Makiko; Takase, Satoru; Takanashi, Mikio; Ohta, Keisuke; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Sachiko; Yahagi, Naoya; Ohashi, Ken; Amemiya-Kudo, Michiyo; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Nagai, Ryozo; Kadowaki, Takashi; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Ishibashi, Shun

    2008-01-01

    Unstable lipid-rich plaques in atherosclerosis are characterized by the accumulation of macrophage foam cells loaded with cholesterol ester (CE). Although hormone-sensitive lipase and cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) have been proposed to mediate the hydrolysis of CE in macrophages, circumstantial evidence suggests the presence of other enzymes with neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (nCEH) activity. Here we show that the murine orthologue of KIAA1363, designated as neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (NCEH), is a microsomal nCEH with high expression in murine and human macrophages. The effect of various concentrations of NaCl on its nCEH activity resembles that on endogenous nCEH activity of macrophages. RNA silencing of NCEH decreases nCEH activity at least by 50%; conversely, its overexpression inhibits the CE formation in macrophages. Immunohistochemistry reveals that NCEH is expressed in macrophage foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions. These data indicate that NCEH is responsible for a major part of nCEH activity in macrophages and may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:18782767

  8. Properties of a β-(1→4)-glucan hydrolase from Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, A. E.; Stone, B. A.

    1965-01-01

    1. A β-(1→4)-glucan hydrolase prepared from Aspergillus niger, as described by Clarke & Stone (1965a), showed a pH optimum in the range 4·5–6 and Km 0·25% when acting on a cellulose dextrin sulphate substrate. 2. The hydrolase rapidly decreased the specific viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose with a small increase in the production of reducing sugars. The identity of the products of hydrolysis of cellotetraose, cellopentaose and their reduced analogues indicate a preferential cleavage of non-terminal glucosidic linkages. The enzyme may be described as β-(1→4)-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.4). 3. In addition to carboxymethylcellulose, cellulose dextrins, cellopentaose and cellotetraose the enzyme fraction hydrolysed lichenin, oat and barley glucans, ivory-nut mannan and a glucomannan from Konjak flour. No hydrolysis of wheat-straw β-(1→4)-xylan, Lupinus albus β-(1→4)-galactan, pneumococcal type III polysaccharide, chitin, hyaluronic acid, laminarin, pachydextrins, carboxymethylpachyman or β-(1→3)-oligoglucosides was detected. 4. The hydrolase showed no transglycosylase activity from cellodextrin or cellopentaose substrates to glucose or methanol acceptors. 5. The hydrolysis of cellodextrins was inhibited completely by 1·0mm-Hg2+, 0·7mm-phenylmercuric nitrate and 1·0mm-iodine. PMID:5862418

  9. Properties of a beta-(1-4)-glucan hydrolase from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Clarke, A E; Stone, B A

    1965-09-01

    1. A beta-(1-->4)-glucan hydrolase prepared from Aspergillus niger, as described by Clarke & Stone (1965a), showed a pH optimum in the range 4.5-6 and K(m) 0.25% when acting on a cellulose dextrin sulphate substrate. 2. The hydrolase rapidly decreased the specific viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose with a small increase in the production of reducing sugars. The identity of the products of hydrolysis of cellotetraose, cellopentaose and their reduced analogues indicate a preferential cleavage of non-terminal glucosidic linkages. The enzyme may be described as beta-(1-->4)-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.4). 3. In addition to carboxymethylcellulose, cellulose dextrins, cellopentaose and cellotetraose the enzyme fraction hydrolysed lichenin, oat and barley glucans, ivory-nut mannan and a glucomannan from Konjak flour. No hydrolysis of wheat-straw beta-(1-->4)-xylan, Lupinus albus beta-(1-->4)-galactan, pneumococcal type III polysaccharide, chitin, hyaluronic acid, laminarin, pachydextrins, carboxymethylpachyman or beta-(1-->3)-oligoglucosides was detected. 4. The hydrolase showed no transglycosylase activity from cellodextrin or cellopentaose substrates to glucose or methanol acceptors. 5. The hydrolysis of cellodextrins was inhibited completely by 1.0mm-Hg(2+), 0.7mm-phenylmercuric nitrate and 1.0mm-iodine. PMID:5862418

  10. Epoxide Chemistry: Guided Inquiry Experiment Emphasizing Structure Determination and Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurty, H. G.; Jain, Niveta; Samby, Kiran

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents an operationally simple three-step synthesis of an a-hydroxy acid based on epoxide chemistry. The focus of the experiment is on the preparation of the chalcone epoxide and its reaction with hot alcoholic alkali. The experiment leads to an unpredicted reaction product. Its structure is established as 2-benzyl-2-phenylglycollic acid by chemical and spectroscopic analysis. The hydroxyacid is a good example to bring home an important NMR principle: the nonequivalence of hydrogens adjacent to a stereogenic center. The formation of the alpha-hydroxy acid is a mechanistic puzzle. A stepwise mechanism can be developed applying lecture-based organic chemistry concepts. On the other hand, acid-catalyzed (H2SO4, BF3) reaction of the chalcone epoxide gives benzoylphenylacetaldehyde. The exercise can be used as a multistep organic chemistry experiment. It also gives students a research-type experience.

  11. Epoxidation of propylene dimers and isomerization of mixtures obtained

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrev, D.M.; Kurtev, K.S.

    1988-05-10

    Mixtures of hexenes are obtained in the dimerization of propylene on a Ziegler catalyst. By the epoxidation of this mixture by organic peroxides, followed by isomerization of the oxides, C/sub 6/ ketones, which are used as solvents, can be obtained. The hexenes were obtained by dimerization of propylene in the presence of a Ni(C/sub 5/H/sub 7/O/sub 2/)/sub 2/-P(C/sub 6/H/sub 5/)/sub 3/-(C/sub 3/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/AlCl catalytic system. The epoxidation was carried with technical grade isopropylbenzyl hydroperoxide (IPBHP). MoO/sub 2/(C/sub 5/H/sub 7/O/sub 2/)/sub 2/ was used as the catalyst. The relative rates of epoxidation of different isomers contained in the dimeric fraction, with respect to 2-methyl-1-pentene, was determined by means of competing reactions.

  12. Biosynthesis, glycosylation, and intracellular transport of intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase in rat.

    PubMed

    Büller, H A; Montgomery, R K; Sasak, W V; Grand, R J

    1987-12-15

    The biosynthesis of rat intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase was studied by pulse-labeling of jejunal explants from 5-day-old suckling rats in organ culture. Explants were either continuously labeled with [35S] methionine for 15, 30, and 60 min or pulse-labeled for 30 min and chased for various periods of time up to 6 h in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors (PI), leupeptin, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, and soybean trypsin inhibitor. Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase was immunoprecipitated from microvillus membrane (MVM) and ER-Golgi fractions with monoclonal antibodies. After pulse-labeling, lactase-phlorizin hydrolase from the ER-Golgi fraction appeared on SDS-PAGE as one band of approximately 220 kDa, regardless of the presence or absence of PI in the culture media. The 220-kDa protein band could also be labeled after incubation with [2-3H]mannose. In the absence of PI, the 220-kDa band appeared in the MVM by 30 min chase, simultaneously with a 180-kDa band, and by 60 min of chase an additional band of 130 kDa was seen. With increasing time of chase, the relative intensity of the 130-kDa band increased, whereas that of the 220-kDa band decreased, suggesting a precursor-product relationship. When PI were added to the medium, the formation of the 180-kDa band was not affected, but the conversion of the 180-kDa protein to the 130-kDa protein was virtually blocked. These findings suggest that lactase-phlorizin hydrolase is initially synthesized as a glycosylated precursor of 220 kDa, which is transported to the MVM. There it undergoes the following two cleavages: first, to the 180-kDa form, which is not prevented by PI used in these experiments, and second, to the 130-kDa form inhibited by PI. PMID:3119597

  13. The oxidation of copper catalysts during ethylene epoxidation.

    PubMed

    Greiner, M T; Jones, T E; Johnson, B E; Rocha, T C R; Wang, Z J; Armbrüster, M; Willinger, M; Knop-Gericke, A; Schlögl, R

    2015-10-14

    The oxidation of copper catalysts during ethylene epoxidation was characterized using in situ photoemission spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Gas chromatography, proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry and electron-ionization mass spectrometry were used to characterize the catalytic properties of the oxidized copper. We find that copper corrodes during epoxidation in a 1 : 1 mixture of oxygen and ethylene. The catalyst corrosion passes through several stages, beginning with the formation of an O-terminated surface, followed by the formation of Cu2O scale and eventually a CuO scale. The oxidized catalyst exhibits measurable activity for ethylene epoxidation, but with a low selectivity of <3%. Tests on pure Cu2O and CuO powders confirm that the oxides intrinsically exhibit partial-oxidation activity. Cu2O was found to form acetaldehyde and ethylene epoxide in roughly equal amounts (1.0% and 1.2% respectively), while CuO was found to form much less ethyl aldehyde than ethylene epoxide (0.1% and 1.0%, respectively). Metallic copper catalysts were examined in extreme dilute-O2 epoxidation conditions to try and keep the catalyst from oxidizing during the reaction. It was found that in feed of 1 part O2 to 2500 parts C2H4 (PO2 = 1.2 × 10(-4) mbar) the copper surface becomes O-terminated. The O-terminated surface was found to exhibit partial-oxidation selectivity similar to that of Cu2O. With increasing O2 concentration (>8/2500) Cu2O forms and eventually covers the surface. PMID:26345450

  14. A dual enzyme system composed of a polyester hydrolase and a carboxylesterase enhances the biocatalytic degradation of polyethylene terephthalate films.

    PubMed

    Barth, Markus; Honak, Annett; Oeser, Thorsten; Wei, Ren; Belisário-Ferrari, Matheus R; Then, Johannes; Schmidt, Juliane; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    TfCut2 from Thermobifida fusca KW3 and the metagenome-derived LC-cutinase are bacterial polyester hydrolases capable of efficiently degrading polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Since the enzymatic PET hydrolysis is inhibited by the degradation intermediate mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (MHET), a dual enzyme system consisting of a polyester hydrolase and the immobilized carboxylesterase TfCa from Thermobifida fusca KW3 was employed for the hydrolysis of PET films at 60°C. HPLC analysis of the reaction products obtained after 24 h of hydrolysis showed an increased amount of soluble products with a lower proportion of MHET in the presence of the immobilized TfCa. The results indicated a continuous hydrolysis of the inhibitory MHET by the immobilized TfCa and demonstrated its advantage as a second biocatalyst in combination with a polyester hydrolase for an efficient degradation oft PET films. The dual enzyme system with LC-cutinase produced a 2.4-fold higher amount of degradation products compared to TfCut2 after a reaction time of 24 h confirming the superior activity of his polyester hydrolase against PET films. PMID:27214855

  15. Purification and characterization of a cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase from Nocardia tartaricans CAS-52, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziqiang; Wang, Yunshan; Su, Zhiguo

    2013-03-01

    A highly enantioselective cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase from Nocardia tartaricans was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was purified 184-fold with a yield of 18.8 %. The purified cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase had a monomeric molecular weight of 28 kDa, and its optimum conditions were 37 °C and pH 7-9. With sodium cis-epoxysuccinate as the substrate, Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics analysis gave a Km value of 35.71 mM and a Vmax of 2.65 mM min(-1). The enzyme was activated by Ni(2+) and Al(3+), while strongly inhibited by Fe(3+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), and Ag(+). The cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase gene was cloned, and its open reading frame sequence predicted a protein composed of 253 amino acids. A pET11a expression plasmid carrying the gene under the control of the T7 promoter was introduced into Escherichia coli, and the cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase gene was successfully expressed in the recombinant strains. PMID:22552902

  16. Pyrazole phenylcyclohexylcarbamates as inhibitors of human fatty acid amide hydrolases (FAAH).

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Mojgan; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Ruggiero, Emanuela; Saponaro, Giulia; Baraldi, Stefania; Romagnoli, Romeo; Martinelli, Adriano; Tuccinardi, Tiziano

    2015-06-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors have gained attention as potential therapeutic targets in the management of neuropathic pain. Here, we report a series of pyrazole phenylcyclohexylcarbamate derivatives standing on the known carbamoyl FAAH inhibitor URB597. Structural modifications led to the recognition of compound 22 that inhibited human recombinant FAAH (hrFAAH) in the low nanomolar range (IC50 = 11 nM). The most active compounds of this series showed significant selectivity toward monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) enzyme. In addition, molecular modeling and reversibility behavior of the new class of FAAH inhibitors are presented in this article. PMID:26002335

  17. Discovery of MK-3168: A PET Tracer for Imaging Brain Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Hamill, Terence G; Chioda, Marc; Chobanian, Harry; Fung, Selena; Guo, Yan; Chang, Linda; Bakshi, Raman; Hong, Qingmei; Dellureficio, James; Lin, Linus S; Abbadie, Catherine; Alexander, Jessica; Jin, Hong; Mandala, Suzanne; Shiao, Lin-Lin; Li, Wenping; Sanabria, Sandra; Williams, David; Zeng, Zhizhen; Hajdu, Richard; Jochnowitz, Nina; Rosenbach, Mark; Karanam, Bindhu; Madeira, Maria; Salituro, Gino; Powell, Joyce; Xu, Ling; Terebetski, Jenna L; Leone, Joseph F; Miller, Patricia; Cook, Jacquelynn; Holahan, Marie; Joshi, Aniket; O'Malley, Stacey; Purcell, Mona; Posavec, Diane; Chen, Tsing-Bau; Riffel, Kerry; Williams, Mangay; Hargreaves, Richard; Sullivan, Kathleen A; Nargund, Ravi P; DeVita, Robert J

    2013-06-13

    We report herein the discovery of a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer. Starting from a pyrazole lead, medicinal chemistry efforts directed toward reducing lipophilicity led to the synthesis of a series of imidazole analogues. Compound 6 was chosen for further profiling due to its appropriate physical chemical properties and excellent FAAH inhibition potency across species. [(11)C]-6 (MK-3168) exhibited good brain uptake and FAAH-specific signal in rhesus monkeys and is a suitable PET tracer for imaging FAAH in the brain. PMID:24900701

  18. Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90 rhamnoside hydrolase, a new type of flavonoid glycoside hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingqiang; Yu, Hongshan; Zhang, Chunzhi; Lu, Mingchun; Piao, Yongzhe; Ohba, Masashi; Tang, Minqian; Yuan, Xiaodong; Wei, Shenghua; Wang, Kan; Ma, Anzhou; Feng, Xue; Qin, Siqing; Mukai, Chisato; Tsuji, Akira; Jin, Fengxie

    2012-07-01

    A novel rutin-α-L-rhamnosidase hydrolyzing α-L-rhamnoside of rutin, naringin, and hesperidin was purified and characterized from Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90, and the gene encoding this enzyme, which is highly homologous to the α-amylase gene, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The novel enzyme was classified in glycoside-hydrolase (GH) family 13. PMID:22544243

  19. Characterization and functional analysis of Trichinella spiralis Nudix hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Long, Shao Rong; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Ruo Dan; Qi, Xin; Liu, Pei; Ren, Hui Jun; Shi, Hai Ning; Cui, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Trichinella spiralis Nudix hydrolase (TsNd) was identified by screening a T7 phage display cDNA library from T. spiralis intestinal infective larvae (IIL), and vaccination of mice with recombinant TsNd protein (rTsNd) or TsNd DNA vaccine produced a partial protective immunity. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics and biological functions of TsNd in the process of invasion and development of T. spiralis larvae. Transcription and expression of TsNd gene at all developmental stages of T. spiralis were observed by qPCR and immunofluorescent test (IFT). The rTsNd had the Nd enzymatic activity to dGTP, NAD, NADP and CoA. Its kinetic properties on the preferred substrate dGTP were calculated, and the Vmax, Km, and kcat/Km values at pH 8.0 were 3.19 μM min(-1) μg(-1), 370 μM, and 144 s(-1) M(-1), respectively, in reaction matrix containing 5 mM Zn(2+) and 2 mM DTT. The rTsNd was active from 25 °C to 50 °C, with optimal activity at 37 °C. rTsNd was able to bind specifically to mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and promoted the larval invasion of IECs, whereas anti-rTsNd antibodies inhibited the larval invasion of IECs in a dose-dependent manner. Anti-rTsNd antibodies could kill T. spiralis infective larvae by an ADCC-mediated mechanism. Our results showed that the rTsNd protein was able to interact with host IECs, had the Nudix hydrolasing activity and the enzymatic activity appeared to be essential indispensable for the T. spiralis larval invasion, development and survival in host. PMID:26545353

  20. Miniaturization of hydrolase assays in thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Severino A; Moraes, Caroline S; Costa, Samara G; de Souza, Wanderley; Azambuja, Patrícia; Garcia, Eloi S; Genta, Fernando A

    2013-03-01

    We adapted the protocols of reducing sugar measurements with dinitrosalicylic acid and bicinchoninic acid for thermocyclers and their use in enzymatic assays for hydrolases such as amylase and β-1,3-glucanase. The use of thermocyclers for these enzymatic assays resulted in a 10 times reduction in the amount of reagent and volume of the sample needed when compared with conventional microplate protocols. We standardized absorbance readings from the polymerase chain reaction plates, which allowed us to make direct readings of the techniques above, and a β-glycosidase assay was also established under the same conditions. Standardization of the enzymatic reaction in thermocyclers resulted in less time-consuming temperature calibrations and without loss of volume through leakage or evaporation from the microplate. Kinetic parameters were successfully obtained, and the use of the thermocycler allowed the measurement of enzymatic activities in biological samples from the field with a limited amount of protein. PMID:23123426

  1. A simplified electrostatic model for hydrolase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Pessoa Filho, Pedro de Alcantara; Prausnitz, John M

    2015-07-01

    Toward the development of an electrostatic model for enzyme catalysis, the active site of the enzyme is represented by a cavity whose surface (and beyond) is populated by electric charges as determined by pH and the enzyme's structure. The electric field in the cavity is obtained from electrostatics and a suitable computer program. The key chemical bond in the substrate, at its ends, has partial charges with opposite signs determined from published force-field parameters. The electric field attracts one end of the bond and repels the other, causing bond tension. If that tension exceeds the attractive force between the atoms, the bond breaks; the enzyme is then a successful catalyst. To illustrate this very simple model, based on numerous assumptions, some results are presented for three hydrolases: hen-egg white lysozyme, bovine trypsin and bovine ribonuclease. Attention is given to the effect of pH. PMID:25881958

  2. Identification of N-acylethanolamines in Dictyostelium discoideum and confirmation of their hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase[S

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Alexander C.; Stupak, Jacek; Li, Jianjun; Cox, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid-based signaling molecules best known for their role in the endocannabinoid system in mammals, but they are also known to play roles in signaling pathways in plants. The regulation of NAEs in vivo is partly accomplished by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which hydrolyses NAEs to ethanolamine and their corresponding fatty acid. Inhibition of FAAH has been shown to increase the levels of NAEs in vivo and to produce desirable phenotypes. This has led to the development of pharmaceutical-based therapies for a variety of conditions targeting FAAH. Recently, our group identified a functional FAAH homolog in Dictyostelium discoideum, leading to our hypothesis that D. discoideum also possesses NAEs. In this study, we provide a further characterization of FAAH and identify NAEs in D. discoideum for the first time. We also demonstrate the ability to modulate their levels in vivo through the use of a semispecific FAAH inhibitor and confirm that these NAEs are FAAH substrates through in vitro studies. We believe the demonstration of the in vivo modulation of NAE levels suggests that D. discoideum could be a good simple model organism in which to study NAE-mediated signaling. PMID:23187822

  3. Ring-opening Polymerization of Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, (BF3•OEt2), in methylene chloride was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymers (PESO) were characterized using Infrared (IR), differential scan...

  4. Stability and friction reducing properties of epoxidized oleochemical methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of oleochemicals as biobased replacements for petrochemical lubricants is an important area of study. Physical properties of the epoxidized fatty esters derived from vegetable oil are reported and compared to their olefinic counterparts. Overall the frictional behavior of epoxy methyl olea...

  5. ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED ORGANIC SYNTHESIS: ALCOHOL OXIDATION AND OLEFIN EPOXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrasound-assisted Organic Synthesis: Alcohol Oxidation and Olefin Epoxidation

    Unnikrishnan R Pillai, Endalkachew Sahle-Demessie , Vasudevan Namboodiri, Quiming Zhao, Juluis Enriquez
    U.S. EPA , 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. , Cincinnati, OH 45268
    Phone: 513-569-773...

  6. Inhibition of aryl hydrocarbon receptor transactivation and DNA adduct formation by CYP1 isoform-selective metabolic deactivation of benzo[a]pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Kaori; Uno, Shigeyuki; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko; Kusumi, Yoshiaki; Mitsumata, Masako; Yamada, Sachiko; Makishima, Makoto

    2008-07-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon produced by the combustion of cigarettes and coke ovens, is a known procarcinogen. BaP activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induces the expression of a battery of genes, including CYP1A1, which metabolize BaP to toxic compounds. The possible role of CYP1 enzymes in mediating BaP detoxification or metabolic activation remains to be elucidated. In this study, we assessed the effects of CYP1 enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1) on BaP-induced AhR transactivation and DNA adduct formation in HEK293 cells and HepG2 cells. Transfection of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, but not CYP1A2, suppressed BaP-induced activation of AhR. Expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, but not CYP1B1, inhibited DNA adduct formation in BaP-treated HepG2 cells. These results indicate that CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 play a role in deactivation of BaP on AhR and that CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are involved in BaP detoxification by suppressing DNA adduct formation. BaP treatment did not induce DNA adduct formation in HEK293 cells, even after transfection of CYP1 enzymes, suggesting that expression of CYP1 enzymes is not sufficient for DNA adduct formation. Lower expression of epoxide hydrolase and higher expression of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and GSTM1/M2 were observed in HEK293 cells compared with HepG2 cells. Dynamic expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 along with expression of other enzymes such as epoxide hydrolase and phase II enzymes may determine the detoxification or metabolic activation of BaP.

  7. Membrane composition influences the activity of in vitro refolded human vitamin K epoxide reductase.

    PubMed

    Jaenecke, Frank; Friedrich-Epler, Beatrice; Parthier, Christoph; Stubbs, Milton T

    2015-10-27

    Human vitamin K epoxide reductase (hVKOR) is an integral membrane protein responsible for the maintenance of reduced vitamin K pools, a prerequisite for the action of γ-glutamyl carboxylase and hence for hemostasis. Here we describe the recombinant expression of hVKOR as an insoluble fusion protein in Escherichia coli, followed by purification and chemical cleavage under denaturing conditions. In vitro renaturation and reconstitution of purified solubilized hVKOR in phospholipids could be established to yield active protein. Crucially, the renatured enzyme is inhibited by the powerful coumarin anticoagulant warfarin, and we demonstrate that enzyme activity depends on lipid composition. The completely synthetic system for protein production allows a rational investigation of the multiple variables in membrane protein folding and paves the way for the provision of pure, active membrane protein for structural studies. PMID:26435421

  8. The pharmacological landscape and therapeutic potential of serine hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Bachovchin, Daniel A; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2012-01-01

    Serine hydrolases perform crucial roles in many biological processes, and several of these enzymes are targets of approved drugs for indications such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and infectious diseases. Despite this, most of the human serine hydrolases (of which there are more than 200) remain poorly characterized with respect to their physiological substrates and functions, and the vast majority lack selective, in vivo-active inhibitors. Here, we review the current state of pharmacology for mammalian serine hydrolases, including marketed drugs, compounds that are under clinical investigation and selective inhibitors emerging from academic probe development efforts. We also highlight recent methodological advances that have accelerated the rate of inhibitor discovery and optimization for serine hydrolases, which we anticipate will aid in their biological characterization and, in some cases, therapeutic validation. PMID:22212679

  9. The Pharmacological Landscape and Therapeutic Potential of Serine Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2013-01-01

    Serine hydrolases play critical roles in many biological processes, and several are targets of approved drugs for indications such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and infectious disease. Despite this, most of the 200+ human serine hydrolases remain poorly characterized with respect to their physiological substrates and functions, and the vast majority lack selective, in vivo-active inhibitors. Here, we review the current state of pharmacology for mammalian serine hydrolases, including marketed drugs, compounds under clinical investigation, and selective inhibitors emerging from academic probe development efforts. We also highlight recent methodological advances that have accelerated the rate of inhibitor discovery and optimization for serine hydrolases, which we anticipate will aid in their biological characterization and, in some cases, therapeutic validation. PMID:22212679

  10. Effect of epoxidation level on thermal properties and ionic conductivity of epoxidized natural rubber solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, Fatin; Chan, Chin Han; Sim, Lai Har; Winie, Tan; Zainal, Nurul Fatahah Asyqin

    2015-08-01

    Effect of epoxide content on the thermal and conductivity properties of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes was investigated. Commercial available epoxidized natural rubber having 25 (ENR25) and 50 mole% (ENR50) epoxide, respectively were incorporated with lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) salt and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofiller via solution casting method. The solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) for their thermal properties and conductivity, respectively. It was evident that introduction of LiClO4 causes a greater increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) and ionic conductivity of ENR50 as compared to ENR25. Upon addition of TiO2 in ENR/LiClO4 system, a remarkable Tg elevation was observed for both ENRs where ENR50 reveals a more pronounced changes. It is interesting to note that they exhibit different phenomenon in ionic conductivity with TiO2 loading where ENR25 shows enhancement of conductivity while ENR50 shows declination.

  11. Effect of epoxidation level on thermal properties and ionic conductivity of epoxidized natural rubber solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Harun, Fatin; Chan, Chin Han; Winie, Tan; Sim, Lai Har; Zainal, Nurul Fatahah Asyqin

    2015-08-28

    Effect of epoxide content on the thermal and conductivity properties of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes was investigated. Commercial available epoxidized natural rubber having 25 (ENR25) and 50 mole% (ENR50) epoxide, respectively were incorporated with lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}) salt and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanofiller via solution casting method. The solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) for their thermal properties and conductivity, respectively. It was evident that introduction of LiClO{sub 4} causes a greater increase in glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and ionic conductivity of ENR50 as compared to ENR25. Upon addition of TiO{sub 2} in ENR/LiClO{sub 4} system, a remarkable T{sub g} elevation was observed for both ENRs where ENR50 reveals a more pronounced changes. It is interesting to note that they exhibit different phenomenon in ionic conductivity with TiO{sub 2} loading where ENR25 shows enhancement of conductivity while ENR50 shows declination.

  12. Lysophosphatidylcholine hydrolases of human erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain: Sensitive targets of conserved specificity for organophosphorus delayed neurotoxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Vose, Sarah C.; Holland, Nina T.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Casida, John E.

    2007-10-01

    Brain neuropathy target esterase (NTE), associated with organophosphorus (OP)-induced delayed neuropathy, has the same OP inhibitor sensitivity and specificity profiles assayed in the classical way (paraoxon-resistant, mipafox-sensitive hydrolysis of phenyl valerate) or with lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) as the substrate. Extending our earlier observation with mice, we now examine human erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and brain LysoPC hydrolases as possible sensitive targets for OP delayed neurotoxicants and insecticides. Inhibitor profiling of human erythrocytes and lymphocytes gave the surprising result of essentially the same pattern as with brain. Human erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolases are highly sensitive to OP delayed neurotoxicants, with in vitro IC{sub 50} values of 0.13-85 nM for longer alkyl analogs, and poorly sensitive to the current OP insecticides. In agricultural workers, erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolyzing activities are similar for newborn children and their mothers and do not vary with paraoxonase status but have high intersample variation that limits their use as a biomarker. Mouse erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolase activity is also of low sensitivity in vitro and in vivo to the OP insecticides whereas the delayed neurotoxicant ethyl n-octylphosphonyl fluoride inhibits activity in vivo at 1-3 mg/kg. Overall, inhibition of blood LysoPC hydrolases is as good as inhibition of brain NTE as a predictor of OP inducers of delayed neuropathy. NTE and lysophospholipases (LysoPLAs) both hydrolyze LysoPC, yet they are in distinct enzyme families with no sequence homology and very different catalytic sites. The relative contributions of NTE and LysoPLAs to LysoPC hydrolysis and clearance from erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain remain to be defined.

  13. Peptidyl - tRNA hydrolase and RNase activities in cell fractions of rat liver used in in vitro reconstitution of rough membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, A A; Czosnek, H H; Ziv, E

    1975-01-01

    Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase and RNase activities have been studied in those fractions of rat liver, which are used in in vitro reconstitution of rough membrane, because these enzymes may interfere with the in vitro reconstitution. It was found that smooth membrane has an active peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, while the other fractions tested, polyribosomes, rough membrane, stripped rough membrane and the post-microsomal supernatant had no, or very low, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase activity. Polyribosomes, rough and stripped rough membrane have RNase activity; this activity could be completely inhibited by rat liver RNase inhibitor. It is shown that RNase inhibitor is an obligatory component in in vitro experiments, in which rough membrane is reconstituted from stripped rough membrane, ribosomes and mRNA. PMID:1144067

  14. Structural and functional attributes of malaria parasite diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arvind; Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Malaria symptoms are driven by periodic multiplication cycles of Plasmodium parasites in human red blood corpuscles (RBCs). Malaria infection still accounts for ~600,000 annual deaths, and hence discovery of both new drug targets and drugs remains vital. In the present study, we have investigated the malaria parasite enzyme diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase that regulates levels of signalling molecules like Ap4A by hydrolyzing them to ATP and AMP. We have tracked the spatial distribution of parasitic Ap4A hydrolase in infected RBCs, and reveal its unusual localization on the infected RBC membrane in subpopulation of infected cells. Interestingly, enzyme activity assays reveal an interaction between Ap4A hydrolase and the parasite growth inhibitor suramin. We also present a high resolution crystal structure of Ap4A hydrolase in apo- and sulphate- bound state, where the sulphate resides in the enzyme active site by mimicking the phosphate of substrates like Ap4A. The unexpected infected erythrocyte localization of the parasitic Ap4A hydrolase hints at a possible role of this enzyme in purinerigic signaling. In addition, atomic structure of Ap4A hydrolase provides insights for selective drug targeting. PMID:26829485

  15. Structural and functional attributes of malaria parasite diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arvind; Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Malaria symptoms are driven by periodic multiplication cycles of Plasmodium parasites in human red blood corpuscles (RBCs). Malaria infection still accounts for ~600,000 annual deaths, and hence discovery of both new drug targets and drugs remains vital. In the present study, we have investigated the malaria parasite enzyme diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase that regulates levels of signalling molecules like Ap4A by hydrolyzing them to ATP and AMP. We have tracked the spatial distribution of parasitic Ap4A hydrolase in infected RBCs, and reveal its unusual localization on the infected RBC membrane in subpopulation of infected cells. Interestingly, enzyme activity assays reveal an interaction between Ap4A hydrolase and the parasite growth inhibitor suramin. We also present a high resolution crystal structure of Ap4A hydrolase in apo- and sulphate- bound state, where the sulphate resides in the enzyme active site by mimicking the phosphate of substrates like Ap4A. The unexpected infected erythrocyte localization of the parasitic Ap4A hydrolase hints at a possible role of this enzyme in purinerigic signaling. In addition, atomic structure of Ap4A hydrolase provides insights for selective drug targeting. PMID:26829485

  16. Relationship between plasma lipids and palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase and synthetase activities with peroxisomal proliferation in rats treated with fibrates.

    PubMed Central

    Alegret, M.; Ferrando, R.; Vázquez, M.; Adzet, T.; Merlos, M.; Laguna, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    1. The time-course of the effect of clofibrate (CFB), bezafibrate (BFB) and gemfibrozil (GFB) on lipid plasma levels and palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase and synthetase activities, as well as the correlations with the peroxisomal proliferation phenomenon have been studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. 2. The administration of the three drugs caused a significant reduction in body weight gain, accompanied with a paradoxical increase in food intake in groups treated with BFB and GFB. 3. Drug treatment produced gross hepatomegaly and increase in peroxisomal beta-oxidation, and these parameters were strongly correlated. The order of potency was BFB > CFB > or = GFB. 4. Both plasma cholesterol (BFB approximately CFB > GFB) and triglyceride (BFB approximately GFB > CFB) levels were reduced in treated animals. There was an inverse correlation between these parameters and peroxisomal beta-oxidation, although the peroxisomal proliferation seemed to explain only a small part of the hypolipidemic effect observed. 5. Cytosolic and microsomal (but not mitochondrial) palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase activities were increased by the three drugs (BFB > CFB > GFB), probably by inducing the hydrolase I isoform, which is insensitive to inhibition by fibrates in vitro. The increased hydrolase activities were directly and strongly correlated with peroxisomal beta-oxidation. 6. Palmitoyl-CoA synthetase activity was also increased by the treatment with fibrates (BFB > CFB > GFB), probably as a consequence of the enhancement of hydrolase activities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7915611

  17. Modeling Epoxidation of Drug-like Molecules with a Deep Machine Learning Network.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tyler B; Miller, Grover P; Swamidass, S Joshua

    2015-07-22

    Drug toxicity is frequently caused by electrophilic reactive metabolites that covalently bind to proteins. Epoxides comprise a large class of three-membered cyclic ethers. These molecules are electrophilic and typically highly reactive due to ring tension and polarized carbon-oxygen bonds. Epoxides are metabolites often formed by cytochromes P450 acting on aromatic or double bonds. The specific location on a molecule that undergoes epoxidation is its site of epoxidation (SOE). Identifying a molecule's SOE can aid in interpreting adverse events related to reactive metabolites and direct modification to prevent epoxidation for safer drugs. This study utilized a database of 702 epoxidation reactions to build a model that accurately predicted sites of epoxidation. The foundation for this model was an algorithm originally designed to model sites of cytochromes P450 metabolism (called XenoSite) that was recently applied to model the intrinsic reactivity of diverse molecules with glutathione. This modeling algorithm systematically and quantitatively summarizes the knowledge from hundreds of epoxidation reactions with a deep convolution network. This network makes predictions at both an atom and molecule level. The final epoxidation model constructed with this approach identified SOEs with 94.9% area under the curve (AUC) performance and separated epoxidized and non-epoxidized molecules with 79.3% AUC. Moreover, within epoxidized molecules, the model separated aromatic or double bond SOEs from all other aromatic or double bonds with AUCs of 92.5% and 95.1%, respectively. Finally, the model separated SOEs from sites of sp(2) hydroxylation with 83.2% AUC. Our model is the first of its kind and may be useful for the development of safer drugs. The epoxidation model is available at http://swami.wustl.edu/xenosite. PMID:27162970

  18. Modeling Epoxidation of Drug-like Molecules with a Deep Machine Learning Network

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Drug toxicity is frequently caused by electrophilic reactive metabolites that covalently bind to proteins. Epoxides comprise a large class of three-membered cyclic ethers. These molecules are electrophilic and typically highly reactive due to ring tension and polarized carbon–oxygen bonds. Epoxides are metabolites often formed by cytochromes P450 acting on aromatic or double bonds. The specific location on a molecule that undergoes epoxidation is its site of epoxidation (SOE). Identifying a molecule’s SOE can aid in interpreting adverse events related to reactive metabolites and direct modification to prevent epoxidation for safer drugs. This study utilized a database of 702 epoxidation reactions to build a model that accurately predicted sites of epoxidation. The foundation for this model was an algorithm originally designed to model sites of cytochromes P450 metabolism (called XenoSite) that was recently applied to model the intrinsic reactivity of diverse molecules with glutathione. This modeling algorithm systematically and quantitatively summarizes the knowledge from hundreds of epoxidation reactions with a deep convolution network. This network makes predictions at both an atom and molecule level. The final epoxidation model constructed with this approach identified SOEs with 94.9% area under the curve (AUC) performance and separated epoxidized and non-epoxidized molecules with 79.3% AUC. Moreover, within epoxidized molecules, the model separated aromatic or double bond SOEs from all other aromatic or double bonds with AUCs of 92.5% and 95.1%, respectively. Finally, the model separated SOEs from sites of sp2 hydroxylation with 83.2% AUC. Our model is the first of its kind and may be useful for the development of safer drugs. The epoxidation model is available at http://swami.wustl.edu/xenosite. PMID:27162970

  19. Characterization of 2-bromoethanesulfonate as a selective inhibitor of the coenzyme m-dependent pathway and enzymes of bacterial aliphatic epoxide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jeffrey M; Ellsworth, Ashley; Ensign, Scott A

    2006-12-01

    Bacterial growth with short-chain aliphatic alkenes requires coenzyme M (CoM) (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid), which serves as the nucleophile for activation and conversion of epoxide products formed from alkene oxidation to central metabolites. In the present work the CoM analog 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) was shown to be a specific inhibitor of propylene-dependent growth of and epoxypropane metabolism by Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2. BES (at low [millimolar] concentrations) completely prevented growth with propylene but had no effect on growth with acetone or n-propanol. Propylene consumption by cells was largely unaffected by the presence of BES, but epoxypropane accumulated in the medium in a time-dependent fashion with BES present. The addition of BES to cells resulted in time-dependent loss of epoxypropane degradation activity that was restored upon removal of BES and addition of CoM. Exposure of cells to BES resulted in a loss of epoxypropane-dependent CO(2) fixation activity that was restored only upon synthesis of new protein. Addition of BES to cell extracts resulted in an irreversible loss of epoxide carboxylase activity that was restored by addition of purified 2-ketopropyl-CoM carboxylase/oxidoreductase (2-KPCC), the terminal enzyme of epoxide carboxylation, but not by addition of epoxyalkane:CoM transferase or 2-hydroxypropyl-CoM dehydrogenase, the enzymes which catalyze the first two reactions of epoxide carboxylation. Comparative studies of the propylene-oxidizing actinomycete Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain B276 showed that BES is an inhibitor of propylene-dependent growth in this organism as well but is not an inhibitor of CoM-independent growth with propane. These results suggest that BES inhibits propylene-dependent growth and epoxide metabolism via irreversible inactivation of the key CO(2)-fixing enzyme 2-KPCC. PMID:16997966

  20. Investigation of the mechanism of phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Hepburn, T.W.; Olsen, D.B.; Dunaway-Mariano, D.; Mariano, P.S.

    1986-05-01

    The authors are presently studying enzymes which catalyze the formation and cleavage of carbon phosphorous bonds. In 1970 LaNauze et. al. reported the isolation of one enzyme of interest - phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase from a mutant of Bacillus cereus. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphonoaldehyde to acetaldehyde and inorganic phosphate. They have isolated phosphonatase from wild type B. cereus (grown on 2-aminoethylphosphonate as the P/sub i/ source) and have used /sup 1/H-NMR and /sup 31/P-NMR techniques to determine the products of the enzyme reaction as phosphate and acetaldehyde. The mechanism of the enzyme could involve the formation of a Schiff base between phosphonoacetaldehyde and lysine or it might only require Mg/sup + +/, an essential cofactor for activity. To distinguish between these possibilities they have begun to look at the Schiff base formation in more detail. NaBH/sub 4/ was found to inactivate the enzyme in the presence of substrate but not in its absence. This is consistent with results obtained for the enzyme isolated from the mutant bacteria. In addition treatment of the wild type enzyme with tritiated NaBH/sub 4/ resulted in significant incorporation of radiolabel into the protein as compared to the control. These results tentatively suggest that hydrolysis proceeds via a covalent imine intermediate.

  1. Oxime esters as selective, covalent inhibitors of the serine hydrolase retinoblastoma-binding protein 9 (RBBP9)

    PubMed Central

    Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Wolfe, Monique R.; Masuda, Kim; Brown, Steven J.; Spicer, Timothy P.; Fernandez-Vega, Virneliz; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter S.; Rosen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    We recently described a fluorescence polarization platform for competitive activity-based protein profiling (fluopol-ABPP) that enables high-throughput inhibitor screening for enzymes with poorly characterized biochemical activity. Here, we report the discovery of a class of oxime ester inhibitors for the unannotated serine hydrolase RBBP9 from a full-deck (200,000+ compound) fluopol-ABPP screen conducted in collaboration with the Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network (MLSCN). We show that these compounds covalently inhibit RBBP9 by modifying the enzyme’s active site serine nucleophile and, based on competitive ABPP in cell and tissue proteomes, are selective for RBBP9 relative to other mammalian serine hydrolases. PMID:20207142

  2. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Organophosphorus and Thiocarbamate Pesticides Reveals Multiple Serine Hydrolase Targets in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    NOMURA, DANIEL K.; CASIDA, JOHN E.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) and thiocarbamate (TC) agrochemicals are used worldwide as insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, but their safety assessment in terms of potential off-targets remains incomplete. In this study, we used a chemoproteomic platform, termed activity-based protein profiling, to broadly define serine hydrolase targets in mouse brain of a panel of 29 OP and TC pesticides. Among the secondary targets identified, enzymes involved in degradation of endocannabinoid signaling lipids, monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amide hydrolase, were inhibited by several OP and TC pesticides. Blockade of these two enzymes led to elevations in brain endocannabinoid levels and dysregulated brain arachidonate metabolism. Other secondary targets include enzymes thought to also play important roles in the nervous system and unannotated proteins. This study reveals a multitude of secondary targets for OP and TC pesticides and underscores the utility of chemoproteomic platforms in gaining insights into biochemical pathways that are perturbed by these toxicants. PMID:21341672

  3. Optical solid-state detection of organophosphates using organophosphorus hydrolase.

    PubMed

    White, Brandy J; Harmon, H James

    2005-04-15

    We have developed a sensor surface for optical detection of organophosphates based on reversible inhibition of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) by copper complexed meso-tri(4-sulfonato phenyl) mono(4-carboxy phenyl) porphyrin (CuC1TPP). OPH immobilized onto glass microscope slides retains catalytic activity for more than 232 days. CuC1TPP is a reversible, competitive inhibitor of OPH, binding at the active site of the immobilized enzyme. The absorbance spectrum of the porphyrin-enzyme complex is measured via planar waveguide evanescent wave absorbance spectroscopy using a blue LED as a light source and an Ocean Optics USB2000 as the spectrophotometer. The characteristics of the absorbance spectrum of CuC1TPP are specific and different when the porphyrin is bound to the enzyme or is bound non-specifically to the surface of the slide. Addition of a substrate of OPH such as one of the organophosphates paraoxon, coumaphos, diazinon, or malathion displaces the porphyrin from the enzyme resulting in reduced absorbance intensity at 412 nm. Absorbance changes at 412 nm show log-linear dependence on substrate concentration. Paraoxon concentrations between 7 parts per trillion (ppt) and 14 parts per million (ppm) were investigated and a 3:1 S/N detection limit of 7 ppt was determined. Concentrations of 700 ppt to 40 ppm were investigated for diazinon, malathion, and coumaphos with detection limits of 800 ppt, 1 part per billion, and 250 ppt, respectively. This optical technique does not require the addition of reagents or solutions other than the sample and absorbance spectra can be collected in less than 6 s. PMID:15741066

  4. Toughening of epoxy resins by epoxidized soybean oil

    SciTech Connect

    Frischinger, I.; Dirlikov, S.

    1993-12-31

    Homogeneous mixtures of a liquid rubber based on prepolymers of epoxidized soybean oil with amines, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy resins, and commercial diamines form, under certain conditions, two-phase thermosetting materials that consist of a rigid epoxy matrix and randomly distributed small rubbery soybean particles (0.1-5 {mu}m). These two-phase thermosets have improved toughness, similar to that of other rubber-modified epoxies, low water absorption, and low sodium content. In comparison to the unmodified thermosets, the two-phase thermosets exhibit slightly lower glass-transition temperatures and Young`s moduli, but their dielectric properties do not change. The epoxidized soybean oil is available at a price below that of commercial epoxy resins and appears very attractive for epoxy toughening on an industrial scale. 15 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Direct epoxidation of propylene over stabilized Cu(+) surface sites on titanium-modified Cu2O.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofang; Kattel, Shyam; Xiong, Ke; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Rykov, Sergei; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Rodriguez, José A; Liu, Ping; Stacchiola, Dario J; Chen, Jingguang G

    2015-10-01

    Direct propylene epoxidation by O2 is a challenging reaction because of the strong tendency for complete combustion. Results from the current study demonstrate that by generating highly dispersed and stabilized Cu(+) active sites in a TiCuOx mixed oxide the epoxidation selectivity can be tuned. The TiCuOx surface anchors the key surface intermediate, an oxametallacycle, leading to higher selectivity for epoxidation of propylene. PMID:26215635

  6. Markedly Elevated Carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide/Carbamazepine Ratio in a Fatal Carbamazepine Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jason L.; Spiller, Henry A.; Baker, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Carbamazepine is a widely used anticonvulsant. Its metabolite, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, has been found to display similar anticonvulsant and neurotoxic properties. While the ratio of parent to metabolite concentration varies significantly, at therapeutic doses the epoxide concentration is generally about 20% of the parent. We report a case of fatal carbamazepine overdose in which the epoxide metabolite concentration was found to be 450% higher than the parent compound, suggesting a potential role for metabolite quantification in severe toxicity. PMID:26550016

  7. Direct Epoxidation of Propylene over Stabilized Cu+ Surface Sites on Ti Modified Cu2O

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, X.; Kattel, S.; Xiong, K.; Mudiyanselage, K.; Rykov, S.; Senanayake, S. D.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Liu, P.; Stacchiola, D. J.; Chen, J. G.

    2015-07-17

    Direct propylene epoxidation by O2 is a challenging reaction because of the strong tendency for complete combustion. Results from the current study demonstrate the feasibility to tune the epoxidation selectivity by generating highly dispersed and stabilized Cu+ active sites in a TiCuOx mixed oxide. The TiCuOx surface anchors the key surface intermediate, oxametallacycle, leading to higher selectivity for epoxidation of propylene.

  8. Human valacyclovir hydrolase/biphenyl hydrolase-like protein is a highly efficient homocysteine thiolactonase.

    PubMed

    Marsillach, Judit; Suzuki, Stephanie M; Richter, Rebecca J; McDonald, Matthew G; Rademacher, Peter M; MacCoss, Michael J; Hsieh, Edward J; Rettie, Allan E; Furlong, Clement E

    2014-01-01

    Homocysteinylation of lysine residues by homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL), a reactive homocysteine metabolite, results in protein aggregation and malfunction, and is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular, autoimmune and neurological diseases. Human plasma paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and bleomycin hydrolase (Blmh) have been reported as the physiological HCTL detoxifying enzymes. However, the catalytic efficiency of HCTL hydrolysis by Blmh is low and not saturated at 20 mM HCTL. The catalytic efficiency of PON1 for HCTL hydrolysis is 100-fold lower than that of Blmh. A homocysteine thiolactonase (HCTLase) was purified from human liver and identified by mass spectrometry (MS) as the previously described human biphenyl hydrolase-like protein (BPHL). To further characterize this newly described HCTLase activity, BPHL was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The sequence of the recombinant BPHL (rBPHL) and hydrolytic products of the substrates HCTL and valacyclovir were verified by MS. We found that the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of rBPHL for HCTL hydrolysis was 7.7 × 10(4) M(-1)s(-1), orders of magnitude higher than that of PON1 or Blmh, indicating a more significant physiological role for BPHL in detoxifying HCTL. PMID:25333274

  9. Human Valacyclovir Hydrolase/Biphenyl Hydrolase-Like Protein Is a Highly Efficient Homocysteine Thiolactonase

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Matthew G.; Rademacher, Peter M.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Hsieh, Edward J.; Rettie, Allan E.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2014-01-01

    Homocysteinylation of lysine residues by homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL), a reactive homocysteine metabolite, results in protein aggregation and malfunction, and is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular, autoimmune and neurological diseases. Human plasma paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and bleomycin hydrolase (Blmh) have been reported as the physiological HCTL detoxifying enzymes. However, the catalytic efficiency of HCTL hydrolysis by Blmh is low and not saturated at 20 mM HCTL. The catalytic efficiency of PON1 for HCTL hydrolysis is 100-fold lower than that of Blmh. A homocysteine thiolactonase (HCTLase) was purified from human liver and identified by mass spectrometry (MS) as the previously described human biphenyl hydrolase-like protein (BPHL). To further characterize this newly described HCTLase activity, BPHL was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The sequence of the recombinant BPHL (rBPHL) and hydrolytic products of the substrates HCTL and valacyclovir were verified by MS. We found that the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of rBPHL for HCTL hydrolysis was 7.7 × 104 M−1s−1, orders of magnitude higher than that of PON1 or Blmh, indicating a more significant physiological role for BPHL in detoxifying HCTL. PMID:25333274

  10. Acid-Catalyzed Reaction of Epoxides on Atmospheric Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Gomez-Hernandez, M.; Lal, V.; Qiu, C.; Khalizov, A. F.; Wang, L.; Zhang, R.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol plays an important role in affecting the earth climate and harming human health. Atmospheric aerosols can be formed from either primary emissions or gas-to-particle conversion process. Numerous studies, including both experimental and theoretical, have been carried out to elucidate the mechanism of gas-to-particle conversion process (a.k.a. nucleation) and the later growth stage of newly formed nanoparticles. However, a complete list of species involving in the nucleation and growth processes of nanoparticles is still poorly understood. The growth of newly formed sulfuric acid - water nanoparticles has been suggested to involve several potential organic vapors, such as amines, glyoxal, 2-4 hexadienal, and epoxides. In the present study, new formed sulfuric acid -water nanoparticles were size selected by a differential mobility analyzer and exposed to epoxide vapors. The size-change after exposure was detected using the second differential mobility analyzer. The size-enlarged particles were then collected by an electrostatic precipitator, thermal vaporized, and analyzed by an ion drift chemical ionization mass spectrometer. Our results show that the sizes of nanoparticles are increased considerably and the magnitude of the increment in size is size-dependent. Mass spectrometry analysis of the nanoparticles after exposure demonstrates that low volatile organosulfate and oligomers are formed in nanoparticles upon their exposure to epoxide vapors.

  11. Antifungal Hydrolases in Pea Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Mauch, Felix; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Boller, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase purified from pea pods acted synergistically in the degradation of fungal cell walls. The antifungal potential of the two enzymes was studied directly by adding protein preparations to paper discs placed on agar plates containing germinated fungal spores. Protein extracts from pea pods infected with Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli, which contained high activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, inhibited growth of 15 out of 18 fungi tested. Protein extracts from uninfected pea pods, which contained low activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, did not inhibit fungal growth. Purified chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, tested individually, did not inhibit growth of most of the test fungi. Only Trichoderma viride was inhibited by chitinase alone, and only Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi was inhibited by β-1,3-glucanase alone. However, combinations of purified chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase inhibited all fungi tested as effectively as crude protein extracts containing the same enzyme activities. The pea pathogen, Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi, and the nonpathogen of peas, Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli, were similarly strongly inhibited by chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, indicating that the differential pathogenicity of the two fungi is not due to differential sensitivity to the pea enzymes. Inhibition of fungal growth was caused by the lysis of the hyphal tips. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16666407

  12. Exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases can be utilized to disrupt and prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Perrin; Hill, Preston J.; Snarr, Brendan D.; Alnabelseya, Noor; Pestrak, Matthew J.; Lee, Mark J.; Jennings, Laura K.; Tam, John; Melnyk, Roman A.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms present a significant medical challenge because they are recalcitrant to current therapeutic regimes. A key component of biofilm formation in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the structural biofilm scaffold and protection against antimicrobials and host defenses. Given that the glycoside hydrolases PelAh and PslGh encoded in the pel and psl biosynthetic operons, respectively, are utilized for in vivo exopolysaccharide processing, we reasoned that these would provide specificity to target P. aeruginosa biofilms. Evaluating these enzymes as potential therapeutics, we demonstrate that these glycoside hydrolases selectively target and degrade the exopolysaccharide component of the biofilm matrix. PelAh and PslGh inhibit biofilm formation over a 24-hour period with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 69.3 ± 1.2 and 4.1 ± 1.1 nM, respectively, and are capable of disrupting preexisting biofilms in 1 hour with EC50 of 35.7 ± 1.1 and 12.9 ± 1.1 nM, respectively. This treatment was effective against clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates and reduced biofilm biomass by 58 to 94%. These noncytotoxic enzymes potentiated antibiotics because the addition of either enzyme to a sublethal concentration of colistin reduced viable bacterial counts by 2.5 orders of magnitude when used either prophylactically or on established 24-hour biofilms. In addition, PelAh was able to increase neutrophil killing by ~50%. This work illustrates the feasibility and benefits of using bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases to develop novel antibiofilm therapeutics. PMID:27386527

  13. TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION UNDERWATER HYDROLASING PHASE 0 & 1 & 2 TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    CHRONISTER, G.B.

    2005-06-08

    From September 10 through December 17th, 2003, S.A.Robotics executed Phases 0, I, and II of the Technology Demonstration - Underwater Hydrolasing. Phase 0 was performed at the S.A.Robotics facility in Loveland, Colorado, while Phases I and II were performed at the Hanford K-Basin East Site. The purpose of the demonstrations was to show (1) underwater hydrolasing is a feasible method of removing contaminated concrete underwater to a required depth, (2) the hydrolasing head could be controlled during operation, (3) the depth of contamination in the concrete structure could be accurately measured, and (4) a characterization of the waste stream during hydrolasing activities could be recorded. Video monitoring was also used during all demonstrations. All phases of the demonstration were completed and deemed a success by both the observers and the demonstration team. Single and multiple passes were made using variable cutting rates, different stand-off distances were tested, and stationary cuts were executed. Hot and cold hyrdolasing was performed with radiological and depth scans of the affected surfaces. Specially designed equipment was installed and operated within the contaminated environment of 100-K East Basin. Separate results are documented below by phase. The Phase II radiological demonstration was performed to determine the feasibility of underwater hydrolasing technology for decontamination of the DOE spent fuel basins at Hanford 100-K area. This project demonstration was conducted at 105 KE Basin with the expectation that, once proven, this technology can be implemented at Hanford and other DOE sites.

  14. Expression and purification of an engineered, yeast-expressed Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase with immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Hudspeth, Elissa M; Wang, Qian; Seid, Christopher A; Hammond, Molly; Wei, Junfei; Liu, Zhuyun; Zhan, Bin; Pollet, Jeroen; Heffernan, Michael J; McAtee, C Patrick; Engler, David A; Matsunami, Risë K; Strych, Ulrich; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Leishmania donovani is the major cause of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), now recognized as the parasitic disease with the highest level of mortality second only to malaria. No human vaccine is currently available. A 36 kDa L. donovani nucleoside hydrolase (LdNH36) surface protein has been previously identified as a potential vaccine candidate antigen. Here we present data on the expression of LdNH36 in Pichia pastoris and its purification at the 20 L scale to establish suitability for future pilot scale manufacturing. To improve efficiency of process development and ensure reproducibility, 4 N-linked glycosylation sites shown to contribute to heterogeneous high-mannose glycosylation were mutated to glutamine residues. The mutant LdNH36 (LdNH36-dg2) was expressed and purified to homogeneity. Size exclusion chromatography and light scattering demonstrated that LdNH36-dg2 existed as a tetramer in solution, similar to the wild-type recombinant L. major nucleoside hydrolase. The amino acid mutations do not affect the tetrameric interface as confirmed by theoretical modeling, and the mutated amino acids are located outside the major immunogenic domain. Immunogenic properties of the LdNH36-dg2 recombinant protein were evaluated in BALB/c mice using formulations that included a synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, together with a microparticle delivery platform (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)). Mice exhibited high levels of IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies that were reactive to both LdNH36-dg2 and LdNH36 wild-type. While the point mutations did affect the hydrolase activity of the enzyme, the IgG antibodies elicited by LdNH36-dg2 were shown to inhibit the hydrolase activity of the wild-type LdNH36. The results indicate that LdNH36-dg2 as expressed in and purified from P. pastoris is suitable for further scale-up, manufacturing, and testing in support of future first-in-humans phase 1 clinical trials. PMID:26839079

  15. Sustained Systemic Glucocerebrosidase Inhibition Induces Brain α-Synuclein Aggregation, Microglia and Complement C1q Activation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Emily M.; Smith, Gaynor A.; Park, Eric; Cao, Hongmei; Graham, Anne-Renee; Brown, Eilish; McLean, Jesse R.; Hayes, Melissa A.; Beagan, Jonathan; Izen, Sarah C.; Perez-Torres, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Loss-of-function mutations in GBA1, which cause the autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease, Gaucher disease (GD), are also a key genetic risk factor for the α-synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. GBA1 encodes for the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase and reductions in this enzyme result in the accumulation of the glycolipid substrates glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine. Deficits in autophagy and lysosomal degradation pathways likely contribute to the pathological accumulation of α-synuclein in PD. In this report we used conduritol-β-epoxide (CBE), a potent selective irreversible competitive inhibitor of glucocerebrosidase, to model reduced glucocerebrosidase activity in vivo, and tested whether sustained glucocerebrosidase inhibition in mice could induce neuropathological abnormalities including α-synucleinopathy, and neurodegeneration. Results: Our data demonstrate that daily systemic CBE treatment over 28 days caused accumulation of insoluble α-synuclein aggregates in the substantia nigra, and altered levels of proteins involved in the autophagy lysosomal system. These neuropathological changes were paralleled by widespread neuroinflammation, upregulation of complement C1q, abnormalities in synaptic, axonal transport and cytoskeletal proteins, and neurodegeneration. Innovation: A reduction in brain GCase activity has been linked to sporadic PD and normal aging, and may contribute to the susceptibility of vulnerable neurons to degeneration. This report demonstrates that systemic reduction of GCase activity using chemical inhibition, leads to neuropathological changes in the brain reminiscent of α-synucleinopathy. Conclusions: These data reveal a link between reduced glucocerebrosidase and the development of α-synucleinopathy and pathophysiological abnormalities in mice, and support the development of GCase therapeutics to reduce α-synucleinopathy in PD and related disorders

  16. Identification of the Major Prostaglandin Glycerol Ester Hydrolase in Human Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Joseph D.; Wepy, James A.; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Chang, Jae Won; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin glycerol esters (PG-Gs) are produced as a result of the oxygenation of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, by cyclooxygenase 2. Understanding the role that PG-Gs play in a biological setting has been difficult because of their sensitivity to enzymatic hydrolysis. By comparing PG-G hydrolysis across human cancer cell lines to serine hydrolase activities determined by activity-based protein profiling, we identified lysophospholipase A2 (LYPLA2) as a major enzyme responsible for PG-G hydrolysis. The principal role played by LYPLA2 in PGE2-G hydrolysis was confirmed by siRNA knockdown. Purified recombinant LYPLA2 hydrolyzed PG-Gs in the following order of activity: PGE2-G > PGF2α-G > PGD2-G; LYPLA2 hydrolyzed 1- but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol or arachidonoylethanolamide. Chemical inhibition of LYPLA2 in the mouse macrophage-like cell line, RAW264.7, elicited an increase in PG-G production. Our data indicate that LYPLA2 serves as a major PG-G hydrolase in human cells. Perturbation of this enzyme should enable selective modulation of PG-Gs without alterations in endocannabinoids, thereby providing a means to decipher the unique functions of PG-Gs in biology and disease. PMID:25301951

  17. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of acylpeptide hydrolase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ping; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Ze

    2016-04-10

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) can catalyze the release of the N-terminal amino acid from acetylated peptides. There were many documented examples of this enzyme in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, knowledge about APH in insects still remains unknown. In this study, we cloned and sequenced a putative silkworm Bombyx mori APH (BmAPH) gene. The BmAPH gene encodes a protein of 710 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 78.5kDa. The putative BmAPH and mammal APHs share about 36% amino acid sequence identity, yet key catalytic residues are conserved (Ser566, Asp654, and His686). Expression and purification of the recombinant BmAPH in Escherichia coli showed that it has acylpeptide hydrolase activity toward the traditional substrate, Ac-Ala-pNA. Furthermore, organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, chlorpyrifos, phoxim, and malathion, significantly inhibited the activity of the APH both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, BmAPH was expressed in all tested tissues and developmental stages of the silkworm. Finally, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that BmAPH protein was localized in the basement membranes. These results suggested that BmAPH may be involved in enhancing silkworm tolerance to the OP insecticides. In a word, our results provide evidence for understanding of the biological function of APH in insects. PMID:26778207

  18. Exploration of the chlorpyrifos escape pathway from acylpeptide hydrolases using steered molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongmei; Jin, Hanyong; Wang, Junling; Guan, Shanshan; Zhang, Zuoming; Han, Weiwei

    2016-04-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolases (APH) catalyze the removal of an N-acylated amino acid from blocked peptides. APH is significantly more sensitive than acetylcholinesterase, a target of Alzheimer's disease, to inhibition by organophosphorus (OP) compounds. Thus, OP compounds can be used as a tool to probe the physiological functions of APH. Here, we report the results of a computational study of molecular dynamics simulations of APH bound to the OP compounds and an exploration of the chlorpyrifos escape pathway using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. In addition, we apply SMD simulations to identify potential escape routes of chlorpyrifos from hydrolase hydrophobic cavities in the APH-inhibitor complex. Two previously proposed APH pathways were reliably identified by CAVER 3.0, with the estimated relative importance of P1 > P2 for its size. We identify the major pathway, P2, using SMD simulations, and Arg526, Glu88, Gly86, and Asn65 are identified as important residues for the ligand leaving via P2. These results may help in the design of APH-targeting drugs with improved efficacy, as well as in understanding APH selectivity of the inhibitor binding in the prolyl oligopeptidase family. PMID:26155973

  19. Blood acylpeptide hydrolase activity is a sensitive marker for exposure to some organophosphate toxicants.

    PubMed

    Quistad, Gary B; Klintenberg, Rebecka; Casida, John E

    2005-08-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) unblocks N-acetyl peptides. It is a major serine hydrolase in rat blood, brain, and liver detected by derivatization with (3)H-diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) or a biotinylated fluorophosphonate. Although APH does not appear to be a primary target of acute poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) compounds, the inhibitor specificity of this secondary target is largely unknown. This study fills the gap and emphasizes blood APH as a potential marker of OP exposure. The most potent in vitro inhibitors for human erythrocyte and mouse brain APH are DFP (IC(50) 11-17 nM), chlorpyrifos oxon (IC(50) 21-71 nM), dichlorvos (IC(50) 230-560 nM), naled (IC(50) 370-870 nM), and their analogs with modified alkyl substituents. (3)H-diisopropyl fluorophosphate is a potent inhibitor of mouse blood and brain APH in vivo (ED(50) 0.09-0.2 mg/kg and 0.02-0.03 mg/l for ip and vapor exposure, respectively). Mouse blood and brain APH and blood butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are of similar sensitivity to DFP in vitro and in vivo (ip and vapor exposure), but APH inhibition is much more persistent in vivo (still >80% inhibition after 4 days). The inhibitory potency of OP pesticides in vivo in mice varies from APH selective (dichlorvos, naled, and trichlorfon), to APH and BChE selective (profenofos and tribufos), to ChE selective or nonselective (many commercial insecticides). Sarin administered ip at a lethal dose to guinea pigs inhibits blood acetylcholinesterase and BChE completely but erythrocyte APH only partially. Blood APH activity is therefore a sensitive marker for exposure to some but not all OP pesticides and chemical warfare agents. PMID:15888665

  20. Expression of key hydrolases for soy sauce fermentation in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    PubMed

    Yuzuki, Masanobu; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Koyama, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Several key hydrolases in soy sauce fermentation such as proteases, peptidases, and glutaminases are supplied by Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. The genes encoding these hydrolases were successfully expressed in salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. These transformants are expected to supply extra hydrolases during soy sauce fermentation process. PMID:25073685

  1. Synergistic function of four novel thermostable glycoside hydrolases from a long-term enriched thermophilic methanogenic digester

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Lai, Guo-Li; Nie, Yong; Geng, Shuang; Liu, Liming; Zhu, Baoli; Shi, Zhongping; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    In biofuel production from lignocellulose, low thermostability and product inhibition strongly restrict the enzyme activities and production process. Application of multiple thermostable glycoside hydrolases, forming an enzyme “cocktail”, can result in a synergistic action and therefore improve production efficiency and reduce operational costs. Therefore, increasing enzyme thermostabilities and compatibility are important for the biofuel industry. In this study, we reported the screening, cloning and biochemical characterization of four novel thermostable lignocellulose hydrolases from a metagenomic library of a long-term dry thermophilic methanogenic digester community, which were highly compatible with optimal conditions and specific activities. The optimal temperatures of the four enzymes, β-xylosidase, xylanase, β-glucosidase, and cellulase ranged from 60 to 75°C, and over 80% residual activities were observed after 2 h incubation at 50°C. Mixtures of these hydrolases retained high residual synergistic activities after incubation with cellulose, xylan, and steam-exploded corncob at 50°C for 72 h. In addition, about 55% dry weight of steam-exploded corncob was hydrolyzed to glucose and xylose by the synergistic action of the four enzymes at 50°C for 48 h. This work suggested that since different enzymes from a same ecosystem could be more compatible, screening enzymes from a long-term enriching community could be a favorable strategy. PMID:26052323

  2. Towards a General Understanding of Carbonyl-Stabilised Ammonium Ylide-Mediated Epoxidation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Novacek, Johanna; Roiser, Lukas; Zielke, Katharina; Robiette, Raphaël; Waser, Mario

    2016-08-01

    The key factors for carbonyl-stabilised ammonium ylide-mediated epoxidation reactions were systematically investigated by experimental and computational means and the hereby obtained energy profiles provide explanations for the observed experimental results. In addition, we were able to identify the first tertiary amine-based chiral auxiliary that allows for high enantioselectivities and high yields for such epoxidation reactions. PMID:27381752

  3. Asymmetric Epoxidation: A Twinned Laboratory and Molecular Modeling Experiment for Upper-Level Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hii, King Kuok; Rzepa, Henry S.; Smith, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of a student experiment involving the preparation and use of a catalyst for the asymmetric epoxidation of an alkene with computational simulations of various properties of the resulting epoxide is set out in the form of a software toolbox from which students select appropriate components. At the core of these are the computational…

  4. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON GEOMETRY ON THE HYDROLYSIS OF DIOL EPOXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative studies of the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geometry on the hydrolysis of diol epoxides

    The interaction of the diol epoxides (DEs) of both planar and non-planar PAHs with water have been examined using quantum mechanical and molecular dynamics. Th...

  10. General, Highly Selective Synthesis of 1,3- and 1,4-Difunctionalized Building Blocks by Regiodivergent Epoxide Opening.

    PubMed

    Funken, Nico; Mühlhaus, Felix; Gansäuer, Andreas

    2016-09-19

    We describe a regiodivergent epoxide opening (REO) featuring a catalyst-controlled synthesis of enantiomerically and diastereomerically highly enriched or pure syn- and anti- 1,3- and 1,4-difunctionalized building blocks from a common epoxide precursor. The REO is attractive for natural product synthesis and as a branching reaction for diversity-oriented synthesis with epoxides. PMID:27600090

  11. The lid domain of the MCP hydrolase DxnB2 contributes to the reactivity towards recalcitrant PCB metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Katherine C.; Ghosh, Subhangi; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2013-01-01

    DxnB2 and BphD are meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolases that catalyze C-C bond hydrolysis of the biphenyl metabolite 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA). BphD is a bottleneck in the bacterial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the Bph catabolic pathway due in part to inhibition by 3-Cl HOPDAs. By contrast, DxnB2 from Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 catalyzes the hydrolysis of 3-Cl HOPDAs more efficiently. X-ray crystallographic studies of the catalytically inactive S105A variant of DxnB2 complexed with 3-Cl HOPDA revealed a binding mode in which C1 through C6 of the dienoate are coplanar. The chlorine substituent is accommodated by a hydrophobic pocket that is larger than the homologous site in BphDLB400 from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. The planar binding mode observed in the crystalline complex was consistent with the hyper- and hypsochromically-shifted absorption spectra of 3-Cl and 3,9,11-triCl HOPDA, respectively, bound to S105A in solution. Moreover, ESred, an intermediate possessing a bathochromically-shifted spectrum observed in the turnover of HOPDA, was not detected, suggesting that substrate destabilization was rate-limiting in the turnover of these PCB metabolites. Interestingly, electron density for the first α-helix of the lid domain was poorly defined in the dimeric DxnB2 structures, unlike in the tetrameric BphDLB400. Structural comparison of MCP hydrolases identified the NC-loop, connecting the lid to the α/β-hydrolase core domain, as a determinant in oligomeric state and suggests its involvement in catalysis. Finally, an increased mobility of the DxnB2 lid may contribute to the enzyme’s ability to hydrolyze PCB metabolites, highlighting how lid architecture contributes to substrate specificity in α/β-hydrolases. PMID:23879719

  12. Photoaffinity labeling of opioid receptor with morphine-7,8-oxide (morphine epoxide)

    SciTech Connect

    Takayanagi, I.; Shibata, R.; Miyata, N.; Hirobe, M.

    1982-05-01

    The opioid receptor mediating inhibitory action of morphine in the electrically stimulated guinea pig ileum was irreversibly photoinactivated by morphine epoxide (3 X 10(-6) M). Morphine epoxide (up to 3 X 10(-5) M) did not influence the responses of rat vas deferens (epsilon-receptor) or rabbit vas deferens (kappa-receptor) to electrical stimulation. Effective concentrations of morphine epoxide were much lower in the guinea pig ileum (mu-receptor) than in the mouse vas deference (delta-receptor). The inhibitory action of (Met)-enkephalin on the twitch responses of the rat vas deferens and mouse vas deferens to electrical stimulation were not influenced after irradiation in the presence of morphine epoxide (3 X 10(-6) M). Therefore, morphine epoxide is probably a useful probe for photoaffinity labeling of the mu-receptor in vitro.

  13. Biodegradation of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide-contaminated soils by white-rot fungal inocula.

    PubMed

    Purnomo, Adi Setyo; Putra, Surya Rosa; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2014-10-01

    The ability of certain white-rot fungi (WRF) inocula to transform heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide and its application in artificially contaminated soil were investigated. Fungal inoculum of Pleurotus ostreatus eliminated approximately 89 % of heptachlor after 28 days of incubation, and chlordene was detected as the primary metabolite. The fungal inoculum of Pleurotus ostreatus had the highest ability to degrade heptachlor epoxide; approximately 32 % were degraded after 28 days of incubation, and heptachlor diol was detected as the metabolite product. Because Pleurotus ostreatus transformed heptachlor into a less toxic metabolite and could also effectively degrade heptachlor epoxide, it was then selected to be applied to artificially contaminated soil. The spent mushroom waste (SMW) of Pleurotus ostreatus degraded heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide by approximately 91 and 26 %, respectively, over 28 days. This finding indicated that Pleurotus ostreatus SMW could be used to bioremediate heptachlor- and heptachlor epoxide-contaminated environments. PMID:24840358

  14. Iron-catalysed propylene epoxidation by nitrous oxide: dramatic shift of allylic oxidation to epoxidation by the modification with alkali metal salts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Qinghong; Guo, Qian; Lou, Yinchuan; Yang, Lujuan; Wang, Ye

    2004-06-21

    A dramatic shift of allylic oxidation to epoxidation has been observed during the oxidation of propylene by N(2)O when the FeO(x)/SBA-15 catalyst is modified with alkali metal salts, and the roles of alkali metal salts are to suppress the reactivity of lattice oxygen and to induce an iron coordination structure effective for epoxidation with N(2)O. PMID:15179482

  15. An enzyme catalysing the conjugation of epoxides with glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Boyland, E.; Williams, K.

    1965-01-01

    1. Liver supernatant preparations from rats and ferrets catalyse the conjugation of some epoxides with glutathione. The enzyme involved might be called `glutathione S-epoxidetransferase', as it is different from glutathione S-aryltransferase, the enzyme catalysing the conjugation of 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, 4-nitro-pyridine N-oxide and other cyclic compounds with glutathione and from the enzyme catalysing the conjugation of iodomethane and glutathione. 2. The enzyme does not catalyse the reaction with cysteine. It is not inactivated by dialysis but is unstable at pH 5·0. 3. The role of the enzyme in metabolism of foreign compounds is discussed. PMID:14342229

  16. Catalysts for CO2/epoxide ring-opening copolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Trott, G.; Saini, P. K.; Williams, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes and reviews recent progress in the development of catalysts for the ring-opening copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides. The copolymerization is an interesting method to add value to carbon dioxide, including from waste sources, and to reduce pollution associated with commodity polymer manufacture. The selection of the catalyst is of critical importance to control the composition, properties and applications of the resultant polymers. This review highlights and exemplifies some key recent findings and hypotheses, in particular using examples drawn from our own research. PMID:26755758

  17. Catalysts for CO2/epoxide ring-opening copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Trott, G; Saini, P K; Williams, C K

    2016-02-28

    This article summarizes and reviews recent progress in the development of catalysts for the ring-opening copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides. The copolymerization is an interesting method to add value to carbon dioxide, including from waste sources, and to reduce pollution associated with commodity polymer manufacture. The selection of the catalyst is of critical importance to control the composition, properties and applications of the resultant polymers. This review highlights and exemplifies some key recent findings and hypotheses, in particular using examples drawn from our own research. PMID:26755758

  18. Electroless copper coating of epoxide plates in an ultrasonic field.

    PubMed

    Touyeras, F; Hihn, J Y; Doche, M L; Roizard, X

    2001-07-01

    This paper reports the study of ultrasonic irradiation effects on electroless copper coating on an epoxide resin. Several parameters were monitored, such as plating rates, practical adhesion and internal stress, versus varying acoustic powers at a constant frequency of 530 kHz. Exposure conditions were characterised by both transmitted power and interfacial mass transfer coefficients. Optimum conditions expressed in irradiation time and power were determined. The use of ultrasound during electroless copper plating affects the plating rates and the deposits properties, particularly the practical adhesion which increases whereas the internal stress decreases. Then, the changes in the coating mechanisms are discussed. PMID:11441612

  19. Curation of characterized glycoside hydrolases of fungal origin.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Caitlin; Powlowski, Justin; Wu, Min; Butler, Greg; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Fungi produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes to break down plant cell walls, which are composed mainly of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Among them are the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the largest and most diverse family of enzymes active on these substrates. To facilitate research and development of enzymes for the conversion of cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, we have manually curated a comprehensive set of characterized fungal glycoside hydrolases. Characterized glycoside hydrolases were retrieved from protein and enzyme databases, as well as literature repositories. A total of 453 characterized glycoside hydrolases have been cataloged. They come from 131 different fungal species, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. These enzymes represent 46 different GH activities and cover 44 of the 115 CAZy GH families. In addition to enzyme source and enzyme family, available biochemical properties such as temperature and pH optima, specific activity, kinetic parameters and substrate specificities were recorded. To simplify comparative studies, enzyme and species abbreviations have been standardized, Gene Ontology terms assigned and reference to supporting evidence provided. The annotated genes have been organized in a searchable, online database called mycoCLAP (Characterized Lignocellulose-Active Proteins of fungal origin). It is anticipated that this manually curated collection of biochemically characterized fungal proteins will be used to enhance functional annotation of novel GH genes. Database URL: http://mycoCLAP.fungalgenomics.ca/. PMID:21622642

  20. Carbocyclic pyrimidine nucleosides as inhibitors of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Sylvester L; Bakke, Brian A; Sadler, Joshua M; Sunkara, Naresh K; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L

    2006-12-01

    The design, synthesis, and unexpected inhibitory activity against S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) hydrolase (SAHase, EC 3.3.1.1) for a series of truncated carbocyclic pyrimidine nucleoside analogues is presented. Of the four nucleosides obtained, 10 was found to be active with a Ki value of 5.0 microM against SAHase. PMID:16904326

  1. Curation of characterized glycoside hydrolases of Fungal origin

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Caitlin; Powlowski, Justin; Wu, Min; Butler, Greg; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Fungi produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes to break down plant cell walls, which are composed mainly of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Among them are the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the largest and most diverse family of enzymes active on these substrates. To facilitate research and development of enzymes for the conversion of cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, we have manually curated a comprehensive set of characterized fungal glycoside hydrolases. Characterized glycoside hydrolases were retrieved from protein and enzyme databases, as well as literature repositories. A total of 453 characterized glycoside hydrolases have been cataloged. They come from 131 different fungal species, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. These enzymes represent 46 different GH activities and cover 44 of the 115 CAZy GH families. In addition to enzyme source and enzyme family, available biochemical properties such as temperature and pH optima, specific activity, kinetic parameters and substrate specificities were recorded. To simplify comparative studies, enzyme and species abbreviations have been standardized, Gene Ontology terms assigned and reference to supporting evidence provided. The annotated genes have been organized in a searchable, online database called mycoCLAP (Characterized Lignocellulose-Active Proteins of fungal origin). It is anticipated that this manually curated collection of biochemically characterized fungal proteins will be used to enhance functional annotation of novel GH genes. Database URL: http://mycoCLAP.fungalgenomics.ca/ PMID:21622642

  2. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE-BASED ASSAY FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report a rapid and versatile Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH)-based method for measurement of organophosphates. This assay is based on a substrate-dependent change in pH at the local vicinity of the enzyme. The pH change is monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), ...

  3. ENGINEERING OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN HYDROLASES FOR CONTROL OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteriophages are viruses exclusively infecting bacteria and therefore offer suitable tools for their detection and control. At the end of their multiplication cycle, most phages lyse their hosts from within by means of an endolysin (peptidoglycan hydrolase), thereby enabling release of the phage p...

  4. Bacteriophage virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases: potential new enzybiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases (VAPGH) are phage-encoded lytic enzymes that locally degrade the peptidoglycan (PG) of the bacterial cell wall during infection. Their action usually generates a small hole through which the phage tail crosses the cell envelope to inject the phage genetic m...

  5. Design and Synthesis of Activity-Based Probes and Inhibitors for Bleomycin Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Wouter A; Segal, Ehud; Child, Matthew A; Byzia, Anna; Drąg, Marcin; Bogyo, Matthew

    2015-08-20

    Bleomycin hydrolase (BLMH) is a neutral cysteine aminopeptidase that has been ascribed roles in many physiological and pathological processes, yet its primary biological function remains enigmatic. In this work, we describe the results of screening of a library of fluorogenic substrates to identify non-natural amino acids that are optimally recognized by BLMH. This screen identified several substrates with kcat/KM values that are substantially improved over the previously reported fluorogenic substrates for this enzyme. The substrate sequences were used to design activity-based probes that showed potent labeling of recombinant BLMH as well as endogenously expressed BLMH in cell extracts, and in intact cells. Importantly, we identify potent BLMH inhibitors that are able to fully inhibit endogenous BLMH activity in intact cells. These probes and inhibitors will be valuable new reagents to study BLMH function in cellular and animal models of human diseases where BLMH is likely to be involved. PMID:26256478

  6. Fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases bind starch and β-cyclodextrin similarly to amylolytic hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Nekiunaite, Laura; Isaksen, Trine; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2016-08-01

    Starch-binding modules of family 20 (CBM20) are present in 60% of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) catalyzing the oxidative breakdown of starch, which highlights functional importance in LPMO activity. The substrate-binding properties of starch-active LMPOs, however, are currently unexplored. Affinities and binding-thermodynamics of two recombinant fungal LPMOs toward starch and β-cyclodextrin were shown to be similar to fungal CBM20s. Amplex Red assays showed ascorbate and Cu-dependent activity, which was inhibited in the presence of β-cylodextrin and amylose. Phylogenetically, the clustering of CBM20s from starch-targeting LPMOs and hydrolases was in accord with taxonomy and did not correlate to appended catalytic activity. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the CBM20-binding scaffold is retained in the evolution of hydrolytic and oxidative starch-degrading activities. PMID:27397613

  7. Heterogeneous expression and biological function of ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuier; Qiao, Guanglei; Min, Daliu; Zhang, Zhichang; Lin, Feng; Yang, Qingcheng; Feng, Tao; Tang, Lina; Sun, Yuanjue; Zhao, Hui; Li, Hongtao; Yu, Wenxi; Yang, Yumei; Shen, Zan; Yao, Yang

    2015-04-01

    Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1), a member of the UCH class of DUBs, has been reported as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the biological function of UCHL1 in osteosarcoma is still unclear. This study was aimed at elucidating the roles of UCHL1 in regulating the biological behavior of osteosarcoma cells. In this study, we found that UCHL1 was elevated in osteosarcoma compared with normal bone tissue. Moreover, UCHL1 expression level was correlated with tumor maximum diameter, high rate of lung metastases and short survival time. Then, we found that knockdown of UCHL1 in osteosarcoma cell MG63 inhibited cell proliferation and significantly increased cell population in the G1 phase. Several cyclins promoting G1/S phase transition were reduced after UCHL1 knockdown, including cell cycle regulator cyclin D1, cyclin E1 and CDK6. Moreover, inhibition of UCHL1 in MG63 cells dramatically induced cell apoptosis. We also found that down-regulation of UCHL1 in MG63 significantly inhibited cell invasion. Then, we found that there was a positive correlation between UCHL1 expression level and the Akt and ERK phosphorylation status. Finally, in vivo data showed that knockdown of UCHL1 inhibited osteosarcoma growth in nude mice. These results indicate that UCHL1 could work as an oncogene and may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for osteosarcoma. PMID:25578779

  8. Integrated process and dual-function catalyst for olefin epoxidation

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Bing; Rueter, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The invention discloses a dual-functional catalyst composition and an integrated process for production of olefin epoxides including propylene oxide by catalytic reaction of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen with olefin feeds such as propylene. The epoxides and hydrogen peroxide are preferably produced simultaneously in situ. The dual-functional catalyst comprises noble metal crystallites with dimensions on the nanometer scale (on the order of <1 nm to 10 nm), specially dispersed on titanium silicalite substrate particles. The dual functional catalyst catalyzes both the direct reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to generate hydrogen peroxide intermediate on the noble metal catalyst surface and the reaction of the hydrogen peroxide intermediate with the propylene feed to generate propylene oxide product. Combining both these functions in a single catalyst provides a very efficient integrated process operable below the flammability limits of hydrogen and highly selective for the production of hydrogen peroxide to produce olefin oxides such as propylene oxide without formation of undesired co-products.

  9. Aminoacylase 1-catalysed deacetylation of bioactives epoxides mycotoxin-derived mercapturates; 3,4-epoxyprecocenes as models of cytotoxic epoxides.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Pierre; Brunel, Jean Michel; de Rezende, Leandro; do Amaral, Antonia Tavares; Morelli, Xavier; Roche, Phillipe; Vidal, Nicolas; Giardina, Thierry; Perrier, Josette

    2012-08-01

    The mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a carcinogenic food contaminant which is metabolically activated by epoxydation. The metabolism of mycotoxins via the mercapturate metabolic pathway was shown, in general, to lead to their detoxication. Mercapturic acids thus formed (S-substitued-N-acetyl-l-cysteines) may be accumulated in the kidney and either excreted in the urine or desacetylated by Acylase 1 (ACY1) to yield cysteine S-conjugates. To be toxic, the N-acetyl-l-cysteine-S-conjugates first have to undergo deacetylation by ACY 1. The specificity and rate of mercapturic acid deacetylation may determine the toxicity, however the exact deacetylation processes involved are not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ACY1 in the toxicity of some bioactive epoxides from Aflatoxin B1. We characterized the kinetic parameters of porcine kidney and human recombinant aminoacylase-1 towards some aromatic and aliphatic-derived mercapturates analogue of mycotoxin-mercapturic acids and 3,4-epoxyprecocene, a bioactive epoxide derivated from aflatoxin. The deacetylation of mercapturated substrates was followed both by reverse phase HPLC and by TNBS method. Catalytic activity was discussed in a structure-function relationship. Ours results indicate for the first time that aminoacylase-1 could play an important role in deacetylating mercapturate metabolites of aflatoxin analogues and this process may be in relation with their cyto- and nephrotoxicity in human. PMID:22349737

  10. Role of induction of specific hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms in epoxidation of 4-vinylcyclohexene.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, S M; Hoyer, P B; Halpert, J R; Sipes, I G

    2001-09-01

    4-Vinyl-1-cyclohexene (VCH) is ovotoxic in B6C3F(1) mice but not in Fischer-344 rats, which can be partially attributed to greater formation of toxic epoxides from VCH in mice compared with rats. Since repeated exposure to VCH is necessary to cause ovotoxicity in mice, it is important to determine whether repeated exposure results in induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in its bioactivation. Hepatic microsomes prepared from mice or rats treated repeatedly with VCH demonstrated significantly increased VCH bioactivation in vitro, as assessed by VCH-1,2-epoxide, VCH-7,8-epoxide, or vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) formation. Mice and rats were then dosed with VCH, VCH-1,2-epoxide, or VCD for 10 days and measured for increases in hepatic microsomal CYP levels or activities. Total hepatic CYP levels were elevated only in microsomes from mice pretreated with VCH or VCH-1,2-epoxide. Immunoblotting analysis of microsomes from VCH-treated rodents revealed elevated levels of CYP2A and CYP2B in mice but not rats. VCH-1,2-epoxide pretreatment also increased CYP2B levels in the mouse. Activities toward specific substrates for CYP2A and CYP2B (coumarin and pentoxyresorufin, respectively) confirmed that VCH and VCH-1,2-epoxide pretreatments resulted in increased catalytic activities of CYP2A and CYP2B in the mouse but not the rat. Pretreatment with phenobarbital, a known inducer of CYP2A and CYP2B, increased VCH bioactivation in both species. Interestingly, metabolism studies with human CYP "Supersomes" reveal that, of eight isoforms tested, only human CYP2E1 and CYP2B6 were capable of significantly catalyzing VCH epoxidation, whereas CYP2B6, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 were capable of catalyzing the epoxidation of the monoepoxides. PMID:11502734

  11. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolases and PAA biodegradation: current knowledge and impact on applications.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Tomohiro

    2016-02-01

    Thermally synthesized poly(aspartic acid) (tPAA) is a bio-based, biocompatible, biodegradable, and water-soluble polymer that has a high proportion of β-Asp units and equivalent moles of D- and L-Asp units. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolase-1 and hydrolase-2 are tPAA biodegradation enzymes purified from Gram-negative bacteria. PAA hydrolase-1 selectively cleaves amide bonds between β-Asp units via an endo-type process, whereas PAA hydrolase-2 catalyzes the exo-type hydrolysis of the products of tPAA hydrolysis by PAA hydrolase-1. The novel reactivity of PAA hydrolase-1 makes it a good candidate for a biocatalyst in β-peptide synthesis. This mini-review gives an overview of PAA hydrolases with emphasis on their biochemical and functional properties, in particular, PAA hydrolase-1. Functionally related enzymes, such as poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases and β-aminopeptidases, are compared to PAA hydrolases. This mini-review also provides findings that offer an insight into the catalytic mechanisms of PAA hydrolase-1 from Pedobacter sp. KP-2. PMID:26695157

  12. Methods of producing epoxides from alkenes using a two-component catalyst system

    DOEpatents

    Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.; Jiang, Jian

    2013-07-09

    Methods for the epoxidation of alkenes are provided. The methods include the steps of exposing the alkene to a two-component catalyst system in an aqueous solution in the presence of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen under conditions in which the alkene is epoxidized. The two-component catalyst system comprises a first catalyst that generates peroxides or peroxy intermediates during oxidation of CO with molecular oxygen and a second catalyst that catalyzes the epoxidation of the alkene using the peroxides or peroxy intermediates. A catalyst system composed of particles of suspended gold and titanium silicalite is one example of a suitable two-component catalyst system.

  13. Mechanism of olefin epoxidation in the presence of a titanium-containing zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danov, S. M.; Krasnov, V. L.; Sulimov, A. V.; Ovcharova, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of the nature of a solvent on the liquid-phase epoxidation of olefins with an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide over a titanium-containing zeolite is studied. Butanol-1, butanol-2, propanol-1, isopropanol, methanol, ethanol, water, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, isobutanol, and tert-butanol are examined as solvents. A mechanism of olefin epoxidation with hydrogen peroxide in an alcohol medium over a titanium-containing zeolite is proposed. Epoxidation reactions involving hydrogen peroxide and different olefins are studied experimentally.

  14. [GH10 Family of Glycoside Hydrolases: Structure and Evolutionary Connections].

    PubMed

    Naumoff, D G

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary connections were analyzed for endo-β-xylanases, which possess the GH10 family catalytic domains. A homology search yielded thrice as many proteins as are available from the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZy) database. Lateral gene transfer was shown to play an important role in evolution of bacterial proteins of the family, especially in the phyla Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, and Verrucomicrobia. In the case of Verrucomicrobia, 23 lateral transfers from organisms of other phyla were detected. Evolutionary relationships were observed between the GH10 family domains and domains with the TIM-barrel tertiary structure from several other glycosidase families. The GH39 family of glycoside hydrolases showed the closest relationship. Unclassified homologs were grouped into 12 novel families of putative glycoside hydrolases (GHL51-GHL62). PMID:27028821

  15. Olefin Epoxidation in Aqueous Phase Using Ionic-Liquid Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Cokoja, Mirza; Reich, Robert M; Wilhelm, Michael E; Kaposi, Marlene; Schäffer, Johannes; Morris, Danny S; Münchmeyer, Christian J; Anthofer, Michael H; Markovits, Iulius I E; Kühn, Fritz E; Herrmann, Wolfgang A; Jess, Andreas; Love, Jason B

    2016-07-21

    Hydrophobic imidazolium-based ionic liquids (IL) act as catalysts for the epoxidation of unfunctionalized olefins in water using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Although the catalysts are insoluble in both the substrate and in water, surprisingly, they are very well soluble in aqueous H2 O2 solution, owing to perrhenate-H2 O2 interactions. Even more remarkably, the presence of the catalyst also boosts the solubility of substrate in water. This effect is crucially dependent on the cation design. Hence, the imidazolium perrhenates enable both the transfer of hydrophobic substrate into the aqueous phase, and serve as actual catalysts, which is unprecedented. At the end of the reaction and in absence of H2 O2 the IL catalyst forms a third phase next to the lipophilic product and water and can easily be recycled. PMID:27219852

  16. Structure of a bacterial homologue of vitamin K epoxide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2010-03-19

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain {gamma}-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from cysteines of newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulphide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant.

  17. Basal and inducible anti-inflammatory epoxygenase activity in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Askari, Ara A.; Thomson, Scott; Edin, Matthew L.; Lih, Fred B.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • We examined epoxygenase product formation and regulation in endothelial cells. • The epoxygenase CYP2J2 is an LPS (TLR-4) inducible enzyme in endothelial cells. • The endothelial cell line EA.Hy926 synthesises epoxygenase products. • Inhibition of endothelial epoxygenases increases TNFα secretion. • Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors reduce inflammation-induced TNFα and NFκB. - Abstract: The roles of CYP lipid-metabolizing pathways in endothelial cells are poorly understood. Human endothelial cells expressed CYP2J2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) mRNA and protein. The TLR-4 agonist LPS (1 μg/ml; 24 h) induced CYP2J2 but not sEH mRNA and protein. LC–MS/MS analysis of the stable commonly used human endothelial cell line EA.Hy926 showed active epoxygenase and epoxide hydrolase activity: with arachidonic acid (stable epoxide products 5,6-DHET, and 14,15-DHET), linoleic acid (9,10-EPOME and 12,13-EPOME and their stable epoxide hydrolase products 9,10-DHOME and 12,13-DHOME), docosahexaenoic acid (stable epoxide hydrolase product 19,20-DiHDPA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (stable epoxide hydrolase product 17,18-DHET) being formed. Inhibition of epoxygenases using either SKF525A or MS-PPOH induced TNFα release, but did not affect LPS, IL-1β, or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced TNFα release. In contrast, inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase by AUDA or TPPU inhibited basal, LPS, IL-1β and PMA induced TNFα release, and LPS-induced NFκB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, human endothelial cells contain a TLR-4 regulated epoxygenase CYP2J2 and metabolize linoleic acid > eicosapentaenoic acid > arachidonic acid > docosahexaenoic acid to products with anti-inflammatory activity.

  18. Vibrational Excitations and Low Energy Electronic Structure of Epoxide-decorated Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, E.C.; Johns, J.E.; Pande, K.; Bosch, R.A.; Cui, S.; Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M.; Weinert, M.; Chen, J.H.; Hersam, M.C.; Hirschmugl, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    We report infrared studies of adsorbed atomic oxygen (epoxide functional groups) on graphene. Two different systems are used as a platform to explore these interactions, namely, epitaxial graphene/SiC(0001) functionalized with atomic oxygen (graphene epoxide, GE) and chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO). In the case of the model GE system, IR reflectivity measurements show that epoxide groups distort the graphene π bands around the K-point, imparting a finite effective mass and contributing to a band gap. In the case of RGO, epoxide groups are found to be present following the reduction treatment by a combination of polarized IR reflectance and transmittance measurements. Similar to the GE system, a band gap in the RGO sample is observed as well. PMID:24563725

  19. Regio- and Stereoselective Monoepoxidation of Dienes using Methyltrioxorhenium: Synthesis of Allylic Epoxides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) complexed with pyridine was shown to be a highly effective catalyst for the regioselective monoepoxidation of conjugated di- and trienes using 30% H2O2 at or below room temperature. The resultant allylic epoxides, and the triols derived from them, are versatile synthetic intermediates as well as substructures present in many bioactive natural products. The site of epoxidation was dependent upon olefin substitution, olefin geometry (Z vs E), and the presence of electron-withdrawing substituents on adjacent carbons. For 1-acyl(silyl)oxypenta-2,4-dienes, epoxidation of the distal olefin was generally favored in contrast to the adjacent regioselectivity characteristic of Sharpless, peracid, and other directed epoxidations of hydroxylated dienes. PMID:25321319

  20. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  1. A Computational Study of Acid Catalyzed Aerosol Reactions of Atmospherically Relevant Epoxides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epoxides are important intermediates of atmospheric isoprene oxidation. Their subsequent reactions in the particle phase lead to the production of organic compounds detected in ambient aerosols. We apply density functional theory to determine the important kinetic factors that ...

  2. Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Alkenes and Reusability Study of the Phenylacetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Abdulmalek, Emilia; Mizan, Hanis Nabillah; Abdul Rahman, Mohd. Basyaruddin; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Here, we focused on a simple enzymatic epoxidation of alkenes using lipase and phenylacetic acid. The immobilised Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozym 435 was used to catalyse the formation of peroxy acid instantly from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and phenylacetic acid. The peroxy phenylacetic acid generated was then utilised directly for in situ oxidation of alkenes. A variety of alkenes were oxidised with this system, resulting in 75–99% yield of the respective epoxides. On the other hand, the phenylacetic acid was recovered from the reaction media and reused for more epoxidation. Interestingly, the waste phenylacetic acid had the ability to be reused for epoxidation of the 1-nonene to 1-nonene oxide, giving an excellent yield of 90%. PMID:24587751

  3. First Structural Insights into α-l-Arabinofuranosidases from the Two GH62 Glycoside Hydrolase Subfamilies*

    PubMed Central

    Siguier, Béatrice; Haon, Mireille; Nahoum, Virginie; Marcellin, Marlène; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Mourey, Lionel; O'Donohue, Michael J.; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Tranier, Samuel; Dumon, Claire

    2014-01-01

    α-l-Arabinofuranosidases are glycoside hydrolases that specifically hydrolyze non-reducing residues from arabinose-containing polysaccharides. In the case of arabinoxylans, which are the main components of hemicellulose, they are part of microbial xylanolytic systems and are necessary for complete breakdown of arabinoxylans. Glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62) is currently a small family of α-l-arabinofuranosidases that contains only bacterial and fungal members. Little is known about the GH62 mechanism of action, because only a few members have been biochemically characterized and no three-dimensional structure is available. Here, we present the first crystal structures of two fungal GH62 α-l-arabinofuranosidases from the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis (UmAbf62A) and ascomycete Podospora anserina (PaAbf62A). Both enzymes are able to efficiently remove the α-l-arabinosyl substituents from arabinoxylan. The overall three-dimensional structure of UmAbf62A and PaAbf62A reveals a five-bladed β-propeller fold that confirms their predicted classification into clan GH-F together with GH43 α-l-arabinofuranosidases. Crystallographic structures of the complexes with arabinose and cellotriose reveal the important role of subsites +1 and +2 for sugar binding. Intriguingly, we observed that PaAbf62A was inhibited by cello-oligosaccharides and displayed binding affinity to cellulose although no activity was observed on a range of cellulosic substrates. Bioinformatic analyses showed that UmAbf62A and PaAbf62A belong to two distinct subfamilies within the GH62 family. The results presented here provide a framework to better investigate the structure-function relationships within the GH62 family. PMID:24394409

  4. Characterization of a Serine Hydrolase Targeted by Acyl-protein Thioesterase Inhibitors in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Louise E.; Rusch, Marion; Adibekian, Alexander; Bullen, Hayley E.; Graindorge, Arnault; Freymond, Céline; Rottmann, Matthias; Braun-Breton, Catherine; Baumeister, Stefan; Porfetye, Arthur T.; Vetter, Ingrid R.; Hedberg, Christian; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, cysteine palmitoylation is an important reversible modification that impacts protein targeting, folding, stability, and interactions with partners. Evidence suggests that protein palmitoylation contributes to key biological processes in Apicomplexa with the recent palmitome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum reporting over 400 substrates that are modified with palmitate by a broad range of protein S-acyl transferases. Dynamic palmitoylation cycles require the action of an acyl-protein thioesterase (APT) that cleaves palmitate from substrates and conveys reversibility to this posttranslational modification. In this work, we identified candidates for APT activity in Toxoplasma gondii. Treatment of parasites with low micromolar concentrations of β-lactone- or triazole urea-based inhibitors that target human APT1 showed varied detrimental effects at multiple steps of the parasite lytic cycle. The use of an activity-based probe in combination with these inhibitors revealed the existence of several serine hydrolases that are targeted by APT1 inhibitors. The active serine hydrolase, TgASH1, identified as the homologue closest to human APT1 and APT2, was characterized further. Biochemical analysis of TgASH1 indicated that this enzyme cleaves substrates with a specificity similar to APTs, and homology modeling points toward an APT-like enzyme. TgASH1 is dispensable for parasite survival, which indicates that the severe effects observed with the β-lactone inhibitors are caused by the inhibition of non-TgASH1 targets. Other ASH candidates for APT activity were functionally characterized, and one of them was found to be resistant to gene disruption due to the potential essential nature of the protein. PMID:23913689

  5. Formyltetrahydrofolate hydrolase, a regulatory enzyme that functions to balance pools of tetrahydrofolate and one-carbon tetrahydrofolate adducts in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nagy, P L; Marolewski, A; Benkovic, S J; Zalkin, H

    1995-03-01

    The enzyme encoded by Escherichia coli purU has been overproduced, purified, and characterized. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate (formyl-FH4) to FH4 and formate. Formyl-FH4 hydrolase thus generates the formate that is used by purT-encoded 5'-phosphoribosylglycinamide transformylase for step three of de novo purine nucleotide synthesis. Formyl-FH4 hydrolase, a hexamer with 32-kDa subunits, is activated by methionine and inhibited by glycine. Heterotropic cooperativity is observed for activation by methionine in the presence of glycine and for inhibition by glycine in the presence of methionine. These results, along with previous mutant analyses, lead to the conclusion formyl-FH4 hydrolase is a regulatory enzyme whose main function is to balance the pools of FH4 and C1-FH4 in response to changing growth conditions. The enzyme uses methionine and glycine to sense the pools of C1-FH4 and FH4, respectively. PMID:7868604

  6. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Ludmila; Bragg, Jennifer; Wu, Jiajie; Yang, Xiaohan; Tuskan, Gerald A; Vogel, John

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta. Insights

  7. Hydroxyl-Substituted Ladder Polyethers via Selective Tandem Epoxidation/Cyclization Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Czabaniuk, Lara C.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    A new and highly selective method for the synthesis of hydroxyl-substituted tetrahydropyrans is described. This method utilizes titanium(IV) iso-propoxide and diethyl tartrate to perform a diastereoselective epoxidation followed by in situ epoxide activation and highly selective endo-cyclization to form the desired tetrahydropyran ring. The HIJ ring fragment of the marine ladder polyether yessotoxin was synthesized using this two-stage tactic that proceeds with high efficiency and excellent regioselectivity. PMID:25647091

  8. Highly Active Titanocene Catalysts for Epoxide Hydrosilylation: Synthesis, Theory, Kinetics, EPR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Dina Schwarz G; Zimmer, Katharina; Klare, Sven; Meyer, Andreas; Rojo-Wiechel, Elena; Bauer, Mirko; Sure, Rebecca; Grimme, Stefan; Schiemann, Olav; Flowers, Robert A; Gansäuer, Andreas

    2016-06-27

    A catalytic system for titanocene-catalyzed epoxide hydrosilylation is described. It features a straightforward preparation of titanocene hydrides that leads to a reaction with low catalyst loading, high yields, and high selectivity of radical reduction. The mechanism was studied by a suite of methods, including kinetic studies, EPR spectroscopy, and computational methods. An unusual resting state leads to the observation of an inverse rate order with respect to the epoxide. PMID:27125466

  9. The Epoxidation of Carbonyl Compounds with a Benzyne-Triggered Sulfur Ylide.

    PubMed

    Lou, Mei-Mei; Wang, Han; Song, Li; Liu, Hong-Yi; Li, Zhong-Qiu; Guo, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Fu-Geng; Wang, Bin

    2016-07-15

    An efficient method for the synthesis of epoxides from carbonyl compounds, sulfoxides, and benzyne is presented. The strategy involved an epoxidation by a sulfur ylide which is formed in situ from sulfoxide and benzyne through the S-O bond insertion and deprotonation. This one-pot reaction proceeds under mild and base-free conditions, providing a convenient way to introduce the substituted methylene groups onto the carbonyl carbon. PMID:27337065

  10. A Double Whammy: Targeting Both Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) and Cyclooxygenase (COX) To Treat Pain and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Scarpelli, Rita; Sasso, Oscar; Piomelli, Daniele

    2016-06-20

    Pain states that arise from non-resolving inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease or arthritis, pose an unusually difficult challenge for therapy because of the complexity and heterogeneity of their underlying mechanisms. It has been suggested that key nodes linking interactive pathogenic pathways of non-resolving inflammation might offer novel targets for the treatment of inflammatory pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which inhibit the cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated production of pain- and inflammation-inducing prostanoids, are a common first-line treatment for this condition, but their use is limited by mechanism-based side effects. The endogenous levels of anandamide, an endocannabinoid mediator with analgesic and tissue-protective functions, are regulated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). This review outlines the pharmacological and chemical rationale for the simultaneous inhibition of COX and FAAH activities with designed multitarget agents. Preclinical studies indicate that such agents may combine superior anti-inflammatory efficacy with reduced toxicity. PMID:26486424

  11. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are oxidized by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases to PUFA epoxides which function as potent lipid mediators. The major metabolic pathways of PUFA epoxides are incorporation into phospholipids and hydrolysis to the corresponding PUFA diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase. Inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase stabilize PUFA epoxides and potentiate their functional effects. The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) synthesized from arachidonic acid produce vasodilation, stimulate angiogenesis, have anti-inflammatory actions, and protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. EETs produce these functional effects by activating receptor-mediated signaling pathways and ion channels. The epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids synthesized from eicosapentaenoic acid and epoxydocosapentaenoic acids synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid are potent inhibitors of cardiac arrhythmias. Epoxydocosapentaenoic acids also inhibit angiogenesis, decrease inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and reduce tumor metastasis. These findings indicate that a number of the beneficial functions of PUFA may be due to their conversion to PUFA epoxides. PMID:25093613

  12. The Responses of Rat Intestinal Brush Border and Cytosol Peptide Hydrolase Activities to Variation in Dietary Protein Content DIETARY REGULATION OF INTESTINAL PEPTIDE HYDROLASES

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, J. Alex; McCarthy, Denis M.; Kim, Young S.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of variation in dietary protein content on small intestinal brush border and cytosol peptide hydrolase activities have been investigated. One group of rats was fed a high protein diet (55% casein) and another group was fed a low protein diet (10% casein). After 1 wk, brush border peptide hydrolase activity (L-leucyl-β-naphthylamide as substrate) and cytosol peptide hydrolase activity (L-prolyl-L-leucine as substrate) were determined in mucosae taken from the proximal, middle, and distal small intestine. As judged by several parameters, brush border peptide hydrolase activity was significantly greater in rats fed the high protein diet when data for corresponding segments were compared. In contrast, no significant difference was seen in cytosol peptide hydrolase activity. In a second study, brush border and cytosol peptide hydrolase activities were determined in the proximal intestine by utilizing an additional three peptide substrates: L-leucyl-L-alanine, L-phenylalanylglycine, and glycyl-L-phenylalanine. Sucrase, maltase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were also determined. As before, brush border peptide hydrolase activities were significantly greater in rats fed the high protein diet. However, activities of the nonproteolytic brush border enzymes did not vary significantly with diet. In contrast to the results obtained with L-prolyl-L-leucine as substrate for the cytosol enzymes, cytosol activity against the three additional peptide substrates was greater in rats fed the high protein diet. It is suggested that the brush border peptide hydrolase response to variation in dietary protein content represents a functional adaptation analogous to the regulation of intestinal disaccharidases by dietary carbohydrates. The implication of the differential responses of the cytosol peptide hydrolases is uncertain, since little is known of the functional role of these nonorgan-specific enzymes. PMID:4430719

  13. Discovery and molecular basis of potent noncovalent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)

    PubMed Central

    Min, Xiaoshan; Thibault, Stephen T.; Porter, Amy C.; Gustin, Darin J.; Carlson, Timothy J.; Xu, Haoda; Lindstrom, Michelle; Xu, Guifen; Uyeda, Craig; Ma, Zhihua; Li, Yihong; Kayser, Frank; Walker, Nigel P. C.; Wang, Zhulun

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an amidase-signature family member, is an integral membrane enzyme that degrades lipid amides including the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide and the sleep-inducing molecule oleamide. Both genetic knock out and pharmacological administration of FAAH inhibitors in rodent models result in analgesic, anxiolytic, and antiinflammatory phenotypes. Targeting FAAH activity, therefore, presents a promising new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain and other neurological-related or inflammatory disorders. Nearly all FAAH inhibitors known to date attain their binding potency through a reversible or irreversible covalent modification of the nucleophile Ser241 in the unusual Ser-Ser-Lys catalytic triad. Here, we report the discovery and mechanism of action of a series of ketobenzimidazoles as unique and potent noncovalent FAAH inhibitors. Compound 2, a representative of these ketobenzimidazoles, was designed from a series of ureas that were identified from high-throughput screening. While urea compound 1 is characterized as an irreversible covalent inhibitor, the cocrystal structure of FAAH complexed with compound 2 reveals that these ketobenzimidazoles, though containing a carbonyl moiety, do not covalently modify Ser241. These inhibitors achieve potent inhibition of FAAH activity primarily from shape complementarity to the active site and through numerous hydrophobic interactions. These noncovalent compounds exhibit excellent selectivity and good pharmacokinetic properties. The discovery of this distinctive class of inhibitors opens a new avenue for modulating FAAH activity through nonmechanism-based inhibition. PMID:21502526

  14. α/β-Hydrolase domain-6-accessible monoacylglycerol controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shangang; Mugabo, Yves; Iglesias, Jose; Xie, Li; Delghingaro-Augusto, Viviane; Lussier, Roxane; Peyot, Marie-Line; Joly, Erik; Taïb, Bouchra; Davis, Matthew A; Brown, J Mark; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Gaisano, Herbert; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Glucose metabolism in pancreatic β cells stimulates insulin granule exocytosis, and this process requires generation of a lipid signal. However, the signals involved in lipid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) are unknown. Here we show that in β cells, glucose stimulates production of lipolysis-derived long-chain saturated monoacylglycerols, which further increase upon inhibition of the membrane-bound monoacylglycerol lipase α/β-Hydrolase Domain-6 (ABHD6). ABHD6 expression in β cells is inversely proportional to GSIS. Exogenous monoacylglycerols stimulate β cell insulin secretion and restore GSIS suppressed by the pan-lipase inhibitor orlistat. Whole-body and β-cell-specific ABHD6-KO mice exhibit enhanced GSIS, and their islets show elevated monoacylglycerol production and insulin secretion in response to glucose. Inhibition of ABHD6 in diabetic mice restores GSIS and improves glucose tolerance. Monoacylglycerol binds and activates the vesicle priming protein Munc13-1, thereby inducing insulin exocytosis. We propose saturated monoacylglycerol as a signal for GSIS and ABHD6 as a negative modulator of insulin secretion. PMID:24814481

  15. Epoxidation Activities of Human Cytochromes P450c17 and P450c21

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Some cytochrome P450 enzymes epoxidize unsaturated substrates, but this activity has not been described for the steroid hydroxylases. Physiologic steroid substrates, however, lack carbon–carbon double bonds in the parts of the pregnane molecules where steroidogenic hydroxylations occur. Limited data on the reactivity of steroidogenic P450s toward olefinic substrates exist, and the study of occult activities toward alternative substrates is a fundamental aspect of the growing field of combinatorial biosynthesis. We reasoned that human P450c17 (steroid 17-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, CYP17A1), which 17- and 16α-hydroxylates progesterone, might catalyze the formation of the 16α,17-epoxide from 16,17-dehydroprogesterone (pregna-4,16-diene-3,20-dione). CYP17A1 catalyzed the novel 16α,17-epoxidation and the ordinarily minor 21-hydroxylation of 16,17-dehydroprogesterone in a 1:1 ratio. CYP17A1 mutation A105L, which has reduced progesterone 16α-hydroxylase activity, gave a 1:5 ratio of epoxide:21-hydroxylated products. In contrast, human P450c21 (steroid 21-hydroxylase, CYP21A2) converted 16,17-dehydroprogesterone to the 21-hydroxylated product and only a trace of epoxide. CYP21A2 mutation V359A, which has significant 16α-hydroxylase activity, likewise afforded the 21-hydroxylated product and slightly more epoxide. CYP17A1 wild-type and mutation A105L do not 21- or 16α-hydroxylate pregnenolone, but the enzymes 21-hydroxylated and 16α,17-epoxidized 16,17-dehydropregnenolone (pregna-5,16-diene-3β-ol-20-one) in 4:1 or 12:1 ratios, respectively. Catalase and superoxide dismutase did not prevent epoxide formation. The progesterone epoxide was not a time-dependent, irreversible CYP17A1 inhibitor. Our substrate modification studies have revealed occult epoxidase and 21-hydroxylase activities of CYP17A1, and the fraction of epoxide formed correlated with the 16α-hydroxylase activity of the enzymes. PMID:25386927

  16. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1), slow (exon 3, 113His) and fast (exon 4, 139Arg) alleles confer susceptibility to squamous cell esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Meenu; Tilak, Anup Raj; Upadhyay, Rohit; Kumar, Ashwani; Mittal, Balraj

    2008-07-15

    Genetic polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes may alter risk of various cancers. Present case-control study evaluated the influence of EPHX1 genetic variations on squamous cell esophageal cancer (ESCC) susceptibility in 107 patients and 320 controls. EPHX1 polymorphic alleles were genotyped by direct sequencing (exon 3, Tyr113His) or PCR-RFLP (exon 4, His139Arg). Patients with exon 3 genotypes (Tyr113His, His113His) and 113His allele were at risk of ESCC (OR{sub Tyr113His} 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.4, p = 0.007; OR{sub His113His} 2.3 95% CI = 1.0-5.2, p = 0.03 and OR{sub His} 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.1, p = 0.01). In contrast, individuals with exon 4, 139Arg allele were at low risk of cancer (OR 0.34, 95% CI = 0.20-0.56, p = 0.001). However, none of haplotype combinations of exon 3 (Tyr113His) and exon 4 (His139Arg) polymorphisms showed modulation of risk for ESCC. Sub-grouping of patients based on anatomical location of tumor predicted that patients with exon 3, His113His and Tyr113His genotypes were at higher risk for developing ESCC tumor at upper and middle third locations (OR 4.4, 95% CI = 1.0-18.5, p = 0.04; OR 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3-5.0, p = 0.005 respectively). The frequency of exon 4, His139Arg genotype was significantly lower in ESCC patients with lower third tumor location as compared to controls (14.8% vs. 36.3%, p = 0.02). In case-only study, gene-environment interaction of EPHX1 genotypes with tobacco, alcohol and occupational exposures did not appear to modulate the cancer susceptibility. In conclusion, exon 3, Tyr113His genotype was associated with higher risk of ESCC particularly at upper and middle-third anatomical locations of tumor. However, His139Arg genotype of exon 4, exhibited low risk for ESCC as well as its clinical characteristics.

  17. SNPs of GSTM1, T1, P1, epoxide hydrolase and DNA repair enzyme XRCC1 and risk of urinary transitional cell carcinoma in southwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L.-I; Chiu, Allen W.; Huan, Steven K.; Chen, C.-L.; Wang, Y.-H.; Hsieh, F.-I; Chou, W.-L.; Wang, L.-H.; Chen, C.-J.

    2008-04-15

    A hospital-based case-control study was conducted near a former black-foot disease (BFD)-endemic area in southwestern Taiwan to examine the possible risk factors and genetic susceptibility for urinary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). A total of 221 patients with pathologically confirmed TCC and 223 age-sex-matched control subjects from urology outpatient clinics were recruited between 1998 and 2002. The results showed that residency in the BFD area and consumption of well water for more than 10 years was a strong factor on urinary cancer risk (odds ratio [OR],8.16, 95% confidence interval [CI],3.34-19.90, p < 0.0001). Dose response relationship between average arsenic concentration in well water and TCC risk was also observed. Cigarette smoking played a relatively minor role in urinary carcinogenesis in this study. The GSTP1 Ile105Val A {yields} G polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk (A/G + G/G: OR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.39-0.94, p = 0.02), and the effect of Val105 allele was largely confined to the subjects diagnosed earlier than 55 years old (A/G + G/G: OR,0.29; 95% CI, 0.09-0.87, p = 0.03). The results suggest that GSTP1 is a candidate for susceptibility locus and Ile105 allele may predispose individuals to early-onset urinary TCC. The GSTM1 null genotype was associated with tumors of high-invasiveness (OR,2.21; 95% CI, 1.34-4.73) as well as with early-onset TCC risk (OR,2.53; 95% CI, 0.97-6.59). Our preliminary results showed the XRCC1 Arg194Trp were associated with arsenic-related urinary TCC and the interaction between the genotype and the exposure was statistically significant. The modulating effect of the GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 Ile105Val, EPHX Tyr113His and XRCC1 Arg280His on arsenic-related TCC risk was also suggestive. These observations implied that impaired metabolism of carcinogenic exposure as well as impaired DNA repair function play an important role in arsenic-related urinary transitional cell carcinogenesis.

  18. MULTIPLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASES IN ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA F. SP. LYCOPERSICI AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO MEDIUM COMPOSITION AND HOST-SPECIFIC TOXIN PRODUCTION. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Epoxide Opening of a 7,17-Seco-7,8-Epoxy-C19-Diterpenoid Alkaloid.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong; Wang, Feng-Peng; Chen, Qiao-Hong

    2015-12-01

    A new and effective approach toward epoxide opening of a 7,17-seco-7,8-epoxy-C19-diterpenoid alkaloid is herein described. The starting epoxide was prepared from naturally occurring yunnaconitine via a nine-step transformation. Treatment of this epoxide with trifluoroacetic anhydride in dioxane at 110 degrees C followed by reduction with sodium boron hydride generated two epoxide opening compounds 7 and 8. Each of their structures is characteristic of a Δ8,15 bridgehead double bond and a 7β-oxygen-substituted group. PMID:26882668

  20. Impact of Stereochemistry on Ligand Binding: X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of an Epoxide-Based HIV Protease Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Fabio; Berti, Federico; Campaner, Pietro; Fanfoni, Lidia; Demitri, Nicola; Olajuyigbe, Folasade M; De March, Matteo; Geremia, Silvano

    2014-09-11

    A new pseudopeptide epoxide inhibitor, designed for irreversible binding to HIV protease (HIV-PR), has been synthesized and characterized in solution and in the solid state. However, the crystal structure of the complex obtained by inhibitor-enzyme cocrystallization revealed that a minor isomer, with inverted configuration of the epoxide carbons, has been selected by HIV-PR during crystallization. The structural characterization of the well-ordered pseudopeptide, inserted in the catalytic channel with its epoxide group intact, provides deeper insights into inhibitor binding and HIV-PR stereoselectivity, which aids development of future epoxide-based HIV inhibitors. PMID:25221650

  1. Active Site and Laminarin Binding in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 55*

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S.; Yik, Eric J.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100–10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  2. Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55.

    PubMed

    Bianchetti, Christopher M; Takasuka, Taichi E; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S; Yik, Eric J; Bergeman, Lai F; Fox, Brian G

    2015-05-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100-10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  3. CREST - a large and diverse superfamily of putative transmembrane hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A number of membrane-spanning proteins possess enzymatic activity and catalyze important reactions involving proteins, lipids or other substrates located within or near lipid bilayers. Alkaline ceramidases are seven-transmembrane proteins that hydrolyze the amide bond in ceramide to form sphingosine. Recently, a group of putative transmembrane receptors called progestin and adipoQ receptors (PAQRs) were found to be distantly related to alkaline ceramidases, raising the possibility that they may also function as membrane enzymes. Results Using sensitive similarity search methods, we identified statistically significant sequence similarities among several transmembrane protein families including alkaline ceramidases and PAQRs. They were unified into a large and diverse superfamily of putative membrane-bound hydrolases called CREST (alkaline ceramidase, PAQR receptor, Per1, SID-1 and TMEM8). The CREST superfamily embraces a plethora of cellular functions and biochemical activities, including putative lipid-modifying enzymes such as ceramidases and the Per1 family of putative phospholipases involved in lipid remodeling of GPI-anchored proteins, putative hormone receptors, bacterial hemolysins, the TMEM8 family of putative tumor suppressors, and the SID-1 family of putative double-stranded RNA transporters involved in RNA interference. Extensive similarity searches and clustering analysis also revealed several groups of proteins with unknown function in the CREST superfamily. Members of the CREST superfamily share seven predicted core transmembrane segments with several conserved sequence motifs. Conclusions Universal conservation of a set of histidine and aspartate residues across all groups in the CREST superfamily, coupled with independent discoveries of hydrolase activities in alkaline ceramidases and the Per1 family as well as results from previous mutational studies of Per1, suggests that the majority of CREST members are metal-dependent hydrolases

  4. Allophanate hydrolase, not urease, functions in bacterial cyanuric acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Shapir, Nir; Sadowsky, Michael J; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2005-08-01

    Growth substrates containing an s-triazine ring are typically metabolized by bacteria to liberate 3 mol of ammonia via the intermediate cyanuric acid. Over a 25-year period, a number of original research papers and reviews have stated that cyanuric acid is metabolized in two steps to the 2-nitrogen intermediate urea. In the present study, allophanate, not urea, was shown to be the 2-nitrogen intermediate in cyanuric acid metabolism in all the bacteria examined. Six different experimental results supported this conclusion: (i) synthetic allophanate was shown to readily decarboxylate to form urea under acidic extraction and chromatography conditions used in previous studies; (ii) alkaline extraction methods were used to stabilize and detect allophanate in bacteria actively metabolizing cyanuric acid; (iii) the kinetic course of allophanate formation and disappearance was consistent with its being an intermediate in cyanuric acid metabolism, and no urea was observed in those experiments; (iv) protein extracts from cells grown on cyanuric acid contained allophanate hydrolase activity; (v) genes encoding the enzymes AtzE and AtzF, which produce and hydrolyze allophanate, respectively, were found in several cyanuric acid-metabolizing bacteria; and (vi) TrzF, an AtzF homolog found in Enterobacter cloacae strain 99, was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and shown to have allophanate hydrolase activity. In addition, we have observed that there are a large number of genes homologous to atzF and trzF distributed in phylogenetically distinct bacteria. In total, the data indicate that s-triazine metabolism in a broad class of bacteria proceeds through allophanate via allophanate hydrolase, rather than through urea using urease. PMID:16085834

  5. Final Report: Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Surface Oxametallacycles - Connections to Heterogeneous Olefin Epoxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Barteau

    2009-09-15

    This project has aimed at the rational design of catalysts for direct epoxidation of olefins. This chemistry remains one of the most challenging problems in heterogeneous catalysis. Although the epoxidation of ethylene by silver catalysts to form ethylene oxide (EO) has been practiced for decades, little progress has been made in expanding this technology to other products and processes. We have made significant advances through the combination of surface science experiments, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, and catalytic reactor experiments, toward understanding the mechanism of this reaction on silver catalysts, and to the rational improvement of selectivity. The key has been our demonstration of surface oxametallacycle intermediates as the species that control reaction selectivity. This discovery permits the influence of catalyst promoters on selectivity to be probed, and new catalyst formulations to be developed. It also guides the development of new chemistry with potential for direct epoxidation of more complex olefins. During the award period we have focused on 1. the formation and reaction selectivity of complex olefin epoxides on silver surfaces, and 2. the influence of co-adsorbed oxygen atoms on the reactions of surface oxametallacycles on silver, and 3. the computational prediction, synthesis, characterization and experimental evaluation of bimetallic catalysts for ethylene epoxidation. The significance of these research thrusts is as follows. Selective epoxidation of olefins more complex than ethylene requires suppression of not only side reactions available to the olefin such as C-H bond breaking, but it requires formation and selective ring closure of the corresponding oxametallacycle intermediates. The work carried out under this grant has significantly advanced the field of catalyst design from first principles. The combination of computational tools, surface science, and catalytic reactor experiments in a single laboratory has few

  6. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we ann...

  7. [Determination of epoxidized soybean oil in bottled foods].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoko; Kanno, Shinji; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2006-12-01

    A determination method for epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) in bottled foods was developed and used to survey bottled foods on the Japanese market. The amount of sample required was decreased to 20 g and the standard addition method was adopted for the quantification, because lipid in foods interrupted the hydrolysis of ESBO. The recoveries were 87.1 and 98.9% and the determination limit was 5.0 microg/g for a 20 g sample, be cause lipid in foods interupted the hydrolysis of ESBO. The recoveries using the internal standard method varied widely, because hydrolysis of the internal standard, cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acid ethyl ester, was affected more than that of ESBO by coexisting lipid in the sample. ESBO was not detected in any of the bottled baby food samples examined (14 samples), though it had been frequently detected in previous European surveys. This difference may be related to the low fat content and low fluidity of the bottled baby foods retailed in Japan. On the other hand, ESBO was detected at levels of 25.7-494.0 microg/g in liver paste, pasta sauce, Sungan in spicy oil, and spicy oil. These foods had higher fat content and higher fluidity. However, ESBO intake from these foods appears unlikely to exceed the TDI in the EU (1 mg/kg bw/day). PMID:17228787

  8. Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T Molinate Hydrolase, a Novel Cobalt-Dependent Amidohydrolase ▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Márcia; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Junca, Howard; Gales, Luís; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Nunes, Olga C.

    2011-01-01

    A new pathway of molinate mineralization has recently been described. Among the five members of the mixed culture able to promote such a process, Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T has been observed to promote the initial breakdown of the herbicide into ethanethiol and azepane-1-carboxylate. In the current study, the gene encoding the enzyme responsible for molinate hydrolysis was identified and heterologously expressed, and the resultant active protein was purified and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the gene encodes a 465-amino-acid protein of the metal-dependent hydrolase A subfamily of the amidohydrolase superfamily with a predicted molecular mass of 50.9 kDa. Molinate hydrolase shares the highest amino acid sequence identity (48 to 50%) with phenylurea hydrolases of Arthrobacter globiformis and Mycobacterium brisbanense. However, in contrast to previously described members of the metal-dependent hydrolase A subfamily, molinate hydrolase contains cobalt as the only active-site metal. PMID:21840982

  9. The Vital Function of Fe3O4@Au nanocomposites for Hydrolase Biosensor Design and Its Application in Detection of Methyl Parathion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yuting; Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

    2013-02-04

    A nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorating a magnetic Fe3O4 core was synthesized using cysteamine (SH–NH2) as linker, and characterized by TEM, XPS, UV and electrochemistry. Then a hydrolase biosensor, based on self-assembly of methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) on the Fe3O4@Au nanocomposite, was developed for sensitive and selective detection of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) methyl parathion. The magnetic nanocomposite provides an easy way to construct the enzyme biosensor by simply exerting an external magnetic field, and also provides a simple way to renew the electrode surface by removing the magnet. Unlike inhibition-based enzyme biosensors, the hydrolase is not poisoned by OPs and thus is reusable for continuous measurement. AuNPs not only provide a large surface area, high loading efficiency and fast electron transfer, but also stabilize the enzyme through electrostatic interactions. The MPH biosensor shows rapid response and high selectivity for detection of methyl parathion, with a linear range from 0.5 to 1000 ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL. It also shows acceptable reproducibility and stability. The simplicity and ease of operation of the proposed method has great potential for on-site detection of P–S containing pesticides and provides a promising strategy to construct a robust biosensor.

  10. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of epoxidized Tmp trioleate by in situ method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samidin, Salma; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-01

    Tmp trioleate was initially synthesized via esterification of trimetilolprapane and oleic acid (90%) using 1.5% of H2SO4 as a catalyst. The production of Tmp trioleate was observed at 98% (w/w). The iodine value of Tmp trioleate was analyzed for further reaction of epoxidation. Epoxide was important reaction as an intermediate for preparation of chemical modified lubricants from vegetable oils. Finding the best way of epoxidation process will give high quality for further modification of oil instead of reduce the cost and time for the preparation process during reaction of epoxidation. In this study, the epoxidation of unsaturation Tmp trioleate with peroxyformic acid generated in-situ from hydrogen peroxide 30% in H2O2 with formic acid was studied. 95% conversion to oxygen oxirane content (OOC) ring was obtained. The derivatization showed an improvement of the compound's oxidative stability evidenced from pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) data which are 177°C to 200°C. Physicochemical properties showed increasing of temperature of flash point from 280°C to 300°C and viscosity index (VI) from 146 to 154. However, the pour point showed increasing temperature which was -58.81°C to -17.32°C. From the data obtained, these derivatives have shown better performance of lubricity properties. Overall, the data indicates that these performances are compatible to the commercial lubricants.

  11. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of epoxidized Tmp trioleate by in situ method

    SciTech Connect

    Samidin, Salma; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-03

    Tmp trioleate was initially synthesized via esterification of trimetilolprapane and oleic acid (90%) using 1.5% of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as a catalyst. The production of Tmp trioleate was observed at 98% (w/w). The iodine value of Tmp trioleate was analyzed for further reaction of epoxidation. Epoxide was important reaction as an intermediate for preparation of chemical modified lubricants from vegetable oils. Finding the best way of epoxidation process will give high quality for further modification of oil instead of reduce the cost and time for the preparation process during reaction of epoxidation. In this study, the epoxidation of unsaturation Tmp trioleate with peroxyformic acid generated in-situ from hydrogen peroxide 30% in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with formic acid was studied. 95% conversion to oxygen oxirane content (OOC) ring was obtained. The derivatization showed an improvement of the compound's oxidative stability evidenced from pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) data which are 177°C to 200°C. Physicochemical properties showed increasing of temperature of flash point from 280°C to 300°C and viscosity index (VI) from 146 to 154. However, the pour point showed increasing temperature which was −58.81°C to −17.32°C. From the data obtained, these derivatives have shown better performance of lubricity properties. Overall, the data indicates that these performances are compatible to the commercial lubricants.

  12. Zirconium phenylphosphonate-anchored methyltrioxorhenium as novel heterogeneous catalyst for epoxidation of cyclohexene.

    PubMed

    He, Sha; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Hongyue; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Fazhi

    2015-01-01

    Epoxidation of olefins to epoxides is widely recognized as an important unit process in the manufacture of fine chemicals and intermediates. Developing an environmentally benign heterogeneous catalytic system for olefin epoxidation with high activity and selectivity is still a challenge in this research field. Herein, we report our attempts to synthesize novel zirconium phenylphosphonate-anchored methyltrioxorhenium (MTO/ZrPP) heterogeneous catalysts by a conventional impregnation method and evaluate their catalytic performance for epoxidation of cyclohexene using urea-hydrogen peroxide adduct (UHP) as oxidant without the addition of base ligands. The MTO/ZrPP catalyst samples are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and solid-state (1)H magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H MAS NMR) techniques. Meanwhile, the density functional theory (DFT) calculation is carried out to further understand the structure feature and interactions of the MTO/ZrPP catalyst. It is revealed that MTO is anchored on support surface by the favored hydrogen-bonding interaction between two oxo ligands of MTO and two H atoms from the adjacent phenyls of ZrPP. MTO/ZrPP catalyst displays excellent catalytic activity for cyclohexene epoxidation. Moreover, only cyclohexene oxide production can be obtained under the employed reaction conditions. PMID:25313467

  13. Structure of unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase complexed with substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Takafumi; Ochiai, Akihito; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku . E-mail: kmurata@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-09-08

    Bacillus subtilis strain 168 YteR has been identified as a novel enzyme 'unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase' classified in glycoside hydrolase family 105. This enzyme acts specifically on unsaturated rhamnogalacturonan (RG) produced from plant cell wall RG type-I treated with RG lyases, releasing unsaturated galacturonic acid ({delta}GalA) from the substrate. The most likely candidate catalytic residue is Asp-143. Here, we show the structure of D143N in complex with unsaturated RG disaccharide (substrate) determined at 1.9 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. This structural feature directly contributes to the postulation of the enzyme reaction mechanism. YteR triggers the hydration of vinyl ether group in {delta}GalA, but not of glycoside bond, by using Asp-143 as a general acid and base catalyst. Asp-143 donates proton to the double bond of {delta}GalA as an acid catalyst and also deprotonates a water molecule as a base catalyst. Deprotonated water molecule attacks the C5 atom of {delta}GalA.

  14. Protective mechanisms against homocysteine toxicity: the role of bleomycin hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Zimny, Jaroslaw; Sikora, Marta; Guranowski, Andrzej; Jakubowski, Hieronim

    2006-08-11

    Homocysteine (Hcy) editing by methionyl-tRNA synthetase results in the formation of Hcy-thiolactone and initiates a pathway that has been implicated in human disease. In addition to being cleared from the circulation by urinary excretion, Hcy-thiolactone is detoxified by the serum Hcy-thiolactonase/paraoxonase carried on high density lipoprotein. Whether Hcy-thiolactone is detoxified inside cells was unknown. Here we show that Hcy-thiolactone is hydrolyzed by an intracellular enzyme, which we have purified to homogeneity from human placenta and identified by proteomic analyses as human bleomycin hydrolase (hBLH). We have also purified an Hcy-thiolactonase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified it as yeast bleomycin hydrolase (yBLH). BLH belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved cysteine aminopeptidases, and its only known biologically relevant function was deamidation of the anticancer drug bleomycin. Recombinant hBLH or yBLH, expressed in Escherichia coli, exhibits Hcy-thiolactonase activity similar to that of the native enzymes. Active site mutations, C73A for hBLH and H369A for yBLH, inactivate Hcy-thiolactonase activities. Yeast blh1 mutants are deficient in Hcy-thiolactonase activity in vitro and in vivo, produce more Hcy-thiolactone, and exhibit greater sensitivity to Hcy toxicity than wild type yeast cells. Our data suggest that BLH protects cells against Hcy toxicity by hydrolyzing intracellular Hcy-thiolactone. PMID:16769724

  15. Marine extremophiles: a source of hydrolases for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Dalmaso, Gabriel Zamith Leal; Ferreira, Davis; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2015-04-01

    The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications. PMID:25854643

  16. Marine Extremophiles: A Source of Hydrolases for Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dalmaso, Gabriel Zamith Leal; Ferreira, Davis; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications. PMID:25854643

  17. Aldrin epoxidation in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus): possible involvement of CYP1A and CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Turna, Sema; Sapmaz, Canan; Arinc, Emel; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2014-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine specific cytochrome P450 isozyme(s) involved in the metabolism of aldrin to its toxic metabolite dieldrin in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) liver microsomes. To identify the cytochrome P450 isozyme responsible for the aldrin metabolism in mullet liver, the effects of mammalian-specific cytochrome P450 inhibitors and substrates were determined in the epoxidation reaction of aldrin. CYP3A-related inhibitors, ketoconazole, SKF-525A, and cimetidine, inhibited the metabolism of aldrin. The contribution of CYP1A to the aldrin metabolism was shown by the inhibition of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in the presence of aldrin. The results indicate that CY1A and CYP3A are the cytochrome P450s involved in aldrin epoxidase activity in mullet. In addition, the suitability of aldrin epoxidase activity for monitoring of environmental pollution was also assessed in the fish samples caught from four different locations of the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. PMID:24756956

  18. 40 CFR 63.1427 - Process vent requirements for processes using extended cookout as an epoxide emission reduction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., liters. Dliq, i = Density of reactor liquid, kg/liter. Cvap, i = Concentration of epoxide in the reactor... end of the ECO, liters. Dliq, f = Density of reactor liquid, kg/liter. Cvap, f = Concentration of... liquid at the point in time when all epoxide has been added to the reactor and prior to any venting....

  19. 40 CFR 63.1427 - Process vent requirements for processes using extended cookout as an epoxide emission reduction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., weight percent. Vliq, i = Volume of reactor liquid at the onset of the ECO, liters. Dliq, i = Density of.... Dliq, f = Density of reactor liquid, kg/liter. Cvap, f = Concentration of epoxide in the reactor vapor... operator shall determine the concentration of epoxide in the reactor liquid at the point in time when...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1427 - Process vent requirements for processes using extended cookout as an epoxide emission reduction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., weight percent. Vliq, i = Volume of reactor liquid at the onset of the ECO, liters. Dliq, i = Density of.... Dliq, f = Density of reactor liquid, kg/liter. Cvap, f = Concentration of epoxide in the reactor vapor... operator shall determine the concentration of epoxide in the reactor liquid at the point in time when...

  1. A biotechnological approach to the synthesis of epoxides: bioconversion of hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas oleovorans during growth in a multiphase system

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    This communication examines the oxidation of alkanes and alkenes by Pseudomonas oleovorans. A variety of substrates were tested in order to extend the practical use of P. oleovorans for the synthesis of chiral epoxides. Concludes that hydrocarbon fermentations of P. oleovorans might be an important tool not only in the production of epoxides but also in the production of aliphatic polyesters and biosurfactants.

  2. Epoxidation of alkenes through oxygen activation over a bifunctional CuO/Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Nicola; Ravasio, Nicoletta; Zaccheria, Federica; Psaro, Rinaldo; Evangelisti, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    The epoxidation of alkenes was carried out over a CuO/Al(2)O(3) catalyst using cumene as an oxygen carrier, through a one-pot reaction, giving high conversion and selectivity with different substrates. Trans-β-methylstyrene gave the corresponding epoxide in 95% yield after 3 h. PMID:23358661

  3. Increased Silver Activity for Direct Propylene Epoxidation via Subnanometer Size Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Y.; Mehmood, Faisal; Lee, Sang Soo; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Lee, Byeongdu; Seifert, Soenke; Winans, R. E.; Elam, J. W.; Meyer, R. J.; Redfern, Paul C.; Teschner, D.; Schlogl, Robert; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Vajda, S.

    2010-04-09

    Production of the industrial chemical propylene oxide is energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Catalysts based on bulk silver surfaces with direct propylene epoxidation by molecular oxygen have not resolved these problems because of substantial formation of carbon dioxide. We found that unpromoted, size-selected Ag3 clusters and ~3.5-nanometer Ag nanoparticles on alumina supports can catalyze this reaction with only a negligible amount of carbon dioxide formation and with high activity at low temperatures. Density functional calculations show that, relative to extended silver surfaces, oxidized silver trimers are more active and selective for epoxidation because of the open-shell nature of their electronic structure. The results suggest that new architectures based on ultrasmall silver particles may provide highly efficient catalysts for propylene epoxidation.

  4. A broadly applicable and practical oligomeric (salen) Co catalyst for enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions

    PubMed Central

    White, David E.; Tadross, Pamela M.; Lu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The (salen) Co catalyst (4a) can be prepared as a mixture of cyclic oligomers in a short, chromatography-free synthesis from inexpensive, commercially available precursors. This catalyst displays remarkable enhancements in reactivity and enantioselectivity relative to monomeric and other multimeric (salen) Co catalysts in a wide variety of enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions. The application of catalyst 4a is illustrated in the kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides by nucleophilic ring-opening with water, phenols, and primary alcohols; the desymmetrization of meso epoxides by addition of water and carbamates; and the desymmetrization of oxetanes by intramolecular ring opening with alcohols and phenols. The favorable solubility properties of complex 4a under the catalytic conditions facilitated mechanistic studies, allowing elucidation of the basis for the beneficial effect of oligomerization. Finally, a catalyst selection guide is provided to delineate the specific advantages of oligomeric catalyst 4a relative to (salen) Co monomer 1 for each reaction class. PMID:25045188

  5. Copper nanocrystal plane effect on stereoselectivity of catalytic deoxygenation of aromatic epoxides.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Niu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yang-Gang; Jia, Wei; Shang, Jian; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Dingsheng; Fu, Yao; Zeng, Jie; He, Wei; Wu, Kai; Li, Jun; Yang, Jinlong; Liu, Lei; Li, Yadong

    2015-03-25

    Previous studies have shown that crystal planes of heterogeneous catalysts could display enhanced activity, such that higher turnover or chemoselectivity could be achieved. Here we report an example where the reaction stereoselectivity was significantly affected by the catalyst crystal planes. In copper-catalyzed deoxygenation reaction of aromatic epoxides, copper cubes, wires, and plates gave the olefin products with different cis/trans selectivities, whereas homogeneous copper catalysts showed poor selectivity. Scanning tunneling microscope and density functional theory studies revealed that the different adsorption mode and higher adsorption strength of epoxide oxygen on Cu{100} plane were responsible for the observed variation of selectivity. The copper-catalyzed deoxygenation reaction provided new practical access to cis-olefins from readily available aromatic epoxides. Our work also indicated that nanocrystal catalysts may provide useful stereochemical control in organic reactions. PMID:25778784

  6. Epoxidized natural rubber toughened aqueous resole type liquefied EFB resin: Physical and chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Umar Adli; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    A preliminary study on the reaction between aqueous resole type resinified liquefied palm oil empty fruit bunches fibres (RLEFB) with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR). Liquefaction of empty fruit bunches (EFB) is carried out at different ratio of phenol to EFB (P:EFB). Resole type phenolic resin is prepared using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the catalyst with the ratio of liquefied EFB (LEFB) to formaldehyde (LEFB:F) of 1:1.8. 50% epoxidation of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-50) is used to react with resole resin by mixing with ENR with aqueous resole resin. The cured resin is characterized with FT-IR and SEM. Aqueous system have been found to be unsuitable medium in the reaction between resin and ENR. This system produced a highly porous product when RLEFB/ENR resin is cured.

  7. Pharmacokinetics: time-dependent changes--autoinduction of carbamazepine epoxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bertilsson, L.; Tomson, T.; Tybring, G.

    1986-07-01

    Drugs labeled with stable isotopes have been useful to study time-dependent changes in kinetics. Early studies suggested that carbamazepine (CBZ) may induce its own metabolism, but this could not be proved until tetradeuterium-labeled CBZ (CBZ-D4) was synthesized and then given to patients. CBZ-D4 was administered to three children during long-term treatment of epilepsy with CBZ. After 17 to 32 days of treatment, the plasma clearance of CBZ-D4 was doubled, but during the next four months, there was no further increase, indicating that autoinduction was complete within one month. Two patients with chronic alcoholism were treated with CBZ for five days. Half of the first dose of 600 mg was comprised of CBZ-D4. The half-life of this CBZ-D4 dose in the two patients (20 and 26 hr, respectively) was similar to the post-steady-state half-life of CBZ (23 hr in both patients) measured later. A single dose of CBZ given one week after the last maintenance dose had a longer half-life (46 and 45 hr, respectively), which probably is close to the disposition of the drug before starting the treatment with CBZ. This shows that autoinduction of CBZ metabolism was completed during the very first doses of CBZ. Autoinduction also disappeared rapidly after stopping the treatment. We have shown that it is mainly the epoxide-diol pathway that is induced, both during autoinduction and after induction with other antiepileptic agents.

  8. Human Carboxymethylenebutenolidase as a Bioactivating Hydrolase of Olmesartan Medoxomil in Liver and Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Tomoko; Fujimori, Izumi; Kato, Mitsunori; Noji-Sakikawa, Chisa; Saito, Motoko; Yoshigae, Yasushi; Kubota, Kazuishi; Kurihara, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Okazaki, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is a prodrug type angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist widely prescribed as an antihypertensive agent. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of the OM bioactivating enzyme that hydrolyzes the prodrug and converts to its pharmacologically active metabolite olmesartan in human liver and intestine. The protein was purified from human liver cytosol by successive column chromatography and was identified by mass spectrometry to be a carboxymethylenebutenolidase (CMBL) homolog. Human CMBL, whose endogenous function has still not been reported, is a human homolog of Pseudomonas dienelactone hydrolase involved in the bacterial halocatechol degradation pathway. The ubiquitous expression of human CMBL gene transcript in various tissues was observed. The recombinant human CMBL expressed in mammalian cells was clearly shown to activate OM. By comparing the enzyme kinetics and chemical inhibition properties between the recombinant protein and human tissue preparations, CMBL was demonstrated to be the primary OM bioactivating enzyme in the liver and intestine. The recombinant CMBL also converted other prodrugs having the same ester structure as OM, faropenem medoxomil and lenampicillin, to their active metabolites. CMBL exhibited a unique sensitivity to chemical inhibitors, thus, being distinguishable from other known esterases. Site-directed mutagenesis on the putative active residue Cys132 of the recombinant CMBL caused a drastic reduction of the OM-hydrolyzing activity. We report for the first time that CMBL serves as a key enzyme in the bioactivation of OM, hydrolyzing the ester bond of the prodrug type xenobiotics. PMID:20177059

  9. Human carboxymethylenebutenolidase as a bioactivating hydrolase of olmesartan medoxomil in liver and intestine.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomoko; Fujimori, Izumi; Kato, Mitsunori; Noji-Sakikawa, Chisa; Saito, Motoko; Yoshigae, Yasushi; Kubota, Kazuishi; Kurihara, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Okazaki, Osamu

    2010-04-16

    Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is a prodrug type angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist widely prescribed as an antihypertensive agent. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of the OM bioactivating enzyme that hydrolyzes the prodrug and converts to its pharmacologically active metabolite olmesartan in human liver and intestine. The protein was purified from human liver cytosol by successive column chromatography and was identified by mass spectrometry to be a carboxymethylenebutenolidase (CMBL) homolog. Human CMBL, whose endogenous function has still not been reported, is a human homolog of Pseudomonas dienelactone hydrolase involved in the bacterial halocatechol degradation pathway. The ubiquitous expression of human CMBL gene transcript in various tissues was observed. The recombinant human CMBL expressed in mammalian cells was clearly shown to activate OM. By comparing the enzyme kinetics and chemical inhibition properties between the recombinant protein and human tissue preparations, CMBL was demonstrated to be the primary OM bioactivating enzyme in the liver and intestine. The recombinant CMBL also converted other prodrugs having the same ester structure as OM, faropenem medoxomil and lenampicillin, to their active metabolites. CMBL exhibited a unique sensitivity to chemical inhibitors, thus, being distinguishable from other known esterases. Site-directed mutagenesis on the putative active residue Cys(132) of the recombinant CMBL caused a drastic reduction of the OM-hydrolyzing activity. We report for the first time that CMBL serves as a key enzyme in the bioactivation of OM, hydrolyzing the ester bond of the prodrug type xenobiotics. PMID:20177059

  10. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 39 Xylosidase from Bacillus Halodurans C-125

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagschal, Kurt; Franqui-Espiet, Diana; Lee, Charles C.; Robertson, George H.; Wong, Dominic W. S.

    The gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 39 xylosidase (BH1068) from the alkaliphile Bacillus halodurans strain C-125 was cloned with a C-terminal His-tag, and the recombinant gene product termed BH1068(His)6 was expressed in Escherichia coli. Of the artificial substrates tested, BH1068(His)6 hydrolyzed nitrophenyl derivatives of β-d-xylopyranose, α-l-arabinofuranose, and α-l-arabinopyranose. Deviation from Michaelis-Menten kinetics at higher substrate concentrations indicative of transglycosylation was observed, and k cat and K m values were measured at both low and high substrate concentrations to illuminate the relative propensities to proceed along this alternate reaction pathway. The pH maximum was 6.5, and under the conditions tested, maximal activity was at 47°C, and thermal instability occurred above 45°C. BH1068(His)6 was inactive on arabinan, hydrolyzed xylooligosaccharides, and released only xylose from oat, wheat, rye, beech, and birch arabinoxylan, and thus, can be classified as a xylosidase with respect to natural substrate specificity. The enzyme was not inhibited by up to 200 mM xylose. The oligomerization state was tetrameric under the size-exclusion chromatography conditions employed.

  11. A Proton Wire and Water Channel Revealed in the Crystal Structure of Isatin Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Kaare; Sommer, Theis; Jensen, Jan K.; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Etzerodt, Michael; Morth, J. Preben

    2014-01-01

    The high resolution crystal structures of isatin hydrolase from Labrenzia aggregata in the apo and the product state are described. These are the first structures of a functionally characterized metal-dependent hydrolase of this fold. Isatin hydrolase converts isatin to isatinate and belongs to a novel family of metalloenzymes that include the bacterial kynurenine formamidase. The product state, mimicked by bound thioisatinate, reveals a water molecule that bridges the thioisatinate to a proton wire in an adjacent water channel and thus allows the proton released by the reaction to escape only when the product is formed. The functional proton wire present in isatin hydrolase isoform b represents a unique catalytic feature common to all hydrolases is here trapped and visualized for the first time. The local molecular environment required to coordinate thioisatinate allows stronger and more confident identification of orthologous genes encoding isatin hydrolases within the prokaryotic kingdom. The isatin hydrolase orthologues found in human gut bacteria raise the question as to whether the indole-3-acetic acid degradation pathway is present in human gut flora. PMID:24917679

  12. Development of the aza-crown ether metal complexes as artificial hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Li, Fang-zhen; Wu, Jiao-yi; Xie, Jia-qing; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolases play a crucial role in the biochemical process, which can catalyze the hydrolysis of various compounds like carboxylic esters, phosphoesters, amides, nucleic acids, peptides, and so on. The design of artificial hydrolases has attracted extensive attention due to their scientific significance and potential applications in the field of gene medicine and molecular biology. Numerous macrocyclic metal complexes have been used as artificial hydrolase in the catalytic hydrolysis of the organic substrate. Aza-crown ether for this comment is a special class of the macrocyclic ligand containing both the nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms in the ring. The studies showed that the aza-crown complexes exhibited high activity of hydrolytic enzyme. However, the aza-crown ether metal complex as artificial hydrolase is still very limited because of its difficulty in synthesis. This review summarizes the development of the aza-crown ether metal complexes as the artificial hydrolase, including the synthesis and catalysis of the transition metal complexes and lanthanide metal complexes of aza-crown ethers. The purpose of this review is to highlight: (1) the relationship between the structure and hydrolytic activity of synthetic hydrolase; (2) the synergistic effect of metal sites and ligands in the course of organic compound hydrolysis; and (3) the design strategies of the aza-crown ethers as hydrolase. PMID:26460062

  13. Asymmetric epoxidation of allylic alcohols catalyzed by vanadium-binaphthylbishydroxamic Acid complex.

    PubMed

    Noji, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Uechi, Yuria; Kikuchi, Asami; Kondo, Hisako; Sugiyama, Shigeo; Ishii, Keitaro

    2015-03-20

    A vanadium-binaphthylbishydroxamic acid (BBHA) complex-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation of allylic alcohols is described. The optically active binaphthyl-based ligands BBHA 2a and 2b were synthesized from (S)-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dicarboxylic acid and N-substituted-O-trimethylsilyl (TMS)-protected hydroxylamines via a one-pot, three-step procedure. The epoxidations of 2,3,3-trisubstituted allylic alcohols using the vanadium complex of 2a were easily performed in toluene with a TBHP water solution to afford (2R)-epoxy alcohols in good to excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:25714329

  14. The selection reaction of homogeneous catalyst in soy-epoxide hydroxylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvistia Firdaus, Flora

    2014-04-01

    Hydroxylation reaction of soy-epoxide has resulted soy-polyol; a prepolymeric material for polyurethane. The conversion and selectivity of soy-epoxide butanol based to hydroxylation was found higher than soy-ethylene glycol (EG) based. These reactions were performed by sulfur acid which commonly known as homogeneous catalyst. Conversion and selectivity of homogeneous catalyst compared to bentonite; a heteregeneous catalyst was lower as in fact the mixtures were more viscous. The catalysis were significantly effected to cell morphology. Foams were conducted by heterogeneous catalyst resulted an irregular form of windows while homogeneous catalyst are more ordered.

  15. Synthesis of phytuberin. 4-endo-tet acid-catalyzed cyclization of alpha-hydroxy epoxides.

    PubMed

    Prangé, Thierry; Rodríguez, María S; Suárez, Ernesto

    2003-05-30

    The total synthesis of phytuberin, a phytoalexin of the Solanum genus, from (-)-alpha-santonin is reported. The key steps include (a) reductive cleavage of the C-O bond of the gamma-lactone with concomitant protection of the C1 double bond, (b) Sharpless stereocontrolled hydroxy-assisted epoxidation of allylic alcohol 6 and simultaneous deprotection of the C1 double bond, (c) a rare 4-endo-tet acid-catalyzed cyclization of an alpha-hydroxy epoxide, and (d) an unprecedented 4-exo selenocyclization of a homoallylic alcohol. PMID:12762747

  16. Ni(II) salts and 2-propanol effect catalytic reductive coupling of epoxides and alkynes.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Matthew G; Jamison, Timothy F

    2011-08-01

    A Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of alkynes and epoxides using Ni(II) salts and simple alcohol reducing agents is described. Whereas previously reported conditions relied on Ni(cod)(2) and Et(3)B, this system has several advantages including the use of air-stable and inexpensive Ni(II) precatalysts (e.g., NiBr(2)·3H(2)O) as the source of Ni(0) and simple alcohols (e.g., 2-propanol) as the reducing agent. Deuterium-labeling experiments are consistent with oxidative addition of an epoxide C-O bond that occurs with inversion of configuration. PMID:21718038

  17. Cloning and characterization of two rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase genes from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed Central

    Suykerbuyk, M E; Kester, H C; Schaap, P J; Stam, H; Musters, W; Visser, J

    1997-01-01

    A rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase gene of Aspergillus aculeatus was used as a probe for the cloning of two rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase genes of Aspergillus niger. The corresponding proteins, rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases A and B, are 78 and 72% identical, respectively, with the A. aculeatus enzyme. In A. niger cultures which were shifted from growth on sucrose to growth on apple pectin as a carbon source, the expression of the rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase A gene (rhgA) was transiently induced after 3 h of growth on apple pectin. The rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase B gene was not induced by apple pectin, but the rhgB gene was derepressed after 18 h of growth on either apple pectin or sucrose. Gene fusions of the A. niger rhgA and rhgB coding regions with the strong and inducible Aspergillus awamori exlA promoter were used to obtain high-producing A. awamori transformants which were then used for the purification of the two A. niger rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography of oligomeric degradation products showed that optimal degradation of an isolated highly branched pectin fraction by A. niger rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases A and B occurred at pH 3.6 and 4.1, respectively. The specific activities of rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases A and B were then 0.9 and 0.4 U/mg, respectively, which is significantly lower than the specific activity of A. aculeatus rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase (2.5 U/mg at an optimal pH of 4.5). Compared to the A enzymes, the A. niger B enzyme appears to have a different substrate specificity, since additional oligomers are formed. PMID:9212401

  18. Rapid development of a potent photo-triggered inhibitor of the serine hydrolase RBBP9.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodan; Dix, Melissa; Speers, Anna E; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Zuhl, Andrea M; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Kodadek, Thomas J

    2012-09-24

    The serine hydrolases constitute a large class of enzymes that play important roles in physiology. There is great interest in the development of potent and selective pharmacological inhibitors of these proteins. Traditional active-site inhibitors often have limited selectivity within this superfamily and are tedious and expensive to discover. Using the serine hydrolase RBBP9 as a model target, we designed a rapid and relatively inexpensive route to highly selective peptoid-based inhibitors that can be activated by visible light. This technology provides rapid access to photo-activated tool compounds capable of selectively blocking the function of particular serine hydrolases. PMID:22907802

  19. Rapid Development of a Potent Photo-Triggered Inhibitor of the Serine Hydrolase RBBP9

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaodan; Dix, Melissa; Speers, Anna E.; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Zuhl, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    The serine hydrolases constitute a large class of enzymes that play important roles in physiology. There is great interest in the development of potent and selective pharmacological inhibitors to these proteins. Traditional active site inhibitors often have limited selectivity within this superfamily and are tedious and expensive to discover. Using the serine hydrolase RBBP9 as a model target, we report here a rapid and relatively inexpensive route to highly selective peptoid-based inhibitors that can be activated with visible light. This technology provides rapid access to photo-activated tool compounds capable of selectively blocking the function of particular serine hydrolases. PMID:22907802

  20. Retinyl ester hydrolases and their roles in vitamin A homeostasis☆

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Renate; Taschler, Ulrike; Preiss-Landl, Karina; Wongsiriroj, Nuttaporn; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2012-01-01

    In mammals, dietary vitamin A intake is essential for the maintenance of adequate retinoid (vitamin A and metabolites) supply of tissues and organs. Retinoids are taken up from animal or plant sources and subsequently stored in form of hydrophobic, biologically inactive retinyl esters (REs). Accessibility of these REs in the intestine, the circulation, and their mobilization from intracellular lipid droplets depends on the hydrolytic action of RE hydrolases (REHs). In particular, the mobilization of hepatic RE stores requires REHs to maintain steady plasma retinol levels thereby assuring constant vitamin A supply in times of food deprivation or inadequate vitamin A intake. In this review, we focus on the roles of extracellular and intracellular REHs in vitamin A metabolism. Furthermore, we will discuss the tissue-specific function of REHs and highlight major gaps in the understanding of RE catabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Retinoid and Lipid Metabolism. PMID:21586336

  1. Glycerol Ester Hydrolase Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Oterholm, Anders; Ordal, Z. John; Witter, Lloyd D.

    1968-01-01

    Seventeen strains of lactic acid bacteria were assayed for their glycerol ester hydrolase activity by using an improved agar-well technique, and eight strains by determining the activity in cell-free extracts using a pH-stat procedure. All cultures tested showed activity and hydrolyzed tributyrin more actively than they did tricaproin. The cell extract studies demonstrated that the cells contained intracellular esterases and lipases. The culture supernatant fluid was without activity. The lipase and the esterase differed in their relative activity to each other in the different extracts and in the ease by which they could be freed from the cellular debris. It is suggested that the lipase of these organisms is an endoenzyme and the esterase an ectoenzyme. PMID:5649866

  2. Crystal structure of bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuzhou; Guo, Fangfang; Hu, Xiao Jian; Lin, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) is a gut-bacterial enzyme that negatively influences host fat digestion and energy harvesting. The BSH enzyme activity functions as a gateway reaction in the small intestine by the deconjugation of glycine-conjugated or taurine-conjugated bile acids. Extensive gut-microbiota studies have suggested that BSH is a key mechanistic microbiome target for the development of novel non-antibiotic food additives to improve animal feed production and for the design of new measures to control obesity in humans. However, research on BSH is still in its infancy, particularly in terms of the structural basis of BSH function, which has hampered the development of BSH-based strategies for improving human and animal health. As an initial step towards the structure-function analysis of BSH, C-terminally His-tagged BSH from Lactobacillus salivarius NRRL B-30514 was crystallized in this study. The 1.90 Å resolution crystal structure of L. salivarius BSH was determined by molecular replacement using the structure of Clostridium perfringens BSH as a starting model. It revealed this BSH to be a member of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily. Crystals of apo BSH belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.79, b = 87.35, c = 86.76 Å (PDB entry 5hke). Two BSH molecules packed perfectly as a dimer in one asymmetric unit. Comparative structural analysis of L. salivarius BSH also identified potential residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity. PMID:27139829

  3. Preferential Glutathione Conjugation of a Reverse Diol Epoxide Compared with a Bay Region Diol Epoxide of Benzo[a]pyrene in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hochalter, J. Bradley; Balbo, Silvia; McIntee, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have examined the relationship between polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase genes and cancer in people exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), but the results to date have been modest. Missing from these studies has been an exploration of the formation of the appropriate glutathione conjugates in humans. We incubated human hepatocytes from 10 donors with racemic anti-BaP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), believed to be a major ultimate carcinogen of BaP, or with the noncarcinogenic reverse diol epoxide, racemic anti-BaP-9,10-diol-7,8-epoxide (rev-BPDE). Incubations were carried out for 12 or 24 h. We used high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring at m/z 464 → m/z 317 to analyze the incubation mixtures for the mercapturic acid products that would result from glutathione conjugation. The standard mercapturic acids were synthesized by reaction of BPDE or rev-BPDE with N-acetylcysteine. We obtained convincing evidence in human hepatocytes for mercapturic acid formation from rev-BPDE in all 10 samples, in amounts up to 17 pmol/ml. However, we could detect mercapturic acids from BPDE in only 1 of 10 samples (0.05 pmol/ml). Taken together with our similar previous results of analyses of phenanthrene metabolites in human hepatocytes and human urine, the results of this study indicate that conjugation of BPDE with glutathione is a minor pathway in humans, indicating that glutathione S-transferase genotyping is not an effective method for assessing risk of PAH-induced cancer in humans, at least with respect to the diol epoxide pathway of PAH carcinogenesis. PMID:20547966

  4. Effects of synthetic alkamides on Arabidopsis fatty acid amide hydrolase activity and plant development.

    PubMed

    Faure, Lionel; Cavazos, Ronaldo; Khan, Bibi Rafeiza; Petros, Robby A; Koulen, Peter; Blancaflor, Elison B; Chapman, Kent D

    2015-02-01

    Alkamides and N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are bioactive, amide-linked lipids that influence plant development. Alkamides are restricted to several families of higher plants and some fungi, whereas NAEs are widespread signaling molecules in both plants and animals. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has been described as a key contributor to NAE hydrolysis; however, no enzyme has been associated with alkamide degradation in plants. Herein reported is synthesis of 12 compounds structurally similar to a naturally occurring alkamide (N-isobutyl-(2E,6Z,8E)decatrienamide or affinin) with different acyl compositions more similar to plant NAEs and various amino alkyl head groups. These "hybrid" synthetic alkamides were tested for activity toward recombinant Arabidopsis FAAH and for their effects on plant development (i.e., cotyledon expansion and primary root length). A substantial increase in FAAH activity was discovered toward NAEs in vitro in the presence of some of these synthetic alkamides, such as N-ethyllauroylamide (4). This "enhancement" effect was found to be due, at least in part, to relief from product inhibition of FAAH by ethanolamine, and not due to an alteration in the oligomerization state of the FAAH enzyme. For several of these alkamides, an inhibition of seedling growth was observed with greater results in FAAH knockouts and less in FAAH over-expressing plants, suggesting that these alkamides could be hydrolyzed by FAAH in planta. The tight regulation of NAE levels in vivo appears to be important for proper seedling establishment, and as such, some of these synthetic alkamides may be useful pharmacological tools to manipulate the effects of NAEs in situ. PMID:25491532

  5. Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors confer anti-invasive and antimetastatic effects on lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Katrin; Ramer, Robert; Dithmer, Sophie; Ivanov, Igor; Merkord, Jutta; Hinz, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation has been suggested as tool for activation of endogenous tumor defense. One of these strategies lies in blockade of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) which catalyzes the degradation of endocannabinoids (anandamide [AEA], 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and endocannabinoid-like substances (N-oleoylethanolamine [OEA], N-palmitoylethanolamine [PEA]). This study addressed the impact of two FAAH inhibitors (arachidonoyl serotonin [AA-5HT], URB597) on A549 lung cancer cell metastasis and invasion. LC-MS analyses revealed increased levels of FAAH substrates (AEA, 2-AG, OEA, PEA) in cells incubated with either FAAH inhibitor. In athymic nude mice FAAH inhibitors were shown to elicit a dose-dependent antimetastatic action yielding a 67% and 62% inhibition of metastatic lung nodules following repeated administration of 15 mg/kg AA-5HT and 5 mg/kg URB597, respectively. In vitro, a concentration-dependent anti-invasive action of either FAAH inhibitor was demonstrated, accompanied with upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). Using siRNA approaches, a causal link between the TIMP-1-upregulating and anti-invasive action of FAAH inhibitors was confirmed. Moreover, knockdown of FAAH by siRNA was shown to confer decreased cancer cell invasiveness and increased TIMP-1 expression. Inhibitor experiments point toward a role of CB2 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in conferring anti-invasive effects of FAAH inhibitors and FAAH siRNA. Finally, antimetastatic and anti-invasive effects were confirmed for all FAAH substrates with AEA and OEA causing a TIMP-1-dependent anti-invasive action. Collectively, the present study provides first-time proof for an antimetastatic action of FAAH inhibitors. As mechanism of its anti-invasive properties an upregulation of TIMP-1 was identified. PMID:26930716

  6. Preferential Glutathione Conjugation of a Reverse Diol Epoxide Compared to a Bay Region Diol Epoxide of Phenanthrene in Human Hepatocytes: Relevance to Molecular Epidemiology Studies of Glutathione-S-Transferase Polymorphisms and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Berg, Jeannette Zinggeler; Hochalter, J. Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Bay region diol epoxides are recognized ultimate carcinogens of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and in vitro studies have demonstrated that they can be detoxified by conjugation with glutathione, leading to the widely investigated hypothesis that individuals with low activity forms of glutathione-S-transferases are at higher risk of PAH induced cancer, a hypothesis that has found at most weak support in molecular epidemiology studies. A weakness in this hypothesis was that the mercapturic acids resulting from conjugation of PAH bay region diol epoxides had never been identified in human urine. We recently analyzed smokers’ urine for mercapturic acids derived from phenanthrene, the simplest PAH with a bay region. The only phenanthrene diol epoxide-derived mercapturic acid in smokers’ urine was produced from the reverse diol epoxide, anti-phenanthrene-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide (11), not the bay region diol epoxide, anti-phenanthrene-1,2-diol-3,4-epoxide (10), which does not support the hypothesis noted above. In this study, we extended these results by examining the conjugation of phenanthrene metabolites with glutathione in human hepatocytes. We identified the mercapturic acid N-acetyl-S-(r-4,t-2,3-trihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-c-1-phenanthryl)-L-cysteine (14a), (0.33–35.9 pmol/mL at 10 µM 8, 24h incubation, N = 10) in all incubations with phenanthrene-3,4-diol (8) and the corresponding diol epoxide 11, but no mercapturic acids were detected in incubations with phenanthrene-1,2-diol (7) and only trace amounts were observed in incubations with the corresponding bay region diol epoxide 10. Taken together with our previous results, these studies clearly demonstrate that glutathione conjugation of a reverse diol epoxide of phenanthrene is favored over conjugation of a bay region diol epoxide. Since reverse diol epoxides of PAH are generally weakly or non-mutagenic/carcinogenic, these results, if generalizable to other PAH, do not support the widely held

  7. DETOXIFICATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES BY IMMOBILIZED ESCHERICHIA COLI EXPRESSING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE ON CELL SURFACE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An improved whole-cell technology for detoxifying organophosphate nerve agents was recently developed based on genetically engineered Escherichia coli with organophosphorus hydrolase anchored on the surface. This article reports the immobilization of these novel biocatalys...

  8. Structural and Enzymatic Characterization of a Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugar Hydrolase from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Duong-ly, Krisna C.; Schoeffield, Andrew J.; Pizarro-Dupuy, Mario A.; Zarr, Melissa; Pineiro, Silvia A.; Amzel, L. Mario; Gabelli, Sandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Given the broad range of substrates hydrolyzed by Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to X) enzymes, identification of sequence and structural elements that correctly predict a Nudix substrate or characterize a family is key to correctly annotate the myriad of Nudix enzymes. Here, we present the structure determination and characterization of Bd3179 –- a Nudix hydrolase from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus–that we show localized in the periplasmic space of this obligate Gram-negative predator. We demonstrate that the enzyme is a nucleoside diphosphate sugar hydrolase (NDPSase) and has a high degree of sequence and structural similarity to a canonical ADP-ribose hydrolase and to a nucleoside diphosphate sugar hydrolase (1.4 and 1.3 Å Cα RMSD respectively). Examination of the structural elements conserved in both types of enzymes confirms that an aspartate-X-lysine motif on the C-terminal helix of the α-β-α NDPSase fold differentiates NDPSases from ADPRases. PMID:26524597

  9. Diastereoselective synthesis of CF3-substituted, epoxide-fused heterocycles with β-(trifluoromethyl)vinylsulfonium salts.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Sven P; West, Thomas H; McGarrigle, Eoghan M; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2012-12-21

    CF(3)-substituted vinyl diphenylsulfonium triflate is an effective annulation reagent for the formation of α-CF(3) substituted, epoxide-fused heterocycles (pyrrolidines, piperidines, and tetrahydrofurans). This simple method affords a variety of valuable heterocyclic building blocks in a highly diastereoselective manner (dr >20:1). PMID:23231752

  10. Synthesis of an Epoxide Carbonylation Catalyst: Exploration of Contemporary Chemistry for Advanced Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getzler, Yutan D. Y. L.; Schmidt, Joseph A. R.; Coates, Geoffrey W.

    2005-01-01

    A class of highly active, well-defined compounds for the catalytic carbonylation of epoxides and aziridines to beta-lactones and beta-lactams are introduced. The synthesis of one of the catalysts involves a simple imine condensation to form the ligand followed by air-sensitive metalation and salt metathesis steps.

  11. EPOXIDATION OF SMALL ORGANIC MOLECULES USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The commodity-scale epoxidation of several organic molecules has been carried out using a Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STTr) reactor (manufactured by Kreido Laboratories). This reactor, which embodies and facilitates the use of Green Chemistry principles and Process Intensification, a...

  12. Hydroxylation and Epoxidation of Fatty Acids by Bacillus megaterium ALA2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus megaterium ALA2 produces many new oxygenated fatty acids from linoleic acid. Strain ALA2 hydroxylated palmitic acid to omega-1, omega-2, and omega-3 hydroxy palmitate. Now we found that strain ALA2 also epoxidized linoleic acid to 12,13-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid and 9,10-epoxy-12(Z)-oc...

  13. Thermal behavior of epoxidized cardanol diethyl phosphate as novel renewable plasticizer for poly(vinyl chloride)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel plasticizer, epoxidized cardanol diethyl phosphate (ECEP), based on cardanol was synthesized. Chemical structure of ECEP was characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance(1H NMR) and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance(13C NMR) spectroscopy. Effects of ECEP sub...

  14. Catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil by hydrated and anhydrous fluoroantimonic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) catalyzed by the super acid, fluroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6-6H2O), and the anhydrous form (HSbF6) in ethyl acetate was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymerized ESO (SA-RPESO and SAA-...

  15. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Ring-opening Polymerization of Epoxidized Soybean Oil in Liquid Carbon Dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) catalyzed by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3•OEt2), in liquid carbon dioxide, was conducted in an effort to develop useful biobased biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymers (RPESO) were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, diff...

  16. Boron Trifluoride Catalized Ring-Opening Polymerization of Epoxidized Soybean Oil in Liquid Carbon Dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2) catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), in liquid carbon dioxide, was conducted in an effort to develop useful biobased biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymers (RPESO) were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, differ...

  17. Formation of furan fatty alkyl esters from their bis-epoxide fatty esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactions of epoxidized alkyl soyate with four different alcohols: ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol, benzyl alcohol, in the presence of Bronsted acid catalyst, were investigated. Products that were not reported in prior studies of similar reactions were found. These were furan fatty acid a...

  18. Ultrathin CuO nanorods: controllable synthesis and superior catalytic properties in styrene epoxidation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Liu, Yuxi; Hu, Pengfei; Yu, Rong; Wang, Yu; Ma, Lei; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2015-05-25

    Ultrathin copper oxide (CuO) nanorods with diameters of ∼3.6 nm were obtained in one step using oleylamine (OAm) as both the solvent and the surface controller. The oriented attachment is responsible for the formation of the ultrathin CuO nanorods. Furthermore, this ultrathin nanostructure catalyst exhibited excellent activity and high styrene oxide yields in styrene epoxidation. PMID:25920405

  19. (Salen)Mn(III) Catalyzed Asymmetric Epoxidation Reactions by Hydrogen Peroxide in Water: A Green Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ballistreri, Francesco Paolo; Gangemi, Chiara M. A.; Pappalardo, Andrea; Tomaselli, Gaetano A.; Toscano, Rosa Maria; Trusso Sfrazzetto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective epoxidation reactions of some chosen reactive alkenes by a chiral Mn(III) salen catalyst were performed in H2O employing H2O2 as oxidant and diethyltetradecylamine N-oxide (AOE-14) as surfactant. This procedure represents an environmentally benign protocol which leads to e.e. values ranging from good to excellent (up to 95%). PMID:27420047

  20. Sultones and Sultines via a Julia–Kocienski Reaction of Epoxides

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Geoffrey M T; Burton, Paul M; Bray, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    The development of the homologous Julia–Kocienski reaction has led to the discovery of two new reaction modes of epoxides with sulfones. These pathways allow rapid and direct access to a range of γ-sultones and γ-sultines. PMID:26503062

  1. FORMATION OF HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS OF ACRYLAMIDE AND ITS EPOXIDE METABOLITE GLYCIDAMIDE IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for the determination of hemoglobin (Hb) adducts form by the neurotoxic agent acrylamide and its mutagenic epoxide metabolite glycidamide. he method was based on simultaneous measurements of the cysteine adducts formed by these two agents by means of gas ch...

  2. Differences in Catalytic Sites for CO Oxidation and Propylene Epoxidation on Au Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.S.; Stach, E.; Zhang, R.; Akatay, M.C.; Baertsch, C.D.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Delgass, W.N.

    2011-08-29

    Sintering and increased Au loading of Au/TS-1 causes the rate of CO oxidation per mole of Au to increase, whereas that for epoxidation of propylene in O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} decreases. This opposite trend in rate behavior shows that the catalytic sites for the two reactions must be different.

  3. Graphene oxide as an acid catalyst for the room temperature ring opening of epoxides.

    PubMed

    Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Alvaro, Mercedes; Concepción, Patricia; Fornés, Vicente; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2012-06-01

    The minute amount of hydrogen sulfate groups introduced into the graphene oxide (GO) obtained by Hummers oxidation of graphite renders this material as a highly efficient, recyclable acid catalyst for the ring opening of epoxides with methanol and other primary alcohols as nucleophile and solvent. PMID:22534622

  4. Synthesis of epoxidized cardanol and its antioxidative properties for vegetable oils and biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel antioxidant epoxidized cardanol (ECD), derived from cardanol, was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Oxidative stability of ECD used in vegetable oils and biodiesel was evaluated by pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and the Rancimat method, respect...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1431 - Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... factor plan requirements. 63.1431 Section 63.1431 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... group determination procedures in the NESHAP for Group I Polymers and Resins (40 CFR part 63, subpart U... Production § 63.1431 Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements. (a) Applicability...

  6. Surface Tension Studies of Alkyl Esters and Epoxidized Alkyl Esters Relevant to Oleochemically Based Fuel Additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the surface tension of several epoxidized oleochemicals and their comparable fatty esters at temperatures between 25 and 60 deg C. Surface tensions of the olefins measured at 40 deg C range from 25.9 mN m-1, for isobutyl oleate, to 28.4 mN m-1 for methyl linoleate. The epoxy versions of ...

  7. BENZO(A)PYRENE DIOL EPOXIDE I BINDS TO DNA AT REPLICATION FORKS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distribution in replication forks of DNA lesions caused by the treatment of S phase calls with benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-1 (BPDE-1) was studied in synchronized C3H10T1/2 cells. Sites of carcinogen modification of DNA were identified by polyclonal rabbit antibodies that were...

  8. Formation of furan fatty alkyl esters from their bis-epoxide fatty esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactions of epoxidized alkyl soyate with four different alcohols: ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol, and benzyl alcohol were investigated in the presence of Bronsted acid catalyst. Products not reported in prior studies of similar reactions were found. These were furan fatty acid alkyl est...

  9. INTERACTION OF BENZO(A)PYRENE DIOL EPOXIDE WITH SVAO MINICHROMOSOMES

    SciTech Connect

    Gamper, Howard B.; Yokota, Hisao A.; Bartholomew, James C.

    1980-03-01

    SV40 minichromosomes were reacted with (+)7{beta},8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9{alpha},10{alpha}-epoxy- 7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BaP diol epoxide). Low levels of modification (< 5 DNA adducts/minichromosome) did not detectably alter the structure of the minichromosomes but high levels (> 200 DNA adducts/minichromosome) led to extensive fragmentation. Relative to naked SV40 DNA BaP diol epoxide induced alkylation and strand scission of minichromosomal DNA was reduced or enhanced by factors of 1.5 and 2.0, respectively. The reduction in covalent binding was attributed to the presence of histones, which competed with DNA for the hydrocarbon and reduced the probability of BaP diol epoxide intercalation by tightening the helix. The enhancement of strand scission was probably due to the catalytic effect of histones on the rate of S-elimination at apurinic sites, although an altered adduct profile or the presence of a repair endonuclease were not excluded. Staphylococcal nuclease digestion indicated that BaP dial epoxide randomly alkylated the minichromosomal DNA. This is in contrast to studies with cellular chromatin where internucleosomal DNA was preferentially modified. Differences in the minichromosomal protein complement were responsible for this altered susceptibility.

  10. Predicting efficient C(60) epoxidation and viable multiple oxide formation by theoretical study

    PubMed

    Manoharan

    2000-02-25

    The epoxidation of C(60) by various oxidizing agents such as dimethyldioxirane (DMD), methyl(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane (MTMD), and bis(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane (BTMD) has been probed computationally by the AM1 method. The computations have revealed that for the reaction forming C(60)O through a concerted "spiro" transition state, the currently used DMD involves its HOMO lone-pair and the LUMO (pi) of fullerene in an inverse electron demand fashion. This is distinct from the DMD reaction with ethylene. On the other hand, the addition of CF(3) groups lowers the LUMO (peroxide sigma) of MTMD and BTMD by virtue of negative hyperconjugation; the oxidants can then attack the fullerene nucleophilically at an increased rate to the maximum extent. These estimations have thus established that the strong electrophilic oxidizing agents remarkably enhance the fullerene epoxidation. DMD further produces C(60)O(2) and C(60)O(3) via multiple epoxidations, as C(60)O might best be produced quantitatively by MTMD and BTMD. The regiochemistry of the multiple oxidation products in which the subsequent oxidations take place at the adjacent sites is consistent with the increased nucleophilicity of the nearest double bonds attached to the prevailing epoxide function. PMID:10814058

  11. Mononuclear Nonheme High-Spin Iron(III)-Acylperoxo Complexes in Olefin Epoxidation and Alkane Hydroxylation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Lee, Yong-Min; Clémancey, Martin; Seo, Mi Sook; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Latour, Jean-Marc; Nam, Wonwoo

    2016-02-24

    Mononuclear nonheme high-spin iron(III)-acylperoxo complexes bearing an N-methylated cyclam ligand were synthesized, spectroscopically characterized, and investigated in olefin epoxidation and alkane hydroxylation reactions. In the epoxidation of olefins, epoxides were yielded as the major products with high stereo-, chemo-, and enantioselectivities; cis- and trans-stilbenes were oxidized to cis- and trans-stilbene oxides, respectively. In the epoxidation of cyclohexene, cyclohexene oxide was formed as the major product with a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) value of 1.0, indicating that nonheme iron(III)-acylperoxo complexes prefer C═C epoxidation to allylic C-H bond activation. Olefin epoxidation by chiral iron(III)-acylperoxo complexes afforded epoxides with high enantioselectivity, suggesting that iron(III)-acylperoxo species, not high-valent iron-oxo species, are the epoxidizing agent. In alkane hydroxylation reactions, iron(III)-acylperoxo complexes hydroxylated C-H bonds as strong as those in cyclohexane at -40 °C, wherein (a) alcohols were yielded as the major products with high regio- and stereoselectivities, (b) activation of C-H bonds by the iron(III)-acylperoxo species was the rate-determining step with a large KIE value and good correlation between reaction rates and bond dissociation energies of alkanes, and (c) the oxygen atom in the alcohol product was from the iron(III)-acylperoxo species, not from molecular oxygen. In isotopically labeled water (H2(18)O) experiments, incorporation of (18)O from H2(18)O into oxygenated products was not observed in the epoxidation and hydroxylation reactions. On the basis of mechanistic studies, we conclude that mononuclear nonheme high-spin iron(III)-acylperoxo complexes are strong oxidants capable of oxygenating hydrocarbons prior to their conversion into iron-oxo species via O-O bond cleavage. PMID:26816269

  12. Biomimetic iron-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation of aromatic alkenes by using hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Gelalcha, Feyissa Gadissa; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Tse, Man Kin; Brückner, Angelika; Beller, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    A novel and general biomimetic non-heme Fe-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation of aromatic alkenes by using hydrogen peroxide is reported herein. The catalyst consists of ferric chloride hexahydrate (FeCl(3)6 H(2)O), pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (H(2)(pydic)), and readily accessible chiral N-arenesulfonyl-N'-benzyl-substituted ethylenediamine ligands. The asymmetric epoxidation of styrenes with this system gave high conversions but poor enantiomeric excesses (ee), whereas larger alkenes gave high conversions and ee values. For the epoxidation of trans-stilbene (1 a), the ligands (S,S)-N-(4-toluenesulfonyl)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine ((S,S)-4 a) and its N'-benzylated derivative ((S,S)-5 a) gave opposite enantiomers of trans-stilbene oxide, that is, (S,S)-2 a and (R,R)-2 a, respectively. The enantioselectivity of alkene epoxidation is controlled by steric and electronic factors, although steric effects are more dominant. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest the in situ formation of several chiral Fe-complexes, such as [FeCl(L*)(2)(pydic)]HCl (L*=(S,S)-4 a or (S,S)-5 a in the catalyst mixture), which were identified by ESIMS. A UV/Vis study of the catalyst mixture, which consisted of FeCl(3)6 H(2)O, H(2)(pydic), and (S,S)-4 a, suggested the formation of a new species with an absorbance peak at lambda=465 nm upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide. With the aid of two independent spin traps, we could confirm by EPR spectroscopy that the reaction proceeds via radical intermediates. Kinetic studies with deuterated styrenes showed inverse secondary kinetic isotope effects, with values of k(H)/k(D)=0.93 for the beta carbon and k(H)/k(D)=0.97 for the alpha carbon, which suggested an unsymmetrical transition state with stepwise O transfer. Competitive epoxidation of para-substituted styrenes revealed a linear dual-parameter Hammett plot with a slope of 1.00. Under standard conditions, epoxidation of 1 a in the presence of ten equivalents of H(2) (18)O resulted in an absence

  13. Structural characterization and high throughput screening of inhibitors of PvdQ, an NTN hydrolase involved in pyoverdine synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Eric J.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a variety of virulence factors including pyoverdine, a non-ribosomally produced peptide siderophore. The maturation pathway of the pyoverdine peptide is complex and provides a unique target for inhibition. Within the pyoverdine biosynthetic cluster is a periplasmic hydrolase, PvdQ, that is required for pyoverdine production. However, the precise role of PvdQ in the maturation pathway has not been biochemically characterized. We demonstrate herein that the initial module of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase PvdL adds a myristate moiety to the pyoverdine precursor. We extracted this acylated precursor, called PVDIq, from a pvdQ mutant strain and show that the PvdQ enzyme removes the fatty acid catalyzing one of the final steps in pyoverdine maturation. Incubation of PVDIq with crystals of PvdQ allowed us to capture the acylated enzyme and confirm through structural studies the chemical composition of the incorporated acyl chain. Finally, because inhibition of siderophore synthesis has been identified as a potential antibiotic strategy, we developed a high throughput screening assay and tested a small chemical library for compounds that inhibit PvdQ activity. Two compounds that block PvdQ have been identified and their binding within the fatty acid binding pocket structurally characterized. PMID:21892836

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Oesophagostomum dentatum (Nematoda) during Larval Transition, and the Effects of Hydrolase Inhibitors on Development

    PubMed Central

    Ondrovics, Martina; Silbermayr, Katja; Mitreva, Makedonka; Young, Neil D.; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Gasser, Robin B.; Joachim, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In this study, in vitro drug testing was combined with proteomic and bioinformatic analyses to identify and characterize proteins involved in larval development of Oesophagostomum dentatum, an economically important parasitic nematode. Four hydrolase inhibitors ο-phenanthroline, sodium fluoride, iodoacetamide and 1,2-epoxy-3-(pnitrophenoxy)-propane (EPNP) significantly inhibited (≥90%) larval development. Comparison of the proteomic profiles of the development-inhibited larvae with those of uninhibited control larvae using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis identified a down-regulation of 12 proteins inferred to be involved in various larval developmental processes, including post-embryonic development and growth. Furthermore, three proteins (i.e. intermediate filament protein B, tropomyosin and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase) inferred to be involved in the moulting process were down-regulated in moulting- and development-inhibited O. dentatum larvae. This first proteomic map of O. dentatum larvae provides insights in the protein profile of larval development in this parasitic nematode, and significantly improves our understanding of the fundamental biology of its development. The results and the approach used might assist in developing new interventions against parasitic nematodes by blocking or disrupting their key biological pathways. PMID:23717515

  15. Regioselective Isomerization of 2,3-Disubstituted Epoxides to Ketones: An Alternative to the Wacker Oxidation of Internal Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Jessica R; Mulzer, Michael; LaPointe, Anne M; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2015-12-01

    We report an alternative pathway to the Wacker oxidation of internal olefins involving epoxidation of trans-alkenes followed by a mild and highly regioselective isomerization to give the major ketone isomers in 66-98% yield. Preliminary kinetics and isotope labeling studies suggest epoxide ring opening as the turnover limiting step in our proposed mechanism. A similar catalytic system was applied to the kinetic resolution of select trans-epoxides to give synthetically useful selectivity factors of 17-23 for benzyl-substituted substrates. PMID:26522052

  16. Reusable manganese compounds containing pyrazole-based ligands for olefin epoxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Ester; Poater, Albert; Fontrodona, Xavier; Solà, Miquel; Rodríguez, Montserrat; Romero, Isabel

    2015-10-28

    We describe the synthesis of new manganese(ii) and manganese(iii) complexes containing the bidentate ligands 2-(3-pyrazolyl)pyridine, pypz-H, and 3(5)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazole, HOphpz-H, with formula [MnX2(pypz-H)2] (X = Cl(-), 1, CF3SO3(-), 2, OAc(-), 3 or NO3(-) (4)), [MnCl2(pypz-H)(H2O)2], 5, or [MnCl(Ophpz-H)2], 6. All the complexes have been characterized through analytical, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. Single X-ray structure analysis revealed a six-coordinated Mn(ii) ion in complexes 1-5, and a five-coordinated Mn(iii) ion in complex 6. Compound 5 is the first co-crystal of Mn(ii) containing Cl and H2O ligands together with bidentate nitrogen ligands. The catalytic activity of complexes 1-6 has been tested with regard to the epoxidation of styrene and, in the case of 1, 5 and 6, other alkenes have been epoxidized using peracetic acid as oxidant in different media, among which glycerol, a green solvent never used in epoxidation reactions using peracetic acid as oxidant. The catalysts show moderate to high conversions and selectivities towards the corresponding epoxides. For complexes 1, 5 and 6, a certain degree of cis→trans isomerization is observed in the case of cis-β-methylstyrene. These observations have been explained through computational calculations. The reutilization of catalysts 1 and 6 for the epoxidation of alkenes has been evaluated in [bmim] : acetonitrile mixture (bmim = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium), allowing the effective recyclability of the catalytic system and keeping high conversion and selectivity values up to 12 successive runs, in all cases. PMID:26389716

  17. Titania-silica mixed oxides. II. Catalytic behaviour in olefin epoxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, R.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A.

    1995-04-15

    Various titania-silica aerogels prepared by an alkoxide-sol-gel route have been tested in the epoxidation of bulky olefins using cumene hydroperoxide as oxidant. The drying method, the titanium content between 2 and 20 wt%, and the calcination temperature between 473 and 1073 K were the most important preparation parameters, influencing the catalytic behaviour of the aerogels. The aerogels dried by semicontinuous extraction with supercritical CO{sub 2} at low temperature (LT aerogel) were found to be much more efficient epoxidation catalysts than aerogels prepared by high-temperature supercritical drying and conventionally dried xerogels. The reaction rate of cyclohexene epoxidation over LT aerogels increased monotonically with increasing Ti content. In the range of 333-363 K the catalysts containing 20 wt% TiO{sub 2} (20LT) showed high activity and selectivity (79-93% to peroxide and 87-100% to epoxide) in the oxidation of various cyclic olefins, including cyclododecene, norbornene, cyclohexene, and limonene. Catalytic experiments, FTIR, and UV-vis spectroscopy indicated that the LT aerogels consist of two different types of active species: titanium well-dispersed in the silica matrix and titania nanodomains. The key factors determining the activity and selectivity of sol-gel titania-silica catalysts are the morphology (surface area and pore size) and the relative proportions of Ti-O-Si and Ti-O-Ti structural parts. A comparative study of the epoxidation of cyclohexene, cyclododecene, and norbornene over structurally different titania-silica catalysts, indicates that 20LT shows better catalytic behaviour in these reactions than Ti zeolites and silica-supported titania. 46 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. In Silico Prediction of Cytochrome P450-Mediated Biotransformations of Xenobiotics: A Case Study of Epoxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ji, Li; Liu, Weiping

    2015-08-17

    Predicting the biotransformation of xenobiotics is important in toxicology; however, as more compounds are synthesized than can be investigated experimentally, powerful computational methods are urgently needed to prescreen potentially useful candidates. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) are the major enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, and many substances are bioactivated by P450s to form active compounds. An example is the conversion of olefinic substrates to epoxides, which are intermediates in the metabolic activation of many known or suspected carcinogens. We have calculated the activation energies for epoxidation by the active species of P450 enzymes (an iron-oxo porphyrin cation radical oxidant, compound I) for a diverse set of 36 olefinic substrates with state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) methods. Activation energies can be estimated by the computationally less demanding method of calculating the ionization potentials of the substrates, which provides a useful and simple predictive model based on the reaction mechanism; however, the preclassification of these diverse substrates into weakly polar and strongly polar groups is a prerequisite for the construction of specific predictive models with good predictability for P450 epoxidation. This approach has been supported by both internal and external validations. Furthermore, the relation between the activation energies for the regioselective epoxidation and hydroxylation reactions of P450s and experimental data has been investigated. The results show that the computational method used in this work, single-point energy calculations with the B3LYP functional including zero-point energy and solvation and dispersion corrections based on B3LYP-optimized geometries, performs well in reproducing the experimental trends of the epoxidation and hydroxylation reactions. PMID:26200167

  19. Pilot scale production, characterization, and optimization of epoxidized vegetable oil-based resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monono, Ewumbua Menyoli

    Novel epoxidized sucrose soyate (ESS) resins perform much better than other vegetable oil-based resins; thus, they are of current interest for commercial scale production and for a wide range of applications in coatings and polymeric materials. However, no work has been published that successfully scaled-up the reaction above a 1 kg batch size. To achieve this goal, canola oil was first epoxidized at a 300 g scale to study the epoxidation rate and thermal profile at different hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition rates, bath temperatures, and reaction times. At least 83% conversion of double bonds to oxirane was achieved by 2.5 h, and the reaction temperature was 8-15 °C higher than the water bath temperature within the first 30-40 min of epoxidation. A 38 L stainless steel kettle was modified as a reactor to produce 10 kg of ESS. Twenty 7-10 kg batches of ESS were produced with an overall 87.5% resin yield and > 98% conversion after batch three. The conversion and resin quality were consistent across the batches due to the modifications on the reaction that improved mixing and reaction temperature control within 55-65 oC. The total production time was reduced from 8 to 4 days due to the fabrication of a 40 L separatory funnel for both washing and filtration. A math model was developed to optimize the epoxidation process. This was done by using the Box-Behnken design to model the conversion at various acetic acid, H2O2, and Amberlite ratios and at various reaction temperatures and times. The model had an adjusted R2 of 97.6% and predicted R2 of 96.8%. The model showed that reagent amounts and time can be reduced by 18% without compromising the desired conversion value and quality.

  20. Altered Escherichia coli membrane protein assembly machinery allows proper membrane assembly of eukaryotic protein vitamin K epoxide reductase

    PubMed Central

    Hatahet, Feras; Blazyk, Jessica L.; Martineau, Eugenie; Mandela, Eric; Zhao, Yongxin; Campbell, Robert E.; Beckwith, Jonathan; Boyd, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Functional overexpression of polytopic membrane proteins, particularly when in a foreign host, is often a challenging task. Factors that negatively affect such processes are poorly understood. Using the mammalian membrane protein vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORc1) as a reporter, we describe a genetic selection approach allowing the isolation of Escherichia coli mutants capable of functionally expressing this blood-coagulation enzyme. The isolated mutants map to components of membrane protein assembly and quality control proteins YidC and HslV. We show that changes in the VKORc1 sequence and in the YidC hydrophilic groove along with the inactivation of HslV promote VKORc1 activity and dramatically increase its expression level. We hypothesize that such changes correct for mismatches in the membrane topogenic signals between E. coli and eukaryotic cells guiding proper membrane integration. Furthermore, the obtained mutants allow the study of VKORc1 reaction mechanisms, inhibition by warfarin, and the high-throughput screening for potential anticoagulants. PMID:26598701

  1. Basal and inducible anti-inflammatory epoxygenase activity in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Ara A.; Thomson, Scott; Edin, Matthew L.; Lih, Fred B.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2014-01-01

    The roles of CYP lipid-metabolizing pathways in endothelial cells are poorly understood. Human endothelial cells expressed CYP2J2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) mRNA and protein. The TLR-4 agonist LPS (1 μg/ml; 24 h) induced CYP2J2 but not sEH mRNA and protein. LC–MS/MS analysis of the stable commonly used human endothelial cell line EA.Hy926 showed active epoxygenase and epoxide hydrolase activity: with arachidonic acid (stable epoxide products 5,6-DHET, and 14,15-DHET), linoleic acid (9,10-EPOME and 12,13-EPOME and their stable epoxide hydrolase products 9,10-DHOME and 12,13-DHOME), docosahexaenoic acid (stable epoxide hydrolase product 19,20-DiHDPA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (stable epoxide hydrolase product 17,18-DHET) being formed. Inhibition of epoxygenases using either SKF525A or MS-PPOH induced TNFα release, but did not affect LPS, IL-1β, or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced TNFα release. In contrast, inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase by AUDA or TPPU inhibited basal, LPS, IL-1β and PMA induced TNFα release, and LPS-induced NFκB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, human endothelial cells contain a TLR-4 regulated epoxygenase CYP2J2 and metabolize linoleic acid > eicosapentaenoic acid > arachidonic acid > docosahexaenoic acid to products with anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24631907

  2. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  3. The gene for a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase from Cicer arietinum is strongly expressed in elongating tissues.

    PubMed

    Romo, Silvia; Jiménez, Teresa; Labrador, Emilia; Dopico, Berta

    2005-02-01

    We have isolated a Cicer arietinum cDNA clone (CaXTH1) encoding a protein that belongs to the family 16 of glycosyl hydrolases and has all the conserved features of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTH) proteins, including the presence of a highly conserved domain (DEIDFEFLG) and four Cys which suggest the potential for forming disulfide bonds. These facts indicate that CaXTH1 encodes a putative XTH. This chickpea protein showed a high level of sequence identity with group 1 XTHs that have xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity. CaXTH1 was selected by differential screening of a cDNA library constructed using mRNA from C. arietinum polyethylene glycol (PEG) treated epicotyls, as a clone whose expression decreased when epicotyl growth was inhibited by PEG. CaXTH1 shows an expression pattern that seems to be specific for growing tissue, mostly epicotyls and the growing internodes of adult stems. CaXTH1 mRNA was not detected in any other organs of either seedlings or adult plants. CaXTH1 mRNA was abundant when epicotyls are actively growing; there was almost no expression after PEG-treatment. CaXTH1 was up-regulated by indole acetic acid (IAA) and brassinolides (BR), showing the highest transcript levels after IAA plus BR treatment. In situ hybridization study revealed that CaXTH1 is mainly expressed in epidermal cells, the target of the cell expansion process, and also in vascular tissues. The present results suggest an involvement of the putative XTH encoded by CaXTH1 in the chickpea cell expansion process. PMID:15820665

  4. Immunoprotective responses of T helper type 1 stimulatory protein-S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Khare, P; Jaiswal, A K; Tripathi, C D P; Sundar, S; Dube, A

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that a patient in clinical remission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains immune to reinfection, which provides a rationale for the feasibility of a vaccine against this deadly disease. In earlier studies, observation of significant cellular responses in treated Leishmania patients as well as in hamsters against leishmanial antigens from different fractions led to its further proteomic characterization, wherein S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy) was identified as a helper type 1 (Th1) stimulatory protein. The present study includes immunological characterization of this protein, its cellular responses [lymphoproliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production and cytokine responses] in treated Leishmania-infected hamsters and patients as well as prophylactic efficacy against Leishmania challenge in hamsters and the immune responses generated thereof. Significantly higher cellular responses were noticed against recombinant L. donovani S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (rLdAdoHcy) compared to soluble L. donovani antigen in treated samples. Moreover, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with rLdAdoHcy up-regulated the levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12 and down-regulated IL-10. Furthermore, vaccination with rLdAdoHcy generated perceptible delayed-type hypersensitivity response and exerted considerably good prophylactic efficacy (∼70% inhibition) against L. donovani challenge. The efficacy was confirmed by the increased expression levels of inducible NO synthase and Th1-type cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-12 and down-regulation of IL-4, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The results indicate the potentiality of rLdAdoHcy protein as a suitable vaccine candidate against VL. PMID:26898994

  5. Endogenous neurotoxic dopamine derivative covalently binds to Parkinson's disease-associated ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 and alters its structure and function.

    PubMed

    Contu, Viorica Raluca; Kotake, Yaichiro; Toyama, Takashi; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Miyara, Masatsugu; Sakamoto, Shuichiro; Samizo, Shigeyoshi; Sanoh, Seigo; Kumagai, Yoshito; Ohta, Shigeru

    2014-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, but its pathogenesis remains elusive. A mutation in ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is responsible for a form of genetic PD which strongly resembles the idiopathic PD. We previously showed that 1-(3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (3',4'DHBnTIQ) is an endogenous parkinsonism-inducing dopamine derivative. Here, we investigated the interaction between 3',4'DHBnTIQ and UCH-L1 and its possible role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic PD. Our results indicate that 3',4'DHBnTIQ binds to UCH-L1 specifically at Cys152 in vitro. In addition, 3',4'DHBnTIQ treatment increased the amount of UCH-L1 in the insoluble fraction of SH-SY5Y cells and inhibited its hydrolase activity to 60%, reducing the level of ubiquitin in the soluble fraction of SH-SY5Y cells. Catechol-modified UCH-L1 as well as insoluble UCH-L1 were detected in the midbrain of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated PD model mice. Structurally as well as functionally altered UCH-L1 have been detected in the brains of patients with idiopathic PD. We suggest that conjugation of UCH-L1 by neurotoxic endogenous compounds such as 3',4'DHBnTIQ might play a key role in onset and progression of idiopathic PD. We investigated the interaction between ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) and the brain endogenous parkinsonism inducer 1-(3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (3',4'DHBnTIQ). Our results indicate that 3',4'DHBnTIQ binds to UCH-L1 specifically at cysteine 152 and induces its aggregation. 3',4'DHBnTIQ also inhibits the hydrolase activity of UCH-L1. Catechol-modified as well as insoluble UCH-L1 were detected in the midbrains of MPTP-treated Parkinson's disease (PD) model mice. Conjugation of UCH-L1 by neurotoxic endogenous compounds like 3',4'DHBnTIQ might play a key role in onset and progression of PD. PMID:24832624

  6. Epoxide pathways improve model predictions of isoprene markers and reveal key role of acidity in aerosol formation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene significantly contributes to organic aerosol in the southeastern United States where biogenic hydrocarbons mix with anthropogenic emissions. In this work, the Community Multiscale Air Quality model is updated to predict isoprene aerosol from epoxides produced under both ...

  7. Isolation of β-Cryptoxanthin-epoxides, Precursors of Cryptocapsin and 3'-Deoxycapsanthin, from Red Mamey (Pouteria sapota).

    PubMed

    Turcsi, Erika; Murillo, Enrique; Kurtán, Tibor; Szappanos, Ádám; Illyés, Tünde-Zita; Gulyás-Fekete, Gergely; Agócs, Attila; Avar, Péter; Deli, József

    2015-07-01

    From an extract of red mamey (Pouteria sapota) β-cryptoxanthin-5,6-epoxide, β-cryptoxanthin-5',6'-epoxide, 3'-deoxycapsanthin, and cryptocapsin were isolated and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, electronic circular dichroism (ECD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry (MS). Epoxidation of β-cryptoxanthin delivered the β-(5'R,6'S)- and (5'S,6'R)-cryptoxanthin-5',6'-epoxides, which were identified by HPLC-ECD analysis. These carotenoids among others are quite common in the fruits of Central America, and as they are natural provitamins A, they should play an important role in the diet of the mostly vitamin A deficient population of this region. PMID:26057604

  8. Nudix hydrolases degrade protein-conjugated ADP-ribose.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Casey M; Thirawatananond, Puchong; Ong, Shao-En; Gabelli, Sandra B; Leung, Anthony K L

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the transfer of the ADP-ribose group from NAD(+) to target proteins post-translationally, either attached singly as mono(ADP-ribose) (MAR) or in polymeric chains as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Though ADP-ribosylation is therapeutically important, investigation of this protein modification has been limited by a lack of proteomic tools for site identification. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of a tag-based pipeline in which MAR/PAR is hydrolyzed down to phosphoribose, leaving a 212 Dalton tag at the modification site. While the pipeline has been proven effective by multiple groups, a barrier to application has become evident: the enzyme used to transform MAR/PAR into phosphoribose must be purified from the rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus venom, which is contaminated with proteases detrimental for proteomic applications. Here, we outline the steps necessary to purify snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SVP) and describe two alternatives to SVP-the bacterial Nudix hydrolase EcRppH and human HsNudT16. Importantly, expression and purification schemes for these Nudix enzymes have already been proven, with high-quality yields easily attainable. We demonstrate their utility in identifying ADP-ribosylation sites on Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) with mass spectrometry and discuss a structure-based rationale for this Nudix subclass in degrading protein-conjugated ADP-ribose, including both MAR and PAR. PMID:26669448

  9. Cyanuric acid hydrolase: evolutionary innovation by structural concatenation

    PubMed Central

    Peat, Thomas S; Balotra, Sahil; Wilding, Matthew; French, Nigel G; Briggs, Lyndall J; Panjikar, Santosh; Cowieson, Nathan; Newman, Janet; Scott, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The cyanuric acid hydrolase, AtzD, is the founding member of a newly identified family of ring-opening amidases. We report the first X-ray structure for this family, which is a novel fold (termed the ‘Toblerone’ fold) that likely evolved via the concatenation of monomers of the trimeric YjgF superfamily and the acquisition of a metal binding site. Structures of AtzD with bound substrate (cyanuric acid) and inhibitors (phosphate, barbituric acid and melamine), along with mutagenesis studies, allowed the identification of the active site. The AtzD monomer, active site and substrate all possess threefold rotational symmetry, to the extent that the active site possesses three potential Ser–Lys catalytic dyads. A single catalytic dyad (Ser85–Lys42) is hypothesized, based on biochemical evidence and crystallographic data. A plausible catalytic mechanism based on these observations is also presented. A comparison with a homology model of the related barbiturase, Bar, was used to infer the active-site residues responsible for substrate specificity, and the phylogeny of the 68 AtzD-like enzymes in the database were analysed in light of this structure–function relationship. PMID:23651355

  10. Extracellular Glycoside Hydrolase Activities in the Human Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Inui, Taichi; Walker, Lauren C; Dodds, Michael W J; Hanley, A Bryan

    2015-08-15

    Carbohydrate availability shifts when bacteria attach to a surface and form biofilm. When salivary planktonic bacteria form an oral biofilm, a variety of polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the primary carbon sources; however, simple sugar availabilities are limited due to low diffusion from saliva to biofilm. We hypothesized that bacterial glycoside hydrolase (GH) activities would be higher in a biofilm than in saliva in order to maintain metabolism in a low-sugar, high-glycoprotein environment. Salivary bacteria from 13 healthy individuals were used to grow in vitro biofilm using two separate media, one with sucrose and the other limiting carbon sources to a complex carbohydrate. All six GHs measured were higher in vitro when grown in the medium with complex carbohydrate as the sole carbon source. We then collected saliva and overnight dental plaque samples from the same individuals and measured ex vivo activities for the same six enzymes to determine how oral microbial utilization of glycoconjugates shifts between the planktonic phase in saliva and the biofilm phase in overnight dental plaque. Overall higher GH activities were observed in plaque samples, in agreement with in vitro observation. A similar pattern was observed in GH activity profiles between in vitro and ex vivo data. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that plaque samples had a higher abundance of microorganisms with larger number of GH gene sequences. These results suggest differences in sugar catabolism between the oral bacteria located in the biofilm and those in saliva. PMID:26048943

  11. Nudix hydrolases degrade protein-conjugated ADP-ribose

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Casey M.; Thirawatananond, Puchong; Ong, Shao-En; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the transfer of the ADP-ribose group from NAD+ to target proteins post-translationally, either attached singly as mono(ADP-ribose) (MAR) or in polymeric chains as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Though ADP-ribosylation is therapeutically important, investigation of this protein modification has been limited by a lack of proteomic tools for site identification. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of a tag-based pipeline in which MAR/PAR is hydrolyzed down to phosphoribose, leaving a 212 Dalton tag at the modification site. While the pipeline has been proven effective by multiple groups, a barrier to application has become evident: the enzyme used to transform MAR/PAR into phosphoribose must be purified from the rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus venom, which is contaminated with proteases detrimental for proteomic applications. Here, we outline the steps necessary to purify snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SVP) and describe two alternatives to SVP—the bacterial Nudix hydrolase EcRppH and human HsNudT16. Importantly, expression and purification schemes for these Nudix enzymes have already been proven, with high-quality yields easily attainable. We demonstrate their utility in identifying ADP-ribosylation sites on Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) with mass spectrometry and discuss a structure-based rationale for this Nudix subclass in degrading protein-conjugated ADP-ribose, including both MAR and PAR. PMID:26669448

  12. Thermus thermophilus Glycoside Hydrolase Family 57 Branching Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Palomo, Marta; Pijning, Tjaard; Booiman, Thijs; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; van der Vlist, Jeroen; Kralj, Slavko; Planas, Antoni; Loos, Katja; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Leemhuis, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18; glycogen branching enzyme; GBE) catalyzes the formation of α1,6-branching points in glycogen. Until recently it was believed that all GBEs belong to glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13). Here we describe the cloning and expression of the Thermus thermophilus family GH57-type GBE and report its biochemical properties and crystal structure at 1.35-Å resolution. The enzyme has a central (β/α)7-fold catalytic domain A with an inserted domain B between β2 and α5 and an α-helix-rich C-terminal domain, which is shown to be essential for substrate binding and catalysis. A maltotriose was modeled in the active site of the enzyme which suggests that there is insufficient space for simultaneously binding of donor and acceptor substrates, and that the donor substrate must be cleaved before acceptor substrate can bind. The biochemical assessment showed that the GH57 GBE possesses about 4% hydrolytic activity with amylose and in vitro forms a glucan product with a novel fine structure, demonstrating that the GH57 GBE is clearly different from the GH13 GBEs characterized to date. PMID:21097495

  13. Structure-activity relationship studies on 1-heteroaryl-3-phenoxypropan-2-ones acting as inhibitors of cytosolic phospholipase A2α and fatty acid amide hydrolase: replacement of the activated ketone group by other serine traps.

    PubMed

    Sundermann, Tom; Hanekamp, Walburga; Lehr, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are serine hydrolases. cPLA2α is involved in the generation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, FAAH terminates the anti-inflammatory effects of endocannabinoids. Therefore, inhibitors of these enzymes may represent new drug candidates for the treatment of inflammation. We have reported that certain 1-heteroarylpropan-2-ones are potent inhibitors of cPLA2α and FAAH. The serine reactive ketone group of these compounds, which is crucial for enzyme inhibition, is readily metabolized resulting in inactive alcohol derivatives. In order to obtain metabolically more stable inhibitors, we replaced this moiety by α-ketoheterocyle, cyanamide and nitrile serine traps. Investigations on activity and metabolic stability of these substances revealed that in all cases an increased metabolic stability was accompanied by a loss of inhibitory potency against cPLA2α and FAAH, respectively. PMID:26153239

  14. Bacterial 2,4-Dioxygenases: New Members of the α/β Hydrolase-Fold Superfamily of Enzymes Functionally Related to Serine Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Frank; Künne, Stefan; Fetzner, Susanne

    1999-01-01

    1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinoline 2,4-dioxygenase (Qdo) from Pseudomonas putida 33/1 and 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase (Hod) from Arthrobacter ilicis Rü61a catalyze an N-heterocyclic-ring cleavage reaction, generating N-formylanthranilate and N-acetylanthranilate, respectively, and carbon monoxide. Amino acid sequence comparisons between Qdo, Hod, and a number of proteins belonging to the α/β hydrolase-fold superfamily of enzymes and analysis of the similarity between the predicted secondary structures of the 2,4-dioxygenases and the known secondary structure of haloalkane dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 strongly suggested that Qdo and Hod are structurally related to the α/β hydrolase-fold enzymes. The residues S95 and H244 of Qdo were found to be arranged like the catalytic nucleophilic residue and the catalytic histidine, respectively, of the α/β hydrolase-fold enzymes. Investigation of the potential functional significance of these and other residues of Qdo through site-directed mutagenesis supported the hypothesis that Qdo is structurally as well as functionally related to serine hydrolases, with S95 being a possible catalytic nucleophile and H244 being a possible catalytic base. A hypothetical reaction mechanism for Qdo-catalyzed 2,4-dioxygenolysis, involving formation of an ester bond between the catalytic serine residue and the carbonyl carbon of the substrate and subsequent dioxygenolysis of the covalently bound anionic intermediate, is discussed. PMID:10482514

  15. Discovery of bile salt hydrolase inhibitors using an efficient high-throughput screening system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katie; Zeng, Ximin; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of restricting the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in animal production necessitates the need to develop valid alternatives to maintain productivity and sustainability of food animals. Previous studies suggest inhibition of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization, is a promising approach to promote animal growth performance. To achieve the long term goal of developing novel alternatives to AGPs, in this study, a rapid and convenient high-throughput screening (HTS) system was developed and successfully used for identification of BSH inhibitors. With the aid of a high-purity BSH from a chicken Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we optimized various screening conditions (e.g. BSH concentration, reaction buffer pH, incubation temperature and length, substrate type and concentration) and establish a precipitation-based screening approach to identify BSH inhibitors using 96-well or 384-well microplates. A pilot HTS was performed using a small compound library comprised of 2,240 biologically active and structurally diverse compounds. Among the 107 hits, several promising and potent BSH inhibitors (e.g. riboflavin and phenethyl caffeate) were selected and validated by standard BSH activity assay. Interestingly, the HTS also identified a panel of antibiotics as BSH inhibitor; in particular, various tetracycline antibiotics and roxarsone, the widely used AGP, have been demonstrated to display potent inhibitory effect on BSH. Together, this study developed an efficient HTS system and identified several BSH inhibitors with potential as alternatives to AGP. In addition, the findings from this study also suggest a new mode of action of AGP for promoting animal growth. PMID:24454844

  16. Discovery of Bile Salt Hydrolase Inhibitors Using an Efficient High-Throughput Screening System

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katie; Zeng, Ximin; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of restricting the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in animal production necessitates the need to develop valid alternatives to maintain productivity and sustainability of food animals. Previous studies suggest inhibition of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization, is a promising approach to promote animal growth performance. To achieve the long term goal of developing novel alternatives to AGPs, in this study, a rapid and convenient high-throughput screening (HTS) system was developed and successfully used for identification of BSH inhibitors. With the aid of a high-purity BSH from a chicken Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we optimized various screening conditions (e.g. BSH concentration, reaction buffer pH, incubation temperature and length, substrate type and concentration) and establish a precipitation-based screening approach to identify BSH inhibitors using 96-well or 384-well microplates. A pilot HTS was performed using a small compound library comprised of 2,240 biologically active and structurally diverse compounds. Among the 107 hits, several promising and potent BSH inhibitors (e.g. riboflavin and phenethyl caffeate) were selected and validated by standard BSH activity assay. Interestingly, the HTS also identified a panel of antibiotics as BSH inhibitor; in particular, various tetracycline antibiotics and roxarsone, the widely used AGP, have been demonstrated to display potent inhibitory effect on BSH. Together, this study developed an efficient HTS system and identified several BSH inhibitors with potential as alternatives to AGP. In addition, the findings from this study also suggest a new mode of action of AGP for promoting animal growth. PMID:24454844

  17. Synthesis of beta-lactones by the regioselective, cobalt and Lewis acid catalyzed carbonylation of simple and functionalized epoxides.

    PubMed

    Lee, J T; Thomas, P J; Alper, H

    2001-08-10

    The PPNCo(CO)(4) and BF(3) x Et(2)O catalyzed carbonylation of simple and functionalized epoxides in DME gives the corresponding beta-lactones regioselectively in good to high yields. The carbonylation occurred selectively at the unsubstituted C-O bond of the epoxide ring, and this reaction tolerates various functional groups such as alkenyl, halide, hydroxy, and alkyl ether. PMID:11485465

  18. Nazarov cyclization of divinyl and arylvinyl epoxides: application in the synthesis of resveratrol-based natural products.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, Gangarajula; Satish, Kovela

    2015-04-20

    New variation in the Nazarov cyclization has been developed by preparing divinyl and arylvinyl epoxides as pentadienyl cation precursors for the first time. Highly substituted cyclopentadienes, hydrindienes, and indenes were synthesized to demonstrate the compatibility of this reaction with substrates bearing a variety of substitutions and having different types of epoxides. Application of this method in the synthesis of resveratrol-based natural products was also demonstrated. PMID:25760544

  19. A New Biocatalyst for Production of Optically Pure Aryl Epoxides by Styrene Monooxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens ST

    PubMed Central

    Di Gennaro, Patrizia; Colmegna, Andrea; Galli, Enrica; Sello, Guido; Pelizzoni, Francesca; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    1999-01-01

    We developed a biocatalyst by cloning the styrene monooxygenase genes (styA and styB) from Pseudomonas fluorescens ST responsible for the oxidation of styrene to its corresponding epoxide. Recombinant Escherichia coli was able to oxidize different aryl vinyl and aryl ethenyl compounds to their corresponding optically pure epoxides. The results of bioconversions indicate the broad substrate preference of styrene monooxygenase and its potential for the production of several fine chemicals. PMID:10347083

  20. The vital function of Fe3O4@Au nanocomposites for hydrolase biosensor design and its application in detection of methyl parathion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuting; Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorating a magnetic Fe3O4 core was synthesized using cysteamine (SH-NH2) as linker, and characterized by TEM, XPS, UV and electrochemistry. Then a hydrolase biosensor, based on self-assembly of methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) on the Fe3O4@Au nanocomposite, was developed for sensitive and selective detection of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) methyl parathion. The magnetic nanocomposite provides an easy way to construct the enzyme biosensor by simply exerting an external magnetic field, and also provides a simple way to renew the electrode surface by removing the magnet. Unlike inhibition-based enzyme biosensors, the hydrolase is not poisoned by OPs and thus is reusable for continuous measurement. AuNPs not only provide a large surface area, high loading efficiency and fast electron transfer, but also stabilize the enzyme through electrostatic interactions. The MPH biosensor shows rapid response and high selectivity for detection of methyl parathion, with a linear range from 0.5 to 1000 ng mL-1 and a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL-1. It also shows acceptable reproducibility and stability. The simplicity and ease of operation of the proposed method has great potential for on-site detection of P-S containing pesticides and provides a promising strategy to construct a robust biosensor.A nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorating a magnetic Fe3O4 core was synthesized using cysteamine (SH-NH2) as linker, and characterized by TEM, XPS, UV and electrochemistry. Then a hydrolase biosensor, based on self-assembly of methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) on the Fe3O4@Au nanocomposite, was developed for sensitive and selective detection of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) methyl parathion. The magnetic nanocomposite provides an easy way to construct the enzyme biosensor by simply exerting an external magnetic field, and also provides a simple way to renew the electrode surface by removing the magnet. Unlike