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Sample records for epoxy compounds

  1. Production of epoxy compounds from olefinic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbein, A.P.; Kwon, J.T.

    1985-01-29

    Chlorine and tertiary alkanol dissolved in an inert organic solvent are reacted with aqueous alkali to produce tertiary alkyl hypochlorite which is recovered in the organic solvent and reacted with water and olefinically unsaturated compound to produce chlorohydrin and tertiary alkanol. Chlorohydrin and tertiary alkanol recovered in the organic solvent are contacted with aqueous alkali to produce the epoxy compound, and tertiary alkanol recovered in the organic solvent is recycled to hypochlorite production. The process may be integrated with the electrolytic production of chlorine, with an appropriate treatment of the recycle aqueous stream when required.

  2. Affinity Adsorbents Based on Carriers Activated by Epoxy-compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyashchitskii, B. A.; Kuznetsov, P. V.

    1984-10-01

    The review is devoted to the synthesis and applications of affinity adsorbents based on carriers activated by epoxy-compounds. The methods for the introduction of epoxy-groups into carriers of different chemical types are discussed and conditions for the immobilisation of three-dimensional spacers and low-molecular-weight and polymeric ligands on carriers containing epoxy-groups are considered. Data are presented on the properties and applications of adsorbents of this type in affinity chromatography. The bibliography includes 144 references.

  3. Some experiences with epoxy resin grouting compounds.

    PubMed

    Hosein, H R

    1980-07-01

    Epoxy resin systems are used in tiling and grouting in the construction industry. Because of the nature of the application, skin contact is the primary hazard. The most prevalent reaction was reddening of the forearms, followed by whole body reddening and loss of appetite, these latter two being associated with smoking while applying the resin. PMID:7415974

  4. Treatment of volatile organic compounds from polyurethane and epoxy manufacture by a trickle-bed air biofilter.

    PubMed

    Chang, K; Lu, C; Lin, M

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a trickle-bed air biofilter (TBAB) for the removal of volatile organic compound (VOC) produced during polyurethane (PU) and epoxy manufacture. The major VOCs emitted are ethyl acetate (EA) for PU and EA and xylene for epoxy production. For the treatment of VOCs emitted during PU production, the employed coal carbon appears to be efficient as a VOC concentration buffer in the biofiltration of waste gases. Based on the results of EA and total hydrocarbon (THC) removal, it was concluded that the TBAB is suitable for controlling VOC emission during PU manufacture. For the treatment of VOCs emitted during epoxy production, it was found that the performance of the TBAB is relatively poor due to the lack of VOC sources. However, this problem could be easily solved by mixing the VOCs emitted during PU and epoxy manufacture. PMID:16233071

  5. Room-temperature ferroelectric mixtures based on a chiral epoxy compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzec, M.; Wrobel, A.; Wrobel, S.; Haase, Wolfgang; Dabrowski, Roman S.

    1998-02-01

    Two mixtures: W-90 and W-91 containing an epoxy compound as a chiral dopant have been studied using dielectric and electrooptic methods. W-90 mixture shows a phase sequence Is-N*-SmC* whereas W-91 mixture - Is-N*- SmA*-SmC*. One of the objectives of the paper was to study the transition order between ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Dielectric spectra were measured using 10micrometers EHC cells. In SmC* phases of both mixtures a broad Goldstone mode dielectric spectrum has been found. Switching properties of both mixtures have been studied by using LINKAM 5 micrometers thick cells. Tilt angle and spontaneous polarization have been measured in the SmC* phase versus temperature. Dielectric and electrooptic data are discussed in terms of the mean field model.

  6. Radiation curing of epoxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Lawrence W.; Singh, Ajit

    The literature on radiation polymerization of epoxy compounds has been reviewed to assess the potential use of radiation for curing these industrially important monomers. Chemical curing of epoxies may proceed by either cationic or anionic mechanisms depending on the nature of the curing agent, but most epoxies polymerize by cationic mechanisms under the influence of high-energy radiation. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of epoxy compounds is inhibited by trace quantities of water because of proton transfer from the chain-propagating epoxy cation to water. Several different methods with potential for obtaining high molecular weight polymers by curing epoxies with high-energy radiation have been studied. Polymeric products with epoxy-like properties have been produced by radiation curing of epoxy oligomers with terminal acrylate groups and mixtures of epoxies with vinyl monomers. Both of these types of resin have good potential for industrial-scale curing by radiation treatment.

  7. Effects of Bonding Wires and Epoxy Molding Compound on Gold and Copper Ball Bonds Intermetallic Growth Kinetics in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, C. L.; Classe, F. C.; Chan, B. L.; Hashim, U.

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the influence of bonding wires and epoxy mold compounds (EMC) on intermetallic compound (IMC) diffusion kinetics and apparent activation energies ( E aa) of CuAl and AuAl IMCs in a fineline ball grid array package. The objective of this study is to study the CuAl and AuAl IMC growth rates with different epoxy mold compounds and to determine the apparent activation energies of different combination of package bills of materials. IMC thickness measurement has been carried out to estimate the coefficient of diffusion ( D o) and E aa various aging conditions of different EMCs and bonding wires. Apparent activation energies ( E aa) of both wire types were investigated after high temperature storage life tests (HTSL) for both molding compounds. Au bonds were identified to have faster IMC formation, compared to slower IMC growth of Cu. The E aa obtained for CuAl IMC diffusion kinetics are 1.08 and 1.04 eV with EMC A and EMC B, respectively. For AuAl IMC diffusion kinetics, the E aa obtained are 1.04 and 0.98 eV, respectively, on EMC A and EMC B. These values are close to previous HTSL studies conducted on Au and Cu ball bonds and are in agreement to the theory of HTSL performance of Au and Cu bonding wires.Overall, EMC B shows slightly lower apparent activation energy ( E aa) valueas in CuAl and AuAl IMCs. This proves that the different types of epoxy mold compounds have some influence on IMC growth rates.

  8. Microautoradiography of Water-Soluble Compounds in Plant Tissue after Freeze-Drying and Pressure Infiltration with Epoxy Resin

    PubMed Central

    Vogelmann, Thomas C.; Dickson, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    It is difficult to retain and localize radioactive, water-soluble compounds within plant cells. Existing techniques retain water-soluble compounds with varying rates of efficiency and are limited to processing only a few samples at one time. We developed a modified pressure infiltration technique for the preparation of microautoradiographs of 14C-labeled, water-soluble compounds in plant tissue. Samples from cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.) labeled with 14C were excised, quick frozen in liquid N2, freeze-dried at −50°C, and pressure-infiltrated with epoxy resin without intermediate solvents or prolonged incubation times. The technique facilitates the mass processing of samples for microautoradiography, gives good cellular retention of labeled water-soluble compounds, and is highly reproducible. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16662542

  9. Stabilization of gamma-irradiated poly(vinyl chloride) by epoxy compounds. II. Production of hydroperoxides in gamma-irradiated PVC-stabilizer mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lerke, I., Szymanski, W.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of hydroperoxides,produced in the process of radiolysis, was studied in ..gamma..-irradiated PVC samples with 4% admixture of four epoxy stabilizers: diglycidyl ether of 2.2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methyl phenyl)propane (I), styrene oxide (1,2-epoxy ethyl benzene) (IV), epoxidized ricinus oil (VI), and epoxidized soybean oil (Drapex 6.8) (VII). The results indicate that the process of radiation oxidation occurs in two stages. Only the stabilizers with benzene ring demonstrate the antioxidative action. The stabilizers VI and VII do not act as the antioxidants, and, moreover, as a consequence of their plasticizing properties, they facilitate the penetration of the oxygen to polymer. The epoxy groups have no influence upon the oxidation process, in the case of compounds VI and VII.

  10. Applying of non-toxic oxide alloys and hybrid polianiline compounds as anticorrosive pigments in organic epoxy coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymański, W.; Halama, A.; Madaliński, J.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this work was to study inorganic oxide pigments as well as polyaniline heptamolybdes anticorrosive efficiency in epoxy coating. Antycorrosion resistance of modified coatings was examined by accelerated corrosion test in comparison to coatings of the suitable commercial epoxy paint. The carried out investigations shoved much bigrs anticorrosion performance of coatings modified with elaborated, new pigments.

  11. Stabilization of gamma-irradiated poly(vinyl chloride) by epoxy compounds. III. Conjugated double bonds and degree of unsaturation in gamma-irradiated PVC-stabilizer mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lerke, G.; Lerke, I.; Szymanski, W.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of conjugated polyene sequences was studied in ..gamma..-irradiated PVC with 4% admixture of four epoxy stabilizers: diglycidyl ether of 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (I), styrene oxide (1,2-epoxy ethyl benzene) (IV), epoxidized ricinus oil (VI), and epoxidized soybean oil (Drapex 6.8) (VII). As in the former investigations (Papers I and II), the process of the formation of the polyenes occurs in two stages. The concentration of polyene sequences with n double bonds, H/sub n/ the total amount of polyene sequences, ..sigma..H/sub n/, the average length of the polyene sequence, n, and the extents of reaction x and p, were computed. The stabilizing effect of all compounds used agrees with the increasing content of epoxy groups. The addition of stabilizers diminishes the value of n. The decrease of the fraction of long sequences and the increase of short ones occurs. Apart from the binding of evolved HCl, the protective effect towards the macromolecules of PVC consists mainly in the inhibition of growth of chain dehydrochlorination by the epoxy groups.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of a Novel Epoxy Molding Compound with Low Storage Modulus at High Temperature and Low Glass-Transition Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hui-wang; Li, Dong-sheng; Fan, Qiong

    2012-09-01

    Epoxy molding compound (EMC) has been widely used as a main material for encapsulation and protection of semiconductor packages because of its low cost, high moisture resistance, high heat resistance, and good mechanical performance. Due to the extensive application of lead-free solder in place of Sn-Pb, soldering temperature is higher than before; this demands that EMC, which is usually used for lead-free solder, should have extremely low thermal stress and excellent stability at elevated temperatures. In this work, 1,3-propanediol bis(4-aminobenzoate) (PBA) was added to an EMC product to form a novel epoxy molding compound (FEMC). PBA had very limited effect on the process feasibility of EMC, and caused reduction of the storage modulus by 40% to 50% at high temperatures and reduction of the glass-transition temperature by more than 10°C, which are very helpful to reduce thermal stress buildup during high-temperature soldering processes. The increases of the tab pull force of copper- and silver-plated lead frames within EMC due to PBA were up to 58% and 117%, respectively. With increasing PBA content in the EMC, water absorption increased in a linear fashion, so the amount of PBA added to the EMC should be limited, preferably to not more than 1%.

  13. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; Russick, Edward M.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of epoxy composites filled with Pb, Bi or W compound for shielding of diagnostic x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor Azman, Nurul Z.; Siddiqui, Salim A.; Low, It M.

    2013-01-01

    Lead chloride, bismuth oxide and tungsten oxide filled epoxy composites with different weight fractions were fabricated to investigate their x-ray transmission characteristics in the x-ray diagnostic imaging energy range (40-127 kV) by using a conventional laboratory x-ray machine. Characterizations of the microstructure properties of the synthesized composites were performed using synchrotron radiation diffraction, backscattered electron imaging microscopy, three-point bend test and Rockwell hardness test. As expected, the x-ray transmission was decreased by the increment of the filler loading. Meanwhile, the flexural modulus and hardness of the composites were increased through an increase in filler loading. However, the flexural strength showed a marked decrease with the increment of filler loading (≥30 wt%). Some agglomerations were observed for the composites having ≥50 wt% of filler.

  15. Stabilization of gamma-irradiated poly(vinyl chloride) by epoxy compounds. I. Radiation yield of hydrogen chloride and changes of epoxy group concentration in gamma-irradiated PVC-stabilizer mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lerke, G.; Lerke, I.; Szymanski, W.

    1983-01-01

    The G/sub HCl/ values of ..gamma..-irradiated PVC mixtures and the changes of the epoxy group concentration were studied after addition of various amounts of five epoxy stabilizers: diglycidyl ether of 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methyl phenyl) propane (I), diglycidyl ether of 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)-propane (II), styrene oxide (1,2-epoxy ethyl benzene) (IV), epoxidized ricinus oil (VI), and epoxidized soybean oil (Drapex 6.8) (VII). It is stated that only about 50% of epoxy groups, declining in the system, take part in binding of HCl; the rest of these groups disappear as a consequence of other reactions. In connection with the data of the previous paper, the results presented indicate that the process of stabilization goes in two stages. In the first stage the process consists of the HC1 capture by the epoxy groups; in the second stage, due to the remaining part of the stabilizer molecule, a protective effect occurs. This effect consists, for the stabilizers I, II, IV, of gaining the energy by the benzene ring and, for the stabilizers VI, VII, of a mechanical drawing of polymer chains, wich makes the energy transfer more difficult. Having the greatest content of epoxy oxygen (about 10%), the styrene oxide (IV) stabilizes best.

  16. Process for Preparing Epoxy-Reinforced Silica Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    One-pot reaction process for preparing epoxy-reinforced monolithic silica aerogels comprising the reaction of at least one silicon compound selected from the group consisting of alkoxysilanes, orthosilicates and combination thereof in any ratio with effective amounts of an epoxy monomer and an aminoalkoxy silane to obtain an epoxy monomer-silica sol in solution, subsequently preparing an epoxy-monomer silica gel from said silica sol solution followed by initiating polymerization of the epoxy monomer to obtain the epoxy-reinforced monolithic silica aerogel.

  17. Fire-retardant epoxy polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akawie, R. I.; Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphorus atoms in molecular structure of epoxies make them fire-retardant without degrading their adhesive strength. Moreover, polymers are transparent, unlike compounds that contain arsenic or other inorganics. They have been used to bond polyvinylfluoride and polyether sulfone films onto polyimide glass laminates.

  18. Epoxy resin

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Glenn R.; Salyer, Ival O.; Ball, III, George L.

    1976-07-13

    By mixing one part of a prepolymer containing a polyamine partially polymerized with an organic epoxide and subsequently reacted with a fatty acid containing from 8 to 32 carbon atoms, and then reacting this prepolymer mixture with 3 parts of an organic epoxide, a composition was obtained which made a gas frothable, shear-stable, room temperature curing, low density foam. A particularly advantageous prepolymer was prepared using a polyamine selected from the group consisting of diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine, and tetraethylenepentamine, partially polymerized with an organic epoxide having an average molecular weight of about 350 and having an epoxide equivalent of 185 to 192, and reacted with 2-10 weight percent linoleic acid. When one part of this prepolymer was reacted with about three parts of epoxy, and frothed by whipping in air or nitrogen an epoxy foam was produced which could be troweled onto surfaces and into corners or crevices, and subsequently cured, at near ambient temperature, to a strong dimensionally stable foam product.

  19. Nature of the adhesion bond between epoxy adhesive and steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettegren', V. I.; Mamalimov, R. I.; Savitskii, A. V.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Sytov, V. V.; Sytov, V. A.

    2014-03-01

    The potential difference that appears in the epoxy resin located between two grade 3 steel plates is studied. One of them is stored in epoxy resin to reach equilibrium, and the second plate is coated with an asprepared mixture of epoxy resin with a hardener. It is found that the potential difference decreases in time because of charge transfer by Fe2+ ions through epoxy resin. The luminescence and infrared absorption spectra of the epoxy adhesive on the grade 3 steel surface are recorded. An analysis of these spectra shows that Fe2+ ions penetrate into the as-prepared mixture of epoxy resin with the hardener, and interact with CN groups in the mixture, and form coordination compounds. As a result, a diffusion layer saturated by the coordination compounds forms at the interface between the steel and the adhesive.

  20. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  1. Epoxy-rubber interactions

    SciTech Connect

    McGarry, F.J.; Rosner, R.B.

    1993-12-31

    Films containing amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (ATBN) rubber and diglycidal ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy, cross-linked with amine curing agent, exhibit tensile extensibility over the composition range of 50-600 parts by weight rubber to 100 parts by weight epoxy. This tensile extensibility suggests the presence of ductile behavior in the second-phase particles of ATBN rubber-toughened DGEBA epoxy systems, even if the particles contain substantial amounts of epoxy. Such cured films also are capable of absorbing large additional amounts of liquid epoxy that contains the cure agent. When the epoxy is cured in situ, the film tensile behavior is consistent with the overall proportions of rubber and epoxy present. The solubility behavior also suggests that the glassy epoxy matrix immediately surrounding a precipated particle contains rubber in solid solution and thereby can plastically yield under shear-stress action. As observations confirm, such flow would be heat recoverable. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Method for epoxy foam production using a liquid anhydride

    DOEpatents

    Celina, Mathias

    2012-06-05

    An epoxy resin mixture with at least one epoxy resin of between approximately 50 wt % and 100 wt %, an anhydride cure agent of between approximately 0 wt % and approximately 50 wt %, a tert-butoxycarbonyl anhydride foaming agent of between proximately 0.1-20 wt %, a surfactant and an imidazole or similar catalyst of less than approximately 2 wt %, where the resin mixture is formed from at least one epoxy resin with a 1-10 wt % tert-butoxycarbonyl anhydride compound and an imidazole catalyst at a temperature sufficient to keep the resin in a suitable viscosity range, the resin mixture reacting to form a foaming resin which in the presence of an epoxy curative can then be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form an epoxy foam.

  3. 3,7,10,14,15-pentaacetyl-5-butanoyl-13,17-epoxy-8-myrsinene a novel compound isolated from Pycnocycla spinosa extract with potent anti-spasmodic and antidiarrheal properties

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, H.; Ghanadian, M.; Asghari, G.; Sharifian, R.

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay monitoring of hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial part of Pyconcycla spinosa revealed that it contains components with spasmolytic activity in vitro. In addition, P. spinosa extract at oral dose of 1-5 mg/kg inhibits diarrhoea in animal models. Pharmacological screening of pure compounds isolated from P. spinosa hydroalcoholic extract led to the identification of 3,7,10,14,15-pentaacetyl-5-butanoyl-13,17-epoxy-8-myrsinene (PABEM) which is a new diterpene. In this research, we have investigated antispasmodic and antidiarrheal effects of PABEM for comparison with P. spinosa extract. Aerial parts of P. spinosa were extracted with ethanol. For antispasmodic studies, rat isolated ileum was suspended in Tyrode's solution in an organ bath. The ileum was contracted by acetylcholine (ACh, 0.5 μM), serotonin (5-HT, 5 μM) or electrical field stimulation (EFS). P. spinosa extract in a concentration dependent manner (10-640 μg/ml) inhibited ileum contractions induced by ACh, 5-HT or EFS. The new compound isolated form P. spinosa extract “PABEM” in a similar manner inhibited the contractile response to ACh, 5-HT and EFS. However, the inhibitory effects of PABEM were observed at much lower bath concentrations. The relaxation effect of PABEM was started at 40 ng/ml bath concentration and with 2.5 μg/ml PABEM in the bath, the contractile responses of ileum were completely abolished. Both hydroalcoholic extract of P. spinosa and PABEM reduced intestinal meal transit and castor oil and MgSO4 induced diarrhoea in mice. However, PABEM was about 10 times more potent than its parent extract. This research shows that PABEM is probably the main component responsible for antispasmodic and antidiarrheal actions of P. spinosa extract. PMID:26430457

  4. Cobalt ion-containing epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Varying concentrations of an organometallic cobalt complex were added to an epoxy system currently used by the aerospace industry as a composite matrix resin. Methods for combining cobalt (III) acetylacetonate with a tetraglycidyl 4,4 prime - diaminodiphenylmethane-based epoxy were investigated. The effects of increasing cobalt ion concentration on the epoxy cure were demonstrated by epoxy gel times and differential scanning calorimetry cure exotherms. Analysis on cured cobalt-containing epoxy castings included determination of glass transition temperatures by thermomechanical analysis, thermooxidative stabilities by thermogravimetric analysis, and densities in a density gradient column. Flexural strength and stiffness were also measured on the neat resin castings.

  5. Synthesis of liquid crystalline epoxy monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabia, J.; Galina, H.; Mossety-Leszczak, B.; Ulanski, J.; Wojciechowski, Piotr; Wlochowicz, Andrzej

    2002-06-01

    A two-stage method of synthesis of liquid-crystalline diepoxy monomers has been developed. In the first stage, esterification of 4-hydroxyphenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate or 4,4'- biphenol or 4,4'-dihydroxyazobenzene was carried out using 4-penetenoic acid. The resulting olefinic precursors were oxidized with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid to introduce the epoxy groups. The structure of products was confirmed by FT- IR and 1H NMR. Examinations on a polarization microscope with a hot plate confirmed the presence of mesomorphic phases in both the precursors and monomers. The phase transition temperatures were in the range of 73.5 (at cooling) to 128.0 degree(s)C for olefinic precursors and in the range 57.1 (at cooling) to 143 degree(s)C for epoxy compounds, as determined by DSC and thermo-optical analysis (TOA).

  6. An investigation of chemically-induced improvement in saturation moisture characteristics of epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; St.clair, T. L.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    MY-720/DDS epoxy samples were treated with three selected chemical compounds to render the active H-sites inactive for moisture absorption. Treating the epoxy castings with acetyl chloride and dichlorodimethyl silane leads only to surface changes indicating that these molecules are too large to penetrate the epoxy castings. Boron trifluoride, on the other hand, does penetrate the epoxy chain as is indicated by the formation of green domains in the interior of the castings. However, the process of saturating the specimens with moisture appears to leach out the chemical additives--thereby nullifying their possible ameliorative effects.

  7. Metal ion-containing epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    A variety of metallic and organometallic complexes to be used as potential additives for an epoxy used by the aerospace industry as a composite matrix resin were investigated. A total of 9 complexes were screened for compatibility and for their ability to accelerate or inhibit the cure of a highly crosslinkable epoxy resin. Methods for combining the metallic complexes with the resin were investigated, gel times recorded, and cure exotherms studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Glass transition temperatures of cured metal ion containing epoxy castings were determined by thermomechanical analysis. Thermal stabilities of the castings were determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Mechanical strength and stiffness of these doped epoxies were also measured.

  8. Epoxy resin holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Limón, B.; Wetzel, G. B. J.; Olivares Pérez, A.; Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Ramos-Garcia, R.; Toxqui López, S.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2006-02-01

    We observed that a commercial epoxy resin (Comex (R) is enable to record images by means of lithography techniques. We can generate a hologram using a digital image and a computer simulation program and transferred it on our resin by microlithography techniques to get a phase hologram and increase its efficiency. The exposition to the heat produce temperature gradients and the information in the mask is transferred to the material by the refraction index changes, thus the film is recorded. At the same time the hologram is cured.

  9. Interaction of water with epoxy.

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Dana Auburn

    2009-07-01

    The chemistries of reactants, plasticizers, solvents and additives in an epoxy paint are discussed. Polyamide additives may play an important role in the absorption of molecular iodine by epoxy paints. It is recommended that the unsaturation of the polyamide additive in the epoxy cure be determined. Experimental studies of water absorption by epoxy resins are discussed. These studies show that absorption can disrupt hydrogen bonds among segments of the polymers and cause swelling of the polymer. The water absorption increases the diffusion coefficient of water within the polymer. Permanent damage to the polymer can result if water causes hydrolysis of ether linkages. Water desorption studies are recommended to ascertain how water absorption affects epoxy paint.

  10. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

  11. Thermophysical and flammability characterization of phosphorylated epoxy adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Giants, T. W.; Bilow, N.; Hsu, M.-T.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the thermophysical and flammability properties of a phosphorylated epoxy adhesive, which has potential applications in aircraft interior panels, are described. The adhesive consists of stoichiometric ratios of bis(3-glycidyloxphenyl)methylphosphine oxide and bis(3-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide containing approximately 7.5% phosphorus. Preliminary data are presented from adhesive bonding studies conducted utilizing this adhesive with polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) film and phenolic-glass laminates. Limiting oxygen index and smoke density data are presented and compared with those of the tetraglycidyl methylene dianiline epoxy resin-adhesive system currently used in aircraft interiors. Initial results indicate that the phosphorylated epoxy compound has excellent adhesive properties when used with PVF film and that desirable fire-resistant properties are maintained.

  12. New thermal and microbial resistant metal-containing epoxy polymers.

    PubMed

    Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M

    2010-01-01

    A series of metal-containing epoxy polymers have been synthesized by the condensation of epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxy propane) with Schiff base metal complexes in alkaline medium. Schiff base was initially prepared by the reaction of 2,6 dihydroxy 1-napthaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine in 1 : 2 molar ratio and then with metal acetate. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental, spectral, and thermal analysis. The physicochemical properties, viz., epoxy value, hydroxyl content, and chlorine content [mol/100 g] were measured by standard procedures. The antimicrobial activities of these metal-containing epoxy polymers were carried out by using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods against S. aureus, B. subtilis (Gram-positive bacteria), and E. coli, P. aeruginosa (Gram-negative bacteria). It was found that the ECu(II) showed higher antibacterial activity than other metal-chelated epoxy resin while EMn(II) exhibited reduced antibacterial activity against all bacteria. PMID:20689716

  13. New Thermal and Microbial Resistant Metal-Containing Epoxy Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.

    2010-01-01

    A series of metal-containing epoxy polymers have been synthesized by the condensation of epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxy propane) with Schiff base metal complexes in alkaline medium. Schiff base was initially prepared by the reaction of 2,6 dihydroxy 1-napthaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine in 1  :  2 molar ratio and then with metal acetate. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental, spectral, and thermal analysis. The physicochemical properties, viz., epoxy value, hydroxyl content, and chlorine content [mol/100 g] were measured by standard procedures. The antimicrobial activities of these metal-containing epoxy polymers were carried out by using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods against S. aureus, B. subtilis (Gram-positive bacteria), and E. coli, P. aeruginosa (Gram-negative bacteria). It was found that the ECu(II) showed higher antibacterial activity than other metal-chelated epoxy resin while EMn(II) exhibited reduced antibacterial activity against all bacteria. PMID:20689716

  14. Epoxy nanocomposites based on high temperature pyridinium-modified clays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingxin; Naito, Kimiyoshi; Qi, Ben; Kagawa, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    Polymer/clay nanocomposites are generally fabricated by thermal curing or melt compounding at elevated temperatures, however the thermal stability of common alkyl ammonium treated clays is poor and decomposition occurs inevitably during high temperature processing. In this study, we modified clays with an aromatic pyridinium salt. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the onset degradation temperature (Td(onset)) and maximum decomposition temperature (Td(max)) of the pyridinium treatment clays was up to 310 and 457 degrees C respectively implying high thermal stability. The thermal decomposition behaviour of the pyridinium modified clays was discussed. A series of epoxy/clay nanocomposites were synthesized using a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy and diethyltoluene diamine (DETDA). The morphology of epoxy/clay nanocomposites was characterized with wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), and intercalated structures were observed. The storage modulus of epoxy was increased but glass transition temperature was decreased with clay incorporation. The effects of clays on glass transition temperature (Tg) of epoxy were also discussed. PMID:19441298

  15. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  16. Multifunctional epoxy composites with natural Moroccan clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsif, M.; Zerouale, A.; Kandri, N. Idrissi; Allali, F.; Sgarbossa, P.; Bartolozzi, A.; Tamburini, S.; Bertani, R.

    2016-05-01

    Two natural Moroccan clays, here firstly completely characterized, have been used as fillers without modification in epoxy composites. Mechanical properties resulted to be improved and a significant antibacterial activity is exhibited by the epoxy composite containing the C2 clay.

  17. Measuring the Electrical Properties of Epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergent, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two techniques rapidly determine low-frequency resistivity of conductive epoxies and high-frequency dielectric properties of insulating epoxies. Conductive epoxy is molded in channels in plastic block. Four-point ohmmeter is used to apply current and sense voltage; it reads out resistance. Because mold has precise and stable dimensions, it produces accurate consistent measurements.

  18. Epoxy Grout With Silica Thickener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Grout cures quickly, even in presence of hydraulic oil. Grout is mixture of aggregate particles, finely-divided silica, epoxy resin, and triethylenetetramine curing agent, with mixture containing about 85 percent silica and aggregate particle sand 15 percent resin and curing agent. Silica is thickening agent and keeps grout from sagging.

  19. Chromatographic assessment of two hybrid monoliths prepared via epoxy-amine ring-opening polymerization and methacrylate-based free radical polymerization using methacrylate epoxy cyclosiloxane as functional monomer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwei; Ou, Junjie; Lin, Hui; Liu, Zhongshan; Huang, Guang; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-11-01

    Two kinds of hybrid monolithic columns were prepared by using methacrylate epoxy cyclosiloxane (epoxy-MA) as functional monomer, containing three epoxy moieties and one methacrylate group. One column was in situ fabricated by ring-opening polymerization of epoxy-MA and 1,10-diaminodecane (DAD) using a porogenic system consisting of isopropanol (IPA), H2O and ethanol at 65°C for 12h. The other was prepared by free radical polymerization of epoxy-MA and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) using 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol as the porogenic solvents at 60°C for 12h. Two hybrid monoliths were investigated on the morphology and chromatographic assessment. Although two kinds of monolithic columns were prepared with epoxy-MA, their morphologies looked rather different. It could be found that the epoxy-MA-DAD monolith possessed higher column efficiencies (25,000-34,000plates/m) for the separation of alkylbenzenes than the epoxy-MA-EDMA monolith (12,000-13,000plates/m) in reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). Depending on the remaining epoxy or methacrylate groups on the surface of two pristine monoliths, the epoxy-MA-EDMA monolith could be easily modified with 1-octadecylamine (ODA) via ring-opening reaction, while the epoxy-MA-DAD monolith could be modified with stearyl methacrylate (SMA) via free radical reaction. The chromatographic performance for the separation of alkylbenzenes on SMA-modified epoxy-MA-DAD monolith was remarkably improved (42,000-54,000 plates/m) when compared with that on pristine epoxy-MA-DAD monolith, while it was not obviously enhanced on ODA-modified epoxy-MA-EDMA monolith when compared with that on pristine epoxy-MA-EDMA monolith. The enhancement of the column efficiency of epoxy-MA-DAD monolith after modification might be ascribed to the decreased mass-transfer resistence. The two kinds of hybrid monoliths were also applied for separations of six phenols and seven basic compounds in nano-LC. PMID:25311483

  20. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. Results The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Conclusions Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. PMID:26892792

  1. Preparation and cured properties of novel cycloaliphatic epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect

    Tokizawa, Makoto; Okada, Hiroyoshi; Wakabayashi, Nobukatsu; Kimura, Tomiaki . Research Center)

    1993-10-20

    Preparation and characterization of novel cycloaliphatic epoxy resins, which are derived from octadienyl compounds, were studied. From a model peracetic acid epoxidation reaction using 2,7-octadienyl acetate-1, the structure of the liquid resins is estimated to be mainly terminal epoxides and some amount of inner epoxide depending on the epoxide content. The epoxy resins offer lower toxicity and lower vapor pressure. The reactivity of the resin with acid anhydrides is moderate but faster than that of traditional cyclohexane epoxide-type resins and slower than that of the glycidyl ester-type resins. This reactivity was also examined using model compounds. The heat deflection temperature of the hexahydro-phthalic anhydride-cured resins is shown to be directly proportional to the number of epoxy groups in the molecules. The flexural strength of the cured resins is nearly equivalent to that of the commercial resins, although the flexural elongation of the resins is larger than that of the rigid cyclohexane epoxide-type resins. The thermal stability of the cured resins is compared to typical rigid cycloaliphatic resins; furthermore, high water resistance of the cured resins is suggested to be attributed to the hydrophobic character of the C[sub 8] chain by cross-linking.

  2. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear

  3. Evaluation of experimental epoxy monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; St.clair, T. L.; Pratt, J. R.; Ficklin, R.

    1985-01-01

    Future generation aircraft need higher performance polymer matrices to fully achieve the weight savings possible with composite materials. New resins are being formulated in an effort to understand basic polymer behavior and to develop improved resins. Some polymer/curing agent combinations that could be useful are difficult to process. In the area of epoxies, a major problem is that some components have physical properties which make them difficult to utilize as matrix resins. A previous study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy can be advantageous in the mixing of curing agents into a standard epoxy resin, such as MY 720 (Ciba-Geigy designation). This work is expanded to include three novel epoxides.

  4. Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  5. Epoxy resins in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Spee, Ton; Van Duivenbooden, Cor; Terwoert, Jeroen

    2006-09-01

    Epoxy resins are used as coatings, adhesives, and in wood and concrete repair. However, epoxy resins can be highly irritating to the skin and are strong sensitizers. Some hardeners are carcinogenic. Based on the results of earlier Dutch studies, an international project on "best practices,"--Epoxy Code--with epoxy products was started. Partners were from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. The "Code" deals with substitution, safe working procedures, safer tools, and skin protection. The feasibility of an internationally agreed "ranking system" for the health risks of epoxy products was studied. Such a ranking system should inform the user of the harmfulness of different epoxies and stimulate research on less harmful products by product developers. PMID:17119222

  6. High char imide-modified epoxy matrix resins. [for graphite-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The synthesis of a class of bis(imide-amine) curing agents for epoxy matrix resins is discussed. Glass transition temperatures and char yield data of an epoxy cured with various bis(imide-amines) are presented. The room temperature and 350 F mechanical properties, and char yields of unidirectional graphite fiber laminates prepared with conventional epoxy and imide-modified epoxy resins are presented.

  7. Nonmetallic materials handbook. Volume 1: Epoxy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podlaseck, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    Thermochemical and other properties data is presented for the following types of epoxy materials: adhesives, coatings finishes, inks, electrical insulation, encapsulants, sealants, composite laminates, tapes, and thermal insulators.

  8. Lightweight Forms for Epoxy/Aramid Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mix, E. W.; Anderson, A. N.; Bedford, Donald L., Sr.

    1986-01-01

    Aluminum mandrels easy to remove. Lightweight aluminum mandrel for shaping epoxy/aramid ducts simplifies and speeds production. In new process, glass-reinforced epoxy/aramid cloth wrapped on aluminum mandrel. Stainless-steel flanges and other hardware fitted on duct and held by simple tooling. Entire assembly placed in oven to cure epoxy. After curing, assembly placed in alkaline bath dissolves aluminum mandrel in about 4 hours. Epoxy/aramid shell ready for use as duct. Aluminum mandrel used to make ducts of various inside diameters up to 6 in. Standard aluminum forms used. Conventional tube-bending equipment produces requisite curves in mandrels.

  9. The quantification and characterization of endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A leaching from epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Bae, B; Jeong, J H; Lee, S J

    2002-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a known endocrine disruptor, is a main building block of epoxy resin which has been widely used as a surface coating agent on residential water storage tanks. Therefore, BPA leaching from the epoxy resin can adversely affect human health. In this study, BPA leaching from three epoxy resins were quantified at 20, 50, 75 and 100 degrees C both in deionized water and the specified test water, respectively. BPA leached to the test water was identified using GC-MS and quantified with GC-FID after a sequential extraction and concentration. The results showed that BPA leaching has occurred in all three samples tested. The quantity of BPA from unit area of epoxy resin coating was in the range of 01.68-273. 12 microg/m2 for sample A, 29.74-1734.05 microg/m2 for sample B and 52.86-548.78 microg/m2 for sample C depending on the test temperature, respectively. In general, the amount of BPA leashing increased as the water temperature increases. This result implies a higher risk of BPA leaching to drinking water during a summer season. In addition, microbial growth, measured by colony forming units, in epoxy coated water tanks was higher than that in a stainless steel tank. The results suggest that compounds leaching from epoxy resin may support the growth of microorganisms in a residential water holding tank. PMID:12523782

  10. Synthesis of cuprous oxide epoxy nanocomposite as an environmentally antimicrobial coating.

    PubMed

    M El Saeed, Ashraf; Abd El-Fattah, M; Azzam, Ahmed M; Dardir, M M; Bader, Magd M

    2016-08-01

    Cuprous oxide is commonly used as a pigment; paint manufacturers begin to employ cuprous oxide as booster biocides in their formulations, to replace the banned organotins as the principal antifouling compounds. Epoxy coating was reinforced with cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu2O NPs). The antibacterial as well as antifungal activity of Cu2O epoxy nanocomposite (Cu2O EN) coating films was investigated. Cu2O NPs were also experimented for antibiofilm and time-kill assay. The thermal stability and the mechanical properties of Cu2O EN coating films were also investigated. The antimicrobial activity results showed slowdown, the growth of organisms on the Cu2O EN coating surface. TGA results showed that incorporating Cu2O NPs into epoxy coating considerably enhanced the thermal stability and increased the char residue. The addition of Cu2O NPs at lower concentration into epoxy coating also led to an improvement in the mechanical resistance such as scratch and abrasion. Cu2O NPs purity was confirmed by XRD. The TEM photograph demonstrated that the synthesized Cu2O NPs were of cubic shape and the average diameter of the crystals was around 25nm. The resulting perfect dispersion of Cu2O NPs in epoxy coating revealed by SEM ensured white particles embedded in the epoxy matrix. PMID:27103492

  11. EPOXI at Comet Hartley 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    A'Hearn, Michael F.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Delamere, W. Alan; Feaga, Lori M.; Hampton, Donald; Kissel, Jochen; Klaasen, Kenneth P.; McFadden, Jessica M.; Meech, Karen J.; Melosh, H. Jay; Schultz, Peter H.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Thomas, Peter C.; Veverka, Joseph; Wellnitz, Dennis D.; Yeomans, Donald K.; Besse, Sebastien; Bodewits, Dennis; Bowling, Timothy J.; Carcish, Brian T.; Collins, Steven M.; Farnham, Tony F.; Groussin, Oliver; Hermalyn, Brendan; Kelley, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how comets work, i,e., what drives their activity, is crucial to using comets to study the early solar system. EPOXI flew past comet 103P/Hartley 2, one with an unusually small but very active nucleus. taking both images and spectra. Unlike large, relatively inactive nuclei, this nncleus is outgassing primarily due to CO2, which drags chnnks of ice out of the nnclens. It also shows significant differences in the relative abundance of volatiles from various parts of the nucleus.

  12. Water transport into epoxy resins and composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    The processing-property relationships were established for the epoxy system of tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDDM) cured with diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS). The TGDDM-DDS epoxy system was selected for analysis as the ensuing polymer matrix is most common in high-performance fiber-reinforced epoxy composites. Experiments on water transport in epoxy resins with varying compositions were performed and a relaxation-coupled transport behavior was observed in these epoxy resins. By post-curing vitrified epoxy resins, the additional free volume usually measured in them was removed and maximum water uptake was reduced. Since epoxy resins were in a quasi-equilibrium glassy state after the post-cure, Fick's law with a constant diffusion coefficient could adequately describe the water sorption behavior. A network formation model based on the branching theory was developed, taking into account the difference in reactivities of primary and secondary amines and the etherification reaction. Using this network formation model, water uptake in post-cured epoxy resins was found to be proportional to tertiary amine concentration.

  13. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    DOEpatents

    East, Anthony; Jaffe, Michael; Zhang, Yi; Catalani, Luiz H

    2009-11-17

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  14. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

  15. Synthesis & Biological, Physical, & Adhesive Properties of Epoxy Sucroses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raw sugar was converted in two steps to epoxy allyl sucroses (EAS), epoxy crotyl sucroses (ECS), and epoxy methallyl sucroses (EMS) respectively, in 82, 91, and 91.5 % overall yields. EAS, ECS, and EMS are regio and diastereo isomeric epoxy monomers that are liquids at room temperature. The averag...

  16. Mechanical behaviors of hyberbranched epoxy toughened bisphenol F epoxy resin for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingwen; Wu, Zhixiong; Huang, Chuanjun; Huang, Rongjin; Li, Laifeng

    2014-01-01

    Epoxy resins have been widely employed in cryogenic engineering fields. In this work, bisphenol F epoxy resin was modified by an aromatic polyester hyperbranched epoxy resin (HTDE-2). Mechanical behaviors of the modified epoxy resins in terms of tensile properties and impact property were studied at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Moreover, the toughening mechanism was discussed by fracture surface morphology analysis. The results demonstrated that, the mechanical properties of composites initially increased until reaches the maximum value with increasing the mass content of the HTDE-2, and then decreased at both room temperature (RT) and 77K. Especially, the impact strength at 77 K was improved 40.7% compared with the pure epoxy matrix when 10 wt% HTDE-2 was introduced. The findings suggest that the HTDE-2 will be an effective toughener for the brittle bisphenol F epoxy resin for cryogenic applications.

  17. Drinking water contaminants from epoxy resin-coated pipes: A field study.

    PubMed

    Rajasärkkä, Johanna; Pernica, Marek; Kuta, Jan; Lašňák, Jonáš; Šimek, Zdenĕk; Bláha, Luděk

    2016-10-15

    Rehabilitation of aged drinking water pipes is an extensive renovation and increasingly topical in many European cities. Spray-on-lining of drinking water pipes is an alternative cost-effective rehabilitation technology in which the insides of pipes are relined with organic polymer. A commonly used polymer is epoxy resin consisting of monomer bisphenol A (BPA). Leaching of BPA from epoxy lining to drinking water has been a concern among public and authorities. Currently epoxy lining is not recommended in some countries. BPA leaching has been demonstrated in laboratory studies but the behavior and ageing process of epoxy lining in situ is not well known. In this study 6 locations with different age epoxy linings of drinking water pipes done using two distinct technologies were studied. While bisphenol F, 4-n-nonylphenol, and 4-t-octylphenol were rarely found and in trace concentrations, BPA was detected in majority of samples. Pipes lined with the older technology (LSE) leached more BPA than those with more recent technology (DonPro): maxima in cold water were 0.25 μg/L and 10 ng/L, respectively. Incubation of water in pipes 8-10 h prior to sampling increased BPA concentration in cold water 1.1-43-fold. Hot water temperature caused even more BPA leaching - at maximum 23.5 μg/L. The influence of ageing of epoxy lining on BPA leaching on could be shown in case of LSE technology: locations with 8-9 years old lining leached 4-20-fold more BPA compared to a location with 2-year-old lining. Analysis of metals showed that epoxy lining can reduce especially iron concentration in water. No significant burden to water could be shown by the analyzed 72 volatile organic compounds, including epichlorhydrin, precursor used in epoxy resin. Estrogenicity was detected in water samples with the highest BPA loads. Comparable responses of two yeast bioreporters (estrogen receptor α and BPA-targeted) indicated that bisphenol-like compounds were the main cause of estrogenicity

  18. Epoxy Foam Encapsulants: Processing and Dielectric Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Domeier; Marion Hunter

    1999-01-01

    The dielectric performance of epoxy foams was investigated to determine if such materials might provide advantages over more standard polyurethane foams in the encapsulation of electronic assemblies. Comparisons of the dielectric characteristics of epoxy and urethane encapsulant foams found no significant differences between the two resin types and no significant difference between as-molded and machined foams. This study specifically evaluated the formulation and processing of epoxy foams using simple methylhydrosiloxanes as the flowing agent and compared the dielectric performance of those to urethane foams of similar density.

  19. Breakdown properties of epoxy nanodielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Cantoni, Claudia; More, Karren Leslie; James, David Randy; Polyzos, Georgios; Sauers, Isidor; Ellis, Alvin R

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in polymeric dielectric nanocomposites have shown that these novel materials can improve design of high voltage (hv) components and systems. Some of the improvements can be listed as reduction in size (compact hv systems), better reliability, high energy density, voltage endurance, and multifunctionality. Nanodielectric systems demonstrated specific improvements that have been published in the literature by different groups working with electrical insulation materials. In this paper we focus on the influence of in-situ synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles on the dielectric breakdown characteristics of an epoxy-based nanocomposite system. The in-situ synthesis of the particles creates small nanoparticles on the order of 10 nm with narrow size distribution and uniform particle dispersion in the matrix. The breakdown strength of the nanocomposite was studied as a function of TiO{sub 2} concentration at cryogenic temperatures. It was observed that between 2 and 6wt% yields high breakdown values for the nanodielectric.

  20. Effect of interfacial chemical bonding and surface topography on adhesion in carbon fiber/epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Drzal, L.T.; Sugiura, N.; Hook, D. |

    1994-12-31

    A series of PAN-based IM6 carbon fibers having varying amounts of surface treatment were, pretreated with compounds representing the constituents encountered in epoxy composites to pre-react any groups on the fiber surface before composite fabrication in order to determine the effect of chemical bonding on fiber-matrix adhesion. Chemical bonding was quantified using XPS. Chemical bonding between reactive groups in amine cured epoxy matrices and the surface groups present on IN46 carbon fibers as a result of commercial surface treatments has been detected although the absolute amount of chemical bonding is low (1-3%). It was found that reaction with monofunctional epoxy groups having hydrocarbon functionalities blocked the surface from further reaction and reduced the adhesion that could be attained to its lowest value. Prereaction with difunctional amines had little effect on adhesion when compared to normal composite fabrication procedures. Prereaction with difunctional epoxy groups did enhance adhesion levels over the level attained in normal composite fabrication methods. These results showed that chemical bonding between epoxy and the carbon fiber surface could increases the adhesion between fiber and matrix about 25% while between the amino group and the carbon fiber surface about 15%. Quantitative measurements of the fiber surface microtopography were made with scanning tunneling microscopy. An increase in roughness was detected with increasing surface treatment. It was concluded that surface roughness also accounted for a significant increase in fiber-matrix adhesion.

  1. Physical aging in graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, E. S. W.

    1983-01-01

    Sub-Tg annealing has been found to affect the properties of graphite/epoxy composites. The network epoxy studied was based on the chemistry of tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl methane (TGDDM) crosslinked by 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl sulfone (DDS). Differential scanning calorimetry, thermal mechanical analysis, and solid-state cross-polarized magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been utilized in order to characterize this process of recovery towards thermodynamic equilibrium. The volume and enthalpy recovery as well as the 'thermoreversibility' aspects of the physical aging are discussed. This nonequilibrium and time-dependent behavior of network epoxies are considered in view of the increasingly wide applications of TGDDM-DDS epoxies as matrix materials of structural composites in the aerospace industry.

  2. Investigation of paramagnetic response of metallic epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.; Chegini, H.

    1986-01-01

    The paramagnetic properties of epoxies which were impregnated with metal ions were examined as the primary task in this research. A major conclusion was that the quality control of the epoxies was insufficient to permit reliable evaluation. Subsequently, a new set of specimens is being prepared. As an additional task, a new method is investigated for estimating heats of combustion for saturated hydrocarbons. The results of that investigation have shown that the empirical approach is a promising method for on-line measurements.

  3. Impregnating magnetic components with MDA free epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.O.; Domeier, L.; Gunewardena, S.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes the use of {open_quotes}Formula 456{close_quotes} an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA.

  4. Electrical properties of epoxies and film resistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergent, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The reliability of hybrid microcircuits has been enhanced in recent years by the use of organic adhesives as a replacement for solder and eutectics. The epoxies have been the most effective and widely used material for this application. Methods for measuring the electrical and mechanical properties of epoxies are developed. Data are given for selected conductive adhesives at high and low frequencies. The temperature coefficients of resistance of thick film resistors are presented.

  5. The modifications of epoxy resin and their crystalline polymer particle filled epoxies

    SciTech Connect

    Huei-Hsiung Wang

    1996-12-31

    The chemical linking of the modifier to the epoxy network was overcome by using Bisphenol A, 4,4`-diaminodiphenyl sulphone or benzophenone-tetracarboxylic dianhydride as a coupling agent between the PU and the epoxy oligomer. From the experimental results, it was shown that the values of fracture energy, G{sub IC} for PU-modified epoxy were dependent on the macroglycols and the coupling agents. Scanning electron microscopy and the glass transition temperature were used to assess the morphology and their compatibility of these modified epoxies. It revealed that the ether type (PTMG) of PU modified epoxy showed the present of an aggregated separated phase. However, the ester type (PBA) PU-modified epoxy resin showed a homogenous morphology. In addition, the {Beta}-relaxation of cured epoxy resin showed a more clear two-phase separation existed in Bis-A as a coupling agents. The additive of the semi-crystalline PBT powder was more efficient in fracture energies of epoxy network than that of the Nylon 6,6 powder.

  6. New epoxy/episulfide resin system for electronic and coating applications: Curing mechanisms and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchida, Katsuyuki

    This work involves research on a new resin system useful for printed circuit board and protective coating applications. The system provides excellent adhesion to copper and corrosion resistance for copper. The research involved detailed studies of the reaction mechanisms, and correlation of these mechanisms with the observed properties. The epoxy/episulfide system, when used with a dicyandiamide (DICY) curing agent, exhibits better adhesion to copper substrate, a better pot life and prepreg storage life, a lower thermal expansion coefficient, a lower heat of reaction, a lower degradation temperature, and higher water absorption as compared with the standard epoxy system. From model compound studies, the sulfur of the opened episulfide ring reacts with copper, resulting in a durable bond between the copper and matrix resin even after water boiling. Since the S- formed by the reaction of the episulfide with the curing agent easily reacts with both the episulfide and the epoxy, a C-S-C bond is formed and more unreacted curing agent remains as compared to the standard epoxy system. The new bond formation causes a lower thermal expansion coefficient and somewhat lower degradation temperature. The unreacted curing agent causes slightly higher water absorption. Since the episulfide ring has less stress than the epoxy ring the epoxy/episulfide system shows lower heat of reaction, i.e., a lower exotherm. and lower shrinkage. The epoxy/episuffide system, when used with a polyamide curing agent, exhibits better corrosion protection for copper substrates, a lower thermal expansion coefficient and a lower degradation temperature. From model compound studies, the curing reactions are changed by changing curing temperature and the presence of copper: the episulfide homopolymerization and the S--epoxy reactions increase in the case of room temperature curing or in the presence of copper. In the presence of copper, the sulfur of the episulfide also reacts with copper, although the

  7. Physical aging and its influence on the reliability of network epoxies and epoxy-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K.

    1983-01-01

    The matrix-dominated physical and mechanical properties of a carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite and a neat epoxy resin were found to be affected by sub-Tg annealing in nitrogen and dark atmosphere. Postcured specimens of Thornel 300 carbon-fiber/Fiberite 934 epoxy as well as Fiberite 934 epoxy resin were quenched from above Tg and given annealing at 140 C, 110 C, or 80 C, for time up to one-hundred thousand minutes. No weight loss was observed during annealing at these temperatures. Significant variations were found in density, modulus, hardness, damping, moisture absorption ability, thermal expansivity. Moisture-epoxy interactious were also studied. The kinetics of aging as well as the molecular aggregation during this densification process were monitored by differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, density gradient column, microhardness tester, Instron, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  8. Effects of Aging Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Sn-58Bi Epoxy Solder on ENEPIG-Surface-Finished PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Myung, Woo-Ram; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical properties of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder were evaluated by low-speed shear testing as functions of aging time and temperature. To determine the effects of epoxy, the interfacial reaction and mechanical properties of both Sn-58Bi and Sn-58Bi epoxy solder were investigated after aging treatment. The chemical composition and growth kinetics of the intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the interface between Sn-58Bi solder and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG) surface finish were analyzed. Sn-58Bi solder paste was applied by stencil-printing on flame retardant-4 substrate, then reflowed. Reflowed samples were aged at 85°C, 95°C, 105°C, and 115°C for up to 1000 h. (Ni,Pd)3Sn4 IMC formed between Sn-58Bi solder and ENEPIG surface finish after reflow. Ni3Sn4 and Ni3P IMCs formed at the interface between (Ni,Pd)3Sn4 IMC and ENEPIG surface finish after aging at 115°C for 300 h. The overall IMC growth rate of Sn-58Bi solder joint was higher than that of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder joint during aging. The shear strength of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder was about 2.4 times higher than that of Sn-58Bi solder due to the blocking effect of epoxy, and the shear strength decreased with increasing aging time.

  9. Electrical properties of epoxies used in hybrid microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    The electrical properties and basic characteristics of the structure of conductive epoxies were studied. The results of the experimental work performed to measure the electrical properties of epoxies are presented.

  10. RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E

    2008-05-30

    Carbon fiber-reinforced bisphenol-A epoxy matrix composite was evaluated for gamma radiation resistance. The composite was exposed to total gamma doses of 50, 100, and 200 Mrad. Irradiated and baseline samples were tested for tensile strength, hardness and evaluated using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) for structural changes. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate microstructural behavior. Mechanical testing of the composite bars revealed no apparent change in modulus, strain to failure, or fracture strength after exposures. However, testing of only the epoxy matrix revealed changes in hardness, thermal properties, and FTIR results with increasing gamma irradiation. The results suggest the epoxy within the composite can be affected by exposure to gamma irradiation.

  11. Free-volume characteristics of epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Shultz, William J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1992-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to measure free-volume characteristics of selected epoxies. Fluorene resins, a new family of high-temperature thermosetting resins, were selected as the test medium. Experimental results indicate that the free-volume cell size V sub f varies with the molecular weight between the cross-links M sub c according to an equation of the form V sub f = AM sub c sup B, where A and B are structural constants. In two of the samples, the concentration of bulky fluorene groups was increased in the network backbone by replacement of some of the conventional bisphenol A epoxy resin with fluorene-derived epoxy resin. This resulted in an increase in their glass transition temperature for a given level of cross-linking. It was found that in these samples, the Doppler broadening of the annihilation peak decreases with the increasing fluorene content, presumably due to enhanced damping of the chain motions.

  12. Microwave assisted pultrusion of an epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Methven, J.M.; Abidin, A.Z.

    1995-12-01

    A 6mm diameter cylindrical profile based on E-glass fibers and a BF{sub 3}-triamine-epoxy resin system has been manufactured by Microwave Assisted Pultrusion (MAP) using a single mode resonant microwave cavity operating in a TM{sub 010} mode at 2450 MHz. Power transfer is at least 70% and pulling speeds of more than 2m/minute have been achieved for a power input of about 800W. The results are consistent with earlier MAP studies using unsaturated polyesters, epoxies urethane acrylates and vinyl esters. The results provide a sound basis for proposing the use of this type of epoxy system as a material that is suitable for a high speed gel-cure pultrusion process that uses both a microwave heating cavity and a conventional pultrusion die.

  13. Physical aging in graphite epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, E. S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The matrix dominated mechanical behavior of a graphite epoxy composite was found to be affected by sub Tg annealing. Postcured + or - 45 deg 4S specimens of Thornel 300 graphite/Narmco 5208 epoxy were quenched from above Tg and given a sub Tg annealing at 140 C for times up to 10 to the 5th power min. The ultimate tensile strength, strain to break, and toughness of the composite material were found to decrease as functions of sub Tg annealing time. No weight loss was observed during the sub Tg annealing. The time dependent change in mechanical behavior is explained on the basis of free volume changes that are related to the physical aging of the nonequilibrium glassy network epoxy. The results imply possible changes in composite properties with service time.

  14. Free-volume characteristics of epoxies

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.J.; Eftekhari, A.; Shultz, W.J.; St.Clair, T.L.

    1992-09-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to measure free-volume characteristics of selected epoxies. Fluorene resins, a new family of high-temperature thermosetting resins, were selected as the test medium. Experimental results indicate that the free-volume cell size V sub f varies with the molecular weight between the cross-links M sub c according to an equation of the form V sub f = AM sub c sup B, where A and B are structural constants. In two of the samples, the concentration of bulky fluorene groups was increased in the network backbone by replacement of some of the conventional bisphenol A epoxy resin with fluorene-derived epoxy resin. This resulted in an increase in their glass transition temperature for a given level of cross-linking. It was found that in these samples, the Doppler broadening of the annihilation peak decreases with the increasing fluorene content, presumably due to enhanced damping of the chain motions.

  15. Biodegradable Epoxy Networks Cured with Polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Shigeo; Kramer, Edward J.

    2006-03-01

    Epoxy resins are used widely for adhesives as well as coatings. However, once cured they are usually highly cross-linked and are not biodegradable. To obtain potentially biodegradable polypeptides that can cure with epoxy resins and achieve as good properties as the conventional phenol novolac hardeners, poly(succinimide-co-tyrosine) was synthesized by thermal polycondensation of L-aspartic acid and L-tyrosine with phosphoric acid under reduced pressure. The tyrosine/succinimide ratio in the polypeptide was always lower than the tyrosine/(aspartic acid) feed ratio and was influenced by the synthesis conditions. Poly(succinimide-tyrosine- phenylalanine) was also synthesized from L-aspartic acid, L- tyrosine and L-phenylalanine. The thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy resins cured with these polypeptides are comparable to those of similar resins cured with conventional hardeners. In addition, enzymatic degradability tests showed that Chymotrypsin or Subtilisin A could cleave cured films in an alkaline borate buffer.

  16. Chromium Ions Improve Moisure Resistance of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Stoakley, D. M.; Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Broad spectrum of thermosetting epoxy resins used on commercial and military aircraft, primarily as composite matrices and adhesives. In new technique, chromium-ion containing epoxy with improved resistance to moisture produced where chromium ions believed to prevent absorption of water molecules by coordinating themselves to hydroxyl groups on epoxy chain. Anticipated that improved epoxy formulation useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft. Improvement made without sacrifice in mechanical properties of polymer.

  17. Thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visakh, P. M.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Amelkovich, Yu A.; Melnikova, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid fine powder at different percentage were studied. Epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, boric acid as flame-retardant filler, hexamethylenediamine as a curing agent. The prepared samples and starting materials were examined using methods of thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the incorporation of boric acid fine powder enhances the thermal stability of epoxy composites.

  18. Evaluation of epoxy systems for use in SBASI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coultas, T. J.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the test program was to evaluate the performance of different epoxy systems as replacements for existing epoxy systems in the SBASI. The three areas of investigation were the connector shell potting, the epoxy tape under the charge cup, and the epoxy impregnated fiberglass over the output charge. Factors considered, in addition to performance, were availability, shelf life, pot life, and effect on producibility and cost.

  19. Food contamination from epoxy resins and organosols used as can coatings: analysis by gradient NPLC.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, M; Grob, K

    1998-07-01

    Normal phase LC with gradient elution enabled the analysis of a broadened range of oligomers of BADGE (Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether) and Novolak compounds in canned foods, such as sea foods in oil, meat products and soups. A major component released from Bisphenol-A resins was identified as the cyclo-(Bisphenol-A monoglycidyl ether) dimer and was commonly present in foods at concentrations of around 1 mg/kg. For the epoxy Novolaks, concentrations of the three- to six-ring compounds often far exceeded those of BFDGE (Bisphenol-F diglycidyl ether) and reached 20 mg/kg in foods. A two-step acylation is proposed for the detection of epoxy components. PMID:9829047

  20. Effects of epoxy/hardener stoichiometry on structures and properties of a diethanolamine-cured epoxy encapsulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. F.; Xiao, M. Z.; Wu, Z.; Peng, K.; Han, C. M.; Xiang, W.; Dai, J. Y.

    2016-07-01

    For the epoxy encapsulant cured by diethanolamine, optimal epoxy/hardener stoichiometry could hardly be predicted due to the complex curing mechanisms. In this paper, the influences of stoichiometry were investigated by FTIR, DMA and tensile testing. The results showed that stoichiometry has a dominating effect on both Tg and tensile properties of the cured epoxy. The largest Tg , highest crosslink density as well as excellent ductility appeared in epoxy encapsulant cured with 14 wt% diethanolmine. When the content of diethanolamine was lower than 14 wt%, epoxy encapsulants showed smaller glycidyl conversion even with long-duration post-cure. Larger tensile strength and modulus were also observed in the glycidyl-rich epoxies, which could be explained by anti-plasticization effect. The amine-rich epoxy, however, had extremely high glycidyl conversion and presented brittle tensile behavior. A diethanolamine content of 12-14 wt% for the epoxy encapsulant is suggested to obtain optimal thermal and tensile properties.

  1. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  7. Kevlar 49/Epoxy COPV Aging Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.; Salem, Jonathan L.; Thesken, John C.; Russell, Richard W.; Littell, Justin; Ruggeri, Charles; Leifeste, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA initiated an effort to determine if the aging of Kevlar 49/Epoxy composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV) affected their performance. This study briefly reviews the history and certification of composite pressure vessels employed on NASA Orbiters. Tests to evaluate overwrap tensile strength changes compared 30 year old samples from Orbiter vessels to new Kevlar/Epoxy pressure vessel materials. Other tests include transverse compression and thermal analyses (glass transition and moduli). Results from these tests do not indicate a noticeable effect due to aging of the overwrap materials.

  8. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow; Lee, Elizabeth; Kallam, Alekhya; Majumdar, Partha; Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J.; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Bahr, James; Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  9. Electroactive polymer gels based on epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samui, A. B.; Jayakumar, S.; Jayalakshmi, C. G.; Pandey, K.; Sivaraman, P.

    2007-04-01

    Five types of epoxy gels have been synthesized from common epoxy resins and hardeners. Fumed silica and nanoclay, respectively, were used as fillers and butyl methacrylate/acrylamide were used as monomer(s) for making interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) in three compositions. Swelling study, tensile property evaluation, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and electroactive property evaluation were done. The gels have sufficient mechanical strength and the time taken for bending to 20° was found to be 22 min for forward bias whereas it was just 12 min for reverse bias.

  10. Interphase tailoring in graphite-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, R. V.; Sanadi, A. R.; Crasto, A. S.

    1988-01-01

    The fiber-matrix interphase in graphite fiber-epoxy matrix composites is presently modified through the electrodeposition of a coating of the polymer poly(styrene-comaleic anhydride), or 'SMA' on the graphite fibers; optimum conditions have been established for the achievement of the requisite thin, uniform coatings, as verified by SEM. A single-fiber composite test has shown the SMA coating to result in an interfacial shear strength to improve by 50 percent over commercially treated fibers without sacrifice in impact strength. It is suggested that the epoxy resin's superior penetration into the SMA interphase results in a tougher fiber/matrix interface which possesses intrinsic energy-absorbing mechanisms.

  11. Cure Kinetics of Epoxy Nanocomposites Affected by MWCNTs Functionalization: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Bakhshandeh, Ehsan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Mäder, Edith; Scheffler, Christina; Heinrich, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The current paper provides an overview to emphasize the role of functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in manipulating cure kinetics of epoxy nanocomposites, which itself determines ultimate properties of the resulting compound. In this regard, the most commonly used functionalization schemes, that is, carboxylation and amidation, are thoroughly surveyed to highlight the role of functionalized nanotubes in controlling the rate of autocatalytic and vitrification kinetics. The current literature elucidates that the mechanism of curing in epoxy/MWCNTs nanocomposites remains almost unaffected by the functionalization of carbon nanotubes. On the other hand, early stage facilitation of autocatalytic reactions in the presence of MWCNTs bearing amine groups has been addressed by several researchers. When carboxylated nanotubes were used to modify MWCNTs, the rate of such reactions diminished as a consequence of heterogeneous dispersion within the epoxy matrix. At later stages of curing, however, the prolonged vitrification was seen to be dominant. Thus, the type of functional groups covalently located on the surface of MWCNTs directly affects the degree of polymer-nanotube interaction followed by enhancement of curing reaction. Our survey demonstrated that most widespread efforts ever made to represent multifarious surface-treated MWCNTs have not been directed towards preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, but they could result in property synergism. PMID:24348181

  12. Expression Profiling Identifies Epoxy Anthraquinone Derivative as a DNA Topoisomerase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Gheeya, Jinesh; Johansson, Peter; Chen, Qing-Rong; Dexheimer, Thomas; Metaferia, Belhu; Song, Young K.; Wei, Jun S.; He, Jianbin; Pommier, Yves

    2014-01-01

    To discover novel drugs for neuroblastoma treatment, we have previously screened a panel of drugs and identified 30 active agents against neuroblastoma cells. Here we performed microarray gene expression analysis to monitor the impact of these agents on a neuroblastoma cell line and used the connectivity map (cMAP) to explore putative mechanism of action of unknown drugs. We first compared the expression profiles of ten compounds shared in both our dataset and cMAP database and observed the high connectivity scores for 7 of 10 matched drugs regardless of the differences of cell lines utilized. The screen of cMAP for uncharacterized drugs indicated the signature of Epoxy anthraquinone derivative (EAD) matched the profiles of multiple known DNA targeted agents (topoisomerase I/II inhibitors, DNA intercalators, and DNA alkylation agents) as predicted by its structure. Similar result was obtained by querying against our internal NB-cMAP (http://pob.abcc.ncifcrf.gov/cgi-bin/cMAP), a database containing the profiles of 30 active drugs. These results suggest that Epoxy anthraquinone derivative may inhibit neuroblastoma cells by targeting DNA replication inhibition. Experimental data also demonstrate that Epoxy anthraquinone derivative indeed induces DNA double-strand breaks through DNA alkylation and inhibition of topoisomerase activity. Our study indicates that Epoxy anthraquinone derivative may be a novel DNA topoisomerase inhibitor that can be potentially used for treatment of neuroblastoma or other cancer patients. PMID:20133050

  13. Characterization of Epoxy Functionalized Graphite Nanoparticles and the Physical Properties of Epoxy Matrix Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Bauer, Jonathan L.; Maryanski, Michael J.; Heimann, Paula J.; Barlow, Jeremy P.; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Allred, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a novel approach to the functionalization of graphite nanoparticles. The technique provides a mechanism for covalent bonding between the filler and matrix, with minimal disruption to the sp2 hybridization of the pristine graphene sheet. Functionalization proceeded by covalently bonding an epoxy monomer to the surface of expanded graphite, via a coupling agent, such that the epoxy concentration was measured as approximately 4 wt.%. The impact of dispersing this material into an epoxy resin was evaluated with respect to the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the graphite-epoxy nanocomposite. At a loading as low as 0.5 wt.%, the electrical conductivity was increased by five orders of magnitude relative to the base resin. The material yield strength was increased by 30% and Young s modulus by 50%. These results were realized without compromise to the resin toughness.

  14. Effect of Liquid-Crystalline Epoxy Backbone Structure on Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy-Alumina Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giang, Thanhkieu; Kim, Jinhwan

    2016-06-01

    In a series of papers published recently, we clearly demonstrated that the most important factor governing the thermal conductivity of epoxy-Al2O3 composites is the backbone structure of the epoxy. In this study, three more epoxies based on diglycidyl ester-terminated liquid-crystalline epoxy (LCE) have been synthesized to draw conclusions regarding the effect of the epoxy backbone structure on the thermal conductivity of epoxy-alumina composites. The synthesized structures were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and optical microscopy were also employed to examine the thermal and optical properties of the synthesized LCEs and the cured composites. All three LCE resins exhibited typical liquid-crystalline behaviors: clear solid crystalline state below the melting temperature (T m), sharp crystalline melting at T m, and transition to nematic phase above T m with consequent isotropic phase above the isotropic temperature (T i). The LCE resins displayed distinct nematic liquid-crystalline phase over a wide temperature range and retained liquid-crystalline phase after curing, with high thermal conductivity of the resulting composite. The thermal conductivity values ranged from 3.09 W/m-K to 3.89 W/m-K for LCE-Al2O3 composites with 50 vol.% filler loading. The steric effect played a governing role in the difference. The neat epoxy resin thermal conductivity was obtained as 0.35 W/m-K to 0.49 W/m-K based on analysis using the Agari-Uno model. The results clearly support the objective of this study in that the thermal conductivity of the LCE-containing networks strongly depended on the epoxy backbone structure and the degree of ordering in the cured network.

  15. Thermal modeling of an epoxy encapsulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, R.G.; Schutt, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The encapsulation of components is a widely used process at Sandia National Laboratories for packaging components to withstand structural loads. Epoxy encapsulants are also used for their outstanding dielectric strength characteristics. The production of high voltage assemblies requires the encapsulation of ceramic and electrical components (such as transformers). Separation of the encapsulant from internal contact surfaces or voids within the encapsulant itself in regions near the mold base have caused high voltage breakdown failures during production testing. In order to understand the failure mechanisms, a methodology was developed to predict both the thermal response and gel front progression of the epoxy the encapsulation process. A thermal model constructed with PATRAN Plus (1) and solved with the P/THERMAL (2) analysis system was used to predict the thermal response of the encapsulant. This paper discusses the incorporation of an Arrhenius kinetics model into Q/TRAN (2) to model the complex volumetric heat generation of the epoxy during the encapsulation process. As the epoxy begins to cure, it generates heat and shrinks. The total cure time of the encapsulant (transformation from a viscous liquid to solid) is dependent on both the initial temperature and the entire temperature history. Because the rate of cure is temperature dependent, the cure rate accelerates with a temperature increase and, likewise, the cure rate is quenched if the temperature is reduced. The temperature and conversion predictions compared well against experimental data. The thermal simulation results were used to modify the temperature cure process of the encapsulant and improve production yields.

  16. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  17. Development of Graphite/Epoxy Corner Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faile, G.; Hollis, R.; Ledbetter, F.; Maldonado, J.; Sledd, J.; Stuckey, J.; Waggoner, G.; Engler, E.

    1986-01-01

    Report documents development project aimed at improving design and load-carrying ability of complicated corner fitting for optical bench. New fitting made of graphite filaments in epoxy-resin matrix. Composite material selected as replacement for titanium because lighter and dimensions change little with temperature variations.

  18. Synthesis of a Novel Phosphorus-Containing Flame Retardant Curing Agent and Its Application in Epoxy Resins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongkun; Xu, Miaojun; Li, Bin

    2016-03-01

    A novel phosphorus-containing compound diphenyl-(2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phosphine oxide defined as DPDHPPO was synthesized and used as flame retardant and curing agent for epoxy resins (EP). The chemical structure was well characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H, 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. The flame retardant properties, combusting performances and thermal degradation behaviors of the cured epoxy resins were investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning tests (UL-94), cone calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests. The morphologies and chemical compositions of char residues for cured epoxy resins were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The water resistant properties were evaluated by putting the samples into distilled water at 70 degrees C for 168 h. The results revealed that the EP/40 wt% DPDHPPO/60 wt% PDA thermosets successfully passed UL-94 V-0 flammability rating and the LOI value was as high as 31.9%. The cone tests results revealed that the incorporation of DPDHPPO efficiently reduced the combustion parameters of epoxy resins thermosets, such as heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR) and so on. The TGA results indicated that the introduction of DPDHPPO promoted epoxy resins matrix decomposed ahead of time compared with that of pure EP and led to a higher char yield and thermal stability at high temperature. The morphological structures and analysis of XPS of char residues revealed that DPDHPPO benefited to the formation of a sufficient, compact and homogeneous char layer with rich flame retardant elements on the epoxy resins materials surface during combustion. After water resistance tests, EP/40 wt% DPDHPPO/60 wt% PDA thermosets still remained excellent flame retardancy, the moisture absorption of epoxy resins thermosets decreased with the increase of DPDHPPO contents in the thermosets due to the existing

  19. Quantitation of buried contamination by use of solvents. Part 1: Solvent degradation of amine cured epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheineck, A. E.; Heskin, R. A.; Hill, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    The solubility and/or swelling of cured epoxy resins was studied using the solubility parameter method. Determination of solubility parameters were found in order to select solvents for solvent-assisted degradation of cured epoxy polymers used in spacecraft. A method for improving recovery of seeded spores is suggested for assay of buried contaminants. Three commercial epoxy resins were cured using four different alkyl amines. For each resin-amine combination, three levels of amine were used, corresponding to 1/3, 2/3, and all of the amine required to react with the oxirane groups of the resin. The solubility parameters of the 36 resulting model compounds were determined in poorly and moderately hydrogen-bonded solvents. No strongly hydrogen-bonded solvents caused dissolution or swelling. The tolerance of cured resins is discussed in terms of polymer structure.

  20. Tensile properties of nanoclay reinforced epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, H.; Trada, Mohan

    2013-08-01

    Kinetic epoxy resin was filled with nanoclay to increase tensile properties of the composite for civil and structural. This project manufactured samples with different percentages by weight of nanoclay in the composites in steps of 1 wt %, which were then post-cured in an oven. The samples were then subjected to tensile tests. The results showed that the composite with 3 wt % of nanoclay produced the highest yield and tensile strengths. However, the Young's modulus increased with increasing nanoparticulate loading. It is hoped that the discussion and results in this work would not only contribute towards the further development of nanoclay reinforced epoxy composites with enhanced material properties, but also provide useful information for the studies of fracture toughness, tensile properties and flexural properties of other composites.

  1. Glass/Epoxy Door Panel for Automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, J. L. JR.

    1985-01-01

    Lightweight panel cost-effective. Integrally-molded intrusion strap key feature of composite outer door panel. Strap replaces bulky and heavy steel instrusion beam of conventional door. Standard steel inner panel used for demonstration purposes. Door redesigned to exploit advantages of composite outer panel thinner. Outer panel for automobilie door, made of glass/epoxy composite material, lighter than conventional steel door panel, meets same strength requirements, and less expensive.

  2. Safe epoxy encapsulant for high voltage magnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.O.; Archer, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Formula 456, an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils and high voltage transformers. Sandia has evaluated a number of MDA-free epoxy encapsulants which relied on either anhydride or other aromatic amine curing agents. The use of aliphatic amine curing agents was more recently evaluated and has resulted in the definition of Formula 456 resin. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy and much of industry. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA. OSHA has regulated MDA because it is a suspect carcinogen. Typically the elimination of OSHA-regulated materials provides a rare opportunity to qualify new formulations in a range of demanding applications. It was important to take full advantage of that opportunity, although the associated materials qualification effort was costly. Small high voltage transformers are one of those demanding applications. The successful implementation of the new formulation for high reliability transformers will be described. The test results that demonstrate the parts are qualified for use in DOE weapon systems will be presented.

  3. Morphology development of rubber-modified epoxy thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, O.; Ward, T.C.

    1996-12-31

    Epoxy thermosets have been widely used as high performance adhesives and matrix resins for composites due to their outstanding mechanical and thermal properties, such as high modulus and tensile strength, high glass transition temperature, high thermal stability, and moisture resistance. Incorporation of a secondary rubbery phase into the glassy epoxy matrix can improve impact and fracture toughness of epoxy thermosets without sacrificing the other desirable properties of the neat epoxy thermoset. During the curing process, the initial homogeneous solution of epoxy resin-curing agent-rubber generally forms rubber-rich and epoxy-rich phases by a phase separation process which is arrested by gelation or vitrification. The final morphology developed by the cure depends on relative rates of cure reaction and phase separation. Cure conditions and the initial rubber composition control the morphology of the system and thus control the mechanical properties of the system.

  4. Biobased Epoxy Nanocomposites Derived from Lignin-Based Monomers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shou; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-07-13

    Biobased epoxy nanocomposites were synthesized based on 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol (dihydroeugenol, DHE), a molecule that has been obtained from the lignin component of biomass. To increase the content of hydroxyl groups, DHE was o-demethylated using aqueous HBr to yield propylcatechol (DHEO), which was subsequently glycidylated to epoxy monomer. Optimal conditions in terms of yield and epoxy equivalent weight were found to be 60 °C with equal NaOH/phenolic hydroxyl molar ratio. The structural evolution from DHE to cured epoxy was followed by (1)H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nano-montmorillonite modified DHEO epoxy exhibited improved storage modulus and thermal stability as determined from dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. This study widens the synthesis routes of biobased epoxy thermosets from lignin-based molecules. PMID:26135389

  5. Interconnected porous epoxy monoliths prepared by concentrated emulsion templating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianli; Du, Zhongjie; Li, Hangquan; Xiang, Aimin; Zhang, Chen

    2009-10-01

    Porous epoxy monoliths were prepared via a step polymerization in a concentrated emulsion stabilized by non-ionic emulsifiers and colloidal silica. A solution in 4-methyl-2-pentanon was used as the continuous phase, which contained glycidyl amino epoxy monomer (GAE), curing agent, and an emulsifier. An aqueous suspension of colloidal silica was used as the dispersed phase of the concentrated emulsion. After the continuous phase was completely polymerized, the dispersed phase was removed and a porous epoxy was obtained. An optimal HLB value of emulsifier for the GAE concentrated emulsion was determined. In addition, the morphology of the porous epoxy was observed by SEM. The effect of the colloidal silica, the emulsifier, the curing of the epoxy, and the volume fraction of the dispersed phase on the morphology of porous epoxy are systematically discussed. PMID:19595357

  6. Epoxy thermoset networks derived from vegetable oils and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang; Ravalli, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Epoxidized vegetable oils (EVOs), such as epoxidized soybean oil and linseed oils were prepared by the partial oxidation of the unsaturated double bonds in vegetable oils and used as monomers for preparing epoxy thermoset materials based on the cationic polymerization. These EVOs have been used to prepare epoxy thermosets of different network densities by cationic polymerization using onium salt catalyst. The crosslinked epoxy thermosets provide an ideal platform to study the structure-property-relationships of networked polymers. In particular, rheological studies on the epoxidized vegetable oil thermosets have been performed to measure the molecular weights between crosslinks (Mx) in the epoxy thermosets and to ultimately elucidate the role of functionality of epoxy groups in EVO on the mechanical and thermophysical properties of the epoxy thermoset materials. NSF DMR POLYMERS 1308617.

  7. Rate dependent response and failure of a ductile epoxy and carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric N; Rae, Philip J; Dattelbaum, Dana M; Stahl, David B

    2010-01-01

    An extensive characterization suite has been performed on the response and failure of a ductile epoxy 55A and uniaxial carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite of IM7 fibers in 55A resin from the quasistatic to shock regime. The quasistatic and intermediate strain rate response, including elastic modulus, yield and failure have are characterized by quasistatic, SHPB, and DMA measurements as a function of fiber orientation and temperature. The high strain rate shock effect of fiber orientation in the composite and response of the pure resin are presented for plate impact experiments. It has previously been shown that at lower impact velocities the shock velocity is strongly dependent on fiber orientation but at higher impact velocity the in-plane and through thickness Hugoniots converge. The current results are compared with previous studies of the shock response of carbon fiber composites with more conventional brittle epoxy matrices. The spall response of the composite is measured and compared with quasistatic fracture toughness measurements.

  8. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  9. Toughened epoxy resin system and a method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.

    1998-01-01

    Mixtures of epoxy resins with cationic initiators are curable under high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam radiation, X-ray radiation, and gamma radiation. The composition of this process consists of an epoxy resin, a cationic initiator such as a diaryliodonium or triarylsulfonium salt of specific anions, and a toughening agent such as a thermoplastic, hydroxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, epoxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, reactive flexibilizer, rubber, elastomer, or mixture thereof. Cured compositions have high glass transition temperatures, good mechanical properties, and good toughness. These properties are comparable to those of similar thermally cured epoxies.

  10. Toughened epoxy resin system and a method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, C.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Havens, S.J.; Lopata, V.J.

    1998-03-10

    Mixtures of epoxy resins with cationic initiators are curable under high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam radiation, X-ray radiation, and gamma radiation. The composition of this process consists of an epoxy resin, a cationic initiator such as a diaryliodonium or triarylsulfonium salt of specific anions, and a toughening agent such as a thermoplastic, hydroxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, epoxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, reactive flexibilizer, rubber, elastomer, or mixture thereof. Cured compositions have high glass transition temperatures, good mechanical properties, and good toughness. These properties are comparable to those of similar thermally cured epoxies.

  11. Space environmental effects on graphite-epoxy compressive properties and epoxy tensile properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Derek J.; Sykes, George F., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    This study characterizes the effects of electron radiation and temperature on a graphite-epoxy composite material. Compressive properties of the T300/934 material system were obtained at -250 F (-157 C), room temperature, and 250 F (121 C). Tensile specimens of the Fiberite 934 epoxy resin were fabricated and tested at room temperature and 250 F (121 C). Testing was conducted in the baseline (nonirradiated) and irradiated conditions. The radiation exposure was designed to simulate 30 year, worst-case exposure in geosynchronous Earth orbit. Mechanical properties tended to degrade at elevated temperature and improve at cryogenic temperature. Irradiation generally degraded properties at all temperatures.

  12. Selective Clay Placement Within a Silicate-Clay Epoxy Blend Nanocomposite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A clay-epoxy nanocomposite may be prepared by dispersing a layered clay in an alkoxy epoxy, such as a polypropylene oxide based epoxide before combining the mixture with an aromatic epoxy to improve the nanocomposite's thermal and mechanical properties.

  13. Atomistic Modeling of Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Nanotube Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasanella, Nicholas A.; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2016-05-01

    The Green-Kubo method was used to investigate the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature for epoxy/single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) nanocomposites. An epoxy network of DGEBA-DDS was built using the `dendrimer' growth approach, and conductivity was computed by taking into account long-range Coulombic forces via a k-space approach. Thermal conductivity was calculated in the direction perpendicular to, and along the SWNT axis for functionalized and pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposites. Inefficient phonon transport at the ends of nanotubes is an important factor in the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites, and for this reason discontinuous nanotubes were modeled in addition to long nanotubes. The thermal conductivity of the long, pristine SWNT/epoxy system is equivalent to that of an isolated SWNT along its axis, but there was a 27% reduction perpendicular to the nanotube axis. The functionalized, long SWNT/epoxy system had a very large increase in thermal conductivity along the nanotube axis (~700%), as well as the directions perpendicular to the nanotube (64%). The discontinuous nanotubes displayed an increased thermal conductivity along the SWNT axis compared to neat epoxy (103-115% for the pristine SWNT/epoxy, and 91-103% for functionalized SWNT/epoxy system). The functionalized system also showed a 42% improvement perpendicular to the nanotube, while the pristine SWNT/epoxy system had no improvement over epoxy. The thermal conductivity tensor is averaged over all possible orientations to see the effects of randomly orientated nanotubes, and allow for experimental comparison. Excellent agreement is seen for the discontinuous, pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite. These simulations demonstrate there exists a threshold of the SWNT length where the best improvement for a composite system with randomly oriented nanotubes would transition from pristine SWNTs to functionalized SWNTs.

  14. [Microbial settlement of paint- and building-materials in the sphere of drinking water. 7. Communication: long time observations in two drinking water reservoirs coated by epoxy resin (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schoenen, D; Dott, W; Thofern, E

    1981-01-01

    In two potable water reservoirs with an epoxy resin lining an increase of the colony count in the water and a visible microbial growth on the surface could be observed. The slime consists of bacteria and fungi. In one case higher organisms like protozoa were found too. The growth of microorganisms is caused by organic compounds of the epoxy resin which can be deteriorated by microorganisms. After a period of 3 years both materials still promote microbial growth on the surface. PMID:6792815

  15. The fabrication, testing and delivery of boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy nondestructive test standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.; Lewis, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    A description is given of the boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy nondestructive test standards which were fabricated, tested and delivered to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Detailed design drawings of the standards are included to show the general structures and the types and location of simulated defects built into the panels. The panels were laminates with plies laid up in the 0 deg, + or - 45 deg, and 90 deg orientations and containing either titanium substrates or interlayered titanium perforated shims. Panel thickness was incrementally stepped from 2.36 mm (0.093 in.) to 12.7 mm (0.500 in.) for the graphite/epoxy standards, and from 2.36 mm (0.093 in.) to 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) for the boron/epoxy standards except for the panels with interlayered shims which were 2.9 mm (0.113 in.) maximum thickness. The panel internal conditions included defect free regions, resin variations, density/porosity variations, cure variations, delaminations/disbonds at substrate bondlines and between layers, inclusions, and interlayered shims. Ultrasonic pulse echo C-scan and low-kilovoltage X-ray techniques were used to evaluate and verify the internal conditions of the panels.

  16. Thermal Expansion and Swelling of Cured Epoxy Resin Used in Graphite/Epoxy Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal expansion and swelling of resin material as influenced by variations in temperature during moisture absorption is discussed. Comparison measurements using composites constructed of graphite fibers and each of two epoxy resin matrices are included. Polymer theory relative to these findings is discussed and modifications are proposed.

  17. Organo-modified bentonites as new flame retardant fillers in epoxy resin nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benelli, Tiziana; D'Angelo, Emanuele; Mazzocchetti, Laura; Saraga, Federico; Sambri, Letizia; Franchini, Mauro Comes; Giorgini, Loris

    2016-05-01

    The present work deals with two organophilic bentonites, based on nitrogen-containing compounds: these organoclays were synthesized via an ion exchange process starting from pristine bentonite with 6-(4-butylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (BFTDA) and 11-amino-N-(pyridine-2yl)undecanamide (APUA) and then used for the production of epoxy-based flame retardant nanocomposites. The amount of organic modifier in the organoclays Bento-BFTDA and Bento-APUA was determined with a TGA analysis and is around 0.4mmol/g for both samples. The effect of the organoclays on a commercial epoxy resin nanocomposite's thermo-mechanical and flammability properties was investigated. Composites containing 3wt% and 5wt% of the nanofillers were prepared by solventless addition of each organoclay to the epoxy resin, followed by further addition of the hardener component. For the sake of comparison a similar nanocomposite with the plain unmodified bentonite was produced in similar condition. The nanocomposites's thermo-mechanical properties of all the produced samples were measured and they resulted slightly improved or practically unaffected. On the contrary, when the flame behaviour was assessed in the cone-calorimeter, an encouraging decrease of 17% in the peak heat released rate (pHRR) was obtained at 3wt% loading level with Bento-APUA. This is a promising result, assessing that the APUA modified organoclay might act as flame retardant.

  18. Large fracture toughness boron-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, A. G.

    1975-01-01

    The high tensile strengths of strong interfacial bonding may be combined with the large fracture toughness of weak interfacial bonding in brittle fiber/brittle matrix composites by intermittently coating the filaments before layup so as to have random alternate weak and strong regions. Appropriate coating materials enable Cook-Gordon Mode I interfacial debonding to take place, which produces very long pull-out lengths with an associated large contribution to toughness. Unidirectional boron-epoxy composites have been so made which have toughnesses greater than 200 kJ/sq m while retaining rule of mixtures tensile strengths. Similar trends have been observed for crossply layups.

  19. Large boron--epoxy filament-wound pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, W. M.; Bailey, R. L.; Knoell, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    Advanced composite material used to fabricate pressure vessel is prepeg (partially cured) consisting of continuous, parallel boron filaments in epoxy resin matrix arranged to form tape. To fabricate chamber, tape is wound on form which must be removable after composite has been cured. Configuration of boron--epoxy composite pressure vessel was determined by computer program.

  20. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section 721.3140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a)...

  1. Respiratory effects of exposure of shipyard workers to epoxy paints.

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, D; Jones, J; Atterbury, M; Balmes, J

    1991-01-01

    Epoxy resin systems have been associated with occupational asthma in several case reports, but medical publications contain little on the potential adverse respiratory effects of these chemicals in exposed worker populations. To further evaluate the association of workplace exposure to epoxy paints and respiratory dysfunction, the cross workshift changes in pulmonary function and symptoms of 32 shipyard painters exposed to epoxy paints were compared with 28 shipyard painters not exposed to epoxy paints. The prevalence of lower respiratory tract symptoms was significantly higher among painters exposed to epoxy paints compared with controls. Among exposed painters the mean cross workshift change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (-3.4%) was greater than the decrement in the non-exposed group (-1.4%). A significant linear relation was seen between % decrement in FEV1 and hours of exposure to epoxy paints. This study suggests that epoxy resin coatings as used by shipyard painters are associated with increased lower respiratory tract symptoms and acute decrements in FEV1. Adequate respiratory protection and medical surveillance programmes should be established in workplaces where exposure to epoxy resin systems occurs. PMID:1954156

  2. 40 CFR 721.320 - Acrylamide-substituted epoxy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.320 Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide-substituted epoxy (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.320 - Acrylamide-substituted epoxy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.320 Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide-substituted epoxy (PMN...

  4. Carbonation of epoxy methyl soyate at atmospheric pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbonated methyl soyates were prepared from epoxy methyl soyate by the introduction of carbon dioxide at the oxirane position. Carbonation was performed with carbon dioxide gas by sparging carbon dioxide through the epoxy esters at atmospheric pressure in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide...

  5. Toughening of epoxy resins by epoxidized soybean oil

    SciTech Connect

    Frischinger, I.; Dirlikov, S.

    1993-12-31

    Homogeneous mixtures of a liquid rubber based on prepolymers of epoxidized soybean oil with amines, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy resins, and commercial diamines form, under certain conditions, two-phase thermosetting materials that consist of a rigid epoxy matrix and randomly distributed small rubbery soybean particles (0.1-5 {mu}m). These two-phase thermosets have improved toughness, similar to that of other rubber-modified epoxies, low water absorption, and low sodium content. In comparison to the unmodified thermosets, the two-phase thermosets exhibit slightly lower glass-transition temperatures and Young`s moduli, but their dielectric properties do not change. The epoxidized soybean oil is available at a price below that of commercial epoxy resins and appears very attractive for epoxy toughening on an industrial scale. 15 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Cationic cure kinetics of a polyoxometalate loaded epoxy nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Benjamin J.

    2012-08-06

    The reaction cure kinetics of a novel polyoxometalate (POM) loaded epoxy nanocomposite is described. The POM is dispersed in the epoxy resin up to volume fractions of 0.1. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements show the cure of the epoxy resin to be sensitive to the POM loading. A kinetics study of the cure exotherm confirms that POM acts as a catalyst promoting cationic homopolymerization of the epoxy resin. The cure reaction is shown to propagate through two cure regimes. A fast cure at short time is shown to be propagation by the activated chain end (ACE) mechanism. A slow cure at long time is shown to be propagation by the activated monomer (AM) mechanism. The activation energies for the fast and slow cure regimes agree well with other epoxy based systems that have been confirmed to propagate by the ACE and AM mechanisms.

  7. Fiber-optic epoxy composite cure sensor. II. Performance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Kai-Yuen; Afromowitz, Martin A.

    1995-09-01

    The performance of a fiber-optic epoxy composite cure sensor, as previously proposed, depends on the optical properties and the reaction kinetics of the epoxy. The reaction kinetics of a typical epoxy system are presented. It is a third-order autocatalytic reaction with a peak observed in each isothermal reaction-rate curve. A model is derived to describe the performance characteristics of the epoxy cure sensor. If a composite coupon is cured at an isothermal temperature, the sensor signal can be used to predict the time when the gel point occurs and to monitor the cure process. The sensor is also shown to perform well in nonstoichiometric epoxy matrices. In addition the sensor can detect the end of the cure without calibration.

  8. Physical aging of linear and network epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, E. S.-W.; Wilkes, G. L.; Mcgrath, J. E.; Banthia, A. K.; Mohajer, Y.; Tant, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    Network and linear epoxy resins principally based on the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A and its oligomers are prepared and studied using diamine and anhydride crosslinking agents. Rubber modified epoxies and a carbon fiber reinforced composite are also investigated. All materials display time-dependent changes when stored at temperatures below the glass transition temperature after quenching (sub-T/g/ annealing). Solvent sorption experiments initiated after different sub-T(g) annealing times demonstrate that the rate of solvent uptake can be indirectly related to the free volume of the epoxy resins. Residual thermal stresses and water are found to have little effect on the physical aging process, which affects the sub-T(g) properties of uniaxial carbon fiber reinforced epoxy material. Finally, the importance of the recovery phenomenon which affects the durability of epoxy glasses is considered.

  9. From waste to functional additive: toughening epoxy resin with lignin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanshuang; Zhou, Rui; Goh, Hwee Li Sally; Huang, Shu; Lu, Xuehong

    2014-04-23

    A novel approach to toughen epoxy resin with lignin, a common waste material from the pulp and paper industry, is presented in this article. First, carboxylic acid-functionalized alkali lignin (AL-COOH) was prepared and subsequently incorporated into anhydride-cured epoxy networks via a one-pot method. The results of mechanical tests show that covalent incorporation of rigid AL-COOH into epoxy networks can significantly toughen the epoxy matrix without deteriorating its tensile strength and modulus. The addition of 1.0 wt % AL-COOH gives increases of 68 and 164% in the critical stress intensity factor (K(IC)) and critical strain energy release rate (G(IC)), respectively, relative to that of neat epoxy. This article opens up the possibility of utilizing low-cost and renewable lignin feedstocks as effective toughening agents for thermoset polymers. PMID:24660855

  10. Insights into Epoxy Network Nanostructural Heterogeneity Using AFM-IR.

    PubMed

    Morsch, Suzanne; Liu, Yanwen; Lyon, Stuart B; Gibbon, Simon R

    2016-01-13

    The first direct observation of a chemically heterogeneous nanostructure within an epoxy resin is reported. Epoxy resins comprise the matrix component of many high performance composites, coatings and adhesives, yet the molecular network structure that underpins the performance of these industrially essential materials is not well understood. Internal nodular morphologies have repeatedly been reported for epoxy resins analyzed using SEM or AFM, yet the origin of these features remains a contentious subject, and epoxies are still commonly assumed to be chemically homogeneous. Uniquely, in this contribution we use the recently developed AFM-IR technique to eliminate previous differences in interpretation, and establish that nodule features correspond to heterogeneous network connectivity within an epoxy phenolic formulation. PMID:26694687

  11. A self-crosslinking thermosetting monomer with both epoxy and anhydride groups derived from Tung oil fatty acids: Synthesis and properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A self-crosslinking compound with epoxy groups and anhydride groups (GEMA) has been successfully synthesized from Tung oil fatty acid by reacting with maleic anhydride via the Diels-Alder reaction. GEMA has very good storage stability and can be cured with trace amounts of tertiary amine. This advan...

  12. Vinyl ethers containing an epoxy group. XVI. Reaction of glycidol vinyloxyethyl ether with acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Nedolya, N.A.; Khil'ko, M.Ya.; Trofimov, B.A.; Sigalov, M.V.

    1988-10-10

    In order to obtain branched acetals with epoxide groups (prospective monomers and intermediates) the authors investigated the reaction of acetaldehyde diethyl and di(1,1,3-trihydrotetrafluoropropyl) acetals with glycidol vinyloxyethyl ether. The addition of acetals to vinyl epoxy ethers was realized, and the first representative of compounds of this type, i.e., 9-glycidyloxy-6-ethoxy-4-methyl-3,7-dioxanonane, was obtained. It was also impossible to add a fluoroacetal to butyl vinyl ether (0.08-1.00 wt. % of catalyst CF/sub 3/COOH, BF/sub 3//times/ OEt/sub 2/, 20-80/degree/C, 0.5-3 h).

  13. Electrical properties of epoxy/silver nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; Boudefel, A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the electrical properties of nanocomposites made of epoxy resin filled with 70-nm-sized silver particles. These composites were studied for the fabrication of integrated capacitors in electronics packaging. The dc conductivity was studied as a function of the filler concentration and as a function of temperature. We also studied the ac conductivity and the permittivity in the 10-1-105 Hz range as a function of the filler concentration. Experimental properties were analyzed using standard percolation theories. The dc conductivity varies as (φ-φc)t, where φ is the filler concentration, φc is the percolation threshold, and t is the dc critical exponent. A very low percolation threshold is obtained (φc=1%) which is believed to be related to a segregated distribution of the fillers in the epoxy matrix. We also measured a very high dc critical exponent (t=5) probably related to the interparticle electrical contact. A universal scaling law is observed for σ(ω) and ɛ(ω). Above a cutoff frequency (ωc, which scales with the dc conductivity as ωc~σdcq) the conductivity and the permittivity follow the universal power laws (σ~ωu and V~ω-v) with critical exponents taking nonstandard values (q=0.83-0.98, u=0.79, and v=0.03).

  14. Ultrasonic mixing of epoxy curing agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for mixing solid curing agents into liquid epoxy resins using ultrasonic energy was developed. This procedure allows standard curing agents such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents with very high melt temperatures such as 4,4 prime-diaminobenzophenone (4,4 prime-DABP) (242 C) to be mixed without premature curing. Four aromatic diamines were ultrasonically blended into MY-720 epoxy resin. These were 4,4 prime-DDS; 3,3 prime-DDA; 4,4 prime-DABP and 3,3 prime-DABP. Unfilled moldings were cast and cured for each system and their physical and mechanical properties compared.

  15. Epoxy Crosslinked Silica Aerogels (X-Aerogels)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    fabrizio, Eve; Ilhan, Faysal; Meador, Mary Ann; Johnston, Chris; Leventis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    NASA is interested in the development of strong lightweight materials for the dual role of thermal insulator and structural component for space vehicles; freeing more weight for useful payloads. Aerogels are very-low density materials (0.010 to 0.5 g/cc) that, due to high porosity (meso- and microporosity), can be, depending on the chemical nature of the network, ideal thermal insulators (thermal conductivity approx. 15 mW/mK). However, aerogels are extremely fragile. For practical application of aerogels, one must increase strength without compromising the physical properties attributed to low density. This has been achieved by templated growth of an epoxy polymer layer that crosslinks the "pearl necklace" network of nanoparticles: the framework of a typical silica aerogel. The requirement for conformal accumulation of the epoxy crosslinker is reaction both with the surface of silica and with itself. After cross-linking, the strength of a typical aerogel monolith increases by a factor of 200, in the expense of only a 2-fold increase in density. Strength is increased further by coupling residual unreacted epoxides with diamine.

  16. Thermographic Qualification of Graphite/Epoxy Instrumentation Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.; Russell, Samuel S.; Workman, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    A nondestructive evaluation method is desired for ensuring the 'as manufactured' and 'post service' quality of graphite/epoxy instrumentation rack shells. The damage tolerance and geometry of the racks dictate that the evaluation method be capable of identifying defects, as small as 0.25 inch 2 in area, over large acreage regions, tight compound radii and thickness transition zones. The primary defects of interest include voids, inclusions, delaminations and porosity. The potential for an infrared thermographic inspection to replace ultrasonic testing, for qualifying the racks as 'defect free' is under investigation. The inspection process is validated by evaluating defect standard panels built to the same specifications as the racks, except for the insertion of artificial fabricated defects. The artificial defects are designed to match those which are most prevalent in the actual instrumentation racks. A target defect area of 0.0625 inch 2 (a square with 0.25 inch on a side) was chosen for the defect standard panels to ensure the ability to find all defects of the critical (0.25 inch squared) size.

  17. Pretreatment of Kapton-coated cable for epoxy adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Carley, J.F.

    1984-01-09

    Preliminary testing of a new system for protecting bonded strain gages that will be attached to the MFTF magnets indicated falling electrical resistance to ground, attributed to the infiltration of moisture. The most likely infiltration route seemed to be along the Kapton lead cable, which has an outer surface of FEP fluorocarbon resin. Samples of the cable were pretreated with a fluorocarbon etchant, Tetra-Etch, for periods of 10, 25, and 40 s at room temperature, followed by rinsing with demineralized water. The treated ends were embedded in the proposed epoxy sealant, Hysol EA 934, a compound containing 70 wt % of asbestos. The tensile-shear stresses required to pull the wires out of these embedments were measured. Results show that the three levels of treatment are equally effective in raising the bond strength from 377 psi for the untreated cable to about twice that, 763 psi. The 40-s exposure to Tetra-Etch appears to have penetrated the 0.5-mil fluorocarbon coating and attacked the Kapton film and the conductor coatings inside it.

  18. Effect of Co-60 gamma radiation on the mechanical properties of epoxy blends and epoxy-graphite fiber interface

    SciTech Connect

    Netravali, A.N.; Manji, A. )

    1991-06-01

    The effect of Co-60 gamma radiation of up to 100 Mrads on an IM6-G graphite fiber-epoxy interface was studied using the single-fiber-composite (SFC) technique. Flexible epoxy blends were formulated using DGEBA based and polyglycol diepoxide epoxies which were cured with aliphatic and aromatic curing agents. Bulk epoxy specimens and graphite fibers were tension tested to obtain their tensile properties. The fragment length distribution from SFC tests, single fiber strength data, and a Monte Carlo simulation of Poisson/Weibull model for fiber strength and flaws were used to obtain the effective interfacial shear strength values. The results indicate that while graphite fiber strength is not affected by radiation, the tensile properties of the epoxies used are adversely affected by the radiation. The interfacial shear strength, however, increases significantly with the radiation dose. 36 refs.

  19. Experimental studies of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle ply laminates in shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, T.

    1977-01-01

    The nonlinear/inelastic response under inplane shear of a large variety of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle-ply laminates was tested. Their strength allowables were obtained and the mechanisms which govern their mode of failure were determined. Two types of specimens for the program were chosen, tested, and evaluated: shear panels stabilized by an aluminum honeycomb core and shear tubes. A modified biaxially compression/tension loaded picture frame was designed and utilized in the test program with the shear panels. The results obtained with this test technique categorically prefer the shear panels, rather than the tubes, for adequate and satisfactory experimental definition of the objectives. Test results indicate the existence of a so-called core-effect which ought to be considered when reducing experimental data for weak in shear laminates.

  20. Tension fatigue of glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy tapered laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.; Obrien, T. Kevin; Salpekar, Satish A.

    1990-01-01

    Symmetric tapered laminates with internally dropped plies were tested with two different layups and two materials, S2/SP250 glass/epoxy and IM6/1827I graphite/epoxy. The specimens were loaded in cyclic tension until they delaminated unstably. Each combination of material and layup had a unique failure mode. Calculated values of strain energy release rate, G, from a finite element analysis model of delamination along the taper, and for delamination from a matrix ply crack, were used with mode I fatigue characterization data from tests of the tested materials to calculate expected delamination onset loads. Calculated values were compared to the experimental results. The comparison showed that when the calculated G was chosen according to the observed delamination failures, the agreement between the calculated and measured delamination onset loads was reasonable for each combination of layup and material.

  1. Tension fatigue of glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy tapered laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.; O'Brien, T. Kevin; Salpekar, Satish A.

    1990-01-01

    Symmetric tapered laminates with internally dropped plies were tested with two different layups and two materials, S2/SP250 glass/epoxy and IM6/18271 graphite/epoxy. The specimens were loaded in cyclic tension until they delaminated unstably. Each combination of material and layup had a unique failure mode. Calculated values of strain energy release rate, G, from a finite element analysis model of delamination along the taper, and for delamination from a matrix ply crack, were used with mode I fatigue characterization data from tests of the tested materials to calculate expected delamination onset loads. Calculated values were compared to the experimental results. The comparison showed that when the calculated G was chosen according to the observed delamination failures, the agreement between the calculated and measured delamination onset loads was reasonable for each combination of layup and material.

  2. Progress toward Making Epoxy/Carbon-Nanotube Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiano, Thomas; Roylance, Margaret; Gassner, John; Kyle, William

    2008-01-01

    A modicum of progress has been made in an effort to exploit single-walled carbon nanotubes as fibers in epoxy-matrix/fiber composite materials. Two main obstacles to such use of carbon nanotubes are the following: (1) bare nanotubes are not soluble in epoxy resins and so they tend to agglomerate instead of becoming dispersed as desired; and (2) because of lack of affinity between nanotubes and epoxy matrices, there is insufficient transfer of mechanical loads between the nanotubes and the matrices. Part of the effort reported here was oriented toward (1) functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with methyl methacrylate (MMA) to increase their dispersability in epoxy resins and increase transfer of mechanical loads and (2) ultrasonic dispersion of the functionalized nanotubes in tetrahydrofuran, which was used as an auxiliary solvent to aid in dispersing the functionalized nanotubes into a epoxy resin. In another part of this effort, poly(styrene sulfonic acid) was used as the dispersant and water as the auxiliary solvent. In one experiment, the strength of composite of epoxy with MMA-functionalized-nanotubes was found to be 29 percent greater than that of a similar composite of epoxy with the same proportion of untreated nanotubes.

  3. The failure mode of natural silk epoxy triggered composite tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshkour, R. A.; Ariffin, A. K.; Zulkifli, R.; Sulong, A. B.; Azhari, C. H.

    2012-09-01

    In this study the quasi static compression test over natural silk epoxy triggered composite tubes has been carried out, the natural silk epoxy composite tubes consist of 24 layer of woven natural silk as reinforcement and thermoset epoxy resin as matrix which both of them i e natural silk and epoxy have excellent mechanical properties More over the natural silk have better moisture resistance in comparison with other natural reinforcements, the length of tubes are 50, 80 and 120 mm The natural silk epoxy composite tubes are associated with an external trigger which includes 4 steel pieces welded on downside flat plate fixture The hand lay up fabrication method has been used to make the natural silk epoxy composite tubes Instron universal testing machine with 250 KN load capacity has been employed to accomplish this investigation The failure modes of natural silk epoxy triggered composite tubes has been investigated by representative photographs which has been taken by a high resolution camera(12 2 Mp) during the quasi static compression test, from the photographs is observed the failure modes is progressive local buckling

  4. Magnetic nano-Fe3O4-supported 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH): synthesis and application in the catalytic reduction of α,β-epoxy ketones.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Jian; Wan, Xin; Shen, Yong-Ya; Xu, Song; Feng, Yi-Si

    2012-03-01

    A novel magnetically recoverable organic hydride compound was successfully constructed by using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a support. An as-prepared magnetic organic hydride compound, BNAH (1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide), showed efficient activity in the catalytic reduction of α,β-epoxy ketones. After reaction, the magnetic nanoparticle-supported BNAH can be separated by simple magnetic separation which made the separation of the product easier. PMID:22324403

  5. Effect of modified aminosilane interfaces in glass/epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C.E.; Blum, F.D.

    1996-10-01

    The effects of the interfacial modification of glass/epoxy composites have been studied using 3-point bending tests. Hydrolyzed {gamma}-aminopropyltriethyoxysilane APS and {gamma}-aminobutyltriethoxysilane (ABS) were separately adsorbed onto E-glass and the treated fibers were then used in composites that used both a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and a diglycidyl ether of polypropylene epoxy matrix. Mechanical tests were used to characterize the flexural strength of the composite as a function of the silane coupling agent and the flexibility of the epoxy used.

  6. Epoxy bond and stop etch fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Jerry A.; Weckwerth, Mark V.; Baca, Wes E.

    2000-01-01

    A class of epoxy bond and stop etch (EBASE) microelectronic fabrication techniques is disclosed. The essence of such techniques is to grow circuit components on top of a stop etch layer grown on a first substrate. The first substrate and a host substrate are then bonded together so that the circuit components are attached to the host substrate by the bonding agent. The first substrate is then removed, e.g., by a chemical or physical etching process to which the stop etch layer is resistant. EBASE fabrication methods allow access to regions of a device structure which are usually blocked by the presence of a substrate, and are of particular utility in the fabrication of ultrafast electronic and optoelectronic devices and circuits.

  7. Cryogenic evaluation of epoxy bond strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albritton, N.; Young, W.

    The purpose of the work presented here was to determine methods of optimizing the adhesion of a particular epoxy (CTD-101K, Composite Technology Development Inc.) to a particular nickel-based alloy substrate (Incoloy ® 908, Inco Alloys International) for cryogenic applications. Initial efforts were focused on surface preparation of the substrate material via various mechanical and chemical cleaning techniques. Test samples, fabricated to simulate the conduit-to-insulation interface, were put through a mock heat treat and vacuum/pressure impregnation process. Samples were compression/shear load tested to compare the bond strengths at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. The resulting data indicate that acid etching creates a higher bond strength than the other tested techniques and that the bond formed is stronger at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperature. A description of the experiment along with the resulting data is presented here.

  8. Epoxy coatings over latex block fillers

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.D.

    1997-12-01

    Failures of polymerized epoxy coatings applied over latex/acrylic block fillers continue to plague owners of commercial buildings, particularly those with high architectural content such as condominiums, high rise offices, etc. Water treatment facilities in paper mills are especially prone to this problem. The types of failures include delamination of the topcoats, blisters in both the block fillers and the topcoats and disintegration of the block filler itself. While the problem is well known, the approach to a solution is not. A study of several coatings manufacturer`s Product Data Sheets shows a wide variance in the recommendations for what are purportedly generically equivalent block fillers. While one manufacturer might take an essentially architectural approach, another will take a heavy-duty industrial approach. To the specifying architect or engineer who has little training in the complexities of protective coating systems, this presents a dilemma. Who does he believe? What does he specify? To whom can he turn for independent advice?

  9. Contactless optoelectronic technique for monitoring epoxy cure.

    PubMed

    Cusano, A; Buonocore, V; Breglio, G; Calabrò, A; Giordano, M; Cutolo, A; Nicolais, L

    2000-03-01

    We describe a novel noninvasive optical technique to monitor the refractive-index variation in an epoxy-based resin that is due to the polymerization process. This kind of resin is widely used in polymer matrix composites. It is well known that the process of fabricating a thermoset-based composite involves mass and heat transfer coupled with irreversible chemical reactions that induce physical changes. To improve the quality and the reliability of these materials, monitoring the cure and optimization of the manufacturing process are of key importance. We discuss the basic operating principles of an optical system based on angle deflection measurements and present typical cure-monitoring results obtained from optical characterization. The method provides a flexible, high-sensitivity, material-independent, low-cost, noninvasive tool for monitoring real-time refractive-index variation. PMID:18337994

  10. Measurement of damping of graphite epoxy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The design of an experiment to measure the damping of a cylindrical graphite-epoxy specimen with a three point support and a knife edge support is described as well as equipment used in tests conducted to determine the influence of the support at the two ends of the specimen and to simulate an idealized free-free boundary condition at the two edges. A curve fitting technique is being used to process the frequency response data obtained. Experiments conducted on the thin plate specimen also reveal the influence of the end support condition on the damping ratio of the specimen. The damping ratio values measured for both specimens appear to be strongly influenced by the shape of the specimen and appear to depend on length and fiber orientation as well as the presence of discontinuities such as sharp bends, corners, and notches.

  11. Epoxy resin developments for large superconducting magnets impregnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, J. M.; Gallet, B.; Kircher, F.; Lottin, J. C.

    The future detectors ATLAS and CMS of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will use two huge superconducting magnets. Both are now under design, and their electrical insulation could be realized using epoxy resin and a wet impregnation technique. Because of their large dimensions, and the indirect cooling of the superconductor, the strengths of the resin and of the resin/conductor interface are of major importance. A new generation of epoxy resins for vacuum/pressure impregnation methods has been tested, and compared with some classical and well-known epoxy resins used in impregnation techniques. In order to understand the mechanical behaviour at 4 K, the complete evolution from liquid state to low temperature service condition is considered. The paper will present some results on the mechanical properties, the density and the chemical shrinkage occurring during the polymerization and the thermal contraction between room temperature and 4 K for these different types of epoxy resins.

  12. Magnetism in graphene oxide induced by epoxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon; Zhu, Xi; Su, Haibin; Cole, Jacqueline M.

    2015-04-27

    We have engineered magnetism in graphene oxide. Our approach transforms graphene into a magnetic insulator while maintaining graphene's structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra reveal that graphene oxide has various chemical groups (including epoxy, ketone, hydroxyl, and C-O groups) on its surface. Destroying the epoxy group with heat treatment or chemical treatment diminishes magnetism in the material. Local density approximation calculation results well reproduce the magnetic moments obtained from experiments, and these results indicate that the unpaired spin induced by the presence of epoxy groups is the origin of the magnetism. The calculation results also explain the magnetic properties, which are generated by the interaction between separated magnetic regions and domains. Our results demonstrate tunable magnetism in graphene oxide based on controlling the epoxy group with heat or chemical treatment.

  13. Study on cationic photopolymerization reaction of epoxy polysiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, F.; Jiang, S. L.; Liu, J.

    2007-11-01

    The effects of epoxy monomers, concentration of photoinitiator and radical photoinitiators on the photosensitive properties of cationic phopolymerization system with a novel epoxy polysiloxane oligomer (CEPS) were investigated via a gel yield method. The results showed that among the tested epoxy monomers, the reactivity of ERL-4221 with cycloaliphatic epoxy groups was the highest. The optimum concentration of diaryldiodonium salt (SR-1012) was determined as 4-5 wt.%. Increasing the amounts of ERL-4221 in the CEPS cationic photopolymerization system, UV-curing rate increased. Radical photoinitiators with ArC dbnd O structure possessed sensitization capacity to the cationic photoinitiator SR-1012. The photosensitivity of the CEPS system could be up to 165 mJ/cm 2. Adding a small amount of IPA and BP could greatly improve the photosensitivity of CEPS cationic photosensitive system. The optimal quantity of isopropanol added to the system was not more than 2 wt.%.

  14. Method of making superhydrophobic/superoleophilic paints, epoxies, and composites

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott Robert

    2016-05-10

    Superhydrophobic paints and epoxies comprising superoleophilic particles and surfaces and methods of making the same are described. The superoleophilic particles can include porous particles having a hydrophobic coating layer deposited thereon. superoleophilic particles.

  15. Fabrication of graphite/epoxy cases for orbit insertion motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, W. W.

    1973-01-01

    The fabrication procedures are described for filament-wound rocket motor cases, approximately 26.25 inches long by 25.50 inches diameter, utilizing graphite fibers. The process utilized prepreg tape which consists of Fortafil 4-R fibers in the E-759 epoxy resin matrix. This fabrication effect demonstrated an ability to fabricate high quality graphite/epoxy rocket motor cases in the 26.25 inch by 25.50 inch size range.

  16. Exit Presentation: Infrared Thermography on Graphite/Epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comeaux, Kayla

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reports on the internship project that was accomplished during the summer of 2010. The objectives of the project were to: (1) Simulate Flash Thermography on Graphite/Epoxy Flat Bottom hole Specimen and thin void specimens, (2) Obtain Flash Thermography data on Graphite/Epoxy flat bottom hole specimens, (3) Compare experimental results with simulation results, Compare Flat Bottom Hole Simulation with Thin Void Simulation to create a graph to determine size of IR Thermography detected defects

  17. Epoxy Nanocomposites—Curing Rheokinetics, Wetting and Adhesion to Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, S. O.; Kotomin, S. V.; Kulichikhin, V. G.

    2010-06-01

    Epoxy nanocomposites considered as challenging polymeric matrix for advanced reinforced plastics. Nanofillers change rheokinetics of epoxy resin curing, affect wetting and adhesion to aramid and carbon fibers. In all cases extreme dependence of adhesive strength vs filler content in the binder was observed. New experimental techniques were developed to study wettability and fiber-matrix adhesion interaction, using yarn penetration path length, aramid fiber knot pull-up test and electrical admittance of the fracture surface of CFRP.

  18. Epoxy Nanocomposites - Curing Rheokinetics, Wetting and Adhesion to Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyin, S. O.; Kotomin, S. V.; Kulichikhin, V. G.

    2010-06-02

    Epoxy nanocomposites considered as challenging polymeric matrix for advanced reinforced plastics. Nanofillers change rheokinetics of epoxy resin curing, affect wetting and adhesion to aramid and carbon fibers. In all cases extreme dependence of adhesive strength vs filler content in the binder was observed. New experimental techniques were developed to study wettability and fiber-matrix adhesion interaction, using yarn penetration path length, aramid fiber knot pull-up test and electrical admittance of the fracture surface of CFRP.

  19. Heat generation from epoxy cracks and bond failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, H.; Iwasa, Y.

    Energy released following cracks and bond failures were measured for an EPON epoxy near 4.2 K. Crack events were monitored with an acoustic emission sensor; the energy released by each crack or bond failure was calculated from the temperature rise measured with thermocouples. Cracking was observed to be load dependent; this may account in part for the training phenomenon observed in bringing epoxy-impregnated superconducting magnets to full design field.

  20. Theoretical studies of radiation effects in composite materials for space use. [graphite-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. K.; Kamaratos, E.

    1982-01-01

    Tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane epoxy cured with diamino diphenyl sulfone was used as a model compound. Computer programs were developed to calculate (1) energy deposition coefficients of protons and electrons of various energies at different depths of the material; (2) ranges of protons and electrons of various energies in the material; and (3) cumulative doses received by the composite in different geometric shapes placed in orbits of various altitudes and inclination. A preliminary study on accelerated testing was conducted and it was found that an elliptical equitorial orbit of 300 km perigee by 2750 km apogee can accumulate, in 2 years or less, enough radiation dose comparable to geosynchronous environment for 30 years. The local plasma model calculated the mean excitation energies for covalent and ionic compounds. Longitudinal and lateral distributions of excited species by electron and proton impact as well as the probability of overlapping of two tracks due to two charged particles within various time intervals were studied.

  1. Investigation of the effects of cobalt ions on epoxy properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Co(acac)sub x complexes on MY-720 epoxy properties have been investigated. It appears that Co2(+) ions form antibonding or nonbonding orbitals which increase the free volume and also reduce the cohesiveness of the host epoxy. The effects of Co2(+) ions, on the other hand, seem to result in increased Cohesiveness of the epoxy. The experimental values of magnetic moments of both types of ions in MY-720 suggest that the orbital momentum contributions of the (3d) electrons are partially conserved, though the effect is more pronounced for Co2(+) ions. The coordination environment of the cobalt ions in the host epoxy does not appear to be uniquely defined. These results indicate that the effects of metal ions on resin properties cannot be easily predicted on the basis of ligand field theory argument alone. Complex interactions between metal ions and host epoxy molecular structure suggest the desirability of parallel experimental investigations of electronic, magnetic, and mechanical properties of metal ion-containing epoxy samples for comparison with theory.

  2. Interlaboratory comparison of thin section epoxy impregnation procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.D.; Byrnes, A.P.

    1987-05-01

    Evidence of the ineffective blue-dye epoxy impregnation is encountered all too commonly in thin sections. A study involving ceramic disks was conducted to compare the efficiencies of a variety of epoxy impregnation procedures used by major laboratories. Disks were sent to five commercial and four major oil company thin section laboratories which then impregnated the disks and returned them for analysis. Porcelain disks were used because of their high degree of uniformity, white color, rocklike composition and pore geometry, uniform pore size, and high pore connectivity. Impregnation efficiency was determined by calculating the pore volume invaded using helium porosimetry and by determining the areas and distances of invasion based on extent of blue-dye invasion in cross-sectional cuts through the disks. Techniques which proved very highly effective are vacuum or vacuum/pressure impregnation in which the epoxy was added to the sample container subsequent to evacuation. Relatively ineffective are vacuum techniques, at room or elevated temperatures, where the sample is submerged in epoxy prior to evacuation. The key to effective impregnation is to remove air from the sample before it is covered by epoxy. Factors which have little or no influence on the effectiveness of impregnation include type of blue dye, epoxy type, and presence of fluorescent dye. High-quality thin sections can be prepared using less-effective techniques if care is taken to prepare them from the outer edge of the impregnated sample.

  3. Effects of Nanofillers on the Thermo-Mechanical Properties and Chemical Resistivity of Epoxy Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Atchudan, Raji; Pandurangan, Arumugam; Joo, Jin

    2015-06-01

    MWCNTs was synthesized using Ni-Cr/MgO by CVD method and were purified. The purified MWCNT was used as a filler material for the fabrication of epoxy nanocomposites. The epoxy nanocomposites with different amount (wt% = 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0) of nanofillers (CB, SiO2 and MWCNTs) were prepared by casting method. The effects of nanofillers on the properties of neat epoxy matrix were well studied. The thermal properties of nanocomposites were studied using DSC, TGA and flame retardant, and also the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, compressive strength, impact strength, determination of hardness and chemical resistance were studied extensively. Based on the experiment's results, 2 wt% MWCNTs loading in epoxy resin showed the highest improvement in tensile strength, as compared to neat epoxy and to other epoxy systems (CB/epoxy, SiO2/epoxy). Improvements in tensile strength, glass transition temperature and decomposition temperature were observed by the addition of MWCNTs. The mechanical properties of the epoxy nanocomposites were improved due to the interfacial bonding between the MWCNTs and epoxy resin. Strain hardening behavior was higher for MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites compared with CB/epoxy and SiO2/epoxy nanocomposites. The investigation of thermal and mechanical properties reveals that the incorporation of MWCNTs into the epoxy nanocomposites increases its thermal stability to a great extent. Discrete increase of glass transition temperature of nanocomposites is linearly dependent on MWCNTs content. Due to strong interfacial bonding between MWCNTs and epoxy resin, the chemical resistivity of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites is superior to neat epoxy and other epoxy systems. PMID:26369037

  4. Bioactive compounds from Iostephane heterophylla (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Hernández, M L; Villarreal, M L

    2001-01-01

    The novel bisabolene sesquiterpenes 3-6, were isolated from Iostephane heterophylla, using bioguided fractionation. The new compounds were determined to be (12R/12S)-12,13-epoxy-xanthorrhizols (3,4) and (12R/12S)-12,13-dihydro-12,13-dihydroxy-xanthorrizols (5,6) and their structures were characterized by analysis of spectroscopic data and by chemical correlation from xanthorrhizol (2). The stereochemistry at C-12 of 5 was deduced using the modified Mosher experiment. Some of the isolated compounds elicited activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, levadura and dermatophytes. PMID:11561451

  5. Viscoelastic properties of graphene-based epoxy resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Fierro, Annalisa; Rosolia, Salvatore; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Lafdi, Khalid; Guadagno, Liberata

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the viscoelastic properties of an epoxy resin filled with graphene-based nanoparticles have been investigated in the liquid state, before curing, by means of a rotational rheometer equipped with a parallel plate geometry. Exfoliated graphite was prepared using traditional acid intercalation followed by a sudden treatment at high temperature (900°C). The percentage of exfoliated graphite was found to be 56%. The epoxy matrix was prepared by mixing a tetrafunctional precursor with a reactive diluent which produces a significant decrease in the viscosity of the epoxy precursor so that the dispersion step of nanofillers in the matrix can easily occur. The hardener agent, the 4,4-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), was added at a stoichiometric concentration with respect to all the epoxy rings. The inclusion of the partially exfoliated graphite (pEG) in the formulated epoxy mixture significantly modifies the rheological behaviour of the mixture itself. The epoxy mixture, indeed, shows a Newtonian behaviour while, at 3 wt % pEG content, the complex viscosity of the nanocomposite clearly shows a shear thinning behaviour with η* values much higher at the lower frequencies. The increase in complex viscosity with the increasing of the partially exfoliated graphite content was mostly caused by a dramatic increase in the storage modulus. All the graphene-based epoxy mixtures were cured by a two-stage curing cycles: a first isothermal stage was carried out at the lower temperature of 125°C for 1 hour while the second isothermal stage was performed at the higher temperature of 200°C for 3 hours. The mechanical properties of the cured nanocomposites show high values in the storage modulus and glass transition temperature.

  6. Toughening Mechanisms in Silica-Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Binay S.

    Epoxies are widely used as underfill resins throughout the microelectronics industry to mechanically couple and protect various components of flip-chip assemblies. Generally rigid materials largely surround underfill resins. Improving the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resins to better match those of their rigid counterparts can help extend the service lifetime of flip-chip assemblies. Recently, researchers have demonstrated that silica nanoparticles are effective toughening agents for lightly-crosslinked epoxies. Improvements in the fracture toughness of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites have primarily been attributed to two toughening mechanisms: particle debonding with subsequent void growth and matrix shear banding. Various attempts have been made to model the contribution of these toughening mechanisms to the overall fracture energy observed in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. However, disparities still exist between experimental and modeled fracture energy results. In this dissertation, the thermal, rheological and mechanical behavior of eight different types of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites was investigated. Each nanocomposite consisted of up to 10 vol% of silica nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm, with a variety of surface treatments and particle structures. Fractographical analysis was conducted with new experimental approaches in order to accurately identify morphological evidence for each proposed toughening mechanism. Overall, three major insights into the fracture behavior of real world silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites were established. First, microcracking was observed as an essential toughening mechanism in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. Microcracking was observed on the surface and subsurface of fractured samples in each type of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposite. The additional toughening contribution of microcracking to overall fracture energy yielded excellent agreement between experimental

  7. Void-free epoxy castings for cryogenic insulators and seals

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The design of the Westinghouse Magnet for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Large Coil Program (LCP) incorporates a main lead bushing which transmits heat-leak loads by conduction to the supercritical helium stream. The bushing, which consists of epoxy resin cast about a copper conductor, must be electrically insulated, vacuum tight and be capable of withstanding the stresses encountered in cryognic service. The seal design of the bushing is especially important; leakage from either the helium system or the external environment into the vacuum will cause the magnet to quench. Additionally, the epoxy-resin casting must resist mechanical loads caused by the weight of leads attached to the bushing and thermal stresses transmitted to the epoxy via the conductor. The epoxy resin is cast about the conductor in such a way as to provide the required vacuum tight seal. The technique by which this is accomplished is reviewed. Equally important is the elimination of voids in the epoxy which will act as stress-concentrating discontinuities during cooling to or warming from 4K. The types of voids that could be expected and their causes are described. The paper reviews techniques employed to eliminate voids within the cast-resin portion of the bushing.

  8. High-performance fiber/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiao, T. T.; Hamstad, M. A.; Jessop, E. S.; Toland, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Activities described include: (1) determining the applicability of an ultrahigh-strength graphite fiber to composite pressure vessels; (2) defining the fatigue performance of thin-titanium-lined, high-strength graphite/epoxy pressure vessel; (3) selecting epoxy resin systems suitable for filament winding; (4) studying the fatigue life potential of Kevlar 49/epoxy pressure vessels; and (5) developing polymer liners for composite pressure vessels. Kevlar 49/epoxy and graphite fiber/epoxy pressure vessels, 10.2 cm in diameter, some with aluminum liners and some with alternation layers of rubber and polymer were fabricated. To determine liner performance, vessels were subjected to gas permeation tests, fatigue cycling, and burst tests, measuring composite performance, fatigue life, and leak rates. Both the metal and the rubber/polymer liner performed well. Proportionately larger pressure vessels (20.3 and 38 cm in diameter) were made and subjected to the same tests. In these larger vessels, line leakage problems with both liners developed the causes of the leaks were identified and some solutions to such liner problems are recommended.

  9. Electron beam curing of epoxy resins by cationic polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Havens, S.J.; Lopata, V.J.

    1995-10-01

    Preliminary investigations have determined that conventional epoxy resins can be cured at selectable temperatures with high glass transition temperatures (essentially the same as with thermal curing), while still exhibiting equivalent or comparable mechanical properties. A cationic photoinitiator at a concentration of 1--3 parts per hundred of the epoxy resin is required for this process. Gamma cell screening of cationic photoinitiators with bisphenol A, bisphenol F, and cycloaliphatic epoxies demonstrated that diaryliodonium salts of weakly nucleophilic anions such as hexafluoroantimonate are most effective. Diaryliodonium salts were also found to be most effective initiators for the cationic polymerization of epoxy resins when a high energy/power electron beam accelerator was used as the source of ionizing radiation. For example Dow Tactix 123 (bisphenol A epoxy) containing 3 phr (4-octyloxyphenyl)phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate was irradiated at a total dosage of 100 kGy. Glass transition temperature (tan delta) of the cured material as determined by dynamic mechanical analysis was 182 C as compared to 165 C thermally cured material.

  10. Fiber-Reinforced Reactive Nano-Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-01-01

    An ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene/ matrix interface based on the fabrication of a reactive nano-epoxy matrix with lower surface energy has been improved. Enhanced mechanical properties versus pure epoxy on a three-point bend test include: strength (25 percent), modulus (20 percent), and toughness (30 percent). Increased thermal properties include higher Tg (glass transition temperature) and stable CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). Improved processability for manufacturing composites includes faster wetting rates on macro-fiber surfaces, lower viscosity, better resin infusion rates, and improved rheological properties. Improved interfacial adhesion properties with Spectra fibers by pullout tests include initial debonding force of 35 percent, a maximum pullout force of 25 percent, and energy to debond at 65 percent. Improved mechanical properties of Spectra fiber composites (tensile) aging resistance properties include hygrothermal effects. With this innovation, high-performance composites have been created, including carbon fibers/nano-epoxy, glass fibers/nano-epoxy, aramid fibers/ nano-epoxy, and ultra-high-molecularweight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE).

  11. Curing and toughening of epoxy resins with phosphorus containing monomers and polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.R.; Park, I.Y.; Yoon, T.H.

    1996-12-31

    Epoxy resins have been utilized in many areas, from house holds to airplanes, for the past several decades due to some exceptional properties such as low cost, good mechanical properties and excellent adhesive properties. However, low fracture toughness and flame resistance of epoxy resins have limited their applicability. Therefore, enhancing those properties have been of great interest to many researchers and scientists. As introduced by McGrath and co-workers in 1980s, the reactive thermoplastic polymers have proven to be an excellent toughener for improving not only fracture toughness but also adhesive properties without sacrificing thermo-mechanical properties and chemical resistance. Flame retardency could be improved by adding flame retardent additives which are divided into two groups; additives and reactives. However, among the additives, halogen compounds are known to be toxic gas generator and ozone depleter. Moreover, additives could be potentially leached out of the material, while reactives are inferior to additives. Recently, a reactive type phosphine oxide containing flame retardants have been introduced by McGrath and co-workers and proven to be an excellent flame retardant. In this paper, phospine oxide containing monomers were prepared and utilized as curing agents for expoxy resins, and starting materials for the polymers.

  12. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  13. Low-temperature mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R. P.; Madhukar, M.; Thaicharoenporn, B.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2014-01-27

    Selected mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminate candidates for use in the electrical turn and ground insulation of the ITER Central solenoid (CS) modules were measured. Short-beam shear and flexural tests have been conducted on various E-glass cloth weaves/epoxy laminates at 295 and 77 K. Types of glass weave include 1581, 7500, 7781, and 38050, which represent both satin and plain weaves. The epoxy, planned for use for vacuum-pressure impregnation of the CS module, consists of an anhydride-cured bisphenol F resin system. Inter-laminar shear strength, flexural elastic modulus, and flexural strength have been measured. The data indicate that these properties are dependent on the volume percent of glass. Short-beam shear strength was measured as a function of the span-to-thickness ratio for all laminates at 77 K. Comprehensive fractography was conducted to obtain the failure mode of each short-beam shear test sample.

  14. Low-temperature mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. P.; Madhukar, M.; Thaicharoenporn, B.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2014-01-01

    Selected mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminate candidates for use in the electrical turn and ground insulation of the ITER Central solenoid (CS) modules were measured. Short-beam shear and flexural tests have been conducted on various E-glass cloth weaves/epoxy laminates at 295 and 77 K. Types of glass weave include 1581, 7500, 7781, and 38050, which represent both satin and plain weaves. The epoxy, planned for use for vacuum-pressure impregnation of the CS module, consists of an anhydride-cured bisphenol F resin system. Inter-laminar shear strength, flexural elastic modulus, and flexural strength have been measured. The data indicate that these properties are dependent on the volume percent of glass. Short-beam shear strength was measured as a function of the span-to-thickness ratio for all laminates at 77 K. Comprehensive fractography was conducted to obtain the failure mode of each short-beam shear test sample.

  15. Dielectric properties of inorganic fillers filled epoxy thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Norshamira, A. Mariatti, M.

    2015-07-22

    The demand on the small size and high performance electronics has driven changes in the electronic packaging requirements from discrete capacitor to embedded capacitor. Embedded capacitor can improve electrical performance compared with discrete capacitor. This study aimed to achieve high dielectric of epoxy thin film composite that were targeted for application as embedded capacitor. In this study, inorganic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate (CCTO), Iron(III) Oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) were loaded in epoxy system at 5 and 20vol%. Morphology and dielectric properties were investigated to identify the effect of fillers loading and types of fillers on the properties of epoxy thin film composite. Based on the study, CCTO with 20vol% loading was found to have good dielectric properties compared to other type of fillers.

  16. Navigation of the EPOXI Spacecraft to Comet Hartley 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam; Abrahamson, Matt; Chesley, Steven; Chung, Min-Kun; Halsell, Allen; Haw, Robert; Helfrich, Cliff; Jefferson, David; Kennedy, Brian; McElrath, Tim; Owen, William; Rush, Brian; Smith, Jonathon; Wang, Tseng-Chan; Yen, Chen-Wan

    2011-01-01

    On November 4, 2010, the EPOXI spacecraft flew by the comet Hartley 2, marking the fourth time that a NASA spacecraft successfully captured high resolution images of a cometary nucleus. EPOXI is the extended mission of the Deep Impact mission, which delivered an impactor on comet Tempel-1 on July 4, 2005. EPOXI officially started in September 2007 and eventually took over 3 years of flight time and had 3 Earth gravity assists to achieve the proper encounter conditions. In the process, the mission was redesigned to accommodate a new comet as the target and changes in the trajectory to achieve better imaging conditions at encounter. Challenges in navigation of the spacecraft included precision targeting of several Earth flybys and the comet encounter, uncertainties in determining the ephemeris of the comet relative to the spacecraft, and the high accuracy trajectory knowledge needed to image the comet during the encounter. This paper presents an overview of the navigation process used for the mission.

  17. Multiple welding of long fiber epoxy vitrimer composites.

    PubMed

    Chabert, Erwan; Vial, Jérôme; Cauchois, Jean-Pierre; Mihaluta, Marius; Tournilhac, François

    2016-05-25

    Vitrimers appear as a new class of polymers that exhibit mechanical strength and are insoluble even at high temperatures, like thermosets, and yet, like thermoplastics, they are heat processable, recyclable and weldable. The question arises whether this welding property is maintained in composite materials made of more than 50 vol% of reinforcing fibers. In this paper, we quantitatively analyze the bond strength of epoxy vitrimer-based composite plates made by resin transfer molding and compare them to their non-vitrimer counterparts made of a standard thermoset epoxy. It is demonstrated that only epoxy vitrimer samples show substantial bond strength and the ability to be repeatedly welded thanks to the exchange reactions, which promote improved surface conformity and chemical bonding between the adherands at the joint interface. This opens the way towards joining composite parts without adhesives nor mechanical fasteners. PMID:27140663

  18. DEGRADATION OF MAGNET EPOXY AT NSLS X-RAY RING.

    SciTech Connect

    HU,J.P.; ZHONG,Z.; HAAS,E.; HULBERT,S.; HUBBARD,R.

    2004-05-24

    Epoxy resin degradation was analyzed for NSLS X-ring magnets after two decades of 2.58-2.8 GeV continuous electron-beam operation, based on results obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeters irradiated along the NSLS ring and epoxy samples irradiated at the beamline target location. A Monte Carlo-based particle transport code, MCNP, was utilized to verify the dose from synchrotron radiation distributed along the axial- and transverse-direction in a ring model, which simulates the geometry of a ring quadrupole magnet and its central vacuum chamber downstream of the bending-magnet photon ports. The actual life expectancy of thoroughly vacuum baked-and-cured epoxy resin was estimated from radiation tests on similar polymeric materials using a radiation source developed for electrical insulation and mechanical structure studies.

  19. Interfacial Strength and Physical Properties of Functionalized Graphene - Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Heimann, Paula; Scheiman, Daniel; Adamson, Douglas H.; Aksay, Iihan A.; Prud'homme, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    The toughness and coefficient of thermal expansion of a series of functionalized graphene sheet - epoxy nanocomposites are investigated. Functionalized graphene sheets are produced by splitting graphite oxide into single graphene sheets through a rapid thermal expansion process. These graphene sheets contain approx. 10% oxygen due to the presence of hydroxide, epoxide, and carboxyl functional groups which assist in chemical bond formation with the epoxy matrix. Intrinsic surface functionality is used to graft alkyl amine chains on the graphene sheets, and the addition of excess hardener insures covalent bonding between the epoxide matrix and graphene sheets. Considerable improvement in the epoxy dimensional stability is obtained. An increase in nanocomposite toughness is observed in some cases.

  20. New routes to improve toughness of rubber-modified epoxies

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Significant progress has been made in modeling the toughening mechanisms in rubber-modified epoxies due to the efforts of many researchers. The result of these efforts has led to an increased awareness of the roles of rubber particle bridging, rubber particle cavitation, matrix dilation, and matrix shear banding on the enhancement of fracture toughness. However, there are still many questions regarding rubber-toughening which remain unanswered. This talk will focus on the importance and the roles of the interphase region between the epoxy matrix and the rubber particle and of the overall particle morphology on the toughness enhancement in rubber-modified epoxies. It will be demonstrated that additional toughness enhancement may be achieved by means not included in any of the toughening models proposed to date. Methods to incorporate these effects into existing toughening models will be discussed.

  1. Epoxy foams using multiple resins and curing agents

    DOEpatents

    Russick, Edward M.; Rand, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    An epoxy foam comprising a plurality of resins, a plurality of curing agents, at least one blowing agent, at least one surfactant and optionally at least one filler and the process for making. Preferred is an epoxy foam comprising two resins of different reactivities, two curing agents, a blowing agent, a surfactant, and a filler. According to the present invention, an epoxy foam is prepared with tailorable reactivity, exotherm, and pore size by a process of admixing a plurality of resins with a plurality of curing agents, a surfactant and blowing agent, whereby a foamable mixture is formed and heating said foamable mixture at a temperature greater than the boiling temperature of the blowing agent whereby said mixture is foamed and cured.

  2. Reinforcement of Epoxies Using Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Sharma, Jitendra; Chatterjee, Tirtha

    2008-03-01

    The reinforcement of bisphenol-A and bisphenol-F epoxies using single walled carbon nanotubes has been approached experimentally by understanding the nature of interactions between the matrices and nanotubes. Unassisted dispersions of single walled carbon nanotubes in epoxies were studied by a combination of radiation scattering (elastic small angle scattering and inelastic scattering), DSC based glass transition determination, melt rheology and solid-state mechanical testing in order to understand and correlate changes in local and global dynamics to the tailoring of composite mechanical properties. Significant changes in the glass transition temperature of the matrix can successfully account for changes in the viscoelastic properties of the epoxy dispersions for concentrations below the percolation threshold, while above the percolation threshold the network superstructure formed by the nanotubes controls the viscoelastic properties.

  3. Water diffusion profile measurements in epoxy using neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, John T.; Matsubayashi, Masahito; Nurul Islam, Md.

    1994-12-01

    The diffusion characteristics of water in polymer materials have been studied for a few decades. Several methods have been developed to provide water diffusion characteristics as a function of time, temperature, pressure, or thickness of polymer. Unfortunately, most of these methods give the amount of water absorbed as a function of weight versus time at given environmental conditions. Concentration profiles of the water diffusion through the polymer have been unobtainable by these established methods. Neutron radiography is a method of non-destructive testing that has grown rapidly over the past ten years and is capable of giving these concentration profiles. Epoxy is one of the most commonly used polymers for which water diffusion information is important. In the automotive industry, epoxy is used both as a sealant and a bonder to prevent water from getting inside structures and causing corrosion. To prevent this corrosion, it is important to know the diffusion behavior of water in the epoxy adhesive.p ]This paper will demonstrate the use of high resolution neutron radiography as a viable method for the determination of the diffusion profile of water in commercially available epoxies. Aluminum coupons were constructed and joined together using four different epoxies. These coupons were then submerged in water. Neutron radiographs were made of the coupons as a function of total time submerged and water temperature. The weights of the coupons were also obtained as a function of submerged time for comparison with other methods. Four different epoxies were tested. Profiles of the water concentration are easily observed and measured.

  4. Education and Public Outreach for NASA's EPOXI Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Lucy-Ann A.; Crow, C. A.; Behne, J.; Brown, R. N.; Counley, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Ristvey, J. D.; Warner, E. M.

    2009-09-01

    NASA's EPOXI mission is reusing the Deep Impact (DI) flyby spacecraft to study comets and extra-solar planets around other stars. During the Extrasolar Planetary Observations and Characterization (EPOCh) phase of the mission extrasolar planets transiting their parent stars were observed to gain further knowledge and understanding of planetary systems. Observations of Earth also allowed for characterization of Earth as an extrasolar planet. A movie of a lunar transit of the Earth created from EPOCh images and links to existing planet finding activities from other NASA missions are available on the EPOXI website. The Deep Impact Extended Investigation (DIXI) continues the Deep Impact theme of investigating comet properties and formation by observing comet Hartley 2 in November 2010. The EPOXI Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program is both creating new materials and updating and modifying existing Deep Impact materials based on DI mission results. Comparing Comets is a new educational activity under development that will guide students in conducting analyses of comet surface features similar to those the DIXI scientists will perform after observing comet Hartley 2. A new story designed to stimulate student creativity was developed in alignment with national educational standards. EPOXI E/PO also funded Family Science Night (FSN), a program bringing together students, families, and educators for an evening at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. FSN events include time for families to explore the museum, a presentation by a space scientist, and an astronomy themed IMAX film. Nine events were held during the 2008-2009 school year with a total attendance of 3,145 (attendance since inception reached 44,732). Half of attendance is reserved for schools with high percentages of underrepresented minorities. EPOXI additionally offers a bi-monthly newsletter to keep the public, teachers, and space enthusiasts updated on current mission activities. For more

  5. Toughening mechanism in elastomer-modified epoxy resins, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, A. F.; Pearson, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The role of matrix ductility on the toughenability and toughening mechanism of elastomer-modified DGEBRA epoxies was investigated. Matrix ductility was varied by using epoxide resins of varying epoxide monomer molecular weights. These epoxide resins were cured using 4,4' diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) and, in some cases, modified with 10% HYCAR(r)CTBN 1300X8. Fracture roughness values for the neat epoxies were found to be almost independent on the monomer molecular weight of the epoxide resin used. However, it was found that the fracture toughness of the elastomer-modified epoxies was very dependent upon the epoxide monomer molecular weight. Tensile dilatometry indicated that the toughening mechanism, when present, is similar to the mechanisms found for the piperidine cured epoxies in Part 1. SEM and OM corroborate this finding. Dynamic mechanical studies were conducted to shed light on the toughenability of the epoxies. The time-dependent small strain behavior of these epoxies were separated into their bulk and shear components. The bulk component is related to brittle fracture, whereas the shear component is related to yielding. It can be shown that the rates of shear and bulk strain energy buildup for a given stress are uniquely determined by the values of Poisson's ratio, nu. It was found that nu increases as the monomer molecular weight of the epoxide resin used increases. This increase in nu can be associated with the low temperature beta relaxation. The effect of increasing cross-link density is to shift the beta relaxation to higher temperatures and to decrease the magnitude of the beta relaxation. Thus, increasing cross-link density decreases nu and increases the tendency towards brittle fracture.

  6. Aging results for PRD 49 III/epoxy and Kevlar 49/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamstad, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kevlar 49/epoxy composite is growing in use as a structural material because of its high strength-to-weight ratio. Currently, it is used for the Trident rocket motor case and for various pressure vessels on the Space Shuttle. In 1979, the initial results for aging of filament-wound cylindrical pressure vessels which were manufactured with preproduction Kevlar 49 (Hamstad, 1979) were published. This preproduction fiber was called PRD 49 III. This report updates the continuing study to 10-year data and also presents 7.5-year data for spherical pressure vessels wound with production Kevlar 49. For completeness, this report will again describe the specimens of the original study with PRD 49 as well as specimens for the new study with Kevlar 49.

  7. Rheological and morphological properties of graphene-epoxy nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Lafdi, Khalid; Guadagno, Liberata

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the rheological and morphological properties of an epoxy resin filled with graphene-based nanoparticles have been investigated. Two samples of partially exfoliated graphite (pEG) and carboxylated partially exfoliated graphite (CpEG), differing essentially for the content of carboxylated groups, are used. The percentage of exfoliated graphite is slightly different for the two samples: 56% for pEG and and 60% for CpEG. Exfoliated graphite is prepared using traditional acid intercalation followed by a sudden treatment at high temperature (900°C). The epoxy matrix is prepared by mixing a tetrafunctional precursor with a reactive diluent which produces a significant decrease in the viscosity of the epoxy precursor so that the dispersion step of nanofillers in the matrix can easily occur. The hardener agent, the 4,4-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), is added at a stoichiometric concentration with respect to all the epoxy rings. The inclusion of the pEG and CpEG samples in the formulated epoxy mixture significantly modifies the rheological behaviour of the mixture itself. The epoxy mixture, indeed, shows a Newtonian behavior; on the contrary the complex viscosity of the nanocomposites clearly shows a shear thinning behavior at 3 wt % of pEG content and at 0.75 wt% of CpEG content. The increase in complex viscosity with the increasing of pEG and CpEG content is mostly caused by a dramatic increase in the storage modulus of the nanocomposites. All the graphene-based epoxy mixtures are cured by a two-stage curing cycles: a first isothermal stage is carried out at the lower temperature of 125°C for 1 hour and, then, a second isothermal stage at the higher temperature of 200°C for 3 hours. The different morphology shown by the two pEG and CpEG samples is consistent with the difference in the percentage of exfoliation degree and well correlates with the rheological behavior of investigated graphene-epoxy nanocomposites.

  8. Qualification of S-glass/epoxy thermal isolator bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Unidirectional fiberglass reinforced epoxy structures have been evaluated as thermal isolator tension straps for the charge-coupled devices on the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field/Planetary Camera. Mechanical and thermal properties are reported for filament-wound S-2 glass in a generic epoxy resin and compared to S-901 glass bands used on a previous camera. Measurements were performed on very small paper clip-shaped bands. Probably the smallest in length and have a load carrying mean cross sectional area of only 0.00024 square inches.

  9. Development of quality assurance methods for epoxy graphite prepreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. S.; Hunter, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    Quality assurance methods for graphite epoxy/prepregs were developed. Liquid chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, and gel permeation chromatography were investigated. These methods were applied to a second prepreg system. The resin matrix formulation was correlated with mechanical properties. Dynamic mechanical analysis and fracture toughness methods were investigated. The chromatography and calorimetry techniques were all successfully developed as quality assurance methods for graphite epoxy prepregs. The liquid chromatography method was the most sensitive to changes in resin formulation. The were also successfully applied to the second prepreg system.

  10. Radiochemical ageing of epoxy coating for nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, D. P. R.; Fraïsse, F.; Fayolle, B.; Kuntz, M.; Verdu, J.

    2010-03-01

    The degradation of an epoxy-amine network exposed to gamma irradiation in oxygen atmosphere has been studied by using a variety of analytical methods, including infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and sol-gel analysis. Results show that the oxidation of epoxy systems grows with the irradiation dose. Hydroperoxides, which are species resulting from oxidation, were identified and quantified by DSC. As indicated by the sol-gel analysis, the mechanism of degradation of chain scission seems to be predominant over crosslinking. The modifications induced by irradiation reflect in a greater capacity of water absorption.

  11. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  12. Selectfluor-Mediated Simultaneous Cleavage of C-O and C-C Bonds in α,β-Epoxy Ketones Under Transition-Metal-Free Conditions: A Route to 1,2-Diketones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Ren, Shaobo; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yunkui

    2015-07-01

    Selectfluor-mediated simultaneous cleavage of C-O and C-C bonds in α,β-epoxy ketones has been successfully achieved under transition-metal-free conditions. The reaction gives 1,2-diketone compounds in moderate to good yields involving a ring-opening/benzoyl rearrangement/C-C bond cleavage sequence under oxidative conditions. PMID:26050519

  13. Epoxide Opening of a 7,17-Seco-7,8-Epoxy-C19-Diterpenoid Alkaloid.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong; Wang, Feng-Peng; Chen, Qiao-Hong

    2015-12-01

    A new and effective approach toward epoxide opening of a 7,17-seco-7,8-epoxy-C19-diterpenoid alkaloid is herein described. The starting epoxide was prepared from naturally occurring yunnaconitine via a nine-step transformation. Treatment of this epoxide with trifluoroacetic anhydride in dioxane at 110 degrees C followed by reduction with sodium boron hydride generated two epoxide opening compounds 7 and 8. Each of their structures is characteristic of a Δ8,15 bridgehead double bond and a 7β-oxygen-substituted group. PMID:26882668

  14. Polyester and epoxy resins: Abrasion resistance. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and materials for enhanced wear and abrasion resistance of polyester and epoxy resins. Topics include test procedures and results, compounds and additives, forming processes, reinforcement effects, and applications. Electrical insulation, linings and coatings for numerous substrates, solar control film glazing material, hoses, material to rebuild worn metal parts, pipes, boats, industrial floor coverings, and ladder rungs are among the applications discussed. Trade name materials and manufacturers are included. (Contains a minimum of 130 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Microbial biotransformation of 16α,17-epoxy-ent-kaurane-19-oic acid by Beauveria sulfurescens ATCC 7159-F.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Ricardo A; Gunaherath, G M Kamal B; Bastos, Jairo K; Gunatilak, A A Leslie

    2013-08-01

    Biotransformation of 16alpha,17-epoxy-ent-kaurane-19-oic acid (1) by Beauveria sulfurescens ATCC 7159-F led to the production of a new ent-kaurane diterpenoid, 7beta,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid (7), and four other ent-kauranes (8 - 11), all of which were identified as their methyl esters. Compounds 9 and 10 were found to be new stereoisomers. Structures of these were established by the extensive usage of their spectroscopic characteristics. PMID:24079162

  16. Monomers for thermosetting and toughening epoxy resins. [glycidyl amine derivatives, propargyl-containing amines, and mutagenic testing of aromatic diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Eight glycidyl amines were prepared by alkylating the parent amine with epichlorohydrin to form chlorohydrin, followed by cyclization with aqueous NaOH. Three of these compounds contained propargyl groups with postcuring studies. A procedure for quantitatively estimating the epoxy content of these glycidyl amines was employed for purity determination. Two diamond carbonates and several model propargly compounds were prepared. The synthesis of three new diamines, two which contain propargyloxy groups, and another with a sec-butyl group is in progress. These materials are at the dinitro stage ready for the final hydrogenation step. Four aromatic diamines were synthesized for mutagenic testing purposes. One of these compounds rapidly decomposes on exposure to air.

  17. Stimuli-responsive cellulose modified by epoxy-functionalized polymer nanoparticles with photochromic and solvatochromic properties.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Amin; Rad, Jaber Keyvan; Mahdavian, Ali Reza

    2016-10-01

    Photoresponsive papers are among the fast and simple tools for detection of polarity by solvatochromic and photochromic behaviors upon UV irradiation. Here, a new, green and facile modification strategy was employed to prepare novel stimuli-responsive cellulose materials containing spiropyran by mixing microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), as a model compound, with epoxy-functionalized photochromic latex. FTIR analysis, thermal and thermo-mechanical properties were used to confirm the microstructral properties. Crystallographic analysis revealed a decrease in crystallinity of cellulose matrix and approved the incorporation of photochromic copolymer. Then stimuli-responsive papers were prepared by using pulp paper as the cellulosic matrix and their smart characteristics were studied under UV irradiation while dried or immersed into some polar and non-polar solvents. Different color changes were observed and investigated by solid-state UV-vis spectroscopy. These significant results were attributed to the efficient chemical modification and confirmed by SEM, EDX and nitrogen mapping analyses. PMID:27312622

  18. Thermal properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes-graphite nanosheets/epoxy nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, G. Venkata; Padya, Balaji; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S.; Jain, P. K.

    2013-06-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite nanosheets (GNS) reinforced epoxy nanocomposites are synthesized by solution mixing process. Various surface active groups on filler materials are analyzed and their effect on dispersion, interfacial bonding was correlated to the thermal conductivity and dimensional stability of the nanocomposites. Thermal conductivity of MWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposites was enhanced by 34% when compared to GNS/epoxy nanocomposites at room temperature. Improved dimensional stability was also observed in the case of MWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposites. Poor thermal properties of GNS/epoxy nanocomposites are due to formation of GNS agglomerates in the nanocomposites.

  19. Structural and electrical properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantayat, S.; Rout, D.; Swain, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of the functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotube on the structure and electrical properties of composites was investigated. Samples based on epoxy resin with different weight percentage of MWCNTs were prepared and characterized. The interaction between MWCNT & epoxy resin was noticed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structure of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) reinforced epoxy composite was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The dispersion of f-MWCNT in epoxy resin was evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Electrical properties of epoxy/f-MWCNT nanocomposites were measured & the result indicated that the conductivity increased with increasing concentration of f-MWCNTs.

  20. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section 721.2752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section 721.2752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752...

  2. Woven graphite epoxy composite test specimens with glass buffer strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnar, G. R.; Palmer, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Woven unidirectional graphite cloth with bands of fiberglass replacing the graphite in discrete lengthwise locations was impregnated with epoxy resin and used to fabricate a series of composite tensile and shear specimens. The finished panels, with the fiberglass buffer strips, were tested. Details of the fabrication process are reported.

  3. Synchrotron Radiation Investigation in Epoxy Resin Modified with Polysiloxane System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Wenjun; Li, Weizhen; Ding, Jindian; Gu, Xiaodan; Wang, Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Epoxy resins are one of the most important classes of thermosetting polymers. Epoxy resin modified with polysiloxane is expected that the siloxane moiety may exert its qualities of thermal stability, impact toughness and surface-modification properties. Our group tried to introduce polysiloxane into epoxy resin by blending diglycidyl-ether of bisphenol-A with epoxypropoxypropyl terminated polydimethyl-siloxane and polyetherimide-siloxane in different proportion. These polysiloxane modified epoxy resins have been investigated using a combination of small- and wide angle X-ray scatterings (SAXS and WAXS) and scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy (STXM). Nano- to micro-scale domain size, distribution and chemical composition were observed with spatial and spectroscopic sensitivities offered by both hard and soft x-ray scattering/microscopy. In-situ SAXS experiments were performed to understand the mechanism of microphase separation and dynamics of nanostructure evolution. Acknowledgment: The authors thank Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (Overseas Visiting Scholar Program 2012) and Shanghai University of Engineering Science (2011xz04) for financial supports.

  4. New hybrid thermosets based on epoxy resins and benzocylobutenes

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, D.J.; White, J.E.; Burks, B.T.

    1995-12-31

    A series of new, one component thermosets have been prepared by combining Dow`s epoxy resin and benzo-cyclobutene (BCB) technologies. The hybrid epoxy/BCB thermosetting monomers are prepared in the melt by reactions of amine-, phenol-, and carboxyl-functionalized benzocyclobutenes with epoxy-containing species such as bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether, chain-extended bisphenol-A epoxy resins, 9,9-bis(4-glycidyloxy-phenyl)fluorene, and epichlorohydrin. The monomers have outstanding processing characteristics, potentially long shelf life, and the convenience of an uncatalyzed, thermally cured, one component system. The resins are cured at >170{degrees}C (T{sub max}=260{degrees}C) and exhibit glass transition temperatures (Tg) of 85 to over 250{degrees}C. The examples shown below (n=0, 1, and 3.5) were prepared as part of this work. The chain extended species (n=3.5) is an extraordinarily tough thermoset, with a fracture toughness (K{sub Ic}) of over 3,000 psi-in{sup 0.5}.

  5. Thermal expansion of an epoxy-glass microsphere composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal expansion of a composite of epoxy (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and solid glass microspheres was investigated. The microspheres had surfaces which were either untreated or treated with a silicone release agent, an epoxy coupling agent, or a general purpose silane coupling agent. Both room temperature (about 300 K) and elevated temperature (about 475 K) cures were used for the epoxy. Two microsphere size ranges were used, about 50 microns, which is applicable in filled moldings, and about 125 microns, which is applicable as bond line spacers. The thermal expansion of the composites was measured from 300 to 350 K or from 300 to 500 K, depending on the epoxy cure temperature. Measurements were made on composites containing up to .6 volume fraction microspheres. Two predictive models, which required only the values of thermal expansion of the polymer and glass and their specific gravities, were tested against the experimental data. A finite element analysis was made of the thermal strain of a composite cell containing a single microsphere surrounded by a finite-thickness interface.

  6. Galvanic Corrosion In (Graphite/Epoxy)/Alloy Couples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, Merlin D.; Higgins, Ralph H.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of galvanic coupling between graphite/epoxy composite material, G/E, and D6AC steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, and Inconel(R) 718 nickel alloy in salt water described in report. Introductory section summarizes previous corrosion studies of G/E with other alloys. Details of sample preparation presented along with photographs of samples before and after immersion.

  7. Novel Epoxy Activated Hydrogels for Solving Lactose Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Elnashar, Magdy M. M.; Hassan, Mohamed E.

    2014-01-01

    “Lactose intolerance” is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5–10% w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3 U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11 U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's –SH, –NH, and –OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's –NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, Km and Vmax, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2 h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel. PMID:25013804

  8. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Michael; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Norman, Kirsten; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-10-19

    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Adhesion at Epoxy Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Clancy, Thomas C.; Hinkley, J. A.; Gates. T. S.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of moisture on adhesives used in aerospace applications can be modeled with chemically specific techniques such as molecular dynamics simulation. In the present study, the surface energy and work of adhesion are calculated for epoxy surfaces and interfaces, respectively, by using molecular dynamics simulation. Modifications are made to current theory to calculate the work of adhesion at the epoxy-epoxy interface with and without water. Quantitative agreement with experimental values is obtained for the surface energy and work of adhesion at the interface without water. The work of adhesion agrees qualitatively with the experimental values for the interface with water: the magnitude is reduced 15% with respect to the value for the interface without water. A variation of 26% in the magnitude is observed depending on the water configuration at a concentration of 1.6 wt%. The methods and modifications to the method that are employed to obtain these values are expected to be applicable for other epoxy adhesives to determine the effects of moisture uptake on their work of adhesion.

  10. Photosensitive filler minimizes internal stresses in epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, J. N.

    1967-01-01

    Photosensitive filler is added to curable epoxy resins to minimize stress from internal shrinkage during curing or polymerization. Cinnamic acid resins and cinnamal ketones may be added in the amount of 1 to 3 percent by weight of the resin mixture.

  11. Functionalizing CNTs for Making Epoxy/CNT Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jian; Rajagopal, Ramasubramaniam

    2009-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with linear molecular side chains of polyphenylene ether (PPE) has been shown to be effective in solubilizing the CNTs in the solvent components of solutions that are cast to make epoxy/CNT composite films. (In the absence of solubilization, the CNTs tend to clump together instead of becoming dispersed in solution as needed to impart, to the films, the desired CNT properties of electrical conductivity and mechanical strength.) Because the PPE functionalizes the CNTs in a noncovalent manner, the functionalization does not damage the CNTs. The functionalization can also be exploited to improve the interactions between CNTs and epoxy matrices to enhance the properties of the resulting composite films. In addition to the CNTs, solvent, epoxy resin, epoxy hardener, and PPE, a properly formulated solution also includes a small amount of polycarbonate, which serves to fill voids that, if allowed to remain, would degrade the performance of the film. To form the film, the solution is drop-cast or spin-cast, then the solvent is allowed to evaporate.

  12. Novel epoxy activated hydrogels for solving lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, Magdy M M; Hassan, Mohamed E

    2014-01-01

    "Lactose intolerance" is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5-10% w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3 U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11 U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's -SH, -NH, and -OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's -NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, K m and V max, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2 h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel. PMID:25013804

  13. Environmental Testing of Glass-Fiber/Epoxy Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Pair of reports discusses long-term environmental tests of glassfiber/epoxy composite pressure vessels. Strength diminishes during long exposure to environment. Since such data necessary for accurate design of long-life structures such as pressure vessels, NASA Lewis Research Center built outdoor test stand in 1973. Test stand maintains system under constant pressure loading without frequent intervention of personnel.

  14. Nonlinear Inelastic Mechanical Behavior Of Epoxy Resin Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yekani Fard, Masoud

    Polymer and polymer matrix composites (PMCs) materials are being used extensively in different civil and mechanical engineering applications. The behavior of the epoxy resin polymers under different types of loading conditions has to be understood before the mechanical behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) can be accurately predicted. In many structural applications, PMC structures are subjected to large flexural loadings, examples include repair of structures against earthquake and engine fan cases. Therefore it is important to characterize and model the flexural mechanical behavior of epoxy resin materials. In this thesis, a comprehensive research effort was undertaken combining experiments and theoretical modeling to investigate the mechanical behavior of epoxy resins subject to different loading conditions. Epoxy resin E 863 was tested at different strain rates. Samples with dog-bone geometry were used in the tension tests. Small sized cubic, prismatic, and cylindrical samples were used in compression tests. Flexural tests were conducted on samples with different sizes and loading conditions. Strains were measured using the digital image correlation (DIC) technique, extensometers, strain gauges, and actuators. Effects of triaxiality state of stress were studied. Cubic, prismatic, and cylindrical compression samples undergo stress drop at yield, but it was found that only cubic samples experience strain hardening before failure. Characteristic points of tensile and compressive stress strain relation and load deflection curve in flexure were measured and their variations with strain rate studied. Two different stress strain models were used to investigate the effect of out-of-plane loading on the uniaxial stress strain response of the epoxy resin material. The first model is a strain softening with plastic flow for tension and compression. The influence of softening localization on material behavior was investigated using the DIC system. It was found that

  15. Copper oxide nanoparticles in an epoxy network: microstructure, chain confinement and mechanical behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sunny, Anu Tresa; Vijayan P, Poornima; Adhikari, Rameshwar; Mathew, Suresh; Thomas, Sabu

    2016-07-20

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (nCOPs) having octahedral morphology, synthesized through hydrazine reduction reaction were employed to formulate an epoxy based novel nanocomposite. The synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles was carried out in polyethylene glycol medium to enhance their interfacial adhesion with the epoxy matrix. The extent of conservation of the crystalline nature and octahedral morphology of the nCOP in its epoxy nanocomposites was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy analysis. The mechanical properties including tensile, impact, fracture toughness and surface hardness of epoxy-nCOP nanocomposites were evaluated as a function of nCOP content. The maximum enhancement in strength, modulus, impact strength, fracture toughness and surface hardness of epoxy-nCOP nanocomposites was observed for 5 phr nCOP content. This may be due to the strong interaction between the nCOP and epoxy chains at this composition arising from its fairly uniform dispersion. A quantitative measurement of constrained epoxy chains immobilized by the nCOP octahedra was carried out using dynamic mechanical analysis. The enhancement in the storage modulus is related to the amount of the added nCOP as well as the volume of the constrained epoxy chains in the proximity of nCOP. The behaviour of epoxy-nCOP nanocomposites in this study has been explained by proposing a mechanism based on the distribution of nCOP domains in the epoxy matrix and the existing volume of constrained epoxy chains. PMID:27381062

  16. Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics of Polymer Composites Based on Epoxy Resin, Aluminium Nanopowders and Boric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The epoxy polymers are characterized by low thermal stability and high flammability. Nanoparticles are considered to be effective fillers of polymer composites for improving their thermal and functional properties. In this work, the epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, polyethylene polyamine as a hardener, aluminum nanopowder and boric acid fine powder as flame-retardant filler. The thermal characteristics of the obtained samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical characteristics of epoxy composites were also studied. It was found that an addition of all fillers enhances the thermal stability and mechanical characteristics of the epoxy composites. The best thermal stability showed the epoxy composite filled with boric acid. The highest flexural properties showed the epoxy composite based on the combination of boric acid and aluminum nanopowder.

  17. Lower Permittivity Characteristic of Mesoporous-Alumina/Epoxy Composite due to Particle Porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurimoto, Muneaki; Murakami, Yoshinobu; Nagao, Masayuki

    Introduction of metal oxide nanoparticles to polymer composite material is known to have unique dielectric behavior and significant advantage in the electrical insulation performance of electrical power apparatus. This paper presents an attempt to derive the dielectric characteristics of polymer composite filled with the metal oxide particle which has mesoporous structure. Experiments were carried out in the epoxy composites filled with alumina microparticles which have the mesoporous structure (mesoporous-alumina/epoxy composites) with different particle content. Based on the measurement of the specific gravity of mesoporous-alumina/epoxy composites, the porosity of mesoporous-alumina particle in the epoxy matrix was found to be higher than that of nonporous-alumina particle. Furthermore, we evaluated relative permittivity of mesoporous-alumina/epoxy composites by measuring the capacitance of its specimens. As the results, we verified that the permittivity of mesoporous-alumina/epoxy composites was lower than that of nonporous-alumina/epoxy composites due to the particle porosity.

  18. Epoxy-acrylic core-shell particles by seeded emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Hong, Liang; Lin, Jui-Ching; Meyers, Greg; Harris, Joseph; Radler, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We developed a novel method for synthesizing epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes. We first prepared an aqueous dispersion of high molecular weight solid epoxy prepolymers using a mechanical dispersion process at elevated temperatures, and we subsequently used the epoxy dispersion as a seed in the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers comprising methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Advanced analytical techniques, such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and peak force tapping atomic force microscopy (PFT-AFM), have elucidated a unique core-shell morphology of the epoxy-acrylic hybrid particles. Moreover, the formation of the core-shell morphology in the seeded emulsion polymerization process is primarily attributed to kinetic trapping of the acrylic phase at the exterior of the epoxy particles. By this new method, we are able to design the epoxy and acrylic polymers in two separate steps, and we can potentially synthesize epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes with a broad range of compositions. PMID:27078740

  19. Effect of fluorination on the mechanical behavior and electromagnetic interference shielding of MWCNT/epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Si-Eun; Lee, Man Young; Lee, Min-Kyung; Jeong, Euigyung; Lee, Young-Seak

    2016-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy composites were prepared using MWCNT fluorinated to different extents. The mechanical properties, fracture surface morphologies and electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency (EMI-SE) of these composites were evaluated for epoxy matrices containing MWCNT with degrees of fluorination. The tensile strengths of the MWCNT/epoxy composites improved by 31% with treated MWCNT compared to that of the epoxy composites with untreated MWCNT. The EMI-SE values of the fluorinated MWCNT/epoxy composites improved up to 26% with increasing fluorination extent. The mechanical and electrical properties enhancement of the composites were attributed to the fluorinated MWCNT, which improved both the dispersion of the MWCNT in epoxy matrix and interfacial interactions between the MWCNT and the epoxy matrix.

  20. Preparation and Various Characteristics of Epoxy/Alumina Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozako, Masahiro; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Kohtoh, Masanori; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    Epoxy/ alumina nanocomposites were newly prepared by dispersing 3, 5, 7, and 10 weight (wt) % boehmite alumina nanofillers in a bisphenol-A epoxy resin using a special two-stage direct mixing method. It was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy imaging that the nanofillers were homogeneously dispersed in the epoxy matrix. Dielectric, mechanical, and thermal properties were investigated. It was elucidated that nanofillers affects various characteristics of epoxy resins, when they are nanostructrued. Such nano-effects we obtained are summarized as follows. Partial discharge resistance increases as the filler content increases; e.g. 7 wt% nanofiller content creates a 60 % decrease in depth of PD-caused erosion. Weibull analysis shows that short-time electrical treeing breakdown time is prolonged to 265 % by 5 wt% addition of nanofillers. But there was more data scatter in nanocomposites than in pure epoxy. Permittivity tends to increase from 3.7 to 4.0 by 5 wt% nanofiller addition as opposed to what was newly found in the recent past. Glass transition temperature remains unchanged as 109 °C. Mechanical properties such as flexural strength and flexural modulus increase; e.g. flexural strength and flexural modulus are improved by 5 % and 8 % with 5 wt% content, respectively. Excess addition causes a reverse effect. It is concluded from permittivity and glass transition temperature characteristics that interfacial bonding seems to be more or less weak in the nanocomposite specimens prepared this time, even though mechanical strengths increase. There is a possibility that the nanocomposites specimens will be improved in interfacial quality.

  1. Electron beam curing of epoxy resins by cationic polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Havens, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners has been established to develop high performance Electron Beam (EB) curable polymer matrix composites. EB curing of composites has a number of advantages over conventional thermal curing. Composites cured by EB have much shorter cure times, lower overall energy requirements, and reduced thermal stresses in the cured part. Furthermore, less expensive tooling can be used since the process occurs at lower temperatures. Preliminary investigations have determined that conventional epoxy resins can be cured at selectable temperatures with high glass transition temperatures (essentially the same as with thermal curing), while still exhibiting equivalent or comparable mechanical properties. A cationic photoinitiator at a concentration of 1-3 parts per hundred of the epoxy resin is required for this process. Gamma cell screening of cationic photoinitiators with bisphenol A, bisphenol F, and cycloaliphatic epoxies demonstrated that diaryliodonium salts of weakly nucleophilic anions such as hexafluoroantimonate are most effective. Diaryliodonium salts were also found to be the most effective initiators for the cationic polymerization of epoxy resins when a high energy/power electron beam accelerator was used as the source of ionizing radiation. For example Dow Tactix 123 (bisphenol A epoxy) containing 3 phr (4-octyloxyphenyl) phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate was irradiated at a total dosage of 100 kGy. Glass transition temperature (tan delta) of the cured material as determined by dynamic mechanical analysis was 182{degrees}C as compared to 165{degrees}C for the thermally cured material.

  2. Education And Public Outreach For NASA's EPOXI Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Lucy-Ann A.; Warner, E. M.; Crow, C. A.; Ristvey, J. D.; Counley, J.

    2008-09-01

    NASA's EPOXI mission has two scientific objectives in using the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft for further studies of comets and adding studies of extra-solar planets around other stars. During the Extrasolar Planetary Observations and Characterization (EPOCh) phase of the mission, observations of extrasolar planets transiting their parent stars are observed to further knowledge and understanding of planetary systems. Observations of Earth allow for comparison with Earth-like planets around other stars. A movie of Earth during a day when the Moon passed between Earth and the spacecraft is an educational highlight with scientific significance. The Deep Impact Extended Investigation (DIXI) continues the Deep Impact theme of investigating comets with a flyby of comet Hartley 2 in November 2010 to further explore the properties of comets and their formation. The EPOXI Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program builds upon existing materials related to exploring comets and the Deep Impact mission, updating and modifying activities based on results from Deep Impact. An educational activity called Comparing Comets is under development that will guide students in conducting analyses similar to those that DIXI scientists will perform after observing comet Hartley 2. Existing educational materials related to planet finding from other NASA programs are linked from EPOXI's web page. Journey Through the Universe at the National Air and Space Museum encourages education in family and community groups and reaches out to underrepresented minorities. EPOXI's E/PO program additionally offers a newsletter to keep the public, teachers, and space enthusiasts apprised of mission activities. For more information visit: http://epoxi.umd.edu.

  3. Compound matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravvaritis, Christos; Mitrouli, Marilena

    2009-02-01

    This paper studies the possibility to calculate efficiently compounds of real matrices which have a special form or structure. The usefulness of such an effort lies in the fact that the computation of compound matrices, which is generally noneffective due to its high complexity, is encountered in several applications. A new approach for computing the Singular Value Decompositions (SVD's) of the compounds of a matrix is proposed by establishing the equality (up to a permutation) between the compounds of the SVD of a matrix and the SVD's of the compounds of the matrix. The superiority of the new idea over the standard method is demonstrated. Similar approaches with some limitations can be adopted for other matrix factorizations, too. Furthermore, formulas for the n - 1 compounds of Hadamard matrices are derived, which dodge the strenuous computations of the respective numerous large determinants. Finally, a combinatorial counting technique for finding the compounds of diagonal matrices is illustrated.

  4. Synthesis and properties of a bio-based epoxy resin with high epoxy value and low viscosity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Songqi; Liu, Xiaoqing; Fan, Libo; Jiang, Yanhua; Cao, Lijun; Tang, Zhaobin; Zhu, Jin

    2014-02-01

    A bio-based epoxy resin (denoted TEIA) with high epoxy value (1.16) and low viscosity (0.92 Pa s, 258C) was synthesized from itaconic acid and its chemical structure was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Its curing reaction with poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether) (D230) and methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) was investigated. For comparison, the commonly used diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was also cured with the same curing agents. The results demonstrated that TEIA showed higher curing reactivity towards D230/MHHPA and lower viscosity compared with DGEBA, resulting in the better processability. Owing to its high epoxy value and unique structure, comparable or better glass transition temperature as well as mechanical properties could be obtained for the TEIA-based network relative to the DGEBA-based network. The results indicated that itaconic acid is a promising renewable feedstock for the synthesis of bio-based epoxy resin with high performance. PMID:24136894

  5. Neurosteroids: Can a 2alpha,3alpha-epoxy ring make up for the 3alpha-hydroxyl group?

    PubMed

    Kasal, Alexander; Buděšínský, Miloš; Mareš, Pavel; Krištofíková, Zdena; Leitão, Alcino J; Sá e Melo, Maria Luisa; Silva, Maria Manuel C

    2016-01-01

    Seven steroid epoxides were prepared from 5α-pregn-2-en-20-one and 5α-pregn-3-en-20-one and their side-chain derivatives. All compounds were tested in vitro for binding to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor, some of them also in vivo for anticonvulsant action. 2α,3α-Epoxy-5α-pregnan-20-one inhibited the TBPS binding to the GABAA receptor and showed a moderate anticonvulsant action in immature rats. In contrast, its 3α,4α-isomer was inactive. More polar epoxide derivatives, modified at the side chain were less active or inactive. Noteworthy, diol 20, the product of trans-diaxial opening of the 2α,3α-epoxide 4, was not able to inhibit the TBPS binding, showing that the activity of the epoxide is due to the compound itself and not to its hydrolytic product. The 3α-hydroxyl group is known to be essential for the GABAA receptor binding. Despite the shortness of in vivo effects which are probably due to metabolic inactivation of the products prepared, our results show that the 2α,3α-epoxy ring is another structural pattern with ability to bind the GABAAR. PMID:26631551

  6. New antitumor compounds from Carya cathayensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Bi, Xiu-Li; Cao, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Kai-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2012-03-01

    A new lignan (7R,8S,8'R)-4,4',9-trihydroxy-7,9'-epoxy-8,8'-lignan, and three new phenolics, carayensin-A, carayensin-B, and carayensin-C, together with 13 known compounds were isolated from the shells of Carya cathayensis. Their chemical structures were established mainly by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. All the compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against several human tumor types including human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116, HT-29), human lung cancer cell line (A549), and human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The compounds 1, 5, 6, and 16 are considered to be potential as antitumor agents, which could significantly inhibit the cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:22330636

  7. High Temperature Characteristic in Electrical Breakdown and Electrical Conduction of Epoxy/Boron-nitride Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Yutaka; Kurimoto, Muneaki; Murakami, Yoshinobu; Nagao, Masayuki

    The power module for the electrical vehicle needs electrical insulation material with high thermal conductivity. Recently, the epoxy insulating material filled with boron-nitride particles (epoxy/boron-nitride composite) is focused as an effective solution. However, the insulation performance of epoxy/boron-nitride composite was not investigated enough especially at the high temperature in which the power module was used, i.e. more than 100°C. In this paper, we investigated high temperature characteristics in electrical breakdown and conduction current of epoxy/boron-nitride composite. Breakdown test under the application of DC lamp voltage and impulse voltage clarified that the epoxy/boron-nitride composite had the constant breakdown strength even in the high temperature. Comparison of the epoxy/boron-nitride composite with previous material, which was epoxy/alumina composite, indicated that the breakdown voltage of the epoxy/boron-nitride composite in the high temperature was found to be higher than that of epoxy/alumina composite under the same thermal-transfer quantity among them. Furthermore, conduction current measurement of epoxy/boron-nitride composite in the high temperature suggested the possibility of the ionic conduction mechanism.

  8. Thermal degradation of new and aged urethane foam and epon 826 epoxy.

    SciTech Connect

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Mills, Bernice E.

    2013-08-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the decomposition as a function of temperature for the foam and epoxy as a function of temperature in the range of 60C to 170C. Samples were studied with one day holds at each of the studied temperatures. Both new (FoamN and EpoxyN) and aged (FoamP and EpoxyP) samples were studied. During these ~10 day experiments, the foam samples lost 11 to 13% of their weight and the EpoxyN lost 10% of its weight. The amount of weight lost was difficult to quantify for EpoxyP because of its inert filler. The onset of the appearance of organic degradation products from FoamP began at 110C. Similar products did not appear until 120C for FoamN, suggesting some effect of the previous decades of storage for FoamP. In the case of the epoxies, the corresponding temperatures were 120C for EpoxyP and 110C for EpoxyN. Suggestions for why the aged epoxy seems more stable than newer sample include the possibility of incomplete curing or differences in composition. Recommendation to limit use temperature to 90-100C for both epoxy and foam.

  9. Cure reaction of epoxy resins catalyzed by graphite-based nanofiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcione, C. Esposito; Acocella, Maria Rosaria; Giuri, Antonella; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Guerra, Gaetano

    2015-12-01

    A significant effort was directed to the synthesis of graphene stacks/epoxy nanocomposites and to the analysis of the effect of a graphene precursor on cure reaction of a model epoxy matrix. A comparative thermal analysis of epoxy resins filled with an exfoliated graphite oxide eGO were conducted. The main aim was to understand the molecular origin of the influence of eGO on the Tg of epoxy resins. The higher Tg values previously observed for low curing temperatures, for epoxy resins with graphite-based nanofillers, were easily rationalized by a catalytic activity of graphitic layers on the reaction between the epoxy and amine groups of the resin, which leads to higher crosslinking density in milder conditions. A kinetic analysis of the cure mechanism of the epoxy resin associated to the catalytical activity of the graphite based filler was performed by isothermal DSC measurements. The DSC results showed that the addition of graphite based filler greatly increased the enthalpy of epoxy reaction and the reaction rate, confirming the presence of a catalytic activity of graphitic layers on the crosslinking reaction between the epoxy resin components (epoxide oligomer and di-amine). A kinetic modelling analysis, arising from an auto-catalyzed reaction mechanism, was finally applied to isothermal DSC data, in order to predict the cure mechanism of the epoxy resin in presence of the graphite based nanofiller.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cross-Linking Strategy of a Quercetin-Based Epoxidized Monomer as a Naturally-Derived Replacement for BPA in Epoxy Resins.

    PubMed

    Kristufek, Samantha L; Yang, Guozhen; Link, Lauren A; Rohde, Brian J; Robertson, Megan L; Wooley, Karen L

    2016-08-23

    The natural polyphenolic compound quercetin was functionalized and cross-linked to afford a robust epoxy network. Quercetin was selectively methylated and functionalized with glycidyl ether moieties using a microwave-assisted reaction on a gram scale to afford the desired monomer (Q). This quercetin-derived monomer was treated with nadic methyl anhydride (NMA) to obtain a cross-linked network (Q-NMA). The thermal and mechanical properties of this naturally derived network were compared to those of a conventional diglycidyl ether bisphenol A-derived counterpart (DGEBA-NMA). Q-NMA had similar thermal properties [i.e., glass transition (Tg ) and decomposition (Td ) temperatures] and comparable mechanical properties (i.e., Young's Modulus, storage modulus) to that of DGEBA-NMA. However, it had a lower tensile strength and higher flexural modulus at elevated temperatures. The application of naturally derived, sustainable compounds for the replacement of commercially available petrochemical-based epoxies is of great interest to reduce the environmental impact of these materials. Q-NMA is an attractive candidate for the replacement of bisphenol A-based epoxies in various specialty engineering applications. PMID:27415143

  11. Green Preparation of Epoxy/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites Using a Glycidylamine Epoxy Resin as the Surface Modifier and Phase Transfer Agent of Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinlei; Zhou, Yang; Peng, Mao

    2016-01-27

    In studies of epoxy/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites, organic solvents are commonly used to disperse GO, and vigorous mechanical processes and complicated modification of GO are usually required, increasing the cost and hindering the development and application of epoxy nanocomposites. Here, we report a green, facile, and efficient method of preparing epoxy/GO nanocomposites. When triglycidyl para-aminophenol (TGPAP), a commercially available glycidyl amine epoxy resin with one tertiary amine group per molecule, is used as both the surface modifier and phase transfer agent of GO, GO can be directly and rapidly transferred from water to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and other types of epoxy resins by manual stirring under ambient conditions, whereas GO cannot be transferred to these epoxy resins in the absence of TGPAP. The interaction between TGPAP and GO and the effect of the TGPAP content on the dispersion of GO in the epoxy matrix were investigated systematically. Superior dispersion and exfoliation of GO nanosheets and remarkably improved mechanical properties, including tensile and flexural properties, toughness, storage modulus, and microhardness, of the epoxy/GO nanocomposites with a suitable amount of TGPAP were demonstrated. This method is organic-solvent-free and technically feasible for large-scale preparation of high-performance nanocomposites; it opens up new opportunities for exploiting the unique properties of graphene or even other nanofillers for a wide range of applications. PMID:26720708

  12. Six new cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory 11, 20-epoxy-ent-kaurane diterpenoids from Isodon wikstroemioides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-Yan; Wang, Wei-Guang; Du, Xue; Yang, Jin; Pu, Jian-Xin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2015-05-01

    The present study was designed to determine the chemical constituents of EtOAc extracts of the aerial parts of Isodon wikstroemioides. Compounds 1-8 were isolated and purified by normal-phase silica gel and reversed-phase C18silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. Most of them were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480 cells and their inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Among the eight 11, 20-epoxy-ent-kauranoids isolated, compounds 1-6 (isowikstroemins H-M) were new diterpenoids. Compounds 1, 3, and 7 exhibited significant cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from (0.84 ± 0.02) to (4.09 ± 0.34) μmol · L(-1), while compounds 4 and 5 showed selective cytotoxicity. In addition, compounds 1, 3, 4, and 7 exhibited inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. These results provide a basis for future development of these compounds as anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25986288

  13. Pyrolysis of epoxies used for thermal-battery headers

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Thornberg, S.M.; Campbell-Domme, B.

    1995-08-01

    Thermally activated batteries use an epoxy for encapsulation of the electrical feedthroughs in the header of the battery. When the thermal battery is thermally abused, the encapsulant can pyrolyze and generate large internal pressures. This causes the battery to vent in extreme cases. The nature of these gases has never been adequately documented. Therefore, a study was undertaken to address this deficiency. The pyrolysis of various encapsulants that have been used, or are being considered for use, in thermally activated batteries was studied over a temperature range of 155 to 455 C. The composition of the pyrolysis decomposition products was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GS/MS). This determination is helpful in assessing the potential environmental and health effect for personnel exposed to such gases. In addition, the thermal stability of the various epoxies was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  14. Cryogenic tests of glass-epoxy based electrical insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Martin, P.S.; Pripstein, M.; Green, M.A.

    1981-08-01

    A thin superconducting solenoid for the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) experiment at PEP was constructed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in 1979 and tested in 1980. A failure of the ground plane insulation damaged the coil to the point that it required rebuilding. An extensive study of this failure indicated that an iron chip embedded in the bore tube had penetrated the insulation. Before rebuilding the coil, an investigation of the insulation system was done with the goal of determining the most reliable techniques and materials for withstanding high voltages in the coil package. The experience with the TPC coil and its prototypes indicate that glass cloth vacuum-impregnated with epoxy is an excellent material for cryogenic applications from the mechanical standpoint. Further, since the LBL assembly shop had extensive experience with the epoxy formulation used in the coil, there was reluctance to change that component. Therefore, the investigation concentrated on different types of glass cloth and on composites containing glass cloth.

  15. Development of ricehusk ash reinforced bismaleimide toughened epoxy nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Kanimozhi, K.; Sethuraman, K.; Selvaraj, V.; Alagar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent past decades have witnessed remarkable advances in composites with potential applications in biomedical devices, aerospace, textiles, civil engineering, energy, electronic engineering, and household products. Thermoset polymer composites have further enhanced and broadened the area of applications of composites. In the present work epoxy-BMI toughened-silica hybrid (RHA/DGEBA-BMI) was prepared using bismaleimide as toughener, bisphenol-A as matrix and a silica precursor derived from rice husk ash as reinforcement with glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent. Differential scanning calorimetry, electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and goniometry were used to characterize RHA/DGEBA-BMI composites developed in the present work. Tensile, impact and flexural strength, tensile and flexural modulus, hardness, dielectric properties were also studied and discussed. The hybrid nanocomposites possess the higher values of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties than those of neat epoxy matrix. PMID:25279372

  16. Degradation of epoxy coatings on phosphatized zinc-electroplated steel

    SciTech Connect

    Deflorian, F.; Miskovic-Stankovic, V.B.; Bonora, P.L.; Fedrizzi, L. . Material Engineering Dept.)

    1994-06-01

    The corrosion behavior of phosphatized zinc (Zn)-electroplated steel coated with epoxy films of different thicknesses was studies using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the breakpoint frequency method, potentiodynamic measurements, and the faradaic distortion method. The trends with time of the coatings' electrical properties (resistance and capacitance) and of the corrosion current were recorded. Coated samples were immersed in 5% sodium chloride (NaCl) in distilled water. To study the delamination tendency of the epoxy coatings, a small hole of 0.1 mm diam was drilled through the coatings to the metal-polymer interface. Comparison of the methods to evaluate the area of the defect in the organic coating and to establish the substrate area in contact with the electrolyte showed the breakpoint method failed to provide accurate information during a long initial period.

  17. Dielectric properties of epoxy resin fly ash composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanaik, A.; Bhuyan, S. K.; Samal, S. K.; Behera, A.; Mishra, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    Epoxy resin is widely used as an insulating material in high voltage applications. Ceramic fillers are always added to the polymer matrix to enhance its mechanical properties. But at the same time, filler materials decreases the electrical properties. So while making the fly ash epoxy composite, it is obvious to detect the effect of fly ash reinforcement on the dielectric nature of the material. In the present research work, fly ash is added to four different weight percentages compositions and post-curing has been done in the atmospheric condition, normal oven and micro oven. Tests were carried out on the developed polymer composite to measure its dielectric permittivity and tan delta value in a frequency range of 1 Hz - 1 MHz. The space charge behaviours were also observed by using the pulse electroacoustic (PEA) technique. The dielectric strength and losses are compared for different conditions.

  18. Sliding wear resistance of epoxy polymers against stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Spinks, G.M.; Dimovski, L.; Samandi, M.

    1993-12-31

    The wear mechanisms occurring during sliding contact between epoxy resins and a smooth steel counterface have been investigated. The samples were prepared from a commercial diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy and cured with various hardeners. The cured resins displayed a wide range of mechanical properties (particularly fracture toughness), and crosslink densities. The wear rates of the samples were found to vary by up to four orders of magnitude. It was found that the wear rates correlated to the inverse of the fracture toughness, which was in accord with previous studies on the wear of plastics by Omar et al. The mechanism was found to involve an ``adhesive/fatigue`` process, as proposed by Omar. Additionally, it was found that the addition of a rubber toughening agent had no effect on the wear rate, whilst sliding contact between polymer and polymer resulted in a much higher rate of wear. Possible explanations for this behavior are given.

  19. Study on joining method for Graphite Epoxy tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, Tasuku; Namba, Kazuroh

    Graphite/Epoxy (GE) tubes are commonly used to construct truss assemblies for spacecraft applications. One of the most important items for developing these tubes is the joining method. The joining of these tubes usually employs metallic end fittings which are adhesively bonded to tubes. These methods, however, are not suitable for joining GE tubes because of heavy weight on metallic end fittings. This paper describes the design, fabrication and evaluation of the whole GE tubes which are formed into screwthreads on the inner surface of the tube simultaneously. Three types of tubes with different fiber arrangement in the region of the screw are designed. 40-mm diameter tubes constituted of 290 GPa modulus fibers in epoxy prepreg are used to fabricate 600 mm length specimens. The specimens are tested to measure the tensile strength and stiffness. The maximum loads of specimens range from 120 kN to 240 kN by the difference in fiber arrangement.

  20. Formation of porous epoxy monolith via concentrated emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianli; Zhang, Chen; Du, Zhongjie; Xiang, Aiming; Li, Hangquan

    2008-09-15

    Step polymerization was introduced into the concentrated emulsion templating method and was illustrated with the preparation of porous epoxy monolith. A solution of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA), its curing agent low molecular weight polyamide resin, and surfactant nonyl phenol polyoxyethylene ether in 4-methyl-2-pentanon as a solvent was used as the continuous phase, an aqueous suspension of colloidal silica as the dispersed phase of the concentrated emulsion. After the continuous phase polymerized and the dispersed phase removed, a porous material is obtained. The key point in this work is to find a compromise between the rates of curing and phase separating and thus achieve a kinetic stability of the concentrated emulsion. The effects of loading of colloidal silica, the pre-curing of the epoxy precursors, and the volume fraction of the dispersed phase were systematically investigated. PMID:18571192

  1. Thermal expansion of epoxy-fiberglass composite specimens

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Bridgman, C.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal expansion behavior of three epoxy-fiberglass composite specimens was measured from 20 to 120/sup 0/C (70 to 250/sup 0/F) using a fused quartz push-rod dilatometer. Billets produced by vacuum impregnating layers of two types of fiberglass cloth with an epoxy resin were core-drilled to produce cylindrical specimens. These were used to study expansion perpendicular and parallel to the fiberglass layers. The dilatometer is held at a preselected temperature until steady-state is indicated by stable length and temperature data. Before testing the composite specimens, a reliability check of the dilatometer was performed using a copper secondary standard. This indicated thermal expansion coefficient (..cap alpha..) values within +-2% of expected values from 20 to 200/sup 0/C.

  2. Thermal properties of epoxy resins at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakane, H.; Nishijima, S.; Fujishiro, H.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yoshizawa, S.; Yamazaki, S.

    2002-05-01

    In order to establish the design technique of epoxy resin at cryogenic temperature, its thermal contraction coefficients and dynamic Young's modulus were measured from room to cryogenic temperatures when plasticizer was both present and absent. The disappearance of the effects of the plasticizer were confirmed by measuring its thermal expansion coefficient. The process in which the addition of plasticizer reduces the glass transition temperature was clarified by measuring its dynamic Young's modulus. It was also discovered that blunt peak is caused by addition of plasticizer. The data obtained by measuring the dynamic Young's modulus clearly indicate that this peak disappears at cryogenic temperature resulting in the disappearance of the effects of the plastizer. The conclusion is that when epoxy resin is to be used at cryogenic temperature it is desirable that the addition of plastizer is kept at the minimum level.

  3. Development of ricehusk ash reinforced bismaleimide toughened epoxy nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Kanimozhi, K; Sethuraman, K; Selvaraj, V; Alagar, M

    2014-01-01

    Recent past decades have witnessed remarkable advances in composites with potential applications in biomedical devices, aerospace, textiles, civil engineering, energy, electronic engineering, and household products. Thermoset polymer composites have further enhanced and broadened the area of applications of composites. In the present work epoxy-BMI toughened-silica hybrid (RHA/DGEBA-BMI) was prepared using bismaleimide as toughener, bisphenol-A as matrix and a silica precursor derived from rice husk ash as reinforcement with glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent. Differential scanning calorimetry, electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and goniometry were used to characterize RHA/DGEBA-BMI composites developed in the present work. Tensile, impact and flexural strength, tensile and flexural modulus, hardness, dielectric properties were also studied and discussed. The hybrid nanocomposites possess the higher values of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties than those of neat epoxy matrix. PMID:25279372

  4. Relaxation Characteristics of 828 DGEBA Epoxy Over Long Time Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoo, Jasmine; Reprogle, Riley C.; Wisler, Brian; Arechederra, Gabriel K.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.; Long, Kevin N.

    The mechanical relaxation response in uniaxial compression of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy was studied over long time periods. The epoxy, 828DEA, was Epon 828 cured with diethanolamine (DEA). A sample was compressed at constant strain rate and held at various strain levels for days to allow the sample to relax. The sample was then compressed further and held once more. The relaxation curves were fit with a stretched exponential function. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmetli, Gulnare Gungor, Ahmet Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-15

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  6. Formulation and Characterization of Epoxy Resin Copolymer for Graphite Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keck, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Maximum char yield was obtained with a copolymer containing 25% mol fraction DGEBE and 75% mol fraction DGEBA (Epon 828). To achieve the high values (above 40%), a large quantity of catalyst (trimethoxyboroxine) was necessary. Although a graphite laminate 1/8" thick was successfully fabricated, the limited life of the catalyzed epoxy copolymer system precludes commercial application. Char yields of 45% can be achieved with phenolic cured epoxy systems as indicated by data generated under NAS2-10207 contract. A graphite laminate using this type of resin system was fabricated for comparison purposes. The resultant laminate was easier to process and because the graphite prepreg is more stable, the fabrication process could readily be adapted to commercial applications.

  7. Development of ricehusk ash reinforced bismaleimide toughened epoxy nanocomposites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Kanimozhi; Sethuraman, K.; V, Selvaraj; Alagar, Muthukaruppan

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Recent past decades have witnessed remarkable advances in composites with potential applications in biomedical devices, aerospace, textiles, civil engineering, energy, electronic engineering, and household products. Thermoset polymer composites have further enhanced and broadened the area of applications of composites. In the present work epoxy-BMI toughened-silica hybrid (RHA/DGEBA-BMI) was prepared using bismaleimide as toughener, bisphenol-A as matrix and a silica precursor derived from rice husk ash as reinforcement with glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent. Differential scanning calorimetry, electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and goniometry were used to characterize RHA/DGEBA-BMI composites developed in the present work. Tensile, impact and flexural strength, tensile and flexural modulus, hardness, dielectric properties were also studied and discussed. The hybrid nanocomposites possess the higher values of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties than those of neat epoxy matrix.

  8. Interdiffusion at the interface between poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, H.T.; Wightman, J.P.; Lesko, J.J.; Reifsnider, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    The study of polymer-polymer interfaces is recently attracting great interest. So far, most studies have focused on the interface between thermoplastic polymers, even though the interface between thermoplastic and thermoset polymers is also very important in numerous areas such as adhesion and composites. In the present study, bilayer films of thermoplastic poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and a thermoset epoxy were prepared and their compositional profiles at the interface were examined by electron microprobe analysis.

  9. Fracto-emission from graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Fracto-emission (FE) is the emission of particles and photons during and following crack propagation. Electrons (EE), positive ions (PIE), and excited and ground state neutrals (NE) were observed. Results of a number of experiments involving principally graphite/epoxy composites and Kevlar single fibers are presented. The physical processes responsible for EE and PIE are discussed as well as FE from fiber- and particulate-reinforced composites.

  10. RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY/CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E; Eric Skidmore, E

    2008-12-12

    The Department of Energy Savannah River Site vitrifies nuclear waste incident to defense programs through its Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The piping in the DWPF seal pot jumper configuration must withstand the stresses during an unlikely but potential deflagration event, and maintain its safety function for a 20-year service life. Carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites (CFR) were proposed for protection and reinforcement of piping during such an event. The proposed CFR materials have been ASME-approved (Section XI, Code Case N-589-1) for post-construction maintenance and is DOT-compliant per 49CFR 192 and 195. The proposed carbon fiber/epoxy composite reinforcement system was originally developed for pipeline rehabilitation and post-construction maintenance in petrochemical, refineries, DOT applications and other industries. The effects of ionizing radiation on polymers and organic materials have been studied for many years. The majority of available data are based on traditional exposures to gamma irradiation at high dose rates ({approx}10,000 Gy/hr) allowing high total dose within reasonable test periods and general comparison of different materials exposed at such conditions. However, studies in recent years have shown that degradation of many polymers are sensitive to dose rate, with more severe degradation often observed at similar or even lower total doses when exposed to lower dose rates. This behavior has been primarily attributed to diffusion-limited oxidation which is minimized during very high dose rate exposures. Most test standards for accelerated aging and nuclear qualification of components acknowledge these limitations. The results of testing to determine the radiation resistance and microstructural effects of gamma irradiation exposure on a bisphenol-A based epoxy matrix composite reinforced with carbon fibers are presented. This work provides a foundation for a more extensive evaluation of dose rate effects on advanced epoxy

  11. MICROMECHANICS IN CONTINOUS GRAPHITE FIBER/EPOXY COMPOSITES DURING CREEP

    SciTech Connect

    C. ZHOU; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Micro Raman spectroscopy and classic composite shear-lag models were used to analyze the evolution with time of fiber and matrix strain/stress around fiber breaks in planar model graphite fiber-epoxy matrix composites. Impressive agreements were found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The local matrix creep leads to an increase in the load transfer length around the break under a constant load. This increases the chance of fiber breakage in the neighboring intact fibers.

  12. Fabrication and evaluation of uniform and gradient density epoxies

    SciTech Connect

    Domeier, L.A.; Skala, D.M.; Goods, S.H.

    1997-11-01

    Filled epoxy materials which vary in density in a designed manner have been fabricated and their mechanical properties evaluated. Density variations were produced by incorporating different volume fractions of either glass microballoons (GMB) or alumina. Several different sample types were evaluated including uniform density (0.8 g/cm{sup 3} < {rho} < 2.0 g/cm{sup 3}) samples and gradient density samples (GMB only, 0.8 g/cm{sup 3} < {rho} < 1.2 g/cm{sup 3}). The uniform density specimens were evaluated for the effects of filler type and concentration on modulus and toughness. Results indicated that addition of alumina filler significantly increased the resulting modulus while addition of GMB had little measurable effect. These differences could be understood in terms of the differing moduli of the additives relative to that of the epoxy matrix. In the former case the alumina particulates had a modulus much greater than that of the epoxy while in the latter case, the modulus of the GMB additive was only slightly greater than that of the matrix. Addition of either filler significantly degraded the toughness of the composite specimens and precluded the use of gradients to enhance toughness performance. Discontinuous {open_quotes}block{close_quotes} gradients used for testing were fabricated by simple sequential pours of formulations with different GMB loadings and were evaluated for modulus, strength and ductility. Continuous gradients were fabricated in process studies by programmed shifts in the peristaltic pumping/mixing ratio of epoxies filled with either alumina or GMB. None of the continuous gradient materials were mechanically tested. These results suggest that applications utilizing gradient materials containing alumina and similar high modulus fillers to provide designed stiffness rather than improved toughness are the most appropriate targets for future investigation.

  13. Toughening reinforced epoxy composites with brominated polymeric additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z. (Inventor); Gilwee, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polyfunctional epoxy resins including tris(hydroxyphenyl)methane triglycidyl ether are toughened by addition of polybrominated polymeric additives having an EE below 1500 to the pre-cure composition. Carboxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber is optionally present in the pre-cure mixture as such or as a pre-formed copolymer with other reactants. Reinforced composites, particularly carbon-reinforced composites, of these resins are disclosed and shown to have improved toughness.

  14. Toughening reinforced epoxy composites with brominated polymeric additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Gilwee, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polyfunctional epoxy resins including tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane triglycidyl ether are toughened by addition of polybrominated polymeric additives having an EE below 1500 to the pre-cure composition. Carboxy terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber is optionally present in the precure mixture as such or as a pre-formed copolymer with other reactants. Reinforced composites, particularly carbon reinforced composites, of these resins are disclosed and shown to have improved toughness.

  15. Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Tube Lined With Aluminum Foil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernet, Nelson J.; Kerr, Gregory K.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon-fiber/epoxy composite tube lined with welded aluminum foil useful as part of lightweight heat pipe in which working fluid ammonia. Aluminum liner provides impermeability for vacuum seal, to contain ammonia in heat pipe, and to prevent flow of noncondensable gases into heat pipe. Similar composite-material tubes lined with foils also incorporated into radiators, single- and two-phase thermal buses, tanks for storage of cryogenic materials, and other plumbing required to be lightweight.

  16. Study made to control depth of potting compound for honeycomb sandwich fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J.

    1966-01-01

    Study determines optimum fastener insert size and shape, type of embedding cement, diameter, undercut and depth control by fiber glass plug in a honeycomb structure for maximum tensile strength The best potting compound is 5-5-1 weight mixture of epoxy resin, curing agent, and milled glass fibers.

  17. Preparation of Epoxy Resin Thin Film by Electroless Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Hitoshi; Hirai, Makoto; Shinagawa, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Chigane, Masaya; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Fujita, Naoyuki

    The electrodeposition coating process, which is a polymer film deposition method using water electrolysis, is widely used for automobile body primers. Recently this process is being used in the insulating polymer films deposition for the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) or micro electric components. However, this process has difficulty in depositing polymer film on complex shapes and non-conductive surfaces. In this paper, we demonstrate that epoxy resin thin films used extensively as insulating polymer films were successfully deposited using the electroless chemical reaction in aqueous solution on a non-conductive surface and high aspect glass tube. The substrates catalyzed using a commercialized three-step Sn/Ag/Pd activation process were immersed in the reaction solution containing water-soluble resin and NO3- ion, reducing agent (DMAB). The pH near the substrate rose when NO3- was reduced by released electrons from DMAB. Water-soluble resin combined with OH- hence, polymer thin film was deposited by the electroless deposition reaction. By FE-SEM and FT-IR measurement, it was clear that the conformal and dense epoxy resin films were deposited. Using the present method, epoxy films could be deposited on the surface of a high aspect ratio glass tube 50 mm in length and φ3 in inner diameter. These films had high insulation resistivity of 108∼1011Ωm with applied voltage of 250 V.

  18. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.; Esgar, Jack B.; Gougeon, Meade; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft. long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications.

  19. Preparation and Insulation Properties of Epoxy-Layered Silicate Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Takahiro; Sawa, Fumio; Ozaki, Tamon; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Toshio; Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo

    Recent rapid progress in nanotechnology has focused research and development efforts on new high performance materials. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials such as nylon-layered silicate nanocomposites have attracted special interest and various studies continue to be conducted on thermoplastic resins. In this study, we found out the best organic modifier of layered silicate that contributed to an affinity for epoxy resin (thermosetting resin), and succeeded in creating an intercalated-type epoxy-layered silicate nanocomposite. This nanocomposite realized some improvements by the addition of 5 or 6 weight percentage of organically modified layered silicates, which have 20oC higher thermal resistance, 60% higher fracture toughness, 19% higher flexural strength and 10% higher insulation breakdown strength than these of an epoxy resin without layered silicate fillers. An electrical treeing growth was observed in the nanocomposite. The electrical treeing progress with many branches in the nanocomposite seemed to result in an increase in the insulation breakdown strength. These results suggest the possibility of practical use as an insulating material in heavy apparatuses.

  20. Mechanical behavior of Kenaf/Epoxy corrugated sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhori, S.; Hassan, M. Z.; Daud, Y.; Sarip, S.; Rahman, N.; Ismail, Z.; Aziz, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the response of kenaf/epoxy corrugated sandwich structure during quasi-static test. Force-displacements curves have been deducted to determine the deformation pattern and collapse behavior of the structure. Kenaf/epoxy sandwich structures skins fabricated by using hand layup technique and the corrugated core were moulded by using steel mould. Different thicknesses of corrugated core web with two sizes of kenaf fibers were used. The corrugated core is then bonded with the skins by using poly-epoxy resin and has been cut into different number of cells. The specimens then tested under tensile and compression at different constant speeds until the specimens fully crushed. Tensile tests data showed the structure can be considered brittle when it breaking point strain, ε less than 0.025. In compression test, the specimens fail due to dominated by stress concentration that initiated by prior cracks. Also, the specimens with more number of cells and thicker core web have higher strength and the ability to absorb higher energy.

  1. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Spera, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. ); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. )

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  2. Correlation of the crack initiation stress with epoxy network topology

    SciTech Connect

    Adolf, D.; Weeks, T.; McCoy, J.

    1997-03-01

    Much controversy surrounds the dependence of stress intensity factor of glassy thermosets, epoxies in particular, with crosslink density. One could scan the literature and find references that claim K{sub Ic} increases with crosslink density, decreases with crosslink density, or is independent of crosslink density. The authors feel that two factors contribute to this confusion. First, a typical method for assessing this dependence relies on modifying the crosslink density by changing the precursor epoxy molecular weight. On the other hand, one could change stoichiometry or quench the reaction at intermediate extents of reaction to obtain large changes in crosslink density. However, most studies have not measured the resulting stress intensity factor of these partially cured systems at constant T-T{sub g}, where T{sub g} is the glass transition temperature of the epoxy. Since T{sub g} can change significantly with cure and since fracture processes at the crack tip are dissipative, they must work at constant T-T{sub g} to ensure that the nonlinear viscoelastic mechanisms are fairly compared. In this study, they quenched the reaction of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and diethanolamine (DEA) at various stages past the gel point and measured the three-point-bend stress intensity factor at a constant T-T{sub g} = {minus}50 C. The trend is clear and significant; increasing crosslink density directly increases the load-to-fail.

  3. Latent Hardeners for the Assembly of Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, Frank; Wohl, Christopher J.; Connell, John W.; Mercado, Zoar; Galloway, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale composite structures are commonly joined by secondary bonding of molded-and-cured thermoset components. This approach may result in unpredictable joint strengths. In contrast, assemblies made by co-curing, although limited in size by the mold, result in stable structures, and are certifiable for commercial aviation because of structural continuity through the joints. Multifunctional epoxy resins were prepared that should produce fully-cured subcomponents with uncured joining surfaces, enabling them to be assembled by co-curing in a subsequent out-of-autoclave process. Aromatic diamines were protected by condensation with a ketone or aldehyde to form imines. Properties of the amine-cured epoxy were compared with those of commercially available thermosetting epoxy resins and rheology and thermal analysis were used to demonstrate the efficacy of imine protection. Optimum conditions to reverse the protecting chemistry in the solid state using moisture and acid catalysis were determined. Alternative chemistries were also investigated. For example, chain reaction depolymerization and photoinitiated catalysts would be expected to minimize liberation of volatile organic content upon deprotection and avoid residual reactive species that could damage the resin. Results from the analysis of protected and deprotected resins will be presented.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Triaxial Braided Carbon/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, C. L.; Roberts, G. D.; Braley, M. S.; Xie, M.; Booker, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    In an on-going effort to increase the safety and efficiency of turbine engines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is exploring lightweight alternatives to the metal containment structures that currently encase commercial jet engines. Epoxy reinforced with braided carbon fibers is a candidate structural material which may be suitable for an engine case. This paper reports flat-coupon mechanical-property experiments performed to compliment previously reported subcomponent impact testing and analytical simulation of containment structures. Triaxial-braid T700/5208 epoxy and triaxial-braid T700h436 toughened epoxy composites were evaluated. Also, two triaxial-braid architectures (0 degrees plus or minus 60 degrees, and 0 degrees plus or minus 45 degrees) with the M36 resin were evaluated through tension, compression, and shear testing. Tensile behavior was compared between standard straight-sided specimens (ASTM D3039) and bow-tie specimens. Both double-notch shear (ASTM D3846) and Iosepescu (ASTM D5379) tests were performed as well. The M36/O degrees plus or minus 45 degrees configuration yield the best response when measurements were made parallel to the axial tows. Conversely, the M36/0 degrees plus or minus 60 degrees configuration was best when measurements were made perpendicular to the axial tows. The results were used to identify critical properties and to augment the analysis of impact experiments.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Triaxial Braided Carbon/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, C. L.; Roberts, G. D.; Braley, M. S.; Xie, M.; Booker, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    In an on-going effort to increase the safety and efficiency of turbine engines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is exploring lightweight alternatives to the metal containment structures that currently encase commercial jet engines. Epoxy reinforced with braided carbon fibers is a candidate structural material which may be suitable for an engine case. This paper reports flat-coupon mechanical-property experiments performed to compliment previously reported subcomponent impact testing and analytical simulation of containment structures. Triaxial-braid T700/5208 epoxy and triaxial-braid T700/M36 toughened epoxy composites were evaluated. Also, two triaxial-braid architectures (0 +/- 60 deg., 0 +/- 45 deg.) with the M36 resin were evaluated through tension, compression, and shear testing. Tensile behavior was compared between standard straight-sided specimens (ASTM D3039) and bowtie specimens. Both double-notch shear (ASTM D3846) and Iosepescu (ASTM D5379) tests were performed as well. The M36/0 +/- 45 deg. configuration yield the best response when measurements were made parallel to the axial tows. Conversely, the M36/0 +/- 60 deg. configuration was best when measurements were made perpendicular to the axial tows. The results were used to identify critical properties and to augment the analysis of impact experiments.

  6. Epoxy-bonded La-Fe-Co-Si magnetocaloric plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulko, Barbara; Tušek, Jaka; Moore, James D.; Weise, Bruno; Skokov, Konstantin; Mityashkin, Oleg; Kitanovski, Andrej; Favero, Chiara; Fajfar, Peter; Gutfleisch, Oliver; Waske, Anja; Poredoš, Alojz

    2015-02-01

    We report the processing, analysis and testing of magnetocaloric composite materials consisting of La-Fe-Co-Si particles of various size fractions and a polymer matrix. All of the composites have working temperatures close to room temperature. The composites were pressed into thin plates, a geometry favorable for testing the composites in an active magnetic regenerator (AMR). In order to investigate the influence of particle size and binder type (epoxy), eight different epoxy-bonded La-Fe-Co-Si plates were made and analyzed. We found that the higher filling factor that can be achieved by using a mixture of several particle size fractions has beneficial influence on the thermal conductivity. Tests in the AMR revealed that a maximum temperature span of approximately ΔT=10 K under magnetic field change of μ0H=1.15 T can be obtained at no cooling load conditions. The stability of the measured ΔT values and the mechanical integrity of sample after cyclic application of a magnetic field have been monitored for 90,000 cycles and showed no significant changes. We therefore conclude that epoxy-bonded La-Fe-Co-Si magnetocaloric composites have good magnetocaloric properties at low material-processing costs and hence represent a competitive way to produce magnetocaloric materials to be used in AMR.

  7. Durability of Intercalated Graphite Epoxy Composites in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Davidson, Michelle L.; Shively, Rhonda

    1996-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of graphite epoxy composites can be substantially increased by intercalating (inserting guest atoms or molecules between the graphene planes) the graphite fibers before composite formation. The resulting high strength, low density, electrically conducting composites have been proposed for EMI shielding in spacecraft. Questions have been raised, however, about their durability in the space environment, especially with respect to outgassing of the intercalates, which are corrosive species such as bromine. To answer those concerns, six samples of bromine intercalated graphite epoxy composites were included in the third Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) experiment flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-46). Changes in electrical conductivity, optical reflectance, surface texture, and mass loss for SiO2 protected and unprotected samples were measured after being exposed to the LEO environment for 42 hours. SiO2 protected samples showed no degradation, verifying conventional protection strategies are applicable to bromine intercalated composites. The unprotected samples showed that bromine intercalation does not alter the degradation of graphite-epoxy composites. No bromine was detected to have been released by the fibers allaying fears that outgassing could be disruptive to the sensitive electronics the EMI shield is meant to protect.

  8. Epoxy nanocomposites with two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide additives.

    PubMed

    Eksik, Osman; Gao, Jian; Shojaee, S Ali; Thomas, Abhay; Chow, Philippe; Bartolucci, Stephen F; Lucca, Don A; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2014-05-27

    Emerging two-dimensional (2D) materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides offer unique and hitherto unavailable opportunities to tailor the mechanical, thermal, electronic, and optical properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this study, we exfoliated bulk molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) into nanoplatelets, which were then dispersed in epoxy polymers at loading fractions of up to 1% by weight. We characterized the tensile and fracture properties of the composite and show that MoS2 nanoplatelets are highly effective at enhancing the mechanical properties of the epoxy at very low nanofiller loading fractions (below 0.2% by weight). Our results show the potential of 2D sheets of transition metal dichalcogenides as reinforcing additives in polymeric composites. Unlike graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 are high band gap semiconductors and do not impart significant electrical conductivity to the epoxy matrix. For many applications, it is essential to enhance mechanical properties while also maintaining the electrical insulation properties and the high dielectric constant of the polymer material. In such applications, conductive carbon based fillers such as graphene cannot be utilized. This study demonstrates that 2D transition metal dichalcogenide additives offer an elegant solution to such class of problems. PMID:24754702

  9. Nanoporous Gyroid-Structured Epoxy from Block Copolymer Templates for High Protein Adsorbability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Bo; Lin, Tze-Chung; Hsueh, Han-Yu; Lin, Shih-Chieh; He, Xiao-Dong; Ho, Rong-Ming

    2016-06-28

    Nanoporous epoxy with gyroid texture is fabricated by using a nanoporous polymer with gyroid-forming nanochannels as a template for polymerization of epoxy. The nanoporous polymer template is obtained from the self-assembly of degradable block copolymer, polystyrene-b-poly(l-lactide) (PS-PLLA), followed by hydrolysis of PLLA blocks. Templated polymerization can be conducted under ambient conditions to create well-defined, bicontinuous epoxy networks in a PS matrix. By taking advantage of multistep curing of epoxy, well-ordered robust nanoporous epoxy can be obtained after removal of PS template, giving robust porous materials. The through-hole nanoporous epoxy in the film state can be used as a coated layer to enhance the adsorbability for both lysozyme and bovine serum albumin. PMID:27245380

  10. Analytical and experimental studies of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle ply laminates in shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, T.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a comparison study between a test program on the inelastic response under inplane shear over a wide range of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle-ply laminates are reported. This investigation was aimed at evaluating the applicability and adequacy of these analyses to predict satisfactorily the responses of angle-ply laminates. It was observed that these analytical tools are inadequate for this purpose as they fail to predict with sufficient confidence the shape of response and in particular the strength values associated with a given laminate configuration. Consequently, they do not provide the sought-after information about failure mechanisms which trigger failure of a particular designed laminate.

  11. Investigation of the effect of resin material on impact damage to graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental program are described which establishes the feasibility and guide lines for resin development. The objective was to identify the basic epoxy neat resin properties that improve low velocity impact resistance and toughness to graphite-epoxy laminates and at the same time maintain useful structural laminate mechanical properties. Materials tests from twenty-three toughened epoxy resin matrix systems are included.

  12. New Insights of Comets from the EPOXI Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, Karen J.; A'Hearn, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Comet missions are changing the paradigm for understanding comet activity, composition, and the formation of planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk. Each encounter has shown the diversity of surface morphologies and new insights into comet chemistry, formation scenarios, activity mechanisms and geology. Prior to the comet 103P/Hartley 2 EPOXI encounter, the prevailing view was that H 2O-ice sublimation controlled most comet activity. Differences in the amounts of minor parent/daughter photodissociation species are attributed to differences in formation location, temperature and disk chemistry. However, reconstructing the protoplanetary disk dynamics and chemistry consistent with observations hasn’t yet been achieved. The EPOXI mission flew past the nucleus of comet 103P/Hartley 2 on 11/4/2010. This small nucleus was known to be exceptionally active prior to the encounter, by virtue of a very large water production rate relative to its surface area. EPOXI provided stunning images of a small nucleus with strong chemical heterogeneity and a swarm of large icy chunks driven from the nucleus by CO2 jets. The EPOXI ground-based campaign provided a long-term baseline of observations of the pre-perihelion brightening of the comet which also showed that comet Hartley 2’s perihelion activity was dominated by sub-surface CO2 outgassing. The nucleus morphology was different from that of other nuclei visited by spacecraft; some rough topographic regions showed visible surface ice. Because the Earth’s atmosphere is opaque at the wavelengths for CO2 emission, there is only a little information about CO2 abundance in comets (primarily from space missions), yet CO, CO2 and H2O are likely key tracers of the chemistry in the protoplanetary disk. EPOXI has shown the crucial role that CO2 plays in comet activity. Further, CO2 abundance does not appear to be correlated with other parent volatiles, nor with dynamical classes suggesting that we need to revise our understanding of

  13. A study of thermal diffusivity of carbon-epoxy and glass-epoxy composites using the modified pulse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terpiłowski, Janusz; Piotrowska-Woroniak, Joanna; Romanowska, Julita

    2014-09-01

    Transient heat transfer is studied and compared in two planeparallel composite walls and one EPIDIAN 53 epoxy resin wall acting as a matrix for both composites. The first of the two walls is made of carbonepoxy composite; the other wall is made of glass-epoxy composite, both with comparable thickness of about 1 mm and the same number of carbon and glass fabric layers (four layers). The study was conducted for temperatures in the range of 20-120 °C. The results of the study of thermal diffusivity which characterizes the material as a heat conductor under transient conditions have a preliminary character. Three series of tests were conducted for each wall. Each series took about 24 h. The results from the three series were approximated using linear functions and were found between (0.7-1.35)×10-7m2/s. In the whole range of temperature variation, the thermal diffusivity values for carbon-epoxy composite are from 1.2 to 1.5 times higher than those for the other two materials with nearly the same thermal diffusivity characteristics.

  14. Structure within thin epoxy films revealed by solvent swelling: A neutron reflectivity study

    SciTech Connect

    KENT,MICHAEL S.; YIM,HYUN; MCNAMARA,WILLIAM FRERE; IVKOV,R.; SATIJA,S.; MAJEWSKI,J.

    2000-03-02

    The focus of this work is the structure within highly crosslinked, two component epoxy films. The authors examine variations in crosslink density within thin epoxy films on silicon substrates by solvent swelling. The method is based on the fact that the equilibrium volume fraction of a swelling solvent is strongly dependent upon the local crosslink density. The authors examine the volume fraction profile of the good solvent nitrobenzene through the epoxy films by neutron reflection. Isotopic substitution is used to provide contrast between the epoxy matrix and the swelling solvent.

  15. Corrosion behavior of modified nano carbon black/epoxy coating in accelerated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad; Shariatpanahi, Homeira; Neshati, Jaber; Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil

    2015-03-01

    The electrochemical behavior and anticorrosion properties of modified carbon black (CB) nanoparticles in epoxy coatings were investigated in accelerated conditions. Nanoparticles of CB were modified by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. Dispersion of nanoparticles into epoxy was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The accelerated condition was prepared at 65 °C. CB nanoparticles improved corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating. The optimum concentration of CB in the epoxy coating was 0.75 wt%. Results showed that the CB hinder the corrosion due to its barrier properties. CB can decrease the diffusion coefficient of water in the coating with filling the micropores.

  16. Effect of Solvent-Assisted Dispersions of Clay/Epoxy Nanocomposites on Steel Passivation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Danbi; Park, Chan Eon; Yang, Seung Yun; Kim, Haekyoung; Kim, Se Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion of clay in polymer matrices is important to improve their engineering performances. Here we report the effect of solvent on dispersion of montmorillonite (MMT) in an epoxy matrix by examining transmission electron micrographs and X-ray diffraction of MMT/epoxy composites prepared with solvents with different polarities. We found that N-metyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) used as a polar solvent exhibited the improved dispersion of MMT in the epoxy owing to positive interaction energies with components, which prevents the aggregation of MMT platelets. The solvent-assisted dispersion of MMT significantly increased the corrosion resistance of MMT/epoxy nanocomposites pre-coated onto steel plates. PMID:27398557

  17. Epoxy and Silicone Optical Nanocomposites Filled with Grafted Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Peng

    Polymer nanocomposites, as a technologically important class of materials, exhibit diverse functional properties, and are used for applications ranging from structural and biomedical to electronic and optical. The properties of polymer nanocomposites are determined, in part, by the chemical composition of the polymer matrix and the nanofillers. Their properties are also sensitive to the geometry and size of the nanofillers, and to spatial distribution of the fillers. Control of the nanoparticle size and dispersion within a given polymer provides opportunities to tailor and optimize the properties of nanocomposites for specific application. For optical applications such as encapsulation of light emitting diodes (LEDs), polymer nanocomposites filled with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles would endow the polymer encapsulant with new functionality without sacrificing optical transparency. To this end, this thesis focuses on developing a simple and versatile approach towards the fabrication of epoxy and silicone transparent nanocomposites using matrix compatible chain-grafted nanoparticles as fillers, and studying the optical properties of the nanocomposites. The surface chemistry and grafted polymer chain design have been shown to play an important role in determining the dispersion state of the grafted nanoparticles and hence the final optical properties of the nanocomposites. To prepare transparent epoxy nanocomposites, poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) chains were grafted onto the optical nanoparticle surfaces via a combined phosphate ligand exchange process and azide-alkyne "click" chemistry. The dispersion behavior of PGMA-grafted nanoparticles within the epoxy matrix was investigated by systematically varying the grafting density and grafted chain length. It was found that within the small molecular weight epoxy resins, the dispersion states are more sensitive to the grafting density than the molecular weight of grafted chains. With high grafting densities

  18. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  19. Highly Conducting Graphite Epoxy Composite Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Weight savings as high as 80 percent could be achieved if graphite polymer composites could replace aluminum in structures such as electromagnetic interference shielding covers and grounding planes. This could result in significant cost savings, especially for the mobile electronics found in spacecraft, aircraft, automobiles, and hand-held consumer electronics. However, such composites had not yet been fabricated with conductivity sufficient to enable these applications. To address this lack, a partnership of the NASA Lewis Research Center, Manchester College, and Applied Sciences, Inc., fabricated nonmetallic composites with unprecedented electrical conductivity. For these composites, heat-treated, vapor-grown graphite fibers were selected which have a resistivity of about 80 mW-cm, more than 20 times more conductive than typical carbon fibers. These fibers were then intercalated with iodine bromide (IBr). Intercalation is the insertion of guest atoms or molecules between the carbon planes of the graphite fibers. Since the carbon planes are not highly distorted in the process, intercalation has little effect on mechanical and thermal properties. Intercalation does, however, lower the carbon fiber resistivity to less than 10 mW-cm, which is comparable to that of metal fibers. Scaleup of the reaction was required since the initial intercalation experiments would be carried out on 20-mg quantities of fibers, and tens of grams of intercalated fibers would be needed to fabricate even small demonstration composites. The reaction was first optimized through a time and temperature study that yielded fibers with a resistivity of 8.7 2 mW-cm when exposed to IBr vapor at 114 C for 24 hours. Stability studies indicated that the intercalated fibers rapidly lost their conductivity when exposed to temperatures as low as 40 C in air. They were not, however, susceptible to degradation by water vapor in the manner of most graphite intercalation compounds. The 1000-fold scaleup

  20. Rodent Biocompatibility Test Using the NASA Foodbar and Epoxy EP21LV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillman, J.; Steele, M.; Dumars, P.; Vasques, M.; Girten, B.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Epoxy has been used successfully to affix NASA foodbars to the inner walls of the Animal Enclosure Module for past space flight experiments utilizing rodents. The epoxy used on past missions was discontinued, making it necessary to identify a new epoxy for use on the STS-108 and STS-107 missions. This experiment was designed to test the basic biocompatibility of epoxy EP21LV with male rats (Sprague Dawley) and mice (Swiss Webster) when applied to NASA foodbars. For each species, the test was conducted with a control group fed untreated foodbars and an experimental group fed foodbars applied with EP21LV. For each species, there were no group differences in animal health and no statistical differences (P<0.05) in body weights throughout the study. In mice, there was a 16% increase in heart weight in the epoxy group; this result was not found in rats. For both species, there were no statistical differences found in other organ weights measured. In rats, blood glucose levels were 15% higher and both total protein and globulin were 10% lower in the epoxy group. Statistical differences in these parameters were not found in mice. For both species, no statistical differences were found in other blood parameters tested. Food consumption was not different in rats but water consumption was significantly decreased 10 to 15% in the epoxy group. The difference in water consumption is likely due to an increased water content of the epoxy-treated foodbars. Finally, both species avoided consumption of the epoxy material. Based on the global analysis of the results, the few parameters found to be statistically different do not appear to be a physiologically relevant effect of the epoxy material, We conclude that the EP21LV epoxy is biocompatible with rodents.

  1. Behaviour of hybrid jute-glass/epoxy composite tubes subjected to lateral loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental work on hybrid and non-hybrid composite tubes subjected to lateral loading has been carried out using jute, glass and hybrid jute-glass/epoxy materials. Tubes of 200 mm length with 110 mm inner diameter were fabricated by hand lay-up method to investigate the effect of material used and the number of layers on lateral-load-displacement relations and on the failure mode. Crush force efficiency and the specific energy absorption of the composite tubes were calculated. Results show that the six layers glass/epoxy tubes supported load higher 10.6% than that of hybrid jute-glass/ epoxy made of two layers of jute/epoxy four layers of glass/epoxy. It has been found that the specific energy absorption of the glass/epoxy tubes is found higher respectively 11.6% and 46% than hybrid jute-glass/epoxy and jute/epoxy tubes. The increase in the number of layers from two to six increases the maximum lateral load from 0.53KN to 1.22 KN for jute/epoxy and from 1.35 KN to 3.87 KN for the glass/epoxy tubes. The stacking sequence of the hybrid tubes influenced on the maximum lateral load and the absorbed energy. The maximum load obtained for the six layers jute-glass/epoxy tubes of different staking sequence varies between 1.88 KN to 3.46 KN. Failure mechanisms of the laterally loaded composite tubes were also observed and discussed.

  2. Graphene-epoxy composite electrode fabricated by in situ polycondensation for enhanced amperometric detection in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dengfeng; Ma, Guo; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2013-11-01

    This report describes the development and application of a novel graphene-epoxy composite electrode as a sensitive amperometric detector of capillary electrophoresis. The composite electrode was fabricated on the basis of the in situ polycondensation of a mixture of graphene and 1,2-ethanediamine-containing bisphenol A epoxy resin in the inner bore of a piece of fused silica capillary under heat. The structure of the material was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that graphene sheets were well dispersed and interconnected throughout the composite to form an electrically conductive network. The performance of this unique electrode was demonstrated by separating and detecting two naturally occurring phenolic compounds in rosemary in combination with capillary electrophoresis. The graphene-based detector offered significantly lower operating potentials, higher sensitivity, satisfactory resistance to surface fouling, and lower expense of operation, indicating great promise for a wide range of applications. PMID:24119752

  3. Mechanical properties and magnetocaloric effects in La(Fe, Si)13 hydrides bonded with different epoxy resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hu; Sun, YuJie; Li, YaWei; Wu, YuanYuan; Long, Yi; Shen, Jun; Hu, FengXia; Sun, JiRong; Shen, BaoGen

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of bonded La(Fe, Si)13 hydrides have been studied in detail. The mechanical strength increases with increasing the grade of epoxy resin from E-20 to E-51. This occurs because more pores and boundaries are filled with high grade resin since high epoxide content increases the degree of crosslinking and reduces the viscosity and shrinkage of resin. The compressive strength reaches 162 MPa for the bonded LaFe11.7Si1.3C0.2H1.8 with 3 wt. % E-51, which is 35% higher than that of bulk LaFe11.7Si1.3C0.2 compound (120 MPa). The mass ΔSM values remain almost same in bonded hydrides and are in a good agreement with the theoretical value. The maximum volumetric ΔSM values are 61.8, 58.0, and 54.7 mJ/cm3 K for bonded hydrides with epoxy resins E-20, E-44, and E-51, respectively, much higher than those of some magnetocaloric materials in same temperature range. The improved mechanical properties and large MCE indicate that bonded LaFe11.7Si1.3C0.2H1.8 is a promising material for room temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  4. Drop Reliability of Epoxy-contained Sn-58 wt.%Bi Solder Joint with ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finish Under Temperature and Humidity Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Woo-Ram; Kim, Yongil; Kim, Kyung-Yeol; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2016-04-01

    The influence of two kinds of surface finish, namely electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG), on the interfacial reactions and drop reliability of epoxy-enhanced Sn-58 wt.%Bi solder has been investigated after temperature-humidity storage tests. The chemical composition and morphology of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Also, the mechanical reliability of solder joints was evaluated using board-level drop tests. The Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENEPIG joint exhibited higher IMC growth rate than the Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENIG joint. After 500 h at 85°C/85% RH storage condition, new IMCs were formed on the Ni3Sn4 layer in samples with both surface finishes. The results of board-level drop tests showed that the number of drops was higher for the ENIG than the ENEPIG surface finish. Solder joint fracture occurred along the interface between the solder and IMC layer for the ENIG surface finish. However, with the ENEPIG surface finish, the crack propagated between the IMCs.

  5. Drop Reliability of Epoxy-contained Sn-58 wt.%Bi Solder Joint with ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finish Under Temperature and Humidity Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Woo-Ram; Kim, Yongil; Kim, Kyung-Yeol; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2016-07-01

    The influence of two kinds of surface finish, namely electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG), on the interfacial reactions and drop reliability of epoxy-enhanced Sn-58 wt.%Bi solder has been investigated after temperature-humidity storage tests. The chemical composition and morphology of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Also, the mechanical reliability of solder joints was evaluated using board-level drop tests. The Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENEPIG joint exhibited higher IMC growth rate than the Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENIG joint. After 500 h at 85°C/85% RH storage condition, new IMCs were formed on the Ni3Sn4 layer in samples with both surface finishes. The results of board-level drop tests showed that the number of drops was higher for the ENIG than the ENEPIG surface finish. Solder joint fracture occurred along the interface between the solder and IMC layer for the ENIG surface finish. However, with the ENEPIG surface finish, the crack propagated between the IMCs.

  6. Fracture Behavior of Silica- and Rubber-Nanoparticle-Toughed Epoxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, Amelia K.

    Particle-toughened crosslinked epoxies are popular materials for a variety of applications, including the microelectronics industry. For this application, the properties of these materials, such as a high fracture toughness and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, are highly appealing. In order to achieve these properties, inorganic particles are often added into the matrix. For this study, both inorganic and organic particles-toughened epoxies are investigated in the hopes of finding an optimized system. In particular, in this study, micron-sized silica and nano-sized rubbery block copolymers are added to an amine-cured epoxy matrix. A series of rubber-only and silica-only systems are investigated for their contribution to the fracture toughness. Then, a series of hybrid systems are investigated. The hypothesis is that the rubber will contribute toughness through rubber particle cavitation and matrix void growth and the silica will contribute toughness through crack pinning and bridging and particle debonding. In the hybrid systems, these mechanisms will take place at a different scale. Therefore, the nanoscale mechanisms of the rubber will be able to function at the same time as the micron sized mechanisms of the silica and the resultant toughness will be synergistically higher. The results from this study show an interesting contribution from the rubber particles both in the rubber-only systems and the hybrid system. Ultimately, there was a marked increase in the fracture toughness of the hybrid systems, although not synergistic. This increase indicates that it would be possible to create an optimized hybrid system from the combined addition of these particles.

  7. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  8. High-toughness graphite/epoxy composite material experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felbeck, David K.

    1993-01-01

    This experiment was designed to measure the effect of near-earth space exposure on three mechanical properties of specially toughened 5208/T300 graphite/epoxy composite materials. The properties measured are elastic modulus, strength, and fracture toughness. Six toughness specimens and nine tensile specimens were mounted on an external frame during the 5.8-year orbit of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Three identical sets of specimens were manufactured at the outset: the flight set, a zero-time non-flight set, and a total-time non-flight set.

  9. Study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms in an epoxy polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilani, Wissal; Mzabi, Nissaf; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Zerrouki, Rachida; Guermazi, Hajer

    2015-11-01

    The AC conductivity of an epoxy resin was investigated in the frequency range 10^{-1} - 106 Hz at temperatures ranging from -100 to 120 °C. The frequency dependence of σ_{ac} was described by the law: σ_{ac}=ω \\varepsilon0\\varepsilon^''_{HN}+Aωs. The study of temperature variation of the exponent (s) reveals two conduction models: the AC conduction dependence upon temperature is governed by the small polaron tunneling mechanism (SPTM) at low temperature (-100 -60 °C) and the correlated barrier hopping (CHB) model at high temperature (80-120 °C).

  10. Crack growth direction in unidirectional off-axis graphite epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herakovich, C. T.; Gregory, M. A.; Beuth, J. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An anisotropic elasticity crack tip stress analysis is implemented using three crack extension direction criteria (the normal stress ratio, the tensor polynominal and the strain energy density) to predict the direction of crack extension in unidirectional off axis graphite-epoxy. The theoretical predictions of crack extension direction are then compared with experimental results for 15 deg off axis tensile coupons with center cracks. Specimens of various aspect ratios and crack orientations are analyzed. It is shown that only the normal stress ratio criterion predicts the correct direction of crack growth.

  11. Impact damage resistance of thin stitched carbon/epoxy laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesconi, L.; Aymerich, F.

    2015-07-01

    The study examines the influence of through-thickness stitching on the damage response of thin cross-ply carbon/epoxy laminates subjected to low-velocity impacts. Instrumented impact tests were carried out on unstitched and polyethylene stitched laminates and the resulting damage was assessed in detail by X-radiography analyses. The results of the observations carried out during the experimental analyses are illustrated and discussed to identify the mechanical role played by through-thickness reinforcement and to highlight the influence of the laminate layup on the impact resistance of stitched laminates.

  12. The response of human tissues to carbon reinforced epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Howard, C B; Tayton, K J; Gibbs, A

    1985-08-01

    The tissue surrounding carbon fibre reinforced epoxy resin plates applied to forearm and tibial fractures was biopsied in 32 patients at the time the plates were removed. The reaction was minimal and was compared with that in a control group of 16 similar patients in whom stainless steel plates were used. No significant histological differences were found. A series of experiments on rats, in which the histology was studied from 2 to 78 weeks, also showed that there was very little reaction to carbon fibre reinforced plastic. PMID:4030870

  13. Cryogenic compressive properties of basic epoxy resin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, F.W.; Hoffman, J.A.; Muniz, D.P.

    1985-09-01

    The compressive properties of short cylindrical samples of many different epoxy resin systems have been measured at ambient temperature and at 77/sup 0/K. These are pure resin systems of known chemistry, without the inorganic fillers or fibrous reinforcements needed in final cryogenic systems. Of course, chemically incorporated modifiers such as flexibilizing resins have been included. This data should make possible inferences about cryogenic properties from molecular structures and provide specific data useful to formulators and end users. Measurements on some other plastics such as PTFE, Polyimides, and UHMWPE have been made for comparison purposes.

  14. Stability of some epoxy-encapsulated diode thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangum, B. W.; Evans, G. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The stability upon thermal cycling and handling of ten small, epoxy-encapsulated silicon diode thermometers at six temperatures in the range from liquid nitrogen temperatures to about 60 C. The nominal temperatures of measurement were -196, -78, 0, 20, 40, and 60 C, as measured on the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968. Diodes were to be thermally cycled 15 to 20 times. Since NASA anticipates that the uncertainty in their temperature measurements will be + or - 50 mK, uncertainties as large as + or - 10 mK in the measurements of the evaluaton can be accommodated without deleteriously affecting the value of the results of the investigation.

  15. Structural efficiency study of graphite-epoxy aircraft rib structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Gary D.; Gurdal, Zafer; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Attention is given to the structural efficiencies obtainable with optimally designed graphite/epoxy wing rib panel configurations that are potentially economically manufacturable. Some ribs are commonly used as fuel cell closeout panels, and are accordingly subjected to out-of-plane pressure loads in addition to the in-plane axial compressive and shear loads resulting from the wing loading. The present minimum-weight panel designs satisfy buckling and strength constraints for wing rib panels subjected to a wide range of combined load conditions.

  16. SREF - a Simple Removable Epoxy Foam decomposition chemistry model.

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2003-12-01

    A Simple Removable Epoxy Foam (SREF) decomposition chemistry model has been developed to predict the decomposition behavior of an epoxy foam encapsulant exposed to high temperatures. The foam is composed of an epoxy polymer, blowing agent, and surfactant. The model is based on a simple four-step mass loss model using distributed Arrhenius reaction rates. A single reaction was used to describe desorption of the blowing agent and surfactant (BAS). Three of the reactions were used to describe degradation of the polymer. The coordination number of the polymeric lattice was determined from the chemical structure of the polymer; and a lattice statistics model was used to describe the evolution of polymer fragments. The model lattice was composed of sites connected by octamethylcylotetrasiloxane (OS) bridges, mixed product (MP) bridges, and bisphenol-A (BPA) bridges. The mixed products were treated as a single species, but are likely composed of phenols, cresols, and furan-type products. Eleven species are considered in the SREF model - (1) BAS, (2) OS, (3) MP, (4) BPA, (5) 2-mers, (6) 3-mers, (7) 4-mers, (8) nonvolatile carbon residue, (9) nonvolatile OS residue, (10) L-mers, and (11) XL-mers. The first seven of these species (VLE species) can either be in the condensed-phase or gas-phase as determined by a vapor-liquid equilibrium model based on the Rachford-Rice equation. The last four species always remain in the condensed-phase. The 2-mers, 3-mers, and 4-mers are polymer fragments that contain two, three, or four sites, respectively. The residue can contain C, H, N, O, and/or Si. The L-mer fraction consists of polymer fragments that contain at least five sites (5-mer) up to a user defined maximum mer size. The XL-mer fraction consists of polymer fragments greater than the user specified maximum mer size and can contain the infinite lattice if the bridge population is less than the critical bridge population. Model predictions are compared to 133-thermogravimetric

  17. Impact behavior of graphite-epoxy simulated fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, T. S.; Preston, J. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The response of a graphite-epoxy material, Modmor II/PR-286, to foreign object impact was investigated by impacting spherical projectiles of three different materials - gelatin, ice, and steel - on simulated blade specimens. Visual and metallographic inspection revealed three damage mechanisms: penetration, leading edge bending failure, and stress wave delamination and cracking. The steel projectiles caused penetration damage regardless of the impact location and angle. For the ice and gelatin particles impacting the leading edge, failure was due to large local bending strains, resulting in significant material removal and delamination damage.

  18. A nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

    1984-01-01

    A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on the procedure of Findley et al., (1948) has been used to accurately represent the creep of several graphite/epoxy composites. Applying this approach to unidirectional 0, 90 and 10 deg off-axis tensile specimens, the viscoelastic response of a lamina can be characterized. The resulting lamina model has been useful for representing the behavior of a lamina in a numerical procedure to predict creep and delayed failures of general laminates. Also, independently, the Findley procedure has been used to characterize the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of general laminates.

  19. Signature analysis of acoustic emission from graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. S.; Henneke, E. G., II

    1977-01-01

    Acoustic emissions were monitored for crack extension across and parallel to the fibers in a single ply and multiply laminates of graphite epoxy composites. Spectrum analysis was performed on the transient signal to ascertain if the fracture mode can be characterized by a particular spectral pattern. The specimens were loaded to failure quasistatically in a tensile machine. Visual observations were made via either an optical microscope or a television camera. The results indicate that several types of characteristics in the time and frequency domain correspond to different types of failure.

  20. Orthogonal cutting characteristics of graphite/epoxy composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. H.; Ramulu, M.; Wern, C. W.

    Orthogonal cutting experimental study was conducted to investigate the machining characteristics of Graphite/Epoxy (Gr/Ep) composite material. Machining characteristics were evaluated in terms of cutting forces, chip formation, and surface morphology of unidirectional Gr/Ep composite material of different fiber orientations. The cutting forces were measured by a three-dimensional circular-type dynamometer. Chips were examined under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the machined surface morphology was investigated by measuring the surface roughness and by observing SEM photographs. Cutting forces, chip formation process and the surface morphology of machined surface were found to be highly dependent on the fiber orientations with respect to the cutting direction.

  1. Wave propagation in graphite/epoxy laminates due to impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, T. M.; Sun, C. T.

    1982-01-01

    The low velocity impact response of graphite-epoxy laminates is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A nine-node isoparametric finite element in conjunction with an empirical contact law was used for the theoretical investigation. Flat laminates subjected to pendulum impact were used for the experimental investigation. Theoretical results are in good agreement with strain gage experimental data. The collective results of the investigation indicate that the theoretical procedure describes the impact response of the laminate up to about 150 in/sec. impact velocity.

  2. Visualization of impact damaging of carbon/epoxy panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccardi, Simone; Boffa, Natalino Daniele; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; Meola, Carosena; Ricci, Fabrizio

    2016-05-01

    This work is concerned with impact damaging of carbon/epoxy materials. Specimens of different thickness are herein considered, which involve several fibers orientations and stacking sequences. Impact tests are carried out at different energies with a modified Charpy pendulum. The specimen surface opposite to that struck by the impactor is viewed by an infrared imaging device. Then, a sequence of thermal images is acquired during each impact test. Through the temperature variations experienced by the specimen surface, post-processing of such images supplies the likely occurred damage. In addition, specimens are non-destructively evaluated with lock-in thermography to visualize any manufacturing defects, as well as impact damage.

  3. Modeling and Characterization of a Graphite Nanoplatelet/Epoxy Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Chasiotis, I.; Chen, Q.; Gates, T. S.

    2004-01-01

    A micromechanical modeling procedure is developed to predict the viscoelastic properties of a graphite nanoplatelet/epoxy composite as a function of volume fraction and nanoplatelet diameter. The predicted storage and loss moduli from the model are compared to measured values from the same material using Dynamical Mechanical Analysis, nanoindentation, and tensile tests. In most cases, the model and experiments indicate that for increasing volume fractions of nanoplatelets, both the storage and loss moduli increase. Also, in most cases, the model and experiments indicate that as the nanoplatelet diameter is increased, the storage and loss moduli decrease and increase, respectively.

  4. Transverse thermal expansion of carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, J. F.; Diefendorf, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal expansion coefficients and moduli of elasticity have been determined experimentally for a series of epoxy-matrix composites reinforced with carbon and Kevlar fibers. It is found that in the transverse direction the difference between the properties of the fiber and the matrix is not as pronounced as in the longitudinal direction, where the composite properties are fiber-dominated. Therefore, the pattern of fiber packing tends to affect transverse composite properties. The transverse properties of the composites tested are examined from the standpoint of the concept of homogeneity defined as the variation of packing (or lack thereof) throughout a sample.

  5. The interlaminar fracture toughness of woven graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.; Deaton, Jerry W.

    1989-01-01

    The interlaminar fracture toughness of 2-D graphite/epoxy woven composites was determined as a function of stacking sequence, thickness, and weave pattern. Plain, oxford, 5-harness satin, and 8-harness satin weaves of T300/934 material were evaluated by the double cantilever beam test. The fabric material had a G (sub Ic) ranging from 2 to 8 times greater than 0 degrees unidirectional T300/934 tape material. The interlaminar fracture toughness of a particular weave style was dependent on whether the stacking sequence was symmetric or asymmetric and, in some cases, on the fabric orientation.

  6. Silver-epoxy microwave filters and thermalizers for millikelvin experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Scheller, Christian P.; Heizmann, Sarah; Bedner, Kristine; Giss, Dominic; Zumbühl, Dominik M.; Meschke, Matthias; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.; Gossard, Arthur C.

    2014-05-26

    We present silver-epoxy filters combining excellent microwave attenuation with efficient wire thermalization, suitable for low temperature quantum transport experiments. Upon minimizing parasitic capacitances, the attenuation reaches ≥100 dB above ≈150 MHz and—when capacitors are added—already above ≈30 MHz. We measure the device electron temperature with a GaAs quantum dot and demonstrate excellent filter performance. Upon improving the sample holder and adding a second filtering stage, we obtain electron temperatures as low as 7.5 ± 0.2 mK in metallic Coulomb blockade thermometers.

  7. Epoxy-resin patterns speed shell-molding of aluminum parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Half patterns cast from commercial epoxy resin containing aluminum powder are used for shell-molding of aluminum parts. The half patterns are cast in plastic molds of the original wooden pattern. Ten serviceable sand resin molds are made from each epoxy pattern.

  8. Synthesis and properties of transparent cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins for opto-electronic devices packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nan; Liu, WeiQu; Yan, ZhenLong; Wang, ZhengFang

    2013-01-01

    Cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins were successfully synthesized through a two-step reaction route: (і) hydrosilylation of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCTS) and 1,2-epoxy-4-vinyl-cyclohexane (VCMX), (іі) blocking of unreacted Sisbnd H in (і) with n-butanol. The molecular structures of the cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 29Si NMR). High grafting efficiencies of epoxy groups were confirmed by 1H NMR combined with weighting results, indicating over 90 mol% of cycloaliphatic epoxy were grafted on the silicone resins. Subsequently, Sisbnd H groups from TMCTS were almost totally consumed after the blocking reactions. In comparison with commercial available cycloaliphatic epoxy resin 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ERL-4221) cured by MHHPA, the cured cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins exhibited better thermal stability, lower water absorption and higher UV/thermal resistance. Moreover, the characteristics of transmittance (>90%, 800 nm), 5 wt.% mass loss temperature (>330 °C) and no yellowing during thermal aging at 120 °C or UV aging for 288 h of the cured cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins, made them possible for power light-emitting diode (LED) encapsulants, or other packaging materials, like optical lenses, and electronic sealings.

  9. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOEpatents

    Janke, C.J.; Lopata, V.J.; Havens, S.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Moulton, R.J.

    1999-03-02

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  10. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOEpatents

    Janke, Christopher J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Havens, Stephen J.; Dorsey, George F.; Moulton, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  11. Properties of two composite materials made of toughened epoxy resin and high-strain graphite fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Marvin B.; Smith, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental evaluation of IM7/8551-7 and IM6/18081, two new toughened epoxy resin, high strain graphite fiber composite materials. Data include ply-level strengths and moduli, notched tension and compression strengths and compression-after-impact assessments. The measured properties are compared with those of other graphite-epoxy materials.

  12. Preparation, Characterization, and Enhanced Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy-Titania Composites

    PubMed Central

    Rubab, Zakya; Siddiqi, Humaira M.; Saeed, Shaukat

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy-titania composites. First, submicron titania particles are prepared via surfactant-free sol-gel method using TiCl4 as precursor. These particles are subsequently used as inorganic fillers (or reinforcement) for thermally cured epoxy polymers. Epoxy-titania composites are prepared via mechanical mixing of titania particles with liquid epoxy resin and subsequently curing the mixture with an aliphatic diamine. The amount of titania particles integrated into epoxy matrix is varied between 2.5 and 10.0 wt.% to investigate the effect of sub-micron titania particles on thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy-titania composites. These composites are characterized by X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TG), and mechanical analyses. It is found that sub-micron titania particles significantly enhance the glass transition temperature (>6.7%), thermal oxidative stability (>12.0%), tensile strength (>21.8%), and Young's modulus (>16.8%) of epoxy polymers. Epoxy-titania composites with 5.0 wt.% sub-micron titania particles perform best at elevated temperatures as well as under high stress. PMID:24578638

  13. Dielectric constant enhancement of epoxy thermosets via formation of polyelectrolyte nanophases.

    PubMed

    Cong, Houluo; Li, Jingang; Li, Lei; Zheng, Sixun

    2014-12-18

    Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(sodium p-styrenesulfonate) (PEO-b-PSSNa) diblock copolymer was synthesized and then incorporated into epoxy to obtain the nanostructured epoxy thermosets containing polyelectrolyte nanophases. This PEO-b-PSSNa diblock copolymer was synthesized via the radical polymerization of p-styrenesulfonate mediated with 4-cyano-4-(thiobenzoylthio)valeric ester-terminated poly(ethylene oxide). The formation of polyelectrolyte (i.e., PSSNa) nanophases in epoxy followed a self-assembly mechanism. The precursors of epoxy acted as the selective solvent of the diblock copolymer, and thus, the self-assembled nanostructures were formed. The self-organized nanophases were fixed through the subsequent curing reaction. By means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the morphologies of the nanostructured epoxy thermosets containing PSSNa nanophases were investigated. In the glassy state, the epoxy matrixes were significantly reinforced by the spherical PSSNa nanodomains, as evidenced by dynamic mechanical analysis. The measurement of dielectric properties showed that, with the incorporation of PSSNa nanophases, the dielectric constants of the epoxy thermoset were significantly increased. Compared to the control epoxy, the dielectric loss of the nanostructured thermosets still remained at quite a low level, although the values of dielectric loss were slightly increased with inclusion of PSSNa nanophases. PMID:25482332

  14. Effect of Geopolymer filler in Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Pipe for Piping Application: Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus Abu Hashim, Mohammad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Hussin, Kamarudin; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The present work is aimed to carry out the effect of geopolymer material which is fly ash as filler in the glass reinforced epoxy pipe on the micro structure of fly ash geopolymer, compression properties, and bulk density using the filament winding method. Conventional glass reinforced epoxy pipes has its own disadvantages such as high corrosion resistance at acidic environment and low strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymer is a type of amorphous alumino-silicate and can be synthesized by geopolymerization process. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is fly ash with 4 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of the raw material fly ash and fly ash based-geopolymer surface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the additions of fly ash at the beginning with 10 wt% are showing higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without fly ash geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these series of samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples fly ash based-geopolymer filler are higher as compared to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with fly ash geopolymer filler continues to decline when added to 20 wt% - 40 wt% of geopolymer filler loading. The results showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  15. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy...

  20. Effect of Hygrothermal Aging on the Mechanical Properties of Fluorinated and Nonfluorinated Clay-Epoxy Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Hamim, Salah U.; Singh, Raman P.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophilic nature of epoxy polymers can lead to both reversible and irreversible/permanent changes in epoxy upon moisture absorption. The permanent changes leading to the degradation of mechanical properties due to combined effect of moisture and elevated temperature on EPON 862, Nanomer I.28E, and Somasif MAE clay-epoxy nanocomposites are investigated in this study. The extent of permanent degradation on fracture and flexural properties due to the hygrothermal aging is determined by drying the epoxy and their clay-epoxy nanocomposites after moisture absorption. Significant permanent damage is observed for fracture toughness and flexural modulus, while the extent of permanent damage is less significant for flexural strength. It is also observed that permanent degradation in Somasif MAE clay-epoxy nanocomposites is higher compared to Nanomer I.28E clay-epoxy nanocomposites. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that both clays retained their original chemical structure after the absorption-desorption cycle without undergoing significant changes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the fracture surfaces provide evidence that Somasif MAE clay particles offered very little resistance to crack propagation in case of redried specimens when compared to Nanomer I.28E counterpart. The reason for the observed higher extent of permanent degradation in Somasif MAE clay-epoxy system has been attributed to the weakening of the filler-matrix interface. PMID:27379285

  1. Fiber-optic epoxy composite cure sensor. I. Dependence of refractive index of an autocatalytic reaction epoxy system at 850 nm on temperature and extent of cure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Kai-Yuen; Afromowitz, Martin A.

    1995-09-01

    We discuss the behavior of the refractive index of a typical epoxy-aromatic diamine system. Near 850 nm the index of refraction is found to be largely controlled by the density of the epoxy. Models are derived to describe its dependence on temperature and extent of cure. Within the range of temperatures studied, the refractive index decreases linearly with increasing temperature. In addition, as the epoxy is cured, the refractive index increases linearly with conversion to the gel point. >From then on, shrinkage in the volume of the epoxy is restricted by local viscosity. Therefore the linear relationship between the refractive index and the extent of cure does not hold beyond the gel point.

  2. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1283 - (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane (Disparlure); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1283 (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... is established for residues of (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane on all food and feed crops that...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1283 - (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane (Disparlure); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1283 (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... is established for residues of (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane on all food and feed crops that...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1283 - (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane (Disparlure); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1283 (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... is established for residues of (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane on all food and feed crops that...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1283 - (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane (Disparlure); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1283 (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... is established for residues of (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane on all food and feed crops that...

  7. Colorless triphenylamine-based aliphatic thermoset epoxy for multicolored and near-infrared electrochromic applications.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yen, Hung-Ju; Wu, Jia-Hao; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2014-03-12

    In this study, two novel colorless thermoset epoxy resins with anodically electrochromism were prepared from the thermal curing of two triphenylamine-based diamine monomers, 4,4'-diamino-4″-methoxytriphenylamine (1) and N,N'-bis(4-aminophenyl)-N,N'-di(4-methoxylphenyl)-1,4-phenylenediamine (2) with aliphatic epoxy triglycidyl isocyanurate, respectively. The resulting thermoset epoxy resins showed excellent softening temperature (Ts, 270 and 280 °C) due to the rigid structure and highly crosslinking density. In addition, novel colorless epoxy resin films revealed good reversible electrochemical oxidation and interesting multi-electrochromic behavior with high contrast ratio both in visible and near-infrared regions. The aliphatic thermoset epoxy resins also exhibited high transparency in visible region as colorless and great potential for practical electrochromic applications. PMID:24456516

  8. Equilibrium moisture content of a crosslinked epoxy network via molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffels, M. T.; Staiger, M. P.; Bishop, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    This study presents molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods for determining the solubility limit of water in a crosslinked epoxy network. Procedures are first presented for dynamically crosslinking an epoxy network consisting of diglycidyl ether bisphenol a (DGEBA) and isophorone diamine (IPD). Water molecules are then introduced into the crosslinked DGEBA-IPD structure. The excess chemical potential for the absorbed water was determined through combining thermodynamic integration and Widom’s test particle insertion methods. The limiting moisture uptake of the epoxy structure was determined through comparing the reduced chemical potential of the water held within the epoxy to that of pure water. The DGEBA-IPD epoxy system was found to have a moisture solubility of 3.50–3.75 wt.% when immersed in water at 300 K.

  9. Laboratory evaluation of fusion-bonded epoxy coatings for civil works applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Race, T.D.; Boy, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates safer, more cost-effective alternatives to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers paint specification C-200A, Coal Tar Epoxy Coating, which is used to protect steel sheet piling. Fusion-bonded epoxy, a nonpolluting shop-applied coating, was evaluated in laboratory tests as a potential replacement for C-200A. Laboratory tests that included salt and fresh water immersion, cyclic salt fog/ultraviolet (UV) condensation, impact resistance, and cathodic disbondment were conducted on four fusion-bonded epoxy and two control coating systems. Fusion-bonded epoxy coatings have excellent resistance to impact and cathodic disbondment. Resistance to corrosion in fresh and salt water immersion and in cyclic salt fog/UV-condensation exposures was comparable to the control coating systems. Based on the results of the laboratory tests, a field evaluation of fusion-bonded epoxy is recommended.

  10. The Effect of Water on the Work of Adhesion at Epoxy Interfaces by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, J.A.; Frankland, S.J.V.; Clancy, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation can be used to explore the detailed effects of chemistry on properties of materials. In this paper, two different epoxies found in aerospace resins are modeled using molecular dynamics. The first material, an amine-cured tetrafunctional epoxy, represents a composite matrix resin, while the second represents a 177 C-cured adhesive. Surface energies are derived for both epoxies and the work of adhesion values calculated for the epoxy/epoxy interfaces agree with experiment. Adding water -- to simulate the effect of moisture exposure -- reduced the work of adhesion in one case, and increased it in the other. To explore the difference, the various energy terms that make up the net work of adhesion were compared and the location of the added water was examined.

  11. Performance of filament-wound vessels from an organic fiber in several epoxy matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiao, T. T.; Jessop, E. S.; Hamstad, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    A study was carried out to select a state-of-the-art epoxy for wet filament winding. Ten epoxy systems were used to filament wind pressure vessels with a high-modulus, high-strength organic fiber. Data are reported on vessel performance, fiber strand strengths, and shear strengths for the different systems. Using our criteria (processibility, neat resin properties, and vessel performance), we find that an epoxy system based on the rubber-modified bis-phenol-F resin, diluted with vinyl cyclohexane dioxide and cured with mixed aromatic amines, can easily replace bis-phenol-A epoxies diluted with bis-(2, 3-epoxycyclopentyl) ether (such as ERL 2256 epoxy of Union Carbide) with comparable overall performance.

  12. Evaluation of Nanomaterial Approaches to Damping in Epoxy Resin and Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite Structures by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, G.; Heimann, Paula J.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Johnston, J. Chris; Roberts, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Vibration mitigation in composite structures has been demonstrated through widely varying methods which include both active and passive damping. Recently, nanomaterials have been investigated as a viable approach to composite vibration damping due to the large surface available to generate energy dissipation through friction. This work evaluates the influence of dispersed nanoparticles on the damping ratio of an epoxy matrix. Limited benefit was observed through dispersion methods, however nanoparticle application as a coating resulting in up to a three-fold increase in damping.

  13. Thermoviscoelastic shape memory behavior for epoxy-shape memory polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianguo; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2014-05-01

    There are various applications for shape memory polymer (SMP) in the smart materials and structures field due to its large recoverable strain and controllable driving method. The mechanical shape memory deformation mechanism is so obscure that many samples and test schemes have to be tried in order to verify a final design proposal for a smart structure system. This paper proposes a simple and very useful method to unambiguously analyze the thermoviscoelastic shape memory behavior of SMP smart structures. First, experiments under different temperature and loading conditions are performed to characterize the large deformation and thermoviscoelastic behavior of epoxy-SMP. Then, a rheological constitutive model, which is composed of a revised standard linear solid (SLS) element and a thermal expansion element, is proposed for epoxy-SMP. The thermomechanical coupling effect and nonlinear viscous flowing rules are considered in the model. Then, the model is used to predict the measured rubbery and time-dependent response of the material, and different thermomechanical loading histories are adopted to verify the shape memory behavior of the model. The results of the calculation agree with experiments satisfactorily. The proposed shape memory model is practical for the design of SMP smart structures.

  14. Cure kinetics of epoxy matrix resin by differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cizmecioglu, M.; Gupta, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made on the cure kinetics of an epoxy neat-resin (Narmco 5208) using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Two interrelated analytical methods were applied to dynamic DSC data for evaluating the kinetic parameters, such as activation energy, E, the order of reaction, n, and the total heat of polymerization (or crosslinking), delta H sub t. The first method was proposed by Ellerstein (1968), and uses a thorough differential-integral analysis of a single DSC curve to evaluate the kinetic parameters. The second method was proposed by Kissinger (1957), and uses multiple DSC curves obtained at various heating rates to evaluate E regardless of n. Kinetic analysis of Narmco 5208 epoxy resin showed that the reaction order, n, is substantially affected by the rate of heating; i.e., n is approximately 2 at slow scan rates but is reduced to 1.5 at higher scan rates. The activation energy, E, is not affected by the scan rate, and the average value of E is 25.6 + or - 1.8 kcal/mole.

  15. Physical properties of epoxy resin/titanium dioxide nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Georgios; Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; More, Karren Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A polymeric nanocomposite system (nanodielectric) was fabricated, and its mechanical properties were determined. The fabricated nanocomposite was composed of low concentrations of monodispersed titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles and an epoxy resin specially designed for cryogenic applications. The monodispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous solution of titanium chloride and polyethylene glycol and subsequently dispersed in a commercial-grade epoxy resin (Araldite{reg_sign} 5808). Nanocomposite thin sheets were prepared at several weight fractions of TiO{sub 2}. The morphology of the composites, determined by transmission electron microscopy, showed that the nanoparticles aggregated to form particle clusters. The influence of thermal processing and the effect of filler dispersion on the structure-property relationships were identified by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis at a broad range of temperatures. The effect of the aggregates on the electrical insulation properties was determined by dielectric breakdown measurements. The optical properties of the nanocomposites and their potential use as filters in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) range were determined by UV-vis spectroscopy.

  16. The electron beam cure of epoxy paste adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.D.; Janke, C.J.; Lopata, V.J.

    1998-07-01

    Recently developed epoxy paste adhesives were electron beam cured and experimentally explored to determine their suitability for use in an aerospace-quality aircraft component. There were two major goals for this program. The first was to determine whether the electron beam-curable past adhesives were capable of meeting the requirements of the US Air Force T-38 supersonic jet trainer composite windshield frame. The T-38 windshield frame`s arch is currently manufactured by bonding thin stainless steel plies using an aerospace-grade thermally-cured epoxy film adhesive. The second goal was to develop the lowest cost hand layup and debulk process that could be used to produce laminated steel plies with acceptable properties. The laminate properties examined to determine adhesive suitability include laminate mechanical and physical properties at room, adhesive tack, out-time capability, and the debulk requirements needed to achieve these properties. Eighteen past adhesives and four scrim cloths were experimentally examined using this criteria. One paste adhesive was found to have suitable characteristics in each of these categories and was later chosen for the manufacture of the T-38 windshield frame. This experimental study shows that by using low-cost debulk and layup processes, the electron beam-cured past adhesive mechanical and physical properties meet the specifications of the T-38 composite windshield frame.

  17. A Dioxane Template for Highly Selective Epoxy Alcohol Cyclizations

    PubMed Central

    Mousseau, James J.; Morten, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Ladder polyether natural products are a class of natural products denoted by their high functional group density and large number of well-defined stereocenters. They comprise the toxic component of harmful algal blooms (HABs), having significant negative economic and environmental ramifications. However, their mode of action, namely blocking various cellular ion channels, also denotes their promise as potential anticancer agents. Understanding their potential mode of biosynthesis will not only help with developing ways to limit the damage of HABs, but would also facilitate the synthesis of a range of analogues with interesting biological activity. 1,3-Dioxan-5-ol substrates display remarkable ‘enhanced template effects’ in water-promoted epoxide cyclization processes en route to the synthesis of these ladder polyether natural products. In many cases they provide near complete endo to exo selectivity in the cyclization of epoxy alcohols, thereby strongly favouring the formation of tetrahydropyran (THP) over tetrahydrofuran (THF) rings. The effects of various Brønsted and Lewis acidic and basic conditions are explored to demonstrate the superior selectivity of the template over the previously reported THP-based epoxy alcohols. In addition, the consideration of other synthetic routes are also considered with the goal of gaining rapid access to a plethora of potential starting materials applicable towards the synthesis of ladder polyethers. Finally, cascade sequences with polyepoxides are investigated, further demonstrating the versatility of this new reaction template. PMID:23775936

  18. Toughening mechanism in elastometer-modified epoxy resins: Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, A. F.; Pearson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Several plaques of Epon 828, cured with piperidine, modified with hycar(r) CTBN 1300X8, Hycar(R) CTBN 1300X13, and Hycar(R) CTBN 1300x15, and in some cases modified with biphenol A (BPA), yielded properly toughened epoxies with rubber particle diameters ranging from 0.1 to 10 microns. Fracture toughness experiments indicate that toughness was more a function of rubber content than the rubber particle size. Tensile volumetric behavior of the near resin exhibits two regions: an initial region where the increase in volume strain was due to the Poisson's effect, and a second region where a slower rate of increase in volume strain was due to shear deformation. Tensile volumetric deformation of an elastomer-modified epoxy exhibits the same type of behavior to that of the neat resin at low rates ( 3.2x0.01 sec(-1)). But at very high strain rates, which correspond more closely to the strain rates at the crack tip, there exists an increase in volume strain beyond the Poisson's effect. TEM, SEM and OM studies indicate that the rubber particles had voided. When a thin section from the deformed region is viewed under crossed-polarized light, shear bands are seen connecting voided rubber particles. From this information cavitation and enhanced shear band formation is proposed as the toughening mechanism.

  19. Cure shrinkage in epoxy grouts for grouted repairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsuddoha, Md.; Islam, Md. Mainul; Aravinthan, Thiru; Manalo, Allan; Lau, Kin-tak

    2013-08-01

    Structures can go through harsh environmental adversity and can experience material loss and cracks during their service lives. Infill material is used to ensure a supporting bed for a grouted repair. Epoxy grouts are used for repairing and rehabilitating structures, such as foundations, bridges, piers, transportation pipelines, etc., because they are resistant to typical chemicals and possess superior mechanical properties than other grouts. The resin based infill used inside the void or cracked space of the repair is vulnerable to shrinkage. When these filled grouts have high resin content, cracks can develop from residual stresses, which can affect the load transfer performance. It follows that interlayer separation and cracking of infill layer can occur in a grouted repair. In this study, volumetric shrinkage of two epoxy grouts was measured over 28 days using a Pycnometer. The highest volumetric shrinkage measured after 7 days was found to be 2.72%. The results suggest that the volumetric shrinkage can be reduced to 1.1% after 7 days, through the introduction of a coarse aggregate filler; a 2.5 times reduction in shrinkage. About 98% and 92% of the total shrinkage over the 28 day period, of the unfilled and filled grouts respectively, was found to occur within 7 days of mixing. The gel-time shrinkages were also calculated, to determine the "postgel" part of the curing contraction which subsequently produces residual stresses in the hardened grout systems.

  20. Accelerated viscoelastic characterization of E-Glass/Epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Min.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, an accelerated viscoelastic characterization was applied to E-Glass/Epoxy materials. The approach is based on the TTSP (Time Temperature Superposition Principle) and the widely used lamination theory for composite materials. The final goal is the life prediction for fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) piping systems used in oil industries. Creep tests at different temperatures were conducted with a servo-hydraulic test system to determine compliance master curves. The viscoelastic response of unidirectional specimens was modeled by a generalized Kelvin model. Direct iteration methods were developed to solve the differential equations. The viscoelastic response of E-Glass/Epoxy laminates at different temperatures to transverse normal and in-plane shear stresses is determined using 90{degree} and 10{degree} off-axis tensile specimens, respectively. Based on short-term creep tests, (2.5 hours), 40-year predictions were achieved. Creep-rupture tests at different temperatures were conducted. The rupture stresses were determined for 0{degree}, 90{degree}, 10{degree}, and ({plus minus}55{degrees})s specimens.

  1. Dispersion monitoring of carbon nanotube modified epoxy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, G.; Saganas, Ch.; Grammatikos, S. A.; Maistros, Gh. M.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Paipetis, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    The remarkable mechanical and electrical properties exhibited by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have encouraged efforts to develop mass production techniques. As a result, CNTs are becoming increasingly available, and more attention from both the academic world and industry has focused on the applications of CNTs in bulk quantities. These opportunities include the use of CNTs as conductive filler in insulating polymer matrices and as reinforcement in structural materials. The use of composites made from an insulating matrix and highly conductive fillers is becoming more and more important due to their ability to electromagnetically shield and prevent electrostatic charging of electronic devices. In recent years, different models have been proposed to explain the formation of the conductive filler network. Moreover, intrinsic difficulties and unresolved issues related to the incorporation of carbon nanotubes as conductive fillers in an epoxy matrix and the interpretation of the processing behavior have not yet been resolved. In this sense, a further challenge is becoming more and more important in composite processing: cure monitoring and optimization. This paper considers the potential for real-time control of cure cycle and dispersion of a modified epoxy resin system commonly utilized in aerospace composite parts. It shows how cure cycle and dispersion control may become possible through realtime in-situ acquisition of dielectric signal from the curing resin, analysis of its main components and identification of the significant features.

  2. Temperature-Dependent Dielectric Properties of Al/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zijun; Zhou, Wenying; Sui, Xuezhen; Dong, Lina; Cai, Huiwu; Zuo, Jing; Chen, Qingguo

    2016-01-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was carried out to study the transition in electrical properties of Al/epoxy nanocomposites over the frequency range of 1-107 Hz and the temperature range of -20°C to 200°C. The dielectric permittivity, dissipation factor, and electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites increased with temperature and showed an abrupt increase around the glass transition temperature (T g). The results clearly reveal an interesting transition of the electrical properties with increasing temperature: insulator below 70°C, conductor at about 70°C. The behavior of the transition in electrical properties of the nanocomposites was explored at different temperatures. The presence of relaxation peaks in the loss tangent and electric modulus spectra of the nanocomposites confirms that the chain segmental dynamics of the polymer is accompanied by the absorption of energy given to the system. It is suggested that the temperature-dependent transition of the electric properties in the nanocomposite is closely associated with the α-relaxation. The large increase in the dissipation factor and electric conductivity depends on the direct current conduction of thermally activated charge carriers resulting from the epoxy matrix above T g.

  3. Laser decontamination of epoxy painted concrete surfaces in nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthofer, A.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2014-04-01

    Laser technology offers an efficient decontamination of surfaces contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) by precise application of highly focused laser beam power. In the context of nuclear decommissioning all walls and floors of a reactor building have to be cleaned from chemical-toxic substances. State of the art is a manual and mechanic ablation and a subsequent treatment in a hazardous waste incinerator. In this study, alternatively, a laser-based system exhibiting, decontamination rates of up to 6.4 m2/h has been operated using a 10 kW diode laser in continuous wave (CW) mode with a spot size of 45×10 mm2 and a wavelength of 980-1030 nm. The system allows a rapid heating of the surfaces up to temperatures of more than 1000 °C leading to ablation and thermal decomposition of PCB in one process step. Thermal quenching prevents formation of polychlorinated dioxines (PCDD) and polychlorinate furans (PCDF) in the flue gas. Additionally, an in situ measurement system based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is developed to monitor the thermal decomposition of PCB. For initial experiments samples covered with epoxy paint were used to evaluate the process and to carry out finite element based simulations. In this paper, experimental results of ablation tests by laser irradiation of epoxy painted concrete are presented and discussed.

  4. Thermoviscoelastic characterization and predictions of Kevlar/epoxy composite laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Gramoll, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    This study consisted of two main parts, the thermoviscoelastic characterization of Kevlar 49/Fiberite 7714A epoxy composite lamina and the development of a numerical procedure to predict the viscoelastic response of any general laminate constructed from the same material. The four orthotropic material properties, S{sub 11}, S{sub 12}, S{sub 22}, and S{sub 66}, were characterized by 20-minute static creep tests on unidirectional ((0){sub s}, (10){sub s}, and (90){sub 16}) lamina specimens. A new numerical procedure to predict long-term laminate properties from lamina properties (obtained experimentally) was developed. Numerical instabilities and time constraints associated with viscoelastic numerical techniques were discussed and solved. The numerical procedure was incorporated into a user-friendly microcomputer program called Viscoelastic Composite Analysis Program (VCAP), which is available for IBM PC type computers. The program was designed for ease of use and includes graphics, menus, help messages, etc. The final phase of the study involved testing actual laminates constructed from the characterized material, Kevlar/epoxy, at various temperature and load levels for 4 to 5 weeks.

  5. Shock Interaction Studies on Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. P. J.; Jagadeesh, G.; Jayaram, V.; Reddy, B. Harinath; Madhu, V.; Reddy, C. Jaya Rami

    Glass fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites are being extensively used for structural applications both in civil and defense sectors, owing to their high specific strength, stiffness and good energy absorbing capability. Understanding the dynamic response of these composites on shock loading is very essential for effective design of structures resistant to blast loads. In the present study, E- glass/epoxy composite laminate has been fabricated and evaluated for their mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength and inter laminar shear strength (ILSS). Further, dynamic response of E-glass laminates is presently studied by shock loading. When E-glass composite subjected to peak shock reflected pressure of 7.2 MPa and estimated temperature of about 14000 K for short duration, it underwent surface discolorations and charring of epoxy matrix. Post test analysis of the composite sample was carried out to study the damage analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), changes in thermal properties of composites using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and Thermo-Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The results of these investigations are discussed in this paper.

  6. Molecular Description of Yield in Densely Crosslinked Epoxy Thermosets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattaraj, Sandipan; Pant, Prita; Pawaskar, Dnyanesh; Nanavati, Hemant

    In densely crosslinked networks, macroscopic yield is a transition from deformations of bond lengths and angles, to cooperative deformation of multiple effective network chains via bond torsions. In this work, we examine this yield in terms of the ''activation number'', ν, of microscopic effective chains between crosslinks. ν is the number of effective network chains, in one Eyring activation volume, V*. It is thus a measure of the number of network chains 'activated' at yield, for cooperative deformation. Microcompression experiments have been performed on SU-8 micropillars, to determine its V* value. SU-8 is an important epoxy thermoset, which is used extensively in the microelectronics industry, in microfluidics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The effective chain length based on Arruda and Boyce's 8-chain model, compares well with the rms length, obtained by chain conformer analyses. We find that ν ~ 2-4, at room temperature, for DGEBA-based epoxies including SU-8 and DGEBA-amine networks, over a range of network junction functionalities and V*. That ν corresponds very well with the reduced temperature, T/Tg, also demonstrates its viability as a molecular descriptor of yield in densely crosslinked thermosets.

  7. Uplink Array Concept Demonstration with the EPOXI Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Lee, D.; Cornish, T.; Paal, L.; Jamnejad, V.

    2008-01-01

    Uplink array technology is currently being developed for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to provide greater range and data throughput for future NASA missions, including manned missions to Mars and exploratory missions to the outer planets, the Kuiper belt, and beyond. Here we describe a novel technique for generating the frequency predicts that are used to compensate for relative Doppler, derived from interpolated earth position and spacecraft ephemerides. The method described here guarantees velocity and range estimates that are consistent with each other, hence one can always be recovered from the other. Experimental results have recently proven that these frequency predicts are accurate enough to maintain the phase of a three element array at the EPOXI spacecraft for three hours. Previous methods derive frequency predicts directly from interpolated relative velocities. However, these velocities were found to be inconsistent with the corresponding spacecraft range, meaning that range could not always be recovered accurately from the velocity predicts, and vice versa. Nevertheless, velocity-based predicts are also capable of maintaining uplink array phase calibration for extended periods, as demonstrated with the EPOXI spacecraft, however with these predicts important range and phase information may be lost. A comparison of the steering-vector method with velocity-based techniques for generating precise frequency predicts specifically for uplink array applications is provided in the following sections.

  8. Characterization of DGEBA (diglycidyl ethers bisphenol-A) epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, F.N.; Spieker, D.A.

    1987-04-01

    High-resolution gel permeation chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography can be applied to commercially available DGEBA epoxy resins to elucidate small but significant differences in the oligomer and impurity compositions of these resins. The GPC profiles can be used to type or identify the various commercial grades of these DGEBA resins. Lot-to-lot consistency and aging characteristics can also be determined using GPC and HPLC. Quantitation of the various oligomers and impurities such as the ..cap alpha..-glycol, isomer, and chlorohydrin species is possible. Using 20% isoconversion predictive cure thermal analysis data, the relative resin reactivity of several liquid, low-molecular DGEBA resins has been measured. These data show that the higher viscosity, higher oligomer content resins, which have higher hydroxyl content, reacted faster with amine cure agents than the lower viscosity, higher purity - and consequently lower hydroxyl content - resins. Thus, a combination of liquid chromatography (GPC or HPLC) and DSC kinetics can be used to establish a correlation or equivalency beween the commercially available low-molecular-weight DGEBA epoxy resins.

  9. Temperature-Dependent Dielectric Properties of Al/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zijun; Zhou, Wenying; Sui, Xuezhen; Dong, Lina; Cai, Huiwu; Zuo, Jing; Chen, Qingguo

    2016-06-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was carried out to study the transition in electrical properties of Al/epoxy nanocomposites over the frequency range of 1-107 Hz and the temperature range of -20°C to 200°C. The dielectric permittivity, dissipation factor, and electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites increased with temperature and showed an abrupt increase around the glass transition temperature ( T g). The results clearly reveal an interesting transition of the electrical properties with increasing temperature: insulator below 70°C, conductor at about 70°C. The behavior of the transition in electrical properties of the nanocomposites was explored at different temperatures. The presence of relaxation peaks in the loss tangent and electric modulus spectra of the nanocomposites confirms that the chain segmental dynamics of the polymer is accompanied by the absorption of energy given to the system. It is suggested that the temperature-dependent transition of the electric properties in the nanocomposite is closely associated with the α-relaxation. The large increase in the dissipation factor and electric conductivity depends on the direct current conduction of thermally activated charge carriers resulting from the epoxy matrix above T g.

  10. Continuous health monitoring of graphite epoxy motorcases (GEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Richard D.; Luzio, Marco A.; Miller, Ronnie K.; Pollock, Adrian A.

    2003-08-01

    With the increasing use of advanced composite materials in aircraft, automobiles, military hardware, and aerospace composites (such as rocket motorcases) a sizable need for composite health assessment measures exist, particularly where there is risk of failure due to high mechanical and thermal stresses. For most epoxy-based laminate composites, even low-momentum impacts can lead to "barely visible impact damage" (BVD), corresponding to a significant weakening of the composite. This weakening can lead to sudden and catastrophic failure when the material is subjected to normal operating loads. Following the explosion of Delta 241 (IIR-1) on Jaunary 17th, 1997, the failure investigation board concluded that an entire fleet of Graphite Epoxy Motorcases (GEMs) should be instrumented with a health monitoring system. This system would provide continuous structural health data on the GEM from initial acceptance testing through final erection on the launch pad. The result presented here contribute significantly to the understanding of the acoustic properties of the GEM casing, and make a substantial advancement in the theoretical phase of the source location algorithm development. When the system is complete it will continuously monitor the structural health of the GEMs, communicate wirelessly with base stations, operate autonomously for extended periods, and fit unobtrusively on the GEM itself.

  11. Dioxasampsones A and B, two polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols with unusual epoxy-ring-fused skeleton from Hypericum sampsonii.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wen-Jing; Qiu, Yu-Qin; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Hai-Feng; Dai, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Kun; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2014-12-19

    Dioxasampsones A and B (1 and 2), two new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols with an unusual epoxy-ring-fused skeleton by new ways of cyclization, along with a new nor-PPAPs hypersampson R (3) with the loss of C-31-33 in isopentenyl, were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum sampsonii. 1 possessed an unexpected hexacyclic skeleton with a rare 2,7-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane moiety, and 2 featured a unique tetrahydrofuro[3,4-b]furan-fused tricycle[4.3.1.1(5,7)]undecane skeleton. The gross structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic methods. Their absolute configurations were deduced by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and ECD calculations. PMID:25470320

  12. Industrially relevant epoxy-acrylate hybrid resin photopolymerizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajiboye, Gbenga I.

    Photopolymerization of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins takes advantages of inherent properties present in the free-radical and cationic reactions to reduce oxygen inhibition problems that plague free-radical reactions. Similarly, the combined reaction mechanisms reduce moisture sensitivity of the cationic reactions. Despite the advantages of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins, problems persist that need to be addressed. For example, low conversion and polymerization rate of the epoxides are a problem, because the fast acrylate conversion prevents the epoxide from reaching high conversion. Controlling phase separation is challenging, since two moieties with different properties are reacting. The physical properties of the polymer will be impacted by the availability of different moieties. High shrinkage stress results from the acrylate moiety, causing buckling and cracking in film and coating applications. The overall goal of this study is to use the fundamental knowledge of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins to formulate industrially viable polymers. In order to achieve this goal, the study focuses on the following objectives: (I) determine the apparent activation energy of the hybrid monomer METHB, (II) increase epoxide conversion and polymerization rate of hybrid formulations, and (III) control physical properties in epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins. In order to increase the epoxide conversion and rate of polymerization, the sensitivity of epoxides to alcohol is used to facilitate the activated monomer (AM) mechanism and induce a covalent bond between the epoxide and acrylate polymers through the hydroxyl group. It is hypothesized that if the AM mechanism is facilitated, epoxide conversion will increase. As a result, the resins can be tailored to control phase separation and physical properties, and shrinkage stress can be reduced. In pursuit of these objectives, the hybrid monomer METHB was polymerized at temperatures ranging from 30°C to 70°C to obtain apparent activation

  13. Controlled Contamination of Epoxy Composites with PDMS and Removal by Laser Ablation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, Frank; Ledesma, Rodolfo; Cataldo, Daniel; Lin, Yi; Wohl, Christopher; Gupta, Mool; Connell, John

    2016-01-01

    Surface preparation is critical to the performance of adhesively bonded composites. During manufacturing, minute quantities of mold release compounds are inevitably deposited on faying surfaces and may compromise bond performance. To ensure safety, mechanical fasteners and other crack arrest features must be installed in the bondlines of primary structures, which negates some advantages of adhesively bonded construction. Laser ablation is an automated, repeatable, and scalable process with high potential for the surface preparation of metals and composites in critical applications such as primary airframe structures. In this study, laser ablation is evaluated on composite surfaces for the removal of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a common mold release material. Composite panels were contaminated uniformly with PDMS film thicknesses as low as 6.0 nm as measured by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Bond performance was assessed by mechanical testing using a 250 F cure, epoxy adhesive and compared with pre-bond surface inspection results. Water contact angle, optically stimulated electron emission, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy were used to characterize contaminated and laser ablated surfaces. The failure mode obtained from double cantilever beam tests correlated well with surface characterization data. The test results indicated that even low levels of PDMS were not completely removed by laser ablation.

  14. Novel Organically Modified Core-Shell Clay for Epoxy Composites-"SOBM Filler 1".

    PubMed

    Iheaturu, Nnamdi Chibuike; Madufor, Innocent Chimezie

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of a novel organically modified clay from spent oil base drilling mud (SOBM) that could serve as core-shell clay filler for polymers is herein reported. Due to the hydrophilic nature of clay, its compatibility with polymer matrix was made possible through modification of the surface of the core clay sample with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) compound prior to its use. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize clay surface modification. Electron dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to expose filler chemical composition and morphology, while electrophoresis measurement was used to examine level of filler dispersion. Results show an agglomerated core clay powder after high temperature treatment, while EDX analysis shows that the organically modified clay is composed of chemical inhomogeneities, wherein elemental compositions in weight percent vary from one point to the other in a probe of two points. Micrographs of the 3-APTES coupled SOBM core-shell clay filler clearly show cloudy appearance, while FT-IR indicates 25% and 5% increases in fundamental vibrations band at 1014 cm(-1) and 1435 cm(-1), respectively. Furthermore, 3-APTES coupled core-shell clay was used to prepare epoxy composites and tested for mechanical properties. PMID:27355022

  15. Novel Organically Modified Core-Shell Clay for Epoxy Composites—“SOBM Filler 1”

    PubMed Central

    Iheaturu, Nnamdi Chibuike; Madufor, Innocent Chimezie

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of a novel organically modified clay from spent oil base drilling mud (SOBM) that could serve as core-shell clay filler for polymers is herein reported. Due to the hydrophilic nature of clay, its compatibility with polymer matrix was made possible through modification of the surface of the core clay sample with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) compound prior to its use. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize clay surface modification. Electron dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to expose filler chemical composition and morphology, while electrophoresis measurement was used to examine level of filler dispersion. Results show an agglomerated core clay powder after high temperature treatment, while EDX analysis shows that the organically modified clay is composed of chemical inhomogeneities, wherein elemental compositions in weight percent vary from one point to the other in a probe of two points. Micrographs of the 3-APTES coupled SOBM core-shell clay filler clearly show cloudy appearance, while FT-IR indicates 25% and 5% increases in fundamental vibrations band at 1014 cm−1 and 1435 cm−1, respectively. Furthermore, 3-APTES coupled core-shell clay was used to prepare epoxy composites and tested for mechanical properties. PMID:27355022

  16. Automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction using robust montmorillonite/epoxy-coated stir bars.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Milad; Saraji, Mohammad; Maya, Fernando; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-05-01

    Herein we present a simple, rapid and low cost strategy for the preparation of robust stir bar coatings based on the combination of montmorillonite with epoxy resin. The composite stir bar was implemented in a novel automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction system (MS-SBSE), and applied to the extraction of four chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) as model compounds, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The different experimental parameters of the MS-SBSE, such as sample volume, selection of the desorption solvent, desorption volume, desorption time, sample solution pH, salt effect and extraction time were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits were between 0.02 and 0.34μgL(-1). Relative standard deviations (RSD) of the method for the analytes at 10μgL(-1) concentration level ranged from 3.5% to 4.1% (as intra-day RSD) and from 3.9% to 4.3% (as inter-day RSD at 50μgL(-1) concentration level). Batch-to-batch reproducibility for three different stir bars was 4.6-5.1%. The enrichment factors were between 30 and 49. In order to investigate the capability of the developed technique for real sample analysis, well water, wastewater and leachates from a solid waste treatment plant were satisfactorily analyzed. PMID:27062720

  17. High biobased content epoxy-anhydride thermosets from epoxidized sucrose esters of Fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao; Sengupta, Partha; Webster, Dean C

    2011-06-13

    Novel highly functional biobased epoxy compounds, epoxidized sucrose esters of fatty acids (ESEFAs), were cross-linked with a liquid cycloaliphatic anhydride to prepare polyester thermosets. The degree of cure or conversion was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the sol content of the thermosets was determined using solvent extraction. The mechanical properties were studied using tensile testing to determine Young's modulus, tensile stress, and elongation at break. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to determine glass-transition temperature, storage modulus, and cross-link density. The nanomechanical properties of the surfaces were studied using nanoindentation to determine reduced modulus and indentation hardness. The properties of coatings on steel substrates were studied to determine coating hardness, adhesion, solvent resistance, and mechanical durability. Compared with the control, epoxidized soybean oil, the anhydride-cured ESEFAs have high modulus and are hard and ductile, high-performance thermoset materials while maintaining a high biobased content (71-77% in theory). The exceptional performance of the ESEFAs is attributed to the unique structure of these macromolecules: well-defined compact structures with high epoxide functionality. These biobased thermosets have potential uses in applications such as composites, adhesives, and coatings. PMID:21561167

  18. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  19. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  20. Heat transfer through cyanate ester epoxy mix and epoxy TGPAP - DETDA electrical insulations at superfluid helium temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrowicz, Slawomir; Four, Aurelian; Canfer, Simon; Jones, Stephanie; Baudouy, Bertrand

    2012-06-01

    A high magnetic field accelerator magnet of 13 T is being developed in Work Package 7 of the European Union FP7 project EuCARD. The application is to enable higher luminosities and energies for accelerators such as the LHC. The high magnetic field demands superconductors that require a heat treatment step such as Nb3Sn. This paper reports thermal tests on conventional composite electrical insulation with pressurized superfluid helium at atmospheric pressure as a coolant. Two composite insulation systems composed of cyanate ester epoxy mix or a tri-functional epoxy (TGPAP-DETDA) with Sglass fiber, have been chosen as candidate materials. The knowledge of their thermal properties is necessary for the thermal design and therefore samples have been tested in pressurized He II where heat is applied perpendicularly to the fibers between 1.6 K and 2.0 K. Overall thermal resistance is determined as a function of temperature and the results are compared with other electrical insulation systems used for accelerator magnets.

  1. Modification of epoxy resin, silicon and glass surfaces with alkyl- or fluoroalkylsilanes for hydrophobic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marczak, Jacek; Kargol, Marta; Psarski, Maciej; Celichowski, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    Preparation of superhydrophobic materials inspired by nature has attracted a great scientific interest in recent decades. Some of these materials have hierarchical lotus-like structures, i.e. micro- and nano-objects coated by hydrophobic compounds. A major challenge of applying the superhydrophobic surfaces for the self-cleaning coatings preparation is their improved efficiency in varying atmospheric conditions, e.g. UV light. The objective of this research work was to investigate the effect of the different chemical structure and the surface free energy on the hydrophobic and tribological properties of the alkylsilanes and fluoroalkylsilanes deposited on silicon wafers, glass slides and epoxy resin. Tribological and hydrophobic properties of the modified surfaces were correlated with their chemical structures. Chemical structures of the deposited materials were examined by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and hydrophobic properties were investigated by water contact angle (WCA) and surface free energy (SFE) measurements. The modified surfaces exhibited water contact angles of above 100° for the selected modifiers. It was noticed that the replacement of hydrogen atoms by fluorine atoms in alkyl chain caused an increase in the water contact angle values and a decrease in friction coefficients. The obtained results showed that the carbon chain length of a modifier and its chemical structure can strongly affect the hydrophobic and tribological properties of the modified surfaces. The highest values of WCA, lowest values of SFE and coefficient of friction were obtained for samples covered by fluorinated compounds. Moreover, some preliminary aging test was performed to give an insight into the effectiveness of deposited alkylsilanes and fluoroalkylsilanes coatings. After accelerated UV exposure, no significant changes in the chemical structure, hydrophobic and tribological properties of the modified surfaces were noticed. The samples degradation

  2. Magnetic epoxy nanocomposites with superparamagnetic MnFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiangnan; Cao, Yonghai; Zhang, Xi; Li, Yutong; Guo, Jiang; Wei, Suying; Peng, Xiangfang; Shen, Tong D.; Guo, Zhanhu

    2015-09-01

    Manganese iron oxide (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles successfully served as nanofillers for obtaining magnetic epoxy nanocomposites. The viscosities of MnFe2O4/epoxy resin liquid suspensions increased with increasing the nanoparticles loading except the suspension with 5.0 and 1.0 wt% loading, whose viscosities were lower than that of pure epoxy. The introduction of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles showed a lower onset decomposition temperature and glass transition temperature (Tg), which decreased with increasing the nanoparticles loading. The storage modulus and tensile strength of 1.0 wt% MnFe2O4/epoxy were a little higher than that of pure epoxy. The coercivity of MnFe2O4/epoxy nanocomposites with 5.0 wt% (44.7 Oe) and 10.0 wt% (43.9 Oe) displayed much higher than that of pure MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (14.94 Oe). The magnetic moment (m) of nanocomposites (1.354 μB for 10 wt% MnFe2O4/epoxy) are higher than that of pure MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (1.244 μB). The increased real permittivity observed in the nanocomposites was attributed to the interfacial polarization. The intrinsic permittivity of the MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was also calculated.

  3. An Improved Technique for the Preparation of Mounted or Unmounted Carbon/Epoxy Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edahl, Robert A., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    As carbon/epoxy materials became more prevalent in the aerospace industry, microstructural analysis demanded specimen preparation techniques that led to better polished surfaces, achievable in a shorter time, and using fewer steps. The desire to use image analysis for material characterization also helped drive the goal for defect free surfaces. At NASA-Langley (LaRC), carbon/epoxy specimens had been historically prepared in 1 inch diameter Bakelite mounts. Carbon/epoxy specimens that were 1/8 to 1/4 inch thick were not affected by the heat and pressure required for mounting in Bakelite, however thinner specimens were crushed during mounting. A two-part room temperature curing epoxy was chosen as an alternative but sometimes voids developed between the specimen and the mounting material. This was prevented by either heating the epoxy to 140 degrees F to lower the viscosity of the epoxy or by using a vacuum impregnation apparatus. Both techniques helped facilitate flow and allowed the epoxy to penetrate crevices.

  4. Non-hermetic encapsulation for implantable electronic devices based on epoxy.

    PubMed

    Boeser, Fabian; Ordonez, Juan S; Schuettler, Martin; Stieglitz, Thomas; Plachta, Dennis T T

    2015-08-01

    Hermetic and non-hermetic implant packaging are the two strategies to protect electronic systems from the humid conditions inside the human body. Within the scope of this work twelve different material combinations for a non-hermetic, high-reliable epoxy based encapsulation technique were characterized. Three EPO-TEK (ET) epoxies and one low budget epoxy were chosen for studies with respect to their processability, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and adhesion to two different ceramic-based substrates as well as to one standard FR4-substrate. Setups were built to analyze the mentioned properties for at least 30 days using an aging test in a moist environment. As secondary test subjects, commercially available USB flash drives (UFD) were successfully encapsulated inside the epoxies, soaked in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH=7.4), stored in an incubator (37°C) and tested for 256 days without failure. By means of epoxy WVTR (0.0278 g/day/m(2)) and degrease of adhesion (24.59 %) during 30 days in PBS, the combination of the standard FR4-substrate and the epoxy ET 301-2 was found to feature the best encapsulation properties. If a ceramic-based electronic system has to be used, the most promising combination consists of the alumina substrate and the epoxy ET 302-3M (WVTR: 0.0588 g/day/m(2); adhesion drop: 49.58 %). PMID:26736385

  5. Study of Lignocellulose/Epoxy Composites for Carbon-neutral Insulation Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Gen; Hayami, Tokusuke; Murayama, Kiyoko; Sato, Junichi; Kinoshita, Susumu; Todo, Yoko; Amano, Yoshihiko

    Carbon-neutral materials, which do not affect the density of CO2 in the atmosphere even if they burn, have attracted much attention form the viewpoint of environmental friendliness. In this study, lignocellulose/epoxy composites were newly prepared as carbon-neutral insulation materials, and their properties were evaluated. Hydrothermal reaction lignocellulose, which is composed of lignin and crystalline cellulose, was prepared by a treatment of corncob under high-pressure hot water at 190°C, 1.8 MPa for 10min. The 13C-NMR spectra showed that the amounts of non-crystalline cellulose in the hydrothermal reaction lignocellulose were less than those of non-hydrothermal reaction lignocellulose. Moreover, hydrothermal reaction and oligoesterification lignocellulose was obtained by a reaction of maleic anhydride and glycidyl ether with the hydrothermal reaction lignocellulose. The epoxy resin containing the hydrothermal reaction and oligoesterification lignocellulose had lower water absorption and viscosity than those of the epoxy resin containing the non-hydrothermal reaction lignocellulose. The epoxy resin containing the hydrothermal reaction and oligoesterification lignocellulose with SiO2 fillers showed an insulation breakdown strength as same as conventional material (an epoxy resin containing SiO2 fillers). In addition, mechanical and thermal properties of the epoxy-based composite were also comparable with a conventional material. Therefore, the epoxy-based composite seems to be a candidate as practical carbon neutral insulation materials.

  6. High Tg and fast curing epoxy-based anisotropic conductive paste for electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeratitham, Waralee; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat

    2016-03-01

    Herein, our main objective is to prepare the fast curing epoxy system with high glass transition temperature (Tg) by incorporating the multifunctional epoxy resin into the mixture of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) as a major epoxy component and aromatic diamine as a hardener. Furthermore, the curing behavior as well as thermal and thermomechanical properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA). It was found that Tg obtained from tan δ of DGEBA/aromatic diamine system increased from 100 °C to 205 °C with the presence of 30 percentage by weight of multifunctional epoxy resin. Additionally, the isothermal DSC results showed that the multifunctional epoxy resin can accelerate the curing reaction of DGEBA/aromatic diamine system. Namely, a high degree of curing (˜90%) was achieved after a few minutes of curing at low temperature of 130 °C, owing to a large number of epoxy ring of multifunctional epoxy resin towards the active hydrogen atoms of aromatic diamine.

  7. Impact properties of rubber-modified epoxy resin-graphite-fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W. J.; Nir, Z.

    1984-01-01

    To improve the impact resistance of graphite-fiber composites, a commercial and an experimental epoxy resin were modified with liquid reactive rubber and a brominated epoxy resin. The commercial epoxy was a tetrafunctional resin, and the experimental epoxy was a trifunctional resin. The reactive rubber was a carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer. The rubber content was varied from 0 to 25 percent (wt). The brominated epoxy resin was used at Br levels of 4, 19, and 35 percent of the resin. Composites were prepared with woven graphite cloth reinforcement. The composites were evaluated by using flexural strength in the dry state and an elevated temperature after saturation with water. The impact properties were determined by measuring shear strength after falling-ball impact and instrumented impact. The rubber-modified, trifunctional resin exhibited better properties, when tested in hot-wet conditions in a heated oven at 366 K (after boiling the material for 2 h in demineralized water), than the tetrafunctional resin. Improved impact resistance was observed with the addition of the reactive rubber to the epoxy resin. Further improvement was observed with the addition of the brominated epoxy resin.

  8. Ultrasound aided smooth dispensing for high viscoelastic epoxy in microelectronic packaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Li, Han-Xiong; Shan, Xiuyang; Gao, Jian; Chen, Xin; Wang, Fuliang

    2016-01-01

    Epoxy dispensing is one of the most critical processes in microelectronic packaging. However, due its high viscoelasticity, dispensing of epoxy is extremely difficult, and a lower viscoelasticity epoxy is desired to improve the process. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to achieve a lowered viscoelastic epoxy by using ultrasound. The viscoelasticity and molecular structures of the epoxies were compared and analyzed before and after experimentation. Different factors of the ultrasonic process, including power, processing time and ultrasonic energy, were studied in this study. It is found that elasticity is more sensitive to ultrasonic processing while viscosity is little affected. Further, large power and long processing time can minimize the viscoelasticity to ideal values. Due to the reduced loss modulus and storage modulus after ultrasonic processing, smooth dispensing is demonstrated for the processed epoxy. The subsequently color temperature experiments show that ultrasonic processing will not affect LED's lighting. It is clear that the ultrasonic processing will have good potential to aide smooth dispensing for high viscoelastic epoxy in electronic industry. PMID:26384878

  9. Thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance of cyanate ester epoxy mix and tri-functional epoxy electrical insulations at superfluid helium temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrowicz, S.; Four, A.; Jones, S.; Canfer, S.; Baudouy, B.

    2012-02-01

    In the framework of the European Union FP7 project EuCARD, two composite insulation systems made of cyanate ester epoxy mix and tri-functional epoxy (TGPAP-DETDA) with S-glass fiber have been thermally tested as possible candidates to be the electrical insulation of 13 T Nb3Sn high field magnets under development for this program. Since it is expected to be operated in pressurized superfluid helium at 1.9 K and 1 atm, the thermal conductivity and the Kapitza resistance are the most important input parameters for the thermal design of this type of magnet and have been determined in this study. For determining these thermal properties, three sheets of each material with different thicknesses varying from 245 to 598 μm have been tested in steady-state condition in the temperature range of 1.6-2.0 K. The thermal conductivity for the tri-functional epoxy (TGPAP-DETDA) epoxy resin insulation is found to be k = [(34.2 ± 5.5)ṡT - (16.4 ± 8.2)] × 10-3 Wm-1 K-1 and for the cyanate ester epoxy k = [(26.8 ± 4.8)ṡT - (9.6 ± 5.2)] × 10-3 Wm-1 K-1. For the Kapitza resistance, Rk, the best curve fitting the experimental data is described by Rk = (3057 ± 593) × 10-6ṡT (-1.79 ± 0.34) m2 KW-1 for the TGPAP-DETDA insulation and Rk = (4114 ± 971) × 10-6ṡT (-1.73 ± 0.41) m2 KW-1 for the cyanate ester epoxy insulation. Our results are compared with other epoxy based composite electrical insulation found in the literature.

  10. Flexure fatigue testing of 90 deg graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Ann Nancy W.

    1995-01-01

    A great deal of research has been performed characterizing the in-plane fiber-dominated properties, under both static and fatigue loading, of advanced composite materials. To the author's knowledge, no study has been performed to date investigating fatigue characteristics in the transverse direction. This information is important in the design of bonded composite airframe structure where repeated, cyclic out-of-plane bending may occur. Recent tests characterizing skin/stringer debond failures in reinforced composite panels where the dominant loading in the skin is flexure along the edge of the frame indicate failure initiated either in the skin or else the flange, near the flange tip. When failure initiated in the skin, transverse matrix cracks formed in the surface skin ply closest to the flange and either initiated delaminations or created matrix cracks in the next lower ply, which in turn initiated delaminations. When failure initiated in the flanges, transverse cracks formed in the flange angle ply closest to the skin and initiated delamination. In no configuration did failure propagate through the adhesive bond layer. For the examined skin/flange configurations, the maximum transverse tension stress at failure correlates very well with the transverse tension strength of the composites. Transverse tension strength (static) data of graphite epoxy composites have been shown to vary with the volume of material stressed. As the volume of material stressed increased, the strength decreased. A volumetric scaling law based on Weibull statistics can be used to predict the transverse strength measurements. The volume dependence reflects the presence of inherent flaws in the microstructure of the lamina. A similar approach may be taken to determine a volume scale effect on the transverse tension fatigue behavior of graphite/epoxy composites. The objective of this work is to generate transverse tension strength and fatigue S-N characteristics for composite materials using

  11. Silane coupling agent for attaching fusion-bonded epoxy to steel.

    PubMed

    Tchoquessi Diodjo, Madeleine R; Belec, Lénaïk; Aragon, Emmanuel; Joliff, Yoann; Lanarde, Lise; Perrin, François-Xavier

    2013-07-24

    We describe the possibility of using γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS) to increase the durability of epoxy powder coating/steel joints. The curing temperature of epoxy powder coatings is frequently above 200 °C, which is seen so far as a major limitation for the use of the heat-sensitive aminosilane coupling agent. Despite this limitation, we demonstrate that aminosilane is a competitive alternative to traditional chromate conversion to enhance the durability of epoxy powder coatings/steel joints. Fourier-transform reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (FT-RAIRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to identify the silane deposition conditions that influence the adhesion of epoxy powder coatings on steel. We show that AFM analysis provides highly sensitive measurements of mechanical property development and, as such, the degree of condensation of the silane. The joint durability in water at 60 °C was lower when the pH of the γ-APS solution was controlled at 4.6 using formic acid, rather than that at natural pH (10.6). At the curing temperature of 220 °C, oxidation of the carbon adjacent to the amine headgroup of γ-APS gives amide species by a pseudofirst-order kinetics. However, a few amino functionalities remain to react with oxirane groups of epoxy resin and, thus, strengthen the epoxy/silane interphase. The formation of ammonium formate in the acidic silane inhibits the reaction between silane and epoxy, which consequently decreases the epoxy/silane interphase cohesion. We find that the nanoroughness of silane deposits increases with the cure temperature which is beneficial to the wet stability of the epoxy/steel joints, due to increased mechanical interlocking. PMID:23790122

  12. Filled and Unfilled Temperature-Dependent Epoxy Resin Blends for Lossy Transducer Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Eames, Matthew D.C.; Hossack, John A.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of our ongoing investigation of low-cost 2-dimensional (2-D) arrays, we studied the temperature-dependent acoustic properties of epoxy blends that could serve as an acoustically lossy backing material in compact 2-D array-based devices. This material should be capable of being machined during array manufacture, while also providing adequate signal attenuation to mitigate backing block reverberation artifacts. The acoustic impedance and attenuation of 5 unfilled epoxy blends and 2 filled epoxy blends—tungsten and fiberglass fillers—were analyzed across a 35°C temperature range in 5°C increments. Unfilled epoxy materials possessed an approximately linear variation of impedance and sigmoidal variation of attenuation properties over the range of temperatures of interest. An intermediate epoxy blend was fitted to a quadratic trend line with R2 values of 0.94 and 0.99 for attenuation and impedance, respectively. It was observed that a fiberglass filler induces a strong quadratic trend in the impedance data with temperature, which results in increased error in the characterization of attenuation and impedance. The tungsten-filled epoxy was not susceptible to such problems because a different method of fabrication was required. At body temperature, the tungsten-filled epoxy could provide a 44 dB attenuation of the round-trip backing block echo in our application, in which the center frequency is 5 MHz and the backing material is 1.1 mm thick. This is an 11 dB increase in attenuation compared with the fiberglass-filled epoxy in the context of our application. This work provides motivation for exploring the use of custom-made tungsten-filled epoxy materials as a substitute PCB-based substrate to provide electrical signal interconnect. PMID:19406716

  13. On the Use of Self-Assembling Block Copolymers to Toughen A Model Epoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yilin

    Block copolymers have been receiving considerable attention in toughening epoxy due to their ability to form a wide variety of nanostructures. This study focuses on using both triblock and diblock copolymers to improve the fracture toughness of an aromatic-amine cured epoxy system. The curing system consisted of 1,3- phenylenediamine (mPDA) as curing agent and aniline as a chain extender. Three triblock copolymers and three diblock copolymers were incorporated in the same lightly crosslinked model epoxy system, which was chosen to mimic an underfill material in flip-chip packaging for the microelectronics industry. In this research, rubber particles were formed in situ using self-assembling block copolymers. Mechanical, thermal and microscopic studies were conducted with the main goal to study the relationship between the block parameters and the final morphologies and their effects on static and dynamic mechanical properties of the toughened resin, especially fracture toughness. In these block-copolymer-modified epoxies, spherical micelles and wormlike micelles were obtained by varying block lengths, molecular weight, polarities and compositions. It was found that miscibility of the epoxy-miscible block played a crucial role in the formation of different types of morphologies. At a low loading level, diblock copolymers were able to toughen the model epoxy as effectively as triblock copolymers. The fracture toughness was improved to almost three times with respect to that of the neat resin with addition of 10 phr AM*-27. At the same time, other mechanical properties, such as yield strength and modulus, were well retained. Incorporation of block copolymers did not have a significant effect on glass transition temperature but caused an increase in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the modified epoxy. Particle cavitation and matrix void growth were proved to be the toughening mechanisms for SBM-Modified epoxies. However, these typical toughening mechanisms for

  14. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  15. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  16. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  17. Dielectric and microwave attenuation properties of graphene nanoplatelet–epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhou; Luo, Jia; Zhao, Guang–Lin

    2014-01-15

    Graphene nanoplatelet (GNP)–epoxy composites were fabricated for the investigation of the dielectric permittivity and microwave absorption in a frequency range from 8 to 20 GHz. The intrinsically conductive GNP particles and polarized interfacial centers in the composites contribute to the microwave absorption. A minimum reflection loss of −14.5 dB at 18.9 GHz is observed for the GNP–epoxy composites with 15 wt. % GNP loading, which is mainly attributed to electric conductivity and the charge multipoles at the polarized interfaces in the GNP–epoxy composites.

  18. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties. PMID:27455751

  19. Thermal properties and dynamic mechanical properties of ceramic fillers filled epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidina, D. S.; Mariatti, M.; Juliewatty, J.

    2015-07-01

    This present study is aimed to enhance the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of ceramic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate, CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) and Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) filled epoxy thin film composites. As can be seen from the results, 20 vol% BaTiO3/epoxy thin film composite showed the lowest coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) value, the highest decomposition temperature (T5 and Tonset) and weight of residue among the composites as the filler has low CTE value, distributed homogeneously throughout the composite and less voids can be seen between epoxy resin and BaTiO3 filler.

  20. Investigation of Structural Properties of Carbon-Epoxy Composites Using Fiber-Bragg Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J.; Kaul, R.; Taylor, S.; Jackson, K.; Sharma, A.; Burdine, Robert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fiber Bragg-gratings are embedded in carbon-epoxy laminates as well as bonded on the surface of cylindrical structures fabricated out of such composites. Structural properties of such composites is investigated. The measurements include stress-strain relation in laminates and Poisson's ratio in several specimens with varying orientation of the optical fiber Bragg-sensor with respect to the carbon fiber in an epoxy matrix. Additionally, Bragg gratings are bonded on the surface of cylinders fabricated out of carbon-epoxy composites and longitudinal and hoop strain on the surface is measured.

  1. Thermal Evaluation of Scorched Graphite-Epoxy Panels by Infrared Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Slifka, A. J.; Hall, T.; Boltz, E. S.

    2003-01-01

    A simple measurement system is described for evaluating damage to graphite-epoxy panels, such as those used in high-performance aircraft. The system uses a heating laser and infrared imaging system to measure thermal performance. Thermal conductivity or diffusivity is a sensitive indicator of damage in materials, allowing this thermal measurement to show various degrees of damage in graphite-epoxy composites. Our measurements track well with heat-flux damage to graphite epoxy panels. This measurement system, including analysis software, could easily be used in the field, such as on the deck of an aircraft carrier or at remote air strips.

  2. Mechanical Property and Structure of Covalent Functionalised Graphene/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Naebe, Minoo; Wang, Jing; Amini, Abbas; Khayyam, Hamid; Hameed, Nishar; Li, Lu Hua; Chen, Ying; Fox, Bronwyn

    2014-01-01

    Thermally reduced graphene nanoplatelets were covalently functionalised via Bingel reaction to improve their dispersion and interfacial bonding with an epoxy resin. Functionalised graphene were characterized by microscopic, thermal and spectroscopic techniques. Thermal analysis of functionalised graphene revealed a significantly higher thermal stability compared to graphene oxide. Inclusion of only 0.1 wt% of functionalised graphene in an epoxy resin showed 22% increase in flexural strength and 18% improvement in storage modulus. The improved mechanical properties of nanocomposites is due to the uniform dispersion of functionalised graphene and strong interfacial bonding between modified graphene and epoxy resin as confirmed by microscopy observations. PMID:24625497

  3. Fracture toughness of the sidewall fluorinated carbon nanotube-epoxy interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesan, Yogeeswaran; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Jiangnan; Cate, Avery; Lou, Jun E-mail: jlou@rice.edu; Salahshoor, Hossein; Rahbar, Nima E-mail: jlou@rice.edu; Khabashesku, Valery

    2014-06-14

    The effects of carbon nanotube (CNT) sidewall fluorination on the interface toughness of the CNT epoxy interface have been comprehensively investigated. Nanoscale quantitative single-CNT pull-out experiments have been conducted on individual fluorinated CNTs embedded in an epoxy matrix, in situ, within a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using an InSEM{sup ®} nanoindenter assisted micro-device. Equations that were derived using a continuum fracture mechanics model have been applied to compute the interfacial fracture energy values for the system. The interfacial fracture energy values have also been independently computed by modeling the fluorinated graphene-epoxy interface using molecular dynamics simulations and adhesion mechanisms have been proposed.

  4. Photocured epoxy/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced water vapor barrier properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periolatto, M.; Sangermano, M.; Spena, P. Russo

    2016-05-01

    A transparent, water vapor barrier film made of an epoxy resin and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by photopolymerization process. The epoxy/GO film with just 0.05 wt% GO gives a 93% WVTR reduction with respect to the pristine polymer, reaching barrier properties better than other polymer composites containing higher amounts of graphene. The excellent water vapor barrier is attributed to the good dispersion of GO in the polymer matrix. Moreover, GO significantly enhances the toughness and the damping capacity of the epoxy resins. The hybrid film can have potential applications in anticorrosive coatings, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals and food packaging.

  5. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  6. Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.

    2014-06-01

    We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-<-| S 373K|-<-550- μV-K-1 for undoped samples, it should be possible to obtain highly efficient thermoelectric materials both by adjusting the carrier concentration and by reducing the thermal conductivity. Here, we report the effects of doping on the thermoelectric properties of FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

  7. Warping of unsymmetric cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, H. T.

    1981-01-01

    Warping in unsymmetric graphite/epoxy laminates was studied with particular attention given to the change of residual stresses resulting from long term environmental exposure. Square, cured prepreg sheets were measured for edge deflection with a cathetometer, then quartered and remeasured. Two postcuring durations were then used, 7.5 and one hr at 177 C; varying cooldown rates after curing were used for other samples, and one set was stored in vacuum at 75 C. Maximum deflections and weight changes were measured periodically at room temperature. Average curvatures, the effect of postcure, and the effect of long-term exposure were determined. Larger panels exhibited cylindrical warping and smaller panels underwent anticlastic warping. The deflections were related to weight changes, i.e. moisture absorption, and the lower the moisture content, the higher the deflection. Relaxation of residual stresses at 75 C was neglibible after 220 days.

  8. RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY/CARBON-FIBER COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E

    2008-01-11

    Piping in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) must withstand the stresses involved during an unlikely but potential deflagration event. One method proposed for protection and reinforcement of piping during such an event is the use of a carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composite (Diamond-Wrap{reg_sign}). In the DWPF, this reinforcement composite product would be required to maintain its safety function for a 20-year service life. This product has been ASME-approved (nuclear code case 589) for post-construction maintenance and is DOT-compliant per 49CFR 192 and 195. However, its radiation resistance properties have not been evaluated. This report documents initial radiation resistance testing of the product and microstructural effects. Additional testing is recommended to evaluate radiation effects on specific properties such as burst strength, chemical resistance/weeping and for service life prediction in critical applications.

  9. Influence of Impact Damage on Carbon-Epoxy Stiffener Crippling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and The Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, light-weight composite structures for aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept has been developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structure. In this concept a stitched carbon-epoxy material system has been developed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners, thereby reducing part count and labor. By adding unidirectional carbon rods to the top of stiffeners, the panel becomes more structurally efficient. This combination produces a more damage tolerant design. This document describes the results of experimentation on PRSEUS specimens loaded in unidirectional compression subjected to impact damage and loaded in fatigue and to failure. A comparison with analytical predictions for pristine and damaged specimens is included.

  10. Thermally induced twist in graphite-epoxy tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Rousseau, C. Q.; Tompkins, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses an analytical and experimental study to investigate the thermally induced twist in laminated angle-ply graphite-epoxy tubes. Attention is focused on balanced laminates which, contrary to intuition, exhibit twist when the temperature is changed. The twisting is due to the fact that a lamina with ( a + phi) orientation and a lamina with (a - phi) orientation must be at slightly different radial positions in the twist. The lamina with the greater radial position determines the sense of the twist. Classical lamination theory does not predict this phenomenon, and so as more sophisticated theory must be employed. This paper outlines such as theory, which is based on an generalized plane-deformation elasticity analysis, and presents experimental data to confirm the predictions of the theory. A brief description of the experimental apparatus and procedure used to measure twist is presented.

  11. Dynamic delamination crack propagation in a graphite/epoxy laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. T.; Grady, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamic delamination crack propagation behavior during ballistic tests of (90/0)5s T-300/934 graphite/epoxy laminates with embedded interfacial cracks was investigated using high speed photography. The impact on the beam-like specimen was produced with a silicon rubber ball, and the crack propagation speeds and the threshold impact velocities required to initiate dynamic crack propagation were determined for several crack positions. The results suggest that the mode of crack propagation depends on the specimen geometry as well as the loading condition. A simplified finite element analysis of the experimental data obtained from one of the midplane-cracked specimens was used to estimate the critical strain energy release rate, which may determine the onset of unstable crack propagation.

  12. Dynamic shear behavior of alumina-filled epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, L.S.

    1982-03-01

    Thin-walled tubular specimens of alumina-filled epoxy were loaded in torsion at a strain rate of approximately 10/sup 3/ s/sup -1/ using a stored-torque Kolsky bar. In addition to measuring the time resolved shear stress and shear strain in the specimen, the axial stress generated by the dilation of the material during shear deformation was also obtained as a function of time. Tests were conducted at room temperature and at -60/sup 0/C. At room temperature, a moderate amount of plastic deformation occurred before failure. Material dilation was associated with the plastic flow. At -60/sup 0/C, there was a marked increase in failure stress over the failure stress at room temperature. However, little or no plastic deformation or dilation occurred before failure.

  13. Hygrothermal damage mechanisms in graphite-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman, F. W.; Mauri, R. E.; Warren, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    T300/5209 and T300/5208 graphite epoxy laminates were studied experimentally and analytically in order to: (1) determine the coupling between applied stress, internal residual stress, and moisture sorption kinetics; (2) examine the microscopic damage mechanisms due to hygrothermal cycling; (3) evaluate the effect of absorbed moisture and hygrothermal cycling on inplane shear response; (4) determine the permanent loss of interfacial bond strength after moisture absorption and drying; and (5) evaluate the three dimensional stress state in laminates under a combination of hygroscopic, thermal, and mechanical loads. Specimens were conditioned to equilibrium moisture content under steady exposure to 55% or 95% RH at 70 C or 93 C. Some specimens were tested subsequent to moisture conditioning and 100 cycles between -54 C and either 70 C or 93 C.

  14. Epoxy composite processing in a microwave part-shaped cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Shidaker, T.A.; Hawley, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    A microwave part-shaped applicator was designed to be competitive with conventional liquid composite molding processes. Three glass-reinforced diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy composites with a diaminodiphenyl sulfone curative are processed in the part-shaped cavity by microwave heating, conventional heating, and hybrid heating where both microwave and conduction heating are employed. Hybrid heating provided superior heating uniformity due to complementary heat transfer mechanisms: an outward flux of thermal energy from microwave heating combined with an inward flux of energy associated with conventional heating. Because of the penetrating nature of microwave energy, the time required to attain the cure temperature in the composite center was reduced by more than 85% using microwave and hybrid heating methods.

  15. Hygrothermal influence on delamination behavior of graphite/epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, A.; Ishai, O.

    1984-01-01

    The hygrothermal effect on the fracture behavior of graphite-epoxy laminates was investigated to develop a methodology for damage tolerance predictions in advanced composite materials. Several T300/934 laminates were tested using a number of specimen configurations to evaluate the effects of temperature and humidity on delamination fracture toughness under mode 1 and mode 2 loading. It is indicated that moisture has a slightly beneficial influence on fracture toughness or critical strain energy release rate during mode 1 delamination, but has a slightly deleterious effect on mode 2 delamination and mode 1 transverse cracking. The failed specimens are examined by SEM and topographical differences due to fracture modes are identified. It is concluded that the effect of moisture on fracture topography can not be distinguished.

  16. Photoinitiation study of Irgacure 784 in an epoxy resin photopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Sabol, Dusan; Gleeson, Michael R.; Liu, Shui; Sheridan, John T.

    2010-03-15

    A deeper understanding of the processes, which occur during free radical photopolymerization, is necessary in order to develop a fully comprehensive model, which represents their behavior during exposure. One of these processes is photoinitiation, whereby a photon is absorbed by a photosensitizer producing free radicals, which can initiate polymerization. These free radicals can also participate in polymer chain termination (primary termination), and it is therefore necessary to understand their generation in order to predict the temporally varying kinetic effects present during holographic grating formation. In this paper, a study of the photoinitiation mechanisms of Irgacure 784 photosensitizer, in an epoxy resin matrix, is presented. We report our experimental results and present a theoretical model to predict the physically observed behavior.

  17. Glass Reinforcement of Various Epoxy Resins-Polyurea Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Medha; Jauhari, Smita

    2012-07-01

    Polyureas (PUs) were prepared by the polycondensation reaction of disperse dyes containing -NH2 group and toluene 2, 4-diisocyanate. The disperse dyes have been prepared by coupling of various 2-diazobenzothiazoles with 1,3-benzenediamine. All the PUs were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral studies, number average molecular weight ( {overline{{Mn}} } ), and thermogravimetry. Further reaction of PUs was carried out with an epoxy resin (i.e., DGEBA). The curing study of prepared resins was monitored by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Based on DSC, thermograms glass fiber-reinforced composites have been laminated and characterized by chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties. The unreinforced cured resins were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The laminated composites showed excellent resistance properties against chemicals and good mechanical and electrical properties.

  18. Synthesis and electroconductivity of epoxy/aligned CNTs composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechenin, N. G.; Chernykh, P. N.; Vorobyeva, E. A.; Timofeev, O. S.

    2013-06-01

    An efficient method is described of growing of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VANTs) densely packed on a large area with uniform height up to 1 mm. The method is based on injection of active solution of ferrocene in cyclohexane into reactor during the growth process. We also describe a method of ER/VANTs composite preparation based on infiltration of epoxy resin (ER) liquid monomer into arrays of the VANTs forest with polymerization followed. Further on we describe a press-and-draw method to reorient VANTs into horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes (HANTs) in the liquid composite precursor. The electrical conductivities up to 0.6 S/cm in ER/VANTs and up to 0.85 S/cm in ER/HANTs are obtained.

  19. Impact behavior of filament wound graphite/epoxy fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    The fabrication and impact tests of graphite/epoxy filament wound fan blades are discussed. Blades which were spin tested at tip speeds up to 305 meters per second retained their structural integrity. Two blades were each impacted with a 454 gram slice of a 908 gram simulated bird at a tip speed of 263 meters per second and impact angles of 22 and 32 deg. The impact tests were recorded with high-speed movie film. The blade which was impacted at 22 deg sustained some root delamination but remained intact. The 32 deg impact separated the blade from the root. No local damage other than leading edge debonding was observed for either blade. Results of a failure mode analysis are also discussed.

  20. Fiberglass epoxy laminate fatigue properties at 300 and 20 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, J. M., Jr.; Bailey, W. J.; Boyce, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A subcritical liquid hydrogen orbital storage and supply experiment is being designed for flight in the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) includes a liquid hydrogen tank supported in a vacuum jacket by two fiberglass epoxy composite trunnion mounts. The ability of the CFME to last for the required seven missions depends primarily on the fatigue life of the composite trunnions at cryogenic temperatures. To verify the trunnion design and test the performance of the composite material, fatigue property data at 300 and 20 K were obtained for the specific E-glass fabric/S-glass unidirectional laminate that will be used for the CFME trunnions. The fatigue life of this laminate was greater at 20 K than at 300 K, and was satisfactory for the intended application.

  1. Buckling of a fiber bundle embedded in epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, H. T.; Sohi, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Buckling of a fiber bundle embedded in epoxy resin was studied to gain insight into compressive failure mechanisms in unidirectional composites. The fibers used were E-glass, T300 graphite, T700 graphite, and P75 graphite. These fibers were combined with two different resins: Epon 815/V140 and Epon 828/Z. In both resins the failure mode of the bundle was found to be microbuckling of fibers for the first three types of fibers; however, the high-modulus P75 fibers failed in shear without any sign of microbuckling. The strains at which microbuckling occurred were higher than the compressive failure strains of the corresponding unidirectional composites. In the soft resin, Epon 815/V140, fibers buckled at lower strains than in the stiff resin, Epon 828/Z. The buckling strains and the segment lengths followed the trends predicted for a single filament embedded in an infinite matrix.

  2. Mesoscale simulations of particle reinforced epoxy-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Bradley W.; Springer, Harry Keo; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Spowart, Jonathan E.; Thadhani, Naresh

    2012-03-01

    Polymer matrix composites reinforced with metal powders have complex microstructures that vary greatly from differences in particle size, morphology, loading fractions, etc. The effects of the underlying microstructure on the mechanical and wave propagation behavior of these composites during dynamic loading conditions are not well understood. To better understand these effects, epoxy (Epon826/DEA) reinforced with different particle sizes of Al and loading fractions of Al and Ni were prepared by casting. Microstructures from the composites were then used in 2D plane strain mesoscale simulations. The effect of varying velocity loading conditions on the wave velocity was then examined to determine the Us-Up and particle deformation response as a function of composite configuration.

  3. Effect of cellulose nanowhiskers functionalization with polyaniline for epoxy coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsoi, C.; Zattera, A. J.; Ferreira, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Functionalization of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) was performed by means of chemical synthesis involving polymerization of polyaniline in emeraldine salt form (PAni SE) in the presence of CNW. Thermal, chemical and morphological samples properties were evaluated. Polymeric coatings were obtained with epoxy, aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS), CNW and CNW/PAni SE applied on carbon steel with a conversion coating of zirconia (Zr) and the mechanical properties were evaluated. With regard to CNW functionalization the sample was encapsulated with PAni SE as observed by FTIR and morphologic analysis, with decreased thermal stability. Regarding the mechanical properties of CNW and CNW/PAni SE polymeric coatings, improvements in flexibility and hardness properties using the APS and Zr layer were observed. The adherence of polymer coatings improved by the incorporation of CNW and CNW/PAni SE. Through morphological analysis it was observed that CNW shows good dispersion in the polymer matrix without agglomerates formation.

  4. Graphite/epoxy composite stiffened panel fabrication development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the manufacturing development procedures used to fabricate a series of carbon/epoxy panels with integrally molded stiffeners. Panel size was started at 6 inches by 18 inches and one stiffener and increased to 30 inches by 60 inches and six integral stiffeners. Stiffener concepts were optimized for minimum weight (or mass) to carry stress levels from 1500 lbs/inch to 25,000 lbs/inch compression load. Designs were created and manufactured with a stiffener configuration of integrally molded hat, J, I, sine wave I, solid blade, and honeycomb blade shapes. Successful and unsuccessful detail methods of tooling, lay-up methods, and bagging methods are documented. Recommendations are made for the best state-of-the-art manufacturing technique developed for type of stiffener construction.

  5. Acoustic Emissions in Borosilicate and epoxy resin composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatica, N.; Guerra, S.; Vargas, Y.; Gaete, L.; Galleguillos, E.; Ruzzante, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a research looking for to extend the acoustic emission (AE) technique from the evaluation of stress state of rock samples to know its composition is presented. For this purpose the rock samples were simulated by a composite made of a resin and borosilicate spheres. The epoxy resin playing the role of country rock and Borosilicate spheres represent the coarse grain. These samples were undergone to uniaxial compression test and the AE signals were recorded and studied looking for the identification of each material characteristic spectrum. The spectral analysis of these recorded signals shown that it is possible to identify the characteristic spectra of each material from the full spectra of composite.

  6. Iosipescu shear properties of graphite fabric/epoxy composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walrath, D. E.; Adams, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Iosipescu shear test method is used to measure the in-plane and interlaminar shear properties of four T300 graphite fabric/934 epoxy composite materials. Different weave geometries tested include an Oxford weave, a 5-harness satin weave, an 8-harness satin weave, and a plain weave with auxiliary warp yarns. Both orthogonal and quasi-isotropic layup laminates were tested. In-plane and interlaminar shear properties are obtained for laminates of all four fabric types. Overall, little difference in shear properties attributable to the fabric weave pattern is observed. The auxiliary warp material is significantly weaker and less stiff in interlaminar shear parallel to its fill direction. A conventional strain gage extensometer is modified to measure shear strains for use with the Iosipescu shear test. While preliminary results are encouraging, several design iterations failed to produce a reliable shear transducer prototype. Strain gages are still the most reliable shear strain transducers for use with this test method.

  7. Tensile stress-strain behavior of graphite/epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    The tensile stress-strain behavior of a variety of graphite/epoxy laminates was examined. Longitudinal and transverse specimens from eleven different layups were monotonically loaded in tension to failure. Ultimate strength, ultimate strain, and strss-strain curves wee obtained from four replicate tests in each case. Polynominal equations were fitted by the method of least squares to the stress-strain data to determine average curves. Values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, derived from polynomial coefficients, were compared with laminate analysis results. While the polynomials appeared to accurately fit the stress-strain data in most cases, the use of polynomial coefficients to calculate elastic moduli appeared to be of questionable value in cases involving sharp changes in the slope of the stress-strain data or extensive scatter.

  8. Ultrasonic analysis of Kevlar-epoxy filament wound structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosey, W. D.

    1985-07-01

    Composite structures are often desirable for their strength and weight characteristics. Since composites are not as well characterized mechanically as metallic or ceramic structures, much work has been performed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to obtain that characterization and to develop methods of determining the mechanical properties of a composite nondestructively. Most of the work to date has been performed on nonenclosed structures. One notable exception has been the holographic evaluation of spherical Kevlar-epoxy composite pressure vessels. Several promising nondestructive evaluation techniques have been used to locate flaws and predict the integrity of the composite. Several of these include thermography, Moire interferometry, ultrasonic stress wave factor, ultrasonic C-scan image enhancement, radiography, and nuclear magnetic resonance. As a first step in this transfer and development of NDE techniques, known defects were placed within spherical Kevlar-epoxy, filament-wound test specimens to determine the extent to which they could be detected. These defects included Teflon shim-simulated delaminations, macrosphere-simulated voids, dry-band sets, variable tension, Kevlar 29 fiber instead of the higher strength Kevlar 40 fiber, and an alternate high-void-content winding pattern. Ultrasonic waveform analysis was performed in both the time and frequency domains to determine the detectability and locatability of structural flaws within the composite. Preparation has been made at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and at the University of Delaware, to examine the specimens using various NDE techniques. This work is a compilation of interim project reports in partial fulfillment of the contracts between Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, the University of Delaware, and Y-12 Plant.

  9. Impact response of graphite/epoxy fabric structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagace, Paul A.; Kraft, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The impact damage resistance and damage tolerance of graphite/epoxy fabric plate (coupon) and cylinder structures were investigated and compared in an analytical and experimental study. Hercules A370-5H/3501-6 five-harness satin weave cloth in a quasi-isotropic (0,45)(sub s) laminate configuration was utilized. Specimens were impacted with 12.7 mm diameter steel spheres at velocities ranging from 10 m/s to 100 m/s. Damage resistance of the specimens was determined through the use of dye penetrant enhanced x-radiography, sectioning, epoxy burnoff, and visual methods. Damage tolerance of the flat plate structures was assessed in a residual tensile test while damage tolerance of the cylinder structures was assessed via pressurization tests. Impacted fabric laminates exhibited matrix crushing, fiber breakage, delamination, and fiber bundle disbonds; the latter being a unique damage mode for fabric laminates. Plate delamination and bundle disbonding was found to be more extensive around the central core area of fiber damage in the coupon specimens than in the cylinder specimens which showed a cleaner damage area due to impact. Damage resistance and damage tolerance were predicted by utilizing a five-step analysis approach previously utilized for coupon configurations. Two of the five steps were adapted to account for the effects of the structural configuration of the pressurized cylinder. The damage resistance analysis provided good correlation to the fiber damage region of both the coupon and cylinder specimens. There was little difference in the size of this region in the two specimen types. However, the analysis was not able to predict the distribution of damage through-the-thickness. This was important in assessing the damage tolerance of the cylinders. The damage tolerance analysis was able to predict the residual tensile strength of the coupons. A general methodology to predict the impact damage resistance and damage tolerance of composite structures utilizing

  10. Damping Behavior of Alumina Epoxy Nano-Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, Priyanka; Kumar, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Polymer nano composites, consisting of a polymer matrix with nanoparticle filler, have been predicted to be one of the most beneficial applications of nanotechnology. Addition of nano particulates to a polymer matrix enhances its performance by capitalizing on the nature and properties of the nano-scale fillers. The damping behavior of composites with nano structured phases is significantly different from that of micro structured materials. Viscoelastic homopolymer exhibit a high material damping response over a relatively narrow range of temperature and frequencies. In many practical situations, a polymeric structure is required to possess better strength and stiffness properties together with a reasonable damping behavior. Viscoelastic polymers show higher loss factor beyond the glassy region which comes with a significant drop in the specific modulus. Addition of nano alumina particles to epoxy leads to improved strength and stiffness properties with an increase in glass transition temperature while retaining its damping capability. Experimental investigations are carried out on composite beam specimen fabricated with different compositions of alumina nano particles in epoxy to evaluate loss factor, tan δ. Impact damping method is used for time response analysis. A single point Laser is used to record the transverse displacement of a point on the composite beam specimen. The experimental results are compared with theoretical estimation of loss factor using Voigt estimation. The effect of inter phase is included in theoretical estimation of loss factor. The result reveals that the study of interface properties is very important in deriving the overall loss factor of the composite since interface occupies a significant volume fraction in the composite.

  11. Static and fatigue fracture characteristics of rubber modified epoxy adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Hosaka, Y.; Miyazaki, K.; Fujii, T.; Okubo, H.; Nejigaka, K.; Kurosawa, K.

    1993-12-31

    A conventional epoxy adhesive is modified with Closs-linked NBR-COOH to increase the fracture toughness. This paper presents the static and fatigue fracture characteristics of the rubber modified epoxy adhesives under Mode 1 loading. The fracture toughness under static loading is measured using Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens. The energy release rate is used as a parameter of fracture toughness. Rubber contents are 2.8% and 5.5% in weight. Generally, toughened adhesives show relatively large plastic deformation ahead the crack tip. The crack extension is thought to be influenced by loading condition. Namely, monotonous loading up to the final failure gives the toughness which is different from the toughness obtained under loading-unloading condition. Therefore, two loading conditions are adopted under static loading in order to show the effect of loading history. Under cyclic loading, the fatigue crack velocity is measured with respect to number of loading cycles. The effect of rubber content on the fatigue crack growth is examined. The effect of adhesive thickness on both static and fatigue fracture also is examined. All tests are conducted at the laboratory condition at room temperature. Following conclusions are obtained from this study. The rubber modified adhesives show higher fracture toughness and fatigue resistance than unmodified one. Higher rubber content always show higher fracture toughness. The effect of rubber content on the fracture toughness is influenced by adhesive thickness. The observed fracture toughness increases with an increase of adhesive thickness while no effect of adherend thickness is found at the present condition. The stable crack extension force is higher than that at the crack starting moment. Rubber modification reduces the fatigue crack velocity. The fracture surface topology becomes different according to rubber content.

  12. Characterization of paint samples used in drinking water reservoirs: identification of endocrine disruptor compounds.

    PubMed

    Romero, J; Ventura, F; Gomez, M

    2002-04-01

    Several migration tests are performed from various epoxy paint samples that, according to the regulation, can be used in food reservoirs such as drinking water reservoirs. The level of the organic compounds capable of producing migrations to water with special attention to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) are identified and estimated by closed loop-stripping analysis (CLSA) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) methods coupled with gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Bisphenol A, a strong endocrine disruptor, is found in all migration experiments. Its concentration level reaches between 0.02 and 0.03 mg/cm2. The higher concentration corresponds with benzylic alcohol, which is used as a solvent and curing agent in epoxy paint. Other EDCs identified in the migration tests are phthalates, 4-nonylphenol, and t-butylphenol. The main non-EDCs identified are solvents, antioxidants, and rubber-like compounds. No great differences are found in the use of metallic plates or concrete slabs for migration experiments; only additional compounds related with the pretreatment of the concrete wall have been identified, too. In the study of a drinking water sample the same organic compounds identified in the migration test is not seen. This is probably because of the dynamic situation in a drinking water reservoir. Finally, a GC profile of a direct epoxy paint analysis is shown. The main peak identified is bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, monomer, and an active principle of the polymerization of epoxy resins based on bisphenol A. In addition, we report the recoveries of a selected group of EDCs using CLSA and LLE methods coupled with GC-MS. PMID:12004937

  13. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  14. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  15. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  16. [Studies on chemical compounds of Chlorella sorokiniana].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Ping-huai; Wu, Jiao-na; Yang, Guo-fu; Suo, Yang-yang; Luo, Ning; Chen, Chen

    2015-04-01

    Chemical constituents of Chlorella sorokiniana were isolated and purified by repeated column chromatographies, over silicagel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Five compounds were obtained from the petroleum ether extract of Chlorella sorokiniana, and their structures were identified as (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 3beta-epidioxiergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol(1),(24S)-ergosta-7-en-3beta-ol(2), loliolide(3), stigmasta-7,22-dien-3beta,5alpha,6alpha-triol(4), and 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha,6alpha-epoxy-7-megastigmen-9-one(5). The main liposoluble fractions from Chlorella sorokiniana maiuly contain fatty acids, alkyl acids and olefine acids. Components 1-5 were isolated from the genus Chlorella for the first time. PMID:26281556

  17. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    SciTech Connect

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  18. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajau, Rida; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

    2014-02-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  19. Effect of Boric Acid on Volatile Products of Thermooxidative Degradation of Epoxy Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Bukhareva, P. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The polymeric materials are characterized by high flammability. The use of flame retardants in order to reduce the flammability of polymers can lead to the formation of toxic gaseous products under fire conditions. In this work we studied the effect of boric acid on the volatile products of thermooxidative degradation of epoxy polymers. The comparative investigations were carried out on the samples of the unfilled epoxy resin and epoxy resin filled with a boric acid at percentage 10 wt. %. The analysis of the volatile decomposition products and thermal stability of the samples under heating in an oxidizing medium was performed using a thermal mass-spectrometric analysis. It is found that the incorporation of boric acid into the polymer matrix increases the thermal stability of epoxy composites and leads to a reduction in the 2-2.7 times of toxic gaseous products

  20. Effects of high energy radiation on the mechanical properties of epoxy/graphite fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fornes, R. E.; Gilbert, R. D.; Memory, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    Publications and theses generated on composite research are listed. Surface energy changes of an epoxy based on tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDDM)/diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), T-300 graphite fiber and T-300/5208 (graphite fiber/epoxy) composites were investigated after irradiation with 0.5 MeV electrons. Electron spin resonance (ESR) investigations of line shapes and the radical decay behavior were made of an epoxy based on tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDDM)/diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), T-300 graphite fiber, and T-300/5208 (graphite fiber/epoxy) composites after irradiation with Co(60) gamma-radiation or 0.5 MeV electrons. The results of the experiments are discussed.

  1. Effects of environmental exposure on fiber/epoxy interfacial shear strength

    SciTech Connect

    Gaur, U.; Miller, B. )

    1990-08-01

    A microbond technique for direct determination of fiber/resin interfacial shear strength in composites (Miller et al., 1987) has been used to investigate the influence of environmental conditions on adhesive bonding in certain systems. The small dimensions involved in the method facilitate uniform exposure and short exposure times. Significant changes in both average shear strength and in shear strength distributions are observed on exposing aramid/epoxy and glass/epoxy microbond assemblies to steam or hot water. Shear strength drops to a plateau value in both cases, the reduction being more drastic with the glass fiber. Vacuum drying restores shear strength completely in aramid/epoxy microassemblies, even when the surface of the aramid fiber has been chemically modified, but there is only partial regeneration of bond strength with the glass/epoxy system. 15 refs.

  2. DUSTS AND RESIDUES FROM MACHINING AND INCINERATING GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITES. A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary laboratory experiments were carried out to obtain some information on the nature of potential carbon fiber emissions resulting from the machining and incineration of graphite/epoxy composites. Examination of residues by scanning electron microscopy following exposure ...

  3. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Epoxy Tec International, Inc., CPP RC3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Epoxytec, Inc. CPP™ epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and Technology (CIGMAT) Laboratory at the Uni...

  4. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Protective Liner Systems, Inc., Epoxy Mastic, PLS-614

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Protective Liner Systems International, Inc. Epoxy Mastic PLS-614 coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and T...

  5. Effect of clay on structure of epoxy/PCL nanocomposite: In situ optical microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotrekl, Jakub; Kelnar, Ivan

    2012-07-01

    The effect of clay on reaction induced phase separation (RIPS) mechanism and resulting morphology of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A based epoxy containing poly(ɛ-caprolactone)(PCL) was investigated by optical microscopy. At PCL concentration lower than 10%, the presence of the clay leads to refinement of PCL inclusions, while at 15% and 20% the clay causes the phase inversion of structure consisting of PCL rich matrix with rough epoxy globules to the fine PCL inclusions in epoxy matrix. At 30% PCL content, the influence of clay is analogical but leads to the transformation into co-continous structure only. These changes in morphology seem to be a consequence of the change in dynamic asymmetry of the system, caused by affecting of the epoxy parameters by clay.

  6. Mechanical properties of photo-polymerized sustainable epoxy materials from vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang; Ravalli, Matthew; Yang, Zheqin; Crivello, James

    2014-03-01

    Our research program aimed at advancing our ability to tailor the photocationic polymerization and physical properties of sustainable epoxy materials derived from crosslinked epoxidized vegetable oils using onium salt photoinitiators. Specifically, we developed solventless, photopolymerizable epoxy monomer and oligomer systems derived from sustainable biorenewable sources as alternatives to existing highly polluting and energy-intensive thermal curing of epoxy resin chemistry. Two sustainable epoxy network polymer systems will be presented to investigate how the network formation can be controlled. The first system is a series of epoxidized vegetable oils that offer various degrees of crosslinking densities, and the second system represents the blends of epoxidized vegetable oils with epoxidized terpenes to tailor their photocuring and mechanical properties for the potential usage in ``green'' coating, adhesive, 3D printing, and composite applications. NSF DMR POLYMERS 1308617.

  7. Compressive strength of fiber reinforced composite materials. [composed of boron and epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Results of an experimental and analytical investigation of the compressive strength of unidirectional boron-epoxy composite material are presented. Observation of fiber coordinates in a boron-epoxy composite indicates that the fibers contain initial curvature. Combined axial compression and torsion tests were conducted on boron-epoxy tubes, and it was shown that the shear modulus is a function of axial compressive stress. An analytical model which includes initial curvature in the fibers and permits an estimate of the effect of curvature on compressive strength is proposed. Two modes of failure which may result from the application of axial compressive stress are analyzed, delamination and shear instability. Based on tests and analysis, failure of boron-epoxy under axial compressive load is due to shear instability.

  8. A model of the thermal-spike mechanism in graphite/epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of a thermal spike on a moisture-saturated graphite/epoxy composite was studied in detail. A single thermal spike from 25 C to 132 C was found to produce damage as evidenced by a significant increase in the level of moisture saturation in the composite. Approximately half of this increase remained after a vacuum anneal at 150 C for 7 days, suggesting the presence of an irreversible damage component. Subsequent thermal spikes created less and less additional moisture absorption, with the cumulative effect being a maximum or limiting moisture capacity of the composite. These observations are explained in terms of a model previously developed to explain the reverse thermal effect of moisture absorption in epoxy and epoxy matrix composites. This model, based on the inverse temperature dependence of free volume, contributes an improved understanding of thermal-spike effects in graphite/epoxy composites.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet Carbon Fiber Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, Cameron M.; Klimek-McDonald, Danielle R.; Pineda, Evan J.; King, Julie A.; Reichanadter, Alex M.; Miskioglu, Ibrahim; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, C. M.; Klimek-McDonald, D. R.; Pineda, E. J.; King, J. A.; Reichanadter, A. M.; Miskioglu, I.; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, C. M.; Klimek-McDonald, D. R.; Pineda, E. J.; King, J. A.; Reichanadter, A. M.; Miskioglu, I.; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  12. Measurement of Interfacial Adhesion in Glass-Epoxy Systems Using the Indentation Method

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, Karen Isabel

    2015-07-01

    The adhesion of coatings often controls the performance of the substrate-coating system. Certain engineering applications require an epoxy coating on a brittle substrate to protect and improve the performance of the substrate. Experimental observations and measurements of interfacial adhesion in glass-epoxy systems are described in this thesis. The Oliver and Pharr method was utilized to calculate the bulk epoxy hardness and elastic modulus. Spherical indentations were used to induce delaminations at the substrate-coating interface. The delamination sizes as a function of load were used to calculate the interfacial toughness. The interfacial fracture energy of my samples is an order of magnitude higher than a previous group who studied a similar glass-epoxy system. A comparison study of how different glass treatments affect adhesion was also conducted: smooth versus rough, clean versus dirty, stressed versus non-stressed.

  13. Effects of high energy radiation on the mechanical properties of epoxy/graphite fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fornes, R. E.; Gilbert, R. D.; Memory, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The epoxy resin system formed by tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane (TGDDM) and 4,4'-diamino diphenyl sulfone (DDS) was characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Dynamic mechanical properties of graphite fiber epoxy composite specimens formulated with two different adhesive systems (NARMCO 5208, NARMCO 5209) were determined. The specimens were exposed to varying dose levels of ionizing radiation (0.5 MeV electrons) with a maximum absorbed dose of 10,000 Mrads. Following irradiation, property measurements were made to assess the influence of radiation on the epoxy and composite specimens. The results established that ionizing radiation has a limited effect on the properties of epoxy and composite specimens.

  14. Modeling and Prediction of Thermal Cycle Induced Failure in Epoxy-Silica Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmita, Grzegorz; Nowak, Tomasz; Sekula, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Epoxy resins filled with dielectric mineral particles are frequently used as insulating materials in power industry applications. Due to their excellent dielectric properties and relatively good thermal performance (resistance, ageing and conductivity) their usability is common and extensive. However, the mechanical performance of the resins is influenced by several factors such as resistance to crack propagation, especially in low temperature applications. This phenomenon is normally linked with appearance of two phase systems where particle filled epoxy material interacts with metallic inserts having significantly different thermal expansion coefficients. This kind of epoxy-metal interface can produce relatively high stresses in the product structure during thermal cycle loading. The paper deals with mechanical problems of power industry products and introduces the methodology for numerical modeling of failure in silica filled epoxy systems subjected to severe temperature gradients. Various aspects of material behavior modeling are covered in this article, including polymerization process, viscoelastic stress relaxation as well as stochastic cracking.

  15. Rubber-toughened polyfunctional epoxies - Brominated vs nonbrominated formulated for graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Gilwee, W. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A new, commercially available, trifunctional epoxy resin (tris-(hydroxyphenyl)-methane triglycidyl ether) was modified with synthetic rubber to increase the impact resistance of epoxy/graphite composites. These composites were reinforced with commercially available satin-weave carbon cloth using two formulations of epoxies (brominated and nonbrominated) containing various amounts of carboxy-terminated butadience acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber that had been prereacted with epoxy resin. The impact resistance was determined by measuring the interlaminar shear strength of the composites after impact. The mechanical properties, such as flexural strength and modulus at room temperature and at 93 C, were also determined. Measurements were taken of the flammability and glass transition temperature (Tg); and a thermal-gravimetric analysis was made.

  16. Development and Characterization of a New Epoxy Foam Encapsulant as an Ablefoam Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, P.B.; Russick, E.M.

    1998-12-01

    A new epoxy foam encapsulant, EF-ARIO/20, has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a replacement for Ablefoam", an epoxy foam encapsulant used in the W76 Arming, Fusing, and Firing (Al%@) system. Since it contained toxic ingredients including a known carcinogen, Ablefoarn" is no longer commercially available. It has been demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that the microstructure of the new epoxy foam is similar to that of Ablefoam@. Mechanical properties of tensile and compressive strength, and tensile and compressive modulus, and thermal properties of glass transition temperature (.TJ, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) have been measured for the new foam. Electrical properties of dielectric constant, dissipation factors, volume resistivity, and dielectric strength were also measured. These property measurements are comparable to those of Ablefoam@. Development and characterization of the new foam will be discusse~ and a comparison of mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties for the new epoxy foam and Ablefoam@ will be reported.

  17. Composites of Graphene Nanoribbon Stacks and Epoxy for Joule Heating and Deicing of Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Varadhachary, Tanvi; Nan, Kewang; Wang, Tuo; Lin, Jian; Ji, Yongsung; Genorio, Bostjan; Zhu, Yu; Kittrell, Carter; Tour, James M

    2016-02-10

    A conductive composite of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) stacks and epoxy is fabricated. The epoxy is filled with the GNR stacks, which serve as a conductive additive. The GNR stacks are on average 30 nm thick, 250 nm wide, and 30 μm long. The GNR-filled epoxy composite exhibits a conductivity >100 S/m at 5 wt % GNR content. This permits application of the GNR-epoxy composite for deicing of surfaces through Joule (voltage-induced) heating generated by the voltage across the composite. A power density of 0.5 W/cm(2) was delivered to remove ∼1 cm-thick (14 g) monolith of ice from a static helicopter rotor blade surface in a -20 °C environment. PMID:26780972

  18. Rheological monitoring of phase separation induced by chemical reaction in thermoplastic-modified epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Vinh-Tung, C.; Lachenal, G.; Chabert, B.

    1996-12-31

    The phase separation induced by chemical reaction in blends of tetraglycidyl-diaminodiphenylmethane epoxy resin with an aromatic diamine hardener and a thermoplastic was monitored. Rheological measurements and morphologies are described.

  19. Analysis of Molding Process for Epoxy Resin Used for Electrical Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushizaki, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Toshiro

    2007-05-01

    Epoxy resin has been used widely in electronic devices because of its excellent electrical properties for insulators. The curing process of epoxy resin has serious issues such as delamination on the metal-epoxy resin interface and the crack failure in epoxy resin due to cure shrinkage. It is known that there are serious issues of the delamination on the metal-epoxy resin interface and the crack failure in epoxy resin due to cure shrinkage when epoxy resin is used as an encapsulating medium of insulators in electrical and electronic equipments. Though several papers have been reported on the attempts to predict the stress-strain behavior during curing reaction except for our reports, their simulation model are proposed in no consideration of all of cure shrinkage, heat generation in reaction, reaction progress, delamination and crack failure. Especially, the authors cannot find reports on a practical multistage curing reaction process cure shrinkage, heat generation in reaction, reaction progress, delamination and crack failure. Especially, the authors cannot find reports on a practical multistage curing reaction process in consideration of all of cure shrinkage, heat generation in reaction, reaction progress, delamination and crack failure. In this paper the authors attempted simulation with a finite element method for the following molding process suitable for practical use from the start of potting to the completion of curing. Epoxy resin is potted between the inner and outer iron cylinders. The potted epoxy resin is cured under a lower given temperature before gel point and afterwards under a higher temperature after gel point. Finally, the cured epoxy resin is cooled down to a room temperature. In order to express the deformation behavior of epoxy resin in the molding process where it changes from the liquid state to solid state, the equation of cure reaction has been corrected and the dependence of viscoelastic properties on temperature, time and conversion

  20. Transfer molding using soft-flow epoxy in multiwire cable EMR hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebe, M. C.; Wetherill, W. R.

    1981-12-01

    A technique using a soft-flow molding epoxy and a transfer press to fill EMR hardware was found to reduce manufacturing time and scrap yield for shielded multiwire cables. Samples representative of production cables were subjected to mechanical and temperature shock, humidity, and vibration. The results indicated that this epoxy could prevent or reduce EMR hardware collapse from molding pressures during fabrication, thereby reducing scrap and increasing cable production yield.

  1. Structure and properties of binary polystyrene-epoxy acrylate oligomer mixtures irradiated by electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lomonosova, N.V.

    1995-03-01

    The change in the structure of oriented polymer-oligomer systems based on polystyrene (PS) with M > 10{sup 6} and epoxy acrylate oligomers (aliphatic and aromatic) under irradiation by accelerated electrons was studied using birefringence, isometric heating, IR dichroism, and thermooptical analysis. Mechanical properties of these systems were investigated. It was found that, by adding aliphatic epoxy acrylate to PS and further irradiating this mixture, one can obtain both isotropic and oriented composites with higher strengths, elasticity moduli, and glass transition temperatures.

  2. Studies on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy-Silicon Oxide Hybrid Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Kumar, Kaushal; Kumar, Arun

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasonic dual mixing (UDM) process involving ultrasonic vibration with simultaneous stirring is used to prepare epoxy-silicon oxide hybrid materials with inorganic nanoscale building blocks by incorporating nanoscale silicon oxide network in epoxy matrix. The silicon oxide network is obtained from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) by using the in situ sol-gel process. Same epoxy-silica hybrid materials were also prepared by mixing with simple impeller stirring, and its properties were compared with the material of same composition prepared by the UDM process. The epoxy-silicon oxide hybrid materials are characterized by using FT-IR, DSC, FESEM, and XRD techniques. The glass transition temperature, tensile strength, and elastic modulus of the epoxy-silicon oxide hybrid materials treated by UDM process are found comparatively better than those of the materials processed by a rotating impeller. FESEM studies confirm that amount of TEOS varies the distribution and size of silicon oxide network, which remains relatively finer at lower content of TEOS. Significant improvement of thermal and mechanical properties of the neat epoxy is noted in the presence of 3.05 wt.% TEOS content in it is giving rise to the formation of inorganic building block of silicon oxide of size 88 ± 45 nm in the matrix. In this regard, the use of UDM process is found superior to mixing by simple impeller stirring for enhancement of properties of epoxy-silicon oxide hybrid materials. Lowering of properties of the epoxy-silicon oxide hybrid materials with TEOS addition beyond 3.05 wt.% up to 6.1 wt.% occurs primarily due to increase of amount and size (up to 170 ± 82 nm) of the inorganic building block in the matrix.

  3. In-service inspection methods for graphite-epoxy structures on commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    In-service inspection methods for graphite-epoxy composite structures on commercial transport aircraft are determined. Graphite/epoxy structures, service incurred defects, current inspection practices and concerns of the airline and manufacturers, and other related information were determind by survey. Based on this information, applicable inspection nondestructive inspection methods are evaluated and inspection techniques determined. Technology is developed primarily in eddy current inspection.

  4. Fabrication of 1/3 scale boron/epoxy booster thrust structure, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design, materials, tooling, various manufacturing processes, quality control, test procedures, and results associated with the fabrication and testing of a 1/3 scale boron/epoxy, booster thrust structure are described. A complete two-dimensional truss type thrust structure, comprised of nine boron/epoxy tubular members and six apex fittings, was fabricated. This resulted in structurally representative flight hardware, and verified the manufacturing feasibility and projected weight savings (30%) for this type of structure.

  5. Fracture, failure and compression behaviour of a 3D interconnected carbon aerogel (Aerographite) epoxy composite

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chandrasekaran, S.; Liebig, W. V.; Mecklenberg, M.; Fiedler, B.; Smazna, D.; Adelung, R.; Schulte, K.

    2015-11-04

    Aerographite (AG) is a mechanically robust, lightweight synthetic cellular material, which consists of a 3D interconnected network of tubular carbon [1]. The presence of open channels in AG aids to infiltrate them with polymer matrices, thereby yielding an electrical conducting and lightweight composite. Aerographite produced with densities in the range of 7–15 mg/cm3 was infiltrated with a low viscous epoxy resin by means of vacuum infiltration technique. Detailed morphological and structural investigations on synthesized AG and AG/epoxy composite were performed by scanning electron microscopic techniques. Our present study investigates the fracture and failure of AG/epoxy composites and its energy absorptionmore » capacity under compression. The composites displayed an extended plateau region when uni-axially compressed, which led to an increase in energy absorption of ~133% per unit volume for 1.5 wt% of AG, when compared to pure epoxy. Preliminary results on fracture toughness showed an enhancement of ~19% in KIC for AG/epoxy composites with 0.45 wt% of AG. Furthermore, our observations of fractured surfaces under scanning electron microscope gives evidence of pull-out of arms of AG tetrapod, interface and inter-graphite failure as the dominating mechanism for the toughness improvement in these composites. These observations were consistent with the results obtained from photoelasticity experiments on a thin film AG/epoxy model composite.« less

  6. Fracture, failure and compression behaviour of a 3D interconnected carbon aerogel (Aerographite) epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekaran, S.; Liebig, W. V.; Mecklenberg, M.; Fiedler, B.; Smazna, D.; Adelung, R.; Schulte, K.

    2015-11-04

    Aerographite (AG) is a mechanically robust, lightweight synthetic cellular material, which consists of a 3D interconnected network of tubular carbon [1]. The presence of open channels in AG aids to infiltrate them with polymer matrices, thereby yielding an electrical conducting and lightweight composite. Aerographite produced with densities in the range of 7–15 mg/cm3 was infiltrated with a low viscous epoxy resin by means of vacuum infiltration technique. Detailed morphological and structural investigations on synthesized AG and AG/epoxy composite were performed by scanning electron microscopic techniques. Our present study investigates the fracture and failure of AG/epoxy composites and its energy absorption capacity under compression. The composites displayed an extended plateau region when uni-axially compressed, which led to an increase in energy absorption of ~133% per unit volume for 1.5 wt% of AG, when compared to pure epoxy. Preliminary results on fracture toughness showed an enhancement of ~19% in KIC for AG/epoxy composites with 0.45 wt% of AG. Furthermore, our observations of fractured surfaces under scanning electron microscope gives evidence of pull-out of arms of AG tetrapod, interface and inter-graphite failure as the dominating mechanism for the toughness improvement in these composites. These observations were consistent with the results obtained from photoelasticity experiments on a thin film AG/epoxy model composite.

  7. Single-walled carbon nanotube incorporated novel three phase carbon/epoxy composite with enhanced properties.

    PubMed

    Rana, Sohel; Alagirusamy, Ramasamy; Joshi, Mangala

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, single-walled carbon nanotubes were dispersed within the matrix of carbon fabric reinforced epoxy composites in order to develop novel three phase carbon/epoxy/single-walled carbon nanotube composites. A combination of ultrasonication and high speed mechanical stirring at 2000 rpm was used to uniformly disperse carbon nanotubes in the epoxy resin. The state of carbon nanotube dispersion in the epoxy resin and within the nanocomposites was characterized with the help of optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Pure carbon/epoxy and three phase composites were characterized for mechanical properties (tensile and compressive) as well as for thermal and electrical conductivity. Fracture surfaces of composites after tensile test were also studied in order to investigate the effect of dispersed carbon nanotubes on the failure behavior of composites. Dispersion of only 0.1 wt% nanotubes in the matrix led to improvements of 95% in Young's modulus, 31% in tensile strength, 76% in compressive modulus and 41% in compressive strength of carbon/epoxy composites. In addition to that, electrical and thermal conductivity also improved significantly with addition of carbon nanotubes. PMID:22103118

  8. Electron and proton absorption calculations for a graphite/epoxy composite model. [large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, E. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Bethe-Bloch stopping power relations for inelastic collisions were used to determine the absorption of electron and proton energy in cured neat epoxy resin and the absorption of electron energy in a graphite/epoxy composite. Absorption of electron energy due to bremsstrahlung was determined. Electron energies from 0.2 to 4.0 MeV and proton energies from 0.3 to 1.75 MeV were used. Monoenergetic electron energy absorption profiles for models of pure graphite, cured neat epoxy resin, and graphite/epoxy composites are reported. A relation is determined for depth of uniform energy absorption in a composite as a function of fiber volume fraction and initial electron energy. Monoenergetic proton energy absorption profiles are reported for the neat resin model. A relation for total proton penetration in the epoxy resin as a function of initial proton energy is determined. Electron energy absorption in the composite due to bremsstrahlung is reported. Electron and proton energy absorption profiles in cured neat epoxy resin are reported for environments approximating geosynchronous earth orbit.

  9. Epoxy resin synthesis using low molecular weight lignin separated from various lignocellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Asada, Chikako; Basnet, Sunita; Otsuka, Masaya; Sasaki, Chizuru; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2015-03-01

    A low molecular weight lignin from various lignocellulosic materials was used for the synthesis of bio-based epoxy resins. The lignin extracted with methanol from steam-exploded samples (steaming time of 5 min at steam pressure of 3.5 MPa) from different biomasses (i.e., cedar, eucalyptus, and bamboo) were functionalized by the reaction with epichlorohydrin, catalyzed by a water-soluble phase transfer catalyst tetramethylammonium chloride, which was further reacted with 30 wt% aqueous NaOH for ring closure using methyl ethyl ketone as a solvent. The glycidylated products of the lignin with good yields were cured to epoxy polymer networks with bio-based curing agents i.e., lignin itself and a commercial curing agent TD2131. Relatively good thermal properties of the bio-based epoxy network was obtained and thermal decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss (Td5) of cedar-derived epoxy resin was higher than that derived from eucalyptus and bamboo. The bio-based resin satisfies the stability requirement of epoxy resin applicable for electric circuit boards. The methanol-insoluble residues were enzymatically hydrolyzed to produce glucose. This study indicated that the biomass-derived methanol-soluble lignin may be a promising candidate to be used as a substitute for petroleum-based epoxy resin derived from bisphenol A, while insoluble residues may be processed to give a bioethanol precursor i.e., glucose. PMID:25572718

  10. The effect of synthetic nanosilica on tribological properties of graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandern, Christian; Khunova, Viera

    2016-05-01

    Development of new advanced friction materials with improved tribological and mechanical properties is of high priority for a number of industrial applications. This paper explores the effect of synthetic spherical nanosilica Nanopox® F400 on tribological and mechanical properties of graphite/epoxy composites. The composites have been prepared by mixing in four paddle-stirrer standard mixer at 500 rpm. During the mixing nanosilica particles did not create agglomerates and are well dispersed within the epoxy matrix. The impact of the nanosilica on abrasive wear, dynamic and static coefficient of friction as well as mechanical properties (strength) has been studied. It was found that by application of 5 wt% graphite as well as 5 wt% nanosilica in epoxy resin a reduction of wear properties did not exceed 16 % in comparison to neat epoxy matrix. However, by simultaneous application of hybrid graphite and nanosilica fillers in epoxy resin reduction of wear increased up to 42 %. The highest improvement (61 %) of wear has been achieved in composites containing 5 wt % of graphite and 10 wt% of nanosilica. Contrary to wear, it was not observed a synergic effect of hybrid graphite/nanosilica fillers on static and dynamic coefficient of friction, as well as on tensile strength of studied epoxy composites.

  11. Thermal investigation of tetrafunctional epoxy resin filled with different carbonaceous nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Vittorio; Naddeo, Carlo; Vertuccio, Luigi; Lafdi, Khalid; Guadagno, Liberata

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a preliminary investigation of thermal behaviour of epoxy nanocomposites containing different types of nanofillers, such as 1-D Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) and 2-D predominant shape of Exfoliated Graphite nanoparticles (EG). The cure behavior of the different epoxy formulations (filled and unfilled) was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The DSC technique is particularly advantageous for studying the cure of reactive epoxy systems because the curing process is accompanied by the liberation of heat. For all the epoxy nanocomposites analyzed in this work, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) investigation shows curing degree (DC) values higher than 92% for the curing cycle up to 200°C, reaching up to 100% for the samples filled with Exfoliated Graphite nanoparticles (EG). The calorimetric results also show that Exfoliated Graphite nanoparticles accelerate the curing process of the epoxy resin of about 20°C. Transient Plane Source measurements of thermal conductivity show that this acceleration is directly related to the better heat conduction obtained through the incorporation in the epoxy matrix of carbonaceous nanostructures with predominantly two-dimensional shape (Exfoliated Graphite nanoparticles). The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the use of graphene sheets is very hopeful for obtaining nanocomposites characterized by high performance that are able to meet the ambitious requirements in the aeronautical field.

  12. Long-term performance of epoxy-bonded rebar-couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brungraber, Griffin Rupp

    Rebar-couplers mechanically splice pairs of steel reinforcing bars, end-to-end; they are used regularly in reinforced concrete construction. Epoxy-bonded couplers are one available type, but have unique long-term performance considerations. The adhesive material used in these couplers is a two-part, field-mixed, ambient-cure epoxy system, originally designed for adhesive anchorage to concrete. Many of the adhesive systems used for anchorage to concrete, including the system used with adhesive-bonded couplers, are epoxy systems. The mechanical properties of these types of epoxies have been shown to degrade over time, in the presence of moisture. A variety of commercially available adhesive systems, for anchorage to concrete, were studied to assess their relative resistance to moisture-based degradation. The material properties of two of the adhesive systems, both epoxies, and the performance of the rebar-couplers were then measured over a fourteen-and-a-half-month period of exposure to a variety of environmental conditions, including water immersion at a range of temperatures. From these results, material degradation models were used to predict the properties of the adhesive over the service life of the rebar-coupler. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model was developed to simulate the tensile failure of the epoxy-bonded rebar-coupler system and correlate degrading adhesive material properties to changes in the coupler system's behavior throughout its service life.

  13. In-situ curing of liquid epoxy via gold-nanoparticle mediated photothermal heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, Gabriel; Dong, Ju; Bochinski, Jason; Gorga, Russell; Clarke, Laura

    The ability to selectively alter material properties in-situ is important for many biological applications where an initially flexible part (needed for ease of placement) would ideally be rigidified once in position (for instance, within a broken bone as a tissue scaffold). Thermoset epoxies harden from viscous liquids into solid materials when heated. In this work, metal nanoparticle-epoxy-hardener composites are formed and utilized to enable in-situ crosslinking by drawing a pattern on a shallow bath of liquid epoxy with a laser. This approach capitalizes on the phothothermal effect of metal nanoparticles where irradiation with light resonant with the nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance leads to dramatic local heating. We discuss challenges to incorporating metal particles into epoxy-hardener, observation of changes in the heat profile within the epoxy due to the intensity and rastering speed of the laser, and show that the mechanical properties of internally cured epoxy are the same as those cured conventionally. The ability to selectively fabricate a part from a liquid (with no mold or waste) may be an important alternative manufacturing approach. National Science Foundation CMMI-1069108.

  14. Evaluation of Epoxy Nanocomposites for High Voltage Insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Ganpathy

    Polymeric materials containing nanometer (nm) size particles are being introduced to provide compact shapes for low and medium voltage insulation equipment. The nanocomposites may provide superior electrical performance when compared with those available currently, such as lower dielectric losses and increased dielectric strength, tracking and erosion resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. All of the above mentioned benefits can be achieved at a lower filler concentration (< 10%) than conventional microfillers (40-60%). Also, the uniform shapes of nanofillers provide a better electrical stress distribution as compared to irregular shaped microcomposites which can have high internal electric stress, which could be a problem for devices with active electrical parts. Improvement in electrical performance due to addition of nanofillers in an epoxy matrix has been evaluated in this work. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was done on the epoxy samples to confirm uniform dispersion of nano-sized fillers as good filler dispersion is essential to realize the above stated benefits. Dielectric spectroscopy experiments were conducted over a wide range of frequencies as a function of temperature to understand the role of space charge and interfaces in these materials. The experiment results demonstrate significant reduction in dielectric losses in samples containing nanofillers. High voltage experiments such as corona resistance tests were conducted over 500 hours to monitor degradation in the samples due to corona. These tests revealed improvements in partial discharge endurance of nanocomposite samples. These improvements could not be adequately explained using a macroscopic quantity such as thermal conductivity. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed higher weight loss initiation temperatures for nanofilled samples which is in agreement with the corona resistance experimental results. Theoretical models have also been developed in this work to complement the results of

  15. Use of 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-hexane diamine as a curing agent for epoxy resins. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Rinde, J.A.; Newey, H.A.

    Primary diamines are prepared for use as a curing agent for epoxy resins. These curing agents can be used to form epoxy resin mixtures useful in filament winding and preimpregnated fiber molding and in formulating film adhesives, powder coatings and molding powders. The epoxy mixtures form for such uses a room temperature non-reacting, intermediate stable state which has a latent cross-linking capability.

  16. Dielectric relaxations investigation of a synthesized epoxy resin polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilani, Wissal; Mzabi, Nissaf; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Zerrouki, Rachida; Guermazi, Hajer

    2015-04-01

    A diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin was synthesized, and cured with 3,3'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) at a curing temperature of 120 °C. The relaxation properties of the realized polymers were studied by two complementary techniques: dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), in the temperature range 173-393K and in the frequency interval 10-1-106 Hz, and thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) with a windowing polarization process. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were also carried out to study interfacial relaxations. Dielectric data were analyzed in terms of permittivity and electric modulus variations. Three relaxation processes ( γ, β and α) have been identified. They were found to be frequency and temperature dependent and were interpreted in terms of the Havriliak-Negami approach. Relaxation parameters were determined by fitting the experimental data. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time was well fitted by the Arrhenius law for secondary relaxations, while the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann model was found to better fit the τ( T) variations for α relaxation. We found τ 0 = 4.9 10-12 s, 9.6 10-13 s and 1.98 10-7 s for γ, β and α relaxations, respectively. The obtained results were found to be consistent with those reported in the literature. Due to the calculation of the low-frequency data of dielectric loss by the Hamon approximation, the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) relaxation was highlighted.

  17. A Point Spread Function for the EPOXI Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planet Observation Characterization and the Deep Impact Extended Investigation missions (EPOXI) are currently observing the transits of exoplanets, two comet nuclei at short range, and the Earth and Mars using the High Resolution Instrument (HRI) - a 0.3 m f/35 telescope on the Deep Impact probe. The HRI is in a permanently defocused state with the instrument pOint of focus about 0.6 cm before the focal plane due to the use of a reference flat mirror that took a power during ground thermal-vacuum testing. Consequently, the point spread function (PSF) covers approximately nine pixels FWHM and is characterized by a patch with three-fold symmetry due to the three-point support structures of the primary and secondary mirrors. The PSF is also strongly color dependent varying in shape and size with change in filtration and target color. While defocus is highly desirable for exoplanet transit observations to limit sensitivity to intra-pixel variation, it is suboptimal for observations of spatially resolved targets. Consequently, all images used in our analysis of such objects were deconvolved with an instrument PSF. The instrument PSF is also being used to optimize transit analysis. We discuss development and usage of an instrument PSF for these observations.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Fracture of Model Epoxies

    SciTech Connect

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-01-18

    The failure of thermosetting polymer adhesives is an important problem which particularly lacks understanding from the molecular viewpoint. While linear elastic fracture mechanics works well for such polymers far from the crack tip, the method breaks down near the crack tip where large plastic deformation occurs and the molecular details become important [1]. Results of molecular dynamics simulations of highly crosslinked polymer networks bonded to a solid surface are presented here. Epoxies are used as the guide for modeling. The focus of the simulations is the network connectivity and the interfacial strength. In a random network, the bond stress is expected to vary, and the most stressed bonds will break first [2]. Crack initiation should occur where a cluster of highly constrained bonds exists. There is no reason to expect crack initiation to occur at the interface. The results to be presented show that the solid surface limits the interfacial bonding resulting in stressed interfacial bonds and interfacial fracture. The bonds in highly-crosslinked random networks do not become stressed as expected. The sequence of molecular structural deformations that lead to failure has been determined and found to be strongly dependent upon the network connectivity. The structure of these networks and its influence on the stress-strain behavior will be discussed in general. A set of ideal, ordered networks have been constructed to manipulate the deformation sequence to achieve different fracture modes (i.e. cohesive vs. adhesive).

  19. Damage tolerance of woven graphite-epoxy buffer strip panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Graphite-epoxy panels with S glass buffer strips were tested in tension and shear to measure their residual strengths with crack-like damage. The buffer strips were regularly spaced narrow strips of continuous S glass. Panels were made with a uniweave graphite cloth where the S glass buffer material was woven directly into the cloth. Panels were made with different width and thickness buffer strips. The panels were loaded to failure while remote strain, strain at the end of the slit, and crack opening displacement were monitoring. The notched region and nearby buffer strips were radiographed periodically to reveal crack growth and damage. Except for panels with short slits, the buffer strips arrested the propagating crack. The strength (or failing strain) of the panels was significantly higher than the strength of all-graphite panels with the same length slit. Panels with wide, thick buffer strips were stronger than panels with thin, narrow buffer strips. A shear-lag model predicted the failing strength of tension panels with wide buffer strips accurately, but over-estimated the strength of the shear panels and the tension panels with narrow buffer strips.

  20. Plate mode velocities in graphite/epoxy plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Gorman, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the velocities of the extensional and flexural plate modes were made along three directions of propagation in four graphite/epoxy composite plates. The acoustic signals were generated by simulated acoustic emission events (pencil lead breaks or Hsu-Neilson sources) and detected by by broadband ultrasonic transducers. The first arrival of the extensional plate mode, which is nondispersive at low frequencies, was measured at a number of different distances from the source along the propagation direction of interest. The velocity was determined by plotting the distance versus arrival time and computing its slope. Because of the large dispersion of the flexural mode, a Fourier phase velocity technique was used to characterize this mode. The velocity was measured up to a frequency of 160 kHz. Theoretical predictions of the velocities of these modes were also made and compared with experimental observations. Classical plate theory yields good agreement with the measured extensional velocities. For predictions of the dispersion of the flexural mode, Mindlin plates theory, which includes the effects of shear deformation and rotatory inertia was shown to give better agreement with the experimental measurements.

  1. Precision linear shaped charge severance of graphite-epoxy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigil, Manuel G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents Precision Linear Shaped Charge (PLSC) components designed to sever a variety of target materials. Recent data for the severance of graphite-epoxy panels or targets with PLSC's are presented. A brief history of the requirement to originate the development of PLSC's for weapon components at Sandia National Laboratories is presented. The Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear weapon systems have continually decreased in size. Today's relatively small weapons require the design of much more efficient, lighter, and smaller explosive components because fragments, air shocks, and pyro-shocks associated with the function of these components can damage electrical and other sensitive components located nearby. The DOE requirements for PLSC's are listed. Therefore, linear shaped charge (LSC) components for weapon systems can no longer be empirically or experimentally designed for a given application. Many of today's designs require severing concentric cylinders, for example, where the LSC jet is designed to sever only one of the two cylinders as was the case for the B90/Nuclear Depth Strike Bomb. Therefore, code modeling and simulation technology must be utilized to obtain a better understanding of the LSC jet hydrodynamic penetration, fracture, shear, and spall mechanisms associated with the severance of metallic as well as composite targets.

  2. Partial discharges within two spherical voids in an epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illias, H. A.; Chen, G.; Bakar, A. H. A.; Mokhlis, H.; Tunio, M. A.

    2013-08-01

    A void in a dielectric insulation material may exist due to imperfection in the insulation manufacturing or long term stressing. Voids have been identified as one of the common sources of partial discharge (PD) activity within an insulation system, such as in cable insulation and power transformers. Therefore, it is important to study PD phenomenon within void cavities in insulation. In this work, a model of PD activity within two spherical voids in a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed using finite element analysis software to study the parameters affecting PD behaviour. The parameters that have been taken into account are the void surface conductivity, electron generation rate and the inception and extinction fields. Measurements of PD activity within two spherical voids in an epoxy resin under ac sinusoidal applied voltage have also been performed. The simulation results have been compared with the measurement data to validate the model and to identify the parameters affecting PD behaviour. Comparison between measurements of PD activity within single and two voids in a dielectric material have also been made to observe the difference of the results under both conditions.

  3. Space Radiation Effects on Graphite-Epoxy Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milkovich, S. M.; Herakovich, C. T.; Sykes, G. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation effects on engineering properties, dimensional stability, and chemistry on state of the art composite systems were characterized. T300/934 graphite-epoxy composite was subjected to 1.0 MeV electron radiation for a total dose of 1.0 x 10(10) rads at a rate of 5.0 x 10(7) rads/hour. This simulates a worst case exposure equivalent to 30 years in space. Mechanical testing was performed on he 4-ply unidirectional laminates over the temperature range of -250 F (116K) to +250 F (394K). A complete set of in-plane tensile elastic and strength properties were obtained (E sub 1, E sub 2, nu sub 12, G sub 12, X sub T, Y sub T, and S). In addition electron microscopy was used to study and analyze the fracture surfaces of all specimens tested. Results indicate that little difference in properties is noted at room temperature, but significant differences are observed at both low and elevated temperatures.

  4. Local crippling of thin-walled graphite-epoxy stiffeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonanni, David L.; Johnson, Eric R.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Results from an experimental and analytical study of the local buckling, postbuckling, and crippling (failure) behavior of channel, zee, and I- and J-section stiffeners made of AS4/3502 graphite-epoxy unidirectional tape are presented. Thirty-six specimens were tested in axial compression. Experimental results indicate the existence of a number of damage initiation modes, all of which involve either delamination in some part of the specimen or local material strength failure in a corner of the specimen. The flange width-to-thickness ratio is found to influence the mode of damage initiation. The inner corner radius strongly affects the crippling stress for the I- and J-section specimens, but was not found to have a significant effect on the crippling stress of channels and zees. Geometrically nonlinear analyses of five specimens were performed with the STAGS general purpose computer code. Correlation between analytical and experimental results is excellent through buckling, but agreement degrades in postbuckling. The discrepancies in postbuckling are attributed to neglect of transverse shearing deformations in the analysis and development of damage in the specimens. Hashin's compressive fiber mode failure criterion correlates reasonably well with the first major damage event in a first ply failure analysis.

  5. Thick-wall Kevlar 49/Epoxy pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of thick-wall composite vessels for very high pressure applications is demonstrated. Prototype vessels, in both spherical and cylindrical geometries, were designed, fabricated and burst tested. It is shown that experimental burst pressures are in excellent agreement with predicted values for burst pressures up to 60 ksi. Each unit consisted of a thin, seamless, copper liner with stainless steel fill stems and a filament-wound Kevlar 49/epoxy outer shell. Analysis of vessel performance accounted for liner thickness and yield strengths, composite thickness, mechanical properties and fiber volume fraction, and stress concentrations caused by the fill stem. Spherical vessels of three different sizes (inside diameters of 2.15 inches, 4.0 inches and 5.3 inches) with either 30 ksi or 60 ksi design burst pressure are discussed. Also, cylindrical vessels with identical liners but of two different composite thicknesses are described. These vessels achieved 50 ksi and 57 ksi burst pressures, respectively. In addition to the design considerations alluded to throughout the paper, the stress state in a thin metal liner during cyclic loading and the life prediction of composite vessels under sustained loading are discussed.

  6. Hierarchical 3D microstructures from pyrolysis of epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Volder, Michael; Reynaerts, Dominiek; van Hoof, Chris; Hart, A. John

    2012-02-01

    Nature is replete with examples of microscale dendrites connected to tree-like backbones ranging from the overall structures of trees to vascular networks. These branched structures have emerged as a result of an optimization between the maximization of a surface area and the minimization of transport losses. Elucidating these sophisticated designs proposed by nature is of paramount importance for the creation of higher-efficiency materials. The fabrication of such structures is however particularly challenging at small scale. In this paper, we focus on amorphous carbon microstructures, which provide a wide electrochemical stability window, excellent bio-compatibility, and cost-effective fabrication. However, relatively few methods have been developed for the fabrication of hierarchical amorphous carbon microstructures.Here we show that novel anisotropic microarchitectures comprising vertically aligned amorphous carbon nanowires CNWs can be made by oxygen plasma treatment of epoxy resins, followed by pyrolysis. Interestingly, these structures can also be shaped into deterministic three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures where nanowires are anchored to a microsized solid carbon core. These structures could play a key role in the development of new electrodes for microsensors, bioprobes, batteries, and fuel cells.

  7. Ternary Ag/epoxy adhesive with excellent overall performance.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-Hong; Liu, Yu; Huang, Gui-Wen; Shen, Xiao-Jun; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2015-04-22

    Excellent electrical conductivity (EC) generally conflicts with high lap shear strength (LSS) for electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) since EC increases while LSS decreases with increasing conductive filler content. In this work, the ECAs with the excellent overall performance are developed based on the ternary hybrid of Ag microflakes (Ag-MFs), Ag nanospheres (Ag-NSs), and Ag nanowires (Ag-NWs). First, a low silver content adhesive system is determined. Then, the effects of the relative contents of Ag fillers on the EC and the LSS are studied. It is shown that a small amount of Ag-NSs or Ag-NWs can dramatically improve the EC for the Ag-MF/epoxy adhesives. The Ag-NSs and Ag-NWs with appropriate contents have a synergistic effect in improving the EC. Meanwhile, the LSS of the as-prepared adhesive with the appropriate Ag contents reaches an optimal value. Both the EC and the LSS of the as-prepared ternary hybrid ECA with a low content of 40 wt % Ag are higher than those of the commercial ECAs filled with the Ag-MF content over 60 wt %. Finally, the ternary hybrid ECA with the optimal formulation is shown to be promising for printing the radio frequency identification tag antennas as an immediate application example. PMID:25835391

  8. Resistivity of pristine and intercalated graphite fiber epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Hambourger, Paul D.; Slabe, Melissa E.

    1989-01-01

    Laminar composites were fabricated from pristine and bromine intercalated Amoco P-55, P-75, and P-100 graphite fibers and Hysol-Grafil EAG101-1 film epoxy. The thickness and r.f. eddy current resistivity of several samples were measured at grid points and averaged point by point to obtain final values. Although the values obtained this way have high precision (less than 3 percent deviation), the resistivity values appear to be 20 to 90 percent higher than resistivities measured on high aspect ratio samples using multi-point techniques, and by those predicted by theory. The temperature dependence of the resistivity indicates that the fibers are neither damaged nor deintercalated by the composite fabrication process. The resistivity of the composites is a function of sample thickness (i.e., resin content). Composite resistivity is dominated by fiber resistivity, so lowering the resistivity of the fibers, either through increased graphitization or intercalation, results in a lower composite resistivity. A modification of the simple rule of mixtures model appears to predict the conductivity of high aspect ratio samples measured along a fiber direction, but a directional dependence appears which is not predicted by the theory. The resistivity of these materials is clearly more complex than that of homogeneous materials.

  9. Interlaminar tension strength of graphite/epoxy composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, Kunigal N.; Allen, Harold G.; Avva, Vishnu S.

    1994-01-01

    An L-shaped curved beam specimen and a tension loading fixture were proposed to measure the interlaminar tension strength of laminated and textile composites. The specimen size was 2 X 2 in. (51 X 51 mm). The use of a standard tension test machine and the introduction of load nearly at the specimen midthickness were the advantages of the proposed specimen. Modified Lekhnitskii and beam theory equations for calculating interlaminar stresses of an L-beam were verified by finite element analysis. The beam theory equation is simple and accurate for mean radius to thickness ratios greater than 1.5. The modified Lekhnitskii equations can be used for detailed stress field calculation. AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy unidirectional specimens with thicknesses of 16, 24, and 32 piles were fabricated and tested. The delamination initiation site agreed with the calculated maximum interlaminar tension stress location for all three thicknesses. Average interlaminar tension strengths of 16-, 24-, and 32-ply laminates were 47.6, 40.9, and 23.4 MPa, respectively.

  10. Bolt clampup relaxation in a graphite/epoxy laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A simple bolted joint was analyzed to calculate bolt clampup relaxation for a graphite/epoxy (T300/5208) laminate. A viscoelastic finite element analysis of a double-lap joint with a steel bolt was conducted. Clampup forces were calculated for various steady-state temperature-moisture conditions using a 20-year exposure duration. The finite element analysis predicted that clampup forces relax even for the room-temperature-dry condition. The relaxations were 8, 13, 20, and 30 percent for exposure durations of 1 day, 1 month, 1 year, and 20 years, respectively. As expected, higher temperatures and moisture levels each increased the relaxation rate. The combined viscoelastic effects of steady-state temperature and moisture appeared to be additive. From the finite-element analysis, a simple equation was developed for clampup force relaxation. This generalized equation was used to calculate clampup forces for the same temperature-moisture conditions as used in the finite-element analysis. The two sets of calculated results agreed well.

  11. Thermal Characterization of Epoxy Adhesive by Hotfire Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spomer, Ken A.; Haddock, M. Reed; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes subscale solid-rocket motor hot-fire testing of epoxy adhesives in flame surface bondlines to evaluate heat-affected depth, char depth and ablation rate. Hot-fire testing is part of an adhesive down-selection program on the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle to provide additional confidence in the down-selected adhesives. The current nozzle structural adhesive bond system is being replaced due to obsolescence. Prior to hot-fire testing, adhesives were tested for chemical, physical and mechanical properties, which resulted in the selection of two potential replacement adhesives, Resin Technology Group's TIGA 321 and 3M's EC2615XLW. Hot-fire testing consisted of four forty-pound charge (FPC) motors fabricated in configurations that would allow side-by-side comparison testing of the candidate replacement adhesives with the current RSRM adhesives. Results of the FPC motor testing show that: 1) the phenolic char depths on radial bondlines is approximately the same and vary depending on the position in the blast tube regardless of which adhesive was used, 2) the replacement candidate adhesive char depths are equivalent to the char depths of the current adhesives, 3) the heat-affected depths of the candidate and current adhesives are equivalent, and 4) the ablation rates for both replacement adhesives were equivalent to the current adhesives.

  12. Epoxy-coated rock anchors for upper Occoquan Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Bruen, M.P.; Pansic, N.; Schwartz, M.I.

    1995-12-31

    High-capacity, epoxy-coated anchors were installed at Upper Occoquan Dam to increase the stability of the 70-foot-high concrete gravity dam and powerhouse under revised Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) conditions. The post-tensioned anchorage system consisted of 56 multi-strand rock anchors with design loads of 700 to 1855 kips, averaging 1500 kips per tendon. A double corrosion protection system was specified to provide protection throughout the entire anchor length. During anchor stressing and testing, significant creep movement under constant loads equivalent to 133% of the design load was experienced and exceeded the requisite Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI) criteria. In addition to the creep phenomena, seating losses during transfer of the load to the end anchorage are at least 2 to 3 times greater than that which has been experienced with bare-wire strand tendons. On the basis of anchor test results, modifications were made to the anchor testing protocol, acceptance criteria, and the approach used for assessment of the long-term performance of the anchorage system.

  13. An evaluation of epoxy resin phantom materials for electron dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, A.; Thwaites, D. I.

    1998-06-01

    The use of epoxy resin `solid water' (water substitute) phantoms is becoming increasingly common in radiotherapy dosimetry, and depth ionization curves and conversion factors from ionization to dose identical to water have often been assumed. Fluence ratios of water to solid water for WTe (produced by Radiation Physics, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London) and RMI 457 (produced by Radiation Measurements Inc., Middleton, Wisconsin) have therefore been determined and have been found to decrease with energy, which, within measurement uncertainty, can be described with a linear function dependent on mean electron beam energy at the depth of measurement, . The fluence ratios for WTe are very close to unity (i.e. within the measuring uncertainty) for most of the energies examined, the exception being a nominal 20 MeV beam. The results also show that an assumption of unity for the fluence ratios of RMI 457 may introduce a systematic error of the order of 1% in electron beam dosimetry at lower energies. As regards the depth ionization curves measured in the respective solid water materials, these are shown to be in agreement with those measured in water within the limits of the measuring uncertainty.

  14. Dynamic delamination crack propagation in a graphite/epoxy laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, J. E.; Sun, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic delamination crack propagation in a (90/0) 5s Graphite/Epoxy laminate with an embedded interfacial crack was investigated experimentally using high speed photography. The dynamic motion was produced by impacting the beamlike laminate specimen with a silicon rubber ball. The threshold impact velocities required to initiate dynamic crack propagation in laminates with varying initial crack positions were determined. The crack propagation speeds were estimated from the photographs. Results show that the through the thickness position of the embedded crack can significantly affect the dominant mechanism and the threshold impact velocity for the onset of crack movement. If the initial delamination is placed near the top of bottom surface of the laminate, local buckling of the delaminated plies may cause instability of the crack. If the initial delamination lies on the midplane, local buckling does not occur and the initiation of crack propagation appears to be dominated by Mode II fracture. The crack propagation and arrest observed was seen to be affected by wave motion within the delamination region.

  15. Synthesis and Characterizations of Melamine-Based Epoxy Resins

    PubMed Central

    Ricciotti, Laura; Roviello, Giuseppina; Tarallo, Oreste; Borbone, Fabio; Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Catauro, Michelina; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    A new, easy and cost-effective synthetic procedure for the preparation of thermosetting melamine-based epoxy resins is reported. By this innovative synthetic method, different kinds of resins can be obtained just by mixing the reagents in the presence of a catalyst without solvent and with mild curing conditions. Two types of resins were synthesized using melamine and a glycidyl derivative (resins I) or by adding a silane derivative (resin II). The resins were characterized by means of chemical-physical and thermal techniques. Experimental results show that all the prepared resins have a good thermal stability, but differ for their mechanical properties: resin I exhibits remarkable stiffness with a storage modulus value up to 830 MPa at room temperature, while lower storage moduli were found for resin II, indicating that the presence of silane groups could enhance the flexibility of these materials. The resins show a pot life higher than 30 min, which makes these resins good candidates for practical applications. The functionalization with silane terminations can be exploited in the formulation of hybrid organic-inorganic composite materials. PMID:24013372

  16. Compaction of Expancel Microspheres and Epoxy Foam to 3 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, S R; Bonner, B P; Ryerson, F J; Chow, C S

    2006-01-30

    Pressure-volume relationships were measured for unexpanded Expancel microspheres, epoxy foam and one specimen of crushed foam powder. The specimens were jacketed in tin canisters and compressed at ambient temperature and low strain rates to 3 GPa in a solid medium press. Pressures were corrected for friction, and specimen volumes were calculated relative to a nickel standard. The pressure-volume curves for each material show large volume reductions at pressures below 0.1 GPa. The curves stiffen sharply at or near full density. Relatively little volume reduction is observed above 0.1 GPa, and most is recovered on unloading. The energy expended in compressing the materials to 3 GPa and the energy recovered on unloading were determined by numerically integrating the pressure-volume curves. The net energy, which includes absorbed energy, was found to be small. Compressibilities and bulk moduli were determined from the slopes of the pressure-volume curves. The Expancel bulk modulus above 0.1 GPa was found to be similar to that of isopentane. The pressure-volume data were fit to a model from the ceramics literature (Kawakita and Ludde, 1970). The model fits provided estimates of the initial specimen porosities and room pressure bulk moduli.

  17. Disruption Tolerant Networking Flight Validation Experiment on NASA's EPOXI Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Jay; Burleigh, Scott; Jones, Ross; Torgerson, Leigh; Wissler, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In October and November of 2008, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory installed and tested essential elements of Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) technology on the Deep Impact spacecraft. This experiment, called Deep Impact Network Experiment (DINET), was performed in close cooperation with the EPOXI project which has responsibility for the spacecraft. During DINET some 300 images were transmitted from the JPL nodes to the spacecraft. Then they were automatically forwarded from the spacecraft back to the JPL nodes, exercising DTN's bundle origination, transmission, acquisition, dynamic route computation, congestion control, prioritization, custody transfer, and automatic retransmission procedures, both on the spacecraft and on the ground, over a period of 27 days. All transmitted bundles were successfully received, without corruption. The DINET experiment demonstrated DTN readiness for operational use in space missions. This activity was part of a larger NASA space DTN development program to mature DTN to flight readiness for a wide variety of mission types by the end of 2011. This paper describes the DTN protocols, the flight demo implementation, validation metrics which were created for the experiment, and validation results.

  18. Electron Beam Cured Epoxy Resin Composites for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Meador, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam curing of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC's) is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process that has been demonstrated to be a cost effective and advantageous alternative to conventional thermal curing. Advantages of electron beam curing include: reduced manufacturing costs; significantly reduced curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvement in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance the electron beam curing of PMC technology. Over the last several years a significant amount of effort within the CRADA has been devoted to the development and optimization of resin systems and PMCs that match the performance of thermal cured composites. This highly successful materials development effort has resulted in a board family of high performance, electron beam curable cationic epoxy resin systems possessing a wide range of excellent processing and property profiles. Hundreds of resin systems, both toughened and untoughened, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility have been developed and evaluated in the CRADA program.

  19. Crack propagation in aluminum sheets reinforced with boron-epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roderick, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis was developed to predict both the crack growth and debond growth in a reinforced system. The analysis was based on the use of complex variable Green's functions for cracked, isotropic sheets and uncracked, orthotropic sheets to calculate inplane and interlaminar stresses, stress intensities, and strain-energy-release rates. An iterative solution was developed that used the stress intensities and strain-energy-release rates to predict crack and debond growths, respectively, on a cycle-by-cycle basis. A parametric study was made of the effects of boron-epoxy composite reinforcement on crack propagation in aluminum sheets. Results show that the size of the debond area has a significant effect on the crack propagation in the aluminum. For small debond areas, the crack propagation rate is reduced significantly, but these small debonds have a strong tendency to enlarge. Debond growth is most likely to occur in reinforced systems that have a cracked metal sheet reinforced with a relatively thin composite sheet.

  20. Compressive residual strength of graphite/epoxy laminates after impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Teresa A.; Lagace, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    The issue of damage tolerance after impact, in terms of the compressive residual strength, was experimentally examined in graphite/epoxy laminates using Hercules AS4/3501-6 in a (+ or - 45/0)(sub 2S) configuration. Three different impactor masses were used at various velocities and the resultant damage measured via a number of nondestructive and destructive techniques. Specimens were then tested to failure under uniaxial compression. The results clearly show that a minimum compressive residual strength exists which is below the open hole strength for a hole of the same diameter as the impactor. Increases in velocity beyond the point of minimum strength cause a difference in the damage produced and cause a resultant increase in the compressive residual strength which asymptotes to the open hole strength value. Furthermore, the results show that this minimum compressive residual strength value is independent of the impactor mass used and is only dependent upon the damage present in the impacted specimen which is the same for the three impactor mass cases. A full 3-D representation of the damage is obtained through the various techniques. Only this 3-D representation can properly characterize the damage state that causes the resultant residual strength. Assessment of the state-of-the-art in predictive analysis capabilities shows a need to further develop techniques based on the 3-D damage state that exists. In addition, the need for damage 'metrics' is clearly indicated.

  1. Anisotropic conductivity of magnetic carbon nanotubes embedded in epoxy matrices

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Tae; Tannenbaum, Allen; Tannenbaum, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid-materials were synthesized and their anisotropic electrical conductivities as a result of their alignment in a polymer matrix under an external magnetic field were investigated. The tethering of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on the surface of MWCNT was achieved by a modified sol-gel reaction, where sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (NaDDBS) was used in order to inhibit the formation of a 3D iron oxide gel. These hybrid-materials, specifically, magnetized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWCNTs) were readily aligned parallel to the direction of a magnetic field even when using a relatively weak magnetic field. The conductivity of the epoxy composites formed in this manner increased with increasing m-MWCNT mass fraction in the polymer matrix. Furthermore, the conductivities parallel to the direction of magnetic field were higher than those in the perpendicular direction, indicating that the alignment of the m-MWCNT contributed to the enhancement of the anisotropic electrical properties of the composites in the direction of alignment. PMID:23019381

  2. NASA MUST Paper: Infrared Thermography of Graphite/Epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comeaux, Kayla; Koshti, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this project is to use Infrared Thermography, a non-destructive test, to detect detrimental cracks and voids beneath the surface of materials used in the space program. This project will consist of developing a simulation model of the Infrared Thermography inspection of the Graphite/Epoxy specimen. The simulation entails finding the correct physical properties for this specimen as well as programming the model for thick voids or flat bottom holes. After the simulation is completed, an Infrared Thermography inspection of the actual specimen will be made. Upon acquiring the experimental test data, an analysis of the data for the actual experiment will occur, which includes analyzing images, graphical analysis, and analyzing numerical data received from the infrared camera. The simulation will then be corrected for any discrepancies between it and the actual experiment. The optimized simulation material property inputs can then be used for new simulation for thin voids. The comparison of the two simulations, the simulation for the thick void and the simulation for the thin void, provides a correlation between the peak contrast ratio and peak time ratio. This correlation is used in the evaluation of flash thermography data during the evaluation of delaminations.

  3. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Aluminum/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lina; Zhou, Wenying; Sui, Xuezhen; Wang, Zijun; Cai, Huiwu; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Yating; Zhou, Anning

    2016-07-01

    Surface-modified self-passivated aluminum (Al) nanoparticles were used for reinforcing epoxy (EP) resin, and the curing behavior, mechanical and electrical properties of the Al/EP nanocomposites were investigated. The incorporation of Al nanoparticles into EP significantly decreases the cure reaction enthalpy of the nancomposites, and the apparent activation energy of Al/EP systems is 64.96 kJ/mol. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the nanocomposites decreases with increasing the Al loading due to the strong interaction between the Al and the EP matrix. The storage modulus of the nanocomposites increases continuously with Al content, whereas, the glass transition temperature declines slightly. With increasing the Al content, the tensile modulus, flexural modulus and compressive modulus of the nanocomposites increase continuously compared with the neat one. The mechanical properties are improved by Al nanoparticles at low Al contents. The best overall dielectric and electrical performance are achieved about at 1 wt.% of Al concentration. The enhanced dielectric breakdown strength is mainly related to the insulating alumina shell on the surface of core Al and the strong interfacial interactions.

  4. Microstructural Characterisation of Jute/Epoxy Quasi-Unidirectional Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virk, Amandeep Singh; Hall, Wayne; Summerscales, John

    2014-12-01

    The elastic properties of a composite can be predicted by micromechanical models based on the properties of the individual constituent materials of the composite and their geometrical characteristics. This paper presents a novel methodology using image analysis to determine (a) the fibre volume fraction and (b) the fibre orientation distribution factor of quasi-unidirectional jute fibre reinforced epoxy resin composites. For fibre volume fraction, digital micrographs were smoothed to reduce noise in the image, an intensity histogram informed selection of the threshold intensity for conversion to a binary image, the image was morphologically closed and opened to remove internal voids and small features respectively and the fibre volume fraction was calculated as the ratio of the detected fibre area to the total image area. For fibre orientation, the image was sharpened with Contrast-Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalisation, a threshold was set for conversion to binary and then a masking image was rotated at a number of seed points over the image to find the angles with the minimum sum of intensity at each point. The data generated was then used to validate new rules-of-mixture equations for natural fibre composites.

  5. High-current carbon-epoxy capillary cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleizer, J. Z.; Queller, T.; Bliokh, Yu.; Yatom, S.; Vekselman, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Bernshtam, V.

    2012-07-01

    The results of experiments on the reproducible generation of an electron beam having a high current density of up to 300 A/cm2 and a satisfactorily uniform cross-sectional distribution of current density in a ˜200 kV, ˜450 ns vacuum diode with a carbon-epoxy capillary cathode are presented. It was found that the source of the electrons is the plasma formed as a result of flashover inside the capillaries. It is shown that the plasma formation occurs at an electric field ≤15 kV/cm and that the cathode sustains thousands of pulses without degradation in its emission properties. Time- and space-resolved visible light observation and spectroscopy analyses were used to determine the cathode plasma's density, temperature, and expansion velocity. It was found that the density of the cathode plasma decreases rapidly in relation to the distance from the cathode. In addition, it was found that the main reason for the short-circuiting of the accelerating gap is the formation and expansion of the anode plasma. Finally, it was shown that when an external guiding magnetic field is present, the injection of the electron beam into the drift space with a current amplitude exceeding its critical value changes the radial distribution of the current density of the electron beam because the inner electrons are reflected from the virtual cathode.

  6. Enhanced protective properties of epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating on an ultrafine-grained metallic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh; Kiani-Rashid, Alireza; Babakhani, Abolfazl; Davoodi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    An ultrafine-grained surface layer on mild steel substrate with average grain size of 77 nm was produced through wire brushing process. Surface grain size was determined through transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. This substrate was coated with epoxy and an in situ synthesized epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate (epoxy/PANI-CSA) nanocomposite. The corrosion behavior was studied by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements. Results of electrochemical tests evidenced the enhanced protective properties of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating on the substrate with ultrafine-grained surface.

  7. Epoxy adhesive formulations for engineered wood manufacturing: Design of Experiment (DOE) and hardener modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangkheeree, W.; Meekum, U.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of IPDA, DDS, BPA and DICY, as main ingredient of TETA based hardener were examined. The 2k design of experiment(DOE) with k=3 were preliminary explored. The designed parameters A(IPDA), B(DDS) and C(BPA) were assigned as low(-) and high(+) levels, respectively. The Design Expert™ was hired as the analyzing tool at α=0.05. The mixed epoxy resin was based on the commercial one. The designed responds including tcure, t50, impact strengths, flexural properties and HDT were measured, respectively. Regarding to ANOVA conclusion, it was found that, there were no significant effects on the assigned parameters on the interested responds, except for the HDT where BPA(C) was negative effect was found. The lower in the crosslink density of cured epoxy, inferior in HDT, the higher in BPA addition was hypothesized. It was found that impact strength of cured epoxy derived from all formula were unacceptable low and tcure and t50, were too short. Thus, the further investigation by adding DICY into hardener was explored. The results showed that no significant change by mechanical means of cured epoxy by resolving 5-30 phr of DICY into the hardener. However, it was observed that the DICY added formula showed the obvious long cure times and behave as prepreg formula. The room temperature cured epoxy was incompletely crosslinked. The degrees of linear chain fragment were evidence, by weight, when higher DICY loading was engaged. Complete crosslink was achieved at 150°C post curing. The hardener comprised of TETA/aliphatic Epoxy(RD108) adduct was studied for enhancing the toughness of epoxy resin. It was observed that longer cure time at 150°C but lower toughness was experienced, on both prepreg and engineered wood made from the resins, at high TETA/RD108 ratio. Incomplete cure was explained for the mechanical inferior at high RD108 loading.

  8. Low Scatter Edge Blackening Compounds For Refractive Optical Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Isabella T.; Telkamp, Arthur R.; Ledebuhr, Arno G.

    1990-01-01

    Perkin-Elmer's Applied Optics Operation recently delivered several prototype wide-field-of-view (WFOV), F/2.8, 250 mm efl, near diffraction limited, concentric refractive lenses to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In these lenses, special attention was paid to reducing stray light to allow viewing of very dim objects. Because of the very large FOV, the use of a long baffle to eliminate direct illumination of lens edges was not practical. With the existing relatively short baffle design, one-bounce stray light paths off the element edges are possible. The scattering off the inside edges thus had to be kept to an absolute minimum. While common means for blackening the edges of optical elements are easy to apply and quite cost effective for normal lens assemblies, their blackening effect is limited by the Fresnel reflection due to the index of refraction mismatch at the glass boundary. At high angles of incidence, total internal reflection (TIR) might occur ruining the effect of the blackening process. An index-matched absorbing medium applied to the edges of such elements is the most effective approach for reducing the amount of undesired light reflected or scattered off these edges. The presence of such a medium provides an extended path outside the glass boundary in which an absorptive non-scattering dye can be used to eliminate light that might otherwise have propagated to the focal plane. Perkin-Elmer and LLNL undertook a program to develop epoxy-based dye carrier compounds with refractive indices corresponding to the glass types used in the WFOV lens. This program involved the measuring of the refractive index of a number of epoxy compounds and catalysts, the experimental combination of epoxies to match our glass indices, and the identification of a suitable non-scattering absorptive dye. Measurements on these blacks showed Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) between 1.4 and 3.1 orders of magnitude lower than Perkin

  9. Mechanochemical reactions and strengthening in epoxy-cast aluminum iron-oxide mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferranti, Louis, Jr.

    2007-12-01

    Epoxy-cast Al+Fe2O3 thermite composites are an example of a structural energetic material that can simultaneously release chemical energy while providing structural strength. The structural/mechanical response and chemical reaction behavior are closely interlinked through characteristics of deformation and intermixing of reactants. In this work, the structural and energetic response of composites made from stoichiometric mixtures of nano- and micro-scale aluminum and hematite (Fe2O3) powders dispersed in 47 to 78 vol.% epoxy was investigated by characterizing the mechanical behavior under high-strain rate and shock loading conditions. The main focus of the work was to understand the influence of microstructure on mechanical behavior in epoxy-cast Al+Fe2O3 materials when exposed to high stress, large strain, and high rate loading conditions. The material's Hugoniot at pressures up to approximately 20 GPa for an Al+Fe2O3+78 vol.% epoxy composite and up to approximately 8 GPa for Al+Fe2O3+60 vol.% epoxy composite has been determined. The results reveal an inert pressure-relative volume (P-V) and shock-particle velocity (US-UP) response in the range of the shock-conditions explored, with the Al+Fe2O3+60 vol.% epoxy composite showing a greater shock stiffness. The addition of solid particle inclusions alters the Hugoniot response as compared to pure epoxy behavior. This is attributed to possible induced bulk damage that changes the composite's response as impact stress increases. While the 78 vol.% epoxy composition shows a transition from "undamaged" to "damaged" behavior that approaches pure epoxy response, the 60 vol.% epoxy composition exhibits a gradual toughening behavior. Impact experiments have also been conducted for characterizing the high-strain rate deformation and fracture response obtained from instrumented reverse Taylor tests using high-speed camera and velocity interferometry. The results show that these composite materials exhibit viscoelastic

  10. Molecular dynamics study on the tensile deformation of cross-linking epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Xin, Dong R; Han, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Various epoxy resins are used in the electronic industry as encapsulants, adhesive, printed wiring boards, electronic packagings, and so on. In this study, molecular dynamics method is employed to simulate the tensile deformation of the typical electronic epoxy resin. An efficient cross-linking procedure is developed to build the molecular model. Based on the cross-linking algorithm, the effects of moisture content, cross-linking conversion, strain rate, and temperature on the mechanical properties of epoxy resins are investigated. The stress-strain curves are plotted. Also the Young's modulus and Poisson ratio are calculated. The simulation results are compared with existing experimental data. Good agreements are observed. The results show that mechanical properties of epoxy resin decrease obviously with increasing moisture content and temperature. However the high cross-linking conversion and strain rate enhance the mechanical properties of resin. This study is significant to understanding the mechanical properties of cross-linking epoxies in high temperature and high humidity. PMID:25605604

  11. Biogenic acids produced on epoxy linings installed in sewer crown and tidal zones.

    PubMed

    Valix, M; Shanmugarajah, K

    2015-09-01

    In this study the biogenic acids generated by microbes on the surface of Bisphenol A epoxy mortar coupons were investigated for up to 30 months. The epoxy coupons were installed in six sewers in three city locations, Sydney, Melbourne and Perth. Coupons were installed in both the crown and the tidal zones of the sewers to capture the effect of location within the pipe on acid production. The coupons were retrieved approximately every 6 months to provide a dynamic analysis of the biogenic acid production. Our results reveal the colonisation of epoxy mortar by the more aggressive acidophilic bacteria occurred within six months to two years of their installation in the sewer pipes. Biogenic acid generation appear to occur homogeneously from the tidal zone to the crown of the sewer pipes. The reduction in the surface pH of the epoxy lining was supported by the successive growth of microbes beginning with fungi followed be neutrophilic and heterotrophic bacteria and finally by the acidophilic bacteria and the corresponding accumulation of organic and sulphuric acids attributed to these organisms. This study also revealed the potential inhibiting effects on the microbes induced by the accumulation of metabolic products on the epoxy surface. The accumulation of organic acids and H2S coincided with the growth and metabolism inhibition of fungi and acidophilic bacteria. These results provide insights into the microbial interaction and biogenic acids production that contribute to lining degradation and corrosion of concrete in sewer pipes. PMID:26005783

  12. Development and characterization of soy-based epoxy resins and pultruded FRP composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiang

    This dissertation focuses on the development, manufacture and characterization of novel soy-based epoxy FRP composites. Use of alternative epoxy resin systems derived from a renewable resource holds potential for low cost raw materials for the polymer and composite industries. Epoxidized Allyl Soyate (EAS) and Epoxidized Methyl Soyate (EMS) were developed from soybean oil with two chemical modification procedures: transesterification and epoxidation. This research investigates the curing characteristics and thermal and mechanical properties of the neat soyate resin systems. The derived soyate resins have higher reactivity and superior performance compared to commercially available epoxidized soybean oil. An efficient two-step curing method was developed in order to utilize these soyate resins to their full potential. The epoxy co-resin systems with varied soyate resin content were successfully used to fabricate composite material through pultrusion. The pultrusion resin systems with 30 wt% soyate resins yielded improved, or comparable mechanical properties with neat commercial resins. A finite element analysis of the heat transfer and curing process was performed to study the processing characterization on glass/epoxy composite pultrusion. This model can be used to establish baseline process variables and will benefit subsequent optimization. This research demonstrates that soy-based resins, especially EAS, show considerable promise as an epoxy resin supplement for use in polymer and composite structural applications. The new products derived from soybean oil can provide competitive performance, low cost and environmental advantages.

  13. Zirconium tungstate/epoxy nanocomposites: effect of nanoparticle morphology and negative thermal expansivity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongchao; Rogalski, Mark; Kessler, Michael R

    2013-10-01

    The ability to tailor the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of a polymer is essential for mitigating thermal residual stress and reducing microcracks caused by CTE mismatch of different components in electronic applications. This work studies the effect of morphology and thermal expansivity of zirconium tungstate nanoparticles on the rheological, thermo-mechanical, dynamic-mechanical, and dielectric properties of ZrW2O8/epoxy nanocomposites. Three types of ZrW2O8 nanoparticles were synthesized under different hydrothermal conditions and their distinct properties were characterized, including morphology, particle size, aspect ratio, surface area, and CTE. Nanoparticles with a smaller particle size and larger surface area led to a more significant reduction in gel-time and glass transition temperature of the epoxy nanocomposites, while a higher initial viscosity and significant shear thinning behavior was found in prepolymer suspensions containing ZrW2O8 with larger particle sizes and aspect ratios. The thermo- and dynamic-mechanical properties of epoxy-based nanocomposites improved with increasing loadings of the three types of ZrW2O8 nanoparticles. In addition, the introduced ZrW2O8 nanoparticles did not negatively affect the dielectric constant or the breakdown strength of the epoxy resin, suggesting potential applications of ZrW2O8/epoxy nanocomposites in the microelectronic insulation industry. PMID:24070222

  14. Lap shear strength and healing capability of self-healing adhesive containing epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Habibah; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Ming-Qiu

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a self-healing polymeric adhesive formulation with epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules. Epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules were dispersed into a commercialize two-part epoxy adhesive for developing self-healing epoxy adhesive. The influence of different content of microcapsules on the shear strength and healing capability of epoxy adhesive were investigated using single-lap-joints with average thickness of adhesive layer of about 180 µm. This self-healing adhesive was used in bonding of 5000 series aluminum alloys adherents after mechanical and alkaline cleaning surface treatment. The adhesion strength was measured and presented as function of microcapsules loading. The results indicated that the virgin lap shear strength was increased by about 26% with addition of 3 wt% of self-healing microcapsules. 12% to 28% recovery of the shear strength is achieved after self-healing depending on the microcapsules content. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study fracture surface of the joints. The self-healing adhesives exhibit recovery of both cohesion and adhesion properties with room temperature healing.

  15. Development of polyurethane/epoxy interpenetrating networks as broad band damping materials

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, C.S.; Samuels, M.Q.; Capps, R.N.

    1993-12-31

    Several series of polyurethane/epoxy IPN`s were prepared for possible use as broad band damping materials. The polyurethane component contained a poly(caprolactone) soft segment and a carbodiimide-modified MDI hard segment chain extended with trimethylolpropane. The epoxy component was a standard bisphenol-A resin cured with either a BCl{sub 3}-amine complex or BF{sub 3}-etherate. All IPN`s showed apparent true IPN behavior with no or very small scale phase separation. Dynamic mechanical data revealed that the systems prepared with BCl{sub 3} as the epoxy curative are too stiff with a Tg too high for the damping application. BF{sub 3}-etherate cured IPN`s showed good damping ability but the epoxy component was not fully incorporated and could be leached out yielding an unstable system. Ongoing work is focusing on incorporating a more flexible epoxy component and/or a plasticizer to increase damping and lower the Tg.

  16. Degradation of modified carbon black/epoxy nanocomposite coatings under ultraviolet exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad; Shariatpanahi, Homeira; Neshati, Jaber; Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil

    2015-10-01

    Degradation of epoxy coatings with and without Carbon Black (CB) nanoparticles under ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to obtain a good dispersion of CB nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. TEM analysis proved a uniform dispersion of modified CB nanoparticles in epoxy coating. The coatings were subjected to UV radiation to study the degradation behavior and then immersed in 3.5 wt% NaCl. The results showed that the electrochemical behavior of neat epoxy coating was related to the formation and development of microcracks on the surface. The occurrence of microcracks on the surface of the coatings and consequently the penetration of ionic species reduced by adding CB nanoparticles into the formulation of the coatings. CB nanoparticles decreased degradation of CB coatings by absorbing UV irradiation. The ATR-FTIR results showed that decrease in the intensity of methyl group as main peak in presence of 2.5 wt% CB was lower than neat epoxy. In addition, the reduction in impedance of neat epoxy coating under corrosive environment was larger than CB coatings. The CB coating with 2.5 wt% nanoparticles had the highest impedance to corrosive media after 2000 h UV irradiation and 24 h immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl.

  17. Optimization of the magnetoelectric response of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/epoxy/Vitrovac laminates.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Reis, S; Lehmann, C S; Martins, P; Lanceros-Mendez, S; Lasheras, A; Gutiérrez, J; Barandiarán, J M

    2013-11-13

    The effect of the bonding layer type and piezoelectric layer thickness on the magnetoelectric (ME) response of layered poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/epoxy/Vitrovac composites is reported. Three distinct epoxy types were tested, commercially known as M-Bond, Devcon, and Stycast. The main differences among them are their different mechanical characteristics, in particular the value of the Young modulus, and the coupling with the polymer and Vitrovac (Fe39Ni39Mo4Si6B12) layers of the laminate. The laminated composites prepared with M-Bond epoxy exhibit the highest ME coupling. Experimental results also show that the ME response increases with increasing PVDF thickness, the highest ME response of 53 V·cm(-1)·Oe(-1) being obtained for a 110 μm thick PVDF/M-Bond epoxy/Vitrovac laminate. The behavior of the ME laminates with increasing temperatures up to 90 °C shows a decrease of more than 80% in the ME response of the laminate, explained by the deteriorated coupling between the different layers. A two-dimensional numerical model of the ME laminate composite based on the finite element method was used to evaluate the experimental results. A comparison between numerical and experimental data allows us to select the appropriate epoxy and to optimize the piezoelectric PVDF layer width to maximize the induced magnetoelectric voltage. The obtained results show the critical role of the bonding layer and piezoelectric layer thickness in the ME performance of laminate composites. PMID:24125528

  18. Fabrication of silica-decorated graphene oxide nanohybrids and the properties of composite epoxy coatings research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yu; Di, Haihui; Yu, Zongxue; Liang, Ling; Lv, Liang; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Yangyong; Yin, Di

    2016-01-01

    With the purpose of preparing anticorrosive coatings, solvent-based epoxy resins often serve as raw material. Unfortunately, plentiful micro-pores are fabricated via solvent evaporation in the resin' curing process, which is an intrinsic shortcoming and it is thus necessary to obstacle their micro-pore for enhancing antiseptic property. To reduce the intrinsic defect and increase the corrosion resistance of coating, we synthesize a series of SiO2-GO hybrids through anchoring silica (SiO2) on graphene oxide (GO) sheets with the help of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane, and disperse the hybrids into epoxy resin at a low weight fraction of 2%. Furthermore, we investigate the appropriate preparation proportion of SiO2-GO hybrids (namely: SiO2-GO (1:5)). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test and coatings' morphology monitoring in corrosion process reveal that the anticorrosive performance of epoxy coatings is significantly enhanced by incorporation of SiO2-GO (1:5) hybrids to epoxy compared with neat epoxy and other nanofillers including SiO2 or GO at the same contents. The superiority of the SiO2-GO (1:5) hybrids is related to their excellent dispersion in resin and sheet-like structure.

  19. Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodi, M. M.; Sapuan, S. M.; Ali, Aidy; Ahmad, D.; Khalina, A.

    2010-05-01

    Utilization of thermoset resin as a bumper beam composite matrix is currently more dominated in car manufacturer suppliers, because of availability, easy processing, low material cost and production equipment investment. Moreover, low viscosity, shrinkage and excellent flow facilitate better fibre impregnation and proper surface resin wetting. Three-dimensional cross linking curing increase impact, creep and environmental stress cracking resistance properties. Low impact properties of natural fibre epoxy composite, are main issues in its employment for automotive structural components. Impact properties in epoxy composite bumper beam could be increased by modifying the resin, reinforcement and manufacturing process as well as geometry parameters such as cross section, thickness, added ribs and fixing method optimizations could strengthen impact resistance. There are two main methods, flexibilisation and toughening, as modifying the resin in order to improve the impact properties of epoxy composite, which form single phase or two-phase morphology to make modifier as epoxy or from separate phase to keep the thermo-mechanical properties. Liquid rubber, thermoplastic, core shell particle and rigid particle are different methods of toughening improvements. In this research, thermoplastic toughening has used to improve impact properties in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite for automotive bumper beam and has achieved reasonable impact improvements.

  20. Polarization of vacuum-pressure-impregnated high voltage epoxy-mica insulations

    SciTech Connect

    Keskinen, E.; Jaeppinen, J.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the electrical behavior of modern epoxy-mica high voltage insulation is investigated with the help of two-layer insulation model. The simplified model help to understand the charging phenomenon in actual high voltage insulation. The behavior of Vacuum-Pressure-Impregnated (VPI`ed) epoxy-mica insulation is compared with Shellac-Micafolium insulation. It is illustrated that because of higher volume resistivity the rate of change of the field distribution due to charging is considerably slower in epoxy-mica insulation. This tends to result in lower polarization index (PI) value for the epoxy-mica insulation than typically obtained for Shellac-Micafolium insulations. It is also illustrated that the faster PI measurement method (ratio of the 60 seconds value to the 15 seconds value) gives clearly lower PI value than the method defined in IEEE 43 (1974) (ratio of 600 s value to 60 s value). Finally, the effect of moisture on insulation resistance and PI of VPI`ed epoxy-mica winding insulation is discussed.