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Sample records for epp moks inga

  1. MOK overexpression is associated with promoter hypomethylation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jun; Chen, Qin; Yao, Dong-Ming; Yang, Lei; Yang, Jing; Wen, Xiang-Mei; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Chai, Hai-Yan; Ma, Ji-Chun; Deng, Zhao-Qun; Lin, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of MAPK/MAK/MRK overlapping kinase (MOK) has been found in various tumors. However, the mechanism underlying MOK upregulation remains unclear. A CpG island was identified in MOK promoter. In this study, we evaluated the expression and methylation status of MOK gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Hypomethylation of MOK promoter was detected in 31.0% (45/145) of AML patients. The degree of MOK hypomethylation was significantly correlated with MOK expression in AML patients. MOK-hypomethylated patients had a trend towards lower WBCs. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed a good performance in distinguishing AML patients from controls with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.820 (P < 0.001). In summary, our results suggest MOK promoter hypomethylation is a common event and contributes to MOK overexpression in AML. PMID:25755699

  2. Direct EPP Affects on the Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Energetic precipitating particles (EPPs) can cause significant direct constituent changes in the mesosphere and stratosphere (middle atmosphere) during certain periods. Both protons and electrons can influence the polar middle atmosphere through ionization and dissociation processes. EPPs can enhance HOx (H, OH, HO2) through the formation of positive ions followed by complex ion chemistry and NOx (N, NO, NO2) through the dissociation of molecular nitrogen. The HOx increases result in direct ozone destruction in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere via several catalytic loss cycles. Such middle atmospheric HOx-caused ozone loss is rather short-lived due to the relatively short lifetime (hours) of the HOx constituents. The NOx family has a considerably longer lifetime than the HOx family and can also lead to catalytic ozone destruction. EPP-caused enhancements of the NOx family can affect ozone directly, if produced in the stratosphere. Ozone decreases from the EPPs lead to a reduction in atmospheric heating and, subsequent atmospheric cooling. Conversely, EPPs can cause direct atmospheric heating through Joule heating. Measured HOx constituents OH and HO2 showed increases due to solar protons. Observed NOx constituents NO and NO2 were enhanced due to both solar protons and precipitating electrons. Other hydrogen- and nitrogen-ocntaining constituents were also measured to be directly influenced by EPPs, including N2O, HNO3, HO2NO2, N2OS, H2O2, ClONO2, HCl, and HOCl. Observed constituents ClO and CO were directly affected by EPPs as well. Many measurements indicated significant direct ozone decreases. A significant number of satellites housed instruments, which observed direct EPP-caused atmospheric effects, including Nimbus 4 (BUV), Nimbus 7 (SBUV), several NOAA platforms (SBUV/2), SME, UARS (HALOE, CLAES), SCISAT-1 (ACE-FTS), Odin (OSIRIS), Envisat-l (GOMOS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY), and Aura (MLS). Measurements by rockets and ground-based radar also indicated EPP direct

  3. Probing for suitable climatology to estimate the predictability of monsoon onset over Kerala (MOK), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2016-07-01

    Inter-annual variability in the onset of monsoon over Kerala (MOK), India, is investigated using daily temperature; mean sea level pressure; winds at 850, 500 and 200 hPa pressure levels; outgoing longwave radiation (OLR); sea surface temperature (SST) and vertically integrated moisture content anomaly with 32 years (1981-2013) observation. The MOK is classified as early, delayed, or normal by considering the mean monsoon onset date over Kerala to be the 1st of June with a standard deviation of 8 days. The objective of the study is to identify the synoptic setup during MOK and comparison with climatology to estimate the predictability of the onset type (early, normal, or delayed) with 5, 10, and 15 days lead time. The study reveals that an enhanced convection observed over the Bay of Bengal during early MOK is found to shift over the Arabian Sea during delayed MOK. An intense high-pressure zone observed over the western south Indian Ocean during early MOK shifts to the east during delayed MOK. Higher tropospheric temperature (TT) over the western Equatorial Ocean during early MOK and lower TT over the Indian subcontinent intensify the land-ocean thermal contrast that leads to early MOK. The sea surface temperature (SST) over the Arabian Sea is observed to be warmer during delayed than early MOK. During early MOK, the source of 850 hPa southwesterly wind shifts to the west equatorial zone while a COL region has been found during delayed MOK at that level. The study further reveals that the wind speed anomaly at the 200-hPa pressure level coincides inversely with the anomaly of tropospheric temperature.

  4. Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) Electron Preprocessor (EPP) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, J. F.; Osborn, J. V.; Christensen, John L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aerospace Corporation developed the Electron PreProcessor (EPP) to support the Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) that is part of the RAPID experiment on the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The purpose of the EPP is to collect raw data from the IES and perform processing and data compression on it before transferring it to the RAPID microprocessor system for formatting and transmission to the CLUSTER satellite data system. The report provides a short history of the RAPID and CLUSTER programs and describes the EPP design. Four EPP units were fabricated, tested, and delivered for the original CLUSTER program. These were destroyed during a launch failure. Four more EPP units were delivered for the CLUSTER II program. These were successfully launched and are operating nominally on orbit.

  5. Myxococcus xanthus mokA Encodes a Histidine Kinase-Response Regulator Hybrid Sensor Required for Development and Osmotic Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yoshio; Nakano, Hiromi; Terasaka, Hideaki; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2001-01-01

    A gene, mokA, encoding a protein with similarities to histidine kinase-response regulator hybrid sensor, was cloned from a Myxococcus xanthus genomic library. The predicted mokA gene product was found to contain three domains: an amino-terminal input domain, a central transmitter domain, and a carboxy-terminal receiver domain. mokA mutants placed under starvation conditions exhibited reduced sporulation. Mutation of mokA also caused marked growth retardation at high osmolarity. These results indicated that M. xanthus MokA is likely a transmembrane sensor that is required for development and osmotic tolerance. The putative function of MokA is similar to that of the hybrid histidine kinase, DokA, of the eukaryotic slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. PMID:11157925

  6. 75 FR 20981 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Educational Partnership Program (EPP) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ...; Educational Partnership Program (EPP) and Ernest F. Hollings Undergraduate Scholarship Program AGENCY... Respondents: 3,496. Estimated Time Per Response: Student tracker database form, 16 hours; graduate...

  7. INGAS: Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System for radioxenon measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doost-Mohammadi, V.; Afarideh, H.; Etaati, G. R.; Safari, M. J.; Rouhi, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System (INGAS) will be introduced. This system is based on beta-gamma coincidence technique and consists of a well-type NaI(Tl) as gamma or X radiation detector and a cylindrical plastic scintillator to detect beta or conversion electron. Standard NIM modules were utilized to detect coincidence events of detectors. Both the beta and gamma detectors were appropriately calibrated. The efficiency curve of gamma detector for volume geometry was obtained by comparing the results of gamma point sources measurements and simulations of GATE V7.0 Monte Carlo code. The performance of detection system was checked by injection of 222Rn and 131mXe gaseous source in the detection cell. The minimum detectable activity of the system for 133Xe is 1.240±0.024 mBq for 24 h measurement time.

  8. Regulation of Cilium Length and Intraflagellar Transport by the RCK-Kinases ICK and MOK in Renal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuis, Joost R.; Verhey, Kristen J.; Jansen, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Primary cilia are important sensory organelles. They exist in a wide variety of lengths, which could reflect different cell-specific functions. How cilium length is regulated is unclear, but it probably involves intraflagellar transport (IFT), which transports protein complexes along the ciliary axoneme. Studies in various organisms have identified the small, conserved family of ros-cross hybridizing kinases (RCK) as regulators of cilium length. Here we show that Intestinal Cell Kinase (ICK) and MAPK/MAK/MRK overlapping kinase (MOK), two members of this family, localize to cilia of mouse renal epithelial (IMCD-3) cells and negatively regulate cilium length. To analyze the effects of ICK and MOK on the IFT machinery, we set up live imaging of five fluorescently tagged IFT proteins: KIF3B, a subunit of kinesin-II, the main anterograde IFT motor, complex A protein IFT43, complex B protein IFT20, BBSome protein BBS8 and homodimeric kinesin KIF17, whose function in mammalian cilia is unclear. Interestingly, all five proteins moved at ∼0.45 µm/s in anterograde and retrograde direction, suggesting they are all transported by the same machinery. Moreover, GFP tagged ICK and MOK moved at similar velocities as the IFT proteins, suggesting they are part of, or transported by the IFT machinery. Indeed, loss- or gain-of-function of ICK affected IFT speeds: knockdown increased anterograde velocities, whereas overexpression reduced retrograde speed. In contrast, MOK knockdown or overexpression did not affect IFT speeds. Finally, we found that the effects of ICK or MOK knockdown on cilium length and IFT are suppressed by rapamycin treatment, suggesting that these effects require the mTORC1 pathway. Our results confirm the importance of RCK kinases as regulators of cilium length and IFT. However, whereas some of our results suggest a direct correlation between cilium length and IFT speed, other results indicate that cilium length can be modulated independent of IFT speed. PMID

  9. 78 FR 27188 - Proposed Information Collection-Renewal; Comment Request; Educational Partnership Program (EPP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...; Educational Partnership Program (EPP) and Ernest F. Hollings Undergraduate Scholarship Program AGENCY... to its student scholarship programs to complete an application for NOAA undergraduate scholarship... support of the scholarship application by academic professors/advisors. NOAA OEd student scholar...

  10. Factor Pattern Comparisons of EPPS Scales of High School, College, and Innovative College Program Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Paul W.; Ahern, Elsie H.

    1973-01-01

    EPPS scores from 167 high school seniors (Study 1, S1), 137 introductory psychology students (S2), and students from an innovative college program (S3) were compared using analysis of variance, image analysis, and factor pattern comparison. (Editor)

  11. The Inhibition of Inflammasome by Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Juliana I.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Carrão, Daniel B.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Berretta, Andresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis extracts have gained the attention of consumers and researchers due to their unique chemical compositions and functional properties such as its anti-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was described a complex that is also important in inflammatory processes, named inflammasome. The inflammasomes are a large molecular platform formed in the cell cytosol in response to stress signals, toxins, and microbial infections. Once activated, the inflammasome induces caspase-1, which in turn induces the processing of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. So, to understand inflammasomes regulation becomes crucial to treat several disorders including autoinflammatory diseases. Since green propolis extracts are able to regulate inflammatory pathways, this work purpose was to investigate if this extract could also act on inflammasomes regulation. First, the extract was characterized and it demonstrated the presence of important compounds, especially Artepillin C. This extract was effective in reducing the IL-1β secretion in mouse macrophages and this reduction was correlated with a decrease in activation of the protease caspase-1. Furthermore, we found that the extract at a concentration of 30 μg/mL was not toxic to the cells even after a 18-hour treatment. Altogether, these data indicate that Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF) extract has a role in regulating the inflammasomes. PMID:23690844

  12. Composite droplets: evolution of InGa and AlGa alloys on GaAs(100).

    PubMed

    Sablon, K A; Wang, Zh M; Salamo, G J

    2008-03-26

    We present a comparative study for the evolution of utilizing indium gallium (InGa) and aluminum gallium (AlGa) alloys fabricated on GaAs(100) by means of simultaneous and sequential droplet formation. The composite alloys reported using the sequential approach lack the ability to precisely determine the final alloy composition as well as consistency in the density of the droplets. Further, the composition of the InGa alloy is not uniform, as seen by the size distribution using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Although this approach may be acceptable for materials with similar surface kinetics, as in the case of AlGa, it is not acceptable for InGa. This investigation reveals that the simultaneous approach for fabricating composite alloys is the optimum approach for producing InGa alloys with better control on composition for plasmonic applications such as plasmonic waveguides. PMID:21817741

  13. EPP Monitor, Volume 8, Issues 1&2, Spring/Summer 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrier, Martine

    2004-01-01

    This issue of EPP Monitor contains the following articles: "Countdown for Justice," Five Quick and Inexpensive Ways to End Overcrowding," "Third Grade Retention -- Deja Vu All Over Again," High-Need African-American and Latino Students Doing Better in Suburban Districts," "An Emerging Consensus on Facts, not Policy," "The 'Crisis' in Special…

  14. Identification of the Sfp-Type PPTase EppA from the Lichenized Fungus Evernia prunastri

    PubMed Central

    Schimming, Olivia; Schmitt, Imke; Bode, Helge B.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, natural products from lichens have gained more interest for pharmaceutical application due to the broad range of their biological activity. However, isolation of the compounds of interest directly from the lichen is neither feasible nor sustainable due to slow growth of many lichens. In order to develop a pipeline for heterologous expression of lichen biosynthesis gene clusters and thus the sustainable production of their bioactive compounds we have identified and characterized the phosphopantheteinyl transferase (PPTase) EppA from the lichen Evernia prunastri. The Sfp-type PPTase EppA was functionally characterized through heterologous expression in E. coli using the production of the blue pigment indigoidine as readout and by complementation of a lys5 deletion in S. cerevisiae. PMID:26784935

  15. Identification of the Sfp-Type PPTase EppA from the Lichenized Fungus Evernia prunastri.

    PubMed

    Schimming, Olivia; Schmitt, Imke; Bode, Helge B

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, natural products from lichens have gained more interest for pharmaceutical application due to the broad range of their biological activity. However, isolation of the compounds of interest directly from the lichen is neither feasible nor sustainable due to slow growth of many lichens. In order to develop a pipeline for heterologous expression of lichen biosynthesis gene clusters and thus the sustainable production of their bioactive compounds we have identified and characterized the phosphopantheteinyl transferase (PPTase) EppA from the lichen Evernia prunastri. The Sfp-type PPTase EppA was functionally characterized through heterologous expression in E. coli using the production of the blue pigment indigoidine as readout and by complementation of a lys5 deletion in S. cerevisiae. PMID:26784935

  16. Comprehensive Report For Proposed Elevated Temperature Elastic Perfectly Plastic (EPP) Code Cases Representative Example Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Greg L. Hollinger

    2014-06-01

    Background: The current rules in the nuclear section of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code , Section III, Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 1200F (650C)1. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (E-PP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures. The proposed rules for strain limits and creep-fatigue evaluation were initially documented in the technical literature 2, 3, and have been recently revised to incorporate comments and simplify their application. The revised code cases have been developed. Task Objectives: The goal of the Sample Problem task is to exercise these code cases through example problems to demonstrate their feasibility and, also, to identify potential corrections and improvements should problems be encountered. This will provide input to the development of technical background documents for consideration by the applicable B&PV committees considering these code cases for approval. This task has been performed by Hollinger and Pease of Becht Engineering Co., Inc., Nuclear Services Division and a report detailing the results of the E-PP analyses conducted on example problems per the procedures of the E-PP strain limits and creep-fatigue draft code cases is enclosed as Enclosure 1. Conclusions: The feasibility of the application of the E-PP code cases has been demonstrated through example problems that consist of realistic geometry (a nozzle attached to a semi-hemispheric shell with a circumferential weld) and load (pressure; pipe reaction load applied at the end of the nozzle, including axial and shear forces, bending and torsional moments; through-wall transient temperature gradient) and design and operating conditions (Levels A, B and C).

  17. A simple microstructure return model explaining microstructure noise and Epps effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel simple microstructure model of financial returns that combines (i) the well-known ARFIMA process applied to tick-by-tick returns, (ii) the bid-ask bounce effect, (iii) the fat tail structure of the distribution of returns and (iv) the non-Poissonian statistics of inter-trade intervals. This model allows us to explain both qualitatively and quantitatively important stylized facts observed in the statistics of both microstructure and macrostructure returns, including the short-ranged correlation of returns, the long-ranged correlations of absolute returns, the microstructure noise and Epps effects. According to the microstructure noise effect, volatility is a decreasing function of the time-scale used to estimate it. The Epps effect states that cross correlations between asset returns are increasing functions of the time-scale at which the returns are estimated. The microstructure noise is explained as the result of the negative return correlations inherent in the definition of the bid-ask bounce component (ii). In the presence of a genuine correlation between the returns of two assets, the Epps effect is due to an average statistical overlap of the momentum of the returns of the two assets defined over a finite time-scale in the presence of the long memory process (i).

  18. Octa-Arginine Mediated Delivery of Wild-Type Lnk Protein Inhibits TPO-Induced M-MOK Megakaryoblastic Leukemic Cell Growth by Promoting Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Looi, Chung Yeng; Imanishi, Miki; Takaki, Satoshi; Sato, Miki; Chiba, Natsuko; Sasahara, Yoji; Futaki, Shiroh; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Kumaki, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Background Lnk plays a non-redundant role by negatively regulating cytokine signaling of TPO, SCF or EPO. Retroviral expression of Lnk has been shown to suppress hematopoietic leukemic cell proliferation indicating its therapeutic value in cancer therapy. However, retroviral gene delivery carries risks of insertional mutagenesis. To circumvent this undesired consequence, we fused a cell permeable peptide octa-arginine to Lnk and evaluated the efficacy of inhibition of leukemic cell proliferation in vitro. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, proliferation assays, flow cytometry, Western Blot analyses were performed on wild-type (WT), mutant Lnk R8 or BSA treated M-MOK cells. We found that delivered WT, but not mutant Lnk R8 blocked TPO-induced M-MOK megakaryoblastic leukemic cell proliferation. In contrast, WT Lnk R8 showed no growth inhibitive effect on non-hematopoietic HELA or COS-7 cell. Moreover, we demonstrated that TPO-induced M-MOK cell growth inhibition by WT Lnk R8 was dose-dependent. Penetrated WT Lnk R8 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Immunoprecipitation and Western blots data indicated WT Lnk R8 interacted with endogeneous Jak2 and downregulated Jak-Stat and MAPK phosphorylation level in M-MOK cells after TPO stimulation. Treatment with specific inhibitors (TG101348 and PD98059) indicated Jak-Stat and MAPK pathways were crucial for TPO-induced proliferation of M-MOK cells. Further analyses using TF-1 and HEL leukemic cell-lines showed that WT Lnk R8 inhibited Jak2-dependent cell proliferation. Using cord blood-derived CD34+ stem cells, we found that delivered WT Lnk R8 blocked TPO-induced megakaryopoiesis in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Intracellular delivery of WT Lnk R8 fusion protein efficiently inhibited TPO-induced M-MOK leukemic cell growth by promoting apoptosis. WT Lnk R8 protein delivery may provide a safer and more practical approach to inhibit leukemic cell growth worthy of further development. PMID:21853157

  19. The generalist Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana (Fabaceae): negative effect of floral visitors on reproductive success?

    PubMed

    Avila, R; Pinheiro, M; Sazima, M

    2015-05-01

    Inga species are characterised by generalist or mixed pollination system. However, this feature does not enhance reproductive rates in species with very low fruit set under natural conditions. Some ecological and genetic factors are associated with this feature, and to test the effect of massive visits on pollination success in Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana, we studied the efficacy of polyads deposited on stigmas of flowers isolated from visitors and polyads exposed to visitors. The proportion of polyads fixed in stigmas decreased after exposure to visitors (24 h) in comparison to stigmas isolated from visitors (hummingbirds, bees, wasps, hawkmoths and bats), and fruit set was very low. Furthermore, nectar production, sugar composition and other floral biology traits were evaluated. Increased nectar production, sugar availability and sucrose dominance during the night indicates adaptation to nocturnal visitors and supports their role as main pollinators; although the brush-flower morphology, time of anthesis, nectar dynamics and chemical composition also allow daytime visitors. Thus the species is an important resource for a diverse group of floral visitors. We conclude that excess visits (diurnal and nocturnal) are responsible for the decrease in fixed polyads in stigmas of I. subnuda subsp. luschnathiana flowers, thus contributing, with others factors, to its low fruit set. Therefore, the generalist pollination system does not result in reproductive advantages because the low fruit set in natural conditions could be the result of a negative effect of visitors/pollinators. PMID:25488371

  20. The evolution of antiherbivore defenses and their contribution to species coexistence in the tropical tree genus Inga

    PubMed Central

    Kursar, Thomas A.; Dexter, Kyle G.; Lokvam, John; Pennington, R. Toby; Richardson, James E.; Weber, Marjorie G.; Murakami, Eric T.; Drake, Camilla; McGregor, Ruth; Coley, Phyllis D.

    2009-01-01

    Plants and their herbivores constitute more than half of the organisms in tropical forests. Therefore, a better understanding of the evolution of plant defenses against their herbivores may be central for our understanding of tropical biodiversity. Here, we address the evolution of antiherbivore defenses and their possible contribution to coexistence in the Neotropical tree genus Inga (Fabaceae). Inga has >300 species, has radiated recently, and is frequently one of the most diverse and abundant genera at a given site. For 37 species from Panama and Peru we characterized developmental, ant, and chemical defenses against herbivores. We found extensive variation in defenses, but little evidence of phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, in a multivariate analysis, developmental, ant, and chemical defenses varied independently (were orthogonal) and appear to have evolved independently of each other. Our results are consistent with strong selection for divergent defensive traits, presumably mediated by herbivores. In an analysis of community assembly, we found that Inga species co-occurring as neighbors are more different in antiherbivore defenses than random, suggesting that possessing a rare defense phenotype increases fitness. These results imply that interactions with herbivores may be an important axis of niche differentiation that permits the coexistence of many species of Inga within a single site. Interactions between plants and their herbivores likely play a key role in the generation and maintenance of the conspicuously high plant diversity in the tropics. PMID:19805183

  1. Towards the Transformation of Practice in Early Childhood Education: The Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (Eppe) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda; Sylva, Kathy; Sammons, Pamela; Melhuish, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the Foundation Stage and its associated legislation has constituted a radical innovation that is transforming early childhood education. In this paper we show how the Effective Provision of Pre-school Education (EPPE) research programme continues to contribute towards achieving these improvements in practice. In focusing upon…

  2. Ingasaponin, a complex triterpenoid saponin with immunological adjuvant activity from Inga laurina.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Maria de Fátima Simão Jucá; Pereira, Gabriela Moysés; Ribeiro, Marcela Gonçalves; da Silva, Ari Miranda; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; da Silva, Bernadete Pereira; Parente, José Paz

    2016-02-01

    As part of our search of bioactive saponins from Brazilian plants, phytochemical study of the seeds of Inga laurina led to the isolation of a new complex triterpenoid saponin, named ingasaponin. It is the first saponin isolated from a species of Inga genus. It was isolated by using chromatographic methods and its structural elucidation was performed using detailed analyses of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra including 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques and chemical conversions. Its structure was established as 21-[[(2E,6S)-6-[[6-deoxy-4-O-[(2E,6S)-6-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]oxy]-16-hydroxy-3-[[O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β,16α,21β)-olean-12-en-28-oic acid O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 4)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-O-6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1). The hemolytic potential of 1 was evaluated using in vitro assays, and its adjuvant activity on the cellular immune response against ovalbumin antigen was investigated using in vivo models. PMID:26717546

  3. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, James A.; Pennington, R. Toby; Koenen, Erik J. M.; Hughes, Colin E.; Hearn, Jack; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dexter, Kyle G.; Stone, Graham N.; Kidner, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2–10 MY, yet over 6 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia). Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories within the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies. PMID:26442024

  4. Modelled thermal and dynamical responses of the middle atmosphere to EPP-induced ozone changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, K.; Braesicke, P.; Kunze, M.; Langematz, U.; Sinnhuber, M.; Versick, S.

    2015-11-01

    Energetic particles including protons, electrons and heavier ions, enter the Earth's atmosphere over the polar regions of both hemispheres, where they can greatly disturb the chemical composition of the upper and middle atmosphere and contribute to ozone depletion in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The chemistry-climate general circulation model EMAC is used to investigate the impact of changed ozone concentration due to Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) on temperature and wind fields. The results of our simulations show that ozone perturbation is a starting point for a chain of processes resulting in temperature and circulation changes over a wide range of latitudes and altitudes. In both hemispheres, as winter progresses the temperature and wind anomalies move downward with time from the mesosphere/upper stratosphere to the lower stratosphere. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), once anomalies of temperature and zonal wind reach the lower stratosphere, another signal develops in mesospheric heights and moves downward. Analyses of Eliassen and Palm (EP) flux divergence show that accelerating or decelerating of the stratospheric zonal flow is in harmony with positive and negative anomalies of the EP flux divergences, respectively. This results suggest that the oscillatory mode in the downwelling signal of temperature and zonal wind in our simulations are the consequence of interaction between the resolved waves in the model and the mean stratospheric flow. Therefore, any changes in the EP flux divergence lead to anomalies in the zonal mean zonal wind which in turn feed back on the propagation of Rossby waves from the troposphere to higher altitudes. The analyses of Rossby waves refractive index show that the EPP-induced ozone anomalies are capable of altering the propagation condition of the planetary-scale Rossby waves in both hemispheres. It is also found that while ozone depletion was confined to mesospheric and stratospheric heights, but it is capable to

  5. Practical and theoretical characterization of Inga laurina Kunitz inhibitor on the control of Homalinotus coriaceus.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Migliolo, Ludovico; de Oliveira, Caio Fernando Ramalho

    2011-02-01

    Digestive endoprotease activities of the coconut palm weevil, Homalinotus coriaceus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were characterized based on the ability of gut extracts to hydrolyze specific synthetic substrates, optimal pH, and hydrolysis sensitivity to protease inhibitors. Trypsin-like proteinases were major enzymes for H. coriaceus, with minor activity by chymotrypsin proteinases. More importantly, gut proteinases of H. coriaceus were inhibited by trypsin inhibitor from Inga laurina seeds. In addition, a serine proteinase inhibitor from I. laurina seeds demonstrated significant reduction of growth of H. coriaceus larvae after feeding on inhibitor incorporated artificial diets. Dietary utilization experiments show that 0.05% I. laurina trypsin inhibitor, incorporated into an artificial diet, decreases the consumption rate and fecal production of H. coriaceus larvae. Dietary utilization experiments show that 0.05% I. laurina trypsin inhibitor, incorporated into an artificial diet, decreases the consumption rate and fecal production of H. coriaceus larvae. We have constructed a three-dimensional model of the trypsin inhibitor complexed with trypsin. The model was built based on its comparative homology with soybean trypsin inhibitor. Trypsin inhibitor of I. laurina shows structural features characteristic of the Kunitz type trypsin inhibitor. In summary, these findings contribute to the development of biotechnological tools such as transgenic plants with enhanced resistance to insect pests. PMID:21094272

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of ILTI, a Kunitz-Type Trypsin Inhibitor from Inga laurina (SW.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Taveira, Gabriel B; Gomes, Valdirene M; de Barros, Karina M C A; Maria-Neto, Simone

    2016-05-01

    Over the last few years, a growing number of proteinase inhibitors have been isolated from plants and particularly from seeds and have shown antimicrobial activity. A 20,000 Da serine peptidase inhibitor, named ILTI, was isolated from Inga laurina seeds and showed potent inhibitory enzymatic activity against trypsin. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ILTI on the growth of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. We observed that ILTI strongly inhibited in particular the growth of Candida tropicalis and Candida buinensis, inducing cellular agglomeration. However, it was ineffective against human pathogenic bacteria. We also investigated the potential of ILTI to permeabilize the plasma membrane of yeast cells. C. tropicalis and C. buinensis were incubated for 24 h with the ILTI at different concentrations, which showed that this inhibitor induced changes in the membranes of yeast cells, leading to their permeabilization. Interestingly, ILTI induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C. tropicalis and C. buinensis cells. Finally, ILTI was coupled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and subsequent treatment of C. tropicalis and C. buinensis with DAPI revealed the presence of the labeled protein in the intracellular spaces. In conclusion, our results indicated the ability of peptidase inhibitors to induce microbial inhibition; therefore, they might offer templates for the design of new antifungal agents. PMID:26769111

  7. Photoluminescence upconversion at GaAs /InGa P2 interfaces driven by a sequential two-photon absorption mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hylton, N. P.; Hinrichsen, T. F.; Vaquero-Stainer, A. R.; Yoshida, M.; Pusch, A.; Hopkinson, M.; Hess, O.; Phillips, C. C.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on the results of an investigation into the nature of photoluminescence upconversion at GaAs /InGa P2 interfaces. Using a dual-beam excitation experiment, we demonstrate that the upconversion in our sample proceeds via a sequential two-photon optical absorption mechanism. Measurements of photoluminescence and upconversion photoluminescence revealed evidence of the spatial localization of carriers in the InGa P2 material, arising from partial ordering of the InGa P2 . We also observed the excitation of a two-dimensional electron gas at the GaAs /InGa P2 heterojunction that manifests as a high-energy shoulder in the GaAs photoluminescence spectrum. Furthermore, the results of upconversion photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy demonstrate that the photon energy onset of upconversion luminescence coincides with the energy of the two-dimensional electron gas at the GaAs /InGa P2 interface, suggesting that charge accumulation at the interface can play a crucial role in the upconversion process.

  8. EPPS rescues hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice by disaggregation of amyloid-β oligomers and plaques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Hyunjin Vincent; Jo, Seonmi; Lee, C Justin; Choi, Seon Young; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, YoungSoo

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the transition of amyloid-β (Aβ) monomers into toxic oligomers and plaques. Given that Aβ abnormality typically precedes the development of clinical symptoms, an agent capable of disaggregating existing Aβ aggregates may be advantageous. Here we report that a small molecule, 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinepropanesulphonic acid (EPPS), binds to Aβ aggregates and converts them into monomers. The oral administration of EPPS substantially reduces hippocampus-dependent behavioural deficits, brain Aβ oligomer and plaque deposits, glial γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release and brain inflammation in an Aβ-overexpressing, APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model when initiated after the development of severe AD-like phenotypes. The ability of EPPS to rescue Aβ aggregation and behavioural deficits provides strong support for the view that the accumulation of Aβ is an important mechanism underlying AD. PMID:26646366

  9. EPPS rescues hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice by disaggregation of amyloid-β oligomers and plaques

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Hyunjin Vincent; Jo, Seonmi; Lee, C. Justin; Choi, Seon Young; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, YoungSoo

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the transition of amyloid-β (Aβ) monomers into toxic oligomers and plaques. Given that Aβ abnormality typically precedes the development of clinical symptoms, an agent capable of disaggregating existing Aβ aggregates may be advantageous. Here we report that a small molecule, 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinepropanesulphonic acid (EPPS), binds to Aβ aggregates and converts them into monomers. The oral administration of EPPS substantially reduces hippocampus-dependent behavioural deficits, brain Aβ oligomer and plaque deposits, glial γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release and brain inflammation in an Aβ-overexpressing, APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model when initiated after the development of severe AD-like phenotypes. The ability of EPPS to rescue Aβ aggregation and behavioural deficits provides strong support for the view that the accumulation of Aβ is an important mechanism underlying AD. PMID:26646366

  10. The foreign exchange market: return distributions, multifractality, anomalous multifractality and the Epps effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drożdż, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświȩcimka, Paweł; Rak, Rafał

    2010-10-01

    We present a systematic study of various statistical characteristics of high-frequency returns from the foreign exchange market. This study is based on six exchange rates forming two triangles: EUR-GBP-USD and GBP-CHF-JPY. It is shown that the exchange rate return fluctuations for all of the pairs considered are well described by the non-extensive statistics in terms of q-Gaussians. There exist some small quantitative variations in the non-extensivity q-parameter values for different exchange rates (which depend also on the time scales studied), and this can be related to the importance of a given exchange rate in the world's currency trade. Temporal correlations organize the series of returns such that they develop the multifractal characteristics for all of the exchange rates, with a varying degree of symmetry of the singularity spectrum f(α), however. The most symmetric spectrum is identified for the GBP/USD. We also form time series of triangular residual returns and find that the distributions of their fluctuations develop disproportionately heavier tails as compared to small fluctuations, which excludes description in terms of q-Gaussians. The multifractal characteristics of these residual returns reveal such anomalous properties as negative singularity exponents and even negative singularity spectra. Such anomalous multifractal measures have so far been considered in the literature in connection with diffusion-limited aggregation and with turbulence. Studying the cross-correlations among different exchange rates, we found that market inefficiency on short time scales leads to the occurrence of the Epps effect on much longer time scales, but comparable to the ones for the stock market. Although the currency market is much more liquid than the stock markets and has a much greater transaction frequency, the building up of correlations takes up to several hours—a duration that does not differ much from what is observed in the stock markets. This may suggest

  11. Performance of Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) Coupled with a Fast Digital Data Acquisition System for Nuclear Structure Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palit, R.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Trivedi, T.; Naidu, B. S.; Chavan, P. B.; Donthi, R.; Jadhav, S.

    2013-03-01

    The Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) is set up at TIFR-BARC accelerator facility, as a part of a national collaboration between different research Institutes and Universities. The array is designed for 24 Compton suppressed clover detectors providing around 5% photo-peak efficiency. Recently, a digital data acquisition system with 96 channels (based on Pixie-16 modules developed by XIA LLC) has been implemented for this Compton suppressed clover array. The digital system provides higher throughput, better energy resolution and better stability for the multi-detector Compton suppressed clover array compared to its previous conventional system with analog shaping. A number of nuclear spectroscopic experiments have been carried out using the array. The results from the initial in-beam experiments of the complete set-up will be discussed in this paper.

  12. Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Mirela Mara; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. PMID:22457606

  13. Study on the Crystal Structure of CdInGaS4 and Cd3InGaS6 by Computer Simulation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Hiroaki; Nomura, Shigetaka; Ando, Shizutoshi; Endo, Saburo; Irie, Taizo

    1990-06-01

    The crystal structures of CdInGaS4 and Cd3InGaS6 were studied by a computer simulation method using the experimental X-ray powder diffraction pattern. The ratio of the Van der Weals length between three “packs” in CdInGaS4 was determined to be 2.75:4.5:2.75. It is concluded that Cd3InGaS6 is not a single compound but has a laminated structure composed of CdS and CdInGaS4. In order to interpret the ratio of the intensity of diffraction lines, a type of stacking of Cd and S layers is proposed.

  14. Ga2Se3 and (InGa)2Se3 as novel buffer layers in the GaAs on Si system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Nobuaki; Morales, Crisóforo; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2013-09-01

    III-V compound solar cells on Si are attractive structure with expectations of the significant cost reduction of high efficiency multi-junction solar cells. However, the large lattice mismatch and thermal expansion coefficient difference between GaAs and Si generate a high density of threading dislocations in III-V overlayers grown on Si. In this paper, novel buffer layers consisting of Ga2Se3 and (InGa)2Se3 III-VI compounds for the GaAs on Si system are proposed. In-rich (InGa)2Se3 has a layered defect zincblende structure. The van der Waals interface of the layered structure should absorb any strain caused by lattice mismatch and thermal expansion coefficient difference between Si and GaAs. As the first step in studying the MBE growth of (InGa)2Se3 compounds, the epitaxial growth of defect zincblende structure Ga2Se3 and layered defect zincblende structure In2Se3 on GaAs(111) was confirmed.

  15. Beyond the pollination syndrome: nectar ecology and the role of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators in the reproductive success of Inga sessilis (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Amorim, F W; Galetto, L; Sazima, M

    2013-03-01

    Inga species present brush-type flower morphology allowing them to be visited by distinct groups of pollinators. Nectar features in relation to the main pollinators have seldom been studied in this genus. To test the hypothesis of floral adaptation to both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators, we studied the pollination ecology of Inga sessilis, with emphasis on the nectar secretion patterns, effects of sequential removals on nectar production, sugar composition and the role of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators in its reproductive success. Inga sessilis is self-incompatible and pollinated by hummingbirds, hawkmoths and bats. Fruit set under natural conditions is very low despite the fact that most stigmas receive polyads with sufficient pollen to fertilise all ovules in a flower. Nectar secretion starts in the bud stage and flowers continually secreting nectar for a period of 8 h. Flowers actively reabsorbed the nectar a few hours before senescence. Sugar production increased after nectar removal, especially when flowers were drained during the night. Nectar sugar composition changed over flower life span, from sucrose-dominant (just after flower opening, when hummingbirds were the main visitors) to hexose-rich (throughout the night, when bats and hawkmoths were the main visitors). Diurnal pollinators contributed less than nocturnal ones to fruit production, but the former were more constant and reliable visitors through time. Our results indicate I. sessilis has floral adaptations, beyond the morphology, that encompass both diurnal and nocturnal pollinator requirements, suggesting a complementary and mixed pollination system. PMID:22823072

  16. Characterization of a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor with a single disulfide bridge from seeds of Inga laurina (SW.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; Garcia, Viviane Alves; Freire, Maria das Graças M; Richardson, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Inga laurina is a tree that belongs to the Mimosoideae sub-family of the Leguminosae. A protein inhibitor of trypsin (ILTI) was isolated from its seeds by ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and rechromatography on an HiTrap Q ion-exchange column. By SDS-PAGE, ILTI yielded a single band with a Mr of 20 kDa with or without reduction. ILTI was found to be a single polypeptide chain containing 180 amino acids, the sequence of which was clearly homologous to the Kunitz family of serine protease plant protein inhibitors, and it also showed significant similarity to the seed storage proteins, sporamin and miraculin. However, ILTI displayed major differences to most other Kunitz inhibitors in that it contained only one disulfide bridge, and did not have two polypeptide chains as for the majority of other Kunitz inhibitors purified from Mimosoideae species. ILTI inhibited bovine trypsin with an equilibrium dissociation constant (K(i)) of 6 x 10(-9)M, but did not inhibit chymotrypsin, papain and alpha-amylase. Its amino acid sequence contained a Lys residue at the putative reactive site (position 64). ILTI was stable over a wide range of temperature and pH and in the presence of DTT. PMID:17363015

  17. Metabolic and structural changes during early maturation of Inga vera seeds are consistent with the lack of a desiccation phase.

    PubMed

    Caccere, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Simone P; Centeno, Danilo C; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; Braga, Márcia R

    2013-06-15

    Inga vera, native to South America, is an important leguminous species used for ecological restoration of riparian forests and its seeds are among the most recalcitrant ones described up to date. In this work, we analysed the metabolic profile, cell ultrastructure as well as cell wall polysaccharides of I. vera seeds in order to better understand its maturation, which allows embryo germination without a quiescent phase. Increased amounts of citric, glutamic, pyroglutamic, and aspartic acids from stages I to II (120 and 129 days after flowering (DAF)) corroborate the hypothesis of high metabolism, shifting from fermentative to aerobic respiration at seed maturity. This phase was characterized by an extensive vacuolization of embryonic cells, which also indicate high metabolic activity. The proportion of arabinose in the cell walls of embryonic axis (approx. 20%) was lower than those found in some orthodox seeds (nearly 40%), suggesting that arabinose-containing polysaccharides, which are thought to provide more flexibility to the cell wall during natural drying, are less abundant in I. vera seeds. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the major changes occurred during early stages of seed maturation of I. vera, indicating that the rapid temporary metabolic shift observed between stages I and II may be related to the lack of desiccation phase, moving directly to germination. PMID:23384756

  18. Seasonal variation of the chemical composition and antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils from Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Fabiana B; de Aquino, Francisco J T; Nascimento, Evandro A; de M Martins, Carla; de Morais, Sérgio A L; Chang, Roberto; Cunha, Luís C S; Leandro, Luís F; Martins, Carlos H G; Martins, Mário M; da Silva, Claudio V; Machado, Fabrício C; de Oliveira, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal chemical composition of essential oils from Inga laurina was determined by GC/MS. In the stem bark's essential oil extracted during the dry season, the presence of terpenoids (30.05%) stood out, and phytol (9.76%) was the major compound identified. For the stem bark oil obtained during the rainy season, in addition to terpenoids (26.63%), a large amount of fatty acids (46.84%) were identified, in particular palmitic acid (25.40%). Regarding the leaves' essential oil obtained in the dry season, esters (42.35%) were the main components. The main ester present was (Z)-hex-3-enyl benzoate (10.15%) and the major compound of this oil was (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol (14.23%). Terpenoids (33.84%), long-chain alkanes (27.04%) and fatty acids (21.72%) were the main components of the essential oil from leaves in the rainy season. Phytol (33.21%), nonacosane (21.95%) and palmitic acid (15.20%) were the major compounds identified. The antimicrobial activity against aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteria was evaluated by the microdilution broth method and cytotoxic activity was carried out with Vero cells. The essential oils from the rainy season showed a better inhibition of the bacterial growth with Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) values of 25 or 50 µg·mL⁻¹ for aerobic bacteria, and high selectivity against bacteria was observed. The large amount of fatty acids in rainy season oils may be related to the better inhibitory effects observed. PMID:24731985

  19. Genetic and Ecological Outcomes of Inga vera Subsp. affinis (Leguminosae) Tree Plantations in a Fragmented Tropical Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Neto, Oswaldo; Aguiar, Antonio V.; Twyford, Alex D.; Neaves, Linda E.; Pennington, R. Toby; Lopes, Ariadna V.

    2014-01-01

    Planting of native trees for habitat restoration is a widespread practice, but the consequences for the retention and transmission of genetic diversity in planted and natural populations are unclear. Using Inga vera subsp. affinis as a model species, we genotyped five natural and five planted populations in the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil at polymorphic microsatellite loci. We studied the breeding system and population structure to test how much genetic diversity is retained in planted relative to natural populations. We then genotyped seedlings from these populations to test whether genetic diversity in planted populations is restored by outcrossing to natural populations of I. vera. The breeding system of natural I. vera populations was confirmed to be highly outcrossing (t = 0.92; FIS = −0.061, P = 0.04), with populations showing weak population substructure (FST = 0.028). Genetic diversity in planted populations was 50% less than that of natural populations (planted: AR = 14.9, HO = 0.865 and natural: AR = 30.8, HO = 0.655). However, seedlings from planted populations showed a 30% higher allelic richness relative to their parents (seedlings AR = 10.5, parents AR = 7.6). Understanding the processes and interactions that shape this system are necessary to provide ecologically sensible goals and successfully restore hyper-fragmented habitats. Future restoration plans for I. vera must consider the genetic diversity of planted populations and the potential for gene flow between natural populations in the landscape, in order to preserve ecological interactions (i.e. pollination), and promote opportunities for outcrossing. PMID:24932729

  20. Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss in a coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) monoculture compared to an agroforestry system with Inga densiflora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siles, Pablo; Vaast, Philippe; Dreyer, Erwin; Harmand, Jean-Michel

    2010-12-01

    SummaryPartitioning of gross rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and rainfall interception was assessed in Costa Rica during two rainy seasons (mean annual rainfall of 2900 mm) in two coffee systems: (1) a monoculture (MC) and (2) an agroforestry system (AFS) including Inga densiflora as the associated shade tree species. Coffee architecture, not LAI, appeared to be the main driver of stemflow as stemflow was higher for shaded coffee plants (10.6% of incident rainfall) than for coffee plants in MC (7.2%), despite the fact that these shaded plants had lower LAI. The presence of Inga trees modified coffee architecture with shaded coffee plants presenting larger stems and branches resulting in higher coffee funneling ratio under shade. In AFS, coffee plants and trees accounted respectively for 88% and 12% of total stemflow which represented 11.8% of incident rainfall. AFS displayed larger cumulative stemflow and smaller total throughfall compared to MC. Cumulative throughfall expressed in % of the gross rainfall, differed between systems and monitoring periods and the trend showed a decrease with increasing LAI. Nevertheless, as stemflow measurement and interception loss estimation were done only during the second year of the study, the shade tree showed a low influence in increasing interception loss, as the combined LAI of coffee plants and shade trees was rather similar in AFS as that of coffee in MC. Furthermore, coffee plants accounted for the largest fraction of the interception loss in AFS as the coffee LAI was more than 3-fold that of shade trees.

  1. Quantitative and qualitative shifts in defensive metabolites define chemical defense investment during leaf development in Inga, a genus of tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Natasha L; Forrister, Dale L; Endara, María-José; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by herbivores are often positively correlated with investments that plants make in defense. Research based on the framework of an evolutionary arms race has improved our understanding of why the amount and types of defenses differ between plant species. However, plant species are exposed to different selective pressures during the life of a leaf, such that expanding leaves suffer more damage from herbivores and pathogens than mature leaves. We hypothesize that this differential selective pressure may result in contrasting quantitative and qualitative defense investment in plants exposed to natural selective pressures in the field. To characterize shifts in chemical defenses, we chose six species of Inga, a speciose Neotropical tree genus. Focal species represent diverse chemical, morphological, and developmental defense traits and were collected from a single site in the Amazonian rainforest. Chemical defenses were measured gravimetrically and by characterizing the metabolome of expanding and mature leaves. Quantitative investment in phenolics plus saponins, the major classes of chemical defenses identified in Inga, was greater for expanding than mature leaves (46% and 24% of dry weight, respectively). This supports the theory that, because expanding leaves are under greater selective pressure from herbivores, they rely more upon chemical defense as an antiherbivore strategy than do mature leaves. Qualitatively, mature and expanding leaves were distinct and mature leaves contained more total and unique metabolites. Intraspecific variation was greater for mature leaves than expanding leaves, suggesting that leaf development is canalized. This study provides a snapshot of chemical defense investment in a speciose genus of tropical trees during the short, few-week period of leaf development. Exploring the metabolome through quantitative and qualitative profiling enables a more comprehensive examination of foliar chemical defense investment

  2. Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (EPP) or Protoporphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov . All studies receiving U.S. ... protoporphyrias. Neurology. 1998;51:262-65. FROM THE INTERNET McKusick VA., ed. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man ( ...

  3. Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Gels with Propolis (EPP-AF) in Preclinical Treatment of Candidiasis Vulvovaginal Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Bom, Vinícius Pedro; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second cause of vaginal infection in the USA. Clinical treatment of C. albicans infections is routinely performed with polyenes and azole derivatives. However, these drugs are responsible for undesirable side effects and toxicity. In addition, C. albicans azole and echinocandin resistance has been described. Propolis is a bee product traditionally used due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other properties. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate different propolis presentations in order to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. The methodologies involved antifungal evaluation, chemical analysis, and the effects of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of propolis based gels. The obtained results demonstrated the fungicide action of propolis extracts against all three morphotypes (yeast, pseudohyphae, and hyphae) studied. The highest level of fungal cytotoxicity was reached at 6–8 hours of propolis cell incubation. Among the based gel formulations developed, the rheological and mucoadhesive results suggest that propolis based carbopol (CP1%) and chitosan gels were the most pseudoplastic ones. CP1% was the most mucoadhesive preparation, and all of them presented low thixotropy. Results of in vivo efficacy demonstrated that propolis based gels present antifungal action similar to clotrimazole cream, suggesting that future clinical studies should be performed. PMID:23997797

  4. NS/EPp Enhancement Of Fiber Optic Long-Haul Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, David F.; Hull, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    The National Communications System (NCS) is responsible for defining reasonable enhancements that could be applied to commercial common carrier (or carriers'-carrier) fiber optic systems that will be leased or owned by Government agencies and that may be used for National Security and Emergency Preparedness (NS/EP) purposes. This paper describes enhancements recommended by the authors for making fiber optic long-haul systems more survivable against both man-made and natural disasters. For a limited nuclear environment, outside of the blast region where buildings and personnel would be expected to survive, involving surface and in-atmosphere nuclear bursts, the vulnerability of optical fiber waveguides to fallout radiation is a primary concern. An assessment of fiber darkening from gamma radiation, based on a review of unclassified literature, is presented. For exoatmospheric nuclear bursts, the fiber optic system is exposed to high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) radiation. Other man-made disasters include sabotage, fires, accidents, and unintentional dig-ups. Natural disasters considered were floods, earthquakes, lightning, temperature extremes, rodents, etc.

  5. 78 FR 48417 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Educational Partnership Program (EPP), Ernest F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing... Clearance Officer, Department of Commerce, Room 6616, 14th and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC...

  6. EPPS: Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Personal Health Information Sharing in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shunrong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSNs) have emerged as a promising next-generation healthcare system, which will significantly improve the quality of life. However, there are many security and privacy concerns before personal health information (PHI) is shared with other parities. To ensure patients’ full control over their PHI, we propose a fine-grained and scalable data access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE). Besides, policies themselves for PHI sharing may be sensitive and may reveal information about underlying PHI or about data owners or recipients. In our scheme, we let each attribute contain an attribute name and its value and adopt the Bloom filter to efficiently check attributes before decryption. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy can be preserved in our proposed scheme. Moreover, considering the fact that the computational cost grows with the complexity of the access policy and the limitation of the resource and energy in a smart phone, we outsource ABE decryption to the cloud while preventing the cloud from learning anything about the content and access policy. The security and performance analysis is carried out to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve fine-grained access policies for PHI sharing in MHSNs. PMID:26404300

  7. EPPS: Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Personal Health Information Sharing in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shunrong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSNs) have emerged as a promising next-generation healthcare system, which will significantly improve the quality of life. However, there are many security and privacy concerns before personal health information (PHI) is shared with other parities. To ensure patients' full control over their PHI, we propose a fine-grained and scalable data access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE). Besides, policies themselves for PHI sharing may be sensitive and may reveal information about underlying PHI or about data owners or recipients. In our scheme, we let each attribute contain an attribute name and its value and adopt the Bloom filter to efficiently check attributes before decryption. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy can be preserved in our proposed scheme. Moreover, considering the fact that the computational cost grows with the complexity of the access policy and the limitation of the resource and energy in a smart phone, we outsource ABE decryption to the cloud while preventing the cloud from learning anything about the content and access policy. The security and performance analysis is carried out to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve fine-grained access policies for PHI sharing in MHSNs. PMID:26404300

  8. Antimicrobial Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF) Containing Biocellulose Membranes as Promising Biomaterial for Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Barud, Hernane da Silva; de Araújo Júnior, Adalberto Miguel; Saska, Sybele; Mestieri, Letícia Boldrin; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini; de Freitas, Rubens Moreno; Ferreira, Nathália Ursoli; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Miguel, Felipe Galeti; Vaz, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite; Barizon, Edna Aparecida; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Gaspar, Ana Maria Minarelli; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima

    2013-01-01

    Among remarkable discoveries concerning propolis, such as antifungal, antiviral, and antioxidant activities, its anti-inflammatory, and mainly its antibacterial, properties deserve special attention when skin wound healing is concerned. Based on this and knowing the distinctive performance of bacterial (BC) membranes on wound healing, in this work it is proposed to demonstrate the potent antimicrobial activity and wound healing properties of a novel propolis containing biocellulose membrane. The obtained propolis/BC membrane was able to adsorb propolis not only on the surface, but also in its interstices demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravidimetric assays. Additionally, the polyphenolic compounds determination and the prominent antibacterial activity in the membrane are demonstrated to be dose dependent, supporting the possibility of obtaining propolis/BC membranes at the desired concentrations, taking into consideration its application and its skin residence time. Finally, it could be suggested that propolis/BC membrane may favor tissue repair in less time and more effectively in contaminated wounds. PMID:23840264

  9. Inga Fischer-Hjalmars (1918-2008): Swedish Pharmacist, Humanist, and Pioneer Quantum Chemist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Adam Johannes

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of questions can be asked about the molecules that compose the physical reality around us and constitute biological life. Some of these questions are answered by the science called biology, others find their answer in chemistry, whereas the answers to the most fundamental questions are only to be found in the theories of physics.…

  10. Materials Data on InGaS3 (SG:36) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Materials Data on InGaS3 (SG:169) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. FRAMEWORK FOR RESPONSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING (FRED): SUPPORT EPP (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, this project was initiated to develop a method that uses an LCA approach to evaluate the environmental attributes of products procured by the federal government (as specified in Executive Order 13 1 01 on Environmentall...

  13. Adding Up the Numbers: The Education Budget under Mayoral Control. Update and Summary of 2005-06 EPP Bulletins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    For more than a century, a succession of New York City (NYC) mayors have claimed that they were reducing administrative overhead in the school system and driving more resources to instruction. These claims have been dutifully reported by the press with rarely any effort to verify them. For the last 50 years, the salaries of teachers were increased…

  14. Porphyrins and Porphyria Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us About Porphyria AIP VP HCP ADP PCT EPP CEP HEP Diet and Nutrition History of ... Alliance Healthcare Professionals AIP, HCP, VP & ADP EPP PCT Drug Safety in Acute Porphyrias Emergency Room Guidelines ...

  15. Cuckolded Fathers Rare in Human Populations.

    PubMed

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Matthijs, Koen; Wenseleers, Tom

    2016-05-01

    Contemporary data of extra-pair paternity (EPP) in human populations may be biased by the use of modern contraceptives. Studies have now estimated historical EPP rates in several human populations. The observed low EPP rates challenge the idea that women routinely 'shop around' for good genes by engaging in extra-pair copulations. PMID:27107336

  16. Electromagnetic Analysis For The Design Of ITER Diagnostic Port Plugs During Plasma Disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Y

    2014-03-03

    ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functions including structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to plasma. The design of diagnotic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate response of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the Diagnostic First Walls (DFWs). Diagnostic Shield Modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed.

  17. Electromagnetic Analysis of ITER Diagnostic Equatorial Port Plugs During Plasma Disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Zhai, R. Feder, A. Brooks, M. Ulrickson, C.S. Pitcher and G.D. Loesser

    2012-08-27

    ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functionsincluding structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to the plasma. The design of diagnostic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate responses of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the Diagnostic First Walls (DFWs), Diagnostic Shield Modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed.

  18. Erythropoietic protoporphyria without skin symptoms-you do not always see what they feel

    PubMed Central

    Lecluse, Anne L. Y.; van Weelden, Huib; Sigurdsson, Vigfus; Russel, Ingrid M.; Frank, Jorge; Pasmans, Suzanne G. M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited disorder of the porphyrin metabolism that often remains undiagnosed in children. We report on a 4-year-old girl who had been suffering for 1 year from recurrent painful crises affecting her hands, feet, and nose following sun exposure. Objective skin lesions were absent until the age of 6. Porphyrin analysis revealed elevated free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels confirming the diagnosis of EPP. This illustrates that skin lesions might be completely absent in children affected with EPP, a fact that has only been reported once previously. Because EPP can manifest with few and unspecific cutaneous symptoms or no skin lesions at all, like in this patient, the diagnosis of EPP might be delayed or missed. EPP should be excluded in all photosensitive children, especially when discomfort is disproportionate to the extent of the cutaneous lesions. The clinic, pathophysiology, diagnosis, complications, and therapy of EPP are discussed. PMID:17710435

  19. Erikson and Early Childhood Educators: Looking at Ourselves and Our Profession Developmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Rene R.; Boulton, Pamla J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes Erikson's theory of developmentally appropriate curriculum and the eight stages of the life cycle. Provides brief descriptions of these stages and some possible professional applications that early childhood educators can use in pursuing professional development. (MOK)

  20. Good Afternoon, Sunshine! Protecting Children from Ultraviolet Rays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Certo, Delaine

    1996-01-01

    Notes caregivers' responsibility to protect children from too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the potential for melanoma. Provides suggestions on how to prevent children from sunburn and skin cancer, including the proper way to apply sunscreen. (MOK)

  1. On Blocks and Broccoli: How to Organize Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Nancy

    1996-01-01

    Compares the organization of supermarkets to classroom environments. Emphasizes the efficient use of space with the use of containers, keeping materials in place, and grouping objects together. Provides suggestions on the use of color and adding storage space. (MOK)

  2. Welcome to Garbage Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Introduces the Children's Garbage Museum in southwestern Connecticut and provides pictures as well as descriptions of exhibits. Suggests two activities to heighten students' awareness of recycling and composting and recommends reading materials. (MOK)

  3. Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Amy Bruno

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

  4. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Lyssavirus-Induced Apoptosis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Alireza; Kassis, Raïd; Real, Eléonore; Delmas, Olivier; Guadagnini, Stéphanie; Larrous, Florence; Obach, Dorothée; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Jacob, Yves; Bourhy, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Lyssaviruses are highly neurotropic viruses associated with neuronal apoptosis. Previous observations have indicated that the matrix proteins (M) of some lyssaviruses induce strong neuronal apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism(s) involved in this phenomenon is still unknown. We show that for Mokola virus (MOK), a lyssavirus of low pathogenicity, the M (M-MOK) targets mitochondria, disrupts the mitochondrial morphology, and induces apoptosis. Our analysis of truncated M-MOK mutants suggests that the information required for efficient mitochondrial targeting and dysfunction, as well as caspase-9 activation and apoptosis, is held between residues 46 and 110 of M-MOK. We used a yeast two-hybrid approach, a coimmunoprecipitation assay, and confocal microscopy to demonstrate that M-MOK physically associates with the subunit I of the cytochrome c (cyt-c) oxidase (CcO) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; this is in contrast to the M of the highly pathogenic Thailand lyssavirus (M-THA). M-MOK expression induces a significant decrease in CcO activity, which is not the case with M-THA. M-MOK mutations (K77R and N81E) resulting in a similar sequence to M-THA at positions 77 and 81 annul cyt-c release and apoptosis and restore CcO activity. As expected, the reverse mutations, R77K and E81N, introduced in M-THA induce a phenotype similar to that due to M-MOK. These features indicate a novel mechanism for energy depletion during lyssavirus-induced apoptosis. PMID:18321977

  5. Event Pre Processor for the CZT Detector on MIRAX

    SciTech Connect

    Kendziorra, Eckhard; Schanz, Thomas; Distratis, Giuseppe; Suchy, Slawomir

    2006-06-09

    We describe the Event Pre Processor (EPP) for the Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) on MIRAX. The EPP provides on board data reduction and event filtering for the HXI Cadmium Zinc Telluride strip detector. Emphasis is placed upon the EPP requirements, its implementation as VHDL design in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and the description of a test environment for both the VHDL code and the FPGA hardware.

  6. Surface modification of polypropylene based particle foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, P.; Trassl, C.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the modification of the surface properties of expanded polypropylene (EPP). EPP is a semi-hard to soft elastic thermoplastic foam. The characteristic surface of EPP shows process-related steam nozzle imprints and gussets. Therefore EPP does not satisfy the quality requirements for visible automotive applications. In order to meet these demands, plastic surfaces are usually enhanced with functional or decorative coatings, e.g. textiles, plastic films or paint. The coating of plastics with low surface energies such as PP often leads to adhesion problems by reason of the missing polar and functional groups. This paper gives an evaluation of activation and pre-treatment methods of EPP, with the aim to identify the most suitable pre-treatment method. For this purpose five typical surface treatment methods - flame treatment, corona, fluorination, atmospheric and low-pressure plasma - were performed on EPP samples. As a comparison criterion the maximum increase in the adhesion force between a polyurethane-based coating and the modified EPP substrate was selected. Moreover the influence of the selected pre-treatment method on the increase in the total surface energy and its polar component was investigated by the drop shape analysis method. The results showed that the contact angle measurement is a suitable method to determine the polar and disperse fractions of the surface tension of EPP. Furthermore, all performed methods increased the adhesion of EPP.

  7. Ear Playing and Aural Development in the Instrumental Lesson: Results from a "Case-Control" Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David; Green, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a case-control experiment that was conducted in 2012 as part of the Ear Playing Project (EPP) at the Institute of Education, University of London. The EPP developed from the "informal learning" strand of Musical Futures and engaged instrumental students in the UK in learning from specially-created audio recordings…

  8. The Teaching of the Code of Ethics and Standard Practices for Texas Educator Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Marvin; Thompson, J. Ray; Templeton, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive quantitative research study was to answer three basic informational questions: (1) To what extent ethics training, as stipulated in Texas Administrative Code Chapter 247, was included in the EPP curriculum; (2) To what extent Texas public universities with approved EPP programs provided faculty opportunities for…

  9. The Dependency Axiom and the Relation between Agreement and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares Scarcerieau, Carlo Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Agreement and movement go hand in hand in a number of constructions across languages, and this correlation has played an important role in syntactic theory. The current standard approach to this "movement-agreement connection" is the Agree+EPP model, whose EPP component has often been questioned on conceptual grounds. The goal of this…

  10. The Development of a Comprehensive Intervention Plan for Millsboro Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, LouAnn

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this Executive Position Paper (EPP) is school improvement through the development and implementation a comprehensive, research-based, intervention plan for Millsboro Middle School (MMS) in the Indian River School District (IRSD). Studies conducted for this EPP began with an informal investigation of MMS data that included the Delaware…

  11. The Edwards Personality Preference Schedule In Couple Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.

    1975-01-01

    The use of the EPPS in pre-marital and marital therapy is described. Six pairs of related needs are established, i.e., deference and dominance; order and change; exhibition and intraception; autonomy and affiliation; succorance and nurturance; abasement and aggression. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the EPPS.…

  12. A Comparative Evaluation of E-Learning and Traditional Pedagogical Process Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavpotic, Damjan; Zvanut, Bostjan; Trobec, Irena

    2013-01-01

    In modern pedagogical processes various teaching methods and approaches (elements of the pedagogical process -- EPPs) are used ranging from traditional ones (e.g., lectures, books) to more recent ones (e.g., e-discussion boards, e-quizzes). Different models for evaluation of the appropriateness of EPPs have been proposed in the past. However, the…

  13. Primary traits of Eysenck's P-E-N system: three- and five-factor solutions.

    PubMed

    Costa, P T; McCrae, R R

    1995-08-01

    The Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP), a set of 21 scales measuring primary traits hypothesized to be definers of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Psychoticism factors, was administered to 229 adults together with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire--Revised (H. J. Eysenck & S. B. G. Eysenck, 1991) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992b). Correlations of EPP scales with NEO-PI-R facet scales provided preliminary evidence supporting the convergent and discriminant validity of the EPP scales. However, varimax and targeted validimax factor analyses suggested that some EPP scales were misclassified and that EPP scales could better be understood in terms of the 5-factor model than the intended 3-factor model. PMID:7643307

  14. Energetic particle precipitation: A major driver of the ozone budget in the Antarctic upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, Alessandro; Funke, Bernd; Santee, Michelle L.; Cordero, Raul R.; Watanabe, Shingo

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic activity is thought to affect ozone and, possibly, climate in polar regions via energetic particle precipitation (EPP) but observational evidence of its importance in the seasonal stratospheric ozone variation on long time scales is still lacking. Here we fill this gap by showing that at high southern latitudes, late winter ozone series, covering the 1979-2014 period, exhibit an average stratospheric depletion of about 10-15% on a monthly basis caused by EPP. Daily observations indicate that every austral winter EPP-induced low ozone concentrations appear at about 45 km in late June and descend later to 30 km, before disappearing by September. Such stratospheric variations are coupled with mesospheric ozone changes also driven by EPP. No significant correlation between these ozone variations and solar ultraviolet irradiance has been found. This suggests the need of including the EPP forcing in both ozone model simulations and trend analysis.

  15. Improving class separability using extended pixel planes: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Orlov, Nikita V.; Eckley, D. Mark; Shamir, Lior; Goldberg, Ilya G.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we explored class separability in feature spaces built on extended representations of pixel planes (EPP) produced using scale pyramid, subband pyramid, and image transforms. The image transforms included Chebyshev, Fourier, wavelets, gradient and Laplacian; we also utilized transform combinations, including Fourier, Chebyshev and wavelets of the gradient transform, as well as Fourier of the Laplacian transform. We demonstrate that all three types of EPP promote class separation. We also explored the effect of EPP on suboptimal feature libraries, using only textural features in one case and only Haralick features in another. The effect of EPP was especially clear for these suboptimal libraries, where the transform-based representations were found to increase separability to a greater extent than scale or subband pyramids. EPP can be particularly useful in new applications where optimal features have not yet been developed. PMID:23074356

  16. Evidence that Bacterial ABC-Type Transporter Imports Free EDTA for Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hua; Herman, Jacob P.; Bolton, Harvey; Zhang, Zhicheng; Clark, Sue B.; Xun, Luying

    2007-11-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a common chelating agent, is becoming a major organic pollutant in the form of metal-EDTA complexes in surface waters, partly due to its recalcitrance to biodegradation. Even an EDTA-degrading bacterium BNC1 does not degrade stable metal-EDTA complexes. An ABC-type transporter was identified for possible uptake of EDTA because the transporter genes and EDTA monooxygenase gene were expressed in a single operon in BNC1. The ABC-type transporter had a periplasmic binding protein (EppA) that should confer the substrate specificity for the transporter; therefore, EppA was produced in Escherichia coli,purified, and characterized. EppA was shown to bind free EDTA with a dissociation constant as low as 25 nM by using isothermal titration calorimetry. When unstable metal-EDTA complexes, e.g. MgEDTA2-, were added to the EppA solution, binding was also observed. However, experimental data and theoretical analysis only supported EppA binding of free EDTA. When stable metal-EDTA complexes, e.g. CuEDTA2-, are titrated into the EppA solution, no binding was observed. Since EDTA monooxygenase in the cytoplasm uses some of the stable metal-EDTA complexes as substrates, we suggest that the lack of EppA binding and EDTA uptake are responsible for the failure of BNC1 cells to degrade the stable complexes.

  17. Energetic particle precipitation effects on the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere observed by LIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, L.; Funke, B.; Stiller, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the upper atmosphere contributes to polar stratospheric enhancements of NOx. The first experimental evidence of this emerged when the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) observed stratospheric NOx enhancements during the Arctic winter of 1978/79. Such enhancements have since been observed on numerous occasions, but until recently were much less obvious in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. It is now understood that the magnitude of these stratospheric NOx enhancements depends on both the level of EPP and dynamical conditions. Three out of the last six Arctic winters have seen much larger than average polar stratospheric NOx enhancements due to EPP that have been attributed to extraordinary meteorological events. These are unique events on record and affirm that even with low levels of EPP, the stratosphere can still be influenced to a large degree by EPP. In this study, data from the LIMS instrument is revisited in order to understand the NOx enhancement it observed with respect to meteorological conditions and EPP activity. The temporal evolution of NOx in the polar vortex as measured by LIMS is compared to more recent satellite data, including the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument. Preliminary results indicate that the enhancements are caused neither by elevated EPP nor unusual dynamical conditions, but rather are seen because of the ability of LIMS to observe in the polar night.

  18. Salvage therapy with topical antifungal for Aspergillus fumigatus empyema complicating extrapleural pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Manoj; Guleri, Achyut; Zacharias, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of Aspergillus fumigatus empyema and bronchopleural fistulae after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and chemoradiotherapy (CRT), which was treated successfully under salvage conditions with debridement, an innovative topical antifungal application and supplemented systemic antifungal therapy and which went on for a definitive surgical procedure. Combinations of CRT and EPP have been recommended in a select group of patients with malignant mesothelioma. Irrespective of the combination, EPP is associated with mortality in the range of 4–15% and a complication rate as high as 62%. PMID:22617507

  19. Infants' Concept of Animacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the concept of animacy of 9- and 12-month-old infants by exposing them to autonomous motion with animate and inanimate objects in a series of three experiments. Three experiments were carried out. Results indicated that infants discriminate animate from inanimate objects on the basis of motion cues by the age of nine months. (MOK)

  20. The Effects of Computer Games and Lesson Contexts on Children's Mnemonic Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyen, Anne-Siri; Bebko, James M.

    1996-01-01

    Investigated how different contexts for learning affect the development of memory-enhancing strategies in children. Subjects were children four to seven years old. Results indicated that the number of items recalled in the lesson condition was significantly greater than in the game condition, and the grade effect was also significant. (MOK)

  1. A Garden in the Motherland: A Study of a Preschool in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimpfl, Joseph; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Looks at the daily activities of one preschool in southern China. Reviews the attitudes of educators and parents, and the application of social theory to curriculum and pedagogy in the Chinese preschool. Places special emphasis on the words and ideas of the teachers and administrators in reference to the policies created by the government. (MOK)

  2. Quality Assurance in Private Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The economic modernization drive of the 21st century has not only fostered the growth of a market economy but has also created the need for a structural change in education (Zha, 2006). Mok (2009) explains that when the Chinese government realized that the state alone could not keep up with the increasing demand for higher education, it allowed…

  3. Hundreds of Ladybugs, Thousands of Ladybugs, Millions and Billions and Trillions of Ladybugs--and a Couple of Roaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomich, Kelly

    1996-01-01

    Claims that children have a natural curiosity for their environment. Describes children's interaction and involvement in an activity with different kinds of insects in a Head Start classroom. Encourages parents to allow children to investigate without being too preoccupied with concerns for order or cleanliness. (MOK)

  4. Breaking Bad News to Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of breaking bad news to parents, whether the news pertains to center policy or a child's behavior. Provides strategies for presenting news and for helping parents to overcome difficult situations, including gathering facts in advance, arranging an appropriate time, and having resource materials available for parents. (MOK)

  5. Teaching Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Maryann; Manning, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Introduces Earth Day. Encourages the use of reading, writing, and theme immersion to increase student participation in such activities. Provides information on several organizations which students can obtain concerning environmental awareness. Recommends reading materials that can be obtained in hard copy as well as on the Internet. (MOK)

  6. A Note on "The Longitudinal Structure of Earnings Losses among Work-Limited Disabled Workers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Wallace K. C.; Meyer, Bruce D.; Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Achen, Alexandra C.

    2008-01-01

    Charles (2003) examines the dynamic effects of disability, finding a small decline in earnings and hours following disability onset, even for those who have positive disability reports for each of the next ten years. These outcomes also rebound quickly after the onset of disability. In recent work, Meyer and Mok (2006), find a much larger loss in…

  7. "Of Mind, Body, and Spirit": Therapeutic Foster Care - An Innovative Approach to Healing from an NTU Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Shawan D. P.; Phillips, Frederick B.

    1997-01-01

    Examines Progressive Life Center's (PLC) Therapeutic Foster Care program and its incorporation of NTU psychotherapy into its program model. Describes how PLC strives to improve the delivery of mental health services through culturally competent therapeutic techniques for African Americans, including seriously emotionally disturbed children. (MOK)

  8. Is the Court-Appointed Special Advocate Program Effective? A Longitudinal Analysis of Time Involvement and Case Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Program for child welfare proceedings. Examines the current literature regarding the impact of CASA across the nation and discusses the findings and implications of an empirical study that evaluated a CASA program in terms of placement outcomes in a major U.S. city. (MOK)

  9. Current surgical strategies for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Takuwa, Teruhisa; Hasegawa, Seiki

    2016-08-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with a poor prognosis. The main components of multimodality treatment include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Surgery remains controversial. Two procedures are currently offered: extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). The recent scientific literature suggests that P/D is a well-tolerated procedure, with the potential of becoming a default procedure in multimodality regimens. However, the precise treatment schemes and surgical procedures are yet to be established. In our study, we review the advantages and disadvantages of EPP and P/D, summarize the post-EPP and post-P/D observations (including mortality, morbidity, and median survival time), and discuss the choice of surgical technique (EPP vs. P/D). Moreover, we highlight the aspects of the multimodality treatments that are offered to MPM patients, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, and other types of therapy. PMID:26590581

  10. Porphyria Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... only. For treatment options for Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT) , Congenital Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (CEP) and Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria (HEP) ... Contact Us About Porphyria AIP VP HCP ADP PCT EPP CEP HEP Diet and Nutrition History of ...

  11. 78 FR 76811 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ..., Educational Partnership Program (EPP), (2) Ernest F. Hollings Undergraduate Scholarship Program; (3) Dr. Nancy Foster Scholarship Program; and, (4) National Marine Fisheries Service Recruitment, Training, and... per Response: Scholarship applications, 8 hours; references and alumni surveys, 1 hour;...

  12. An assessment of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule from the perspective of the five-factor model.

    PubMed

    Piedmont, R L; McCrae, R R; Costa, P T

    1992-02-01

    We examined the validity of need scales of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) by correlating them with a measure of the five basic factors of personality; we also considered test format as a possible source of invalidity. Three hundred thirty (223 women, 107 men) undergraduate students completed both the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI)--a measure of the five factors--and one of two versions of the EPPS. Results show that both ipsative and normative versions of the EPPS could be meaningfully interpreted within the five-factor model, although the ipsative, forced-choice format of the standard EPPS apparently lowered validity coefficients and decreased convergent and discriminant validity. We argue that the five-factor model can provide a useful interpretive context for evaluating many clinical measures. PMID:1545345

  13. The effects of static friction and backlash on extended physiological proprioception control of a powered prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Todd R; Weir, Richard F; Heckathorne, Craig W; Childress, Dudley S

    2005-01-01

    In general, externally powered prostheses do not provide proprioceptive feedback and thus require the user to rely on cognitively expensive visual feedback to effectively control the prosthesis. Applying the concept of extended physiological proprioception (EPP) to externally powered prostheses provides direct feedback to the user's proprioceptive system regarding the position, velocity, and forces applied to the prosthesis. However, electric elbows with EPP controllers developed at the Northwestern University Prosthetics Research Laboratory have exhibited unexplained "jerky" behavior in both clinical fittings and bench-top operation. In addition, the development of limit cycles, a specific type of constant-amplitude oscillation, had been observed in bench-top use of these elbows. Backlash and static friction within the EPP system were found to be primarily responsible for the development of limit cycles. Reducing static friction and backlash improved the system's performance. These results suggest that to most effectively implement EPP, prosthesis manufacturers should design prosthetic components that minimize static friction and backlash. PMID:16187245

  14. Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Yubo; Deng Fuguo

    2010-03-15

    Entanglement purification is a very important element for long-distance quantum communication. Different from all the existing entanglement purification protocols (EPPs) in which two parties can only obtain some quantum systems in a mixed entangled state with a higher fidelity probabilistically by consuming quantum resources exponentially, here we present a deterministic EPP with hyperentanglement. Using this protocol, the two parties can, in principle, obtain deterministically maximally entangled pure states in polarization without destroying any less-entangled photon pair, which will improve the efficiency of long-distance quantum communication exponentially. Meanwhile, it will be shown that this EPP can be used to complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis perfectly. We also discuss this EPP in a practical transmission.

  15. Tensile Properties and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Investigation of Stereoblock Elastomeric Polypropylene

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A

    2002-08-06

    Elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) produced from unbridged 2-arylindene metallocene catalysts was studied by uniaxial tensile and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques. The ePP can be separated into three fractions by successive boiling-solvent fractionation method to yield: a low-tacticity fraction soluble in ether (ES), an intermediate-tacticity fraction soluble in heptane (HS), and a high-tacticity fraction insoluble in heptane (HI). Tensile properties of ePP were compared to its solvent fractions, and the role of each solvent fraction residing within ePP was investigated by blending 5 weight % deuterated fraction with ePP. The tensile properties of each fraction vary considerably, exhibiting properties from a weak gum elastomer for ES, to a semi-crystalline thermoplastic for HI. The intermediate-tacticity HS fraction exhibits elastic properties similar to the parent elastomer (ePP). In the melt at 160 C, SANS shows that all deuterated fractions are homogeneously mixed with ePP in a one-phase system. At 25 C upon a slow cooling from the melt, the low-tacticity fraction is preferentially segregated in the amorphous domains induced by different crystallization temperatures and kinetics of the deuterated ES and high-tacticity components. The high-tacticity component within ePP (dHI-ePP) retains its plastic properties in the blend. Despite its low crystallinity ({le} 2%), the low-tacticity fraction can co-crystallize with the crystalline matrix. The dES-ePP shows little or no relaxation when held under strain and recovers readily upon the release of stress.

  16. Loss-of-Function Ferrochelatase and Gain-of-Function Erythroid-Specific 5-Aminolevulinate Synthase Mutations Causing Erythropoietic Protoporphyria and X-Linked Protoporphyria in North American Patients Reveal Novel Mutations and a High Prevalence of X-Linked Protoporphyria

    PubMed Central

    Balwani, Manisha; Doheny, Dana; Bishop, David F; Nazarenko, Irina; Yasuda, Makiko; Dailey, Harry A; Anderson, Karl E; Bissell, D Montgomery; Bloomer, Joseph; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Phillips, John D; Liu, Lawrence; Desnick, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and X-linked protoporphyria (XLP) are inborn errors of heme biosynthesis with the same phenotype but resulting from autosomal recessive loss-of-function mutations in the ferrochelatase (FECH) gene and gain-of-function mutations in the X-linked erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) gene, respectively. The EPP phenotype is characterized by acute, painful, cutaneous photosensitivity and elevated erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. We report the FECH and ALAS2 mutations in 155 unrelated North American patients with the EPP phenotype. FECH sequencing and dosage analyses identified 140 patients with EPP: 134 with one loss-of-function allele and the common IVS3-48T>C low expression allele, three with two loss-of-function mutations and three with one loss-of-function mutation and two low expression alleles. There were 48 previously reported and 23 novel FECH mutations. The remaining 15 probands had ALAS2 gain-of-function mutations causing XLP: 13 with the previously reported deletion, c.1706_1709delAGTG, and two with novel mutations, c.1734delG and c.1642C>T(p.Q548X). Notably, XLP represented ~10% of EPP phenotype patients in North America, two to five times more than in Western Europe. XLP males had twofold higher erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels than EPP patients, predisposing to more severe photosensitivity and liver disease. Identification of XLP patients permits accurate diagnosis and counseling of at-risk relatives and asymptomatic heterozygotes. PMID:23364466

  17. Modulation of the phenotype in dominant erythropoietic protoporphyria by a low expression of the normal ferrochelatase allele.

    PubMed Central

    Gouya, L.; Deybach, J. C.; Lamoril, J.; Da Silva, V.; Beaumont, C.; Grandchamp, B.; Nordmann, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a monogenic inherited disorder of the heme biosynthetic pathway due to ferrochelatase (FC) deficiency. EPP is generally considered to be transmitted as an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance, although autosomal recessive inheritance has been documented at the enzymatic and molecular level in some families. In the dominant form of EPP, statistical analysis of FC activities documented a significantly lower mean value in patients than in asymptomatic carriers, suggesting a more complex mode of inheritance. To account for these findings, we tested a multiallelic inheritance model in one EPP family in which the enzymatic data were compatible with this hypothesis. In this EPP family, the specific FC gene mutation was an exon 10 skipping (delta Ex10), resulting from a G deletion within the exon 10 consensus splice donor site. The segregation of all FC alleles within the family was followed using the delta Ex10 mutation and a new intragenic dimorphism (1520 C/T). mRNAs transcribed from each FC allele were then subjected to relative quantification by a primer extension assay and to absolute quantification by a ribonuclease protection assay. The data support the hypothesis that in this family the EPP phenotype results from the coinheritance of a low output normal FC allele and a mutant delta Ex10 allele. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8571955

  18. Perigenual anterior cingulate event-related potential precedes stop signal errors

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andrew; Chen, Chien-Chung; Li, Hsin-Hung; Li, Chiang-Shan R.

    2015-01-01

    Momentary lapses in attention disrupt goal-directed behavior. Attentional lapse has been associated with increased “default-mode” network (DMN) activity. In our previous fMRI study of a stop signal task (SST), greater activation of the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) – an important node of the DMN – predicts stop signal errors. In event-related potential (ERP) studies, the amplitude of an error-preceding positivity (EPP) also predicts response error. However, it is not clear whether the EPP originates from DMN regions. Here, we combined high-density array EEG and an SST to examine response-locked ERPs of error preceding trials in twenty young adult participants. The results showed an EPP in go trials that preceded stop error than stop success trials. Importantly, source modeling identified the origin of the EPP in the pgACC. By employing a bootstrapping procedure, we further confirmed that pgACC rather than the dorsal ACC as the source provides a better fit to the EPP. Together, these results suggest that attentional lapse in association with EPP in the pgACC anticipates failure in response inhibition. PMID:25700955

  19. A semi-empirical model for mesospheric and stratospheric NOy produced by energetic particle precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Bernd; López-Puertas, Manuel; Stiller, Gabriele P.; Versick, Stefan; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The MIPAS Fourier transform spectrometer on board Envisat has measured global distributions of the six principal reactive nitrogen (NOy) compounds (HNO3, NO2, NO, N2O5, ClONO2, and HNO4) during 2002-2012. These observations were used previously to detect regular polar winter descent of reactive nitrogen produced by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) down to the lower stratosphere, often called the EPP indirect effect. It has further been shown that the observed fraction of NOy produced by EPP (EPP-NOy) has a nearly linear relationship with the geomagnetic Ap index when taking into account the time lag introduced by transport. Here we exploit these results in a semi-empirical model for computation of EPP-modulated NOy densities and wintertime downward fluxes through stratospheric and mesospheric pressure levels. Since the Ap dependence of EPP-NOy is distorted during episodes of strong descent in Arctic winters associated with elevated stratopause events, a specific parameterization has been developed for these episodes. This model accurately reproduces the observations from MIPAS and is also consistent with estimates from other satellite instruments. Since stratospheric EPP-NOy depositions lead to changes in stratospheric ozone with possible implications for climate, the model presented here can be utilized in climate simulations without the need to incorporate many thermospheric and upper mesospheric processes. By employing historical geomagnetic indices, the model also allows for reconstruction of the EPP indirect effect since 1850. We found secular variations of solar cycle-averaged stratospheric EPP-NOy depositions on the order of 1 GM. In particular, we model a reduction of the EPP-NOy deposition rate during the last 3 decades, related to the coincident decline of geomagnetic activity that corresponds to 1.8 % of the NOy production rate by N2O oxidation. As the decline of the geomagnetic activity level is expected to continue in the coming decades, this is

  20. Erythropoietic protoporphyria

    PubMed Central

    Lecha, Mario; Puy, Hervé; Deybach, Jean-Charles

    2009-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited disorder of the haem metabolic pathway characterised by accumulation of protoporphyrin in blood, erythrocytes and tissues, and cutaneous manifestations of photosensitivity. EPP has been reported worldwide, with prevalence between 1:75,000 and 1:200,000. It usually manifests in early infancy upon the first sun exposures. EPP is characterised by cutaneous manifestations of acute painful photosensitivity with erythema and oedema, sometimes with petechiae, together with stinging and burning sensations upon exposure to sunlight, without blisters. These episodes have a variable severity depending on the exposure duration and may result in chronic permanent lesions on exposed skin. As protoporphyrin is a lipophilic molecule that is excreted by the liver, EPP patients are at risk of cholelithiasis with obstructive episodes, and chronic liver disease that might evolve to rapid acute liver failure. In most patients, EPP results from a partial deficiency of the last enzyme of the haem biosynthetic pathway, ferrochelatase, EC 4.99.1.1/FECH (encoded by the FECH gene). EPP appears to be inherited as an autosomal dominant disease, the clinical expression of which is modulated by the presence of the hypomorphic FECH IVS3-48C allele trans, but recessive inheritance with two mutated FECH alleles has also been described. In about 2% of patients, overt disease was recently shown to be caused by gain-of-function mutations in the erythroid-specific aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2/ALAS, EC 2.3.1.27) gene and named X-linked dominant protoporphyria. Diagnosis is established by finding increased levels of protoporphyrin in plasma and red blood cells, and detection of a plasma fluorescence peak at 634 nm. Investigations for hepatic involvement, ferrochelatase activity level, genetic analysis (FECH mutations, presence of the hypomorphic FECH IVS3-48C allele trans and ALAS2 mutations) and family studies are advisable. Differential

  1. LGBTQ Inclusion in Educator Preparation: Getting Ready for Gender and Sexual Diversity in Secondary School Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelscher, Mary Helen

    While many lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students are able to resiliently navigate their public school education many others experience harsh school climates and negative health and educational outcomes. Harassment and bullying of LGBTQ students in school environments have been linked to numerous negative psychological and academic outcomes for students diverse in sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Preparing teacher candidates (TCs) to respond effectively to harassment and bullying of students and to create inclusive curriculum has been recommended to improve outcomes for students. Yet the development of these teaching practices has not been pursued broadly in educator preparation programs (EPPs) or specifically in science EPPs (SEPPs). This dissertation broadens the notion of diversity traditionally attended to in EPPs through three studies. The first study is a holistic single-case study of an LGBTQ-inclusive EPP. It focused on the following three research questions: What were the contextual features that surrounded the LGBTQ-inclusive EPP? What were the specific elements of LGBTQ inclusion in the EPP? And, what were the strengths and weaknesses of the LGBTQ-inclusive EPP? This study drew primarily from data collected from interviews with faculty and administrators in a large post-baccalaureate 5th year preparation for licensure program. Document analysis was used to triangulate and expand upon the data collected during the interviews. A framework for analyzing LGBTQ inclusion across the components of an EPP was developed as part of this study. This study has direct implications for the particular EPP, but also clarifies research needs around LGBTQ inclusion in secondary EPPs. While little has research exists about LGBTQ inclusion in EPPs, far less has been attempted and understood in the discipline of secondary life science. The second study thus narrows its focus from the particulars of LGBTQ inclusion in an EPP to the

  2. Mesospheric and stratospheric NOy produced by energetic particle precipitation during 2002-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Stiller, G. P.; Clarmann, T.

    2014-04-01

    Global distributions of the six principal reactive nitrogen (NOy) compounds (HNO3, NO2, NO, N2O5, ClONO2, and HNO4) have been derived from midinfrared limb emission spectra taken by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board Envisat during 2002-2012. The obtained data set provides a unique climatological record of NOy in the middle atmosphere. The contribution of NOy produced by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) has been discriminated from that produced by N2O oxidation using a tracer correlation method based on MIPAS CH4 and CO observations. The EPP-NOy distributions, obtained in the vertical range 20-70km, allow to trace odd nitrogen polar winter descent from the mesosphere down to the middle and lower stratosphere, where it contributes to catalytic ozone destruction. Highest EPP-NOy concentrations (up to 1 ppmv) are found in the winter solstice mesosphere, decreasing continuously with time and toward lower altitudes. Springtime peak concentrations of a few parts per billion by volume are observed at 22-25km, demonstrating a regular EPP impact on the entire stratosphere. The interannual variation shows a clear solar cycle signal in consonance with geomagnetic activity variations. A pronounced hemispheric asymmetry of EPP-NOy is observed, with higher concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and stronger variability in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). Poleward of 60°, EPP-NOy contributes to the winter NOy column at 20-70km by 10-40% in the SH and 1-30% in the NH. Smaller contributions (0.1-1%) are found at midlatitudes (30°-60°). This study provides the first assessment of EPP-NOy intrusions into the stratosphere based on globally available satellite data on a decadal scale.

  3. Radical loss of an extreme extra-pair mating system

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, Sjouke A; Hall, Michelle L; Segelbacher, Gernot; Peters, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Background Mating outside the pair-bond is surprisingly common in socially monogamous birds, but rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) vary widely between species. Although differences in life-history and contemporary ecological factors may explain some interspecific variation, evolutionary forces driving extra-pair (EP) mating remain largely obscure. Also, since there is a large phylogenetic component to the frequency of EPP, evolutionary inertia may contribute substantially to observed EP mating patterns. However, the relative importance of plasticity and phylogenetic constraints on the incidence of EP mating remains largely unknown. Results We here demonstrate very low levels of EPP (4.4% of offspring) in the purple-crowned fairy-wren Malurus coronatus, a member of the genus with the highest known levels of EPP in birds. In addition, we show absence of the suite of distinctive behavioral and morphological adaptations associated with EP mating that characterize other fairy-wrens. Phylogenetic parsimony implies that these characteristics were lost in one speciation event. Nonetheless, many life-history and breeding parameters that are hypothesized to drive interspecific variation in EPP are not different in the purple-crowned fairy-wren compared to its promiscuous congeners. Conclusion Such radical loss of an extreme EP mating system with all associated adaptations from a lineage of biologically very similar species indicates that evolutionary inertia does not necessarily constrain interspecific variation in EPP. Moreover, if apparently minor interspecific differences regularly cause large differences in EPP, this may be one reason why the evolution of EP mating is still poorly understood. PMID:19454026

  4. UVB-induced epidermal hyperproliferation is modified by a single, topical treatment with a mitosis inhibitory epidermal pentapeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, W.M.; Elgjo, K. )

    1990-01-01

    A single application of a water-miscible cream base containing the recently identified mitosis inhibitory epidermal pentapeptide pyroGlu-Glu-Asp-Ser-GlyOH (EPP) to hairless mouse skin is followed by a long-lasting period of reduced epidermal cell proliferation. To examine if a similar growth inhibition could be achieved in stimulated and rapidly proliferating epidermis, EPP was applied at two different concentrations, 0.005 or 0.02%, to hairless mouse skin immediately after exposure of the left flank to an erythemic dose of ultraviolet B light (UVB). This dose of UVB alone induces a sustained period of rapid epidermal cell proliferation, starting at about 18 h after the irradiation. Epidermal cell proliferation was followed from 18 to 54 h (0.005% cream) or from 18 to 30 h (0.02% cream) after the treatment by estimating the rate of G2-M cell flux (the mitotic rate) by means of Colcemid, and epidermal DNA synthesis by counting labeled cells after pulse-labeling with 3H-thymidine. The unirradiated side of the mice was used as reference. The results showed that topical treatment with a 0.02% EPP cream partially inhibited UVB-induced epidermal hyperproliferation, while the 0.005% EPP cream inhibited as well as stimulated the UVB-induced hyperproliferation. Thus, EPP is effective even in rapidly proliferating epidermal cell populations, but the outcome is obviously dose-dependent in this test system.

  5. Disruption of actin impedes transmitter release in snake motor terminals

    PubMed Central

    Cole, John C; Villa, Brian R S; Wilkinson, Robert S

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the role of actin in vertebrate nerve terminals, nerve-muscle preparations from garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) were treated with the actin-depolymerizing agent latrunculin A. Immunostaining revealed that actin filaments within presynaptic motor terminal boutons were disrupted by the drug.In preparations loaded with the optical probe FM1-43, destaining was reduced by latrunculin treatment, suggesting that transmitter release was partially blocked.Latrunculin treatment did not influence the amplitude or time course of spontaneous miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs). Similarly, endplate potentials (EPPs) evoked at low frequency were comparable in control and latrunculin-treated curarized preparations.Brief tetanic stimulation of the muscle nerve (25 Hz, 90 s) depressed EPP amplitudes in both control and latrunculin-treated preparations. After tetanus, EPPs elicited at 0.2 Hz in control preparations recovered rapidly (0–5 min) and completely (usually potentiating to above pre-tetanus levels; 130 ± 11%, mean ±s.e.m.). In contrast, EPPs evoked in latrunculin-treated preparations recovered slowly (8–10 min) and incompletely (84 ± 8%).The influence of latrunculin on post-tetanic EPPs depended on its concentration in the bath (KD= 3.1 μm) and on time of incubation.These observations argue that actin filaments facilitate transmitter release rather than impede it. Specifically, actin may facilitate mobilization of vesicles towards the releasable pools. PMID:10856113

  6. Energetic Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere: Northern Hemisphere Variability and Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Laura A.

    It is well understood that chemical processes in the stratosphere lead to the destruction of ozone (O3). Our interest in these processes is twofold: (1) stratospheric O3 shields the Earth from biologically harmful radiation, and (2) O3 is a radiatively active gas largely responsible for the temperature structure of the middle atmosphere. A subset of chemical processes that is particularly relevant to O3 consists of catalytic cycles. Catalysts destroy O3 without being depleted. The NOx (NO + NO2) catalytic cycle dominates in the middle stratosphere. One source of stratospheric NO x is energetic particle precipitation (EPP), which contributes to the stratospheric odd nitrogen (NOy) budget in the polar winter. Through interaction with O3, NO x created by EPP (EPP-NOx) has the potential to affect not only the composition of the middle atmosphere but, since O3 is a radiatively active gas, temperature and dynamics as well. This leads to the following science questions, which are the questions that motivated my dissertation: (1) How much EPP-NOx is transported to the stratosphere from year to year? (2) What are the important transport processes involved? The research described here focuses on answering the first question through quantification of the amount of EPP-NOx reaching the northern hemisphere stratosphere using satellite data and the second question through state-of-the-art climate simulations designed to elucidate the important transport mechanisms.

  7. The Role of Precipitating Energetic Particles in Coupling Atmospheric Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S. M.; Randall, C. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Yee, S.; Kozyra, J. U.; Baker, D. N.

    2010-12-01

    A key missing element in our understanding of the Sun-Earth system is the response of the atmosphere when precipitating particle energy is redistributed via dynamical, chemical, and radiative processes. Elucidating the coupling intrinsic to this response is a prerequisite for understanding and predicting variability in and across many atmospheric regions. A priority for future observations is the Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) Indirect Effect (IE), by which odd nitrogen compounds produced by EPP in the upper atmosphere descend to the stratosphere, perturbing ozone chemistry and thus the radiative balance of the middle atmosphere. It has been shown that EPP IE occurs nearly every year in both hemispheres, and is modulated by variability in both the EPP and atmospheric meteorology. In this talk, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of EPP IE, the observational evidence for it in the last few decades, and what is required of future observations. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various measurement techniques for observing odd nitrogen and descent, along with uncertainties in the analysis methods.

  8. Piecing together female extra-pair mate choice: females really do prefer more ornamented males.

    PubMed

    Wells, Sarah J; Safran, Rebecca J; Dale, James

    2016-08-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by extravagant male traits that abound across the animal kingdom and yet convey no apparent benefits to survival. From isopods to elephants, from armaments to ornaments, researchers have spent decades studying male-male competition and female mate choice in an effort to understand the significance of these secondary sexual characteristics. Among socially monogamous species, a frequently proposed explanation for the existence of male ornaments is that they are indicators of male genetic quality subject to female extra-pair mate choice. However, despite over two decades of extensive research into extra-pair paternity (EPP), the evidence that females actually choose more ornamented extra-pair sires is surprisingly scant. Consequently, whether EPP and female choice have contributed to the evolution of male ornaments in socially monogamous species, and what fitness benefits (if any) they signal to females, remains unclear. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge of dissociating clear female choice for ornamentation from confounding factors. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Whittingham & Dunn (2016) use an experimental approach in a bird species with very high rates of EPP to tease apart these correlative effects. In doing so, they demonstrate clearly that male ornamentation is subject to female extra-pair mate choice. Their findings further suggest that EPP can be adaptive for females, and represent an important step forward in validating the role of EPP as an evolutionary driver of ornamental elaboration in socially monogamous species. PMID:27463236

  9. Progress and challenges in modelling country-level HIV/AIDS epidemics: the UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package 2007.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Salomon, J A; Alkema, L; Raftery, A E; Gouws, E

    2008-08-01

    The UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) was developed to aid in country-level estimation and short-term projection of HIV/AIDS epidemics. This paper describes advances reflected in the most recent update of this tool (EPP 2007), and identifies key issues that remain to be addressed in future versions. The major change to EPP 2007 is the addition of uncertainty estimation for generalised epidemics using the technique of Bayesian melding, but many additional changes have been made to improve the user interface and efficiency of the package. This paper describes the interface for uncertainty analysis, changes to the user interface for calibration procedures and other user interface changes to improve EPP's utility in different settings. While formal uncertainty assessment remains an unresolved challenge in low-level and concentrated epidemics, the Bayesian melding approach has been applied to provide analysts in these settings with a visual depiction of the range of models that may be consistent with their data. In fitting the model to countries with longer-running epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, a number of limitations have been identified in the current model with respect to accommodating behaviour change and accurately replicating certain observed epidemic patterns. This paper discusses these issues along with their implications for future changes to EPP and to the underlying UNAIDS Reference Group model. PMID:18647867

  10. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Diana V.; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J.M.; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E.; Jansen, Robert K.; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T.; Hajrah, Nahid H.; Alharbi, Njud S.; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Bailey, C. Donovan

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms. PMID:26592928

  11. Royal Naval nursing: 'testing but worth it'.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2014-08-19

    Inga Kennedy is the most senior nurse in the Royal Navy. She enjoys the commitment and discipline required by a career in the armed forces and says the work offers great opportunities for nurses. Her career highlights have included checking that injured personnel in Afghanistan were receiving the best care possible. PMID:25116541

  12. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Diana V; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J M; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E; Jansen, Robert K; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T; Hajrah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sabir, Jamal S M; Bailey, C Donovan

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms. PMID:26592928

  13. Enhancement of odd nitrogen modifies mesospheric ozone chemistry during polar winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verronen, P. T.; Lehmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) enhances odd nitrogen (NOx) in the polar upper atmosphere. Model studies have reported a solar cycle response in mesospheric ozone (O3) caused by EPP-related NOx enhancements which are included by applying a vertical NOx flux at around 80 km. However, it is not clear how O3 can be affected when the main chemical catalyst of odd oxygen (Ox = O + O(1D) + O3) loss in the mesosphere is odd hydrogen (HOx). Here we use a 1-D atmospheric model and show how enhanced NOx affects mesospheric chemistry and changes HOx partitioning, which subsequently leads to increase in Ox loss through standard HOx-driven catalytic cycles. Another, smaller increase of Ox loss results from HOx storage in HNO3 during night and its release by daytime photodissociation. Our results suggest that EPP, through NOx enhancements, could have a longer-term effect on mesospheric HOx and Ox in polar winter.

  14. Effective lifetime of NOx produced by energetic particle precipitation in the winter hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonius Marszalek, Markus; Nesse Tyssøy, Hilde; Hibbins, Robert; Ødegaard, Linn-Krisitine; Sandanger, Marit; Stadsnes, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) into the atmosphere impacts the chemical composition in the middle atmosphere. However, the EPP effects are not restrained to the area it is produced, but will be transported both horizontally and vertically by the background winds and waves. To address the aspect of horizontal transport we use the simple empirical horizontal wind model, HWM07, to trace the approximate trajectories the air parcels take around the polar region. We limit our focus to the winter hemisphere. We parameterize the NOx production based on the energy deposition estimated from particle measurements on the NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES). We estimate the evolution of the EPP-produced NOx taking into consideration sunlight exposure. The results give a rough estimate of the lifetime of NOx produced during a precipitation event and its hemispherical distribution in the aftermath of an event compared to its local production.

  15. Entangled coherent states versus entangled photon pairs for practical quantum-information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kimin; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2010-12-15

    We compare effects of decoherence and detection inefficiency on entangled coherent states (ECSs) and entangled photon pairs (EPPs), both of which are known to be particularly useful for quantum-information processing (QIP). When decoherence effects caused by photon losses are heavy, the ECSs outperform the EPPs as quantum channels for teleportation both in fidelities and in success probabilities. On the other hand, when inefficient detectors are used, the teleportation scheme using the ECSs suffers undetected errors that result in the degradation of fidelity, while this is not the case for the teleportation scheme using the EPPs. Our study reveals the merits and demerits of the two types of entangled states in realizing practical QIP under realistic conditions.

  16. Mating strategies in dominant meerkats: evidence for extra-pair paternity in relation to genetic relatedness between pair mates.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, S; Nielsen, J F; Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2013-07-01

    Rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) have frequently been associated with genetic relatedness between social mates in socially monogamous birds. However, evidence is limited in mammals. Here, we investigate whether dominant females use divorce or extra-pair paternity as a strategy to avoid the negative effects of inbreeding when paired with a related male in meerkats Suricata suricatta, a species where inbreeding depression is evident for several traits. We show that dominant breeding pairs seldom divorce, but that rates of EPP are associated with genetic similarity between mates. Although extra-pair males are no more distantly related to the female than social males, they are more heterozygous. Nevertheless, extra-pair pups are not more heterozygous than within-pair pups. Whether females benefit from EPP in terms of increased fitness of the offspring, such as enhanced survival or growth, requires further investigations. PMID:23675879

  17. Event pre processor for the CdZnTe-strip detector on MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, Slawomir; Schanz, Thomas; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Distratis, Giuseppe; Heindl, William A.; Wilms, Jörn; Braga, João; Santiago, Valdivino; Staubert, Rüdiger; Rothschild, Richard E.

    2004-09-01

    We present the Event Pre Processor (EPP) for the Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride-strip detector of the Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) onboard of the MIRAX satellite. The purpose of the EPP is to provide an onboard data reduction and event filtering by applying a non linear energy gain correction for each detector strip. This data reduction is necessary because of the limited telemetry capacity of the MIRAX satellite. We decided to use hardwired data processing electronics based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip designed in VHDL. This solution allows us to combine high computation power with low power consumption. We discuss the functionality and status of the EPP design developed in Tübingen.

  18. Fall and winter distribution of Canada geese in the Mississippi flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Rusch, D.H.; Abraham, K.F.; Gillespie, M.M.; Prevett, J.P.; Swenson, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from northern Manitoba and northern Ontario were marked with leg bands and neck bands and observed throughout the Mississippi flyway from 1978 to 1989. We used observations of neck-banded geese within each state to determine the relative fall/winter distribution of the Eastern Prairie Population (EPP) and the Mississippi Valley Population (MVP). Mississippi Valley geese were affiliated with states east of the Mississippi River; EPP geese were affiliated with states west of the Mississippi River. However, we found geographic differences in population distribution within several states. Significant annual changes in distribution also occurred in most states. Management of Mississippi flyway geese should consider the differences in both population dynamics and spatial and temporal distributions of MVP and EPP geese in determining state and flyway harvest objectives.

  19. Transitioning from traditional to green cleaners: an analysis of custodian and manager focus groups.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Nancy; Wakai, Sara; Welsh, Loyola; Westinghouse, Carol; Morse, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Custodians represent one of the largest occupational groups using cleaning agents, and yet their voices are infrequently heard in relation to the introduction of "green" cleaners and the laws regarding environmentally preferable products (EPP). This study reflects worker voices on use and effectiveness of chemicals, as well as incentives and obstacles for green cleaning programs. Sixty-four custodians and staff participated in 10 focus groups. Data were entered into Atlas Ti and the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis was used to identify themes. Themes included satisfaction in a "well-done" job, more effort required for job, lack of involvement in EPP selection process, EPP's ease of use for workers with English as a Second Language (ESL), misuse of disinfectants, health complaints, and need for training. This study shows that custodians have a voice, and that improved communication and feedback among all the stakeholders are needed to make the transition to green cleaning more effective. PMID:23380255

  20. Erythropoietic Protoporphyria: Lipid Peroxidation and Red Cell Membrane Damage Associated with Photohemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Bernard D.; Harber, Leonard C.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanism by which long wavelength ultraviolet light hemolyzes red cells obtained from patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was investigated. Previous studies had suggested that irradiation of these red cells with wavelengths of light capable of eliciting dermatological manifestations led to oxygen-dependent colloid osmotic hemolysis through the formation of peroxides. In the present report, lipid peroxidation during in vitro irradiation of EPP red cells with long ultraviolet light was demonstrated by: (a) the formation of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactants; (b) the presence of conjugated diene bonds in red cell lipid; and (c) the selective loss of unsaturated fatty acids proportional to the number of carbon-carbon double bonds in each. Irradiation of EPP red cells was also shown to result in the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Before photohemolysis there was a decline in cell membrane sulfhydryl groups and a loss in activity of the cell membrane enzyme acetylcholinesterase. These parameters provide further evidence suggesting that the cell membrane is a primary site of the photohemolytic effect of long ultraviolet light in EPP red cells. Further evaluation of the radiation-induced inactivation of EPP red cell acetylcholinesterase was performed by radiating mixtures containing bovine erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and protoporphyrin IX. These studies revealed that the rate of decline in enzyme activity is accelerated by the addition of linoleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, but not by palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid. Partial protection against both photohemolysis and acetylcholinesterase decline is provided by alpha-to-copherol. This lipid antioxidant loses its activity during the irradiation of EPP red cells suggesting that it is utilized in this process. PMID:5014616

  1. Comparision of Limit Load Solutions with Results of a Collapse Tests of Perforated Plates with a Triangular Penetration Pattern

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Jones; J.L. Gordon

    2001-12-13

    Limit load solutions obtained by elastic-perfectly plastic finite element analysis (EPP-FEA) are compared to results of tests of low-alloy steel perforated plate geometries loaded to full plastic collapse. Results are given for two plastic-collapse tests of flat circular disks with circular penetrations arranged in a triangular pattern and drilled normal to the surface of the plate. The ligament efficiency (minimum distance between holes divided by the distance between the centers of the holes) of the pattern is 0.32 and the plate thickness is 2.39 inches (60.7 mm). The tests were designed so that a transverse load generated plastic collapse in the outer row of penetrations due to a combination of transverse shear and in-plane bending. Limit-load solutions were obtained using EPP-FEA with small-strain, small-defection linear geometry assumptions. Two FEA models are used: one where the perforated region is modeled using an equivent solid plate (EQS) representation and another where each hole is explicitly modeled by FEA. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the deformation patterns produced by the EPP-FEA solutions match exactly with the deformation patterns produced by the test. The EQS-EPP FEA solution is about 15% lower than the explicit-hole EPP-FEA solution. Using one-third the actual ultimate strength of the material as the strength parameter in the limit load calculation produces a calculated limit load that is greater than a factor of three less than the mean measured plastic-collapse load obtained in the tests. This paper adds to the qualification of the use of limit-load solutions obtained using small-strain, small deflection EPP-FEA programs for the calculation of the limit load for perforated plates.

  2. Propagating optical-phonon modes and their electron-phonon interactions in wurtzite GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jun-Jie; Chu, Xing-Li; Goldys, E. M.

    2004-09-01

    The equation of motion for the p -polarization field in an arbitrary wurtzite multilayer heterostructure is solved for the propagating optical-phonon (POP) modes in the framework of the dielectric-continuum model and Loudon’s uniaxial crystal model. The polarization eigenvector, the dispersion relation, and the electron-propagating-phonon (EPP) interaction Fröhlich-like Hamiltonian are derived. The analytical formulas can be directly applied to single heterojunctions, single and multiple quantum wells (QW’s), and superlattices. The dispersion relations of the POP modes and the EPP coupling functions are investigated for a given GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N single QW with full account of the strains of QW structures and the anisotropy effects of wurtzite crystals. We find that there are infinite POP branches, which can be denoted by a quantum number n(n=1,2,…) , with definite symmetry with respect to the center of symmetry of the QW structure. The dispersion of the POP modes with smaller n is more obvious than for larger n . Moreover, the modes with smaller n are much more important for the EPP interactions than the modes with larger n . In most cases, it is enough to consider the modes with n=1,2,…,10 for the EPP interactions in a single QW. The long-wavelength POP modes are much more important for the EPP interactions. Furthermore, the strain effects of the QW structures have a strong influence on the dispersion of the POP modes. The strength of the EPP interactions is markedly increased due to the strains of the QW structures.

  3. New support for an old hypothesis: density affects extra-pair paternity

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christian; Pasinelli, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Density has been suggested to affect variation in extra-pair paternity (EPP) in avian mating systems, because increasing density promotes encounter rates and thus mating opportunities. However, the significance of density affecting EPP variation in intra- and interspecific comparisons has remained controversial, with more support from intraspecific comparisons. Neither experimental nor empirical studies have consistently provided support for the density hypothesis. Testing the density hypothesis is challenging because density measures may not necessarily reflect extra-pair mating opportunities, mate guarding efforts may covary with density, populations studied may differ in migratory behavior and/or climatic conditions, and variation in density may be insufficient. Accounting for these potentially confounding factors, we tested whether EPP rates within and among subpopulations of the reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus) were related to density. Our analyses were based on data from 13 subpopulations studied over 4 years. Overall, 56.4% of totally 181 broods contained at least one extra-pair young (EPY) and 37.1% of totally 669 young were of extra-pair origin. Roughly 90% of the extra-pair fathers were from the adjacent territory or from the territory after the next one. Within subpopulations, the proportion of EPY in broods was positively related to local breeding density. Similarly, among subpopulations, proportion of EPY was positively associated with population density. EPP was absent in subpopulations consisting of single breeding pairs, that is, without extra-pair mating opportunities. Our study confirms that density is an important biological factor, which significantly influences the amount of EPP within and among subpopulations, but also suggests that other mechanisms influence EPP beyond the variation explained by density. PMID:23533071

  4. Spatial patterns of extra-pair paternity: beyond paternity gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, Lotte; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-03-01

    Most studies on extra-pair paternity (EPP) focus either on a specific male's extra-pair gains or his extra-pair losses. For an individual bird however, mate choice or mate availability may underlie strong spatial restrictions. Disregarding this spatial aspect may underestimate or mask effects of parameters influencing observed EPP patterns. Here, we propose a spatially explicit model for investigating the probability of having extra-pair offspring (EPO) within local networks of breeding pairs. The data set includes all realized and unrealized potential extra-pair matings. This method is biologically meaningful because it allows (a) considering both members of an extra-pair mating and their social mates, and (b) direct modelling of the spatial context in which extra-pair behaviour occurs. The method has the advantage that it can provide inference about the relative contribution of spatial and non-spatial parameters, and about the relative importance of male and female neighbourhoods. We apply this method to parentage data from 1025 broods collected over 12 breeding seasons in two independent study populations of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We investigate a set of predictions based on the EPP literature, namely that EPP depends on male age and body size, breeding density and breeding synchrony. In all analyses, we control for breeding distance, a parameter that is expected to influence EPP even under random mating. The results show that older and larger males were more likely to sire EPO, but both effects decreased with increasing breeding distance. Local breeding density but not synchrony predicted whether a particular male-female combination had EPO, at least in one of the study areas. Apart from breeding distance, male age had the strongest effect on EPP, followed by a measure of breeding density. The method thus allows a comprehensive assessment of the relative importance of different types of spatial and non-spatial parameters to explain variation in the

  5. Odin/SMR nitric oxide observations and its contribution to a better understanding of energetic particle precipitation indirect effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perot, Kristell; Urban, Joachim; Murtagh, Donal

    The Sub-Millimeter Radiometer (SMR) on board the Odin platform, launched in 2001, is a limb emission sounder measuring trace gases in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by Sweden (SNSB), Canada (CSA), Finland (TEKES), and France (CNES), with support by the 3rd party mission programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) refers to the process by which energetic protons and electrons affect the Earth’s middle atmosphere. The precipitation of magnetospheric electrons into the polar atmosphere during geomagnetic perturbations leads to nitric oxide (NO) formation in the polar upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). During polar winter, EPP-generated NO can be transported downward into the stratosphere by the meridional circulation, where it can affect the ozone concentration. This important solar-terrestrial coupling mechanism is called the EPP indirect effect (EPP IE). Odin/SMR supplies the scientific community with a 10 year NO data set, and measurements of several other related species. The analysis of these long term observations shows that EPP IE is strongly dependent on dynamical activity. Very strong NO downward transport events are observed during most of the winters characterized by a major midwinter stratospheric sudden warming (SSW). SMR is involved in the SPARC project HEPPA-MMI (High Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere - Model-Measurement Inter-comparison). The goal of this international working group is to get a better understanding of EPP-induced middle atmospheric changes, and to assess the ability of current models to reproduce those phenomena. The work is based on inter-comparisons between measurements from several instruments and results from different models, focusing on the 2008/2009 northern hemisphere polar winter. This period was characterized by peculiar dynamical conditions, with a particularly strong SSW

  6. Learning in the Home and at School: How Working Class Children "Succeed against the Odds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents data collected in individual case studies that aimed to investigate children and their families who succeeded against the usual "odds" of disadvantage. Funded as an extension of EPPE 3-11 by the Cabinet Office for the Equalities Review, the study focused particularly closely upon the performance of disadvantaged children from…

  7. Using Student Centred Evaluation for Curriculum Enhancement: An Examination of Undergraduate Physiotherapy Education in Relation to Physical Activity and Exercise Prescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Grainne; Doody, Catherine; Cusack, Tara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiotherapy students' perceptions of current education content of entry-level physiotherapy programmes in terms of physical activity (PA) and exercise promotion and prescription (EPP). Sixty-two physiotherapy students from three Irish Universities participated. Three Structured Group Feedback Sessions…

  8. Two nucleon correlations measured with He-3(e,e'pp)n

    SciTech Connect

    L.B. Weinstein; R. Niyazov

    2004-02-01

    Despite tremendous progress in recent years in measuring single nucleon momentum distributions in nuclei, two-nucleon momentum distributions remain largely unmeasured. Here we report on a measurement of 3He(e,epp)n that is primarily sensitive to the two-nucleon momentum distribution and relatively uncontaminated by final state rescattering or by two-body currents.

  9. 75 FR 45093 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Partnership Program (EPP) and Ernest F. Hollings Undergraduate Scholarship Program. OMB Control Number: 0648... scholarship programs. The OEd requires applicants to its student scholarship programs to complete an application for NOAA undergraduate and graduate scholarship programs. Part of the application package...

  10. Interleukin-1β-Targeted Vaccine Improves Glucose Control and β-Cell Function in a Diabetic KK-Ay Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-lin; Liu, Xiang-meng; Liu, Dong-qun; Zhu, Jie; Ji, Hui; Liu, Rui-tian

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has been implicated as a key proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pancreatic islet inflammation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Excess IL-1β impairs islet function by inducing insulin resistance and β-cell apoptosis. Therefore, specifically reducing IL-1β activity provides a therapeutic improvement for T2DM by sustaining the inhibition of IL-1β-mediated islet inflammation. In this study, we developed an IL-1β-targeted epitope peptide vaccine adjuvanted with polylactic acid microparticles (1βEPP) and applied it to a diabetic KK-Ay mouse model. Results showed that the 1βEPP elicited high antibody responses, which neutralized the biological activity of IL-1β, and induced barely detectable inflammatory activity. 1βEPP immunization reduced body weight gain, protected KK-Ay mice from hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and decreased the serum levels of free fatty acids, total cholesterol and triglyceride. Moreover, 1βEPP restored β-cell mass; inhibited β-cell apoptosis; decreased the expression of IL-1β; and interrupted NF-κB activation by reducing IKKβ and pRelA levels. These studies indicated that the IL-1β-targeted vaccine may be a promising immunotherapeutic for T2DM treatment. PMID:27152706

  11. Threats and Aggression Directed at Soccer Referees: An Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Margareta; Nyberg, Claes; Norlander, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which…

  12. A Community-Based Social Marketing Campaign at Pacific University Oregon: Recycling, Paper Reduction, and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Elaine J.; Fieselman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design a community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to foster sustainable behavior change in paper reduction, commingled recycling, and purchasing environmentally preferred products (EPP) with faculty and staff at Pacific University Oregon. Design/methodology/approach: A CBSM campaign was developed…

  13. American Porphyria Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 Register Now. ♦ Medical Research Heroes Needed ♦ Alnylam Natural History Study​ ~ Acute Porphyrias (AIP, HCP, VP) Longitudinal Study ~ All Porphyrias For more Information Contact Jessica at 1.866.APF.3635 "Remember.....Research is the key to your cure!" EPP featured on Dateline NBC "Out of the ...

  14. Interleukin-1β-Targeted Vaccine Improves Glucose Control and β-Cell Function in a Diabetic KK-Ay Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zha, Jun; Chi, Xiao-Wei; Yu, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Xiang-Meng; Liu, Dong-Qun; Zhu, Jie; Ji, Hui; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has been implicated as a key proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pancreatic islet inflammation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Excess IL-1β impairs islet function by inducing insulin resistance and β-cell apoptosis. Therefore, specifically reducing IL-1β activity provides a therapeutic improvement for T2DM by sustaining the inhibition of IL-1β-mediated islet inflammation. In this study, we developed an IL-1β-targeted epitope peptide vaccine adjuvanted with polylactic acid microparticles (1βEPP) and applied it to a diabetic KK-Ay mouse model. Results showed that the 1βEPP elicited high antibody responses, which neutralized the biological activity of IL-1β, and induced barely detectable inflammatory activity. 1βEPP immunization reduced body weight gain, protected KK-Ay mice from hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and decreased the serum levels of free fatty acids, total cholesterol and triglyceride. Moreover, 1βEPP restored β-cell mass; inhibited β-cell apoptosis; decreased the expression of IL-1β; and interrupted NF-κB activation by reducing IKKβ and pRelA levels. These studies indicated that the IL-1β-targeted vaccine may be a promising immunotherapeutic for T2DM treatment. PMID:27152706

  15. Framework for Virtual Mentoring in Prison Education: Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Tamecca L.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that mentoring relationships have long been used to address populations of need, underrepresented populations, social inequities, and educational attainment (Single & Single, 2005). The work reported in the EPP was conducted in the context of enhancing an existing life skills course for juvenile offenders. The purpose of this…

  16. TEACHER PERSONALITY, TEACHER BEHAVIOR AND THEIR EFFECTS UPON PUPIL ACHIEVEMENT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEMIS, KATHERINE A.; COOPER, JAMES G.

    SIXTY URBAN, MIDDLE-CLASS, FOURTH-GRADE TEACHERS IN THE SOUTHWEST WERE GIVEN THE EDWARDS PERSONAL PREFERENCE SCHEDULE (EPPS) AS A MEASURE OF PERSONALITY. THEIR CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR WAS THEN RECORDED ON A TEACHER OBSERVATION PERSONALITY SCHEDULE REFLECTING EDWARDS' DEFINITIONS OF HIS NEEDS FOR ACHIEVEMENT, ABASEMENT, AFFILIATION, DOMINANCE, CHANGE,…

  17. Evaluation of Educators and Educator Preparation Programs: Models and Systems in Theory and Practice. WCER Working Paper No. 2014-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Robert; Pyatigorsky, Mikhail; Rice, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Student growth measures are increasingly common in K-12 school and teacher accountability policy in the United States. At this time, it is still rare for educator preparation programs (EPPs) to be evaluated by similar measures for either low stakes program improvement or higher stakes accreditation processes. Growth in student achievement reflects…

  18. Learning Conversations and Listening Pedagogy: The Relationship in Student Teachers' Developing Professional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Bridget A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in early childhood education in the UK and other parts of Europe have emphasised the importance of dialogue between adults and children. In the UK, the EPPE project paid particular attention to the role of extended child-centred conversations ("sustained shared thinking"--Sylva et al. 2003) as an important element or indicator…

  19. Applying Multimedia Learning Theories to the Redesign of Residence Life Online Training Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliher, Licinia Barrueco

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Executive Position Paper (EPP) is to develop a model for improving the online training modules utilized by a mid-Atlantic Residence Life department. The complexity of the Residence Life staff positions, coupled with demands from other university departments and the need to provide as much information as possible, resulted in an…

  20. Revised Basin Hopping Monte Carlo Algorithm Applied for Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Juarez L. F.; Rondina, Gustavo G.

    2013-03-01

    The Basin Hopping Monte Carlo (BHMC) algorithm has been very successful in obtaining the atomic structure of nanoparticles (NPs), however, its application for unbiased randomly initialized NPs have been restricted to few hundreds atoms employing empirical pair-potentials (EPP) and for small clusters employing first-principles interacting potentials based on density functional theory (DFT). In this talk, we will present our suggestions for bringing improvements to the the BHMC algorithm, which successfully extend its application for relatively large systems employing EPP and DFT potenticals. Using our implementation from scratch, we have found all the reported putative minimum energy configurations for Lennard-Jones and Sutton-Chen EPPs (N = 2 - 147, 200, 250, 300,..., 1000). We addressed also binary systems described by the Lennard-Jones or Sutton-Chen empirical potentials, and excellent results have been obtained. Finally, our revised BHMC implementation was combined with DFT potentials (FHI-AIMS), which was employed to study the atomic structure of Al clusters from 2 - 55 atoms in the neutral and charged states. Thus, our results indicate the our suggestions provide an important contribution to improve the quality of the BHMC results employing EPP or DFT potentials. We thank Sao Paulo Science Foundation (FAPESP)

  1. On Social Psychology and Human Nature: An Interview with Roy Baumeister

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Natalie Kerr

    2008-01-01

    Roy F. Baumeister currently holds the Eppes Eminent Professorship in the Department of Psychology at Florida State University. He received his PhD in social psychology from Princeton in 1978 working under Edward E. Jones. After a postdoctoral fellowship in sociology at Berkeley, he spent 23 years on the faculty at Case Western Reserve University,…

  2. Afamelanotide: A Review in Erythropoietic Protoporphyria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Esther S; Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-04-01

    Afamelanotide (SCENESSE(®)) is a synthetic α-melanocyte stimulating hormone analogue and first-in-class melanocortin-1 receptor agonist that is approved in the EU for the prevention of phototoxicity in adults with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). It is administered subcutaneously as a biodegradable, controlled-release implant containing 16 mg of afamelanotide. This article reviews the clinical efficacy and tolerability of afamelanotide in EPP and summarizes its pharmacological properties. In the phase III trial, CUV039, afamelanotide treatment improved light tolerance in patients with EPP. Compared with placebo, afamelanotide treatment enabled patients to spend more time in direct sunlight without pain and increased the time to the appearance of the first symptoms of phototoxicity provoked by a standardized light source. Afamelanotide was generally well tolerated in this trial, with no drug-related serious adverse events reported. Commonly occurring adverse reactions included headache and implant-site reactions. Efficacy and safety data from earlier phase III trials are consistent with those from the CUV039 trial. Afamelanotide, approved in the EU for the prevention of EPP phototoxicity, represents a useful addition to the management of the disorder. PMID:26979527

  3. Tests of a parameterization for auroral forcing in the CCM EMAC for CMIP6 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versick, Stefan; Funke, Bernd; Sinnhuber, Miriam; Linden, Andrea; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) is well known as a source of NOx in the middle atmosphere. Due to the quite long photochemical lifetime of NOx in the polarnight middle atmosphere transport effects have to be considered. Therefore NOx produced by EPP in the lower thermosphere can be transported downwards into the stratosphere where it contributes to the destruction of polar ozone. This process is also called the EPP indirect effect. Because of radiation feedbacks and stratosphere-troposphere interaction this effect can alter tropospheric climate. Here we show results for the recommendation for the implementation of this effect in chemistry-climate-models (CCM) for CMIP6 simulations. Most of the used models in CMIP6 do not include the source region of NOx. Therefore the EPP indirect effect needs to be considered as an NOx upper boundary condition. Here, we use a parametrization in terms of Ap which is based on MIPAS observations. We show how to best implement the parameterization in models and how to avoid some general pitfalls. The effects in the used model EMAC (model top at 1 Pa) are compared to observations, generally showing a good agreement.

  4. Relationships Among the Edwards Personality Inventory Scales, the Edwards Personality Preference Schedule, and the Personality Research Form Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Allen L.; Abbott, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the degree to which the EPPS and PRF scales are correlated with the EPI scales, and also to determine the degree to which the scales in all three inventories are measuring the same common traits. (Author)

  5. 78 FR 6185 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Prohibition on Contracting With Inverted Domestic Corporations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... published an interim rule in the Federal Register at 77 FR 27547 on May 10, 2012, to implement section 738..., 2009 (74 FR 31561), and as a final rule on May 31, 2011 (76 FR 31410). An inverted domestic corporation... 77 FR 27547 on May 10, 2012, is adopted as final without change. BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P...

  6. The Impact of Energetic Particle Precipitation on the Earths Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; García-Comas, M.; Bermejo-Pantaleón, D.; Stiller, G. P.; von Clarmann, T.

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) represents an important Sun-Earth coupling mechanism with important implications on polar stratospheric ozone chemistry. Solar protons generated during solar storms cause sporadically in situ production of stratospheric NO x and HO x radicals involved in catalytic ozone destruction. Further, NO produced continuously in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere by medium energy electron precipitation (EEP) descends to the stratosphere during the polar winter, where it represents an additional, though variable source of NO x . The capability of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) to measure all important NO y species, as well as ClO and HOCl with global coverage including the polar night regions make it an ideal instrument for studying EPP effects on stratospheric chemistry. We present a quantitative assessment of EPP-induced composition changes as observed by MIPAS during 2002-2004, including the unusually strong solar proton event in October/November 2003. The impact of EPP on the stratospheric ozone budget has been studied with chemical models. The stratospheric ozone loss in the polar regions reached 18DU and lasted over months to years.

  7. The influence of nonrandom extra‐pair paternity on heritability estimates derived from wild pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Josh A.; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Santure, Anna W.; Slate, Jon; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative genetic analysis is often fundamental for understanding evolutionary processes in wild populations. Avian populations provide a model system due to the relative ease of inferring relatedness among individuals through observation. However, extra‐pair paternity (EPP) creates erroneous links within the social pedigree. Previous work has suggested this causes minor underestimation of heritability if paternal misassignment is random and hence not influenced by the trait being studied. Nevertheless, much literature suggests numerous traits are associated with EPP and the accuracy of heritability estimates for such traits remains unexplored. We show analytically how nonrandom pedigree errors can influence heritability estimates. Then, combining empirical data from a large great tit (Parus major) pedigree with simulations, we assess how heritability estimates derived from social pedigrees change depending on the mode of the relationship between EPP and the focal trait. We show that the magnitude of the underestimation is typically small (<15%). Hence, our analyses suggest that quantitative genetic inference from pedigrees derived from observations of social relationships is relatively robust; our approach also provides a widely applicable method for assessing the consequences of nonrandom EPP. PMID:25800997

  8. Experimental food supplementation reveals habitat-dependent male reproductive investment in a migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Sara A; Sillett, T Scott; Risk, Benjamin B; Webster, Michael S

    2015-03-22

    Environmental factors can shape reproductive investment strategies and influence the variance in male mating success. Environmental effects on extrapair paternity have traditionally been ascribed to aspects of the social environment, such as breeding density and synchrony. However, social factors are often confounded with habitat quality and are challenging to disentangle. We used both natural variation in habitat quality and a food supplementation experiment to separate the effects of food availability-one key aspect of habitat quality-on extrapair paternity (EPP) and reproductive success in the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. High natural food availability was associated with higher within-pair paternity (WPP) and fledging two broods late in the breeding season, but lower EPP. Food-supplemented males had higher WPP leading to higher reproductive success relative to controls, and when in low-quality habitat, food-supplemented males were more likely to fledge two broods but less likely to gain EPP. Our results demonstrate that food availability affects trade-offs in reproductive activities. When food constraints are reduced, males invest in WPP at the expense of EPP. These findings imply that environmental change could alter how individuals allocate their resources and affect the selective environment that drives variation in male mating success. PMID:25673677

  9. The Role of International School Counselors in U.S. College Recruitment Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Amy Greenwald

    2013-01-01

    The University of Delaware has embraced a global admissions initiative with minimal experience in international endeavors and a limited budget for international recruitment. This EPP serves as exploratory research for improving our understanding of the international student market in Latin America and working more effectively with international…

  10. Early Identification of ADHD: Methods, Benefits, and a Standard Performance Metric for School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation as an executive position paper (EPP) will provide a thorough literature review and the most current and reliable data on Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) prevalence, show the high importance of early diagnosis and interventions, and provide a standard for a school district to…

  11. A Comparative Examination of Personality Prototypes Across Two Time Samples of Japanese American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanagida, Evelyn H.; And Others

    Japanese Americans experience acculturative change while retaining some elements of cultural identity. Differences in the patterning of personality needs among Japanese American women over time illustrate the balance of these two elements. Japanese American female undergraduates completed the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) in 1971…

  12. Belt-Tightening at 110 Livingston Street: How One Agency Has Responded to the Fiscal Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amlung, Susan, Ed.

    This is a report by the Educational Priorities Panel (EPP), an independent watchdog group that monitors New York City's education budget, on the various budget cuts that the Board of Education has enacted during 1976-1980. Since 1976, the Board has executed a policy of supporting instructional rather than administrative services. When cuts were…

  13. Incomplete erythropoietic protoporphyria caused by a splice site modulator homozygous IVS3-48C polymorphism in the ferrochelatase gene.

    PubMed

    Mizawa, M; Makino, T; Nakano, H; Sawamura, D; Shimizu, T

    2016-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited cutaneous porphyria caused by both the partial deficiency of ferrochelatase (FECH) and the existence of cytosine at IVS3-48 in trans to a mutated FECH allele. However, physicians occasionally encounter patients with EPP with a mild phenotype associated with a slight increase in the erythrocyte-free protoporphyrin concentration and no FECH gene mutations. In this study, genetic analyses were performed on three patients with a mild phenotype of EPP, with photosensitivity, slightly increased erythrocyte-free protoporphyrin concentrations and only a few fluorocytes in the peripheral blood. After obtaining the patients' and their parents' informed consent, a direct sequence analysis of the FECH gene and a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were performed on samples from the patients. The FECH gene mutation was not detected in the direct sequence analyses in any of the patients. However, all three patients had the homozygous IVS3-48C polymorphism. These findings suggest that homozygous IVS3-48C polymorphism of the FECH gene is associated with a slight elevation of the protoporphyrin level in erythrocytes, resulting in a mild EPP phenotype. PMID:26280465

  14. Effects of the potassium channel blocking dendrotoxins on acetylcholine release and motor nerve terminal activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A J; Harvey, A L

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of the K+ channel blocking toxins, the dendrotoxins, on neuromuscular transmission and motor nerve terminal activity were assessed on frog cutaneous pectoris, mouse diaphragm and mouse triangularis sterni nerve-muscle preparations. Endplate potentials (e.p.ps) and miniature e.p.ps were recorded with intracellular microelectrodes, and nerve terminal spikes were recorded with extracellular electrodes placed in the perineural sheaths of motor nerves. 2. Dendrotoxin from green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom and toxin I from black mamba (D. polylepis) venom increased the amplitude of e.p.ps by increasing quantal content, and also induced repetitive e.p.ps. 3. Perineural recordings revealed that dendrotoxins could decrease the component of the waveform associated with K+ currents at the nerve terminals, and induce repetitive activation of nerve terminals. 4. In frog motor nerves, dendrotoxins are known to block the fast f1 component of the K+ current at nodes of Ranvier. Blockade of a similar component of the K+ current at motor nerve terminals may be responsible for the effects of these toxins on neuromuscular transmission. 5. Similar conclusions can be drawn from the results obtained from mouse neuromuscular junctions. PMID:2450611

  15. Summary of Activities and Policy Studies. Educational Policy and Planning Project. A Government of Indonesia-USAID Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boediono; And Others

    The Educational Policy and Planning (EPP) Project assists the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture (MOEC) in establishing an information system to improve policy analysis and formulation. There are five elements of the project strategy: increase the ability of MOEC staff to create and use information for use in policy research, strengthen…

  16. Authentic Field-Based Learning Experiences for EdD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershberger, Jane Boag

    2009-01-01

    This EPP examines the problem of EdD coursework not having sufficient connection to the work that EdD students will eventually assume as leaders of school districts or other educational systems. It reviews literature critical of EdD programs and websites of educational administration professional organizations with recommended curriculum for EdD…

  17. The Impact of Home and School on Early Years Scientific Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on three pieces of research and explores what these studies tell about the effects of home and early education on scientific development in young children as they move into and through primary education. The first piece of research was a longitudinal study that took place between 1997 and 2004; the EPPE (Effective Provision of…

  18. Genetic dissection of resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew in Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medicago truncatula was used to characterize resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew, respectively caused by Colletotrichum trifolii and Erysiphe pisi. Two isolates of E. pisi (Ep-p from pea and Ep-a from alfalfa) and two races of C. trifolii (races 1 and 2) were used in this study. The A17 gen...

  19. X-linked dominant protoporphyria: The first reported Japanese case.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Yukiko; Kokunai, Yasuhito; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Akasaka, Eijiro; Nakano, Hajime; Moriwaki, Shinichi

    2016-04-01

    A 12-year-old boy with photosensitivity since 3 years of age presented with small concavities on both cheeks, the nasal root and the dorsal surface of both hands. According to the clinical features, erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was suspected. Urine and blood samples were tested for porphyrin derivatives, which revealed a markedly elevated level of erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and a diagnosis of EPP was made. The patient's mother had no photosensitivity, however, lesions appearing slightly as small scars were found on the dorsum of her right hand; his elder sister and father showed no rash. The EP levels were elevated in samples from his mother and mildly elevated in those from his elder sister and father. To obtain a definitive diagnosis, genetic analyses were performed using samples from all family members, which revealed no mutations in the ferrochelatase-encoding gene (FECH), which is responsible for EPP. Instead, a pathological mutation of the 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase-encoding gene (ALAS2) was identified in samples from the patient, his mother and his elder sister, confirming a definitive diagnosis of X-linked dominant protoporphyria (XLDPP). This is the first Japanese family reported to have XLDPP, demonstrating evidence of the condition in Japan. In addition, because XLDPP is very similar to EPP in its clinical aspects and laboratory findings, a genetic analysis is required for the differential diagnosis. PMID:26387792

  20. Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perlut, N.G.; Freeman-Gallant, C. R.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Kilpatrick, C.W.; Zalik, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  1. The English Profile Programme: Background, Current Issues and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The EPP is a collaborative programme of interdisciplinary research, whose goal is to provide a set of Reference Level Descriptions (RLDs) for English for all six levels of the CEFR (Council of Europe 2001; Little 2006), from A1 to C2.

  2. Education for Parenthood: Eighth Graders Change Child Rearing Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richett, Diana; Towns, Kathryn

    This study examined the effects of an Education for Parenthood Program (EPP) on the childrearing attitudes of eighth grade students. Two eighth grade classes were randomly selected from five sections at a middle school in south central Pennsylvania. One of the classes (both of which were approximatley 60% male and 70% black) was randomly assigned…

  3. Progress and challenges in modelling country-level HIV/AIDS epidemics: the UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package 2007

    PubMed Central

    Brown, T; Salomon, J A; Alkema, L; Raftery, A E; Gouws, E

    2008-01-01

    The UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) was developed to aid in country-level estimation and short-term projection of HIV/AIDS epidemics. This paper describes advances reflected in the most recent update of this tool (EPP 2007), and identifies key issues that remain to be addressed in future versions. The major change to EPP 2007 is the addition of uncertainty estimation for generalised epidemics using the technique of Bayesian melding, but many additional changes have been made to improve the user interface and efficiency of the package. This paper describes the interface for uncertainty analysis, changes to the user interface for calibration procedures and other user interface changes to improve EPP’s utility in different settings. While formal uncertainty assessment remains an unresolved challenge in low-level and concentrated epidemics, the Bayesian melding approach has been applied to provide analysts in these settings with a visual depiction of the range of models that may be consistent with their data. In fitting the model to countries with longer-running epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, a number of limitations have been identified in the current model with respect to accommodating behaviour change and accurately replicating certain observed epidemic patterns. This paper discusses these issues along with their implications for future changes to EPP and to the underlying UNAIDS Reference Group model. PMID:18647867

  4. Cultivating a Growth Mindset in Students at a High-Achieving High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fegley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this EPP is to develop a plan for changing the mindset of a large number of Haddonfield Memorial High School (HMHS) students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. HMHS is by most conventional measures a high performing school. Typically 100% of the students graduate with 96% of the students attending two or four year colleges…

  5. Classical and atypical resistance of cancer cells as a target for resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Borska, Sylwia; Pedziwiatr, Monika; Danielewicz, Monika; Nowinska, Katarzyna; Pula, Bartosz; Drag-Zalesinska, Malgorzata; Olbromski, Mateusz; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    The phenomenon of cancer cell resistance to chemotherapeutics is the main cause of insensitivity to anticancer therapy. Thus, the current challenge remains searching for substances sensitising the activity of cytostatic drugs. In this respect, resveratrol is a very promising therapeutic agent. It has pleiotropic effect on cancer cells, which can play a key role in numerous resistance mechanisms, both classical and atypical. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of resveratrol on the inhibition of human pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and on the level of cytostatic resistance-associated proteins. The study was performed on human pancreatic cancer cell lines EPP85-181P (control), EPP85-181RDB (daunorubicin resistance) and EPP85-181PRNOV (mitoxantrone resistance). The effect of resveratrol on the viability and proliferation of the studied cell lines was evaluated by SRB assay, whereas cell cycle arrest and cytostatic accumulation by FACS. Western blot analysis was used to determine the level of P-glycoprotein, topoisomerase II α and β and immunofluorescence technique to visualise the proteins in the cells. Resveratrol inhibited proliferation of all studied cell lines. Phase-specific cell cycle arrest depended on the type of cancer cells. Resveratrol decreased the level and activity of P-gp in EPP85-181RDB cells. In EPP85-181PRNOV cells, expression of both TopoII isoforms increased in a statistically significant manner. The results of in vitro studies support the possibility of potential use of resveratrol in breaking cancer cell resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:27431533

  6. Atmospheric Effects of Energetic Particle Precipitation in the Arctic Winter 1978-1979 Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Remsberg, E. E.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) measured polar stratospheric enhancements of NO2 mixing ratios due to energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the Arctic winter of 1978-1979. Recently reprocessed LIMS data are compared to more recent measurements from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) to place the LIMS measurements in the context of current observations. The amount of NOx (NO + NO2) entering the stratosphere that has been created by EPP in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (EPP-NOx) has been quantified for the 1978-1979 and 2002-2003 through 2008-2009 Arctic winters. The NO2 enhancements in the LIMS data are similar to those in MIPAS and ACE-FTS data in the Arctic winters of 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007, and 2007-2008. The largest enhancement by far is in 2003-2004 (approximately 2.2 Gmol at 1500 K), which is attributed to a combination of elevated EPP and unusual dynamics that led to strong descent in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere in late winter. The enhancements in 2005-2006 and 2008-2009, during which large stratospheric NOx enhancements were caused by a dynamical situation similar to that in 2003 2004, are larger than in all the other years (except 2003-2004) at 3000 K. However, by 2000 K the enhancements in 2005-2006 (2008-2009) are on the same order of magnitude as (smaller than) all other years. These results highlight the importance of the timing of the descent in determining the potential of EPP-NOx for reaching the middle stratosphere.

  7. Modelling national HIV/AIDS epidemics: revised approach in the UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Le; Salomon, Joshua A; Brown, Tim; Raftery, Adrian E; Hogan, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    Objective United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS reports regularly on estimated levels and trends in HIV/AIDS epidemics, which are evaluated using an epidemiological model within the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP). The relatively simple four-parameter model of HIV incidence used in EPP through the previous round of estimates has encountered challenges when attempting to fit certain data series on prevalence over time, particularly in settings with long running epidemics where prevalence has increased recently. To address this, the most recent version of the modelling package (EPP 2011) includes a more flexible epidemiological model that allows HIV infection risk to vary over time. This paper describes the technical details of this flexible approach to modelling HIV transmission dynamics within EPP 2011. Methodology For the flexible modelling approach, the force of infection parameter, r, is allowed to vary over time through a random walk formulation, and an informative prior distribution is used to improve short-term projections beyond the last year of data. Model parameters are estimated using a Bayesian estimation approach in which models are fit to HIV seroprevalence data from surveillance sites. Results This flexible model can yield better estimates of HIV prevalence over time in situations where the classic EPP model has difficulties, such as in Uganda, where prevalence is no longer falling. Based on formal out-of-sample projection tests, the flexible modelling approach also improves predictions and CIs for extrapolations beyond the last observed data point. Conclusions We recommend use of a flexible modelling approach where data are sufficient (eg, where at least 5 years of observations are available), and particularly where an epidemic is beyond its peak. PMID:23044436

  8. Comprehensive paternity assignment: genotype, spatial location and social status in song sparrows, Melospiza Melodia.

    PubMed

    Sardell, Rebecca J; Keller, Lukas F; Arcese, Peter; Bucher, Thomas; Reid, Jane M

    2010-10-01

    Comprehensive, accurate paternity assignment is critical to answering numerous questions in evolutionary ecology. Yet, most studies of species with extra-pair paternity (EPP) fail to assign sires to all offspring. Common limitations include incomplete and biased sampling of offspring and males, particularly with respect to male location and social status, potentially biasing estimated patterns of paternity. Studies that achieve comprehensive sampling and paternity assignment are therefore required. Accordingly, we genotyped virtually all males and >99% of 6-day-old offspring over 16 years in a song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population and used three complementary statistical methodologies to attempt complete paternity assignment for all 2207 offspring. Assignments were highly consistent across maximum likelihood methods that used solely genotype data, and heuristic and integrated Bayesian analyses that included data describing individual locations. Sires were assigned to >99% of all genotyped offspring with ≥95% confidence, revealing an EPP rate of c. 28%. Extra-pair sires primarily occupied territories neighbouring their extra-pair offspring; spatial location was therefore highly informative for paternity assignment. EPP was biased towards paired territorial males, although unpaired territorial and floater males sired c. 13% of extra-pair offspring. Failing to sample and include unpaired males as candidate sires would therefore substantially reduce assignment rates. These analyses demonstrate the integration of genetic and ecological information to achieve comprehensive paternity assignment and direct biological insight, illustrate the potential biases that common forms of incomplete sampling could have on estimated patterns of EPP, and provide an essential basis for understanding the evolutionary causes and consequences of EPP. PMID:20819155

  9. Atmospheric effects of energetic particle precipitation in the Arctic winter 1978-1979 revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Remsberg, E. E.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.

    2012-03-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) measured polar stratospheric enhancements of NO2 mixing ratios due to energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the Arctic winter of 1978-1979. Recently reprocessed LIMS data are compared to more recent measurements from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) to place the LIMS measurements in the context of current observations. The amount of NOx (NO + NO2) entering the stratosphere that has been created by EPP in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (EPP-NOx) has been quantified for the 1978-1979 and 2002-2003 through 2008-2009 Arctic winters. The NO2 enhancements in the LIMS data are similar to those in MIPAS and ACE-FTS data in the Arctic winters of 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007, and 2007-2008. The largest enhancement by far is in 2003-2004 (˜2.2 Gmol at 1500 K), which is attributed to a combination of elevated EPP and unusual dynamics that led to strong descent in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere in late winter. The enhancements in 2005-2006 and 2008-2009, during which large stratospheric NOx enhancements were caused by a dynamical situation similar to that in 2003-2004, are larger than in all the other years (except 2003-2004) at 3000 K. However, by 2000 K the enhancements in 2005-2006 (2008-2009) are on the same order of magnitude as (smaller than) all other years. These results highlight the importance of the timing of the descent in determining the potential of EPP-NOx for reaching the middle stratosphere.

  10. High frequency of extra-pair paternity in an urban population of Cooper's Hawks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Stout, William C.; Talbot, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Raptors exhibit some of the highest rates of intra-pair copulations among birds, perhaps in an attempt by males to reduce the risk of being cuckolded. Indeed, the frequency of extra-pair fertilizations reported in studies of raptors to date is relatively low (0-11.2%). Socially monogamous Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) exhibit one of the highest copulation rates among birds, yet there are no published accounts of extra-pair copulations (or paternity). We studied a population of Cooper's Hawks in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during three breeding seasons (2003, 2004, and 2007), examining the possible effects of age (1 yr old vs. ≥ 2 yr old), adult mass, and brood size on the frequency of extra-pair paternity (EPP). We found that 19.3% of nestlings (N = 27/140) were extra-pair young (EPY), and 34% of all broods (N = 15/44) had at least one EPY. The sires of the EPY in our study were identified for only two broods, suggesting that floater males may have engaged in extra-pair copulations with territorial females. We found that brood size was a good predictor of the occurrence of EPP (EPP) in nests, but adult mass and female age were not. To our knowledge, these possible correlates of the occurrence of EPP in raptors had not previously been investigated. Male Cooper's Hawks provide food for females during the pre-nesting period, and delivery of food is, in contrast to other raptor species, typically followed by copulation. Thus, one possible explanation of the relatively high rates of EPP in our study is that females might accept or even solicit extra-pair copulations from males other than their mates as a means of maximizing energy intake for egg production. Such behavior might be particularly likely in our study area, i.e., a food-rich urban setting with a high breeding density of Cooper's Hawks.

  11. Modulation of penetrance by the wild-type allele in dominantly inherited erythropoietic protoporphyria and acute hepatic porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Gouya, Laurent; Puy, Hervé; Robreau, Anne-Marie; Lyoumi, Said; Lamoril, Jérome; Da Silva, Vasco; Grandchamp, Bernard; Deybach, Jean-Charles

    2004-02-01

    We have recently demonstrated that in an autosomal dominant porphyria, erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), the coinheritance of a ferrochelatase (FECH) gene defect and of a wild-type low-expressed FECH allele is generally involved in the clinical expression of EPP. This mechanism may provide a model for phenotype modulation by minor variations in the expression of the wild-type allele in the other three autosomal dominant porphyrias that exhibit incomplete penetrance: acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), variegata porphyria (VP) and hereditary coproporphyria (HC), which are caused by partial deficiencies of hydroxy-methyl bilane synthase (HMBS), protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) and coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO), respectively. Given the dominant mode of inheritance of EPP, VP, AIP and HC, we first confirmed that the 200 overtly porphyric subjects (55 EPP, 58 AIP, 56 VP; 31 HC) presented a single mutation restricted to one allele (20 novel mutations and 162 known mutations). We then analysed the available single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present at high frequencies in the general population and spreading throughout the FECH, HMBS, PPOX and the CPO genes in four case-control association studies. Finally, we explored the functional consequences of polymorphisms on the abundance of wild-type RNA, and used relative allelic mRNA determinations to find out whether low-expressed HMBS, PPOX and the CPO alleles occur in the general population. We confirm that the wild-type low-expressed allele phenomenon is usually operative in the mechanism of variable penetrance in EPP, but conclude that this is not the case in AIP and VP. For HC, the CPO mRNA determinations strongly suggest that normal CPO alleles with low-expression are present, but whether this low-expression of the wild-type allele could modulate the penetrance of a CPO gene defect in HC families remains to be ascertained. PMID:14669009

  12. Local versus global electronic properties of chalcopyrite alloys: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento-Pérez, Rafael; Botti, Silvana; Schnohr, Claudia S.; Lauermann, Iver; Rubio, Angel; Johnson, Benjamin

    2014-09-07

    Element-specific unoccupied electronic states of Cu(In, Ga)S{sub 2} were studied as a function of the In/Ga ratio by combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy with density functional theory calculations. The S absorption edge shifts with changing In/Ga ratio as expected from the variation of the band gap. In contrast, the cation edge positions are largely independent of composition despite the changing band gap. This unexpected behavior is well reproduced by our calculations and originates from the dependence of the electronic states on the local atomic environment. The changing band gap arises from a changing spatial average of these localized states with changing alloy composition.

  13. Effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructure grown with very thin spacer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Halder, N.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2010-11-15

    We have investigated the effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on self-assembled InAs/GaAs bilayer quantum dot samples having very thin barrier thickness (7.5-8.5 nm). In/Ga interdiffusion in the samples due to annealing is presumed to be controlled by the vertical strain coupling from the seed dots in bilayer heterostructure. Strain coupling from embedded seed QD layer maintains a strain relaxed state in active top islands of the bilayer quantum dot sample grown with comparatively thick spacer layer (8.5 nm). This results in minimum In/Ga interdiffusion. However controlled interdiffusion across the interface between dots and GaAs barrier, noticeably enhances the emission efficiency in such bilayer quantum dot heterostructure on annealing up to 700 {sup o}C.

  14. The journey so far and the road ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.

    2014-08-01

    The talk gives a brief intoduction to the experimental setups and nuclear structure studies at IUAC in the past. Salient features of the setup of 24 Compton suppressed clover detectors known as Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) commissioned at IUAC and some of the recent works pursued by the nuclear structure group are discussed. The talk also gives a brief overview of the experimental facilities that will be available for nuclear structure studies at IUAC in near future.

  15. The journey so far and the road ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R. P.

    2014-08-14

    The talk gives a brief intoduction to the experimental setups and nuclear structure studies at IUAC in the past. Salient features of the setup of 24 Compton suppressed clover detectors known as Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) commissioned at IUAC and some of the recent works pursued by the nuclear structure group are discussed. The talk also gives a brief overview of the experimental facilities that will be available for nuclear structure studies at IUAC in near future.

  16. Interplay between tilted and principal axis rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Pradip

    2014-08-14

    At IUAC-INGA, our group has studied four neutron rich nuclei of mass-110 region, namely {sup 109,110}Ag and {sup 108,110}Cd. These nuclei provide the unique platform to study the interplay between Tilted and Principal axis rotation since these are moderately deformed and at the same time, shears structures are present at higher spins. The salient features of the high spin behaviors of these nuclei will be discussed which are the signatures of this interplay.

  17. Simultaneous SPECT imaging of multi-targets to assist in identifying hepatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhide; Gao, Mengna; Zhang, Deliang; Li, Yesen; Song, Manli; Zhuang, Rongqiang; Su, Xinhui; Chen, Guibing; Liu, Ting; Liu, Pingguo; Wu, Hua; Du, Jin; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging technique is an attractive tool to detect liver disease at early stage. This study aims to develop a simultaneous dual-isotope single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging method to assist diagnosis of hepatic tumor and liver fibrosis. Animal models of liver fibrosis and orthotopic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were established. The tracers of 131I-NGA and 99mTc-3P-RGD2 were selected to target asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) on the hepatocytes and integrin αvβ3 receptor in tumor or fibrotic liver, respectively. SPECT imaging and biodistribution study were carried out to verify the feasibility and superiority. As expected, 99mTc-3P-RGD2 had the ability to evaluate liver fibrosis and detect tumor lesions. 131I-NGA showed that it was effective in assessing the anatomy and function of the liver. In synchronized dual-isotope SPECT/CT imaging, clear fusion images can be got within 30 minutes for diagnosing liver fibrosis and liver cancer. This new developed imaging approach enables the acquisition of different physiological information for diagnosing liver fibrosis, liver cancer and evaluating residual functional liver volume simultaneously. So synchronized dual-isotope SPECT/CT imaging with 99mTc-3P-RGD2 and 131I-NGA is an effective approach to detect liver disease, especially liver fibrosis and liver cancer. PMID:27377130

  18. Dimensionality Reduction in Complex Medical Data: Improved Self-Adaptive Niche Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Xia, Jing; Yan, Molei; Cai, Guolong; Yan, Jing; Ning, Gangmin

    2015-01-01

    With the development of medical technology, more and more parameters are produced to describe the human physiological condition, forming high-dimensional clinical datasets. In clinical analysis, data are commonly utilized to establish mathematical models and carry out classification. High-dimensional clinical data will increase the complexity of classification, which is often utilized in the models, and thus reduce efficiency. The Niche Genetic Algorithm (NGA) is an excellent algorithm for dimensionality reduction. However, in the conventional NGA, the niche distance parameter is set in advance, which prevents it from adjusting to the environment. In this paper, an Improved Niche Genetic Algorithm (INGA) is introduced. It employs a self-adaptive niche-culling operation in the construction of the niche environment to improve the population diversity and prevent local optimal solutions. The INGA was verified in a stratification model for sepsis patients. The results show that, by applying INGA, the feature dimensionality of datasets was reduced from 77 to 10 and that the model achieved an accuracy of 92% in predicting 28-day death in sepsis patients, which is significantly higher than other methods. PMID:26649071

  19. Simultaneous SPECT imaging of multi-targets to assist in identifying hepatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhide; Gao, Mengna; Zhang, Deliang; Li, Yesen; Song, Manli; Zhuang, Rongqiang; Su, Xinhui; Chen, Guibing; Liu, Ting; Liu, Pingguo; Wu, Hua; Du, Jin; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging technique is an attractive tool to detect liver disease at early stage. This study aims to develop a simultaneous dual-isotope single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging method to assist diagnosis of hepatic tumor and liver fibrosis. Animal models of liver fibrosis and orthotopic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were established. The tracers of (131)I-NGA and (99m)Tc-3P-RGD2 were selected to target asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) on the hepatocytes and integrin αvβ3 receptor in tumor or fibrotic liver, respectively. SPECT imaging and biodistribution study were carried out to verify the feasibility and superiority. As expected, (99m)Tc-3P-RGD2 had the ability to evaluate liver fibrosis and detect tumor lesions. (131)I-NGA showed that it was effective in assessing the anatomy and function of the liver. In synchronized dual-isotope SPECT/CT imaging, clear fusion images can be got within 30 minutes for diagnosing liver fibrosis and liver cancer. This new developed imaging approach enables the acquisition of different physiological information for diagnosing liver fibrosis, liver cancer and evaluating residual functional liver volume simultaneously. So synchronized dual-isotope SPECT/CT imaging with (99m)Tc-3P-RGD2 and (131)I-NGA is an effective approach to detect liver disease, especially liver fibrosis and liver cancer. PMID:27377130

  20. Historical effects on beta diversity and community assembly in Amazonian trees

    PubMed Central

    Dexter, Kyle G.; Terborgh, John W.; Cunningham, Clifford W.

    2012-01-01

    We present a unique perspective on the role of historical processes in community assembly by synthesizing analyses of species turnover among communities with environmental data and independent, population genetic-derived estimates of among-community dispersal. We sampled floodplain and terra firme communities of the diverse tree genus Inga (Fabaceae) across a 250-km transect in Amazonian Peru and found patterns of distance-decay in compositional similarity in both habitat types. However, conventional analyses of distance-decay masked a zone of increased species turnover present in the middle of the transect. We estimated past seed dispersal among the same communities by examining geographic plastid DNA variation for eight widespread Inga species and uncovered a population genetic break in the majority of species that is geographically coincident with the zone of increased species turnover. Analyses of these and 12 additional Inga species shared between two communities located on opposite sides of the zone showed that the populations experienced divergence 42,000–612,000 y ago. Our results suggest that the observed distance decay is the result not of environmental gradients or dispersal limitation coupled with ecological drift—as conventionally interpreted under neutral ecological theory—but rather of secondary contact between historically separated communities. Thus, even at this small spatial scale, historical processes seem to significantly impact species’ distributions and community assembly. Other documented zones of increased species turnover found in the western Amazon basin or elsewhere may be related to similar historical processes. PMID:22547831

  1. Which type of surgery should become the preferred procedure for malignant pleural mesothelioma: extrapleural pneumonectomy or extended pleurectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Cansever, Levent; Demir, Adalet; Ceyhan, Süleyman; Akın, Hasan; Ürer, Halide Nur; Ölçmen, Aysun; Kocatürk, Celalettin; Dinçer, İbrahim

    2013-01-01

    Purposes Since radiation and chemotherapy have limitations as therapies for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The type of surgery [extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), extended pleurectomy (E/P), and pleurectomy/decortication (P/D)] remains controversial. Methods This study involves 76 consecutive patients. 58 of the cases were males (76%) with a median age of 53.17±10.93 years. EPP, E/P, and P/D were performed in 31, 20, and 25 cases, respectively. Results The median survival time was 20 months in all patients. Overall, five-year survival rate was 14.3%. The survival rate was significantly better in epithelioid mesothelioma (P=0.049). For EPP cases, the median survival rate was 17 months, and the three-to-five year survival rates were 21% and 17%, respectively. For E/P cases, the median survival rate was 27 months and the three-year and four-year survival rates were 34% and 30%, respectively. For P/D cases, the median survival rate was 15 months and the three-to-five year survival rate was 13% and 0%. There were no statistically significant differences between the three surgical techniques (P=0.088). A comparative analysis indicates only a statistically significant difference in the E/P and P/D comparison (P=0.032). Hospital mortality showed a higher trend in EPP group (EPP: 12.9%, E/P: 0% and P/D: 4%, P=0.145). N2 cases, there were no cases of two-year survival. The survival rate in N2 was comparatively much lower, which was statistically significant (P=0.005). In multivariate analysis, only P/D (OR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.9, P=0.049) and N2 (OR 1.6, 95% CI: 0.9-2.6, P=0.090) were found to be poor prognostic factors. Conclusions E/P could be encouraged to EPP with lower mortality rate and better survival trend in MPM. N2 diseases were negative prognostic factors in MPM. PMID:23991301

  2. Creating a More Inclusive Talent Pool for the GeoSciences in NOAA Mission Fields:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, J.; Trotman, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Educational Partnership Program (EPP) with Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) is recognized as a model federal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, (STEM) education investment. The EPP has a premier goal of increasing the numbers of students, especially from underrepresented communities, who are trained and awarded degrees in NOAA mission-relevant STEM fields. This goal is being achieved through awards to support undergraduate and graduate level student scholarships and to enhance NOAA mission-relevant education, research and internships at EPP Cooperative Science Centers located at MSIs. The internships allow undergraduate students to gain technical experience in STEM fields while gaining an understanding of a science mission agency such as NOAA. EPP has built evidence supporting the value of internships with its Undergraduate Scholarship Program (USP). Program metrics are used to refine and improve the internship to ensure student success. Scholarships are competitively awarded and requires applicants to submit a personal statement detailing the NOAA-relevant professional experience the applicant seeks to acquire, and gauges the depth of understanding of the work of NOAA.A focus is the EPP USP Student Internship at NOAA, which has two training phases. The first occurs at NOAA HQ in Maryland and incorporates exposure to NOAA professional culture including mentoring and professional development for scholarship recipients. The second occurs at NOAA facilities in the 50 states and US Territories. The internship projects are conducted under the supervision of a NOAA mentor and allow the scholars to: acquire increased science and technology skills: be attached to a research group and participate in a research activity as part of the team; and, acquire practical experience and knowledge of the day-to-day work of the NOAA facility. EPP has recently initiated the Experiential Research and Training

  3. An Overview of Energetic Particle Precipitation Effects on the Earth's Atmosphere and (Potentially) Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Energetic precipitating particles (EPPs) can cause significant constituent changes in the polar mesosphere and stratosphere (middle atmosphere) during certain periods. Both protons and electrons can influence the polar middle atmosphere through ionization and dissociation processes. EPPs can enhance HOx (H, OH, HO2) through the formation of positive ions followed by complex ion chemistry and NOx (N, NO, NO2) through the dissociation of molecular nitrogen. The solar EPP-created HOx increases can lead to ozone destruction in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere via several catalytic loss cycles. Such middle atmospheric HOx-caused ozone loss is rather short-lived due to the relatively short lifetime (hours) of the HOx constituents. The HOx-caused ozone depletion of greater than 30% has been observed during several large solar proton events (SPEs) in the past 50 years. HOx enhancements due to SPEs were confirmed by observations in solar cycle 23. A number of modeling studies have been undertaken over this time period that show predictions of enhanced HOx accompanied by decreased ozone due to energetic particles. The solar EPP-created NOx family has a longer lifetime than the HOx family and can also lead to catalytic ozone destruction. EPP-caused enhancements of the NOx family can affect ozone promptly, if produced in the stratosphere, or subsequently, if produced in the lower thermosphere or mesosphere and transported to the stratosphere. NOx enhancements due to auroral electrons, medium and high energy electrons, relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events, and SPEs have been measured and/or modeled for decades. Model predictions and measurements show that certain years have significant winter-time meteorological events, which result in the transport of EPP-caused NOx enhancements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere to lower altitudes. The NOx-caused ozone depletion has also been observed during several solar proton events (SPEs) in the past 50 years

  4. Two Overlapping Domains of a Lyssavirus Matrix Protein That Acts on Different Cell Death Pathways ▿

    PubMed Central

    Larrous, Florence; Gholami, Alireza; Mouhamad, Shahul; Estaquier, Jérôme; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    The lyssavirus matrix (M) protein induces apoptosis. The regions of the M protein that are essential for triggering cell death pathways are not yet clearly defined. We therefore compared the M proteins from two viruses that have contrasting characteristics in terms of cellular apoptosis: a genotype 3 lyssavirus, Mokola virus (MOK), and a genotype 1 rabies virus isolated from a dog from Thailand (THA). We identified a 20-amino-acid fragment (corresponding to positions 67 to 86) that retained the cell death activities of the full-length M protein from MOK via both the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) activity. We found that the amino acids at positions 77 and 81 have an essential role in triggering these two cell death pathways. Directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the amino acid at position 77 affects CcO activity, whereas the amino acid at position 81 affects TRAIL-dependent apoptosis. Mutations in the full-length M protein that compromised induction of either of these two pathways resulted in delayed apoptosis compared with the time to apoptosis for the nonmutated control. PMID:20631119

  5. Dependence structure of the Korean stock market in high frequency data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Jae; Kwak, Young Bin; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of the dependence structure for various time window intervals, known as Epps effect, using the Trade and Quote data of 663 actively traded stocks in Korean stock market. It is found that the random matrix theory analysis could not represent the dependence structure of the stock market in the microstructure regime. The Cook-Johnson copula is introduced as a parsimonious alternative method to handle this problem, and the existence of the Epps effect is confirmed for the 663 stocks using high frequency data. It was also found that large capitalization companies tend to have a stronger dependence structure, except for the largest capitalization group, since the phenomenon of price level resistance leads to the weak dependence structure in the largest capitalization group. In addition, grouping the industry as a sub-portfolio is an appropriate approach for hour interval traders, whereas this approach is not a strategy recommended for high frequency traders.

  6. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in a Patient with Erythropoietic Protoporphyria

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Thomas; Bailey, Ian S

    2010-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited defect in haem synthesis causing dangerous phototoxic reactions following exposure to wavelengths of light around 400nm. It can cause catastrophic post-operative complications following open surgery, in which environment various safety measures are now routinely employed. The dangers at laparoscopy have never been discussed in the literature, and nor have any specific precautions been recommended. We describe a 35 year old woman with gallstones undergoing prophylactic laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent future cholestasis precipitating porphyric liver failure. A pre-operative trial of the cutaneous effects of the laparoscopic light source was performed to assess the potential risk of use within the peritoneal cavity. The procedure was uneventful and the patient suffered no adverse reaction. We suggest that a trial of the effects of the laparoscopic light source on the skin of EPP patients provides valid reassurance regarding the safety of the laparoscopy for short surgical procedures. PMID:24946355

  7. Measurement and analysis of the pp→ppγ reaction at 310 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, A.; Haberzettl, H.; Nakayama, K.; Wilkin, C.

    2011-05-01

    The pp→ppγ reaction has been studied at a beam energy of 310 MeV by detecting both final protons at the PROMICE-WASA facility and identifying the photon through the resulting missing-mass peak. The photon angular distribution in the center-of-mass system and those of the proton-proton relative momentum with respect to the beam direction and to that of the recoil photon were determined reliably up to a final pp excitation energy of Epp~30 MeV. Except for very small Epp values, the behavior of these distributions with excitation energy is well reproduced by a new refined model of the hard bremsstrahlung process. The model reproduces absolutely the total cross section and its energy dependence to within the experimental and theoretical uncertainties.

  8. The role of thoracic surgery in the management of mesothelioma: an expert opinion on the limited evidence.

    PubMed

    Bertoglio, Pietro; Waller, David A

    2016-06-01

    Surgery has a key role at different points in the management of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma. Diagnosis with video assisted thoracoscopy offers excellent sensitivity and specificity and a direct view of the pleural cavity to verify the extent of the tumor. Nodal involvement can be assessed by mediastinoscopy and either talc pleurodesis or partial pleurectomy can be used for symptom control in advanced stage disease. Extra Pleural Pneumonectomy (EPP) and Extended Pleurectomy Decortication (EPD) are used to prolong survival although the benefit of radical surgery has not has been fully clarified; EPP failed to show its benefit in the MARS trial and EPD is currently under investigation in the MARS2 trial. More randomized prospective trial data are needed to fully understand the role of radical surgery in the treatment of pleural mesothelioma. PMID:27015594

  9. [Effect of excitant amino acid antagonists on glutamate receptors in the locust and on convulsions induced by glutamate, aspartate, kynurenine and quinolinic acid in mice].

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, I V; Slepokurov, M V; Lapin, I P; Mandel'shtam, Iu E; Aleksandrov, V G

    1986-03-01

    All excitatory amino acid antagonists studied: diethyl esters of aspartic (DEEA) and glutamic (DEEG) acids, 2-amino-3-phosphono-propionic acid (APPA) and 2-amino-4-phosphono-butanoic acid (APBA), diminished the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPP) of the locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) muscle fibers and arbitrary blocked glutamate (GLU) and aspartate (ASP) responses. Kynurenine (KYN) and quinolinic (QUI) acid had no effect on EPP even at a concentration of 2 X 10(-2) M. The antagonists were not strictly selective against intracerebroventricularly administered endogenous convulsants: GLU, ASP, KYN and QUI and in simulation of experimental seizures in mice. The antagonists structurally similar to ASP prevented ASP- and KYN-induced seizures in lower doses than GLU derivatives. Anti-KYN, but not anti-QUI DEEA, DEEG, APPA and APBA efficacy suggests that KYN and QUI act on different structures or binding sites. PMID:2869799

  10. Analysing powers and spin correlations in deuteron-proton charge exchange at 726 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymov, S.; Azaryan, T.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barsov, S.; Carbonell, J.; Chiladze, D.; Engels, R.; Gebel, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Khoukaz, A.; Komarov, V.; Kulessa, P.; Kulikov, A.; Kurbatov, V.; Lomidze, N.; Lorentz, B.; Macharashvili, G.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Merzliakov, S.; Mielke, M.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Mikirtychyants, S.; Nioradze, M.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Serdyuk, V.; Seyfarth, H.; Shmakova, V.; Ströher, H.; Tabidze, M.; Trusov, S.; Tsirkov, D.; Uzikov, Yu.; Valdau, Yu.; Weidemann, C.; Wilkin, C.

    2015-05-01

    The charge exchange of vector polarised deuterons on a polarised hydrogen target has been studied in a high statistics experiment at the COSY-ANKE facility at a deuteron beam energy of Td = 726 MeV. By selecting two fast protons at low relative energy Epp, the measured analysing powers and spin correlations are sensitive to interference terms between specific neutron-proton charge-exchange amplitudes at a neutron kinetic energy of Tn ≈1/2Td = 363 MeV. An impulse approximation calculation, which takes into account corrections due to the angular distribution in the diproton, describes reasonably the dependence of the data on both Epp and the momentum transfer. This lends broad support to the current neutron-proton partial wave solution that was used in the estimation.

  11. New developments in erythropoietic porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Darwich, E; Herrero, C

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, important advances have been made in our understanding of the genetics of porphyrias, particularly with respect to erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP), 2 forms of erythropoietic porphyria no longer considered to be monogenic. The identification of mutations in genes not previously associated with these disorders as causative factors or modulators of severity has helped to explain the presence of genotypic and phenotypic differences between patients carrying the same mutations. These advances have also led to the identification of causative genetic defects in patients who, based on molecular studies, had no mutations in the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene UROS (in CEP) or in the ferrochelatase gene FECH (in EPP). Better understanding and characterization of the genetics of porphyrias will allow us to determine genotypic and phenotypic correlations and improve the molecular classification of these diseases, which will have both practical and prognostic implications. PMID:22766189

  12. Energetic Particle Influence on the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironova, Irina A.; Aplin, Karen L.; Arnold, Frank; Bazilevskaya, Galina A.; Harrison, R. Giles; Krivolutsky, Alexei A.; Nicoll, Keri A.; Rozanov, Eugene V.; Turunen, Esa; Usoskin, Ilya G.

    2015-11-01

    This manuscript gives an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the effects of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) onto the whole atmosphere, from the lower thermosphere/mesosphere through the stratosphere and troposphere, to the surface. The paper summarizes the different sources and energies of particles, principally galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar energetic particles (SEPs) and energetic electron precipitation (EEP). All the proposed mechanisms by which EPP can affect the atmosphere are discussed, including chemical changes in the upper atmosphere and lower thermosphere, chemistry-dynamics feedbacks, the global electric circuit and cloud formation. The role of energetic particles in Earth's atmosphere is a multi-disciplinary problem that requires expertise from a range of scientific backgrounds. To assist with this synergy, summary tables are provided, which are intended to evaluate the level of current knowledge of the effects of energetic particles on processes in the entire atmosphere.

  13. An Investigation on Low Velocity Impact Response of Multilayer Sandwich Composite Structures

    PubMed Central

    Jedari Salami, S.; Sadighi, M.; Shakeri, M.; Moeinfar, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of adding an extra layer within a sandwich panel and two different core types in top and bottom cores on low velocity impact loadings are studied experimentally in this paper. The panel includes polymer composite laminated sheets for faces and the internal laminated sheet called extra layer sheet, and two types of crushable foams are selected as the core material. Low velocity impact tests were carried out by drop hammer testing machine to the clamped multilayer sandwich panels with expanded polypropylene (EPP) and polyurethane rigid (PUR) in the top and bottom cores. Local displacement of the top core, contact force and deflection of the sandwich panel were obtained for different locations of the internal sheet; meanwhile the EPP and PUR were used in the top and bottom cores alternatively. It was found that the core material type has made significant role in improving the sandwich panel's behavior compared with the effect of extra layer location. PMID:24453804

  14. Insights into public export promotion programs in an emerging economy: the case of Malaysian SMEs.

    PubMed

    Ayob, Abu H; Freixanet, Joan

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluates the impact of public export promotion programs (EPPs) among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia. Three indicators, level of awareness, frequency of use, and perception of usefulness, were examined according to a firm's export status. The global evaluation suggests that exporters are more frequent users of EPPs and perceive them to be more useful than non-exporters. Nonetheless, both groups demonstrate higher levels of awareness, are frequent users, and perceive the programs relating to export info/knowledge are more usefulness than programs relating to financial assistance. Further analysis also reveals that the frequency of use and the perception of usefulness for most programs are positively related to export experience, but not to export turnover. This study offers insights into the effectiveness of export programs for encouraging export initiation and expansion in an emerging economy. PMID:24907593

  15. An Overview of the Impact of Energetic Particle Precipitation on the Mesosphere and Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    Energetic precipitating particles (EPPs) can cause significant constituent changes in the polar mesosphere and stratosphere (middle atmosphere) during certain periods. Both protons and electrons can influence the polar middle atmosphere through ionization and dissociation processes. EPPs can enhance HOx (H, OH, HO2) through the formation of positive ions followed by complex ion chemistry and NOx (N, NO, NO2) through the dissociation of molecular nitrogen. The HO, increases can lead to ozone destruction in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere via several catalytic loss cycles. Such middle atmospheric HOx,-caused ozone loss is rather short-lived due to the relatively short lifetime (hours) of the HOx constituents. The HOx,-caused ozone depletion has been observed during several solar proton events (SPEs) in the past 40 years. HOx enhancements due to SPEs were confirmed by observations in the past solar cycle. A number of modeling studies have been undertaken over this time period that show predictions of enhanced HO, accompanied by decreased ozone due to energetic particles. The NO, family has a longer lifetime than the HOx family and can also lead to catalytic ozone destruction. EPP-caused enhancements of the NOx family can affect ozone promptly, if produced in the stratosphere, or subsequently, if produced in the 1ow.er thermosphere or mesosphere and transported to the stratosphere. NOx enhancements due to auroral electrons, medium and high energy electrons, relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events, and SPEs have been measured and/or modeled for decades Only a small number of SPEs (less than 10) in each solar cycle have sufficient flux of high energy protons (greater than 30 MeV) to produce a significant amount of NOx directly in the stratosphere to cause a measurable ozone destruction. Very high energy electrons (greater than 1500 keV) during REP events can also produce NOx directly in the stratosphere, however, the frequency and intensity of these

  16. An investigation on low velocity impact response of multilayer sandwich composite structures.

    PubMed

    Jedari Salami, S; Sadighi, M; Shakeri, M; Moeinfar, M

    2013-01-01

    The effects of adding an extra layer within a sandwich panel and two different core types in top and bottom cores on low velocity impact loadings are studied experimentally in this paper. The panel includes polymer composite laminated sheets for faces and the internal laminated sheet called extra layer sheet, and two types of crushable foams are selected as the core material. Low velocity impact tests were carried out by drop hammer testing machine to the clamped multilayer sandwich panels with expanded polypropylene (EPP) and polyurethane rigid (PUR) in the top and bottom cores. Local displacement of the top core, contact force and deflection of the sandwich panel were obtained for different locations of the internal sheet; meanwhile the EPP and PUR were used in the top and bottom cores alternatively. It was found that the core material type has made significant role in improving the sandwich panel's behavior compared with the effect of extra layer location. PMID:24453804

  17. Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer for use at Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, S L

    2010-04-07

    The Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (EPPS) is mounted in a TIM (Ten-Inch Manipulator) system on the Omega-60 or Omega-EP laser facilities at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), when in use, see Fig. 1. The Spectrometer assembly, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed of a steel box containing magnets, surrounded by Lead 6% Antimony shielding with SS threaded insert, sitting on an Aluminum 6061-T6 plate.

  18. Numerical weather prediction model tuning via ensemble prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvinen, H.; Laine, M.; Ollinaho, P.; Solonen, A.; Haario, H.

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses a novel approach to tune predictive skill of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. NWP models contain tunable parameters which appear in parameterizations schemes of sub-grid scale physical processes. Currently, numerical values of these parameters are specified manually. In a recent dual manuscript (QJRMS, revised) we developed a new concept and method for on-line estimation of the NWP model parameters. The EPPES ("Ensemble prediction and parameter estimation system") method requires only minimal changes to the existing operational ensemble prediction infra-structure and it seems very cost-effective because practically no new computations are introduced. The approach provides an algorithmic decision making tool for model parameter optimization in operational NWP. In EPPES, statistical inference about the NWP model tunable parameters is made by (i) generating each member of the ensemble of predictions using different model parameter values, drawn from a proposal distribution, and (ii) feeding-back the relative merits of the parameter values to the proposal distribution, based on evaluation of a suitable likelihood function against verifying observations. In the presentation, the method is first illustrated in low-order numerical tests using a stochastic version of the Lorenz-95 model which effectively emulates the principal features of ensemble prediction systems. The EPPES method correctly detects the unknown and wrongly specified parameters values, and leads to an improved forecast skill. Second, results with an atmospheric general circulation model based ensemble prediction system show that the NWP model tuning capacity of EPPES scales up to realistic models and ensemble prediction systems. Finally, a global top-end NWP model tuning exercise with preliminary results is published.

  19. Pre-School Quality and Educational Outcomes at Age 11: Low Quality Has Little Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Sammons, Pam; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the effects of pre-school quality on children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes at age 11 using a large-scale longitudinal study of 3000+ children in England (EPPE/EPPSE). The ECERS-R and a curricular extension to it (ECERS-E) were used to assess the quality of provision in 141 pre-school settings attended by the children.…

  20. Confidence in indirect assessment of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency and vaccine matching carried out by liquid phase ELISA and virus neutralization tests.

    PubMed

    Robiolo, Blanca; La Torre, José; Maradei, Eduardo; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Perez, Alejandro; Seki, Cristina; Smitsaart, Eliana; Fondevila, Norberto; Palma, Eduardo; Goris, Nesya; De Clercq, Kris; Mattion, Nora

    2010-08-31

    The necessity of avoiding the use of animals in vaccine potency testing has been widely recognized. The repeatability and reproducibility of the Expected Percentage of Protection (EPP) as a serological potency surrogate for A24 Cruzeiro foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strain was assessed, and compared with the results obtained with challenge in the Protection against Podal Generalization (PPG) test. To determine the EPPs, the serum titers obtained by liquid phase blocking competitive ELISA (lpELISA) and virus neutralization (VNT) in 10 potency trials using the same A24 Cruzeiro vaccine, were interpolated into previously validated logit transformation curves that correlate PPG with serology. Indirect serological assessment of vaccine matching between the serotype A FMDV strains A24 Cruzeiro and A/Argentina/01 was also carried out by lpELISA and VNT. The results obtained in this study strongly support the replacement of challenge tests for vaccine potency by indirect serological assays, at least for A24 Cruzeiro FMDV strain. While determination of EPPs by lpELISA titers showed an excellent repeatability, reproducibility and concordance with PPG for vaccine potency, assessments of cross-protection by VNT titers were more consistent with the PPG outcome. PMID:20643090

  1. Correlates of genetic monogamy in socially monogamous mammals: insights from Azara's owl monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Huck, Maren; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Babb, Paul; Schurr, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of mating systems, a central topic in evolutionary biology for more than 50 years, requires examining the genetic consequences of mating and the relationships between social systems and mating systems. Among pair-living mammals, where genetic monogamy is extremely rare, the extent of extra-group paternity rates has been associated with male participation in infant care, strength of the pair bond and length of the breeding season. This study evaluated the relationship between two of those factors and the genetic mating system of socially monogamous mammals, testing predictions that male care and strength of pair bond would be negatively correlated with rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). Autosomal microsatellite analyses provide evidence for genetic monogamy in a pair-living primate with bi-parental care, the Azara's owl monkey (Aotus azarae). A phylogenetically corrected generalized least square analysis was used to relate male care and strength of the pair bond to their genetic mating system (i.e. proportions of EPP) in 15 socially monogamous mammalian species. The intensity of male care was correlated with EPP rates in mammals, while strength of pair bond failed to reach statistical significance. Our analyses show that, once social monogamy has evolved, paternal care, and potentially also close bonds, may facilitate the evolution of genetic monogamy. PMID:24648230

  2. Introduction to the eastern Arctic Marine Environmental Studies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sutterlin, N.; Snow, N.

    1982-01-01

    Main problems are formulated and a study technique is characterized for the environmental protection program (EPP) of the eastern marine area of the Canadian Arctic in the area of physical-geographical (oceanography, meteorology, geomorphology) and biological sciences (microbiology, phytoand zooplankton, benthos, fish, birds and mammals, including white bear) which will be implemented in relation to realization of the extensive plans examined by the Canadian government back in 1977 for development of the large oil and gas resources of this part of the country. With regard for the severity of the ice and climate situation, it is planned to conduct studies of the EPP in the Canadian Arctic with the use of the entire modern scientific and technical potential, from ships and radar units to Earth satellites. Financing and supervision of the research on the EPP come from the government of the country, academic organizations and private firms. The research results will be published by the company Petro-Canada under the title ''Arctic.''

  3. Investigation of cell proliferative activity on the surface of the nanocomposite material produced by laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhurbina, N. N.; Kurilova, U. E.; Ickitidze, L. P.; Podgaetsky, V. M.; Selishchev, S. V.; Suetina, I. A.; Mezentseva, M. V.; Eganova, E. M.; Pavlov, A. A.; Gerasimenko, A. Y.

    2016-04-01

    A new method for the formation of composite nanomaterials based on multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) on a silicon substrate has been developed. Formation is carried out by ultrasound coating of a silicon substrate by homogenous dispersion of CNTs in the albumin matrix and further irradiation with the continuous laser beam with a wavelength of 810 nm and power of 5.5 watts. The high electrical conductivity of CNTs provides its structuring under the influence of the laser radiation electric field. The result is a scaffold that provides high mechanical strength of nanocomposite material (250 MPa). For in vitro studies of materials biocompatibility a method of cell growth microscopic analysis was developed. Human embryonic fibroblasts (EPP) were used as biological cells. Investigation of the interaction between nanocomposite material and cells was carried out by optical and atomic force microscopy depending on the time of cells incubation. The study showed that after 3 hours incubation EPP were fixed on the substrate surface, avoiding the surface of the composite material. However, after 24 hours of incubation EPP fix on the sample surface and then begin to grow and divide. After 72 hours of incubation, the cells completely fill the sample surface of nanocomposite material. Thus, a nanocomposite material based on CNTs in albumin matrix does not inhibit cell growth on its surface, and favours their growth. The nanocomposite material can be used for creating soft tissue implants

  4. Prevalence of tick borne encephalitis virus in tick nymphs in relation to climatic factors on the southern coast of Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is among the most important vector borne diseases of humans in Europe and is currently identified as a major health problem in many countries. TBE endemic zones have expanded over the past two decades, as well as the number of reported cases within endemic areas. Multiple factors are ascribed for the increased incidence of TBE, including climatic change. The number of TBE cases has also increased in Norway over the past decade, and the human cases cluster along the southern coast of Norway. In Norway the distribution and prevalence of TBE virus (TBEV) in tick populations is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to estimate the TBEV prevalence in Ixodes ricinus from seven locations and to assess the relationship between the TBEV prevalence and site-specific climatic variables. Methods A total of 5630 questing nymphs were collected and analyzed in pools of ten. All pools were screened with an in-house real-time RT-PCR, and the positive pools were pyrosequenced. Two methods, minimum infection rate (MIR) and a frequentist method (EPP) for pooled prevalence estimations were calculated and compared. Climatic data were descriptively compared to the corresponding EPP of each location in order to explain variations in TBEV prevalence. Results The seven foci of TBEV had an estimated overall prevalence (EPP) in pools of nymphs combined, of 0.53% with 95% CI (0.35–0.75), with point prevalence ranging between 0.11%–1.22%. The sites with the highest point prevalences were within the municipalities which had the highest numbers of registered TBE cases. The results indicate that the location with highest point prevalence had the highest relative mean humidity and lowest mean saturation deficit and vice versa for the lowest EPP. Conclusion Our study confirms the existence of TBEV endemic foci in Norway. These results are of importance to increase the awareness of TBEV infections in Norway and could be used for public

  5. Acetylcholine release evoked by single or a few nerve impulses in the electric organ of Torpedo.

    PubMed Central

    Dunant, Y; Eder, L; Servetiadis-Hirt, L

    1980-01-01

    1. The acetylcholine (ACh) store in the Torpedo electric organ was partially labelled with choline and acetate at the same molar concentration but with different isotopes. Under these conditions the two precursors were incorporated into ACh in a ratio 1 to 1. 2. After a single electrical stimulus, or a brief burst of stimuli, the compound electroplaque potential (e.p.p.) was recorded and the radioactive choline and/or acetate counted in the perfusion fluid, providing a sensitive assay for ACh release in the absence of anticholinesterase drugs. 3. The so-called depression of transmission was found to be due to progressive impairment of ACh release in the successive impulses evoked by repeated stimuli. 4. In a pair of impulses separated by 50 ms interval, less ACh was released by the second than by the first impulse; this explained why the size of the second e.p.p. was depressed, using a direct measurement of ACh. 5. In repetitive stimulations of longer duration, the maximum rate of release declined as the activity was prolonged. Thus the tissue progressively lost its ability to ensure release at high frequencies. 6. An unexpected finding was that anticholinesterases like eserine or pre-treatment with fluostigmine (DFP) greatly reduced ACh release even by a single impulse. 7. Evoked ACh release and e.p.p. amplitude were both maximum between 10 and 20 degrees C. At higher temperatures, the evoked release decreased as the spontaneous release increased. 8. Changes in external Ca2+ and Mg2+ produced similar changes in the e.p.p. and evoked ACh release. The dose--response curve for Ca dependency of ACh release was very steep with a Hill's coefficient of 3.2. 9. With a single stimulus in the presence of 4-aminopyridine, there was a dramatic enlargement of the e.p.p. and a still larger potentiation of the evoked ACh release. 10. It has been possible with this approach to avoid the inconveniences often encountered in simliar studies, i.e. repetitive stimulation, low Ca

  6. Observed impact of energetic particles on the stratosphere and mesosphere and its role in global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    Energetic precipitating particles (EPPs) can cause significant constituent changes in the polar stratosphere and mesosphere (middle atmosphere) during certain periods. Both protons and electrons can influence the polar middle atmosphere through ionization and dissociation processes. EPPs can enhance HOx (H, OH, HO2) through the formation of positive ions followed by complex ion chemistry and NOx (N, NO, NO2) through the dissociation of molecular nitrogen. The HOx increases can lead to ozone destruction in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere via several catalytic loss cycles. Such middle atmospheric HOx-caused ozone loss is rather short-lived due to the relatively short lifetime (hours) of the HOx constituents. HOx enhancements due to SPEs were confirmed by observations in the past solar cycle and HOx-caused ozone depletion has been observed during several solar proton events in the past 50 years. The NOx family has a longer lifetime than the HOx family and can also lead to catalytic ozone destruction. EPP-caused enhancements of the NOx family can affect ozone promptly, if produced in the stratosphere, or subsequently, if produced in the lower thermosphere or mesosphere and transported to the stratosphere. NOx enhancements due to auroral electrons, medium and high energy electrons, relativistic electron precipitation events, and solar proton events have been measured and/or modeled for decades. Model predictions and measurements show that certain years have significant winter-time meteorological events, which result in the transport of EPP-caused NOx enhancements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere to lower altitudes. A recent study has shown statistically significant changes in polar surface air temperatures correlated with electron precipitation, although the authors suggest that the Northern Annular Mode introduces significant uncertainty into the results (Seppälä et al., J. Geophys. Res., 114, A10312, doi:10.1029/2008JA014029, 2009). Several solar

  7. The effect of group V precursor on selective area MOVPE of InP/GaAs-related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ho-jin; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Shimogaki, Yukihiro

    2004-01-01

    Tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) and tertiarybutylarsine (TBAs) are widely used as alternative group V precursors for phosphine and arsine, mainly because of their comparatively low toxicity and low decomposition temperature. In this work, the effect of group V precursors on selective area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of InP/GaAs-related materials was studied, in terms of the surface sticking probabilities of group III intermediates. The sticking probabilities were measured by analyzing the thickness profiles of selectively grown films of GaAs and InP in 380-μm-wide growth area between SiO 2 masks. The sticking probability of the In precursor was about 3.2 times larger in the growth with PH 3 than with TBP at 823 K. The sticking probability of the Ga precursor was nearly the same whether the group V source was AsH 3 or TBAs. Such differences were manifested in the In/Ga ratio of selectively grown In xGa 1- xP. The difference in the sticking probabilities between the precursors of In and Ga mainly determined the In/Ga ratio. Based on a linear combination model using measured values of sticking probabilities, the variation of the composition was predicted to be larger in the growth with phosphine than with TBP. Measurement of the In/Ga composition using electron-probe micro analysis confirmed that prediction. It was proved that the kind of group V precursor is an important factor that governs composition uniformity in selective area MOVPE.

  8. Ge auto-doping and out-diffusion in InGaP grown on Ge substrate and their effects on the ordering of InGaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Tsai, Shi-Jane; Ho, Hao-I.; Lin, Hao-Hsiung

    2016-03-01

    We report on the Ge auto-doping and out-diffusion in InGaP epilayer with Cu-Pt ordering grown on 4-in. Ge substrate. Ge profiles determined from secondary ion mass spectrometry indicate that the Ge out-diffusion depth is within 100 nm. However, the edge of the wafer suffers from stronger Ge gas-phase auto-doping than the center, leading to ordering deterioration in the InGaP epilayer. In the edge, we observed a residual Cu-Pt ordering layer left beneath the surface, suggesting that the ordering deterioration takes place after the deposition rather than during the deposition and In/Ga inter-diffusion enhanced by Ge vapor-phase auto-doping is responsible for the deterioration. We thus propose a di-vacancy diffusion model, in which the amphoteric Ge increases the di-vacancy density, resulting in a Ge density dependent diffusion. In the model, the In/Ga inter-diffusion and Ge out-diffusion are realized by the random hopping of In/Ga host atoms and Ge atoms to di-vacancies, respectively. Simulation based on this model well fits the Ge out-diffusion profiles, suggesting its validity. By comparing the Ge diffusion coefficient obtained from the fitting and the characteristic time constant of ordering deterioration estimated from the residual ordering layer, we found that the hopping rates of Ge and the host atoms are in the same order of magnitude, indicating that di-vacancies are bound in the vicinity of Ge atoms.

  9. Experimental study of upper sd shell nuclei and evolution of sd-fp shell gap

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, M. Saha

    2012-06-27

    The intruder orbitals from the fp shell play important role in the structure of nuclei around the line of stability in the upper sd shell. Experimentally we have studied {sup 35}Cl, {sup 30}P, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 37}Ar and {sup 34}Cl in this mass region using the INGA setup. Large basis cross-shell shell model calculations have indicated the need for change of the sd-fp energy gap for reliable reproduction of negative parity and high spin positive parity states. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. Theoretical interpretation of these states has been discussed.

  10. Shape evolution at high spin states in Kr and Br isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Trivedi, T.; Palit, R.; Naik, Z.; Jain, H. C.; Negi, D.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Pancholi, S. C.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Yang, Y.-C.; Sun, Y.; Sheikh, J. A.; Raja, M. K.; Kumar, S.; Choudhury, D.; Jain, A. K.; Mehrotra, I.

    2014-08-14

    The high spin states in A = 75, Kr and Br isotopes have been populated via fusion-evaporation reaction at an incident beam energy of 90 MeV. The de-exciting γ-rays were detected utilizing the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Lifetime of these excited high spin states were determined by Doppler-shift attenuation method. Experimental results obtained from lifetime measurement are interpreted in the frame work of projected shell-model to get better insight into the evolution of collectivity. Comparison of the calculations of the model with transitional quadrupole moments Q{sub t} of the positive and negative parity bands firmly established their configurations.

  11. Do farmers reduce genetic diversity when they domesticate tropical trees? A case study from Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, P M; Dawson, I K; Goodall-Copestake, W P; Richardson, J E; Weber, J C; Sotelo Montes, C; Pennington, R T

    2005-02-01

    Agroforestry ecosystems may be an important resource for conservation and sustainable use of tropical trees, but little is known of the genetic diversity they contain. Inga edulis, a widespread indigenous fruit tree in South America, is used as a model to assess the maintenance of genetic diversity in five planted vs. five natural stands in the Peruvian Amazon. Analysis of five SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci indicated lower allelic variation in planted stands [mean corrected allelic richness 31.3 (planted) and 39.3 (natural), P = 0.009]. Concerns regarding genetic erosion in planted Amazonian tree stands appear valid, although allelic variation on-farm is still relatively high. PMID:15660940

  12. Understanding polarization properties of InAs quantum dots by atomistic modeling of growth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tasco, Vittorianna; Todaro, Maria Teresa; De Giorgi, Milena; Passaseo, Adriana; Usman, Muhammad

    2013-12-04

    A model for realistic InAs quantum dot composition profile is proposed and analyzed, consisting of a double region scheme with an In-rich internal core and an In-poor external shell, in order to mimic the atomic scale phenomena such as In-Ga intermixing and In segregation during the growth and overgrowth with GaAs. The parameters of the proposed model are derived by reproducing the experimentally measured polarization data. Further understanding is developed by analyzing the strain fields which suggests that the two-composition model indeed results in lower strain energies than the commonly applied uniform composition model.

  13. External Morphology and Ultra-Structure of Eggs and First Instar of Prepona Laertes Laertes (Hübner, [1811]), with Notes on Host Plant use and Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2011-01-01

    The external morphology and the tegument ultra-structure of Prepona laertes laertes (Hübner, [1811]) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae) eggs and first instar larvae feeding on Inga spp. (Fabaceae) in a forest fragment in Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil, are described. Descriptions of the morphology with illustrations are presented, based upon observations through scanning electron microscopy and stereoscopic and optic microscopes attached to a camera lucida. Descriptions and illustrations of the head capsule, chaetotaxy, tegument, and setae are presented. The taxonomy, morphological characters, and host plant use of Prepona laertes immature stages are discussed. PMID:22208698

  14. Selective area growth and characterization of InGaN nanocolumns for phosphor-free white light emission

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2013-03-21

    This work reports on the morphology and light emission characteristics of ordered InGaN nanocolumns grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Within the growth temperature range of 750 to 650 Degree-Sign C, the In incorporation can be modified either by the growth temperature, the In/Ga ratio, or the III/V ratio, following different mechanisms. Control of these factors allows the optimization of the InGaN nanocolumns light emission wavelength and line-shape. Furthermore, yellow-white emission is obtained at room temperature from nanostructures with a composition-graded active InGaN region obtained by temperature gradients during growth.

  15. Monolithic integration of InGaN segments emitting in the blue, green, and red spectral range in single ordered nanocolumns

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2013-05-06

    This work reports on the selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumnar heterostructures. The optimization of the In/Ga and total III/V ratios, as well as the growth temperature, provides control on the emission wavelength, either in the blue, green, or red spectral range. An adequate structure tailoring and monolithic integration in a single nanocolumnar heterostructure of three InGaN portions emitting in the red-green-blue colors lead to white light emission.

  16. Study of nuclear shapes in extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralithar, S.; Gamma spectroscopy Group in IUAC

    2013-04-01

    Studies of nuclear structure have fascinated physicists and was pursued for decades actively. Nuclear structure evolves as a function of proton and neutron ratio, energy and spin pumped into system. To facilitate nuclear structure study at high spin, a host of facilities were developed at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi and was used by users across this country for last twenty years. The tools developed, from Gamma detector array (GDA) with ancillary devices, to Indian National Gamma array (INGA) are presented with few physics cases.

  17. Regulation of neurogenesis by interkinetic nuclear migration through an apical-basal Notch gradient

    PubMed Central

    Del Bene, Filippo; Wehman, Ann M.; Link, Brian A.; Baier, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    The different cell types in the central nervous system develop from a common pool of progenitor cells. The nuclei of progenitors move between the apical and basal surfaces of the neuroepithelium in phase with their cell cycle, a process termed interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). In the retina of zebrafish mikre oko (mok) mutants, in which the motor protein Dynactin-1 is disrupted, interkinetic nuclei migrate more rapidly and more deeply to the basal side and more slowly to the apical side. We found that Notch signaling is predominantly activated on the apical side in both mutants and wildtype. Mutant progenitors are thus less exposed to Notch and exit the cell cycle prematurely. This leads to an overproduction of early-born retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at the expense of later-born interneurons and glia. Our data indicate that the function of INM is to balance the exposure of progenitor nuclei to neurogenic vs. proliferative signals. PMID:18805097

  18. Growth of crystals for synchrotron radiation Mössbauer investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrbova, M.; Hejduk, J.; Malnev, V. V.; Seleznev, V. N.; Yagupov, S. V.; Andronova, N. V.; Chechin, A. I.; Mikhailov, A. Yu.

    1991-10-01

    Iron borate crystals (FeBO 3) were flux grown at the Physical Institute (Prague) and at Simferopol State University. During the crystal growth procedure the temperature regime was held constant to 0.1°C accuracy. Crystals were investigated with the help of a double crystal X-ray diffractometer DRON-2 (SiO 2(30 overline33)FeBO 3(444), MoK α 1 radiation). The rocking curve measurements were carried out in a constant magnetic field of 1kG. Most of the crystal surface has a rocking curve 10″-15″ wide. Some parts of some crystals with the area 1 × 1 mm 2 have rocking curves of 3″-4″ width and can be considered ideal.

  19. Chimeric Lyssavirus Glycoproteins with Increased Immunological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Jallet, Corinne; Jacob, Yves; Bahloul, Chokri; Drings, Astrid; Desmezieres, Emmanuel; Tordo, Noël; Perrin, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The rabies virus glycoprotein molecule (G) can be divided into two parts separated by a flexible hinge: the NH2 half (site II part) containing antigenic site II up to the linear region (amino acids [aa] 253 to 275 encompassing epitope VI [aa 264]) and the COOH half (site III part) containing antigenic site III and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The structural and immunological roles of each part were investigated by cell transfection and mouse DNA-based immunization with homogeneous and chimeric G genes formed by fusion of the site II part of one genotype (GT) with the site III part of the same or another GT. Various site II-site III combinations between G genes of PV (Pasteur virus strain) rabies (GT1), Mokola (GT3), and EBL1 (European bat lyssavirus 1 [GT5]) viruses were tested. Plasmids pGPV-PV, pGMok-Mok, pGMok-PV, and pGEBL1-PV induced transient expression of correctly transported and folded antigens in neuroblastoma cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies against parental viruses in mice, whereas, pG-PVIII (site III part only) and pGPV-Mok did not. The site III part of PV (GT1) was a strong inducer of T helper cells and was very effective at presenting the site II part of various GTs. Both parts are required for correct folding and transport of chimeric G proteins which have a strong potential value for immunological studies and development of multivalent vaccines. Chimeric plasmid pGEBL1-PV broadens the spectrum of protection against European lyssavirus genotypes (GT1, GT5, and GT6). PMID:9847325

  20. Vertically aligned InGaN nanowires with engineered axial In composition for highly efficient visible light emission

    PubMed Central

    Ebaid, Mohamed; Kang, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Yang-Seok; Lim, Seung-Hyuk; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of novel InGaN nanowires (NWs) with improved crystalline quality and high radiative efficiency for applications as nanoscale visible light emitters. Pristine InGaN NWs grown under a uniform In/Ga molar flow ratio (UIF) exhibited multi-peak white-like emission and a high density of dislocation-like defects. A phase separation and broad emission with non-uniform luminescent clusters were also observed for a single UIF NW investigated by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence. Hence, we proposed a simple approach based on engineering the axial In content by increasing the In/Ga molar flow ratio at the end of NW growth. This new approach yielded samples with a high luminescence intensity, a narrow emission spectrum, and enhanced crystalline quality. Using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, the UIF NWs exhibited a long radiative recombination time (τr) and low internal quantum efficiency (IQE) due to strong exciton localization and carrier trapping in defect states. In contrast, NWs with engineered In content demonstrated three times higher IQE and a much shorter τr due to mitigated In fluctuation and improved crystal quality. PMID:26585509

  1. Periodic Two-Dimensional GaAs and InGaAs Quantum Rings Grown on GaAs (001) by Droplet Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Tung, Kar Hoo Patrick; Huang, Jian; Danner, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    Growth of ordered GaAs and InGaAs quantum rings (QRs) in a patterned SiO2 nanohole template by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using droplet epitaxy (DE) process is demonstrated. DE is an MBE growth technique used to fabricate quantum nanostructures of high crystal quality by supplying group III and group V elements in separate phases. In this work, ordered QRs grown on an ordered nanohole template are compared to self-assembled QRs grown with the same DE technique without the nanohole template. This study allows us to understand and compare the surface kinetics of Ga and InGa droplets when a template is present. It is found that template-grown GaAs QRs form clustered rings which can be attributed to low mobility of Ga droplets resulting in multiple nucleation sites for QR formation when As is supplied. However, the case of template-grown InGaAs QRs only one ring is formed per nanohole; no clustering is observed. The outer QR diameter is a close match to the nanohole template diameter. This can be attributed to more mobile InGa droplets, which coalesce from an Ostwald ripening to form a single large droplet before As is supplied. Thus, well-patterned InGaAs QRs are demonstrated and the kinetics of their growth are better understood which could potentially lead to improvements in the future devices that require the unique properties of patterned QRs. PMID:27427737

  2. Kinetics, Ca2+ dependence, and biophysical properties of integrin-mediated mechanical modulation of transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. M.; Grinnell, A. D.

    1997-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals is strongly modulated by change in muscle length. Over the physiological range, there is an approximately 10% increase in spontaneous and evoked release per 1% muscle stretch. Because many muscle fibers do not receive suprathreshold synaptic inputs at rest length, this stretch-induced enhancement of release constitutes a strong peripheral amplifier of the spinal stretch reflex. The stretch modulation of release is inhibited by peptides that block integrin binding of natural ligands. The modulation varies linearly with length, with a delay of no more than approximately 1-2 msec and is maintained constant at the new length. Moreover, the stretch modulation persists in a zero Ca2+ Ringer and, hence, is not dependent on Ca2+ influx through stretch activated channels. Eliminating transmembrane Ca2+ gradients and buffering intraterminal Ca2+ to approximately normal resting levels does not eliminate the modulation, suggesting that it is not the result of release of Ca2+ from internal stores. Finally, changes in temperature have no detectable effect on the kinetics of stretch-induced changes in endplate potential (EPP) amplitude or miniature EPP (mEPP) frequency. We conclude, therefore, that stretch does not act via second messenger pathways or a chemical modification of molecules involved in the release pathway. Instead, there is direct mechanical modulation of release. We postulate that tension on integrins in the presynaptic membrane is transduced mechanically into changes in the position or conformation of one or more molecules involved in neurotransmitter release, altering sensitivity to Ca2+ or the equilibrium for a critical reaction leading to vesicle fusion.

  3. Understanding and evaluating the effects of implementing an electronic paediatric prescribing system on care provision and hospital work in paediatric hospital ward settings: a qualitatively driven mixed-method study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Farre, Albert; Cummins, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic prescribing systems can improve the quality and safety of healthcare services, but their implementation is not straightforward and may create unexpected change. However, the added complexity of paediatric prescribing (eg, dose calculations, dilutions, manipulations) may pose additional challenges. This study will aim to (1) understand the complex organisational reality of a paediatric hospital in which a new electronic paediatric prescribing (ePP) system will be introduced; (2) describe ePP-related change, over time, in paediatric hospital ward settings; (3) explore staff perspectives in relation to currently established practices and processes; and (4) assess the impact of ePP on care provision and hospital work from the perspective of paediatricians, paediatric nurses and managers. Methods and analysis A qualitatively driven mixed-method approach will be adopted, including 3 inter-related substudies. The core component of the study will be qualitative (substudy 1): we will use ethnographic research methods, including non-participant observation in wards and informal conversational interviews with members of staff. In addition, the design will include 2 embedded supplementary components: a qualitative 1 (substudy 2) based on in-depth interviews and/or focus groups with paediatricians, paediatric nurses, paediatric pharmacists/pharmacy technicians and managers; and a quantitative 1 (substudy 3) in which a staff survey will be developed and administered before and after the ePP implementation. Analytic themes will be identified from ethnographic field notes and interview data. Survey data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and baseline and follow-up data compared to establish impact evaluation measures. Ethics and dissemination A favourable ethical opinion has been obtained from a National Health Service (NHS) Research Ethics Committee (15/SS/0157). NHS research governance approval has been obtained at the relevant hospital site

  4. Sexual conflict arising from extrapair matings in birds.

    PubMed

    Chaine, Alexis S; Montgomerie, Robert; Lyon, Bruce E

    2015-03-01

    The discovery that extrapair copulation (EPC) and extrapair paternity (EPP) are common in birds led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the evolution of mating systems. The prevalence of extrapair matings in pair-bonded species sets the stage for sexual conflict, and a recent focus has been to consider how this conflict can shape variation in extrapair mating rates. Here, we invert the causal arrow and consider the consequences of extrapair matings for sexual conflict. Extrapair matings shift sexual conflict from a simple two-player (male vs. female) game to a game with three or more players, the nature of which we illustrate with simple diagrams that highlight the net costs and benefits of extrapair matings to each player. This approach helps identify the sorts of traits that might be under selection because of sexual conflict. Whether EPP is driven primarily by the extrapair male or the within-pair female profoundly influences which players are in conflict, but the overall pattern of conflict varies little among different mating systems. Different aspects of conflict are manifest at different stages of the breeding cycle and can be profitably considered as distinct episodes of selection caused by conflict. This perspective is illuminating both because conflict between specific players can change across episodes and because the traits that evolve to mediate conflict likely differ between episodes. Although EPP clearly leads to sexual conflict, we suggest that the link between sexual conflict and multiple paternity might be usefully understood by examining how deviations from lifetime sexual monogamy influence sexual conflict. PMID:25605708

  5. Kinetics, Ca2+ dependence, and biophysical properties of integrin-mediated mechanical modulation of transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Chen, B M; Grinnell, A D

    1997-02-01

    Neurotransmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals is strongly modulated by change in muscle length. Over the physiological range, there is an approximately 10% increase in spontaneous and evoked release per 1% muscle stretch. Because many muscle fibers do not receive suprathreshold synaptic inputs at rest length, this stretch-induced enhancement of release constitutes a strong peripheral amplifier of the spinal stretch reflex. The stretch modulation of release is inhibited by peptides that block integrin binding of natural ligands. The modulation varies linearly with length, with a delay of no more than approximately 1-2 msec and is maintained constant at the new length. Moreover, the stretch modulation persists in a zero Ca2+ Ringer and, hence, is not dependent on Ca2+ influx through stretch activated channels. Eliminating transmembrane Ca2+ gradients and buffering intraterminal Ca2+ to approximately normal resting levels does not eliminate the modulation, suggesting that it is not the result of release of Ca2+ from internal stores. Finally, changes in temperature have no detectable effect on the kinetics of stretch-induced changes in endplate potential (EPP) amplitude or miniature EPP (mEPP) frequency. We conclude, therefore, that stretch does not act via second messenger pathways or a chemical modification of molecules involved in the release pathway. Instead, there is direct mechanical modulation of release. We postulate that tension on integrins in the presynaptic membrane is transduced mechanically into changes in the position or conformation of one or more molecules involved in neurotransmitter release, altering sensitivity to Ca2+ or the equilibrium for a critical reaction leading to vesicle fusion. PMID:8994045

  6. Neuromuscular transmission in the athymic nude mouse.

    PubMed

    Schofield, G G; Marshall, I G

    1980-10-01

    No major differences were observed in the mechanical properties of diaphragm, extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles from athymic nude and control mice. Denervated soleus muscles from nudes and controls showed no significant differences in their sensitivities to the cholinoceptor agonists acetylcholine and carbachol, either in the absence or presence of the anticholinesterase, physostigmine, suggesting that postjunctional receptor function is essentially normal. Phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations from nudes were less sensitive to the twitch-augmenting effects of neostigmine. No difference in the time course of endplate potentials (epps) between nudes and controls was seen either in the absence or presence of neostigmine. Hence the observed differences in twitch augmentation are unlikely to be due to differences in acetylcholinesterase activity in the two muscles. In normal mice miniature endplate potential (mepp) amplitude decreased and mepp frequency increased with age. These changes were associated with an increase in muscle fibre diameter and a concomitant decrease in membrane resistance. Such changes did not occur in nude mice; thus mepp amplitude remained, high as in young normal muscle. It is suggested that the thymus may play a role in muscle development and that the effects on neuromuscular transmission are secondary to changes in development. In cut diaphragm muscles transmitter reversal potentials in nudes and controls were not different. Although there was no difference in the amplitude of the first epp of a train, or in the immediately releasable acetylcholine store, the quantal content of the first epp, the probability of transmitter release, the total nerve terminal acetylcholine store and the transmitter mobilization rate were all reduced. It is considered probable that all the measurable differences in transmitter release can be explained in terms of the nude muscle fibre diameter being small and being associated with a small nerve terminal

  7. Proton Therapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma After Extrapleural Pleuropneumonectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Krayenbuehl, Jerome; Hartmann, Matthias; Lomax, Anthony J.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To perform comparative planning for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and proton therapy (PT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma after radical surgery. Methods and Materials: Eight patients treated with IMRT after extrapleural pleuropneumonectomy (EPP) were replanned for PT, comparing dose homogeneity, target volume coverage, and mean and maximal dose to organs at risk. Feasibility of PT was evaluated regarding the dose distribution with respect to air cavities after EPP. Results: Dose coverage and dose homogeneity of the planning target volume (PTV) were significantly better for PT than for IMRT regarding the volume covered by >95% (V95) for the high-dose PTV. The mean dose to the contralateral kidney, ipsilateral kidney, contralateral lung, liver, and heart and spinal cord dose were significantly reduced with PT compared with IMRT. After EPP, air cavities were common (range, 0-850 cm{sup 3}), decreasing from 0 to 18.5 cm{sup 3}/day. In 2 patients, air cavity changes during RT decreased the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) in the case of using an a value of < - 10 to the PTV2 to <2 Gy in the presence of changing cavities for PT, and to 40 Gy for IMRT. Small changes were observed for gEUD of PTV1 because PTV1 was reached by the beams before air. Conclusion: Both PT and IMRT achieved good target coverage and dose homogeneity. Proton therapy accomplished additional dose sparing of most organs at risk compared with IMRT. Proton therapy dose distributions were more susceptible to changing air cavities, emphasizing the need for adaptive RT and replanning.

  8. Alga-Derived Substrates Select for Distinct Betaproteobacterial Lineages and Contribute to Niche Separation in Limnohabitans Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Šimek, Karel; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Zapomělová, Eliška; Horňák, Karel

    2011-01-01

    We examined the proportions of major Betaproteobacteria subgroups within bacterial communities in diverse nonaxenic, monospecific cultures of algae or cyanobacteria: four species of cryptophyta (genera Cryptomonas and Rhodomonas), four species of chlorophyta (genera Pediastrum, Staurastrum, and Chlamydomonas), and two species of cyanobacteria (genera Dolichospermum and Aphanizomenon). In the cryptophyta cultures, Betaproteobacteria represented 48 to 71% of total bacteria, the genus Limnohabitans represented 18 to 26%, and the Polynucleobacter B subcluster represented 5 to 16%. In the taxonomically diverse chlorophyta group, the genus Limnohabitans accounted for 7 to 45% of total bacteria. In contrast, cyanobacterial cultures contained significantly lower proportions of the Limnohabitans bacteria (1 to 3% of the total) than the cryptophyta and chlorophyta cultures. Notably, largely absent in all of the cultures was Polynucleobacter necessarius (Polynucleobacter C subcluster). Subsequently, we examined the growth of Limnohabitans strains in the presence of different algae or their extracellular products (EPP). Two strains, affiliated with Limnohabitans planktonicus and Limnohabitans parvus, were separately inoculated into axenic cultures of three algal species growing in an inorganic medium: Cryptomonas sp., Chlamydomonas noctigama, and Pediastrum boryanum. The Limnohabitans strains cocultured with these algae or inoculated into their EPP consistently showed (i) pronounced population growth compared to the control without the algae or EPP and (ii) stronger growth stimulation of L. planktonicus than of L. parvus. Overall, growth responses of the Limnohabitans strains cultured with algae were highly species specific, which suggests a pronounced niche separation between two closely related Limnohabitans species likely mediated by different abilities to utilize the substrates produced by different algal species. PMID:21873481

  9. Clinical experience of volumetric modulated arc therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma after extrapleural pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tomoki; Doi, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Takeo; Imano, Nobuki; Katsuta, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Shigeo; Kenjo, Masahiro; Ozawa, Shuichi; Murakami, Yuji; Nagata, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). A total of 15 patients who received VMAT after EPP were enrolled. All patients were males, and the median age was 67 years (Stage IB in two, II in six, and III in seven patients). The clinical target volume (CTV) included the entire preoperative ipsilateral hemithorax and involved nodal stations. The CTV was generally expanded by 10–15 mm beyond the planning target volume (PTV). The dose prescription was designed to cover 95% of the PTV with 54 Gy in 30 fractions. The median follow-up period was 11 months. Treatment-related toxicities were evaluated by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) ver. 4. One-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 55.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 25.6–85.8%], 29.3% (95% CI: 5.3–53.3%), and 43.1% (95% CI: 17.1–69.0%), respectively. According to the histological analysis, the one-year LC rate was significantly worse in patients with non-epithelial type (biphasic and sarcomatoid types) than in patients with epithelial type [epithelial type: 83.3% (95% CI, 53.5–100%), non-epithelial type: 0% (95% CI, 0%), P = 0.0011]. Grade 3 pneumonitis after VMAT was observed in three patients (20.0%); however, no patients died of pulmonary toxicity. VMAT appears to be relatively safe for patients with MPM after EPP because of the low pulmonary dose. PMID:25599996

  10. [Practice guidelines: let us sort them].

    PubMed

    Augereau, C; Couaillac, J-P; De Mouy, D; Dézier, J-F; Fonfrède, M; Lepargneur, J-P; Szymanowicz, A; Watine, J

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) is published. This is understandable because CPG are the corner stone in the evaluation of professional practices (EPP). One cannot deny that EPP is necessary. However, in order for the EPP to reach their objectives, which are to use our resources better and to improve health-care, CPG at our disposal should be of good quality, both in their form and in their content. This is not always the case. What is more, health-care professionals are often not properly trained to distinguish "good" from "not so good" CPG. In this context, the Société française de biologie clinique has created a working group on "CPG and Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine (EBLM)". One of the main objectives of our group is to publish critical appraisals of CPG on a regular basis in the Annales de Biologie Clinique (ABC). Thus, the ABC will follow the example set by other medical journals, for example in France: Prescrire. We will more particularly appraise CPGs in relation with laboratory medicine. In this first article, we describe the methods that we will use in order to distinguish "good" from "not so good" CPG. Just like Prescrire as well as like many others, our first tool will be the AGREE instrument, which is quite consensual at an international level. The AGREE tool makes it possible to appraise quite easily, and in a reproducible way, the methodological quality of CPG. We also briefly discuss the more complicated methods that can be used to make judgments about the content of CPG, bearing in mind that equity, patients' autonomy, balancing risks and benefits, are the four universal principles of medical ethics, that is of good medicine, that is of EB(L)M. PMID:19654090

  11. Efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of dairy calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Mélanie J; Mani, Rinosh; Breshears, Melanie A; Gilmour, Margi; Taylor, Jared D; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). ANIMALS 12 healthy dairy calves. PROCEDURES For each calf, a grid keratotomy was performed on both eyes immediately before inoculation with Moraxella bovis hemolytic strain Epp63-300 (n = 11 calves) or nonhemolytic strain 12040577 (1 calf). For each calf inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, the eyes were randomly assigned to receive an artificial tear solution with (treatment group) or without (control group) lyophilized B bacteriovorus 109J. Six doses of the assigned treatment (0.2 mL/eye, topically, q 48 h) were administered to each eye. On nontreatment days, eyes were assessed and corneal swab specimens and tear samples were collected for bacterial culture. Calves were euthanized 12 days after M bovis inoculation. The eyes were harvested for gross and histologic evaluation and bacterial culture. RESULTS The calf inoculated with M bovis 12040577 did not develop corneal ulcers. Of the 22 eyes inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, 18 developed corneal ulcers consistent with IBK within 48 hours after inoculation; 4 of those eyes developed secondary corneal ulcers that were not consistent with IBK. Corneal ulcer size and severity and the time required for ulcer healing did not differ between the treatment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that B bacteriovorus 109J was not effective for the treatment of IBK; however, the experimental model used produced lesions that did not completely mimic naturally occurring IBK. PMID:27580114

  12. GOES-R Dual Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, Doug; Carter, Delano; Chapel, Jim; Clapp, Brian; Howat, John; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the first of the next generation geostationary weather satellites, scheduled for delivery in late 2015. GOES-R represents a quantum increase in Earth and solar weather observation capabilities, with 4 times the resolution, 5 times the observation rate, and 3 times the number of spectral bands for Earth observations. With the improved resolution, comes the instrument suite's increased sensitive to disturbances over a broad spectrum 0-512 Hz. Sources of disturbance include reaction wheels, thruster firings for station keeping and momentum management, gimbal motion, and internal instrument disturbances. To minimize the impact of these disturbances, the baseline design includes an Earth Pointed Platform (EPP), a stiff optical bench to which the two nadir pointed instruments are collocated together with the Guidance Navigation & Control (GN&C) star trackers and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). The EPP is passively isolated from the spacecraft bus with Honeywell D-Strut isolators providing attenuation for frequencies above approximately 5 Hz in all six degrees-of-freedom. A change in Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) vendors occurred very late in the program. To reduce the risk of RWA disturbances impacting performance, a secondary passive isolation system manufactured by Moog CSA Engineering was incorporated under each of the six 160 Nms RWAs, tuned to provide attenuation at frequencies above approximately 50 Hz. Integrated wheel and isolator testing was performed on a Kistler table at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. High fidelity simulations were conducted to evaluate jitter performance for four topologies: 1) hard mounted no isolation, 2) EPP isolation only, 2) RWA isolation only, and 4) dual isolation. Simulation results demonstrate excellent performance relative to the pointing stability requirements, with dual isolated Line of Sight (LOS) jitter less than 1 micron rad.

  13. Impaired Synaptic Development, Maintenance, and Neuromuscular Transmission in LRP4 Myasthenia

    PubMed Central

    Selcen, Duygu; Ohkawara, Bisei; Shen, Xin-Ming; McEvoy, Kathleen; Ohno, Kinji; Engel, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are heterogeneous disorders. Defining the phenotypic features, genetic basis, and pathomechanisms of a CMS is relevant to prognosis, genetic counseling, and therapy. OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical, structural, electrophysiologic, and genetic features of a CMS and search for optimal therapy. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS Two sisters, 34 and 20 years of age suffering from a CMS affecting the limb-girdle muscles were investigated at an academic medical center by clinical observation, in vitro analysis of neuromuscular transmission, cytochemical and electron microscopy studies of the neuromuscular junction, exome sequencing, expression studies in HEK293 and COS-7 cells, and for response to therapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We identified the disease gene and mutation, confirmed pathogenicity of the mutation by expression studies, and instituted optimal pharmacotherapy. RESULTS Intercostal muscle endplates (EPs) were abnormally small with attenuated reactivities for the acetylcholine receptor and acetylcholine esterase. Most EPs had poorly differentiated or degenerate junctional folds and some appeared denuded of nerve terminals. The amplitude of the EP potential (EPP), the miniature EPP, and the quantal content of the EPP were all markedly reduced. Exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous p.Glu1233Ala mutation in LRP4, a coreceptor for agrin to activate MuSK, required for EP development and maintenance. Expression studies indicate the mutation compromises ability of LRP4 to bind to, phosphorylate, and activate MuSK. Albuterol improved the patients’ symptoms. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We identify a second CMS kinship harboring mutations in LRP4, identify the mechanisms that impair neuromuscular transmission, and mitigate the disease by appropriate therapy. PMID:26052878

  14. Alga-derived substrates select for distinct Betaproteobacterial lineages and contribute to niche separation in Limnohabitans strains.

    PubMed

    Simek, Karel; Kasalický, Vojtĕch; Zapomĕlová, Eliska; Hornák, Karel

    2011-10-01

    We examined the proportions of major Betaproteobacteria subgroups within bacterial communities in diverse nonaxenic, monospecific cultures of algae or cyanobacteria: four species of cryptophyta (genera Cryptomonas and Rhodomonas), four species of chlorophyta (genera Pediastrum, Staurastrum, and Chlamydomonas), and two species of cyanobacteria (genera Dolichospermum and Aphanizomenon). In the cryptophyta cultures, Betaproteobacteria represented 48 to 71% of total bacteria, the genus Limnohabitans represented 18 to 26%, and the Polynucleobacter B subcluster represented 5 to 16%. In the taxonomically diverse chlorophyta group, the genus Limnohabitans accounted for 7 to 45% of total bacteria. In contrast, cyanobacterial cultures contained significantly lower proportions of the Limnohabitans bacteria (1 to 3% of the total) than the cryptophyta and chlorophyta cultures. Notably, largely absent in all of the cultures was Polynucleobacter necessarius (Polynucleobacter C subcluster). Subsequently, we examined the growth of Limnohabitans strains in the presence of different algae or their extracellular products (EPP). Two strains, affiliated with Limnohabitans planktonicus and Limnohabitans parvus, were separately inoculated into axenic cultures of three algal species growing in an inorganic medium: Cryptomonas sp., Chlamydomonas noctigama, and Pediastrum boryanum. The Limnohabitans strains cocultured with these algae or inoculated into their EPP consistently showed (i) pronounced population growth compared to the control without the algae or EPP and (ii) stronger growth stimulation of L. planktonicus than of L. parvus. Overall, growth responses of the Limnohabitans strains cultured with algae were highly species specific, which suggests a pronounced niche separation between two closely related Limnohabitans species likely mediated by different abilities to utilize the substrates produced by different algal species. PMID:21873481

  15. Calibrating SNO and the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei

    2001-10-01

    The neutrino deuteron scattering processes, ν darrow ν np and ν darrow epp (employed by SNO to measure the ^8B solar neutrino flux) and the proton-proton fusion process pparrow de^+ν (which provides the principle energy and neutrinos of the Sun) are crucial for neutrino astrophysics. However, they have not been constrained experimentally. Various proposals to calibrate these processes will be discussed in the frame work of effective field theory. Muonic deuteron weak capture which could be measured at PSI will be emphasized.

  16. Deterministic Polarization Entanglement Purification of Cluster State in Multiple Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua; Huang, Dazu

    2015-04-01

    We propose a deterministic polarization entanglement purification protocol (EPP) towards four-photon Cluster state, resorting to linear optic technology and multiple degrees of freedom (DOF). All of the participants can jointedly distill the maximally entangled states from the mixed states after transmission through a noisy channel with success probability 100 % in principle. The proposed protocol can be employed for the purification of any other multi-partite maximally entangled states, such as the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and W state, which is actually an universally feasible entanglement purification scheme towards multi-photon entanglement system.

  17. Incident Energy Focused Design and Validation for the Floating Potential Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2002-01-01

    Utilizing the spacecraft shadowing and incident energy analysis capabilities of the NASA Glenn Research Center Power and Propulsion Office's SPACE System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) computer code, this paper documents the analyses for various International Space Station (ISS) Floating Potential Probe (EPP) preliminary design options. These options include various solar panel orientations and configurations as well as deployment locations on the ISS. The incident energy for the final selected option is characterized. A good correlation between the predicted data and on-orbit operational telemetry is demonstrated. Minor deviations are postulated to be induced by degradation or sensor drift.

  18. Factors associated with survival in a large series of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in New South Wales

    PubMed Central

    Linton, A; Pavlakis, N; O'Connell, R; Soeberg, M; Kao, S; Clarke, S; Vardy, J; van Zandwijk, N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the prognosis of most patients presenting with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is poor, a small proportion survives long term. We investigated factors associated with survival in a large patient series. Methods: All patients registered with the NSW Dust Diseases Board (2002–2009) were included in an analysis of prognostic factors using Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analysis. On the basis of these analyses, we developed a risk score (Prognostic Index (PI)). Results: We identified 910 patients: 90% male; histology (epithelioid 60% biphasic 13% sarcomatoid 17%); stage (Tx-I-II 48% III-IV 52%); and calretinin expression (91%). Treatment: chemotherapy(CT) 44%, and extrapleural-pneumonectomy (EPP) 6%. Median overall survival (OS) was 10.0 months. Longer OS was associated with: age <70 (13.5 vs 8.5 months; P<0.001); female gender (12.0 vs 9.9 months; P<0.001); epithelioid subtype (13.3 vs 6.2 months; P<0.001); ECOG status 0 (27.4 vs 9.7 months; P=0.015), calretinin expression (10.9 vs 5.5 months; P<0.001); neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR) <5 (11.9 vs 7.5 months; P<0.001); platelet count <400 (11.5 vs 7.2 months; P<0.001); and normal haemoglobin (16.4 vs 8.8 months; P<0.001). On time-dependent analysis, patients receiving pemetrexed-based chemotherapy (HR=0.83; P=0.048) or EPP (HR=0.41; P<0.001) had improved survival. Age, gender, histology, calretinin and haematological factors remained significant on multivariate analysis. In all, 24% of patients survived >20 months: 16% of these receiving EPP, and 66% CT. The PI offered improved prognostic discrimination over one of the existing prognostic models (EORTC). Conclusions: We identified calretinin expression, age, gender, histological subtype, platelet count and haemoglobin level as independent prognostic factors. Patients undergoing EPP or pemetrexed-based chemotherapy demonstrated better survival, but 84% and 34% of long survivors, respectively, did not receive radical surgery or

  19. Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine and Artemether-Lumefantrine for Treating Uncomplicated Malaria in African Children: A Randomised, Non-Inferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bassat, Quique; Mulenga, Modest; Tinto, Halidou; Piola, Patrice; Borrmann, Steffen; Menéndez, Clara; Nambozi, Michael; Valéa, Innocent; Nabasumba, Carolyn; Sasi, Philip; Bacchieri, Antonella; Corsi, Marco; Ubben, David; Talisuna, Ambrose; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Background Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are currently the preferred option for treating uncomplicated malaria. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) is a promising fixed-dose ACT with limited information on its safety and efficacy in African children. Methodology/Principal Findings The non-inferiority of DHA-PQP versus artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in children 6–59 months old with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria was tested in five African countries (Burkina Faso, Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda and Zambia). Patients were randomised (2∶1) to receive either DHA-PQP or AL. Non-inferiority was assessed using a margin of −5% for the lower limit of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval on the treatment difference (DHA-PQP vs. AL) of the day 28 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) corrected cure rate. Efficacy analysis was performed in several populations, and two of them are presented here: intention-to-treat (ITT) and enlarged per-protocol (ePP). 1553 children were randomised, 1039 receiving DHA-PQP and 514 AL. The PCR-corrected day 28 cure rate was 90.4% (ITT) and 94.7% (ePP) in the DHA-PQP group, and 90.0% (ITT) and 95.3% (ePP) in the AL group. The lower limits of the one-sided 97.5% CI of the difference between the two treatments were −2.80% and −2.96%, in the ITT and ePP populations, respectively. In the ITT population, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of the proportion of new infections up to Day 42 was 13.55% (95% CI: 11.35%–15.76%) for DHA-PQP vs 24.00% (95% CI: 20.11%–27.88%) for AL (p<0.0001). Conclusions/Significance DHA-PQP is as efficacious as AL in treating uncomplicated malaria in African children from different endemicity settings, and shows a comparable safety profile. The occurrence of new infections within the 42-day follow up was significantly lower in the DHA-PQP group, indicating a longer post-treatment prophylactic effect. Trial Registration Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN16263443 PMID:19936217

  20. A Fast Event Preprocessor and Sequencer for the Simbol-X Low Energy Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Schanz, T.; Tenzer, C.; Maier, D.; Kendziorra, E.; Santangelo, A.

    2009-05-11

    The Simbol-X Low Energy Detector (LED), a 128x128 pixel DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) array, will be read out at a very high rate (8000 frames/second) and, therefore, requires a very fast on board electronics. We present an FPGA-based LED camera electronics consisting of an Event Preprocessor (EPP) for on board data preprocessing and filtering of the Simbol-X low-energy detector and a related Sequencer (SEQ) to generate the necessary signals to control the readout.

  1. Messenger Observations of Mercury's Bow Shock and Magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin J. A.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Benna, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Raines, M.; Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft made the first of three flybys of Mercury on January 14.2008 (1). New observations of solar wind interaction with Mercury were made with MESSENGER'S Magnetometer (MAG) (2.3) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) - composed of the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) (3,4). These MESSENGER observations show that Mercury's magnetosphere has a large-scale structure that is distinctly Earth-like, but it is immersed in a comet-like cloud of planetary ions [5]. Fig. 1 provides a schematic view of the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - neutral atmosphere - solid planet system at Mercury.

  2. Extra-pair paternity in the long-tailed finch Poephila acuticauda

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, Erica P.; Rollins, Lee A.; Holleley, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of passerine birds are socially monogamous, true genetic monogamy is rare, with extra-pair paternity (EPP) occurring in almost 90% of surveyed socially monogamous species. We present the first molecular data on the genetic breeding system of the long-tailed finch, Poephila acuticauda, a grass finch endemic to the tropical northern savannah of Australia. Although the species forms socially monogamous pair bonds during the breeding season, we found that extra-pair males sired 12.8% of 391 offspring, in 25.7% of 101 broods. Our findings provide only the second estimate of extra-pair paternity in the estrildid finch family. PMID:26788429

  3. Fatal pneumonitis associated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy for mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Aaron M. . E-mail: aallen@lroc.harvard.edu; Czerminska, Maria; Jaenne, Pasi A.; Sugarbaker, David J.; Bueno, Raphael; Harris, Jay R.; Court, Laurence; Baldini, Elizabeth H.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the initial experience at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as adjuvant therapy after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The medical records of patients treated with IMRT after EPP and adjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. IMRT was given to a dose of 54 Gy to the clinical target volume in 1.8 Gy daily fractions. Treatment was delivered with a dynamic multileaf collimator using a sliding window technique. Eleven of 13 patients received heated intraoperative cisplatin chemotherapy (225 mg/m{sup 2}). Two patients received neoadjuvant intravenous cisplatin/pemetrexed, and 10 patients received adjuvant cisplatin/pemetrexed chemotherapy after EPP but before radiation therapy. All patients received at least 2 cycles of intravenous chemotherapy. The contralateral lung was limited to a V20 (volume of lung receiving 20 Gy or more) of 20% and a mean lung dose (MLD) of 15 Gy. All patients underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for staging, and any FDG-avid areas in the hemithorax were given a simultaneous boost of radiotherapy to 60 Gy. Statistical comparisons were done using two-sided t test. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with IMRT from December 2004 to September 2005. Six patients developed fatal pneumonitis after treatment. The median time from completion of IMRT to the onset of radiation pneumonitis was 30 days (range 5-57 days). Thirty percent of patients (4 of 13) developed acute Grade 3 nausea and vomiting. One patient developed acute Grade 3 thrombocytopenia. The median V20, MLD, and V5 (volume of lung receiving 5 Gy or more) for the patients who developed pneumonitis was 17.6% (range, 15.3-22.3%), 15.2 Gy (range, 13.3-17 Gy), and 98.6% (range, 81-100%), respectively, as compared with 10.9% (range, 5.5-24.7%) (p = 0.08), 12.9 Gy (range, 8.7-16.9 Gy) (p = 0.07), and 90% (range

  4. Hemithoracic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Pleurectomy/Decortication for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Toxicity, Patterns of Failure, and a Matched Survival Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, William W.; Rice, David C.; Allen, Pamela K.; Tsao, Anne S.; Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Tang, Chad; Pan, Hubert Y.; Welsh, James W.; Mehran, Reza J.; Gomez, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate safety, efficacy, and recurrence after hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication (PD-IMRT) and after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP-IMRT). Methods and Materials: In 2009-2013, 24 patients with mesothelioma underwent PD-IMRT to the involved hemithorax to a dose of 45 Gy, with an optional integrated boost; 22 also received chemotherapy. Toxicity was scored with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Pulmonary function was compared at baseline, after surgery, and after IMRT. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time to locoregional failure, and time to distant metastasis. Failures were in-field, marginal, or out of field. Outcomes were compared with those of 24 patients, matched for age, nodal status, performance status, and chemotherapy, who had received EPP-IMRT. Results: Median follow-up time was 12.2 months. Grade 3 toxicity rates were 8% skin and 8% pulmonary. Pulmonary function declined from baseline to after surgery (by 21% for forced vital capacity, 16% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and 19% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P for all = .01]) and declined still further after IMRT (by 31% for forced vital capacity [P=.02], 25% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second [P=.01], and 30% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P=.01]). The OS and PFS rates were 76% and 67%, respectively, at 1 year and 56% and 34% at 2 years. Median OS (28.4 vs 14.2 months, P=.04) and median PFS (16.4 vs 8.2 months, P=.01) favored PD-IMRT versus EPP-IMRT. No differences were found in grade 4-5 toxicity (0 of 24 vs 3 of 24, P=.23), median time to locoregional failure (18.7 months vs not reached, P not calculable), or median time to distant metastasis (18.8 vs 11.8 months, P=.12). Conclusions: Hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication produced little high-grade toxicity but

  5. A GLM Post-processor to Adjust Ensemble Forecast Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemann, M.; Day, G. N.; Schaake, J. C.; Draijer, S.; Wang, L.

    2011-12-01

    The skill of hydrologic ensemble forecasts has improved in the last years through a better understanding of climate variability, better climate forecasts and new data assimilation techniques. Having been extensively utilized for probabilistic water supply forecasting, interest is developing to utilize these forecasts in operational decision making. Hydrologic ensemble forecast members typically have inherent biases in flow timing and volume caused by (1) structural errors in the models used, (2) systematic errors in the data used to calibrate those models, (3) uncertain initial hydrologic conditions, and (4) uncertainties in the forcing datasets. Furthermore, hydrologic models have often not been developed for operational decision points and ensemble forecasts are thus not always available where needed. A statistical post-processor can be used to address these issues. The post-processor should (1) correct for systematic biases in flow timing and volume, (2) preserve the skill of the available raw forecasts, (3) preserve spatial and temporal correlation as well as the uncertainty in the forecasted flow data, (4) produce adjusted forecast ensembles that represent the variability of the observed hydrograph to be predicted, and (5) preserve individual forecast traces as equally likely. The post-processor should also allow for the translation of available ensemble forecasts to hydrologically similar locations where forecasts are not available. This paper introduces an ensemble post-processor (EPP) developed in support of New York City water supply operations. The EPP employs a general linear model (GLM) to (1) adjust available ensemble forecast traces and (2) create new ensembles for (nearby) locations where only historic flow observations are available. The EPP is calibrated by developing daily and aggregated statistical relationships form historical flow observations and model simulations. These are then used in operation to obtain the conditional probability density

  6. History of Research on Pharmacopuncture in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Yoon-Young; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study introduces the history and types of Korean pharmacopuncture and reports trends of research on Korean pharmacopuncture. Methods: Pharmacopuncture studies were searched from the first year of each search engine to 2014 by using seven domestic and foreign search databases. Selected studies were divided into the history of pharmacopuncture, kinds and features of pharmacopuncture, research types, and experimental and clinic studies and were then classified by year of publication, type of pharmacopuncture, disease, and topic. Results: Pharmacopuncture can be classified into four large groups: meridian field pharmacopuncture (MFP), eight-principles pharmacopuncture (EPP), animal-based pharmacopuncture (ABP) and mountain- ginseng pharmacopuncture, which is a single-co mpound pharmacopuncture (SCP). The largest numbers of studies were reported from 1997 to 2006, after which the numbers decreased until 2014. Of experimental studies, 51.9%, 18.7%. 14.3%, 9% and 3.4% were on SCP, ABP, MFP, formula pharmacopuncture (FP), and EPP, respectively. Of clinical studies, 54.7%, 15.3%. 14.9% 10.0% and 1.5% were on ABP, MFP, EPP, SCP, and FP (1.5%), respectively. Among clinical studies, case reports and case series accounted for 76.5%, followed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs, 16.4%) and non-RCT (13.9%). Musculoskeletal diseases, toxicity and safety tests, anti-cancer effects, and nervous system diseases were mainly treated in experimental studies while musculoskeletal diseases, nervous system diseases, toxicity and safety tests, and autonomic nerve function tests were addressed in clinical studies. Bee venom (BV) was the most frequently-used pharmacopuncture in mechanism studies. Pharmacopuncture was mainly used to treat musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture and studies of it have made great progress in Korea. Studies on BV pharmacopuncture and musculoskeletal diseases accounted for most of the studies reported during the review period

  7. Value of Undergraduate Internship Experiences at NOAA: Analysis of Survey Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will examine survey data from over 500 undergraduates who participated in summer internships at NOAA facilities as Ernest F. Hollings Scholars and Educational Partnership Program (EPP) Undergraduate Scholars. NOAA selects over 100 students per year to receive academic support in their junior and senior years and a paid summer internship at any NOAA facility in the country. Scholars are hosted by NOAA mentors who actively oversee summer research activities. Analysis of survey results identified six thematic impacts from the internship experience (McIntosh and Baek, 2013).

  8. Extra-pair paternity in the long-tailed finch Poephila acuticauda.

    PubMed

    van Rooij, Erica P; Rollins, Lee A; Holleley, Clare E; Griffith, Simon C

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of passerine birds are socially monogamous, true genetic monogamy is rare, with extra-pair paternity (EPP) occurring in almost 90% of surveyed socially monogamous species. We present the first molecular data on the genetic breeding system of the long-tailed finch, Poephila acuticauda, a grass finch endemic to the tropical northern savannah of Australia. Although the species forms socially monogamous pair bonds during the breeding season, we found that extra-pair males sired 12.8% of 391 offspring, in 25.7% of 101 broods. Our findings provide only the second estimate of extra-pair paternity in the estrildid finch family. PMID:26788429

  9. PLUTO'S SEASONS: NEW PREDICTIONS FOR NEW HORIZONS

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L. A.

    2013-04-01

    Since the last Pluto volatile transport models were published in 1996, we have (1) new stellar occultation data from 2002 and 2006-2012 that show roughly twice the pressure as the first definitive occultation from 1988, (2) new information about the surface properties of Pluto, (3) a spacecraft due to arrive at Pluto in 2015, and (4) a new volatile transport model that is rapid enough to allow a large parameter-space search. Such a parameter-space search coarsely constrained by occultation results reveals three broad solutions: a high-thermal inertia, large volatile inventory solution with permanent northern volatiles (PNVs; using the rotational north pole convention); a lower thermal-inertia, smaller volatile inventory solution with exchanges of volatiles between hemispheres and a pressure plateau beyond 2015 (exchange with pressure plateau, EPP); and solutions with still smaller volatile inventories, with exchanges of volatiles between hemispheres and an early collapse of the atmosphere prior to 2015 (exchange with early collapse, EEC). PNV and EPP are favored by stellar occultation data, but EEC cannot yet be definitively ruled out without more atmospheric modeling or additional occultation observations and analysis.

  10. [Clinical Pathological Diagnosis, and Treatment for Pleural Mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Takumi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Nishi, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    For the differential diagnosis between fibrous pleuritis and other malignancies such as lung cancer, multiple immunostaining is essential to diagnose pleural mesothelioma. For cytological diagnosis of pleural effusions, differentiation between mesothelioma cells and reactive mesothelial cells is very difficult. Therefore, histological diagnoses of tumor tissues obtained via biopsy are essential. To diagnose epthelioid mesothelioma, more than 2 positive and negative markers must be consistent with those known for mesothelioma. To diagnose sarcomatoid mesothelioma, keratin is usually positive, differentiating the diagnosis from that for real sarcoma. For surgical treatment for pleural mesothelioma, extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) are usually performed. The proportion of P/D increases because of the low death rates with surgery and similar survivals. However, a trimodal approach, such as EPP with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, is best for longer survival and expected to be curative. For chemotherapy, only cisplatin (CDDP) combined with pemetrexed (PEM) is effective, and no other agents have been identified for this disease. Nowadays, clinical immunotherapy trials start with phase II study. PMID:27210080

  11. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award Talk: How a Physics Education has Influenced Practice and Graduate Education in Technically-Focused Quantitative Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger Morgan, M.

    2011-04-01

    In a book for the general public published a year before his death, Carl Sagan wrote, "Every time a scientific paper presents a bit of data, it's accompanied by an error bar---a quiet but instant reminder that no knowledge is complete or perfect." For those of us educated in experimental natural science such an observation seems so obvious as to hardly need saying. Yet when, after completing a PhD in experimental radio physics, I began to work on problems in environmental and energy risk and policy analysis in the early 1970s, I was amazed to find that the characterization and treatment of uncertainty was almost completely lacking in the analysis of that day. In the first part of this talk, I will briefly summarize how I, and a number of my physics-educated colleagues, have worked to rectify this situation. Doctoral education in the Department of Engineering and Public Policy (EPP) at Carnegie Mellon University has also been shaped by a number of ideas and problem-solving styles that derive from physics. These have been strengthened considerably through integration with a number of ideas from experimental social science -- a field that too many in physics ignore or even belittle. In the second part of the talk, I will describe the PhD program in EPP, talk a bit about some of its unique features, and describe a few of the problems we address.

  12. Anti-androgen treatments.

    PubMed

    Bachelot, Anne; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Salenave, Sylvie; Kerlan, Véronique; Galand-Portier, Marie-Béatrice

    2010-02-01

    1. Estrogen plus progestin contraceptives (EPP) are the first-line treatment of moderate hirsutism and acne in women of child bearing age (grade C). 2. CPA, 50mg/day, 20 days out of 28, associated with estrogen is the first-line treatment of "moderate to severe hirsutism" in women of childbearing age (grade C). 3. Spironolactone, given as a contraceptive, can be proposed as a second-line treatment in case of side effects or counter-indications to CPA in moderate to severe hirsutism (grade C) in women of childbearing age. No market authorization in this indication. 4. Flutamide or Finasteride are "only" to be used under the guise of contraception as a "thirdline therapy" in cases of severe hirsutism, the presence of side effects or counter-indications to EPP, CPA 50mg/day or spironolactone (grade C). No market authorization in this indication 5. There is no indication for GnRH analogs as an anti-androgen treatment in women of childbearing age given the current therapeutic alternatives (grade C) 6. Only long-term hair removal treatments can be proposed (grade C): electrolysis or laser hair removal. PMID:20096826

  13. The giant miniature endplate potentials frequency is increased in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Pousinha, Paula A; Correia, Alexandra M; Sebastião, Ana M; Ribeiro, Joaquim A

    2015-01-01

    At the neuromuscular junction, spontaneous giant events (GMEPPs) are enhanced in different conditions when degenerative and/or remodeling processes take place, but no one investigated their incidence upon aging. In the present work, we evaluated evoked and spontaneous neuromuscular transmission events recorded from single muscle fibers. Phrenic-diaphragm preparations of 3-4, 12-16, 36-40 and 70-80 weeks old rat males were used. We found that the occurrence of GMEPPs significantly increases in aged rats. Moreover, in old rats the neuromuscular transmission was significantly impaired due to a significant decrease in the amplitude and quantal content of evoked endplate potentials. Interestingly, the number of observed EPPs failures were ∼ 3 times lower than the predicted value based on the quantal content. This discrepancy was not observed in infant or adult rats. The coincidence of a high GMEPPs frequency with a lower than expected EPPs failure rate suggests that GMEPPs events are needed to preserve effective neuromuscular transmission in aged animals. PMID:25449868

  14. Health Impact of Elevated Levels of Lead Encountered in the Manufacture of Crystal Glass.

    PubMed

    Bilban, Marjan

    2015-12-01

    Lead is known to cause harmful effects in the haematopoietic, nervous, digestive, renal, and other organ systems, inhibiting a number of enzymes in the biosynthesis of haem, as well as other enzymes with haematological significance. Our study involved 151 employees involved with the cutting of crystal, i.e. leaded glass, who had been found using eco-monitoring to have been exposed to above normal levels of lead. Our bio-monitoring process followed the values of lead, delta-ALAD and EPP.The highest level of lead detected was 276 µg/L, the lowest level of delta-ALAD was 99 nkat/L), and the highest level of EPP was 14.2 nmol/gHb). We had found that contrary to expectations, lead levels were not correlated to haemoglobin levels, or to gender or age, but were instead based only on the post of the employee and their time spent working at the glassworks. The levels of haematopoiesis were directly proportional to the levels of lead, however, the correlation was not statistically significant or had perhaps been masked by the exposure due to the employee's post and gender. We had also found a significant correlation of lead levels to the levels of renal function. The study had indicated some health impacts of lead on the exposed glass workers, but also at least partly diverged from the results of previous studies, prompting us to continue our research. PMID:26987160

  15. Calcitonin gene-related peptide increases acetylcholine quantal size in neuromuscular junctions of mice.

    PubMed

    Gaydukov, Alexander E; Bogacheva, Polina O; Balezina, Olga P

    2016-08-15

    We used an intracellular microelectrode technique to study the mechanisms of action of two isoforms (human and rat) of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on the evoked and spontaneous quantal secretion of acetylcholine (ACh) in mouse diaphragm motor synapses. Recordings of miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs) and evoked multiquantal endplate potentials (EPPs) in a cut neuromuscular preparation showed that CGRP increased the amplitude of EPPs without influencing their quantal content. Both isoforms of CGRP in a wide range of concentrations (1nM-1μM) provoked a similar considerable increase in MEPPs amplitude in a dose-dependent manner (up to 150-160% compared to control) without changing their frequency, rise-time, and decay. Inhibition of CGRP-receptors by truncated CGRP (CGRP8-37) completely prevented the potentiating effect of CGRP on the MEPPs amplitude. The effect of CGRP was not accompanied by changes in input resistance of muscle fiber membrane but was fully prevented by inhibition of vesicular ACh transport by vesamicol. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) by H-89 also prevented CGRP action on the MEPPs amplitude. It is concluded that, in mammalian neuromuscular junctions, different isoforms of exogenously applied CGRP uniformly potentiate amplitudes of evoked and spontaneous postsynaptic potentials acting presynaptically via an increase in ACh quantal size. PMID:27288020

  16. Current Issues in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Evaluation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon disease most often associated with occupational asbestos exposure and is steadily increasing in worldwide incidence. Patients typically present at an older age, with advanced clinical stage and other medical comorbidities, making management quite challenging. Despite great efforts, the prognosis of MPM remains poor, especially at progression after initial treatment. Macroscopic complete resection of MPM can be achieved through extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or extended (ie, radical) pleurectomy (e-P/D) in selected patients and can result in prolonged survival when incorporated into a multimodality approach. Given the morbidity associated with surgical resection of MPM, optimizing identification of appropriate patients is essential. Unfortunately, most patients are not candidates for EPP or e-P/D due to advanced stage, age, and/or medical comorbidity. Pemetrexed and platinum combination chemotherapy has become the cornerstone of therapy for patients with unresectable disease because the combination is associated with improved survival and quality of life in treated patients. However, MPM eventually becomes resistant to initial therapy, and benefit to further lines of therapy has not been substantiated in randomized clinical trials. Translational research has provided exciting insights into tumorigenesis, biomarkers, and immune response in MPM, leading to the development of multiple novel therapeutic agents that are currently in clinical trials. These advances hold the promise of a new era in the treatment of MPM and suggest that this disease will not be left behind in the war on cancer. PMID:25061089

  17. Red cells from ferrochelatase-deficient erythropoietic protoporphyria patients are resistant to growth of malarial parasites.

    PubMed

    Smith, Clare M; Jerkovic, Ante; Puy, Hervé; Winship, Ingrid; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Gouya, Laurent; van Dooren, Giel; Goodman, Christopher Dean; Sturm, Angelika; Manceau, Hana; McFadden, Geoffrey Ian; David, Peter; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Burgio, Gaétan; McMorran, Brendan J; Foote, Simon J

    2015-01-15

    Many red cell polymorphisms are a result of selective pressure by the malarial parasite. Here, we add another red cell disease to the panoply of erythrocytic changes that give rise to resistance to malaria. Erythrocytes from individuals with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) have low levels of the final enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, ferrochelatase. Cells from these patients are resistant to the growth of Plasmodium falciparum malarial parasites. This phenomenon is due to the absence of ferrochelatase and not an accumulation of substrate, as demonstrated by the normal growth of P falciparum parasites in the EPP phenocopy, X-linked dominant protoporphyria, which has elevated substrate, and normal ferrochelatase levels. This observation was replicated in a mouse strain with a hypomorphic mutation in the murine ferrochelatase gene. The parasite enzyme is not essential for parasite growth as Plasmodium berghei parasites carrying a complete deletion of the ferrochelatase gene grow normally in erythrocytes, which confirms previous studies. That ferrochelatase is essential to parasite growth was confirmed by showing that inhibition of ferrochelatase using the specific competitive inhibitor, N-methylprotoporphyrin, produced a potent growth inhibition effect against cultures of P falciparum. This raises the possibility of targeting human ferrochelatase in a host-directed antimalarial strategy. PMID:25414439

  18. [Malignant Pleural Mesotheliomas].

    PubMed

    Biancosino, C; Redwan, B; Krüger, M; Eberlein, M; Bölükbas, S

    2016-09-01

    Malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPM) are very aggressive tumors, which originate from the mesothelial cells of the pleural surface. The main risk factor associated with MPM is exposure to asbestos. The latency period between asbestos exposure and MPM can be 30-60 years. Clinical symptoms and signs are often nonspecifc. The diagnosis of MPM requires an adequate tissue specimen for pathological examination, and video assisted thoracoscopic surgey (VATS) is associated with the highest diagnostic yield. MPM are histologically classified into epitheloid, sacromatoid and biphasic (mixed) sub-types. Accurate staging with invasive tests, if needed, is an important step before an interdisciplinary team can decide on an optimal (multi-modal) treatment approach. A multi-modal treatment approach (surgery, radiation oncology and chemotherapy) is superior to all approaches relying only on a single modality, if the patient qualifies for it from an oncological and functional standpoint. The goal of the surgical therapy is to achieve macroscopic complete resection. There are two competing surgical approaches and philosophies: extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and radical pleurectomy (RP). Over the last years a paradigm shift from EPP to RP occurred and RP is now often the preferred surgical option. PMID:27612329

  19. Spontaneous muscle action potentials fail to develop without fetal-type acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masazumi; Kubo, Tai; Mizoguchi, Akira; Carlson, C. George; Endo, Katsuaki; Ohnishi, Katsunori

    2002-01-01

    In mammals, two combinations of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are used: α2βγδ (γ-AChR) or α2βɛδ (ɛ-AChR). After birth, γ-AChRs are replaced by ɛ-AChRs (γ/ɛ-switch). The two receptors have different conductances and open times. During perinatal period, the long open time γ-AChRs generate random myofiber action potentials from uniquantal miniature end-plate potentials (mEPPs). ɛ-AChRs are suitable for strong adult muscle activities. Since the effect of the γ/ɛ-switch on neuromuscular development was unclear, despite the many differences in channel characteristics, we carried out this study to generate γ-subunit-deficient mice. Homozygotes born alive survived for 2 days in a stable condition, and were able to move their forelimbs. Endplate AChRs included ɛ-subunits, and muscle fibers had multiple neuromuscular junctions. Both pre- and postsynapses were abnormal and spontaneous action potentials generated from mEPPs were totally absent. Results suggest a requirement for γ-AChRs in mediating synaptically-induced action potential activity critical for neuromuscular development. PMID:12101101

  20. Auroral precipitation and descent of thermospheric NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühl, Sven; Espy, Patrick; Hibbins, Robert; Paxton, Larry; Funke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Energetic particle precipitation in Auroras (E <20 keV) produces nitric oxide (NO) in the upper meso- and lower thermosphere region (UMLT). The subsequent descent of the NO produced in the UMLT to the lower meso- and upper stratosphere is referred to as the energetic particle precipitation indirect effect (EPP IE). The downwelling of NO produced in Auroras alters the chemistry of the mesosphere and upper stratosphere (e.g. by the NOx cycle) and possibly has important effects also on its dynamics. By observations of auroral precipitation from SSUSI(DMSP) and measurements of NO from MIPAS(ENVISAT) and SMR(ODIN) we investigate the quantitative relation of the electron fluxes and characteristic energies of auroral precipitation to the NO produced in the lower thermosphere and the subsequent downwelling of NO. Using additional ground-based (e.g. Meteor Radar, Microwave Radiometer) and satellite observations (SOFIE) we attempt to quantify the EPP IE and its impact on atmospheric chemistry and dynamics.

  1. Social pairing of Seychelles warblers under reduced constraints: MHC, neutral heterozygosity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; Brouwer, Lyanne; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and significance of precopulatory mate choice remains keenly debated. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, and variation at the MHC influences individual survival. Although MHC-dependent mate choice has been documented in certain species, many other studies find no such pattern. This may be, at least in part, because in natural systems constraints may reduce the choices available to individuals and prevent full expression of underlying preferences. We used translocations to previously unoccupied islands to experimentally reduce constraints on female social mate choice in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), a species in which patterns of MHC-dependent extrapair paternity (EPP), but not social mate choice, have been observed. We find no evidence of MHC-dependent social mate choice in the new populations. Instead, we find that older males and males with more microsatellite heterozygosity are more likely to have successfully paired. Our data cannot resolve whether these patterns in pairing were due to male–male competition or female choice. However, our research does suggest that female Seychelles warblers do not choose social mates using MHC class I to increase fitness. It may also indicate that the MHC-dependent EPP observed in the source population is probably due to mechanisms other than female precopulatory mate choice based on MHC cues. PMID:26792973

  2. Effects of calcium and magnesium on the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials during prolonged tetanization

    PubMed Central

    Hurlbut, W. P.; Longenecker, H. B.; Mauro, Alexander

    1971-01-01

    1. End-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) and miniature end-plate potentials (min.e.p.p.s) were recorded intracellularly from the cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparation of the frog during prolonged stimulation at low frequencies (5/sec—50/sec). 2. When Ca was present in the bathing solution, the quantum content of the e.p.p. and the frequency of occurrence of the min.e.p.p.s gradually increased during the period of stimulation. During the first few minutes of stimulation, the min.e.p.p. frequency increased linearly with time, and the rate of increase was dependent on the Ca concentration of the bathing solution. However, Mg had no effect on this Ca-dependent increase in min.e.p.p. frequency. 3. A large maintained increase in min.e.p.p. frequency also occurred during prolonged stimulation in solutions that contained no added Ca and 1-2 mM-EGTA. Under these conditions the increase in min.e.p.p. frequency was dependent on the Mg concentration of the bathing solution and was exponential in time. 4. It is suggested that the rise in min.e.p.p. frequency is caused by an accumulation of Ca or Mg ions in the nerve terminal, and it is suggested that these ions enter the terminal at relatively non-specific sites distinct from the Ca-specific sites that trigger the `phasic' release of transmitter. PMID:5316661

  3. Concepts for particle foam based ultralight automotive interior parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trassl, C.; Altstädt, V.; Schreier, P.

    2014-05-01

    The described concepts for modern automotive interior parts are based on polypropylene (PP). These interior parts have a core of expanded polypropylene particle foam (EPP) and a decorative layer of a thermoplastic polyolefin elastomer (TPO) film. Compared with conventional solutions in the field of automotive interior parts, they are characterised mainly due to the avoidance of material mixtures so that they have better recycling properties and are significantly lighter in spite of comparable crash behaviour. Because of the optimized combination of positive component properties (specifically, the rigidity of the carrier, lower density combined with the better crash behaviour of the EPP foam core and good haptic and optical properties of the film), the multi-material system compensates the disadvantages of the individual components. In addition, the integration of all process steps into a new single-step manufacturing process combined with the elimination of an additional surface treatment means that the new ultra-light concept should lead to a significant reduction in the costs and cycle time.

  4. Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Early Processing of Visual Novelty in Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, David A S; Keith, Cierra M; Perlstein, William M

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have previously found that scalp topographies of attention-related ERP components show frontal shifts with age, suggesting an increased need for compensatory frontal activity to assist with top-down facilitation of attention. However, the precise neural time course of top-down attentional control in aging is not clear. In this study, 20 young (mean: 22 years) and 14 older (mean: 64 years) adults completed a three-stimulus visual oddball task while high-density ERPs were acquired. Colorful, novel distracters were presented to engage early visual processing. Relative to young controls, older participants exhibited elevations in occipital early posterior positivity (EPP), approximately 100 ms after viewing colorful distracters. Neural source models for older adults implicated unique patterns of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; BA 11) activity during early visual novelty processing (100 ms), which was positively correlated with subsequent activations in primary visual cortex (BA 17). Older adult EPP amplitudes and OFC activity were associated with performance on tests of complex attention and executive function. These findings are suggestive of age-related, compensatory neural changes that may driven by a combination of weaker cortical efficiency and increased need for top-down control over attention. Accordingly, enhanced early OFC activity during visual attention may serve as an important indicator of frontal lobe integrity in healthy aging. PMID:27199744

  5. The experience of the applications of the equation of the water-energy imbalance in the study of water resources of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Yang, D.; Xu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The water-energy balance equation reveals a relationship of actual evaporation (E) with potential evaporation (Ep) and precipitation (P) over a long-term time scale, i.e. a stabilized relationship between E/P and Ep/P. However, this relationship becomes an imbalance at smaller time scales. A new equation, Hanbo Yang Equation, for the imbalance introduced water storage (S), which described a stabilized relationship between E/(P+S) and Ep/(P+S), called the equation of the water-energy imbalance. Hanbo Yang Equation was used to estimate actual evaporation at the Weishan experiment station in China and the Yakutsk experiment station in Russia, as well as in Luan River in northern China. The results show the equation has a good performance. Additionally, the parameter, showing a seasonal variation, can be related to vegetation status. In regions receiving additional water transported from other regions, the available water can be expressed as (P + I + S), with I representing water intake. Therefore, it leads to a new stabilized relationship between E/(P+I+S) and Ep/(P+I+S). Based on the relationship, monthly water consumption of the Yerqiang Oases, locating in Xinjiang province of China, was assessed. The results show a good agreement with that estimated by the runoff-evaporation hydrological model. It indicates that the equation is a novel tool to estimate water consumption, and a novel tool to assess water demand.

  6. A metabolomic perspective of griseofulvin-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Yan, Jiong; Sachar, Madhav; Zhang, Xinju; Guan, Ming; Xie, Wen; Ma, Xiaochao

    2015-12-01

    Griseofulvin (GSF) causes hepatic porphyria in mice, which mimics the liver injury associated with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) in humans. The current study investigated the biochemical basis of GSF-induced liver injury in mice using a metabolimic approach. GSF treatment in mice resulted in significant accumulations of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), N-methyl PPIX, bile acids, and glutathione (GSH) in the liver. Metabolomic analysis also revealed bioactivation pathways of GSF that contributed to the formation of GSF-PPIX, GSF-GSH and GSF-proline adducts. GSF-PPIX is the precursor of N-methyl PPIX. A six-fold increase of N-methyl PPIX was observed in the liver of mice after GSF treatment. N-methyl PPIX strongly inhibits ferrochelatase, the enzyme that converts PPIX to heme, and leads to PPIX accumulation. Excessive PPIX in the liver results in bile duct blockage and disturbs bile acid homeostasis. The accumulation of GSH in the liver was likely due to Nrf2-mediated upregulation of GSH synthesis. In summary, this study provides the biochemical basis of GSF-induced liver injury that can be used to understand the pathophysiology of EPP-associated liver injury in humans. PMID:26343413

  7. Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Early Processing of Visual Novelty in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, David A. S.; Keith, Cierra M.; Perlstein, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have previously found that scalp topographies of attention-related ERP components show frontal shifts with age, suggesting an increased need for compensatory frontal activity to assist with top-down facilitation of attention. However, the precise neural time course of top-down attentional control in aging is not clear. In this study, 20 young (mean: 22 years) and 14 older (mean: 64 years) adults completed a three-stimulus visual oddball task while high-density ERPs were acquired. Colorful, novel distracters were presented to engage early visual processing. Relative to young controls, older participants exhibited elevations in occipital early posterior positivity (EPP), approximately 100 ms after viewing colorful distracters. Neural source models for older adults implicated unique patterns of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; BA 11) activity during early visual novelty processing (100 ms), which was positively correlated with subsequent activations in primary visual cortex (BA 17). Older adult EPP amplitudes and OFC activity were associated with performance on tests of complex attention and executive function. These findings are suggestive of age-related, compensatory neural changes that may driven by a combination of weaker cortical efficiency and increased need for top-down control over attention. Accordingly, enhanced early OFC activity during visual attention may serve as an important indicator of frontal lobe integrity in healthy aging. PMID:27199744

  8. Mercury's Sodium Exosphere: Observations during the MESSENGER Orbital Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.; McClintock, William E.; Benna, Mehdi; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered into orbit about Mercury on March 18,2011. We now have approximately five Mercury years of data from orbit. Prior to the MESSENGER mission, Mercury's surface-bounded exosphere was known to contain H, He, Na. K, and Ca. The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) began routine orbital observations of both the dayside and nightside exosphere on March 29. 2011, measuring altitude profiles for all previously detected neutral species except for He and K. We focus here on what we have learned about the sodium exosphere: its spatial, seasonal, and sporadic variation. Observations to date permit delineation of the relative roles of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and impact vaporization (IV) from seasonal and spatial effects, as well as of the roles of ions both as sputtering agents and in their possible role to enhance the efficiency of PSD. Correlations of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere with measurements from MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) provide insight into the roles of ions and electrons. Models incorporating MAG observations provide a basis for identifying the location and area of the surface exposed to solar wind plasma, and EPPS observations reveal episodic populations of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere and the presence of planetary He(+), 0(+), and Na(+),

  9. Mate choice for neutral and MHC genetic characteristics in Alpine marmots: different targets in different contexts?

    PubMed

    Ferrandiz-Rovira, Mariona; Allainé, Dominique; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre; Cohas, Aurélie

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection through female mate choice for genetic characteristics has been suggested to be an important evolutionary force maintaining genetic variation in animal populations. However, the genetic targets of female mate choice are not clearly identified and whether female mate choice is based on neutral genetic characteristics or on particular functional loci remains an open question. Here, we investigated the genetic targets of female mate choice in Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a socially monogamous mammal where extra-pair paternity (EPP) occurs. We used 16 microsatellites to describe neutral genetic characteristics and two MHC loci belonging to MHC class I and II as functional genetic characteristics. Our results reveal that (1) neutral and MHC genetic characteristics convey different information in this species, (2) social pairs show a higher MHC class II dissimilarity than expected under random mate choice, and (3) the occurrence of EPP increases when social pairs present a high neutral genetic similarity or dissimilarity but also when they present low MHC class II dissimilarity. Thus, female mate choice is based on both neutral and MHC genetic characteristics, and the genetic characteristics targeted seem to be context dependent (i.e., the genes involved in social mate choice and genetic mate choice differ). We emphasize the need for empirical studies of mate choice in the wild using both neutral and MHC genetic characteristics because whether neutral and functional genetic characteristics convey similar information is not universal. PMID:27386072

  10. Steller Sex: Infidelity and Sexual Selection in a Social Corvid (Cyanocitta stelleri)

    PubMed Central

    Overeem, Katlin R.; Gabriel, Pia O.; Zirpoli, Jeff A.; Black, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analysis of avian mating systems has revealed that more than 70% of monogamous species show incidence of offspring parentage that does not match the social partner. Extra-pair parentage (EPP) has been linked to a variety of factors, including size and symmetry of ornamental traits, coloration, resource availability, and local conspecific density. We examined how ornamental plumage traits of individual Steller's jays (Cyanocitta stelleri) and territory characteristics influence genetic fidelity of socially monogamous pairs. We used seven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to assign paternity to 79 offspring, and identified 12 (15.2%) as extra-pair young (EPY). Steller's jays with extra-pair young had significantly lower values of feather brightness and hue, indicating more ultraviolet-blue shifted coloration, and nested in closer proximity to the forest edge than Steller's jays with no detected EPY. Body size, crest height, asymmetry of ornamental crest stripes, as well as vegetative composition of territories and their proximity to supplemental feeders appeared to have little relationship to EPP. These results indicate that extra-pair parentage plays a role in the evolution of secondary sexual characteristics in both sexes, and suggest local density and availability of resources may influence Steller's jay mating dynamics. PMID:25148039

  11. Molecular characterization of porphyrias in Italy: a diagnostic flow-chart.

    PubMed

    Martinez di Montemuros, F; Di Pierro, E; Patti, E; Tavazzi, D; Danielli, M G; Biolcati, G; Rocchi, E; Cappellini, M D

    2002-12-01

    The porphyrias are disorders associated with inherited or acquired enzyme deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. The differential diagnosis is often difficult since the phenotype is very similar in some forms and the biochemical tests are not commonly available. Here we provide an update on the molecular diagnosis of porphyrias in Italy and a flow-chart to facilitate the identification of mutations in heme biosynthetic genes. The molecular analysis has allowed us to identify the molecular defect underlying the disease in 66 probands with different porphyrias [acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), variegate porphyria (VP), porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP)]. No Italian patients with defects in coproporphyrinogen oxidise (CPOX) gene, responsible for hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), have been detected. The molecular characterization has been extended to 115 relatives with the identification of 55 asymptomatic mutation carriers and 60 normal subjects. We have so far identified 50 different mutations among 4 genes associated with the most common porphyrias showing a high molecular heterogeneity: 22 in the hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) gene (AIP), 7 in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) gene (VP), 16 in the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) gene (PCT) and 5 in the ferrochelatase (FECH) gene (EPP). Among the 50 molecular defects, 29 seem to be restricted to the Italian population. PMID:12699245

  12. Optimizing Eco-Efficiency Across the Procurement Portfolio.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Rylie E O; Li, Mo; Smith, Timothy M; Lyon, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    Manufacturing organizations' environmental impacts are often attributable to processes in the firm's upstream supply chain. Environmentally preferable procurement (EPP) and the establishment of environmental purchasing criteria can potentially reduce these indirect impacts. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) can help identify the purchasing criteria that are most effective in reducing environmental impacts. However, the high costs of LCA and the problems associated with the comparability of results have limited efforts to integrate procurement performance with quantitative organizational environmental performance targets. Moreover, environmental purchasing criteria, when implemented, are often established on a product-by-product basis without consideration of other products in the procurement portfolio. We develop an approach that utilizes streamlined LCA methods, together with linear programming, to determine optimal portfolios of product impact-reduction opportunities under budget constraints. The approach is illustrated through a simulated breakfast cereal manufacturing firm procuring grain, containerboard boxes, plastic packaging, electricity, and industrial cleaning solutions. Results suggest that extending EPP decisions and resources to the portfolio level, recently made feasible through the methods illustrated herein, can provide substantially greater CO2e and water-depletion reductions per dollar spend than a product-by-product approach, creating opportunities for procurement organizations to participate in firm-wide environmental impact reduction targets. PMID:27163163

  13. Automated PET-only quantification of amyloid deposition with adaptive template and empirically pre-defined ROI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamatsu, G.; Ikari, Y.; Ohnishi, A.; Nishida, H.; Aita, K.; Sasaki, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Senda, M.

    2016-08-01

    Amyloid PET is useful for early and/or differential diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Quantification of amyloid deposition using PET has been employed to improve diagnosis and to monitor AD therapy, particularly in research. Although MRI is often used for segmentation of gray matter and for spatial normalization into standard Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space where region-of-interest (ROI) template is defined, 3D MRI is not always available in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of PET-only amyloid quantification with an adaptive template and a pre-defined standard ROI template that has been empirically generated from typical cases. A total of 68 subjects who underwent brain 11C-PiB PET were examined. The 11C-PiB images were non-linearly spatially normalized to the standard MNI T1 atlas using the same transformation parameters of MRI-based normalization. The automatic-anatomical-labeling-ROI (AAL-ROI) template was applied to the PET images. All voxel values were normalized by the mean value of cerebellar cortex to generate the SUVR-scaled images. Eleven typical positive images and eight typical negative images were normalized and averaged, respectively, and were used as the positive and negative template. Positive and negative masks which consist of voxels with SUVR  ⩾1.7 were extracted from both templates. Empirical PiB-prone ROI (EPP-ROI) was generated by subtracting the negative mask from the positive mask. The 11C-PiB image of each subject was non-rigidly normalized to the positive and negative template, respectively, and the one with higher cross-correlation was adopted. The EPP-ROI was then inversely transformed to individual PET images. We evaluated differences of SUVR between standard MRI-based method and PET-only method. We additionally evaluated whether the PET-only method would correctly categorize 11C-PiB scans as positive or negative. Significant correlation was observed between the SUVRs

  14. Automated PET-only quantification of amyloid deposition with adaptive template and empirically pre-defined ROI.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, G; Ikari, Y; Ohnishi, A; Nishida, H; Aita, K; Sasaki, M; Yamamoto, Y; Sasaki, M; Senda, M

    2016-08-01

    Amyloid PET is useful for early and/or differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Quantification of amyloid deposition using PET has been employed to improve diagnosis and to monitor AD therapy, particularly in research. Although MRI is often used for segmentation of gray matter and for spatial normalization into standard Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space where region-of-interest (ROI) template is defined, 3D MRI is not always available in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of PET-only amyloid quantification with an adaptive template and a pre-defined standard ROI template that has been empirically generated from typical cases. A total of 68 subjects who underwent brain (11)C-PiB PET were examined. The (11)C-PiB images were non-linearly spatially normalized to the standard MNI T1 atlas using the same transformation parameters of MRI-based normalization. The automatic-anatomical-labeling-ROI (AAL-ROI) template was applied to the PET images. All voxel values were normalized by the mean value of cerebellar cortex to generate the SUVR-scaled images. Eleven typical positive images and eight typical negative images were normalized and averaged, respectively, and were used as the positive and negative template. Positive and negative masks which consist of voxels with SUVR  ⩾1.7 were extracted from both templates. Empirical PiB-prone ROI (EPP-ROI) was generated by subtracting the negative mask from the positive mask. The (11)C-PiB image of each subject was non-rigidly normalized to the positive and negative template, respectively, and the one with higher cross-correlation was adopted. The EPP-ROI was then inversely transformed to individual PET images. We evaluated differences of SUVR between standard MRI-based method and PET-only method. We additionally evaluated whether the PET-only method would correctly categorize (11)C-PiB scans as positive or negative. Significant correlation was observed between the

  15. Genetic Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in the Southern United States Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T.; Oliver, J. H.; Gao, L.; Kollars, T. M.; Clark, K. L.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-six strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, isolated from ticks and vertebrate animals in Missouri, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Texas, were identified and characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of rrf (5S)-rrl (23S) intergenic spacer amplicons. A total of 241 to 258 bp of intergenic spacers between tandemly duplicated rrf (5S) and rrl (23S) was amplified by PCR. MseI and DraI restriction fragment polymorphisms were used to analyze these strains. PCR-RFLP analysis results indicated that the strains represented at least three genospecies and 10 different restriction patterns. Most of the strains isolated from the tick Ixodes dentatus in Missouri and Georgia belonged to the genospecies Borrelia andersonii. Excluding the I. dentatus strains, most southern strains, isolated from the ticks Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes affinis, the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), and cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus) in Georgia and Florida, belonged to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Seven strains, isolated from Ixodes minor, the wood rat (Neotoma floridana), the cotton rat, and the cotton mouse in South Carolina and Florida, belonged to Borrelia bissettii. Two strains, MI-8 from Florida and TXW-1 from Texas, exhibited MseI and DraI restriction patterns different from those of previously reported genospecies. Eight Missouri tick strains (MOK-3a group) had MseI patterns similar to that of B. andersonii reference strain 21038 but had a DraI restriction site in the spacer. Strain SCGT-8a had DraI restriction patterns identical to that of strain 25015 (B. bissettii) but differed from strain 25015 in its MseI restriction pattern. Strain AI-1 had the same DraI pattern as other southern strains in the B. bissettii genospecies but had a distinct MseI profile. The taxonomic status of these atypical strains needs to be further evaluated. To clarify the taxonomic positions of these atypical Borrelia strains, the complete sequences of

  16. Minimizing shadow losses in III-nitride solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Andrew; Jampana, Balakrishnam; Opila, Robert; Honsberg, Christiana; Jamil, Muhammad; Ferguson, Ian

    2009-08-01

    In this work InGa0.85N p-n homojunction solar cells were grown by MOCVD on GaN/sapphire substrates and fabricated using standard techniques. When illuminated from the backside, these devices showed 65.9% improvement in JSC and 4.4% improvement in VOC as compared to identical illumination from the front. These improvements arise from removal of the losses from electrical contact shading on the front of the devices (11.7% of active area), as well as significant optical absorption by the top current spreading layer. These improvements can likely be further enhanced by utilizing double-side polished wafers, which would eliminate scattering losses on the back surface. In addition to improving electrical characteristics of single cells, backside illumination is necessary for the realization of monolithic tandem InGaN solar cells.

  17. Cu-In-Ga-S quantum dot composition-dependent device performance of electrically driven light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Heon; Jo, Dae-Yeon; Lee, Yangjin; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Yang, Heesun

    2014-09-01

    Colloidal synthesis of ternary and quaternary quantum dots (QDs) of In/Ga ratio-varied Cu-In1-x-Gax-S (CIGS) with nominal x = 0, 0.5, 0.7, and 1 and their application for the fabrication of quantum dot-light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) are reported. Four QLEDs having CIGS QDs with different compositions are all solution-processed in the framework of multilayered structure, where QD emitting layer is sandwiched by hybrid charge transport layers of poly(9-vinlycarbazole) and ZnO nanoparticles. The device performance such as luminance and efficiency is found to be strongly dependent on the composition of CIGS QDs, and well interpreted by the device energy level diagram proposed through the determination of QD valence band minima by photoelectron emission spectroscopic measurement.

  18. Theoretical study of group-III nitride alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Limpijumnong, S.; Lambrecht, W.R.L.; Segall, B.

    1997-12-31

    Band gap bowing, structural relaxations, and energies of formation were calculated for the three pseudobinary nitride zincblende alloy systems Al-Ga, In-Ga and In-Al using the full-potential linearized muffin-tin orbital method. The cluster expansion and Connolly-Williams approaches were used to relate calculated band structures and energies of formation of ordered compounds to the behavior of disordered alloys. Effects of bond length and volume variation on those properties are discussed. An interpolation formula for the gap of the full pseudoternary Al{sub x}Ga{sub y}In{sub z}N system is proposed and tested by separate calculations. Extension of the results to the wurtzite alloys is discussed.

  19. From ecophysiology to phenomics: some implications of photoprotection and shade-sun acclimation in situ for dynamics of thylakoids in vitro.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Shizue; Förster, Britta; Waterman, Melinda; Robinson, Sharon A; Pogson, Barry J; Gunning, Brian; Osmond, Barry

    2012-12-19

    Half a century of research into the physiology and biochemistry of sun-shade acclimation in diverse plants has provided reality checks for contemporary understanding of thylakoid membrane dynamics. This paper reviews recent insights into photosynthetic efficiency and photoprotection from studies of two xanthophyll cycles in old shade leaves from the inner canopy of the tropical trees Inga sapindoides and Persea americana (avocado). It then presents new physiological data from avocado on the time frames of the slow coordinated photosynthetic development of sink leaves in sunlight and on the slow renovation of photosynthetic properties in old leaves during sun to shade and shade to sun acclimation. In so doing, it grapples with issues in vivo that seem relevant to our increasingly sophisticated understanding of ΔpH-dependent, xanthophyll-pigment-stabilized non-photochemical quenching in the antenna of PSII in thylakoid membranes in vitro. PMID:23148277

  20. Self-annihilation of inversion domains by high energy defects in III-Nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Koukoula, T.; Kioseoglou, J. Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.

    2014-04-07

    Low-defect density InN films were grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy over an ∼1 μm thick GaN/AlN buffer/nucleation layer. Electron microscopy observations revealed the presence of inverse polarity domains propagating across the GaN layer and terminating at the sharp GaN/InN (0001{sup ¯}) interface, whereas no inversion domains were detected in InN. The systematic annihilation of GaN inversion domains at the GaN/InN interface is explained in terms of indium incorporation on the Ga-terminated inversion domains forming a metal bonded In-Ga bilayer, a structural instability known as the basal inversion domain boundary, during the initial stages of InN growth on GaN.

  1. Tc-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin: in vitro characterization of receptor-mediated binding

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, D.R.; Krohn, K.A.; Stadalnik, R.C.; Scheibe, P.O.

    1984-07-01

    Hepatic binding protein (HBP) is a membrane receptor that binds and transports plasma glycoproteins from hepatic blood to hepatocellular lysosomes. The authors have characterized the in vitro binding of Tc-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA), a synthetic HBP ligand, to liver membrane. Membrane displacement studies, using carrier ligands in contrast to previously bound Tc-NGA or I-NGA, correlated with the binding characteristics of a native HBP ligand, asialo-orosomucoid. They used computer simulation to study the detectibility of the changes in HBP concentration at different values of k/sub b/. The simulations indicated that radiopharmacokinetic sensitivity to alterations in (HBP) should be possible using a neoglycoalbumin preparation with a carbohydrate density within the range of 15 to 25 galactose units per albumin molecule.

  2. Cu−In−Ga−S quantum dot composition-dependent device performance of electrically driven light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Heon; Jo, Dae-Yeon; Yang, Heesun; Lee, Yangjin; Hwang, Jun Yeon

    2014-09-29

    Colloidal synthesis of ternary and quaternary quantum dots (QDs) of In/Ga ratio-varied Cu−In{sub 1−x}−Ga{sub x}−S (CIGS) with nominal x = 0, 0.5, 0.7, and 1 and their application for the fabrication of quantum dot-light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) are reported. Four QLEDs having CIGS QDs with different compositions are all solution-processed in the framework of multilayered structure, where QD emitting layer is sandwiched by hybrid charge transport layers of poly(9-vinlycarbazole) and ZnO nanoparticles. The device performance such as luminance and efficiency is found to be strongly dependent on the composition of CIGS QDs, and well interpreted by the device energy level diagram proposed through the determination of QD valence band minima by photoelectron emission spectroscopic measurement.

  3. African electricity infrastructure, interconnections and exchanges

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Taher, F.; Gulstone, A.B.; Blyden, B.K.; Johnston, R.; Isekemanga, E.; Paluku, K.; Calitz, A.C.; Simanga, N.N.

    1997-01-01

    A 1996 IEEE PES Summer Meeting panel session focused on African Electricity Infrastructure, Interconnections, and Electricity Exchanges. The session was sponsored by the PES Energy Development and Power Generation Committee and organized/moderated by T.J. Hammons, chair of the International Practices Subcommittee. Panelists discussed energy resources, feasibility studies to interconnect power systems, the present state of the electric power sector, future expansion of African power systems, interconnections and power exchanges, and the impact of the private sector on electricity supply. The presentations were as follows: Prospects of the Evolution of a Unified Interconnection Power System in Africa, Fouad Taher; The World Bank`s Involvement with African Electricity Infrastructure, Alfred Gulstone; Towards the implementation of an Integrated African Grid, Bai K. Blyden, Raymond Johnston; Grand Inga Interconnection Projects, Elese Isekemanga, K. Paluku; The Innovative Southern African Kilowatt Hour, Andries C. Calitz; Report on Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire, Ngove-Ngulu Simanga.

  4. Crystal growth and characterization of CdInGaS 4 and related compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Saburo; Ando, Shizutoshi; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Nomura, Shigetaka; Irie, Taizo; Nakanishi, Hisayuki; Noda, Yasutoshi; Takizawa, Takeo; Toyoda, Taro

    1990-01-01

    Crystal growth of CdInGaS 4 was performed by normal freezing and Bridgman methods. The characterization of the crystals was done along the growth direction by X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, photoluminescence, compositional analysis and etch pit observation. The physical properties investigated are essentially constant along the growth direction and independent of the method of crystal growth. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern of CdInGaS 4 can roughly be reproduced by a computer simulation based on the structure deduced from that of ZnIn 2S 4. The crystal structure of Cd 3InGaS 6 was found to be a laminated structure composed of CdInGaS 4 and Cds.

  5. High efficient luminescence in type-II GaAsSb-capped InAs quantum dots upon annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulloa, J. M.; Llorens, J. M.; Alén, B.; Reyes, D. F.; Sales, D. L.; González, D.; Hierro, A.

    2012-12-01

    The photoluminescence efficiency of GaAsSb-capped InAs/GaAs type II quantum dots (QDs) can be greatly enhanced by rapid thermal annealing while preserving long radiative lifetimes which are ˜20 times larger than in standard GaAs-capped InAs/GaAs QDs. Despite the reduced electron-hole wavefunction overlap, the type-II samples are more efficient than the type-I counterparts in terms of luminescence, showing a great potential for device applications. Strain-driven In-Ga intermixing during annealing is found to modify the QD shape and composition, while As-Sb exchange is inhibited, allowing to keep the type-II structure. Sb is only redistributed within the capping layer giving rise to a more homogeneous composition.

  6. Broadband control of emission wavelength of InAs/GaAs quantum dots by GaAs capping temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Matsumura, Takuya; Kita, Takashi

    2015-10-21

    We investigated the effects of the GaAs capping temperature on the morphological and photoluminescence (PL) properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs(001). The broadband tuning of the emission wavelength from 1.1 to 1.3 μm was achieved at room temperature by only adjusting the GaAs capping temperature. As the capping temperature was decreased, the QD shrinkage due to In desorption and In-Ga intermixing during the capping process was suppressed. This led to QDs with a high aspect ratio, and resultantly, the emission wavelength shifted toward the longer-wavelength side. In addition, the linearly polarized PL intensity elucidated anisotropic characteristics reflecting the shape anisotropy of the embedded QDs, in which a marked change in polarization anisotropy occurred at capping temperatures lower than 460 °C.

  7. High spin states and isomeric decays in doubly-odd 208Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjilal, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Goswami, A.; Kshetri, R.; Raut, R.; Saha, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Gehlot, J.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Jnaneswari, G.; Mukherjee, G.; Mukherjee, B.

    2010-10-01

    Neutron deficient isotopes of francium ( Z=87, N˜121-123) as excited nuclei were produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction: 197Au( 16O, xn) 213 - xFr at 100 MeV. The γ rays from the residues were observed through the high sensitivity Germanium Clover detector array INGA. The decay of the high spin states and the isomeric states of the doubly-odd 208Fr nuclei, identified from the known sequence of ground state transitions, were observed. The half-lives of the E=194(2) keV isomeric transition, known from earlier observations, was measured to be T=233(18) ns. A second isomeric transition at E=383(2) keV and T=33(7) ns was also found. The measured half-lives were compared with the corresponding single particle estimates, based on the level scheme obtained from the experiment.

  8. Characteristic beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes of Evenkis and Oroqens in north China.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Koji; Marubayashi, Azusa; Tokimasa, Kozue; Harihara, Shinji; Omoto, Keiichi; Imanishi, Tadashi; Hao, Luping; Jin, Feng

    2004-10-01

    Haplotype frequencies of the beta-globin gene cluster were estimated for 114 Evenkis and 81 Oroqens from northeast China, and their characteristics were compared with those in Japanese, Koreans, and three Colombian Amerindian groups of South America (Wayuu, Kamsa, and Inga tribes). A major 5' subhaplotype (5' to the delta-globin gene) was + - - - - in Evenkis, whereas + - - - -, - + + - +, and - + - + + were the major subhaplotypes in Oroqens. One possible candidate for an ancestral 5' subhaplotype, - - - - -, was found in one Evenki (0.5%) and three Oroqen chromosomes (2.0%). They were observed as heterozygous forms for + ---- and -----. Major haplotypes were +-----+, + -----+-, and + - - - - + + in Evenkis, whereas they were +-----+,-++-+-+, +----+-, and -+-++-+ in Oroqens. The lowest Nei's genetic distance values of Evenkis or Oroqens based on the 5' subhaplotype frequency distributions were observed in relation to the Wayuu or Koreans, respectively, but those of Evenkis and Oroqens based on the haplotype frequency distributions were found in relation to Koreans. PMID:15757246

  9. Remote renewable energy resources; Long-distance high voltage interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper discusses international perspectives on remote energy made possible by high-voltage interconnections. It will discuss large-scale conversion, transfer, and utilization of renewable energy as a strategy to counter environmental problems caused by the combustion of fossil fuels. Potential development of huge renewable hydro resources in Africa, South America, North America, Eastern Siberia, Australia, and South East China, as well as potential development of geothermal and solar energy sources, will also be discussed. These include the proposed 30 GW Inga hydro power complex in Zaire, Central Africa, along the Congo River, where power will be exported to Southern Europe over a distance of 7000 Km, in Columbia with electrical ties through Central America linking South America with the electricity demand in North America, and developments in Siberia linked by cable across the Bering Strait to Alaska, Quebec to New England, Manitoba to midwest United States, Iceland to the United Kingdom, and in the Persian Gulf States.

  10. Shape coexistence in 153Ho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Dibyadyuti; Sarkar, S.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Dasgupta, Shinjinee; Chakraborty, A.; Krishichayan, Kshetri, Ritesh; Ray, Indrani; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Ray Basu, M.; Raut, R.; Ganguly, G.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Basu, S. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Banerjee, P.; Goswami, A.

    2016-08-01

    The high-spin states in 153Ho have been studied by the La57(20Ne139,6 n ) reaction at a projectile energy of 139 MeV at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata, India, utilizing an earlier campaign of the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) setup. Data from γ -γ coincidence, directional correlation, and polarization measurements have been analyzed to assign and confirm the spins and parities of the levels. We have suggested a few additions and revisions of the reported level scheme of 153Ho. The RF-γ time difference spectra have been useful to confirm the half-life of an isomer in this nucleus. From the comparison of experimental and theoretical results, it is found that there are definite indications of shape coexistence in this nucleus. The experimental and calculated lifetimes of several isomers have been compared to follow the coexistence and evolution of shape with increasing spin.

  11. Local perturbations in the western rift of Corinth (Greece) caused by the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku earthquake: joint observation of strain, water-level and seismic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canitano, A.; Bernard, P.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    The Gulf of Corinth (Greece) is one of the most seismic regions in Europe, producing some strong earthquakes in the decades, 1 to 1.5 cm/yr of north-south extension, and frequent seismic swarms. This structure is a 110 km long, N110E oriented graben bounded by systems of very recent normal faults. The Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL) project is concentrated in the western part of the rift, around the city of Aigion, where instrumental seismicity and strain rate is highest. In the aim to detect transient slow deformation and creep phenomenon, possibly associated with the numerous microseismic swarms, three Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters have been deployed since few years. They are devoted to support the GPS observations, especially at short periods. During the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku earthquake, the passing of long-period surface waves have initiated free oscillations of the gulf (commonly called seiches) at different periods. The dominant oscillations exhibit a period of 5-7 min with related amplitude of about 5-8 cm of water. This is also observed on the records of the strainmeters installed on Trizonia island (TRZ) and in Monasteraki (MOK). We took advantage of this observation to investigate in details the principal mechanisms of resonance of the gulf of Corinth. Furthermore, the observation of the dynamic strain induced by the longest period surface waves (150-200 sec) shows an anti-correlation between the TRZ dilatometer response and the MOK strainmeter, located 15 km apart. This puzzling observation is consistent with a similar anti-correlation between the solid tidal signal at 24-hrs period recorded at TRZ and the theoretical solid tide. This could be related to the presence of a shallow fault close to the instrument, which would creep in response to seismic wave related stress. However, further observations are necessary to better understand the response of the TRZ sensor to internal forcing, as for instance the strain associated with the earth free

  12. Short-term retrospective versus prospective memory processing as emergent properties of the mind and brain: human fMRI evidence.

    PubMed

    Mok, L W

    2012-12-13

    The functional-neuroanatomical substrates for short-term retrospective versus prospective memory processing were examined in a delay task, in which associative choices were made conditionally based on the presenting discriminative/cue stimulus. Delay-period prospection could be of the intended choice and/or the expected response outcome, whereas delay-period retrospection would be of the just-presented cue stimulus. Previous results have shown that the spontaneous process of unique outcome prospection did not implicate the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) but instead implicated the lateral posterior parietal cortex (LPPC) in a modality-independent fashion (Mok et al., 2009). Spontaneous retrospection was more dependent on the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Nevertheless, it was anticipated that the more explicit process of prospecting an intended choice would implicate the lateral PFC. To verify this, Mok et al.'s data were further analyzed, with new control data. Healthy, young adults performed delayed discriminative choices under procedures that biased them toward different degrees of delay-period prospection: higher-using cue-unique, differential outcomes (DO); versus lower-using a non-unique, common outcome (CO), or unpredictable, non-differential outcomes (NDO). Experimental participants performed the DO versus CO procedures concurrently, while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Separately, control participants provided data for: the NDO condition; related comparison tasks, which biased them toward different degrees of delay-period retrospection; and null-event trials. Expectedly, the more explicit process of prospecting an intended associative choice implicated the lateral PFC, as part of and together with other components of the multiple-demand network. Comparisons against null-event trials indicated that the sustained delay activity observed in MTL and LPPC, respectively, was part of default brain activity. These results

  13. Recrystallization method to selenization of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for semiconductor device applications

    DOEpatents

    Albin, David S.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.; Tuttle, John R.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Gabor, Andrew M.; Noufi, Rommel; Tennant, Andrew L.

    1995-07-25

    A process for fabricating slightly Cu-poor thin-films of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 on a substrate for semiconductor device applications includes the steps of forming initially a slightly Cu-rich, phase separated, mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se on the substrate in solid form followed by exposure of the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture to an overpressure of Se vapor and (In,Ga) vapor for deposition on the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture while simultaneously increasing the temperature of the solid mixture toward a recrystallization temperature (about 550.degree. C.) at which Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 is solid and Cu.sub.x Se is liquid. The (In,Ga) flux is terminated while the Se overpressure flux and the recrystallization temperature are maintained to recrystallize the Cu.sub.x Se with the (In, Ga) that was deposited during the temperature transition and with the Se vapor to form the thin-film of slightly Cu-poor Cu.sub.x (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. The initial Cu-rich, phase separated large grain mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se can be made by sequentially depositing or co-depositing the metal precursors, Cu and (In, Ga), on the substrate at room temperature, ramping up the thin-film temperature in the presence of Se overpressure to a moderate anneal temperature (about 450.degree. C.) and holding that temperature and the Se overpressure for an annealing period. A nonselenizing, low temperature anneal at about 100.degree. C. can also be used to homogenize the precursors on the substrates before the selenizing, moderate temperature anneal.

  14. An elastoviscoplastic finite element model of lithospheric deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Richard Alan

    1998-12-01

    Via the finite element method, the stress state and deformation of the lithosphere were investigated with topographic loading. An elastoviscoplastic (EVP) rheology governed the mechanical response in a 40 km thick lithospheric plate of wet olivine. The viscous aspect of the rheology utilized a steady-state dislocation creep constitutive relation. The plastic part of the rheology treated frictional slip on faults within pervasively fractured rock via Byerlee's rule. The first studies use a time-invariant, steady-state conduction temperature distribution in the plate. These studies involved topographic loading with different maximum loads and different load growth rates. The EVP results were compared to elastic perfectly-plastic (EPP) solutions for plate bending as constrained by the Yield Strength Envelope (YSE) formulation for lithospheric mechanics. The EVP results included the often-overlooked effect that the load has on strengthening underlying rock against brittle deformation. The creep strain rate in the EVP models varied with time, depth, and lateral location, unlike the EPP/YSE models that constrain all creep to a single a priori creep strain rate. At the transition from frictional slip to creep, the EVP models showed a three km zone with contributions from both mechanisms, relative to the EPP/YSE's artificially sharp and immediate transition. The last study incorporated two variations on the temperature distribution in the EVP lithosphere. The "whole-lithosphere cooling model" cooled the plate during and after the load growth period, following the half-space cooling model for oceanic lithosphere. Unlike its non-cooling counterpart, the whole-lithosphere cooling model showed no further frictional slip after the load growth period. The "magma conduit model" used an initial temperature distribution that had a high temperature along a vertical symmetry axis during loading to approximate temperature effects from a magma conduit. After loading, its temperature

  15. Ground-based monitoring of nitric oxide (NO) in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere from Syowa Station in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Akira; Nakamura, Takuji; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Nagahama, Tomoo; Isono, Yasuko; Kataoka, Ryuho; Hiroyuki, Maezawa; Uemura, Miku

    Ion-molecule chemistry triggered by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) due to large solar proton events or geomagnetic storms influences the atmospheric minor constituents such as HOx, NOx and ozone from the upper stratosphere to the lower thermosphere. To understand the effect of the EPP on the middle atmosphere in the polar region, we installed a new spectroscopic radiometer at Syowa Station (69.00S, 39.85E) in the 52nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition. We have carried out ground-based continuous observations of spectral line of nitric oxide (NO) at 250.796 GHz since January 2012. We obtained 197 and 172 daily averaged NO spectra in 2012 and 2013 (until 30 September; DOY 273), respectively. The NO spectra are characterized by narrow line width of about 0.5MHz at FWHM, suggesting that the NO emitting region is between 75 and 100 km based on the relationship between the pressure broadening line width and the altitude. We derived partial column density of NO from the spectral intensity. We found two temporal variation patterns of the NO column density, i.e., long-term and short-term variations. The long-term variation is a seasonal one with a maximum in the winter and a minimum in the summer. The column density of NO during the winter was about 4 times larger than that during the summer. This seasonal variation is considered to be related to the atmospheric transport and the photo-dissociation of NO by solar radiation. The other short-term variation is associated with EPP events such as solar proton events and geomagnetic storms. Typical duration of the short-term variation is 5-10 days. At Syowa Station, we have found that the short-term variations were caused mainly by the precipitation of electrons rather than protons based on the comparison with the precipitating fluxes of protons and electrons obtained by the POES and METOP-02 satellites. We studied more detailed behavior of NO within a day by using high time resolution (˜ 3-hour) data for one of the

  16. Effect of Increasing Experience on Dosimetric and Clinical Outcomes in the Management of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Pretesh R.; Yoo, Sua; Broadwater, Gloria; Marks, Lawrence B.; Miles, Edward F.; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Harpole, David; Kelsey, Chris R.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of increasing experience with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Methods and Materials: The records of all patients who received IMRT following EPP at Duke University Medical Center between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Target volumes included the preoperative extent of the pleural space, chest wall incisions, involved nodal stations, and a boost to close/positive surgical margins if applicable. Patients were typically treated with 9-11 beams with gantry angles, collimator rotations, and beam apertures manually fixed to avoid the contalateral lung and to optimize target coverage. Toxicity was graded retrospectively using National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria version 4.0. Target coverage and contralateral lung irradiation were evaluated over time by using linear regression. Local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Thirty patients received IMRT following EPP; 21 patients also received systemic chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 15 months. The median dose prescribed to the entire ipsilateral hemithorax was 45 Gy (range, 40-50.4 Gy) with a boost of 8-25 Gy in 9 patients. Median survival was 23.2 months. Two-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 47%, 34%, and 50%, respectively. Increasing experience planning MPM cases was associated with improved coverage of planning target volumes (P=.04). Similarly, mean lung dose (P<.01) and lung V5 (volume receiving 5 Gy or more; P<.01) values decreased with increasing experience. Lung toxicity developed after IMRT in 4 (13%) patients at a median of 2.2 months after RT (three grade 3-4 and one grade 5). Lung toxicity developed in 4 of the initial 15 patients vs none of the last 15 patients treated. Conclusions: With increasing experience, target volume coverage improved and dose to the

  17. Characterization facility for magneto-optic media and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansuripur, M.; Fu, H.; Gadetsky, S.; Sugaya, S.; Wu, T. H.; Zambuto, J.; Gerber, R.; Goodman, T.; Erwin, J. K.

    1993-01-01

    Objectives of this research are: (1) to measure the hysteresis loop, Kerr rotation angle, anisotropy energy profile, Hall voltage, and magnetoresistance of thin-film magneto-optic media using our loop-tracer; (2) measure the wavelength-dependence of the Kerr rotation angle, Theta(sub k), and ellipticity, epsilon(sub k), for thin-film media using our magneto-optic Kerr spectrometer (MOKS); (3) measure the dielectric tensor of thin-film and multilayer samples using our variable-angle magneto-optic ellipsometer (VAMOE); (4) measure the hysteresis loop, coercivity, remanent magnetization, saturation magnetization, and anisotropy energy constant for thin film magnetic media using vibrating sample magnetometry; (5) observe small magnetic domains and investigate their interaction with defects using magnetic force microscopy; (6) perform static read/write/erase experiments on thin-film magneto-optic media using our static test station; (7) integrate the existing models of magnetization, magneto-optic effects, coercivity, and anisotropy in an interactive and user-friendly environment, and analyze the characterization data obtained in the various experiments, using this modeling package; (8) measure focusing- and tracking-error signals on a static testbed, determine the 'feedthrough' for various focusing schemes, investigate the effects of polarization and birefringence, and compare the results with diffraction-based calculations; and (9) measure the birefringence of optical disk substrates using two variable angle ellipsometers.

  18. Antitumor Cell-Complex Vaccines Employing Genetically Modified Tumor Cells and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Antonio; Herrero, María José; Sendra, Luis; Botella, Rafael; Diaz, Ana; Algás, Rosa; Aliño, Salvador F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok) and a low producer (p2F). Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP) IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01). When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05). Significant survival (40%) was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells. PMID:24556729

  19. Crystal structure of the heptamolybdate(VI) (paramolybdate) ion, [Mo7O24]6-, in the ammonium and potassium tetrahydrate salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T., Jr.; Gatehouse, B.M.; Leverett, P.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal structures of the isomorphous salts MI6 [Mo7O24],4H2O (M = NH4 or K) have been refined by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction methods. Unit cell dimensions of these monoclinic compounds, space group P21/C with Z = 4, are, ammonium salt: a = 8.3934 ?? 0.0008, b = 36.1703 ?? 0.0045, c = 10.4715 ?? 0.0011 A??, ?? = 115.958?? ?? 0.008??; and potassium salt: a = 8.15 ?? 0.02, b = 35.68 ?? 0.1, c = 10.30 ?? 0.02 A??, ?? = 115.2?? ?? 02??. By use of multiple Weissenberg patterns, 8197 intensity data (Mo-K?? radiation) for the ammonium compound and 2178 (Cu-K?? radiation) for the potassium compound were estimated visually and used to test and refine Lindqvist's proposed structure in the space group P21/c. Lindqvist's structure was confirmed and the full matrix least-squares isotropic refinement led to R 0.076 (ammonium) 0.120 (potassium), with direct unambiguous location of the cations and water molecules in the potassium compound.

  20. Theoretical and Computational Investigation of High-Brightness Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chiping

    2013-11-30

    Theoretical and computational investigations of adiabatic thermal beams have been carried out in parameter regimes relevant to the development of advanced high-brightness, high-power accelerators for high-energy physics research and for various applications such as light sources. Most accelerator applications require high-brightness beams. This is true for high-energy accelerators such as linear colliders. It is also true for energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and free electron lasers (FELs) such as x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The breakthroughs and highlights in our research in the period from February 1, 2013 to November 30, 2013 were: a) Completion of a preliminary theoretical and computational study of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow (Mok, 2013); and b) Presentation of an invited paper entitled ?Adiabatic Thermal Beams in a Periodic Focusing Field? at Space Charge 2013 Workshop, CERN, April 16-19, 2013 (Chen, 2013). In this report, an introductory background for the research project is provided. Basic theory of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow is reviewed. Results of simulation studies of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flows are discussed.

  1. Antitumor cell-complex vaccines employing genetically modified tumor cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Antonio; Herrero, María José; Sendra, Luis; Botella, Rafael; Diaz, Ana; Algás, Rosa; Aliño, Salvador F

    2014-02-01

    The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok) and a low producer (p2F). Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP) IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01). When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05). Significant survival (40%) was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells. PMID:24556729

  2. An Adenylyl Cyclase, CyaA, of Myxococcus xanthus Functions in Signal Transduction during Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yoshio; Mishima, Yukako; Nakano, Hiromi; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    An adenylyl cyclase gene (cyaA) present upstream of an osmosensor protein gene (mokA) was isolated from Myxococcus xanthus. cyaA encoded a polypeptide of 843 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 91,187 Da. The predicted cyaA gene product had structural similarity to the receptor-type adenylyl cyclases that are composed of an amino-terminal sensor domain and a carboxy-terminal catalytic domain of adenylyl cyclase. In reverse transcriptase PCR experiments, the transcript of the cyaA gene was detected mainly during development and spore germination. A cyaA mutant, generated by gene disruption, showed normal growth, development, and germination. However, a cyaA mutant placed under conditions of ionic (NaCl) or nonionic (sucrose) osmostress exhibited a marked reduction in spore formation and spore germination. When wild-type and cyaA mutant cells at developmental stages were stimulated with 0.2 M NaCl or sucrose, the mutant cells increased cyclic AMP accumulation at levels similar to those of the wild-type cells. In contrast, the mutant cells during spore germination had mainly lost the ability to respond to high-ionic osmolarity. In vegetative cells, the cyaA mutant responded normally to osmotic stress. These results suggested that M. xanthus CyaA functions mainly as an ionic osmosensor during spore germination and that CyaA is also required for osmotic tolerance in fruiting formation and sporulation. PMID:12057952

  3. Synthesis of 3,4-di-O-acetyl-2,5-anhydro-1,6-dideoxy-1,6-diiodo-D-mannitol. Comparison of NMR spectral results for the solid state and solution with those of the X-ray structural determination.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, M A; Fronczek, F R; Lee, Y; Younathan, E S

    1995-04-19

    3,4-Di-O-acetyl-2,5-anhydro-1,6-dideoxy-1,6-diiodo-D-mannitol (3) is prepared from 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol (1) in three steps. The solution and solid-state NMR spectra of 3 indicate considerable variation in conformation. In solution, it adopts, on average, a symmetric 4T3 conformation, whereas in the solid state it adopts an asymmetric conformation as revealed by 13C NMR cross polarization and magic angle spinning techniques. A single-crystal X-ray structure analysis confirmed the asymmetric conformation of 3 in a monoclinic crystal, space group P2(1) with a = 8.9608(4), b = 8.6348(5), c = 9.6468(4) A, beta = 96.139(4) degrees, V = 742.1(1) A3, Dc = 2.085 g cm-3, mu (MoK alpha) = 4.2 mm-1, and Z = 2. The structure was refined to R = 0.039 and Rw = 0.047 for 5181 observed reflections. The furanoid ring of 3 adopts an envelope E5 conformation slightly distorted towards 4T5, with puckering parameters psi = 313.49 degrees and q = 0.37 A. The asymmetric conformation is rationalized in terms of the weak packing forces in the crystal. PMID:7780989

  4. Fast dose kernel interpolation using Fourier transform with application to permanent prostate brachytherapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Derek Sloboda, Ron S.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Boyer and Mok proposed a fast calculation method employing the Fourier transform (FT), for which calculation time is independent of the number of seeds but seed placement is restricted to calculation grid points. Here an interpolation method is described enabling unrestricted seed placement while preserving the computational efficiency of the original method. Methods: The Iodine-125 seed dose kernel was sampled and selected values were modified to optimize interpolation accuracy for clinically relevant doses. For each seed, the kernel was shifted to the nearest grid point via convolution with a unit impulse, implemented in the Fourier domain. The remaining fractional shift was performed using a piecewise third-order Lagrange filter. Results: Implementation of the interpolation method greatly improved FT-based dose calculation accuracy. The dose distribution was accurate to within 2% beyond 3 mm from each seed. Isodose contours were indistinguishable from explicit TG-43 calculation. Dose-volume metric errors were negligible. Computation time for the FT interpolation method was essentially the same as Boyer's method. Conclusions: A FT interpolation method for permanent prostate brachytherapy TG-43 dose calculation was developed which expands upon Boyer's original method and enables unrestricted seed placement. The proposed method substantially improves the clinically relevant dose accuracy with negligible additional computation cost, preserving the efficiency of the original method.

  5. Academic stress and positive affect: Asian value and self-worth contingency as moderators among Chinese international students.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wei, Meifen

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical model proposed by Berry and colleagues (Berry, 1997; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987) highlights the importance of identifying moderators in the acculturation process. Accordingly, the current study examined the Asian cultural value of family recognition through achievement (FRTA) and contingency of self-worth on academic competence (CSW-AC) as moderators in the association between academic stress and positive affect among Chinese international students. A total of 370 Chinese international students completed online surveys. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated that while academic stress was negatively associated with positive affect, FRTA was positively associated with positive affect. In other words, those with high academic stress reported a lower level of positive affect. However, individuals who endorsed high levels of FRTA reported a higher level of positive affect. In addition, results also revealed a significant interaction between academic stress and CSW-AC on positive affect. Thus, the study's finding supported the moderator role of CSW-AC. Simple effect analyses were conducted to examine the significant interaction. The results showed that higher levels of CSW-AC strengthened the negative association between academic stress and positive affect but lower levels of CSW-AC did not. Future research directions and implications are discussed. PMID:24491130

  6. [Genetic polymorphism of FIBRA,DHFRP2 and ACTBP2 and their forensic application in Yunnan Han population].

    PubMed

    Jing, Qiang; Nie, Sheng-Jie

    2002-09-01

    To investigate the genetic polymorphism of FIBRA,DHFRP2 and ACTBP2 in Yunnan Han population as well as their application in forensic science, EDTA-blood specimens were collected from 200 healthy individuals. The DNA were extracted either by the Chloro form, phenol method or by the Chelex-100 method. The PCR products were analyzed by PAG vertical electrophoresis,following by silver staining. All gene frequencies, discrimination power (DP), exclusion of paternity probability (EPP), heterozygosity (H),polymorphisms information content (PIC),matching probability (PM) as well as the Hardy-Weinberg test were calculated. The obtained data are beneficial in the understanding of population genetics of the three STR loci in Yunnan Han population and the results suggest that these loci are valuable genetic markers for paternity testing and personal identification in forensic science practice. PMID:16135442

  7. Reed bunting females increase fitness through extra-pair mating with genetically dissimilar males

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Stefan M; Keiser, Martin; Feignoux, Raoul; Meyer, Dietrich R

    2007-01-01

    Females of many socially monogamous species accept or even actively seek copulations outside the social pair bond. As females cannot increase the number of offspring with promiscuous behaviour, the question arises why they engage in extra-pair mating. We used microsatellite data to determine paternity, heterozygosity and genetic relatedness in the reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus), a species with high levels of extra-pair paternity (EPP). We found that extra-pair young (EPY) were more heterozygous than within-pair young (WPY). The high heterozygosity of the EPY resulted from a low genetic similarity between females and their extra-pair mates. EPY were heavier and larger when compared with their maternal half-siblings shortly before they left the nest. Recapture data indicated a higher fledgling survival of EPY compared with WPY. Our data suggest that reed bunting females increase the viability of their offspring and thus fitness through extra-pair mating with genetically dissimilar males. PMID:17785270

  8. What is the solar influence on climate? Overview of activities during CAWSES-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, Annika; Matthes, Katja; Randall, Cora E.; Mironova, Irina A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main advances in the Key Questions identified by the Task Group `What is the Solar Influence on Climate' by the SCOSTEP CAWSES-II science program. We go through different aspects of solar forcing from solar irradiance, including total solar irradiance (TSI) and solar spectral irradiance (SSI), to energetic particle forcing, including energetic particle precipitation (EPP) and cosmic rays (CR). Besides discussing the main advances in the timeframe 2009 to 2013, we also illustrate the proposed mechanism for climate variability for the different solar variability sources listed above. The key questions are as follows: What is the importance of spectral variations to solar influences on climate? What is the effect of energetic particle forcing on the whole atmosphere and what are the implications for climate? How well do models reproduce and predict solar irradiance and energetic particle influences on the atmosphere and climate?

  9. Mercury's Atmosphere and Magnetosphere: MESSENGER Third Flyby Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Johnson, Catherine L.; Gloeckler, George; Killen, Rosemary M.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Sprague, Ann L.; Vevack, Ronald J., Jr.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury en route to orbit insertion about the innermost planet took place on 29 September 2009. The earlier 14 January and 6 October 2008 encounters revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is highly dipolar and stable over the 35 years since its discovery by Mariner 10; that a structured, temporally variable exosphere extends to great altitudes on the dayside and forms a long tail in the anti-sunward direction; a cloud of planetary ions encompasses the magnetosphere from the dayside bow shock to the downstream magnetosheath and magnetotail; and that the magnetosphere undergoes extremely intense magnetic reconnect ion in response to variations in the interplanetary magnetic field. Here we report on new results derived from observations from MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS), Magnetometer (MAG), and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) taken during the third flyby.

  10. The upregulation of acetylcholine release at endplates of alpha-bungarotoxin-treated rats: its dependency on calcium.

    PubMed Central

    Plomp, J J; van Kempen, G T; Molenaar, P C

    1994-01-01

    1. The presynaptic component of an adaptive feedback mechanism leading to increased acetylcholine (ACh) release was studied in endplates of diaphragms from rats treated chronically with alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha BTX). 2. Quantal contents were calculated 'directly' from the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs) and endplate potentials (EPPs) which were recorded after mu-conotoxin treatment to prevent muscle action potentials. 3. In vitro application of the Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine (10 microM) or omega-conotoxin (40 nM) had no significant effect on the increased quantal content of endplates from alpha BTX-treated rats. 4. At control endplates, in vitro block of presynaptic K+ channels by 5 microM 3,4-diaminopyridine did increase the quantal content to a level which was similar to that found in endplates of alpha BTX-treated rats but also induced a broadening of EPPs, which was not found at endplates after alpha BTX treatment. 5. The difference between quantal contents of alpha BTX-treated and control rats was highly dependent on the [Ca2+]o/[Mg2+]o ratio when [Mg2+]o was fixed at 1 mM. At low [Ca2+]o, the quantal content of endplates from alpha BTX-treated rats was lower than that of controls while at [Ca2+]o in the normal and high range this was reversed. However, changing the [Ca2+]o/[Mg2+]o ratio by means of [Mg2+]o, at a fixed [Ca2+]o of 2 mM, did not influence the relative increase of quantal contents at endplates from alpha BTX-treated rats. Double logarithmic plots of the 'toxin-induced' myasthenia gravis (TIMG) and control quantal content versus [Ca2+]o had an approximately linear part between 0.2 and 1.5 mM [Ca2+]o. The slopes of the TIMG and control lines were 1.81 and 0.96, indicating that the ACh release in TIMG muscles was more sensitive to changes of [Ca2+]o than controls. 6. At normal [Ca2+]o and [Mg2+]o, the depression of EPP amplitude during stimulation of the phrenic nerve at 30-50 Hz was somewhat larger at endplates from alpha

  11. Developing precipitation modes for preventing the calcium-oxalate contamination of sugar beet pectins.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Meng, Hecheng; Zhu, Siming; Tang, Qiang; Pan, Runquan; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-09-01

    Effects of precipitation modes on the co-precipitation of insoluble oxalates particles during the purification of sugar beet pectins (SBP) from the extract were investigated. It was observed that soluble oxalate ions formed insoluble oxalate salts with calcium and precipitated with pectins during ethanol precipitation as pH of the medium increased and the solvent changed from water to ethanol-water mixture. Comparison among the employed precipitation methods revealed that both the dialysis-ethanol-precipitation and metal precipitation effectively prevented the calcium-oxalate contamination of SBP. Emulsifying properties of DEPP, EPP and MPP were also studied. It was observed that DEPP performed better than the remainder with respect to emulsifying ability. Based on these results, we concluded that the dialysis-ethanolic-precipitation can be a suitable method for improving the purity as well as emulsifying properties of the resulting pectins. PMID:25842309

  12. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  13. MESSENGER and Venus Express Observations of the Solar Wind Interaction with Venus: A Dual Spacecraft Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Barabash, S.; Benna, M.; Boardsen, S. A.; Fraenz, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R. E.; Ho, G. C.; Korth, H.; Krimigis, S. M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Raines, J. M.; Sarantos, M.; Solomon, S. C.; Zhang, T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2007-01-01

    At 23:08 UT on 5 June 2007 the MESSENGER spacecraft reached its closest approach altitude (338 krn) during its second flyby of Venus en route to its 201 1 orbit insertion at Mercury. Whereas no measurements were collected during MESSENGER'S first Venus flyby in October 2006, the Magnetometer (MAG) and the Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) operated successfully throughout this second encounter. Venus provides the solar system's best example to date of a solar wind - ionosphere planetary interaction. Pioneer Venus Orbiter measurements have shown that this interaction affects the upper atmosphere and ionosphere down to altitudes of - 150 km. Here we present an initial overview of the MESSENGER observations during the - 4 hrs that the spacecraft spent within 10 planet radii of Venus and, together with Venus Express measurements, examine the influence of solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field conditions on the solar wind interaction at solar minimum.

  14. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of tris(2,2' bipyridine)ruthenium(II) using common biological buffers as co-reactant, pH buffer and supporting electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Noah; Francis, Paul S; Barbante, Gregory J; Hogan, Conor F

    2015-11-01

    A series of aliphatic tertiary amines (HEPES, POPSO, EPPS and BIS-TRIS) commonly used to buffer the pH in biological experiments, were examined as alternative, non-toxic co-reactants for the electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(ii) ([Ru(bpy)3](2+)). These were found to be very attractive as "multi-tasking" reagents, serving not only as co-reactants, but also fulfiling the roles of pH buffer and supporting electrolyte within an aqueous environment; thus significantly simplifying the overall ECL analysis. Sub-nanomolar detection limits were obtained for [Ru(bpy)3](2+) in the presence of BIS-TRIS, making this species an valuable option for co-reactant ECL-based bioanalytical applications. PMID:26347905

  15. An elastic-perfectly plastic flow model for finite element analysis of perforated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.P.; Gordon, J.L.; Hutula, D.N.; Banas, D.; Newman, J.B.

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes the formulation of an elastic-perfectly plastic flow theory applicable to equivalent solid [EQS] modeling of perforated materials. An equilateral triangular array of circular penetrations is considered. The usual assumptions regarding geometry and loading conditions applicable to the development of elastic constants for EQS modeling of perforated plates are considered to apply here. An elastic-perfectly plastic [EPP] EQS model is developed for a collapse surface that includes fourth-order stress terms. The fourth order yield function has been shown to be appropriate for plates with a triangular array of circular holes. A complete flow model is formulated using the consistent tangent modulus approach based on the fourth order yield function.

  16. Pilin-gene phase variation of Moraxella bovis is caused by an inversion of the pilin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Marrs, C F; Ruehl, W W; Schoolnik, G K; Falkow, S

    1988-01-01

    Moraxella bovis Epp63 can express either of two different pilin proteins, called alpha and beta. We have previously cloned and sequenced the beta-pilin gene and now report that DNAs isolated from bacteria expressing alpha pilin have hybridization patterns consistently different from those of bacteria expressing beta pilin. The phase variation between alpha- and beta-pilin gene expression appears to be associated with an inversion of about 2 kilobases of DNA, whose endpoints occur within the coding region of the expressed pilin gene. Comparisons of the beta-pilin gene sequence with those of well-studied bacterial inversion systems revealed a stretch of 58% sequence similarity (21 of 36 base pairs) between the left inverted repeat of the Salmonella typhimurium flagellar hin control region and the amino-terminal portion of the beta-pilin gene. Images PMID:2898471

  17. On the Singular Value Decomposition of Measured Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    Singular value decomposition (SVD) is a well-known mathematical tool that can be used to decompose an ensemble of velocity field data into spatiotemporal modes that may reveal coherent flow structures. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is a special case of the SVD, used when the data are uncorrelated in time (as in a turbulent flow). Although the SVD and POD have been widely used in fluid mechanics, Epps and Techet (2010, ExpFluids 48:355-367) were among the first to consider how experimental error affects the results of the SVD. This talk revisits that paper and provides mathematically-rigorous bounds on the errors in the computed singular values and spatio-temporal mode shapes. Given experimental data with unknown error, a procedure is presented to (i) determine the root mean square measurement error and (ii) determine ``error bars'' for the singular values and vectors.

  18. Extracellular ATP inhibits chloride channels in mature mammalian skeletal muscle by activating P2Y1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Voss, Andrew A

    2009-12-01

    ATP is released from skeletal muscle during exercise, a discovery dating back to 1969. Surprisingly, few studies have examined the effects of extracellular ATP on mature mammalian skeletal muscle. This electrophysiological study examined the effects of extracellular ATP on fully innervated rat levator auris longus using two intracellular microelectrodes. The effects of ATP were determined by measuring the relative changes of miniature endplate potentials (mEPPs) and voltage responses to step current pulses in individual muscle fibres. Exposure to ATP (20 microm) prolonged the mEPP falling phase by 31 +/- 7.5% (values +/- s.d., n = 3 fibres). Concurrently, the input resistance increased by 31 +/- 2.0% and the time course of the voltage responses increased by 59 +/- 3.0%. Analogous effects were observed using 2 and 5 microm ATP, and on regions distal from the neuromuscular junction, indicating that physiologically relevant levels of ATP enhanced electrical signalling over the entire muscle fibre. The effects of extracellular ATP were blocked by 200 microm anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, a chloride channel inhibitor, and reduced concentrations of extracellular chloride, indicating that ATP inhibited chloride channels. A high affinity agonist for P2Y receptors, 2-methylthioadenosine-5-O-diphosphate (2MeSADP), induced similar effects to ATP with an EC(50) of 160 +/- 30 nm. The effects of 250 nm2MeSADP were blocked by 500 nmMRS2179, a specific P2Y(1) receptor inhibitor, suggesting that ATP acts on P2Y(1) receptors to inhibit chloride channels. The inhibition of chloride channels by extracellular ATP has implications for muscle excitability and fatigue, and the pathophysiology of myotonias. PMID:19805741

  19. Updating of the correlation between lpELISA titers and protection from virus challenge for the assessment of the potency of polyvalent aphtovirus vaccines in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Maradei, Eduardo; La Torre, José; Robiolo, Blanca; Esteves, Jorge; Seki, Cristina; Pedemonte, Andrea; Iglesias, Marcela; D'Aloia, Ricardo; Mattion, Nora

    2008-12-01

    Routine vaccination campaigns are carried out in Argentina twice a year, involving more than 100 million doses of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine. Although the challenge test in cattle has not been totally replaced for the assessment of FMD vaccine potency, Argentine Animal Health authorities have used an indirect alternative method based on specific correlation studies of protection against podal generalization (PPG) tests performed in cattle with a validated liquid phase blocking ELISA (lpELISA). The change of vaccine formulations that took place after the 2000-2001 outbreaks, generated a gap in the correlation between lpELISA titers and PPG for the new FMD virus strains. A reappraisal of the correlation between lpELISA titers measured at 60 dpv and virus challenge by the PPG method at 90 dpv, performed for the four virus strains presently included in the Argentine vaccine is presented in this work. The data were obtained from 40 bovine challenge trials (647 sera) performed using exclusive batches of commercial vaccine from the year 2001 to January 2008 for A24/Cruzeiro, A/Argentina/2001, O1/Campos and C3/Indaial FMD virus strains. Curves of percentage of expected protection (EPP) versus lpELISA titers were obtained by logit regression for A/Argentina/2001, O1/Campos and C3/Indaial strains, but not for A24/Cruzeiro strain. The concordance between the direct and indirect tests using an EPP cut off value of 75% (82%, kappa = 0.62), in agreement with data originating from many years of vaccine control in Argentina, remarks the relevance of the acceptance of indirect alternatives to in vivo potency testing. PMID:18835312

  20. A collapse surface for a perforated plate with an equilateral triangular array of penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J.L.; Jones, D.P.; Hutula, D.N.; Banas, D.

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes the development of incipient yield and subsequent collapse surfaces for a plate containing a large number of small circular penetrations arranged in an equilateral triangular array. The collapse surface developed here is appropriate for formulating a generic elastic-plastic flow theory for perforated materials. A unit cell is defined to characterize the mechanical response of an equilateral triangular array of penetrations. An elastic-perfectly plastic [EPP] finite element analysis [FEA] computer program is used to calculate the EPP response of the unit cell. A sufficient number of load cases are solved to define the complete incipient yield and collapse surfaces for the unit cell. A fourth order yield function is defined by squaring the Von Mises quadratic yield function and retaining only those terms that are required for the symmetry dictated by the triangular array. Curve fitting is used to determine the coefficients of the fourth order function to match the incipient yield and collapse data calculated for the unit cell by FEA. The incipient yield function in the plane of the plate incorporating the penetration pattern is shown to be almost rhomboidal in shape while the collapse curve is more elliptical. The fourth order yield function which passes through the incipient yield data possess regions where the surface is concave--a concern when developing a plasticity theory based on the function. Fitting the coefficients of the fourth order function to the collapse data results in a curve which is shown to be always convex thus having all positive outward normal vectors which is a required property for the development of plasticity flow theories.

  1. Molecular mapping across three populations reveals a QTL hotspot region on chromosome 3 for secondary traits associated with drought tolerance in tropical maize.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Nair, Sudha; Borém, Aluízio; Cairns, Jill; Trachsel, Samuel; Ribaut, Jean-Marcel; Bänziger, Marianne; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Crossa, Jose; Babu, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) of sizeable effects that are expressed in diverse genetic backgrounds across contrasting water regimes particularly for secondary traits can significantly complement the conventional drought tolerance breeding efforts. We evaluated three tropical maize biparental populations under water-stressed and well-watered regimes for drought-related morpho-physiological traits, such as anthesis-silking interval (ASI), ears per plant (EPP), stay-green (SG) and plant-to-ear height ratio (PEH). In general, drought stress reduced the genetic variance of grain yield (GY), while that of morpho-physiological traits remained stable or even increased under drought conditions. We detected consistent genomic regions across different genetic backgrounds that could be target regions for marker-assisted introgression for drought tolerance in maize. A total of 203 QTL for ASI, EPP, SG and PEH were identified under both the water regimes. Meta-QTL analysis across the three populations identified six constitutive genomic regions with a minimum of two overlapping traits. Clusters of QTL were observed on chromosomes 1.06, 3.06, 4.09, 5.05, 7.03 and 10.04/06. Interestingly, a ~8-Mb region delimited in 3.06 harboured QTL for most of the morpho-physiological traits considered in the current study. This region contained two important candidate genes viz., zmm16 (MADS-domain transcription factor) and psbs1 (photosystem II unit) that are responsible for reproductive organ development and photosynthate accumulation, respectively. The genomic regions identified in this study partially explained the association of secondary traits with GY. Flanking single nucleotide polymorphism markers reported herein may be useful in marker-assisted introgression of drought tolerance in tropical maize. PMID:25076840

  2. Report on FY15 alloy 617 code rules development

    SciTech Connect

    Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I; Hollinger, Greg; Pease, Derrick; Carter, Peter; Pu, Chao; Wang, Yanli

    2015-09-01

    Due to its strength at very high temperatures, up to 950°C (1742°F), Alloy 617 is the reference construction material for structural components that operate at or near the outlet temperature of the very high temperature gas-cooled reactors. However, the current rules in the ASME Section III, Division 5 Subsection HB, Subpart B for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 650°C (1200°F) (Corum and Brass, Proceedings of ASME 1991 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, PVP-Vol. 215, p.147, ASME, NY, 1991). The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, 650°C (1200°F), is well below the temperature range of interest for this material for the high temperature gas-cooled reactors and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactors. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis requiring sophisticated material models that have not yet been formulated and verified. To address these issues, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) analysis methods applicable to very high temperatures. The proposed rules for strain limits and creep-fatigue evaluation were initially documented in the technical literature (Carter, Jetter and Sham, Proceedings of ASME 2012 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, papers PVP 2012 28082 and PVP 2012 28083, ASME, NY, 2012), and have been recently revised to incorporate comments and simplify their application. Background documents have been developed for these two code cases to support the ASME Code committee approval process. These background documents for the EPP strain limits and creep-fatigue code cases are documented in this report.

  3. Porphyria Diagnostics – Part 1: A brief overview of the porphyrias

    PubMed Central

    Ramanujam, Vaithamanithi-Mudumbai Sadagopa; Anderson, Karl Elmo

    2015-01-01

    The porphyria diseases are a group of metabolic disorders caused by abnormal functioning of heme biosynthesis enzymes and characterized by the excessive accumulation and excretion of porphyrins and their precursors. Precisely which of these chemicals builds up depends on the type of porphyria. Porphyria is not a single disease but a group of nine disorders: acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), variegate porphyria (VP), delta-aminolevelunic acid dehyratase deficiency porphyria (ADP), porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), hepatoerythropoetic porphyria (HEP), congenital erythropoetic porphyria (CEP), erythropoetic protoporphyria (EPP), and X-linked protoporphyria (XLP). Each porphyria results from overproduction of heme precursors secondary to partial deficiency or, in XLP, increased activity of one of the enzymes of heme biosynthesis. Taken together, all forms of porphyria afflict fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. Based on European studies, the prevalence of the most common porphyria, PCT, is 1 in 10,000, the most common acute porphyria, AlP, is about 1 in 20,000, and the most common erythropoietic porphyria, EPP, is estimated at 1 in 50,000 to 75,000. CEP is extremely rare with prevalence estimates of 1 in 1,000,000 or less. Only 6 cases of ADP are documented. The current porphyria literature is very exhaustive and a brief overview of porphyria diseases is essential in order for the reader to better appreciate the relevance of this area of research prior to undertaking biochemical diagnostics procedures. This unit summarizes the current knowledge on the classification, clinical features, etiology, pathogenesis, and genetics of these porphyria diseases. PMID:26132003

  4. Computational Challenges of Fusion Neutronics for ITER Ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serikov, A.; Fischer, U.; Pitcher, C. S.; Suarez, A.; Weinhorst, B.

    2014-06-01

    This paper elaborates computational challenges tackled for providing neutronics service supplied for developing the design of the Diagnostics Equatorial and Upper Port Plugs (EPP and UPP). The aim was to guide and assist the EPP and UPP design developers with optimal shielding solutions which are characterised of maintain the diagnostics purposes of the systems together with adequate radiation shielding performance. The target parameter for the shielding optimization was the minimum of Shut-Down Dose Rate (SDDR) inside the interspace between the port back-side and ITER bioshield. This aim was reached by parametric neutronic analyses of the shielding geometry and material composition, mitigating direct streaming of neutrons from the plasma by arranging the labyrinths and horizontal rails. Variation of many geometrical parameters of the labyrinths was possible only by applying the high performance parallel computations with MCNP5 using pure MPI and hybrid OpenMP/MPI parallelization techniques on several available supercomputers. MCNP5 parallel performance assessments were carried out to find an efficient way to run the code in a parallel regime. It was found a strong scaling (up to 4096 cores) performance of the MCNP5 jobs running with analogue Monte Carlo sampling and weak scaling for the tasks with biased sampling as a variance reduction technique, such as the MCNP5 intrinsic weight window generator. Deep penetrating radiation in the complex ITER tokamak geometry combined blocks of strong attenuation of the radiation together with the void gaps along which the particles are streamed freely contributes to computation challenges of radiation transport.

  5. Adaptation of quantal content to decreased postsynaptic sensitivity at single endplates in alpha-bungarotoxin-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Plomp, J J; van Kempen, G T; Molenaar, P C

    1992-01-01

    1. Rats were injected once every 48 h with alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha BTX) for periods up to 6 weeks. Injections caused weakness of facial muscles which lasted about 8 h. Hemidiaphragms were dissected for biochemical and electrophysiological measurements. 2. In muscles from animals treated for 2-3 weeks with toxin, the binding of 125I-alpha BTX was reduced to 58%, and the ACh content to 81% of control values. Choline acetyltransferase activity was unchanged. ACh release evoked by 3 Hz nerve stimulation was increased to 175% of control values. 3. The use of mu-conotoxin, which specifically blocks muscle action potentials, enabled the recording of full-sized endplate potentials (EPPs) and miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs) at normal muscle membrane potentials (-70 to -80 mV). The amplitude of MEPPs was decreased to 57% in muscles from animals treated for 3 weeks with alpha BTX. The mean of the quantal contents, calculated from the ratio of the corrected EPPs and the MEPPs, was increased to 154%. 4. Within individual muscles of both alpha BTX-treated and control rats, there was an inverse relationship between the quantal content of an endplate and its MEPP amplitude. 5. The MEPP frequency of endplates from control muscles was positively correlated with the quantal content. However, this correlation was not found in alpha BTX-affected muscles. 6. Three hours after a single injection of alpha BTX the amplitude of the MEPPs was reduced to about 60% of control values but no increase of the quantal content was found. During the first few days of alpha BTX treatment the quantal content gradually increased; it reached a plateau between 20 and 30 days. 7. The results suggest the existence of an adaptive mechanism, operating at individual endplates, in which retrograde signals at the motor nerve terminals modulate ACh release when neuromuscular transmission is endangered by block of acetylcholine receptors. PMID:1302275

  6. Calcium channel subtypes contributing to acetylcholine release from normal, 4-aminopyridine-treated and myasthenic syndrome auto-antibodies-affected neuromuscular junctions

    PubMed Central

    Giovannini, F; Sher, E; Webster, R; Boot, J; Lang, B

    2002-01-01

    Acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction relies on rapid, local and transient calcium increase at presynaptic active zones, triggered by the ion influx through voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) clustered on the presynaptic membrane. Pharmacological investigation of the role of different VDCC subtypes (L-, N-, P/Q- and R-type) in spontaneous and evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release was carried out in adult mouse neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) under normal and pathological conditions. ω-Agatoxin IVA (500 nM), a specific P/Q-type VDCC blocker, abolished end plate potentials (EPPs) in normal NMJs. However, when neurotransmitter release was potentiated by the presence of the K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), an ω-agatoxin IVA- and ω-conotoxin MVIIC-resistant component was detected. This resistant component was only partially sensitive to 1 μM ω-conotoxin GVIA (N-type VDCC blocker), but insensitive to any other known VDCC blockers. Spontaneous release was dependent only on P/Q-type VDCC in normal NMJs. However, in the presence of 4-AP, it relied on L-type VDCCs too. ACh release from normal NMJs was compared with that of NMJs of mice passively injected with IgGs obtained from patients with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), a disorder characterized by a compromised neurotransmitter release. Differently from normal NMJs, in LEMS IgGs-treated NMJs an ω-agatoxin IVA-resistant EPP component was detected, which was only partially blocked by calciseptine (1 μM), a specific L-type VDCC blocker. Altogether, these data demonstrate that multiple VDCC subtypes are present at the mouse NMJ and that a resistant component can be identified under ‘pharmacological' and/or ‘pathological' conditions. PMID:12163346

  7. Ambient Light Promotes Selective Subcellular Proteotoxicity after Endogenous and Exogenous Porphyrinogenic Stress.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Dhiman; Elenbaas, Jared S; Whitesall, Steven E; Basrur, Venkatesha; D'Alecy, Louis G; Omary, M Bishr

    2015-09-25

    Hepatic accumulation of protoporphyrin-IX (PP-IX) in erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) or X-linked-dominant protoporphyria (XLP) cause liver damage. Hepatocyte nuclear lamin aggregation is a sensitive marker for PP-IX-mediated liver injury. We tested the hypothesis that extracellular or intracellular protoporphyria cause damage to different subcellular compartments, in a light-triggered manner. Three hepatoma cell lines (HepG2, Hepa-1, and Huh-7) were treated with exogenous PP-IX (mimicking XLP extrahepatic protoporphyria) or with the iron chelator deferoxamine and the porphyrin precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (mimicking intracellular protoporphyrin accumulation in EPP). Exogenous PP-IX accumulated predominantly in the nuclear fraction and caused nuclear shape deformation and cytoplasmic vacuoles containing electron-dense particles, whereas ALA+deferoxamine treatment resulted in higher PP-IX in the cytoplasmic fraction. Protein aggregation in the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions paralleled PP-IX levels and, in cell culture, the effects were exclusively ambient light-mediated. PP-IX and ALA caused proteasomal inhibition, whereas endoplasmic reticulum protein aggregation was more prominent in ALA-treated cells. The enhanced ALA-related toxicity is likely due to generation of additional porphyrin intermediates including uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin, based on HPLC analysis of cell lysates and the culture medium, as well as cell-free experiments with uroporphyrin/coproporphyrin. Mouse livers from drug-induced porphyria phenocopied the in vitro findings, and mass spectrometry of liver proteins isolated in light/dark conditions showed diminished (as compared with light-harvested) but detectable aggregation under dark-harvested conditions. Therefore, PP-IX leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress and proteasome inhibition in a manner that depends on the source of porphyrin buildup and light exposure. Porphyrin-mediated selective protein aggregation provides a

  8. Potentiation of the ionotropic GABA receptor response by whiskey fragrance.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Koda, Hirofumi; Kiso, Yoshinobu

    2002-11-01

    It is well-known that the target of most mood-defining compounds is an ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(A) receptor). The potentiation of the response of these inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors induces anxiolytic, sedative, and anesthetic activity in the human brain. To study the effects of whiskey fragrance on the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocyte by injecting rat whole brain mRNA or cRNA prepared from the cloned cDNA for the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the bovine receptors. Most whiskey components such as phenol, ethoxy, and lactone derivatives potentiated the electrical responses of GABA(A) receptors, especially ethyl phenylpropanoate (EPP), which strongly potentiated the response. When this compound was applied to mice through respiration, the convulsions induced by pentetrazole were delayed, suggesting that EPP was absorbed by the brain, where it could potentiate the GABA(A) receptor responses. The extract of other alcoholic drinks such as wine, sake, brandy, and shochu also potentiated the responses to varying degrees. Although these fragrant components are present in alcoholic drinks at low concentrations (extremely small quantities compared with ethanol), they may also modulate the mood or consciousness of the human through the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response after absorption into the brain, because these hydrophobic fragrant compounds are easily absorbed into the brain through the blood-brain barrier and are several thousands times as potent as ethanol in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response. PMID:12405783

  9. Effect of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) on non-quantal and spontaneous quantal release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular synapse of rat.

    PubMed

    Malomouzh, Artem I; Nikolsky, Eugen E; Lieberman, Edward M; Sherman, Jessica A; Lubischer, Jane L; Grossfeld, Robert M; Urazaev, Albert Kh

    2005-07-01

    N-Acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), known to be present in rat motor neurons, may participate in neuronal modulation of non-quantal secretion of acetylcholine (ACh) from motor nerve terminals. Non-quantal release of ACh was estimated by the amplitude of the endplate membrane hyperpolarization (H-effect) caused by inhibition of nicotinic receptors by (+)-tubocurarine and acetylcholinesterase by armin (diethoxy-p-nitrophenyl phosphate). Application of exogenous NAAG decreased the H-effect in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of the H-effect by NAAG was completely removed when N-acetyl-beta-aspartylglutamate (betaNAAG) or 2-(phosphonomethyl)-pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) was used to inhibit glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II), a presynaptic Schwann cell membrane-associated ectoenzyme that hydrolyzes NAAG to glutamate and N-acetylaspartate. Bath application of glutamate decreased the H-effect similarly to the action of NAAG but N-acetylaspartate was without effect. Inhibition of NMDA receptors by dl-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid, (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzocyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK801), and 7-chlorokynurenic acid or inhibition of muscle nitric oxide synthase (NO synthase) by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole completely prevented the decrease of the H-effect by NAAG. These results suggest that glutamate, produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of bath-applied NAAG, can modulate non-quantal secretion of ACh from the presynaptic terminal of the neuromuscular synapse via activation of postsynaptic NMDA receptors and synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in muscle fibers. NAAG also increased the frequency of miniature endplate potentials (mEPPs) generated by spontaneous quantal secretion of ACh, whereas the mean amplitude and time constants for rise time and for decay of mEPPs did not change. PMID:15953368

  10. [Focus on risk assessment in health environments: results and perspectives of a multicenter working group].

    PubMed

    Polato, R; Bacis, M; Belotti, L; Biggi, N; Campagna, M; Carrer, P; Cologni, L; Gattini, V; Lodi, V; Magnavita, N; Micheloni, G; Negro, C; Placidi, D; Puro, V; Tonelli, F; Porru, S

    2010-01-01

    The hospital risk assessment (VdR) is certainly a relevant issue concerning the activities of prevention for the health of healthcare workers in relation to biological risk. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-date of the issue, based on the suggestions of recent literature about the rules ratified by the new legislative decree and data supplied by the Group of 10 Hospitals participated in this multicenter study. From the analysis of data on healthcare settings (HCS) participating in the project the following considerations can be formulated: i) All HCS considered VdR from biological agents. The method recommended in the Guidelines SIMLII 2005 is the most followed ii) To grading the risk, the use of invasive procedures for carrying out the analysis results is a necessary element iii) the operators classified as exposed to biological risk, and therefore subject to health surveillance, represent almost all of workforce in 7 out of 10 HCS. The subgroup believes that VdR must be conducted in close collaboration with the occupational physician and should represent a worthwhile investment with spin-off character on prevention, decision making, empowering. The presence of environmental requirements and organizational procedures should be considered, so that HCS is enabled for an effective risk management, without which risk assessments cannot be performed. The method of VdR mentioned in the guidelines MLIS 2005, besides being the most widely used by the company participating in the study, still has practical reasons and opportunities to justify its use. The HCS group felt the need to propose an implementation of the definition of invasive procedures and EPP, together with individual assessment. Flexibility was suggested in identifying different levels of risk with the involvement of occupational physicians, especially in the presence of EPP, also in order to plan content and frequency of health surveillance. PMID:21061702

  11. High-resolution structures of Neotermes koshunensis β-glucosidase mutants provide insights into the catalytic mechanism and the synthesis of glucoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Wen-Yih; Wang, Nai-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Tse; Chang, Wei-Jung; Liu, Chia-I; Wang, Andrew H-J

    2012-07-01

    NkBgl, a β-glucosidase from Neotermes koshunensis, is a β-retaining glycosyl hydrolase family 1 enzyme that cleaves β-glucosidic linkages in disaccharide or glucose-substituted molecules. β-Glucosidases have been widely used in several applications. For example, mutagenesis of the attacking nucleophile in β-glucosidase has been conducted to convert it into a glycosynthase for the synthesis of oligosaccharides. Here, several high-resolution structures of wild-type or mutated NkBgl in complex with different ligand molecules are reported. In the wild-type NkBgl structures it was found that glucose-like glucosidase inhibitors bind to the glycone-binding pocket, allowing the buffer molecule HEPES to remain in the aglycone-binding pocket. In the crystal structures of NkBgl E193A, E193S and E193D mutants Glu193 not only acts as the catalytic acid/base but also plays an important role in controlling substrate entry and product release. Furthermore, in crystal structures of the NkBgl E193D mutant it was found that new glucoconjugates were generated by the conjugation of glucose (hydrolyzed product) and HEPES/EPPS/opipramol (buffer components). Based on the wild-type and E193D-mutant structures of NkBgl, the glucosidic bond of cellobiose or salicin was hydrolyzed and a new bond was subsequently formed between glucose and HEPES/EPPS/opipramol to generate new glucopyranosidic products through the transglycosylation reaction in the NkBgl E193D mutant. This finding highlights an innovative way to further improve β-glucosidases for the enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides. PMID:22751668

  12. Thickness effects on the plastic collapse of perforated plates with triangular penetration patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J.L.; Jones, D.P.; Holliday, J.E.

    2000-03-01

    This paper investigates the effects of plate thickness on the accuracy of limit load solutions obtained using an elastic-perfectly plastic [EPP] equivalent solid [EQS] procedure for flat perforated plates with a triangular array of penetrations. The EQS approach for limit loads is based on an EQS collapse surface that is valid for generalized plane strain. This assumption is applicable for very thick plates but is known to be less reasonable for very thin plates where plane stress may be a better assumption. The limits of applicability of the generalized plane strain assumption are investigated by obtaining limit load solutions for perforated plates of various thicknesses that are subjected to in-plane and bending loads. Plastic limit load solutions obtained using three-dimensional EPP finite element analysis [FEA] of models which include each penetration explicitly are compared with solutions obtained using the EQS approximation. The penetration pattern chosen for this study has a ligament efficiency (ligament width-to-pitch ratio, h/P) of 0.32. For plates thicker than the pitch, the limit load calculated using the EQS method for both in-plane and bending loads is shown to be very accurate (within 4%) of the limit load calculated for the explicit model. On the other hand, for thin plates (t/P< 2), the EQS limit load is 5% greater than the explicit limit load for bending and 8% greater than the explicit limit load for in-plane loads. For thinner plates, the collapse surface is tied to the local geometry deformation and, hence, an equivalent solid plate representation of plastic collapse is a function of deformation mode and thickness.

  13. Estimating HIV Incidence among Adults in Kenya and Uganda: A Systematic Comparison of Multiple Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Andrea A.; Hallett, Timothy; Stover, John; Gouws, Eleanor; Musinguzi, Joshua; Mureithi, Patrick K.; Bunnell, Rebecca; Hargrove, John; Mermin, Jonathan; Kaiser, Reinhard K.; Barsigo, Anne; Ghys, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Several approaches have been used for measuring HIV incidence in large areas, yet each presents specific challenges in incidence estimation. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a comparison of incidence estimates for Kenya and Uganda using multiple methods: 1) Epidemic Projections Package (EPP) and Spectrum models fitted to HIV prevalence from antenatal clinics (ANC) and national population-based surveys (NPS) in Kenya (2003, 2007) and Uganda (2004/2005); 2) a survey-derived model to infer age-specific incidence between two sequential NPS; 3) an assay-derived measurement in NPS using the BED IgG capture enzyme immunoassay, adjusted for misclassification using a locally derived false-recent rate (FRR) for the assay; (4) community cohorts in Uganda; (5) prevalence trends in young ANC attendees. EPP/Spectrum-derived and survey-derived modeled estimates were similar: 0.67 [uncertainty range: 0.60, 0.74] and 0.6 [confidence interval: (CI) 0.4, 0.9], respectively, for Uganda (2005) and 0.72 [uncertainty range: 0.70, 0.74] and 0.7 [CI 0.3, 1.1], respectively, for Kenya (2007). Using a local FRR, assay-derived incidence estimates were 0.3 [CI 0.0, 0.9] for Uganda (2004/2005) and 0.6 [CI 0, 1.3] for Kenya (2007). Incidence trends were similar for all methods for both Uganda and Kenya. Conclusions/Significance Triangulation of methods is recommended to determine best-supported estimates of incidence to guide programs. Assay-derived incidence estimates are sensitive to the level of the assay's FRR, and uncertainty around high FRRs can significantly impact the validity of the estimate. Systematic evaluations of new and existing incidence assays are needed to the study the level, distribution, and determinants of the FRR to guide whether incidence assays can produce reliable estimates of national HIV incidence. PMID:21408182

  14. Porphyria Diagnostics-Part 1: A Brief Overview of the Porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Ramanujam, Vaithamanithi-Mudumbai Sadagopa; Anderson, Karl Elmo

    2015-01-01

    Porphyria diseases are a group of metabolic disorders caused by abnormal functioning of heme biosynthesis enzymes and characterized by excessive accumulation and excretion of porphyrins and their precursors. Precisely which of these chemicals builds up depends on the type of porphyria. Porphyria is not a single disease but a group of nine disorders: acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), variegate porphyria (VP), δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria (ADP), porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP), congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP), erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), and X-linked protoporphyria (XLP). Each porphyria results from overproduction of heme precursors secondary to partial deficiency or, in XLP, increased activity of one of the enzymes of heme biosynthesis. Taken together, all forms of porphyria afflict fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. Based on European studies, the most common porphyria, PCT, has a prevalence of 1 in 10,000, the most common acute porphyria, AlP, has a prevalence of ∼1 in 20,000, and the most common erythropoietic porphyria, EPP, is estimated at 1 in 50,000 to 75,000. CEP is extremely rare, with prevalence estimates of 1 in 1,000,000 or less. Only six cases of ADP are documented. The current porphyria literature is very exhaustive and a brief overview of porphyria diseases is essential in order for the reader to better appreciate the relevance of this area of research prior to undertaking biochemical diagnostics procedures. This unit summarizes the current knowledge on the classification, clinical features, etiology, pathogenesis, and genetics of porphyria diseases. PMID:26132003

  15. The incidence of inherited porphyrias in Europe.

    PubMed

    Elder, George; Harper, Pauline; Badminton, Michael; Sandberg, Sverre; Deybach, Jean-Charles

    2013-09-01

    Retrospective estimates of the prevalence of porphyrias have been reported but there has been no large scale prospective study of their incidence. The European Porphyria Network collected information prospectively over a 3 year period about the number of newly diagnosed symptomatic patients with an inherited porphyria (335 patients from 11 countries). Prevalence was calculated from the incidence and mean disease duration. The incidence of hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) in acute hepatic porphyria and the prevalence of patients with recurrent acute attacks of porphyria were also investigated. The incidence of symptomatic acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) was similar in all countries (0.13 per million per year; 95 % CI: 0.10 - 0.14) except Sweden (0.51; 95 % CI: 0.28-0.86). The incidence ratio for symptomatic AIP: variegate porphyria: hereditary coproporphyria was 1.00:0.62: 0.15. The prevalence of AIP (5.4 per million; 95 % CI: 4.5-6.3) was about half that previously reported. The prevalence of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was less uniform between countries and, in some countries, exceeded previous estimates. Fourteen new cases of HCC (11 from Sweden) were reported in patients with acute porphyria. Sixty seven patients (3 VP; 64 AIP: 53 females, 11 males) with recurrent attacks of acute porphyria were identified. The estimated percentage of patients with AIP that will develop recurrent acute attacks was 3-5 %. In conclusion, the prevalence of symptomatic acute porphyria may be decreasing, possibly due to improved management, whereas the prevalence of EPP may be increasing due to improved diagnosis and its greater recognition as a cause of photosensitivity. PMID:23114748

  16. n -type doping of CuIn Se2 and CuGa Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Clas; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Lany, Stephan; Zunger, Alex

    2005-07-01

    The efficiency of CuInSe2 based solar cell devices could improve significantly if CuGaSe2 , a wider band gap chalcopyrite semiconductor, could be added to the CuInSe2 absorber layer. This is, however, limited by the difficulty of doping n -type CuGaSe2 and, hence, in its alloys with CuInSe2 . Indeed, wider-gap members of semiconductor series are often more difficult to dope than lower-gap members of the same series. We find that in chalcopyrites, there are three critical values of the Fermi energy EF that control n -type doping: (i) EFn,pin is the value of EF where the energy to form Cu vacancies is zero. At this point, the spontaneously formed vacancies ( = acceptors) kill all electrons. (ii) EFn,comp is the value of EF where the energy to form a Cu vacancy equals the energy to form an n -type dopant, e.g., CdCu . (iii) EFn,site is the value of EF where the formation of Cd-on-In is equal to the formation of Cd-on-Cu. For good n -type doping, EFn,pin , EFn,comp , and EFn,site need to be as high as possible in the gap. We find that these quantities are higher in the gap in CuInSe2 than in CuGaSe2 , so the latter is difficult to dope n -type. In this work, we calculate all three critical Fermi energies and study theoretically the best growth condition for n -type CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 with possible cation and anion doping. We find that the intrinsic defects such as VCu and InCu or GaCu play significant roles in doping in both chalcopyrites. For group-II cation (Cd, Zn, or Mg) doping, the best n -type growth condition is In/Ga -rich, and maximal Se-poor, which is also the optimal condition for stabilizing the intrinsic InCu/GaCu donors. Bulk CuInSe2 can be doped at equilibrium n -type, but bulk CuGaSe2 cannot be due to the low formation energy of intrinsic Cu-vacancy. For halogen anion doping, the best n -type materials growth is still under In/Ga -rich, and maximal Se-poor conditions. These conditions are not best for halogen substitutional defects, but are optimal for

  17. A comparison of DNA vaccines for the rabies-related virus, Mokola.

    PubMed

    Nel, L H; Niezgoda, M; Hanlon, C A; Morril, P A; Yager, P A; Rupprecht, C E

    2003-06-01

    Mokola virus, a rabies-related virus, has been reported to date from the African continent only. Like rabies virus, it is highly pathogenic, causes acute encephalitis, and zoonotic events have been documented. Although believed to be rare, there has been an unexplained increase in the number of isolations of the virus in South Africa in recent years. We have cloned and sequenced the glycoprotein (G) and nucleoprotein (N) genes from a South African Mokola virus, and used these in the construction of different DNA vaccines for immunization against Mokola virus. Four vaccines, utilizing different promoters and DNA backbone compositions, were generated and compared for efficacy in protection against Mokola virus. In one of these, both the Mokola virus G and N genes were co-expressed. Two of the single G-expressing DNA vaccines (based on pSG5 and pCI-neo, respectively) protected laboratory mice against lethal challenge, despite major differences in their promoters. However, neither vaccine was fully protective in a single immunization only. Serological assays confirmed titers of virus-neutralizing antibodies after immunization, which increased upon booster vaccine administration. A third construct (based on pBudCE4) was less effective in inducing a protective immune response, despite employing a strong CMV enhancer/promoter also used in the pCI-neo plasmid. Dual expression of Mokola virus G and N genes in pBudCE4 did not enhance its efficacy, under the conditions described. In addition, no significant utility could be demonstrated for a combined prime-boost approach, as no cross-protective immunity was observed against rabies or Mokola viruses from the use of pSG5-mokG or vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccines, respectively, even though both vaccines provided 60-100% protection against homologous virus challenge. PMID:12744896

  18. X-ray crystallographic and tungsten-183 nuclear magnetic resonance structural studies of the [M4(H2O)2(XW9O34) 2]10- heteropolyanions (M = COII or Zn, X = P or As)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T.; Tourne, C.M.; Tourne, G.F.; Weakley, T.J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The crystal structures of K10[Co4(H2O)2(PW9O 34)2]??22H2O (1) and isomorphous K10[Zn4(H2O)2(AsW9O 34)2]??23H2O (2) have been determined {Mo-K?? radiation, space group P21/n, Z = 2; (1) a = 15.794(2), b = 21.360(2), c = 12.312(1) A??, ?? = 91.96??, R = 0.084 for 3 242 observed reflections [I ??? 3??(I)]; (2) a = 15.842(4), b = 21.327(5), c = 12.308(4) A??, ?? = 92.42(4)??, R = 0.066 for 4 675 observed reflections [F ??? 3??(F)]}. The anions have crystallographic symmetry 1 and non-crystallographic symmetry very close to 2/m (C2h). Each consists of two [XW9O34]9- moieties [??-B isomers; X = P (1) or As (2)] linked via four CoIIO6 or ZnO6 groups. Two Co or Zn atoms each carry a water ligand. The 183W n.m.r. spectra of the anions [Zn4(H2O)2(XW9O34) 2]10- (X = P or As) confirm that the anions retain 2/m symmetry in aqueous solution. Homonuclear coupling constants between 183W atoms are 5.8-9.0 Hz for adjacent WO6 octahedra sharing edges, and 19.6-25.0 Hz for octahedra sharing corners.

  19. Combined effect of folate and adiposity on homocysteine in children at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Bo Hyun; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Ju; Park, Eun Ae; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cardiovascular diseases is a major cause of death and is responsible for 23.8% of deaths in Korea. Clinical symptoms manifest in adulthood, but susceptibility begins in utero. Elevated homocysteine levels and adiposity might be linked to a greater risk in children as well as adults. We hypothesized that those who have simultaneous risk for folate and adiposity would be affected with elevated homocysteine levels at 3 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS From the ongoing birth cohort at Ewha Womans University Mok-Dong Hospital, we compared adiposity parameters, serum homocysteine, and folate levels in 238 children (118 boys and 120 girls) at three years of age. The relationship between birth outcome, current weight and body mass index (BMI), postnatal growth, and homocysteine level were assessed using correlation and general linear model. Additionally, we assessed the combined effect between blood folate status and adiposity on current homocysteine levels. RESULTS Birth characteristics were not correlated with homocysteine. Current weight, BMI, upper-arm circumference, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and hip circumference were positively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.05). Folate level was negatively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.0001). A relative high anthropometric measure which is compatible with adiposity and low folate level was associated with high homocysteine levels. CONCLUSION We found a combined effect of adiposity and folate levels with homocysteine levels at three years of age. This implicates the beneficial role of folate supplementation in the high-risk population at an early age. PMID:26865919

  20. An experimental study of the solubility of molybdenum in H2O and KCl-H2O solutions from 500 ºC to 800 ºC, and 150 to 300 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Thomas; Mavrogenes, John

    2008-04-22

    The solubility of molybdenum (Mo) was determined at temperatures from 500 °C to 800 °C and 150 to 300 MPa in KCl-H2O and pure H2O solutions in cold-seal experiments. The solutions were trapped as synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz at experimental conditions, and analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICPMS). Mo solubilities of 1.6 wt% in the case of KCl-bearing aqueous solutions and up to 0.8 wt% in pure H2O were found. Mo solubility is temperature dependent, but not pressure dependent over the investigated range, and correlates positively with salinity (KCl concentration). Molar ratios of ~1 for Mo/Cl and Mo/K are derived based on our data. In combination with results of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy of individual fluid inclusions, it is suggested that Mo-oxo-chloride complexes are present at high salinity (>20 wt% KCl) and ion pairs at moderate to low salinity (<11 wt% KCl) in KCl-H2O aqueous solutions. Similarly, in the pure H2O experiments molybdic acid is the dominant species in aqueous solution. The results of these hydrothermal Mo experiments fit with earlier studies conducted at lower temperatures and indicate that high Mo concentrations can be transported in aqueous solutions. Therefore, the Mo concentration in aqueous fluids seems not to be the limiting factor for ore formation, whereas precipitation processes and the availability of sulfur appear to be the main controlling factors in the formation of molybdenite (MoS2).

  1. Rictor/mTORC2 regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics via its effects on gap junction communications and actin filament network

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Ka-Wai; Mruk, Dolores D.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian testis, coexisting tight junctions (TJs), basal ectoplasmic specializations, and gap junctions (GJs), together with desmosomes near the basement membrane, constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB). The most notable feature of the BTB, however, is the extensive network of actin filament bundles, which makes it one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers. The BTB undergoes restructuring to facilitate the transit of preleptotene spermatocytes at stage VIII-IX of the epithelial cycle. Thus, the F-actin network at the BTB undergoes cyclic reorganization via a yet-to-be explored mechanism. Rictor, the key component of mTORC2 that is known to regulate actin cytoskeleton, was shown to express stage-specifically at the BTB in the seminiferous epithelium. Its expression was down-regulated at the BTB in stage VIII-IX tubules, coinciding with BTB restructuring at these stages. Using an in vivo model, a down-regulation of rictor at the BTB was also detected during adjudin-induced BTB disruption, illustrating rictor expression is positively correlated with the status of the BTB integrity. Indeed, the knockdown of rictor by RNAi was found to perturb the Sertoli cell TJ-barrier function in vitro and the BTB integrity in vivo. This loss of barrier function was accompanied by changes in F-actin organization at the Sertoli cell BTB in vitro and in vivo, associated with a loss of interaction between actin and α-catenin or ZO-1. Rictor knockdown by RNAi was also found to impede Sertoli cell-cell GJ communication, disrupting protein distribution (e.g., occludin, ZO-1) at the BTB, illustrating that rictor is a crucial BTB regulator.—Mok, K., Mruk, D. D., Lee, W. M., Cheng, C. Y. Rictor/mTORC2 regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics via its effects on gap junction communications and actin filament network. PMID:23288930

  2. Crystal structure and IR spectrum of 1- O- α- D-glucopyranosyl- D-mannitol-ethanol (2/1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkkalainen, P.; Pitkänen, I.; Huuskonen, J.

    1999-11-01

    1- O- α- D-Glucopyranosyl- D-mannitol-ethanol (2/1), (C 12H 24O 11) 2-C 2H 5OH, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1 with unit cell dimensions a=11.4230(8) Å, b=9.525(4) Å, c=15.854(2) Å, β=102.751(7)° and V=1682.4(7) Å 3, Z=2, Dx=1.45 Mg m -3, λ (Mo-K α)=0.71069 Å, μ=0.128 mm -1, F(000)=788 and T=293(2) K. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined by least-squares calculations on F2 to R1=0.0371[ I>2 σ( I)], and 0.0930 (all data, 3542 independent reflections, Rint=0.021). There are two molecules of glucopyranosylmannitol (GPM) and one ethanol molecule in the asymmetric unit, and the glucopyranosyl ring adopts a chair conformation in both GPM molecules. Bond lengths and angles accord well with the mean values of related structures. The conformation along the mannitol side chain for one of the GPM molecules was the same as for the known polymorphs of D-mannitol, while the conformation of the other molecule was different, indicating different conformational arrangements in the terminal carbon atoms of the mannitol side chains of the two GPM molecules. The structure in 1- O- α- D-glucopyranosyl- D-mannitol-ethanol (2/1) is held together by a very complex hydrogen bonding system, which consists of an infinte chain propagating along the b-axis and a discontinuous chain, which binds the ethanol molecule to the structure. The FTIR spectra for anhydrous GPM, GPM dihydrate and GPM-ethanol (2/1) were recorded. Both IR and X-ray results indicate the extensive hydrogen bonding in crystalline state.

  3. The crystal structure and thermal history of orthopyroxene from lunar anorthosite 15415

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T., Jr.; Stephen, Huebner J.; Konnert, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A single crystal of untwinned orthopyroxene from lunar anorthosite sample 15415, with composition (Mg1.14Fe0.80Mn0.02Ca0.04)(Si1.97Al0.03)O6, has a unit cell in space group Pbca with a = 18.310(15) A ??, b = 8.904(10) A ??, c = 5.214(7) A ??, containing 2 formula units. A set of 742 counter-measured intensity data made with MoK?? radiation has been used to refine the crystal structure in isotropic thermal mode to R = 0.116. Anisotropic refinement led to R = 0.092, but thermal parameters are distorted by non-random errors resulting from poor crystal texture. The resulting structure is in close agreement with that obtained by Ghose [9] for a hypersthene from Greenland. A parameter q, which gives (MgqFe1-q) for cation site M(1) and (Mg1.14-qFeq-0.18Ca0.04) for site M(2), was included in the least-squares analysis, yielding q = 0.90(1). This orthopyroxene has the high degree of cation order expected of pyroxenes subjected to Apollonian metamorphism at lower than 500-600??C. No evidence exists for a subsequent thermal event of sufficient intensity to disorder the pyroxene. On the basis of previous laboratory studies of argon-release patterns of lunar plagioclase and order-disorder kinetics of terrestrial pyroxenes, we attribute the reported isotopic age (3.9-4.1 AE) to cessation of metamorphism, perhaps caused by impact excavation. ?? 1978.

  4. Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Dillehay, Tom D.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the Ñanchoc Valley in northern Peru was an important locus of early and middle Holocene human settlement, and that between 9200 and 5500 14C yr B.P. the valley inhabitants adopted major crop plants such as squash (Cucurbita moschata), peanuts (Arachis sp.), and cotton (Gossypium barbadense). We report here an examination of starch grains preserved in the calculus of human teeth from these sites that provides direct evidence for the early consumption of cultivated squash and peanuts along with two other major food plants not previously detected. Starch from the seeds of Phaseolus and Inga feuillei, the flesh of Cucurbita moschata fruits, and the nuts of Arachis was routinely present on numerous teeth that date to between 8210 and 6970 14C yr B.P. Early plant diets appear to have been diverse and stable through time and were rich in cultivated foods typical of later Andean agriculture. Our data provide early archaeological evidence for Phaseolus beans and I. feuillei, an important tree crop, and indicate that effective food production systems that contributed significant dietary inputs were present in the Ñanchoc region by 8000 14C yr B.P. Starch grain studies of dental remains document plants and edible parts of them not normally preserved in archaeological records and can assume primary roles as direct indicators of ancient human diets and agriculture. PMID:19066222

  5. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-01

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects. PMID:26852633

  6. A new in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy laboratory for off-line studies at KU Leuven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Creemers, P.; Ferrer, R.; Granados, C.; Gaffney, L. P.; Huyse, M.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Raeder, S.; Sels, S.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    The in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique is used to produce and to investigate short-lived radioactive isotopes at on-line ion beam facilities. In this technique, the nuclear reaction products recoiling out of a thin target are thermalized and neutralized in a high-pressure noble gas, resonantly ionized by the laser beams in a two-step process, and then extracted from the ion source to be finally accelerated and mass separated. Resonant ionization of radioactive species in the supersonic gas jet ensures very high spectral resolution because of essential reduction of broadening mechanisms. To obtain the maximum efficiency and the best spectral resolution, properties of the supersonic jet and the laser beams must be optimized. To perform these studies a new off-line IGLIS laboratory, including a new high-repetition-rate laser system and a dedicated off-line mass separator, has been commissioned. In this article, the specifications of the different components necessary to achieve optimum conditions in laser-spectroscopy studies of radioactive beams using IGLIS are discussed and the results of simulations are presented.

  7. The 1.1 micrometer and visible emission semiconductor diode lasers. [(AlGa)As lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladany, I.; Nuese, C. J.; Kressel, H.

    1978-01-01

    In (AlGa)As, the first of three alloy systems studied, Continuous Wave (CW) operation was obtained at room temperature at a wavelength as low as 7260 A. Reliability in this system was studied in the incoherent mode. Zinc doped devices had significant degradation, whereas Ge or Ge plus Zi doped devices had none. The Al2O3 facet coatings were shown to significantly reduce facet deterioration in all types of lasers, longer wavelength units of that type having accumulated (at the time of writing) 22,000 hours with little if any degradation. A CL study of thin (AlGa)As layers revealed micro fluctuation in composition. A macro-scale fluctuation was observed by electroreflectance. An experimental and theoretical study of the effect of stripe width on the threshold current was carried out. Emission below 7000 A was obtained in VPE grown Ga(AsP) (In,Ga)P with CW operation at 10 C. Lasers and LED's were made by LPE in (InGa) (AsP). Laser thresholds of 5 kA/cm2 were obtained, while LED efficiences were on the order of 2%. Incoherent life test over 6000 hours showed no degradation.

  8. Land use change on coffee farms in southern Guatemala and its environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Haggar, Jeremy; Medina, Byron; Aguilar, Rosa Maria; Munoz, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35% loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53% lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha(-1) was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha(-1)) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha(-1)). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity. PMID:23435611

  9. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  10. Small-animal tomography with a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, D. H.; Lundström, U.; Westermark, U.; Takman, P. A. C.; Burvall, A.; Arsenian Henriksson, M.; Hertz, H. M.

    2012-03-01

    X-ray tomography of small animals is an important tool for medical research. For high-resolution x-ray imaging of few-cm-thick samples such as, e.g., mice, high-brightness x-ray sources with energies in the few-10-keV range are required. In this paper we perform the first small-animal imaging and tomography experiments using liquid-metal-jet-anode x-ray sources. This type of source shows promise to increase the brightness of microfocus x-ray systems, but present sources are typically optimized for an energy of 9 keV. Here we describe the details of a high-brightness 24-keV electron-impact laboratory microfocus x-ray source based on continuous operation of a heated liquid-In/Ga-jet anode. The source normally operates with 40 W of electron-beam power focused onto the metal jet, producing a 7×7 μm2 FWHM x-ray spot. The peak spectral brightness is 4 × 109 photons / ( s × mm2 × mrad2 × 0.1%BW) at the 24.2 keV In Kα line. We use the new In/Ga source and an existing Ga/In/Sn source for high-resolution imaging and tomography of mice.

  11. High-throughput Screening and Statistical Learning for the Design of Transparent Conducting Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Christopher; Ghiringhelli, Luca; Scheffler, Matthias

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) represent a class of well-developed and commercialized wide-bandgap semiconductors that are crucial for many electronic devices. Al, Ga, and In-based sesquioxides are investigated as new TCOs motivated by very intriguing recent experimental work that has demonstrated bandgap engineering in ternary (AlxGayIn1-x-y)2O3 ranging from 3.8 eV to 7.5 eV by adjusting the ratio of In/Ga and Ga/Al. We employed DFT-based cluster expansion (CE) models combined with fast stochastic optimization techniques (e.g., Wang-Landau and diffusive nested sampling) in order to efficiently search for stable and metastable configurations of (AlxGayIn1-x-y)2O3 at various lattice structures. The approach also allows for a consideration of the effect of entropy on the relative stability of ternary TCOs. Statistical learning/compressed sensing is being used to efficiently identify a structure-property relationship between the targeted properties (e.g., mobilities and optical transparency) and the fundamental chemical and physical parameters that control these properties. ∖

  12. Effects of edaphic factors on the tree stand diversity in a tropical forest of Sierra Madre del Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzmeier, S.; Wiedemann, T.; Biber, P.; Schad, P.; Krasilnikov, P. V.

    2012-08-01

    Two sites with similar environmental parameters, except for the edaphic factor, were selected in the mountainous tropical forest of southern Mexico. Site 1 was established on an Alisol; site 2, on a Phaeozem. Representative soil profiles were examined on each of the sites, and topsoil was sampled on a regular grid pattern. The soil of site 2 was richer in organic matter and major nutrients and had a less acid reaction than the soil of site 1. The species diversity of the trees at site 2 (30 species) was higher than that at site 1 (17 species). The species compositions of the trees were different on the two soils: there were only six species in common for both sites. The coefficients of species similarity on the sites were low. We concluded that the presence of different soils within the same type of forest ecosystem increases its β-diversity. The examination of edaphic preferences of the species showed that Alstonia longifolia and Thouinidium decandrum preferred rich soils, Inga punctata and Ocotea sinuata preferred poor soils, and Cupania dentata and Hamelia patens did not display preferences in the studied range of soil properties. Thus, the spatial variability of the soil properties affect the spatial pattern of tree species in the studied tropical forest ecosystems.

  13. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. PMID:23574349

  14. Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-04-01

    Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies. PMID:19459727

  15. Crossing of large multiquasiparticle magnetic-rotation bands in 198Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, H.; Mukherjee, G.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Basu, S. K.; Kundu, S.; Ghosh, T. K.; Banerjee, K.; Rana, T. K.; Meena, J. K.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Chanda, S.; Garg, R.; Maheshwari, B.; Choudhury, D.; Jain, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    High-spin states in the doubly-odd 198Bi nucleus have been studied by using the Re,187185 (16O ,x n ) reactions at a beam energy of 112.5 MeV. γ -γ coincidences, directional correlation ratio, and integrated polarization asymmetry ratio were measured by using the INGA array with 15 Compton-suppressed clover high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Definite spins and parities were assigned to the observed levels. The high-spin structure is grouped into three bands (B1, B2, and B3), of which two (B1 and B2) exhibit the properties of magnetic rotation (MR). Tilted axis cranking calculations were carried out to explain the MR bands having large multiquasiparticle (qp) configurations. The calculated results explain the bands B1 and B2 very nicely, confirming the shears mechanism and suggest a crossing of two MR bands in both the cases. The crossing is from 6-qp to 8-qp in band B1 and from 4-qp to 6-qp in band B2, a very rare finding. A semiclassical model has also been used to obtain the particle-hole interaction strengths below the band crossing for the bands B1 and B2.

  16. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, G.

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  17. Polarized and spatially resolved Raman scattering from composition-graded wurtzite InGaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Rho, H.; Lee, E. H.; Song, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    We report Raman scattering from wurtzite single-crystalline InGaAs nanowires (NWs) to probe optical phonon behaviors associated with spatial grading in alloy composition along the NW length. Polarized Raman spectra revealed several optical phonons and their scattering symmetries: (i) InAs-like A 1(LO) and A 1(TO) phonons and (ii) GaAs-like A 1(LO), A 1(TO), and E 2(high) phonons. In addition, strong anisotropic behavior was observed in the Raman tensor elements of the A 1(TO) phonon mode. Interestingly, a spatial mapping of the GaAs-like A 1(TO) phonon along the NW length direction showed a systematic increase in energy from the NW top (~255 cm‑1) to the midpoint (~263 cm‑1), indicating an increase in the Ga mole fraction from about 0.5 to about 0.8. Further toward the NW bottom, the GaAs-like A 1(TO) phonon energy saturated to the peak value at about 264 cm‑1. In the upper half of the NW, the phonon linewidths broadened significantly due to the spatial grading in In/Ga composition along the NW length. When the composition grading was negligible in the bottom half of the NW, the spectral widths were considerably narrowed. The GaAs-like E 2(high) phonon showed similar variations in both energy and spectral width along the NW length.

  18. High compositional homogeneity in In-rich InGaAs nanowire arrays on nanoimprinted SiO{sub 2}/Si (111)

    SciTech Connect

    Hertenberger, S.; Vizbaras, K.; Rudolph, D.; Becker, J.; Bolte, S.; Bichler, M.; Finley, J. J.; Amann, M.-C.; Koblmueller, G.; Funk, S.; Zardo, I.; Abstreiter, G.; Yadav, A.; Scarpa, G.; Lugli, P.; Doeblinger, M.

    2012-07-23

    We report improved homogeneity control of composition-tuned In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As (x < 0.4) nanowire (NW) arrays grown by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on nanoimprinted SiO{sub 2}/Si (111) substrates. Using very high As/(Ga+In) ratios at growth temperatures of 550 Degree-Sign C enabled uniform incorporation of the respective group-III elements (In,Ga) over the investigated composition range, confirmed by high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Low-temperature (20 K) photoluminescence of these In-rich In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As NW ensembles reveal state-of-the-art linewidths of {approx}29-33 meV. These are independent of Ga content, suggesting an overall low degree of phase separation. In contrast, self-assembled, non-periodic In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As NW arrays show larger inhomogeneity with increased peakwidths in 2{theta}-{omega} HRXRD scans as well as broadened Raman modes. These results demonstrate the excellent potential of site-selective MBE growth of high-periodicity non-tapered In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As NW arrays with low size and composition dispersion for optimized device integration on Si.

  19. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  20. Tc-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin: in vitro characterization of receptor-mediated binding

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, D.R.; Krohn, K.A.; Stadalnik, R.C.; Scheibe, P.O.

    1984-07-01

    Hepatic binding protein (HBP) is a membrane receptor that binds and transports plasma glycoproteins from hepatic blood to hepatocellular lysosomes. A characterization is made of the in vitro binding of Tc-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA), a synthetic HBP ligand, to liver membrane. Structural modifications of NGA resulted in the alteration of the equilibrium constant, KA, and the forward-binding rate constant, kb. Binding was second-order; the relative amount of membrane-bound NGA depended on the initial concentrations of ligand and membrane. Membrane displacement studies, using carrier ligands in contrast to previously bound Tc-NGA or I-NGA, correlated with the binding characteristics of a native HBP ligand, asialo-orosomucoid. Computer simulation was used to study the detectability of the changes in HBP concentration at different values of kb. The simulations indicated that radiopharmacokinetic sensitivity to alterations in (HBP) should be possible using a neoglycoalbumin preparation with a carbohydrate density within the range of 15 to 25 galactose units per albumin molecule.

  1. Land Use Change on Coffee Farms in Southern Guatemala and its Environmental Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggar, Jeremy; Medina, Byron; Aguilar, Rosa Maria; Munoz, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35 % loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53 % lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha-1 was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha-1) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha-1). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity.

  2. Band gaps in InN/GaN superlattices: Nonpolar and polar growth directions

    SciTech Connect

    Gorczyca, I. Skrobas, K.; Suski, T.; Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.

    2013-12-14

    The electronic structures of nonpolar short-period InN/GaN superlattices (SLs) grown in the wurtzite a- and m-directions have been calculated and compared to previous calculations for polar superlattices (grown in the c-direction). The variation of the band gaps with the composition (m, n) of the mInN/nGaN unit cells of the superlattices was examined. The band structures were obtained by self-consistent calculations based on the local density approximation to the density functional theory using the Linear-Muffin-Tin-Orbital method with a semi-empirical correction for the band gaps. The calculated band gaps and their pressure coefficients for nonpolar superlattices are similar to those calculated for bulk InGaN alloys with an equivalent In/Ga concentration ratio. This is very different from what has been found in polar superlattices where the band gaps are much smaller and vanish when the number m of InN layers in the unit cell exceeds three. A strong internal electric field is responsible for this behavior of polar structures. Experimental photoluminescence data for polar SLs agree very well with gaps calculated for the nonpolar structures. It is suggested that this is caused by screening of the electric field in the polar structures by carriers originating from unintentional defects.

  3. Direct observation of strain in InAs quantum dots and cap layer during molecular beam epitaxial growth using in situ X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, Kenichi; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu

    2015-11-14

    Direct measurements on the growth of InAs quantum dots (QDs) and various cap layers during molecular beam epitaxy are performed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of strain induced both in the QDs and cap layers during capping is discussed based on the XRD intensity transients obtained at various lattice constants. Transients with different features are observed from those obtained during InGaAs and GaAs capping. The difference observed is attributed to In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the cap layer under limited supply of In. Photoluminescence (PL) wavelength can be tuned by controlling the intermixing, which affects both the strain induced in the QDs and the barrier heights. The PL wavelength also varies with the cap layer thickness. A large redshift occurs by reducing the cap thickness. The in situ XRD observation reveals that this is a result of reduced strain. We demonstrate how such information about strain can be applied for designing and preparing novel device structures.

  4. Structure of positive parity bands and observation of magnetic rotation in 108Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Jasmine; Palit, R.

    2015-10-01

    The interplay of nuclear forces among the neutron particles (holes) and proton holes (particles) in the odd-odd nuclei gives rise to a variety of shapes and hence novel modes of excitations. The odd-odd nuclei in the A ~ 110 region have proton holes in the g9/2 orbital and the neutron particles in the h11/2 orbitals. A systematic study of shears mechanism in A ~ 110 region indicates the presence of magnetic rotation (MR) phenomenon in Ag and In isotopes. Therefore, the structure of doubly odd 108Ag nucleus was probed in two different reactions, i.e, 100Mo(11B, 4n)108Ag at 39 MeV and 94Zr(18O, p3n)108Ag at 72 MeV beam energies. The emitted γ-rays were detected using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) at TIFR, Mumbai. A significant number of new transitions and energy levels were identified. Lifetime measurements, using the Doppler shift attenuation method, have been carried out for a positive parity dipole band. Tilted Axis Cranking (TAC) calculations have been performed for two positive parity dipole bands.

  5. Geant4 simulation study of Indian National Gamma Array at TIFR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S.; Palit, R.; Sethi, J.; Biswas, S.; Singh, P.

    2016-03-01

    A Geant4 simulation code for the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) consisting of 24 Compton suppressed clover high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors has been developed. The calculated properties in the energy range that is of interest for nuclear γ-ray spectroscopy are spectral distributions for various standard radioactive sources, intrinsic peak efficiencies and peak-to-total (P/T) ratios in various configurations such as singles, add-back and Compton suppressed mode. The principle of operation of the detectors in add-back and Compton suppression mode have been reproduced in the simulation. The reliability of the calculation is checked by comparison with the experimental data for various γ-ray energies up to 5 MeV. The comparison between simulation results and experimental data demonstrate the need of incorporating the exact geometry of the clover detectors, Anti-Compton Shield and other surrounding materials in the array to explain the detector response to the γ-ray. Several experimental effects are also investigated. These include the geometrical correction to angular distribution, crosstalk probability and the impact of heavy metal collimators between the target and the array on the P/T ratio.

  6. Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Piperno, Dolores R; Dillehay, Tom D

    2008-12-16

    Previous research indicates that the Nanchoc Valley in northern Peru was an important locus of early and middle Holocene human settlement, and that between 9200 and 5500 (14)C yr B.P. the valley inhabitants adopted major crop plants such as squash (Cucurbita moschata), peanuts (Arachis sp.), and cotton (Gossypium barbadense). We report here an examination of starch grains preserved in the calculus of human teeth from these sites that provides direct evidence for the early consumption of cultivated squash and peanuts along with two other major food plants not previously detected. Starch from the seeds of Phaseolus and Inga feuillei, the flesh of Cucurbita moschata fruits, and the nuts of Arachis was routinely present on numerous teeth that date to between 8210 and 6970 (14)C yr B.P. Early plant diets appear to have been diverse and stable through time and were rich in cultivated foods typical of later Andean agriculture. Our data provide early archaeological evidence for Phaseolus beans and I. feuillei, an important tree crop, and indicate that effective food production systems that contributed significant dietary inputs were present in the Nanchoc region by 8000 (14)C yr B.P. Starch grain studies of dental remains document plants and edible parts of them not normally preserved in archaeological records and can assume primary roles as direct indicators of ancient human diets and agriculture. PMID:19066222

  7. The in-gas-jet laser ion source: Resonance ionization spectroscopy of radioactive atoms in supersonic gas jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Ferrer, R.; Huyse, M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.

    2013-02-01

    New approaches to perform efficient and selective step-wise resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) of radioactive atoms in different types of supersonic gas jets are proposed. This novel application results in a major expansion of the in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) method developed at KU Leuven. Implementation of resonance ionization in the supersonic gas jet allows to increase the spectral resolution by one order of magnitude in comparison with the currently performed in-gas-cell ionization spectroscopy. Properties of supersonic beams, obtained from the de Laval-, the spike-, and the free jet nozzles that are important for the reduction of the spectral line broadening mechanisms in cold and low density environments are discussed. Requirements for the laser radiation and for the vacuum pumping system are also examined. Finally, first results of high-resolution spectroscopy in the supersonic free jet are presented for the 327.4 nm 3d104s 2S1/2→ 3d104p 2P1/2 transition in the stable 63Cu isotope using an amplified single mode laser radiation.

  8. Growth of Indium Gallium Nitride Nanorings via Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Zohair

    III-Nitride nanostructures have been an active area of research recently due to their ability to tune their optoelectronic properties. Thus far work has been done on InGaN quantum dots, nanowires, nanopillars, amongst other structures, but this research reports the creation of a new type of InGaN nanostructure, nanorings. Hexagonal InGaN nanorings were formed using Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition through droplet epitaxy. The nanorings were thoroughly analyzed using x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. Nanorings with high indium incorporation were achieved with indium content up to 50% that was then controlled using the growth time, temperature, In/Ga ratio and III/N ratio. The analysis showed that the nanoring shape is able to incorporate more indium than other nanostructures, due to the relaxing mechanism involved in the formation of the nanoring. The ideal conditions were determined to be growth of 30 second droplets with a growth time of 1 minute 30 seconds at 770 C to achieve the most well developed rings with the highest indium concentration.

  9. Variation of NO in lower thermosphere associated with a magnetic storm on April 2012 detected at Syowa station in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isono, Y.; Mizuno, A.; Nagahama, T.; Ejiri, M. K.; Kataoka, R.; Kuwahara, T.; Maezawa, H.; Miyoshi, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Tsutsumi, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the polar regions, it is known that energetic particle precipitation (EPP) induces ion-molecule chemistry and changes abundances of some minor molecules in the upper- and sometimes in the middle-atmosphere. Energetic solar protons directly enter the middle atmosphere, causing increase of HOx and NOx radicals and decrease of ozone (e.g., Jackman et al. 2001). Energetic electrons also increase NOx in the thermosphere, and the NOx-rich air is transported downward in the polar vortex during the polar winter (e.g., Seppälä et al. 2007). To understand the relationship between the EPP induced NOx variation and the solar activities in more detail, we newly installed a millimeter-wave spectroscopic radiometer at Syowa Station (69.00S, 39.85E) in the 52nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition. We have been carried out ground-based continuous monitoring of millimeter-wave ozone (235.709 GHz) and NO (250.796 GHz) spectral lines with a 70 kHz resolution and a 1 GHz bandwidth since March 2011. Based on the NO spectra integrated over 24 hours (UT 0-24), we found enhancement of the NO emission in 25-29 April, 2012. During this period, there was no significant solar proton increase. The peak intensity of the NO emission increased up to 4.1 K on 28th, while an average of the NO intensities from 18 to 23 April was estimated to be 1.4 K. After the enhancement, the intensity decreased below 2.5 K on 30th. In this period, a large magnetic storm occurred and its main phase was on April 23. The minimum value of Dst index reached -100 nT on April 24, and the electron flux with an energy less than 30 keV became a maximum of ~104 cm-2 s-1 str-1 on April 25 observed by POES. These results suggest that the remarkable enhancement of NO emission is associated with the energetic electron precipitation from radiation belts, although there is a 5-day delay between at the peak of the NO intensity and the main phase of the magnetic storm. In addition, from the NO data integrated every 12 hours

  10. Distribution of topical ocular nepafenac and its active metabolite amfenac to the posterior segment of the eye.

    PubMed

    Chastain, James E; Sanders, Mark E; Curtis, Michael A; Chemuturi, Nagendra V; Gadd, Martha E; Kapin, Michael A; Markwardt, Kerry L; Dahlin, David C

    2016-04-01

    Nepafenac ophthalmic suspensions, 0.1% (NEVANAC(®)) and 0.3% (ILEVRO™), are topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) products approved in the United States, Europe and various other countries to treat pain and inflammation associated with cataract surgery. NEVANAC is also approved in Europe for the reduction in the risk of postoperative macular edema (ME) associated with cataract surgery in diabetic patients. The efficacy against ME suggests that topical administration leads to distribution of nepafenac or its active metabolite amfenac to the posterior segment of the eye. This article evaluates the ocular distribution of nepafenac and amfenac and the extent of local delivery to the posterior segment of the eye, following topical ocular instillation in animal models. Nepafenac ophthalmic suspension was instilled unilaterally in New Zealand White rabbits as either a single dose (0.1%; one drop) or as multiple doses (0.3%, one drop, once-daily for 4 days, or 0.1% one drop, three-times daily for 3 days and one morning dose on day 4). Nepafenac (0.3%) was also instilled unilaterally in cynomolgus monkeys as multiple doses (one drop, three-times daily for 7 days). Nepafenac and amfenac concentrations in harvested ocular tissues were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Locally-distributed compound concentrations were determined as the difference in levels between dosed and undosed eyes. In single-dosed rabbit eyes, peak concentrations of locally-distributed nepafenac and amfenac showed a trend of sclera > choroid > retina. Nepafenac peak levels in sub-samples posterior to the eye equator and inclusive of the posterior pole (E-PP) were 55.1, 4.03 and 2.72 nM, respectively, at 0.25 or 0.50 h, with corresponding amfenac peak levels of 41.9, 3.10 and 0.705 nM at 1 or 4 h. By comparison, peak levels in sclera, choroid and retina sub-samples in a band between the ora serrata and the equator (OS-E) were 13- to 40-fold

  11. An analysis of the action of a false transmitter at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed Central

    Colquhoun, D; Large, W A; Rang, H P

    1977-01-01

    1. The action of monoethylcholine (MECh) on neuromuscular transmission has been studied by electrophysiological methods. 2. End-plate potentials (e.p.p.s.) in curarized rat muscle were unaffected or slightly increased in amplitude by MECh (0-1-1 mM). Stimulation at 3 Hz for about 30 min in the presence of MECh caused a progressive decline in e.p.p. amplitude, and a shortening of the e.p.p. time course. These changes were reversed by addition of choline to the medium. Similar changes in amplitude, but no change in time course, occurred when the preparation was stimulated in the presence of hemicholinium or triethylcholine. 3. Extracellular recordings of miniature end-plate potentials in frog muscle showed that stimulation in the presence of MECh caused the time constant of the exponential decay of the m.e.p.p.s. to decrease by 42%. The amplitude of intracellular m.e.p.p.s. was reduced by 45%. These changes were maximal by the time about 3 X 10(5) quanta had been released. 4. Voltage clamp experiments in rat muscle in which miniature end-plate currents (m.e.p.c.s) were recorded showed that stimulation in the presence of MECh reduced the amplitude (by 33%) and the decay time constant (by 42%). 5. Analysis of end-plate current flucutations produced by local application of acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylmonoethycholine (AMECh) to voltage clamped rat end-plates showed that the amplitude of the elementary current events was the same for both compounds whereas the average channel lifetime was 44% shorter for AMECh than for ACh. 6. The voltage-sensitivity of the channel lifetime (measured from end-plate current fluctuations) was the same for ACh and AMECh. The voltage-sensitivity of the m.e.p.c. decay time constant was the same as that found from noise measurements. The shortened m.e.p.c.s. (false m.e.p.c.s.) occurring after stimulation in the presence of MECh also showed the same voltage-sensitivity. 7. Both normal and false m.e.p.c.s. were prolonged by neostigmine by

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of long-term hydrological data sets: Constraints of the Budyko framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Peter; Orlowsky, Boris; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2013-04-01

    An accurate estimate of the climatological land water balance is essential for a wide range of socio-economical issues. Despite the simplicity of the underlying water balance equation, its individual variables are of complex nature. Global estimates, either derived from observations or from models, of precipitation (P ) and especially evapotranspiration (ET) are characterized by high uncertainties. This leads to inconsistent results in determining conditions related to the land water balance and its components. In this study, we consider the Budyko framework as a constraint to evaluate long-term hydrological data sets within the period from 1984 to 2005. The Budyko framework is a well established empirically based relationsship between ET-P and Ep-P , with Ep being the potential evaporation. We use estimates of ET associated with the LandFlux-EVAL initiative (Mueller et. al., 2012), either derived from observations, CMIP5 models or land-surface models (LSMs) driven with observation-based forcing or atmospheric reanalyses. Data sets of P comprise all commonly used global observation-based estimates. Ep is determined by methods of differing complexity with recent global temperature and radiation data sets. Based on this comprehensive synthesis of data sets and methods to determine Ep, more than 2000 possible combinations for ET-P in conjunction with Ep-P are created. All combinations are validated against the Budyko curve and against physical limits within the Budyko phase space. For this purpose we develop an error measure based on the root mean square error which combines both constraints. We find that uncertainties are mainly induced by the ET data sets. In particular, reanalysis and CMIP5 data sets are characterized by low realism. The realism of LSMs is further not primarily controlled by the forcing, as different LSMs driven with the same forcing show significantly different error measures. Our comprehensive approach is thus suitable to detect uncertainties

  13. P2Y13 receptors mediate presynaptic inhibition of acetylcholine release induced by adenine nucleotides at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Guarracino, Juan F; Cinalli, Alejandro R; Fernández, Verónica; Roquel, Liliana I; Losavio, Adriana S

    2016-06-21

    It is known that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is released along with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) from motor nerve terminals. At mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), we have previously demonstrated that ATP is able to decrease ACh secretion by activation of P2Y receptors coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi/o protein. In this group, the receptor subtypes activated by adenine nucleotides are P2Y12 and P2Y13. Here, we investigated, by means of pharmacological and immunohistochemical assays, the P2Y receptor subtype that mediates the modulation of spontaneous and evoked ACh release in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. First, we confirmed that the preferential agonist for P2Y12-13 receptors, 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-diphosphate trisodium salt hydrate (2-MeSADP), reduced MEPP frequency without affecting MEPP amplitude as well as the amplitude and quantal content of end-plate potentials (EPPs). The effect on spontaneous secretion disappeared after the application of the selective P2Y12-13 antagonists AR-C69931MX or 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate triethylammonium salt hydrate (2-MeSAMP). 2-MeSADP was more potent than ADP and ATP in reducing MEPP frequency. Then we demonstrated that the selective P2Y13 antagonist MRS-2211 completely prevented the inhibitory effect of 2-MeSADP on MEPP frequency and EPP amplitude, whereas the P2Y12 antagonist MRS-2395 failed to do this. The preferential agonist for P2Y13 receptors inosine 5'-diphosphate sodium salt (IDP) reduced spontaneous and evoked ACh secretion and MRS-2211 abolished IDP-mediated modulation. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the presence of P2Y13 but not P2Y12 receptors at the end-plate region. Disappearance of P2Y13 receptors after denervation suggests the presynaptic localization of the receptors. We conclude that, at motor nerve terminals, the Gi/o protein-coupled P2Y receptors implicated in presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous and evoked ACh release are of the subtype P2Y

  14. Characterization of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Among Custodians.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Simcox, Nancy J; Wakai, Sara; Lu, Chensheng; Garza, Jennifer L; Cherniack, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and 'green' or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for creatinine-adjusted urinary phthalate concentrations. Mixed effects univariate and multivariate modeling, using a random intercept for each individual, was performed to identify predictors of phthalate metabolites including demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations [GM (95% CI)] of MEP, MMP, MEHP, and MBzP were 107 (91.0-126), 2.69 (2.18-3.30), 6.93 (6.00-7.99), 8.79 (7.84-9.86) µg g(-1), respectively. An increasing trend in phthalate concentrations from before to after shift was not observed. Creatinine-adjusted urinary MEP was significantly associated with frequency of traditional cleaning chemical intensity in the multivariate model after adjusting for potential confounding by demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. While numerous demographics, workplace factors, and personal care products were statistically significant univariate predictors of MMP, MEHP, and MBzP, few associations persisted

  15. Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-07-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Conclusions are reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a

  16. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2010-02-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one. Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro) and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo) are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme) resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress), using the EPP dollar exchange rate. Our conclusions with

  17. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  18. ISS External Payload Platform - a new opportunity for research in the space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimle, Christian; Pape, Uwe

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a widely accepted platform for research activities in low Earth orbit. To a wide extent these activities are conducted in the pressurised laboratories of the station and less in the outside environment. Suitable locations outside the ISS are rare, existing facilities fully booked for the coming years. To overcome this limitation, an external payload platform accessible for small size payloads on a commercial basis will be launched to the ISS and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module External Facility (JEM-EF) in the third quarter of 2014 and will be ready to be used by the scientific community on a fully commercial basis. The new External Payload Platform (EPP) and its opportunities and constraints assessed regarding future research activities on-board the ISS. The small size platform is realised in a cooperation between the companies NanoRacks, Astrium North America in the United States, and Airbus Defence and Space in Germany. The hardware allows the fully robotic installation and operation of payloads. In the nominal mission scenario payload items are installed not later than one year after the signature of the contract, stay in operation for 15 weeks, and can be returned to the scientist thereafter. Payload items are transported among the pressurised cargo usually delivered to the station with various supply vehicles. Due to the high frequency of flights and the flexibility of the vehicle manifests the risk of a delay in the payload readiness can be mitigated by delaying to the next flight opportunity which on average is available not more than two months later. The mission is extra-ordinarily fast and of low cost in comparison to traditional research conducted on-board the ISS and can fit into short-term funding cycles available on national and multi-national levels. The size of the payload items is limited by handling constraints on-board the ISS. Therefore, the standard experiment payload size is a multiple of a

  19. 2010 Remediation Effectiveness Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Data and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2010-09-01

    scale, such as contaminant trends at surface water integration points (IPs). Long-term stewardship (LTS) information used in this report is collected, compiled, and tracked by the WRRP in conjunction with the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) program, the BJC Radiation Protection Organization at East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), and the ETTP Environmental Compliance Program. Additionally, documentation verifying the implementation of administrative land use controls (LUCs) [i.e., property record restrictions, property record notices, zoning notices, and excavation/penetration permit (EPP) program] is also obtained from many sources throughout the fiscal year (FY), including County Register of Deeds offices for property record restrictions and property record notices, City Planning Commission for zoning notices, and BJC project engineers for EPP program verification. Copies of this documentation are obtained by the WRRP and maintained with the project RER files.

  20. Graphene nanosheets inserted by silver nanoparticles as zero-dimensional nanospacers for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Quanhong; Wang, Zhenping; Wang, Jinzhong; Yan, Yuan; Ma, Zhoujing; Zhu, Jianxiao; Shi, Wangzhou; Chen, Qi; Yu, Qingjiang; Huang, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional Ag nanoparticle/GNs (Ag/GNs) hybrids as highly efficient counter electrode (CE) materials for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is described, highlighting the Ag nanoparticles as zero-dimensional nanospacers inserting into GNs to lift the interspacing layer between individual GNs. It is demonstrated that, when the hybrids are used as CE materials for DSSCs, compared to their pure GNs, Ag/GNs hybrids without agglomerates have a significant improvement in their electrochemical properties such as high current density, narrow peak-to-peak separation (Epp) and low charge transfer resistance (RCT). The enhancement of electrochemical performance can be attributed to the increased electrode conductivity, an extended interlayer distance and the reduction of the restacking of graphene sheets due to the insertion of metallic Ag nanoparticles into GNs. The DSSC with this hybrid CE exhibited an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 7.72% with an open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit photocurrent density (JSC), and fill factor (FF) of 732 mV, 14.67 mA cm-2, and 71.8%, respectively.Three-dimensional Ag nanoparticle/GNs (Ag/GNs) hybrids as highly efficient counter electrode (CE) materials for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is described, highlighting the Ag nanoparticles as zero-dimensional nanospacers inserting into GNs to lift the interspacing layer between individual GNs. It is demonstrated that, when the hybrids are used as CE materials for DSSCs, compared to their pure GNs, Ag/GNs hybrids without agglomerates have a significant improvement in their electrochemical properties such as high current density, narrow peak-to-peak separation (Epp) and low charge transfer resistance (RCT). The enhancement of electrochemical performance can be attributed to the increased electrode conductivity, an extended interlayer distance and the reduction of the restacking of graphene sheets due to the insertion of metallic Ag nanoparticles into GNs. The DSSC with this

  1. Validation of EORTC and CALGB prognostic models in surgical patients submitted to diagnostic, palliative or curative surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Guerrera, Francesco; Roffinella, Matteo; Olivetti, Stefania; Costardi, Lorena; Oliaro, Alberto; Filosso, Pier Luigi; Lausi, Paolo Olivo; Ruffini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the trend of our surgical patients affected by malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and submitted to diagnostic/palliative or curative surgical procedures and to validate the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) prognostic score in our patient population. Methods This is a cohort study of patients submitted to surgery for MPM from January 2007 to December 2013. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariate-adjusted comparisons by EORTC prognostic score for OS were accomplished using Cox method. Adjusted models included the following clinical variables: kind of procedure, smoking habit, asbestos exposure, Charlson’s Comorbidity Index (CCI), clinical tumor stage, adjuvant chemotherapy, dyspnoea, chest pain and haematological variables according to the score features. Nomenclature of the surgical procedures matches the International Association for the Study Lung Cancer (IASLC)/International Mesothelioma Interest Group (iMIG). Results One-hundred sixty-six consecutive cases were collected: the median age at surgery was 73 years and 123 patients (75%) had a history of asbestos exposure. Ninty patients (54%) were submitted to a palliative/diagnostic thoracoscopy, 30 to pleurectomy/decortication (P/D), and 6 to extra-pleural pneumonectomy (EPP). Clinical TNM stages were as follows: 99 (60%) stage I–II, 34 (20%) stage III and 33 (20%) stage IV. The median follow-up (FU) was 19 months [interquartile range (IQR), 9–31 months] and the FU-completeness was 98%. By the end of the study 130 patients died (78%). One- and 3-year OS was 60% and 36%, respectively. Patients submitted to EPP and P/D showed a better survival (P=0.013). Multivariable model showed an independent prognostic value of EORTC score (HR =2.86, P<0.001). Conclusions In selected patients, aggressive surgical approaches, although not radical, may still be beneficial. The EORTC prognostic index proved to be an independent prognostic

  2. Using finite-time Lyapunov exponents to investigate the effect of stratospheric sudden warmings on the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; McDonald, A. J.

    2012-04-01

    Finite-time Lyapunov exponents are often used to measure mixing in the stratosphere and have been used to investigate the horizontal transport of trace gases near the polar vortices. A better understanding of the dynamics of the polar vortices should provide insight into the circumstances under which odd nitrogen and hydrogen produced by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) can be transported to lower levels of the atmosphere. A climatology of finite-time Lyapunov exponents for isentropic surfaces in the stratosphere ranging from 550-2300K for both the northern and southern hemispheres has been created for the observational period of the EOS-MLS instrument.The Lyapunov exponents are derived by using output from a Lagrangian trajectory model forced by data from the MERRA reanalysis. They are calculated at each point on a 2° x 4° global grid by running trajectories for two neighbouring parcels which are initially 1km apart and measuring their separation after a period of time. In order to ensure that the parcel trajectories remain close enough to each other for the exponents to be a good measure of local mixing, the distance between the parcels is periodically reset to 1km. In order to provide a consistency check Lyapunov exponents and trajectories have also been calculated at 550K using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. Initial comparisons suggest that the qualitative agreement is quite good between the results using the two different reanalyses. Comparison of the variations in the Lyapunov exponents and trace gas distributions using EOS-MLS data during periods where the stratospheric polar vortices are undisturbed and periods which are disturbed by stratospheric sudden warmings are also discussed. Studying how stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) affect the atmospheric dynamics in polar regions is particularly worthwhile since recent studies have shown that they have a significant modulating influence upon the EPP

  3. A scaling approach to Budyko's framework and the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration in humid environments: case study of the Amazon River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, A. M.; Poveda, G.; Sivapalan, M.; Vallejo-Bernal, S. M.; Bustamante, E.

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies a 3-D generalization of Budyko's framework designed to capture the mutual interdependence among long-term mean actual evapotranspiration (E), potential evapotranspiration (Ep) and precipitation (P). For this purpose we use three dimensionless and dependent quantities: Ψ = E/P, Φ = Ep/P and Ω = E/Ep. This 3-D space and its 2-D projections provide an interesting setting to test the physical soundness of Budyko's hypothesis. We demonstrate analytically that Budyko-type equations are unable to capture the physical limit of the relation between Ω and Φ in humid environments, owing to the unfeasibility of Ep/P → 0 at E/Ep = 1. Using data from 146 sub-catchments in the Amazon River basin we overcome this inconsistency by proposing a physically consistent power law: Ψ = k Φe, with k = 0.66, and e = 0.83 (R2 = 0.93). This power law is compared with two other Budyko-type equations. Taking into account the goodness of fits and the ability to comply with the physical limits of the 3-D space, our results show that the power law is better suited to model the coupled water and energy balances within the Amazon River basin. Moreover, k is found to be related to the partitioning of energy via evapotranspiration in terms of Ω. This suggests that our power law implicitly incorporates the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration into the Budyko curve, which is a consequence of the dependent nature of the studied variables within our 3-D space. This scaling approach is also consistent with the asymmetrical nature of the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration. Looking for a physical explanation for the parameters k and e, the inter-annual variability of individual catchments is studied. Evidence of space-time symmetry in Amazonia emerges, since both between-catchment and between-year variability follow the same Budyko curves. Finally, signs of co-evolution of catchments are explored by linking spatial patterns of the power law parameters

  4. Differential metabolic responses of Beauveria bassiana cultured in pupae extracts, root exudates and its interactions with insect and plant.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feifei; Wang, Qian; Yin, Chunlin; Ge, Yinglu; Hu, Fenglin; Huang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Bao, Guanhu; Wang, Bin; Lu, Ruili; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a kind of world-wide entomopathogenic fungus and can also colonize plant rhizosphere. Previous researches showed differential expression of genes when entomopathogenic fungi are cultured in insect or plant materials. However, so far there is no report on metabolic alterations of B. bassiana in the environments of insect or plant. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem. Herein, we first provide the metabolomic analysis of B. bassiana cultured in insect pupae extracts (derived from Euproctis pseudoconspersa and Bombyx mori, EPP and BMP), plant root exudates (derived from asparagus and carrot, ARE and CRE), distilled water and minimal media (MM), respectively. Principal components analysis (PCA) shows that mycelia cultured in pupae extracts and root exudates are evidently separated and individually separated from MM, which indicates that fungus accommodates to insect and plant environments by different metabolic regulation mechanisms. Subsequently, orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) identifies differential metabolites in fungus under three environments relative to MM. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) is performed to cluster compounds based on biochemical relationships, showing that sphingolipids are increased in BMP but are decreased in EPP. This observation further implies that sphingolipid metabolism may be involved in the adaptation of fungus to different hosts. In the meantime, sphingolipids are significantly decreased in root exudates but they are not decreased in distilled water, suggesting that some components of the root exudates can suppress sphingolipid to down-regulate sphingolipid metabolism. Pathway analysis finds that fatty acid metabolism is maintained at high level but non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) synthesis is unaffected in mycelia cultured in pupae extracts. In contrast, fatty acid metabolism is not changed but NRP synthesis is high in mycelia cultured in root exudates

  5. Protein crystal's shape and polymorphism prediction within the limits resulting from the exploration of the Miyazawa-Jernigan matrix.

    PubMed

    Siódmiak, Jacek

    2008-12-01

    A computer study of the prediction of the protein crystal's shape and polymorphism of crystal's structures within the limits resulting from the exploration of the Miyazawa-Jernigan matrix is presented. In this study, a coarse-graining procedure was applied to prepare a two-dimensional growth unit, where instead of full atom representation of the protein a two-type (hydrophobic-hydrophilic, HP) aminoacidal representation was used. The interaction energies between hydrophobic (E(HH)) aminoacids were chosen from the well-known HP-type models (E(HH)in[-4,-3,-2.3,-1]), whereas interaction energies between hydrophobic and hydrophilic aminoacids (E(HP)) as well as interaction energies between hydrophilic aminoacids (E(PP)) were chosen from the range: <-1,1>, but not all values from this range fulfiled limitations resulting from the exploration of the Miyazawa-Jernigan matrix. Exploring every positively vetted combinations of energy interactions a polymorphism of the unit cell was observed what led to the fact that different final crystal's shapes were obtained. PMID:18721848

  6. Emergency Preparedness with People Who Sign: Toward the whole community approach.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Jody H; Cooper, Sheryl B; Austin, Elizabeth N

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the "whole community" involves including everyone in the community in preparing for emergencies, including members of often-overlooked groups. Deaf people who sign are one example of this type of group. An innovative model based on the whole community approach, Emergency Preparedness with People Who Sign (EPPS), is introduced in this article. This model focuses on members of the deaf community directly training first responders using a variety of techniques for effective communication and cultural understanding to achieve safety for all. This model was developed and field tested by a university Deaf Studies program through student service-learning activities and faculty involvement including on-site role-playing. Through the reciprocal awareness training for both professionals and community members, deaf individuals become actively empowered to participate in developing culturally and linguistically sensitive public safety services. Response to the concurrent training of first responders and deaf community members has been positive, and it is hoped that this model can be replicated with deaf people and first responders in other locations, as well as with other often-overlooked groups. PMID:27108919

  7. Comparison of a 3-D GPU-Assisted Maxwell Code and Ray Tracing for Reflectometry on ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gady, Sarah; Kubota, Shigeyuki; Johnson, Irena

    2015-11-01

    Electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering in magnetized plasmas are important diagnostics for high temperature plasmas. 1-D and 2-D full-wave codes are standard tools for measurements of the electron density profile and fluctuations; however, ray tracing results have shown that beam propagation in tokamak plasmas is inherently a 3-D problem. The GPU-Assisted Maxwell Code utilizes the FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) method for solving the Maxwell equations with the cold plasma approximation in a 3-D geometry. Parallel processing with GPGPU (General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units) is used to accelerate the computation. Previously, we reported on initial comparisons of the code results to 1-D numerical and analytical solutions, where the size of the computational grid was limited by the on-board memory of the GPU. In the current study, this limitation is overcome by using domain decomposition and an additional GPU. As a practical application, this code is used to study the current design of the ITER Low Field Side Reflectometer (LSFR) for the Equatorial Port Plug 11 (EPP11). A detailed examination of Gaussian beam propagation in the ITER edge plasma will be presented, as well as comparisons with ray tracing. This work was made possible by funding from the Department of Energy for the Summer Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No.DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FG02-99-ER54527.

  8. Three-body Effects for the p(pe^-, ν_e)d Reaction in Nuclear Astrophysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    1996-05-01

    We have investigated three-body effect for p(pe^-, ν_e)d reaction in nuclear astrophysics. Solutions of three-body equation for the initial pep state show that two-proton dynamics does not depend on the electron degrees of freedom and hence the conventional adiabatic approximation is valid for energy sector (E_ep/E_pp) > 10-3 where E_ep and E_pp are the relative kinetic energies between e and p, and between p and p, respectively. For the energy sector (E_ep/E_pp) ≈ 10-3, an exact solution of the three-body equation is required. For the energy sector (E_ep/E_pp) < 10-3, it is shown that a Gamow-factor cancellation (GFC) can occur between two protons. Our estimate of the GFC effect indicates that the previous conventional estimate of the pep solar neutrino flux may be an underestimate at least by a factor of two. Implications of our results for the solar neutrino problem are described. At lower temperatures, the GFC effect becomes more significant, and p(pe^-, ν_e)d may dominate over p(p,e^+ ν_e)d. The enhancement of the reaction rate for p(pe^-, νe )d at lower temperatures due to the GFC effect may offer possible explanations for some of long-standing anomalies in astrophysical and geophysical problems.

  9. Minimum-cost 4-m telescope developed at October 1979 Nanjing study of telescope design and construction.

    PubMed

    Meinel, A B; Meinel, M P; Ningshen, H; Qiqian, H; Chunhua, P

    1980-08-15

    A lightweight 4-m telescope with a 6400-kg primary mirror of f/11.5 was developed during a two-week workshop at the Nanjing Astronomical Instruments Factory sponsored by the Purple Mountain Observatory, Academia Sinica, Nanjing, People's Republic of China. A central column supports the secondary mirror, thus eliminating all structures around the periphery of the primary mirror. The altazimuth mounting has the elevation axis behind the primary mirror and cell, requiring a counterweight. The Cassegrain focal position coincides with the elevation axis. A single secondary mirror and appropriate field correctors enable operations at the Harland Epps-Dan Schulte (HEDS), Cassegrain, Nasmyth, and coudé foci. Relay of the Cassegrain beam to the coudé is via an elliptical relay mirror. Cost scaling law considerations indicate that this 4-m design will have a cost comparable with that of a conventional 2.2-m telescope. A discussion of the double-tapered lightweight Cer-Vit-type mirror is included. PMID:20234489

  10. Chemical decontamination technical resources at Los Alamos National Laboratory (2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E

    2008-01-01

    This document supplies information resources for a person seeking to create planning or pre-planning documents for chemical decontamination operations. A building decontamination plan can be separated into four different sections: Pre-planning, Characterization, Decontamination (Initial response and also complete cleanup), and Clearance. Of the identified Los Alamos resources, they can be matched with these four sections: Pre-planning -- Dave Seidel, EO-EPP, Emergency Planning and Preparedness; David DeCroix and Bruce Letellier, D-3, Computational fluids modeling of structures; Murray E. Moore, RP-2, Aerosol sampling and ventilation engineering. Characterization (this can include development projects) -- Beth Perry, IAT-3, Nuclear Counterterrorism Response (SNIPER database); Fernando Garzon, MPA-11, Sensors and Electrochemical Devices (development); George Havrilla, C-CDE, Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering; Kristen McCabe, B-7, Biosecurity and Public Health. Decontamination -- Adam Stively, EO-ER, Emergency Response; Dina Matz, IHS-IP, Industrial hygiene; Don Hickmott, EES-6, Chemical cleanup. Clearance (validation) -- Larry Ticknor, CCS-6, Statistical Sciences.

  11. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program Schedule Contingency Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report represents the schedule contingency evaluation done on the FY-93 Major System Acquisition (MSA) Baseline for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (EPP). A Schedule Contingency Evaluation Team (SCET) was established to evaluate schedule contingency on the MSA Baseline for the INEL ERP associated with completing work within milestones established in the baseline. Baseline schedules had been established considering enforceable deadlines contained in the Federal Facilities Agreement/Consent Order (FFA/CO), the agreement signed in 1992, by the State of Idaho, Department of Health & Welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The evaluation was based upon the application of standard schedule risk management techniques to the specific problems of the INEL ERP. The schedule contingency evaluation was designed to provided early visibility for potential schedule delays impacting enforceable deadlines. The focus of the analysis was on the duration of time needed to accomplish all required activities to achieve completion of the milestones in the baseline corresponding to the enforceable deadlines. Additionally, the analysis was designed to identify control of high-probability, high-impact schedule risk factors.

  12. Advances in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiquan; Wu, Xinshu; Wu, Licun; Zhang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer originated from pleural mesothelial cells. MPM has been associated with long-term exposure to asbestos. The prognosis of MPM is poor due to the difficulty of making diagnosis in the early stage, the rapid progression, the high invasiveness and the lack of effective treatment. Although the incidence of MPM is low in China to date, it has a tendency to increase in the coming years. The variety of clinical features may cause the delay of diagnosis and high rate of misdiagnosis. The diagnosis of MPM is based on biopsy of the pleura and immunohistochemistry. As China has become the largest country in the consumption of asbestos, it would give rise to a new surge of MPM in the future. The current treatment of MPM is multimodality therapy including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Two surgical procedures are commonly applied: extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). Three dimensional conformal radiotherapy is used to denote a spectrum of radiation planning and delivery techniques that rely on the 3D imaging to define the tumor. Cisplatin combined with pemetrexed (PEM) is the first-line chemotherapy for MPM. The principal targets in immunotherapy include T cells (Treg), CTLA-4 and PD-1. The diagnosis, treatment and prognosis still remain a major challenge for clinical research and will do so for years to come. PMID:26366399

  13. Phenol induced acute cutaneous inflammation (AI) in mice: Diminished response in mast cell-deficient (W/W sup v ) mice and evidence of a role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)

    SciTech Connect

    Wershil, B.K.; Wang, Z.S.; Gordon, J.R.; Galli, S.J. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1991-03-11

    AI can be induced by a variety of chemical agents. The authors examined AI in mast cell-deficient (WBB6F{sub 1}-W/W{sup v}) and congenic normal (WBB6F{sub 1}-+/+) mice; AI was induced by the epicutaneous application to the ear of phenol (2 mg), benzalkonium chloride (BC; 1 mg) and ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP, 2 or 5 mg). Phenol induced significantly greater swelling in +/+ than in W/W{sup v} mice. No difference in swelling was seen in +/+ versus W/W{sup v} mice with BC or EEP. Phenol application induced significantly greater neutrophil infiltration in +/+ than in W/W{sup v} mice. Mast cells represent a rich source of TNF and TNF has been shown to participate in the neutrophil accumulation seen in mast cell-dependent, IgE-mediated cutaneous late phase reactions. The authors injected +/+ mice i.d. with 20 {mu}l of 1:100 dilution of a polyclonal rabbit anti-mouse TNF antiserum or 20 {mu}l of medium and then applied 2 mg phenol at the same sites. At 24 hrs, significantly less neutrophil accumulation was seen in the ear treated with anti-TNF antibodies than in the control ear. The authors conclude that mast cells may participate in phenol-induced AI, and that TNF contributes to this response.

  14. Absorption cross section for the 5νOH stretch of acetic acid and peracetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Collingwood, M.; Bililign, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report measurements of the absorption cross sections for the vibrational O-H stretch (5νOH) overtone transitions in glacial acetic acid and peracetic acid. The photochemistry that results from overtone excitation has been shown to lead to OH radical production in molecules containing O-H (HNO3, H2O2). In addition the overtone excitation has been observed to result in light initiated chemical reaction. A Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument comprising of an Nd:YAG pumped dye laser and 620nm high reflectivity mirrors (R=99.995%) was used to measure the cross sections. The dye laser wavelength was calibrated using water vapor spectrum and the HITRAN 2008 database. The instrument’s minimum detectable absorption is αmin =4.5 *10-9cm-1 Hz-1/2 at 2σ noise level near the peak of the absorption feature. This measurement is the first for acetic acid at this excitation level. Preliminary results for acetic acid show the peak occurs near 615nm. Procedures for separating the monomer and dimer contribution will be presented. We would like to acknowledge support from NSF award #0803016 and NOAA-EPP award #NA06OAR4810187.

  15. Time scales involved in emergent market coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapień, J.; Drożdż, S.; Speth, J.

    2004-06-01

    In addressing the question of the time scales characteristic for the market formation, we analyze high-frequency tick-by-tick data from the NYSE and from the German market. By using returns on various time scales ranging from seconds or minutes up to 2 days, we compare magnitude of the largest eigenvalue of the correlation matrix for the same set of securities but for different time scales. For various sets of stocks of different capitalization (and the average trading frequency), we observe a significant elevation of the largest eigenvalue with increasing time scale. Our results from the correlation matrix study can be considered as a manifestation of the so-called Epps effect. There is no unique explanation of this effect and it seems that many different factors play a role here. One of such factors is randomness in transaction moments for different stocks. Another interesting conclusion to be drawn from our results is that in the contemporary markets the emergence of significant correlations occurs on time scales much smaller than in the more distant history.

  16. The autoxidation and proton dissociation constants of tertiary diphosphines: relevance to biological activity.

    PubMed

    Berners-Price, S J; Norman, R E; Sadler, P J

    1987-11-01

    The pKas and autoxidation properties of a number of diphosphines which exhibit varying degrees of antitumor and cytotoxic activity were investigated. Titration by HClO4 in CH3NO2 was used to determine pKas of the following diphosphines: R2P(CH2)nPR'2, where for R = R' = Ph, n = 1, 2, and 3 (dppm, dppe, and dppp respectively); for R = R' = Et, n = 2 (depe); for R = Ph, R' = Et, n = 2 (eppe); and for cis and trans Ph2PCH = CHPPh2 (dppey). The difference between the first and second protonation constants decreases as the length of the carbon chain between the two phosphorus centers increases. Unsaturation in the carbon chain lowers pKas. -PEt2 centers are apparently more basic than -PPh2 centers. Apart from electrostatic effects, the protonation of a given phosphine center appears to be independent of the substituents at the second phosphine center. The autoxidation reactions of dppm, dppe, dppp, depe, and cis-dppey were studied in a variety of solvents by 31P NMR spectroscopy. The ethyl-substituted diphosphines were much more rapidly oxidized than the phenyl-substituted, and the pathways of autoxidation differed. Generally, the phenyl-substituted diphosphines gave only mono- and dioxides, while the ethyl-substituted diphosphines additionally gave phosphinites and other oxidation products. The relevance of the autoxidation reactivity and the pKas to the contrasting antitumor activity of these diphosphines is discussed. PMID:2828542

  17. Volatile Transport Implications from the New Horizons Flyby of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Leslie; Grundy, William M.; Binzel, RIchard P.; Earle, Alissa M.; Linscott, Ivan R.; Hinson, David P.; Zangari, Amanda M.; McKinnon, William B.; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Gladstone, G. Randall; Summers, Michael E.; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Spencer, John R.

    2015-11-01

    The New Horizons flyby of Pluto has revealed a striking range of terrains, from the very bright region informally named Sputnik Planum, to very dark regions such as the informally named Cthulhu Regio. Such a variety was beyond the scope of recent models of Pluto's seasonal volatile cycle (Young 2013, ApJL 766, L22; Hansen, Paige and Young 2015, Icarus 246, 183), which assumed globally uniform substrate albedos. The "Exchange with Pressure Plateau (EPP)" class of models in Young (2013) and the favored runs from Hansen et al (2015) had long periods of exchange of volatiles between northern and southern hemispheres. In these models, the equators were largely devoid of volatiles; even though the equatorial latitudes received less insolation than the poles over a Pluto year, they were never the coldest place on the icy world. New models that include a variety of substrate albedos can investigate questions such as whether Sputnik Planum has an albedo that is high enough to act as a local cold trap for much of Pluto's year. We will present the implications of this and other assumption-busting revelations from the New Horizons flyby. This work was supported by NASA’s New Horizons project.

  18. [Erythropoietic protoporphyria. A rare differential diagnosis among photosensitive diseases].

    PubMed

    Schiekofer, C; Vogt, T; Reichrath, J

    2012-12-01

    A 31-year-old woman presented with recurrent swelling, burning, prickling and itching of the arms and the hands which appeared after UV exposure in the summer. Simultaneously she often had chills, malaise, nausea and circulatory problems lasting for hours. She did not have erythema or wheals. She had been seen by a number of specialties but to no avail. Her deceased mother suffered from the same symptoms. On presentation she had no skin lesions. Laboratory testing showed a dramatic increase in total protoporphyrin, enabling us to diagnose erythropoietic protoporphyria. This is a rare, genetic metabolic disturbance in hematopoiesis, whose true prevalence is probably underestimated. Because of abnormal or absent function of ferrochelatase, protoporphyrin accumulates in blood, erythrocytes and tissue usually causing photosensitivity as the first clinical symptom. The prognosis depends on the severity of liver involvement. Because of the marked restrictions on activity, especially in avoiding UV exposition, the quality of life of the patients and their families are strongly influenced. The odyssey of our patient and her mother in finding a diagnosis demonstrates impressively that the EPP is an important photosensitizing disease which must not be forgotten. PMID:22802217

  19. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-05-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  20. Electrically induced release of acetylcholine from denervated Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, M. J.; Miledi, R.

    1974-01-01

    1. Focal electrical stimulation of Schwann cells at the end-plates of denervated frog muscles elicited slow depolarizations of up to 30 mV in the muscle fibres. This response is referred to as a Schwann-cell end-plate potential (Schwann-e.p.p.). 2. Repeated stimulation sometimes evoked further Schwann-e.p.p.s, but they were never sustained for more than 30 pulses. Successive e.p.p.s varied in amplitude and time course independently of the stimulus. 3. The Schwann-e.p.p.s were reversibly blocked by curare, suggesting that they result from a release of acetylcholine (ACh) by the Schwann cells. 4. ACh release by electrical stimulation did not seem to occur in quantal form and was not dependent on the presence of calcium ions in the external medium; nor was it blocked by tetrodotoxin. 5. Stimulation which caused release of ACh also resulted in extensive morphological disruption of the Schwann cells, as seen with both light and electron microscopy. 6. It is concluded that electrical stimulation of denervated Schwann cells causes break-down of the cell membrane and releases ACh, presumably in molecular form. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2Plate 3Plate 4Plate 5Plate 6Plate 7Plate 8Plate 9Plate 10 PMID:4545183

  1. A Circular-cylindrical Flux-rope Analytical Model for Magnetic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Linton, M. G.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Vourlidas, A.; Savani, N. P.; Szabo, A.; Farrugia, C.; Yu, W.

    2016-05-01

    We present an analytical model to describe magnetic flux-rope topologies. When these structures are observed embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) with a depressed proton temperature, they are called Magnetic Clouds (MCs). Our model extends the circular-cylindrical concept of Hidalgo et al. by introducing a general form for the radial dependence of the current density. This generalization provides information on the force distribution inside the flux rope in addition to the usual parameters of MC geometrical information and orientation. The generalized model provides flexibility for implementation in 3D MHD simulations. Here, we evaluate its performance in the reconstruction of MCs in in situ observations. Four Earth-directed ICME events, observed by the Wind spacecraft, are used to validate the technique. The events are selected from the ICME Wind list with the magnetic obstacle boundaries chosen consistently with the magnetic field and plasma in situ observations and with a new parameter (EPP, the Electron Pitch angle distribution Parameter) which quantifies the bidirectionally of the plasma electrons. The goodness of the fit is evaluated with a single correlation parameter to enable comparative analysis of the events. In general, at first glance, the model fits the selected events very well. However, a detailed analysis of events with signatures of significant compression indicates the need to explore geometries other than the circular-cylindrical. An extension of our current modeling framework to account for such non-circular CMEs will be presented in a forthcoming publication.

  2. Circular-cylindrical flux-rope analytical model for Magnetic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Linton, Mark; Hidalgo, Miguel A.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Savani, Neel P.; Szabo, Adam; Farrugia, Charlie; Yu, Wenyuan

    2016-05-01

    We present an analytical model to describe magnetic flux-rope topologies. When these structures are observed embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) with a depressed proton temperature, they are called Magnetic Clouds ( MCs). The model extends the circular-cylindrical concept of Hidalgo et al. (2000) by introducing a general form for the radial dependence of the current density. This generalization provides information on the force distribution inside the flux rope in addition to the usual parameters of MC geometrical information and orientation.The generalized model provides flexibility for implementation in 3D MHD simulations. Here, we evaluate its performance in the reconstruction of MCs in in-situ observations. Four Earth directed ICME events, observed by the Wind spacecraft, are used to validate the technique. The events are selected from the ICME Wind list with the magnetic obstacle boundaries chosen consistently with the magnetic fi eld and plasma in situ observations and with a new parameter (EPP, Electron Pitch angle distribution Parameter) which quantifies the bidirectionally of theplasma electrons. The goodness of the fit is evaluated with a single correlation parameter to enable comparative analysis of the events. In general, at first glance, the model fits the selected events very well. However, a detailed analysis of events with signatures of significant compression indicates the need to explore geometries other than the circular-cylindrical.

  3. Application of Combined Sustained and Cyclic Loading Test Results to Alloy 617 Elevated Temperature Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Jetter, Robert I; Sham, Sam

    2014-08-25

    Alloy 617 is a reference structural material for very high temperature components of advanced-gas cooled reactors with outlet temperatures in the range of 900-950°C . In order for designers to be able to use Alloy 617 for these high temperature components, Alloy 617 has to be approved for use in Section III (the nuclear section) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. A plan has been developed to submit a draft code for Alloy 617 to ASME Section III by 2015. However, the current rules in Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 1200°F (650°C). The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep deformation, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, 1200 °F, is well below the temperature range of interest for this material in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) applications. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis which requires sophisticated material models which have been formulated but not yet verified. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures.

  4. Towards a Cross-domain Infrastructure to Support Electronic Identification and Capability Lookup for Cross-border ePrescription/Patient Summary Services.

    PubMed

    Katehakis, Dimitrios G; Masi, Massimiliano; Wisniewski, Francois; Bittins, Sören

    2016-01-01

    Seamless patient identification, as well as locating capabilities of remote services, are considered to be key enablers for large scale deployment of facilities to support the delivery of cross-border healthcare. This work highlights challenges investigated within the context of the Electronic Simple European Networked Services (e-SENS) large scale pilot (LSP) project, aiming to assist the deployment of cross-border, digital, public services through generic, re-usable technical components or Building Blocks (BBs). Through the case for the cross-border ePrescription/Patient Summary (eP/PS) service the paper demonstrates how experience coming from other domains, in regard to electronic identification (eID) and capability lookup, can be utilized in trying to raise technology readiness levels in disease diagnosis and treatment. The need for consolidating the existing outcomes of non-health specific BBs is examined, together with related issues that need to be resolved, for improving technical certainty and making it easier for citizens who travel to use innovative eHealth services, and potentially share personal health records (PHRs) with other providers abroad, in a regulated manner. PMID:27225571

  5. MESSENGER and Venus Express Observations of the Near-tail of Venus: Magnetic Flux Transport, Current Sheet Structure, and Flux Rope Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Sarantos, M.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Barabash, S.; Benna, M.; Fraenz, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R. E.; Ho, G. C.; Korth, H.; Krimigis, S. M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Raines, J. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Zhang, T.-L.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    At 23:08 UT on 5 June 2007 the MESSENGER spacecraft reached its closest approach altitude (338 km) during its second flyby of Venus en route to its 2011 orbit insertion at Mercury. Whereas no measurements were collected during MESSENGER'S first Venus flyby in October 2006, the Magnetometer (MAG) and the Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) operated successfully throughout this second encounter. Venus provides the solar system's best example to date of a solar wind - ionosphere planetary interaction. We present MESSENGER observations of the near-tail of Venus with emphasis on determining the time scales for magnetic flux transport, the structure of the cross-tail current sheet at very low altitudes (approx. 300 to 1000 km), and the nature and origin of a magnetic flux rope observed in the current sheet. The availability of the simultaneous Venus Express upstream measurements provides a unique opportunity to examine the influence of solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field conditions on this planet's solar wind interaction at solar minimum.

  6. Gamma-ray spectra of individual components of decay series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Henry

    2001-04-01

    In order to obtain high quality spectra to update the ``Heath Catalog" of spectra with Ge detectors, we (I and a group of Univ. of Michigan undergraduates*) have investigated the neutron activation and decay products related to natural thorium and natural uranium. We have used the UM Ford Nuclear Reactor for irradiations and the UM Phoenix Memorial Lab for the remaining work. Spectra have been obtained with a variety of detectors, some suitable for low energies (>5 keV) and others efficient (70%) for high energies. Sources have been obtained in a variety of forms, each of which has been characterized in comparison with a thin, point source. We will report on A=233 (Th, Pa, and U, and the Np-237 parent of Pa-233), A=234 (Th and the Pa isomers), and A=239 (U, Np, and the Am-243 parent of Np-239). *The 2000-01 undergrad research group consists of Jason Banker, Adam Berro, Adam Cole, Amelia Deschamps, Erik Epp, Ralph Pierre, and Emma Wong.

  7. Experimental Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System for Collaborative R&D and Research-to-Operations Transition in NWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, D.; Liu, Y.; Herr, H.

    2008-12-01

    Providing uncertainty information is one of the most pressing needs of operational hydrologic forecasting in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) today. To address this need, the NWS Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD) is developing the EXperimental Ensemble Forecast System (XEFS), an integrated short- to long-range hydrologic ensemble prediction system to be implemented at the NWS River Forecast Centers for experimental operation within the next two years. The baseline system includes the Ensemble Pre-Processor (EPP3), Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP2) subsystem, Hydrologic Model Output Statistics (HMOS) streamflow ensemble processor, Ensemble Post-Processor (EnsPost) and the Ensemble Product Generator (EPG), and will use the service-oriented architecture of the Early Flood Warning System (FEWS) of Deltares. To support in-house and collaborative research and development of hydrologic ensemble prediction and data assimilation capabilities, NWS/OHD is developing a research and development version of XEFS, or R&D XEFS, of which the above baseline system is a subset. In this presentation, we describe the overall framework and major components of the R&D XEFS, progress to date, plans, challenges and opportunities for collaborative R&D and research-to-operations transition of the research outcome into NWS hydrologic operations and services.

  8. Energetic electron precipitation impacts on the middle atmosphere: From satellite observations to chemistry-climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnhuber, Miriam; Bender, Stefan; Burrows, John P.; Funke, Bernd; Fytterer, Tilo; Nieder, Holger; Reddmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Versick, Stefan; von Clarmann, Thomas; Maik Wissing, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation of energetic particles - mainly protons from solar coronal mass ejections or electrons accelerated in auroral or geomagnetic storms - directly affects the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Nitric oxides (N, NO, NO2) and hydrogen radicals (H, OH) are formed by particle impact dissociation and ionization and subsequent ion chemistry reactions. However, the stratosphere and possibly even tropospheric weather systems can be affected indirectly by downward transport of particle-induced nitric oxides from their source regions into the stratosphere during polar winter, subsequent ozone depletion, and dynamical feedbacks with radiative (ozone) heating and cooling. This so-called "EPP indirect effect" forms one aspect of solar-climate interactions which will be recommended to include in chemistry-climate models, e.g., in the upcoming CMIP-6 experiment. We will present recent observations of mesospheric nitric oxide formation due to particle precipitation, as well as downwelling of particle induced NOy. Observations are compared to results from three 3-dimensional global chemistry-climate and chemistry-transport models of the middle atmosphere, and the subsequent ozone depletion is assessed using CCM / CTM model results.

  9. Elastic-plastic analysis of the PVRC burst disk tests with comparison to the ASME code -- Primary stress limits

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.P.; Holliday, J.E.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides a comparison between finite element analysis results and test data from the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) burst disk program. Testing sponsored by the PVRC over 20 years ago was done by pressurizing circular flat disks made from three different materials until failure by bursting. The purpose of this re-analysis is to investigate the use of finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the primary stress limits of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1998) and to qualify the use of elastic-plastic (EP-FEA) for limit load calculations. The three materials tested represent the range of strength and ductility found in modern pressure vessel construction and include a low strength high ductility material, a medium strength medium ductility material, and a high strength low ductility low alloy material. Results of elastic and EP-FEA are compared to test data. Stresses from the elastic analyses are linearized for comparison of Code primary stress limits to test results. Elastic-plastic analyses are done using both best-estimate and elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) stress-strain curves. Both large strain-large displacement (LSLD) and small strain-small displacement (SSSD) assumptions are used with the EP-FEA. Analysis results are compared to test results to evaluate the various analysis methods, models, and assumptions as applied to the bursting of thin disks.

  10. Morphology of Thermoplastic Elastomers:Stereoblock Polypropylene

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A

    2002-08-06

    The morphologies of low-density (0.86 g/cm{sup 3}), elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) derived from bis(2-arylindenyl) hafnium dichloride were investigated using a combination of polarized optical microscopy (OM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM). These low-crystallinity polypropylenes, when crystallized isothermally from the melt, exhibit morphologies reminiscent of classical semi-crystalline polymers. The presence of lamellae, cross-hatching, hedrites, and spherulites was revealed by high resolution TM-AFM. These elastomeric polypropylenes can be fractionated into components of different average tacticities and crystallinities, but similar molecular mass. The analysis of the morphologies of all of the fractions revealed both large hierarchical structures and cross-hatching typical of the {alpha}-modification of crystalline isotactic polypropylene for all but the lowest crystalline ether soluble fraction. Evidence for high-melting crystals in all of the fractions are most consistent with a stereoblock microstructure of atactic and isotactic sequences.

  11. FOREWORD: Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle Physics (CORFU2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Fanourakis, George; Kehagias, Alexandros; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Wess, Julius; Zoupanos, George

    2006-12-01

    These are the Proceedings of the Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle Physics (CORFU2005) (http://corfu2005.physics.uoi.gr), which took place in Corfu, Greece from 4 - 26 September 2005. The Corfu Summer Institute has a very long, interesting and successful history, some elements of which can be found in http://www.corfu-summer-institute.gr. In short, the Corfu Meeting started as a Summer School on Elementary Particle Physics (EPP) mostly for Greek graduate students in 1982 and has developed into a leading international Summer Institute in the field of EPP, both experimental and theoretical, providing in addition a very rich outreach programme to teachers and school students. The CORFU2005 Summer Institute on EPP, although based on the general format that has been developed and established in the Corfu Meetings during previous years, is characterized by the fact that it was a full realization of a new idea, which started experimentally in the previous two Corfu Meetings. The successful new ingredient was that three European Marie Curie Research Training Networks decided to hold their Workshops in Corfu during September 2005 and they managed to coordinate the educational part of their meetings to a huge Summer School called `The 8th Hellenic School on Elementary Particle Physics' (4 - 11 September). The European Networks which joined forces to materialize this project and the corresponding dates of their own Workshops are:

  12. The Third Generation as a Probe for New Physics: Experimental and Technological Approach (4 - 11 September)
  13. The Quest for Unification Theory Confronts Experiment (11 - 18 September)
  14. Constituents Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe (20 - 26 September)
  15. To these Workshops has been added a Satellite one called `Noncommutative Geometry in Field and String Theory', and some extra speakers have been invited to complement the full programme of CORFU2005, some of whom have integrated into the Workshop

  16. Positive expiratory pressure - Common clinical applications and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Lannefors, Louise; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    Breathing out against resistance, in order to achieve positive expiratory pressure (PEP), is applied by many patient groups. Pursed lips breathing and a variety of devices can be used to create the resistance giving the increased expiratory pressure. Effects on pulmonary outcomes have been discussed in several publications, but the expected underlying physiology of the effect is seldom discussed. The aim of this article is to describe the purpose, performance, clinical application and underlying physiology of PEP when it is used to increase lung volumes, decrease hyperinflation or improve airway clearance. In clinical practice, the instruction how to use an expiratory resistance is of major importance since it varies. Different breathing patterns during PEP increase or reduce expiratory flow, result in movement of EPP centrally or peripherally and can increase or decrease lung volume. It is therefore necessary to give the right instructions to obtain the desired effects. As the different PEP techniques are being used by diverse patient groups it is not possible to give standard instructions. Based on the information given in this article the instructions have to be adjusted to give the optimal effect. There is no consensus regarding optimal treatment frequency and number of cycles included in each treatment session and must also be individualized. In future research, more precise descriptions are needed about physiological aims and specific instructions of how the treatments have been performed to assure as good treatment quality as possible and to be able to evaluate and compare treatment effects. PMID:25573419

  17. [Cocooning strategy: Effectiveness of a pertussis vaccination program for parents in the maternity unit of a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Decréquy, A; de Vienne, C; Bellot, A; Guillois, B; Dreyfus, M; Brouard, J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on vaccination coverage of a protocol in which promotion and administration of pertussis vaccine in the maternity ward were proposed upon discharge from a French university hospital. Pertussis is a potentially fatal bacterial respiratory infection, especially in young infants. Since 2004 the High Council of Public Health has recommended vaccinating adults who may become parents. This recommendation is not widely applied in France. The study, organized as a professional practice evaluation (EPP) was conducted by a multidisciplinary team at Caen University Hospital. Thirty couples were included for each period. The primary endpoint was the rate of vaccination coverage for both parents at hospital discharge. Before the information campaign (first period, January 2012), immunization coverage of mothers and fathers was 20% and 13%, respectively. No couple had received a prescription for vaccines. During the second period (June 2013), vaccination coverage was 77% at hospital discharge for mothers and 57% for fathers. Parental immunization coverage against pertussis was multiplied by four to five during the study, which is very encouraging, and it is important to continue this campaign at the region and national levels. PMID:27345559

  18. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Nerin, C; Ubeda, J L; Alfaro, P; Dahmani, Y; Aznar, M; Canellas, E; Ausejo, R

    2014-01-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags. PMID:24810330

  19. Quantifying and comparing the pattern of thalamic and cortical projections to the posterior auditory field in hearing and deaf cats.

    PubMed

    Butler, Blake E; Chabot, Nicole; Lomber, Stephen G

    2016-10-15

    Following sensory loss, compensatory crossmodal reorganization occurs such that the remaining modalities are functionally enhanced. For example, behavioral evidence suggests that peripheral visual localization is better in deaf than in normal hearing animals, and that this enhancement is mediated by recruitment of the posterior auditory field (PAF), an area that is typically involved in localization of sounds in normal hearing animals. To characterize the anatomical changes that underlie this phenomenon, we identified the thalamic and cortical projections to the PAF in hearing cats and those with early- and late-onset deafness. The retrograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine was deposited in the PAF unilaterally, to label cortical and thalamic afferents. Following early deafness, there was a significant decrease in callosal projections from the contralateral PAF. Late-deaf animals showed small-scale changes in projections from one visual cortical area, the posterior ectosylvian field (EPp), and the multisensory zone (MZ). With the exception of these minor differences, connectivity to the PAF was largely similar between groups, with the principle projections arising from the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the ventral division of the medial geniculate body (MGBv). This absence of large-scale connectional change suggests that the functional reorganization that follows sensory loss results from changes in synaptic strength and/or unmasking of subthreshold intermodal connections. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3042-3063, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27019080

  20. A two-parameter Budyko function to represent conditions under which evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Peter; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Orlowsky, Boris; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the partitioning of precipitation (P) into evapotranspiration (E) and runoff (Q) is of major importance for a wide range of socio-economic sectors. For climatological averages, the Budyko framework provides a simple first-order relationship to estimate water availability represented by the ratio E / P as a function of the aridity index (Ep/P, with Ep denoting potential evaporation). However, the Budyko framework is limited to steady-state conditions, being a result of assuming negligible storage change in the land-water balance. Processes leading to changes in the terrestrial water storage at any spatial and/or temporal scale are hence not represented. Here we propose an analytically derived modification of the Budyko framework including a new parameter explicitly representing additional water available to evapotranspiration besides instantaneous precipitation. The modified framework is comprehensively analyzed, showing that the additional parameter leads to a rotation of the original water supply limit. We further evaluate the new formulation in an example application at mean seasonal timescales, showing that the extended framework is able to represent conditions in which monthly to annual evapotranspiration exceeds monthly to annual precipitation.

  21. Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

  22. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    PubMed Central

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-01-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags. PMID:24810330

  23. [Genetic polymorphism of 9 STR loci in Chaoxian National Minority of China].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ya; Jin, Tian-bo; Lai, Jiang-hua; Chen, Teng; Zheng, Hai-bo; Zhu, Bo-feng; Hu, Song-nian; Wang, Jian; Li, Sheng-bin

    2002-11-01

    In order to enrich the Chinese genetic database,nine polymorphic loci of STR,such as D3S1358,vWA,FGA,TH01,TPOX,CSF1PO,D5S818,D13S317 and D7S820 were studied. Based on STR gene scan marked by fluorescence,91 unrelated Chinese Chaoxian individuals were observed.81 alleles and 196 genotypes were found. The corresponding gene frequency and genotype frequency were 0.0055-0.4615 and 0.0110-0.9890 respectively. The genogypes frequency of nine STR loci was good with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P approximately 0.05). The statistical analysis of nine STR loci showed the following: PIC (polymorphic information content) >or=0.6863, H (heterozygosity) >or=0.6919, DP (discrimination power) >or=0.8301, EPP (probability of paternity exclusion) >or=0.8590. The data studied can be used in Chinese population genetic studies and forensic medicine applications. PMID:15979957

  24. Hybrid control and acquisition system for remote control systems for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Boiano, Alfonso; De Rosa, Rosario; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype for environmental monitoring and geophysics. The system, an alternative to a VME-UDP/IP based system, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC and a 16-bit DAC module at 1 MHz. The module can be configured as stand-alone or mounted on a motherboard as mezzanine. Both the modules and the motherboard can send/receive the configuration and the acquired/correction data for control through a standard EPP parallel port to a standard PC for the real-time computation. The tests have demonstrated that a distributed control systems based on this architecture exhibits a delay time of less than 25 us on a single channel, i.e a sustained sampling frequency of more than 40 kHz (and up to 80 kHz). The system is now under extensive test in the remote controls of seismic sensors (to simulate a geophysics networks of sensors) of a large baseline suspended Michelson interferometer.

  1. Hybrid control and data acquisition system for geographically distributed sensors for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Boiano, Alfonso; De Rosa, Rosario; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype for environmental monitoring and geophysics. The system, an improvement of a VME-UDP/IP based system we developed for interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC, a 16-bit DAC module at 1MHz, and a 20-bit slower ADC necessary for the acquisition of an external calibration signal. The module can be configured as stand-alone or mounted on a motherboard as mezzanine in parallel with other modules. Both the modules and the motherboard can send/receive the configuration and the acquired/correction data for control through a standard EPP parallel port to a standard PC, where the real-time computation is performed. Experimental tests have demonstrated that the distributed control systems implemented with this architecture exihibit a delay time of less than 25 μs on a single channel, that is a sustained sampling frequency of more than 40kHz. The system is now under extensive test in two different experiments: the remote control and data acquisition of a set of seismometers, velocimeters and accelerometers to simulate a geophysics networks of sensors and the remote control of the end mirrors of a suspended Michelson interferometer through electrostatic actuators for interferometric detectors of gravitational waves.

  2. Hybrid control and acquisition system for remote control systems for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Boiano, Alfonso; De Rosa, Rosario; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype for environmental monitoring and geophysics. The system, an alternative to a VME-UDP/IP based system, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC and a 16-bit DAC module at 1 MHz. The module can be configured as stand-alone or mounted on a motherboard as mezzanine. Both the modules and the motherboard can send/receive the configuration and the acquired/correction data for control through a standard EPP parallel port to a standard PC for the real-time computation. The tests have demonstrated that a distributed control systems based on this architecture exhibits a delay time of less than 25 us on a single channel, i.e a sustained sampling frequency of more than 40 kHz (and up to 80 kHz). The system is now under extensive test in the remote controls of seismic sensors (to simulate a geophysics networks of sensors) of a large baseline suspended Michelson interferometer.

  3. Probing the Repulsive Core of the Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction via the He4(e ,e'pN) Triple-Coincidence Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korover, I.; Muangma, N.; Hen, O.; Shneor, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Kelleher, A.; Gilad, S.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Piasetzky, E.; Watson, J. W.; Wood, S. A.; Aguilera, P.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Anderson, B.; Anez, D.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J.; Armstrong, W.; Arrington, J.; Averett, T.; Badman, T.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Bai, X.; Beck, A.; Beck, S.; Bellini, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bittner, J.; Boeglin, W.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Cisbani, E.; Dalton, M. M.; Daniel, A.; Day, D.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deconinck, W.; Defurne, M.; Flay, D.; Fomin, N.; Friend, M.; Frullani, S.; Fuchey, E.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Gu, C.; Gueye, P.; Hamilton, D.; Hanretty, C.; Hansen, J.-O.; Hashemi Shabestari, M.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Iqbal, S.; Jin, G.; Kalantarians, N.; Kang, H.; Khandaker, M.; LeRose, J.; Leckey, J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Mammei, J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marti Jimenez-Arguello, A.; Meekins, D.; Meziani, Z.; Michaels, R.; Mihovilovic, M.; Monaghan, P.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Norum, B.; Nuruzzaman, Pan, K.; Phillips, S.; Pomerantz, I.; Posik, M.; Punjabi, V.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Qiu, X.; Rakhman, A.; Reimer, P. E.; Riordan, S.; Ron, G.; Rondon-Aramayo, O.; Saha, A.; Schulte, E.; Selvy, L.; Shahinyan, A.; Sirca, S.; Sjoegren, J.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Sparveris, N.; Subedi, R.; Tireman, W.; Wang, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, W.; Yaron, I.; Ye, Z.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, P.; Zielinski, R.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    We studied simultaneously the He4(e ,e'p), He4(e ,e'pp), and He4(e ,e'pn) reactions at Q2=2(GeV/c)2 and xB>1, for an (e ,e'p) missing-momentum range of 400 to 830 MeV/c. The knocked-out proton was detected in coincidence with a proton or neutron recoiling almost back to back to the missing momentum, leaving the residual A =2 system at low excitation energy. These data were used to identify two-nucleon short-range correlated pairs and to deduce their isospin structure as a function of missing momentum, in a region where the nucleon-nucleon (NN) force is expected to change from predominantly tensor to repulsive. The abundance of neutron-proton pairs is reduced as the nucleon momentum increases beyond ˜500 MeV/c. The extracted fraction of proton-proton pairs is small and almost independent of the missing momentum. Our data are compared with calculations of two-nucleon momentum distributions in He4 and discussed in the context of probing the elusive repulsive component of the NN force.

  4. Application of a GPU-Assisted Maxwell Code to Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, S.; Peebles, W. A.; Woodbury, D.; Johnson, I.; Zolfaghari, A.

    2014-10-01

    The Low Field Side Reflectometer (LSFR) on ITER is envisioned to provide capabilities for electron density profile and fluctuations measurements in both the plasma core and edge. The current design for the Equatorial Port Plug 11 (EPP11) employs seven monostatic antennas for use with both fixed-frequency and swept-frequency systems. The present work examines the characteristics of this layout using the 3-D version of the GPU-Assisted Maxwell Code (GAMC-3D). Previous studies in this area were performed with either 2-D full wave codes or 3-D ray- and beam-tracing. GAMC-3D is based on the FDTD method and can be run with either a fixed-frequency or modulated (e.g. FMCW) source, and with either a stationary or moving target (e.g. Doppler backscattering). The code is designed to run on a single NVIDIA Tesla GPU accelerator, and utilizes a technique based on the moving window method to overcome the size limitation of the onboard memory. Effects such as beam drift, linear mode conversion, and diffraction/scattering will be examined. Comparisons will be made with beam-tracing calculations using the complex eikonal method. Supported by U.S. DoE Grants DE-FG02-99ER54527 and DE-AC02-09CH11466, and the DoE SULI Program at PPPL.

  5. MicroRNA gene expression signatures in long-surviving malignant pleural mesothelioma patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ruby C Y; Kirschner, Michaela B; Cheng, Yuen Yee; van Zandwijk, Nico; Reid, Glen

    2016-09-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a tumor originating in the mesothelium, the membrane lining the thoracic cavities, and is induced by exposure to asbestos. Australia suffers one of the world's highest rates of MPM and the incidence is yet to peak. The prognosis for patients with MPM is poor and median survival following diagnosis is 4-18 months. Currently, no or few effective therapies exist for MPM. Trials of targeted agents such as antiangiogenic agents (VEGF, EGFR) or ribonuclease inhibitors (ranpirnase) largely failed to show efficacy in MPM Tsao et al. (2009) [1]. A recent study, however, showed that cisplatin/pemetrexed + bevacizumab (a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibit VEGF) treatment has a survival benefit of 2.7 months Zalcman et al. (2016) [2]. It remains to be seen if this targeted therapy will be accepted as a new standard for MPM. Thus the unmet needs of MPM patients remain very pronounced and almost every patient will be confronted with drug resistance and recurrence of disease. We have identified unique gene signatures associated with prolonged survival in mesothelioma patients undergoing radical surgery (EPP, extrapleural pneumonectomy), as well as patients who underwent palliative surgery (pleurectomy/decortication). In addition to data published in Molecular Oncology, 2015;9:715-26 (GSE59180) Kirschner et al. (2015) , we describe here additional data using a system-based approach that support our previous observations. This data provides a resource to further explore microRNA dynamics in MPM. PMID:27408810

  6. The quality of sero-surveillance in low- and middle-income countries: status and trends through 2007

    PubMed Central

    Lyerla, R; Gouws, E; Garcia-Calleja, J M

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quality of HIV sero-surveillance systems in 127 low-income and middle-income countries by 2007, as well as gaps in data needed for reliable estimates of HIV prevalence and size of populations at risk for infection. Methods: The quality of countries’ surveillance systems was scored using information from 2001 through 2007. Sero-surveillance data were compiled from the US Census Bureau’s HIV/AIDS Surveillance Database, from countries’ national HIV surveillance reports available to UNAIDS, from demographic and health survey (DHS) data, from the scientific literature and from countries’ Estimation and Projection Programme (EPP) data files. The quality of systems was scored according to the classification of the epidemic in each country (generalised, concentrated or low-level). Result: The number of countries categorised as fully functioning in 2007 was 40. 43 countries were identified as partially functioning while 44 were categorised as poorly functioning. Low scores were most often attributed to a lack of recent data or data from appropriate risk groups. Conclusion: Many countries still have poorly functioning surveillance systems. The inclusion of HIV testing in national population-based surveys in recent years has resulted in some countries with generalised epidemics receiving higher coverage scores, but many countries with concentrated or low-level epidemics continue to lack data on high-risk populations. PMID:18647872

  7. Quarternary oxide phases Ln4- xA4+ xCo 2+ yAl 2- yO 15: The structures of Nd 3.43Ba 4.42Co 2.23Al 1.77O 15 and Y 2Sr 6Co 2.08Al 1.92O 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Swinnea, J. S.; Steinfink, H.

    1991-12-01

    The crystal structure of two compounds having the generic formula Ln4- xA4+ xCo 2+ yAl 2- yO 15 has been determined. Nd 3.43Ba 4.42(1)Co(Co 1.23(6)Al 1.77)O 15 (compound I), Mr = 1520.96, hexagonal, P6 3mc, a = 11.544(1) Å, c = 6.912(1) Å, V = 797.7(2) Å3, Z = 2, D x = 6.33 g cm-3, MoKα λ = 0.71069 Å, μ 1 = 242.0 cm-1; R = 0.045 for 758 reflections >5 σ( F). Y 2Sr 6Co(Co 1.08(6)Al 1.92)O 15 (compound II), Mr = 1118.00, hexagonal, P6 3mc, a = 11.199(2) Å, c = 6.664(1) Å, V = 723.8(4) Å3, Z = 2, D x = 5.13 g cm-3, MoK α λ = 0.71069 Å, μ 1 = 317.5 cm-1; R = 0.076 for 373 reflections >6 σ( F). The structure consists of clusters formed by a Co-oxygen octahedron that shares three corners of a triangular face with three separate {Co}/{Al}- oxygen tetrahedra leading to a cluster formula [ Co VI( {Co}/{Al}) IV3]O 15. The tetrahedral interstice is randomly occupied by Co 3+ and Al 3+ ions. The octahedral interstice is occupied by Co whose valence is 2+ in compound I and 3 + in II. Two such clusters exist in the unit cell and they are joined by rare earth-alkaline earth cations in 6-fold (octahedral), 8-fold (bisdisphenoid), 10-fold (capped trigonal prism), and 12-fold (cubic close packed) coordination to the oxygen ions. The octahedral cation positions are randomly occupied by about equal amounts of NdBa and YSr, respectively. Phase I forms with Pr and Gd but not with La, Y, or Er, restricting its formation to lanthanide ionic radii between 1.14 and 1.06 Å.

  8. Connexin 43 reboots meiosis and reseals blood-testis barrier following toxicant-mediated aspermatogenesis and barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D; Mok, Ka-Wai; Li, Michelle W M; Wong, Chris K C; Lee, Will M; Han, Daishu; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-04-01

    support round spermatids to enter spermiogenesis.-Li, N., Mruk, D. D., Mok, K.-W., Li, M. W. M., Wong, C. K. C., Lee, W. M., Han, D., Silvestrini, B., Cheng, C. Y. Connexin 43 reboots meiosis and reseals blood-testis barrier following toxicant-mediated aspermatogenesis and barrier disruption. PMID:26678449

  9. Transition metal coordination polymers based on tetrabromoterephthalic and bis(imidazole) ligands: Syntheses, structures, topological analysis and photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Xing, Peiqi; Geng, Xiujuan; Sun, Daofeng; Xiao, Zhenyu; Wang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Eight new coordination polymers (CPs), namely, [Zn(1,2-mbix)(tbtpa)]n (1), [Co(1,2-mbix)(tbtpa)]n (2), [CdCl(1,2-mbix)(tbtpa)0.5]n (3), {[Cd(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)]·H2O}n (4), {[Cd0.5(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)0.5]·H2O}n (5), {[Co0.5(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)0.5]·2H2O}n (6), {[Co(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)]·H2O}n (7) and {[Co(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)]·Diox·2H2O}n (8), were synthesized under solvothermal conditions based on mix-ligand strategy (H2tbtpa=tetrabromoterephthalic acid and 1,2-mbix=1,2-bis((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene, 1,2-bix=1,2-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene). All of the CPs have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). X-ray diffraction analyses show that 1 and 2 are isotypics which have 2D highly undulated networks with (4,4)-sql topology with the existence of C-H ⋯Br interactions; for 3, it has a 2D planar network with (4,4)-sql topology with the occurrence of C-H ⋯Cl interactions other than C-H ⋯Br interactions; 4 shows a 3D 2-fold interpenetrated nets with rare 65·8-mok topology which has a self-catention property. As the same case as 1 and 2, 5 and 6 are also isostructural with planar layers with 44-sql topology which further assembled into 3D supramolecular structure through the interdigitated stacking fashion and the C-Br ⋯Cph interactions. As for 7, it has a 2D slightly undulated networks with (4,4)-sql topology which has one dimension channel. While 8 has a 2-fold interpenetrated networks with (3,4)-connect jeb topology with point symbol {63}{65·8}. And their structures can be tuned by conformations of bis(imidazol) ligands and solvent mixture. Besides, the TGA properties for all compounds and the luminescent properties for 1, 3, 4, 5 are discussed in detail.

  10. Variability of cyclones over the North Atlantic and Europe since 1871

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, C.; Martius, O.

    2012-04-01

    . Kruk, A. C. Kruger, G. J. Marshall, M. Maugeri, H. Y. Mok, Ø. Nordli, T. F. Ross, R. M. Trigo, X. L. Wang, S. D. Woodruff, and S. J. Worley, 2011: The Twentieth Century Reanalysis project. Quarterly J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28. Wernli, H. and C. Schwierz, 2006: Surface cyclones in the ERA-40 dataset (1958-2001). Part I: Novel identification method and global climatology. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2486-2507.

  11. Metal incorporation in sputter-deposited MoS{sub 2} films studied by extended x-ray adsorption fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lince, J.R.; Hilton, M.R.; Bommannavar, A.S.

    1995-08-01

    Solid lubricant films produced by cosputtering metals with MoS{sub 2} and by forming metal/MoS{sub 2} multilayers are being planned for use in the next generation of solid lubricated devices on spacecraft, including gimbal and sensor bearings, actuators, and sliding electrical contacts. The films exhibit increased densities and wear lives compared to films without additives, but the mechanism of density enhancement is not well understood. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) technique is ideal for elucidating the structure of these poorly crystalline films. We analyzed MoS{sub 2} films cosputtered with 0, 2, and 10% Ni, as well as Ni/MoS{sub 2} and Au(Pd)/MoS{sub 2} multilayer films. The results obtained at the Mo-K absorption edge showed that the metal-containing films comprised predominantly the same nanocrystalline phases present in similar films without added metals: pure MoS{sub 2} and a MoS{sub 2{minus}{ital x}}O{sub {ital x}} phase. MoS{sub 2{minus}{ital x}}O{sub {ital x}} is isostructural with MoS{sub 2}, with O atoms substituting for S atoms in the MoS{sub 2} crystal lattice. For all Ni-containing films, EXAFS data obtained at the Ni--K absorption edge showed that the Ni had not chemically reacted with the MoS{sub 2{minus}{ital x}}O{sub {ital x}} and MoS{sub 2}, but formed a disordered NiO{sub {ital x}} phase. However, Ni-cosputtered films showed decreasing Mo--Mo bond lengths in the MoS{sub 2{minus}{ital x}}O{sub {ital x}} phase with increasing Ni content, probably due to preferential oxidation of Ni compared to MoS{sub 2}. EXAFS of these Ni-cosputtered films showed only a small decrease in short-range order with Ni content, while x-ray diffraction showed a concurrent large decrease in long-range order. The results indicate that film densification in Ni-cosputtered films is caused by NiO{sub {ital x}} formation at the edges of nucleating MoS{sub 2{minus}{ital x}}O{sub {ital x}} /MoS{sub 2} crystallites.

  12. Mini-dystrophin Expression Down-regulates IP3-mediated Calcium Release Events in Resting Dystrophin-deficient Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balghi, Haouaria; Sebille, Stéphane; Mondin, Ludivine; Cantereau, Anne; Constantin, Bruno; Raymond, Guy; Cognard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We present here evidence for the enhancement, at rest, of an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)–mediated calcium signaling pathway in myotubes from dystrophin-deficient cell lines (SolC1(−)) as compared to a cell line from the same origin but transfected with mini-dystrophin (SolD(+)). With confocal microscopy, the number of sites discharging calcium (release site density [RSD]) was quantified and found more elevated in SolC1(−) than in SolD(+) myotubes. Variations of membrane potential had no significant effect on this difference, and higher resting [Ca2+]i in SolC1(−) (Marchand, E., B. Constantin, H. Balghi, M.C. Claudepierre, A. Cantereau, C. Magaud, A. Mouzou, G. Raymond, S. Braun, and C. Cognard. 2004. Exp. Cell Res. 297:363–379) cannot explain alone higher RSD. The exposure with SR Ca2+ channel inhibitors (ryanodine and 2-APB) and phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122) significantly reduced RSD in both cell types but with a stronger effect in dystrophin-deficient SolC1(−) myotubes. Immunocytochemistry allowed us to localize ryanodine receptors (RyRs) as well as IP3 receptors (IP3Rs), IP3R-1 and IP3R-2 isoforms, indicating the presence of both RyRs-dependent and IP3-dependent release systems in both cells. We previously reported evidence for the enhancement, through a Gi protein, of the IP3-mediated calcium signaling pathway in SolC1(−) as compared to SolD(+) myotubes during a high K+ stimulation (Balghi, H., S. Sebille, B. Constantin, S. Patri, V. Thoreau, L. Mondin, E. Mok, A. Kitzis, G. Raymond, and C. Cognard. 2006. J. Gen. Physiol. 127:171–182). Here we show that, at rest, these regulation mechanisms are also involved in the modulation of calcium release activities. The enhancement of resting release activity may participate in the calcium overload observed in dystrophin-deficient myotubes, and our findings support the hypothesis of the regulatory role of mini-dystrophin on intracellular signaling. PMID:16847098

  13. Reconstructing Links between AMOC and Surface Temperature Variability in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, Leonard; Fischer, Matthias; Müller, Wolfgang; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Kruger, GJ Marshall, M Mauger, HY Mok, Ø Nordli, TF Ross, RM Trigo, XL Wang, SD Woodruff, SJ Worley (2011): The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Q J R Meteorol Soc, 137: 1-28 Müller, W, D Matei, M Bersch, JH Jungclaus, H Haak, K Lohmann, GP Compo, PD Sardeshmukh, J Marotzke (2014): A twentieth-century reanalysis forced ocean model to reconstruct the North Atlantic climate variation during the 1920s. Clim Dyn, 44: 1935-1955

  14. Kinetic and product studies of Criegee intermediate reactions with halogenated and non-halogenated carboxylic acids and their implications in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhantyal-Pun, Rabi; Rotavera, Brandon; Eskola, Arkke; Taatjes, Craig; Percival, Carl; Shallcross, Dudley; Orr-Ewing, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Criegee intermediates are important species formed during the ozonolysis of alkenes. Direct measurement and modelling studies have shown that reactions of stabilized Criegee intermediates with species like SO2 and NO2 may have a significant effect in tropospheric chemistry.[1, 2] Reaction rates of Criegee intermediates with simple carboxylic acids like HCOOH and CH3COOH have been shown to be near the collision limit and may be a significant sink for these otherwise stable species in the atmosphere.[3, 4] Results obtained from our time-resolved Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) apparatus[5] for reactions of the Criegee intermediates, CH2OO and (CH3)2COO with various halogenated (CF3COOH, CF3CF2COOH, CClF2COOH and CHCl2COOH) and non-halogenated (HCOOH and CH3COOH) carboxylic acids will be presented, together with Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) based on these observations. Structure characterization of the products from these reactions using the Multiplexed PhotoIonization Mass Spectrometry (MPIMS) apparatus[1,3] as well as implications for Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation, assessed using the global atmospheric model STOCHEM, will also be discussed. Bibliography 1. O. Welz, J. D. Savee, D. L. Osborn, S. S. Vasu, C. J. Percival, D. E. Shallcross and C. A. Taatjes, Science, 2012, 335, 204-207. 2. C. J. Percival, O. Welz, A. J. Eskola, J. D. Savee, D. L. Osborn, D. O. Topping, D. Lowe, S. R. Utembe, A. Bacak, G. McFiggans, M. C. Cooke, P. Xiao, A. T. Archibald, M. E. Jenkin, R. G. Derwent, I. Riipinen, D. W. K. Mok, E. P. F. Lee, J. M. Dyke, C. A. Taatjes and D. E. Shallcross, Faraday Discuss., 2013, 165, 45-73. 3. O. Welz, A. J. Eskola, L. Sheps, B. Rotavera, J. D. Savee, A. M. Scheer, D. L. Osborn, D. Lowe, A. M. Booth, P. Xiao, M. A. H. Khan, C. J. Percival, D. E. Shallcross and C. A. Taatjes, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2014, 53, 4547-4550. 4. M. D. Hurley, M. P. S. Andersen, T. J. Wallington, D. A. Ellis, J. W. Martin and S. A. Mabury, J. Phys. Chem. A

  15. Lithium-bearing fluor-arfvedsonite from Hurricane Mountain, New Hampshire: A crystal-chemical study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawthorne, F.C.; Oberti, R.; Ottolini, L.; Foord, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The structures of two crystals of Li-bearing fluor-arfvedsonite (1) (K0.32Na0.68)Na2(Li0.48Fe 2+2.83Mn2+0.10Zn 0.06Fe3+1.46Ti0.07) (Si7.88Al0.12)O22[Fu1.15(OH) 0.85] and (2) (K0.25Na0.75)Na2(Li0.48Fe 2+2.84Mn2+0.11Zn 0.05Fe3+1.45Ti0.07)(Si 7.89Al0.11)O22[F1.35(OH) 0.65] from a granitic pegmatite, Hurricane Mountain, New Hampshire, have been refined to R indices of 1.5(1.6)% based on 1380(1387) reflections measured with MoK?? X-radiation. The unit cell parameters are (1) a 9.838(4), b 17.991(6), c 5.315(2) A??, 103.78(3)??, V 913.7 A??3 and (2) a 9.832(3), b 17.990(7), c 5.316(3) A??, ?? 103.79(3)??, V 913.2 A??3. Site-scattering refinement shows Li to be completely ordered at the M(3) site in these crystals. The amphibole composition is intermediate between fluor-arfvedsonite and fluor-ferro-leakeite with a small component (???10%) of fluor-ferro-ferri-nybo??ite. These amphibole crystals project into miarolitic cavities in a pegmatitic phase of a riebeckite granite. The early-crystallizing amphibole is close to fluor-ferro-leakeite in composition, but becomes progressively depleted in Li and F as crystals project out into miarolitic cavities; the final amphibole to crystallize is a fibrous Li-poor riebeckite. Li plays a significant role in late-stage fractionation involving the crystallization of alkali amphibole in peralkaline granitic environments.

  16. Bobjonesite, V4+ O (SO4) (H2O 3, a new mineral species from Temple Mountain, Emery County, Utah, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schindler, M.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Huminicki, D.M.C.; Haynes, P.; Grice, Joel D.; Evans, H.T., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Bobjonesite, V4+ O (SO4) (H2O 3, is a new mineral species from Temple Mountain, Emery County, Utah, U.S.A. It occurs as blue-green crusts and efflorescences in fractures in a fossil (Triassic) tree: individual crystals are ??1 mm and are intimately intergrown. Bobjonesite hydrates very easily, and is unstable in all but the driest atmosphere. Its structure was determined on a crystal of bobjonesite: however, the physical properties, optical properties and X-ray powder-diffraction pattern were recorded on the synthetic equivalent, and an electron-microprobe analysis was not possible. Bobjonesite has a pale blue streak, a vitreous luster and no observable fluorescence under ultraviolet light. It has no cleavage or parting. The Mohs hardness is ???1, and the calculated density is 2.28 g/cm3. Bobjonesite is biaxial positive, with ?? 1.555(2 , ?? 1.561(1), ?? 1.574(2), 2V(obs.) = 72(1)??, 2V(calc.) = 69??; it is non-pleochroic, X = b, Y ??? 19?? (in ?? obtuse). Bobjonesite is monoclinic, space group P21/n, cell dimensions from single-crystal data: a 7.3940(5), b 7.4111(3), c 12.0597(9) A??, ?? 106.55(1)??, V 633.5(1) A??3, Z=4. The strongest seven lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A??(I)(hkl)] are as follows: 5.795(100)(002), 3.498(90)(112), 3.881(48)(1??03), 5.408(37) (101), 4.571(20)(012), 6.962(11 (1??01) and 6.254(11)(011). The chemical formula was derived from crystal-structure analysis; the end-member formula is V O (SO4) (H2O)3. The crystal structure of bobjonesite was refined to an R index of 3.6% for 1105 observed (Fo> 5??F) reflections measured with an automated four-circle X-ray diffractometer using MoK?? X-radiation. There is one V site occupied by V4+ and surrounded by three O atoms and three (H2O) groups in an octahedral arrangement, with one short vanadyl bond (1.577 A??), four similar equatorial bonds (<2.022 A??), and one longer V-O bond (2.278 A??) trans to the vanadyl bond. The structure consists of isolated [V4+2 O2 (H2O)6 (SO4

  17. Anomalous Orthopyroxene Cell Volumes from Unshocked Equilibrated H Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, L.; Mellini, M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-09-01

    Thirteen orthopyroxenes were extracted from eight unshocked equilibrated H-chondrites representatives of the petrographic types 4 to 6 [1] for crystal-chemical analyses. Chemical compositions were determined through a WDS JEOL JX 8600 electron microprobe. Three to six spot analyses were run on each crystal and no significant chemical variation was detected. High quality single crystal X-ray diffraction data were obtained by a SIEMENS P4 diffractometer using MoK alpha radiation, and site occupancies by least squares structure refinements. Figure 1a shows a significant cell volume (Vc) increase with petrographic type, and a _1.5 Angstrom^3 spread within each petrographic type. In solid solutions, Vc is expected to mainly vary with the chemical composition: the higher the proportion of the large ions present, the larger the Vc. In particular, as shown by [2], Vc variations in orthopyroxenes are essentially linear with Fe/(Fe+Mg), and our data fall within this general trend. However, no such a correlation exists at the scale of our values (Fig.1b), rather, each petrographic type plots along a different roughly negative trend. Furthermore, as experimentally obtained by [3], the decrease of the Fe-Mg ordering between the M1 and M2 sites in orthopyroxenes (a temperature-time-dependent process), causes significant Vc increase due to the displacement of the large Fe2+ ions from the larger M2 to the smaller M1 sites. Again, in the Vc versus kD (i.e., the intracrystalline Fe-Mg distribution coefficient) diagram (Fig.1c), we observe no such a correlation. Contrary to the most immediate expectations, our data suggest that the net increase in Vc from H4 to H6 does not significantly depend upon chemical composition and degree of ordering, and demands that another as yet unidentified parameter accounts for the observed trends. Acknowledgments: We thank EUROMET for the Frontier Mt. samples, and PNRA for supporting this study. References: [1] Folco L. et al., this volume. [2] Sykes

  18. Searching for the Lost Jurassic and Cretaceous Ocean Basins of the Circum-Arctic Linking Plate Models and Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, G. E.; Müller, R.

    2012-12-01

    pink. Labeled oceanic features in white include ANG Angayucham Ocean AM Amerasia Basin CCR Cache Creek Ocean FAR Farallon Plate IZA Izanagi Plate MOK Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean OMY Oimyakon Ocean SAO South Anuyi Ocean. Selected blue-labeled terranes include AL Alazeya LAU Laurasia NAM North America OM Omolon QS Quesnellia ST Stikinia, WR Wrangellia YTT Yukon-Tanana terrane.

  19. Tri-axial Shape Coexistence and a New Aligned Band in 178Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govil, I. M.

    2009-03-01

    The Os nuclei lie in the beginning of the transitional region between the well deformed rare earth and spherical lead isotopes. The nuclei in this region are believed to be soft to changes in gamma deformation due to the softness of nuclear potential which may result in the shape coexistence. The neutron Fermi levels in Os nuclei from A = 170 to A = 186 lie in the middle of i13/2 orbital so that their shape in the ground state tends to take an appreciable prolate deformation. Hence collective bands with the well defined moment of inertia occur and the effect of different proton orbitals is observed as a modulation of the prolate structure. The anomalies in the yrast sequence, an effect attributed to change in moment of inertia of the ground state rotational band and the band crossing phenomena, are very important and vary strongly with neutron number in case of Os nuclei. The nuclear structure of 178Os nucleus has been studied using the reaction 165Ho (20Ne, p6n) 178Os. Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) consisting of six Clover detectors with anti Compton shields was used for the detection of resulting gamma rays. The Direction Correlation of γ-rays de-exciting Oriented states (DCO) ratio and polarization of gamma rays were measured to assign spin, parity and multipolarity of transitions. Twenty one new transitions belonging to the 178Os nucleus have been identified. The sudden and rather strong gain in aligned angular momentum is observed in the yrast band of 178Os. A new aligned rotational band similar to 180Os is also discovered in this nucleus. This band exhibits a very complex decay pattern with a single linking transition of 1778 keV to the ground state band. The tri-axial shape co-existence is also observed in this nucleus at higher excitation. The experimental results are compared with the Microscopic Hartree-Fock model calculations.

  20. The Effects of Spatial Scale on Breakdown of Leaves in a Tropical Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Renan S.; Petrucio, Mauricio M.; Gonçalves, José F.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of natural variation in the physical structure of the environment on biological communities and on the processing of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Inga laurina and to identify the controlling factors at different scales along stream order gradients. The study area consisted of 14 sampling sites distributed within a tropical watershed (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th order streams replicated in 4 sub-basins). Our samples consisted of 3 g of leaves of E. cloeziana (high-quality) and I. laurina (low-quality) placed in 252 bags with 10mm mesh (measured by the chemical composition of the detritus). Four samples of each leaf type were collected periodically (three times) over a period of 75–125 days and washed on a sieve to separate the invertebrates. A series of leaf disks were cut to determine ash-free dry mass, polyphenol, lignin, cellulose, total microbial biomass and fungal biomass, and the remaining material was oven-dried to determine the dry weight. We performed analyses within and between spatial scales (regional and local) to assess which watershed scale was the more import determinant of the leaf breakdown rate (k). The microbial and shredder were most influenced at the local scale (stream order). Shredders were influenced by microorganisms, with stronger interactions between them than were found to drive the k at the local scale. Moreover, differences in the overall k and abiotic variables were more strongly influenced at the regional scale (sub-basin), showing that the study scale alters the response of the studied variables. We found higher k values at higher values of water velocity, dissolved oxygen and temperature, all of which accelerate biological metabolism in response to variations on the regional scale. Watersheds with warmer microclimates and streams with higher nutrient levels and oxygen could be accelerating the ecosystem metabolism, independent of the detritus quality. PMID:24810918

  1. Effect of annealing in the Sb and In distribution of type II GaAsSb-capped InAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, D. F.; Ulloa, J. M.; Guzman, A.; Hierro, A.; Sales, D. L.; Beanland, R.; Sanchez, A. M.; González, D.

    2015-11-01

    Type II emission optoelectronic devices using GaAsSb strain reduction layers (SRL) over InAs quantum dots (QDs) have aroused great interest. Recent studies have demonstrated an extraordinary increase in photoluminescence (PL) intensity maintaining type II emission after a rapid thermal anneal (RTA), but with an undesirable blueshift. In this work, we have characterized the effect of RTA on InAs/GaAs QDs embedded in a SRL of GaAsSb by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finite element simulations. We find that annealing alters both the distribution of Sb in the SRL as well as the exchange of cations (In and Ga) between the QDs and the SRL. First, annealing causes modifications in the capping layer, reducing its thickness but maintaining the maximum Sb content and improving its homogeneity. In addition, the formation of Sb-rich clusters with loop dislocations is noticed, which seems not to be an impediment for an increased PL intensity. Second, RTA produces flatter QDs with larger base diameter and induces a more homogeneous QD height distribution. The Sb is accumulated over the QDs and the RTA enlarges the Sb-rich region, but the Sb contents are very similar. This fact leaves the type II alignment without major changes. Atomic-scale strain analysis of the nanostructures reveal a strong intermixing of In/Ga between the QDs and the capping layer, which is the main responsible mechanism of the PL blueshift. The improvement of the crystalline quality of the capping layer together with higher homogeneity QD sizes could be the origin of the enhancement of the PL emission.

  2. Impact of N on the atomic-scale Sb distribution in quaternary GaAsSbN-capped InAs quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The use of GaAsSbN capping layers on InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) has recently been proposed for micro- and optoelectronic applications for their ability to independently tailor electron and hole confinement potentials. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the structural and compositional changes associated with the process of simultaneous Sb and N incorporation. In the present work, we have characterized using transmission electron microscopy techniques the effects of adding N in the GaAsSb/InAs/GaAs QD system. Firstly, strain maps of the regions away from the InAs QDs had revealed a huge reduction of the strain fields with the N incorporation but a higher inhomogeneity, which points to a composition modulation enhancement with the presence of Sb-rich and Sb-poor regions in the range of a few nanometers. On the other hand, the average strain in the QDs and surroundings is also similar in both cases. It could be explained by the accumulation of Sb above the QDs, compensating the tensile strain induced by the N incorporation together with an In-Ga intermixing inhibition. Indeed, compositional maps of column resolution from aberration-corrected Z-contrast images confirmed that the addition of N enhances the preferential deposition of Sb above the InAs QD, giving rise to an undulation of the growth front. As an outcome, the strong redshift in the photoluminescence spectrum of the GaAsSbN sample cannot be attributed only to the N-related reduction of the conduction band offset but also to an enhancement of the effect of Sb on the QD band structure. PMID:23181950

  3. Tuning the gallium content of metal precursors for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells by electrodeposition from a deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Malaquias, João C; Regesch, David; Dale, Phillip J; Steichen, Marc

    2014-02-14

    Controlling the Ga incorporation of Cu-In-Ga metal precursors for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells is one of the main challenges for low cost electrodeposition processes, mainly due to the difficulty in electrodepositing metallic Ga from aqueous electrolytes. In this work we use the deep eutectic solvent (DES) Choline Chloride : Urea (ChCl : U - 1 : 2) to efficiently codeposit In-Ga on Cu and Mo electrodes. We control the Ga/(Ga+In) (Ga/III) ratio of the films via the mass fluxes. The electrochemical behavior of ChCl : U containing GaCl3 and InCl3 is studied by rotating disk electrode cyclic voltammetry (CV) on Mo and Cu electrodes. CV revealed on both Mo and Cu electrodes that the electrochemical behavior of the ChCl : U-GaCl3-InCl3 system is the superposition of the individual In and Ga electrochemistry. On a Cu electrode the morphology, crystal structure and element distribution of the deposits were a function of the Ga/III ratio. We demonstrate the precise control of Ga incorporation over a large composition range from 0.1 ≤ Ga/III ≤ 0.9 and proved that ED from DES is a straightforward, robust and efficient process. First solar cells based on Mo/Cu/In-Ga metal stacks achieved efficiencies as high as 7.9% with a Voc of 520 mV. PMID:24382400

  4. Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM. PMID:20645716

  5. Emission-wavelength tuning of InAs quantum dots grown on nitrogen-δ-doped GaAs(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Taguchi, Kohei; Kita, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    We studied the structural and photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on nitrogen (N) δ-doped GaAs(001). The emission wavelength for low-density N-δ doping exhibited a blueshift with respect to that for undoped GaAs and was redshifted with increasing N-sheet density. This behavior corresponded to the variation in the In composition of the QDs. N-δ doping has two opposite and competing effects on the incorporation of Ga atoms from the underlying layer into the QDs during the QD growth. One is the enhancement of Ga incorporation induced by the lattice strain, which is due to the smaller radius of N atoms. The other is an effect blocking for Ga incorporation, which is due to the large bonding energy of Ga-N or In-N. At a low N-sheet density, the lattice-strain effect was dominant, while the blocking effect became larger with increasing N-sheet density. Therefore, the incorporation of Ga from the underlying layer depended on the N-sheet density. Since the In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the GaAs cap layer during capping also depended on the size of the as-grown QDs, which was affected by the N-sheet density, the superposition of these three factors determined the composition of the QDs. In addition, the piezoelectric effect, which was induced with increased accumulation of lattice strain and the associated high In composition, also affected the PL properties of the QDs. As a result, tuning of the emission wavelength from 1.12 to 1.26 μm was achieved at room temperature.

  6. Interpopulation differences in exudate feeding of pygmy marmosets in Ecuadorian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Yépez, Pablo; de la Torre, Stella; Snowdon, Charles T

    2005-06-01

    Local variations in fruit- and leaf-eating have been reported for some primate species; however, similar variations in exudate-feeding of pygmy marmosets, one of the most specialized neotropical primate species, have not been studied. In our 3-year study of four populations of pygmy marmosets in northeastern Ecuador, we characterized their exudate-feeding behavior by describing the use of exudate sources. We tested whether the use of exudate species was related to ecological factors such as the availability of exudate species in an area. We estimated the daily activity budgets of the groups with 1-hr scan samples and found significant interpopulation differences in the time spent on exudate feeding. We recorded a total of 18 exudate species used in the four populations; however, the populations differed in the total number of species used and in the preferred species. The most commonly used plant species were Sterculia apetala at San Pablo, Cedrela odorata at Sacha, Inga marginata at Amazoonico, and Parkia balslevii at Zancudo. We recorded the presence and abundance of the 18 exudate species in 90-m transects in the home range of each group and in one additional control area that contained no marmosets, for each population. Differences in the most-used exudate species among populations did not appear to be related to the availability of these species in each population, i.e., the marmosets did not use at random the exudate species available within their range, nor did they use more often the exudate species that were more abundant in their home ranges. One implication of our results for conservation is that protecting exudate resources based on data from only one area will not be sufficient to preserve pygmy marmosets in all populations. PMID:15940711

  7. Isoprene leaf emission under CO2 free atmosphere: why and how?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, S.

    2015-12-01

    Isoprene (C5H8) is a reactive hydrocarbon gas emitted at high rates by tropical vegetation, which affects atmospheric chemistry and climate and, in the leaf level, is a very important agent against environmental stress. Under optimal conditions for photosynthesis, the majority of carbon used for isoprene biosynthesis is a direct product from recently assimilated atmospheric CO2. However, the contribution of 'alternate' carbon sources, that increase with leaf temperature, have been demonstrated and emissions of isoprene from 'alternate' carbon sources under ambient CO2 below the compensation point for photosynthesis have been observed. In this study, we investigated the response of leaf isoprene emissions under 450 ppm CO2 and CO2 free atmosphere as a function of light and leaf temperature. At constant leaf temperature (30 °C) and CO2 free atmospheres, leaves of the tropical species Inga edulis showed net emissions of CO2 and light-dependent isoprene emissions which stagnated at low light levels (75 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR) and account for 25% of that observed with 450 ppm CO2. Under constant light (1000 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR) and CO2 free atmospheres, a increase of leaf temperatures from 25 to 40 °C resulted in net emissions of CO2 and temperature-dependent isoprene emissions which reached values up to 17% of those under 450 ppm CO2. Our observations suggest that, under environmental stress, as high light/temperature and drought (when the stomata close and the amount of internal CO2 decreases), the 'alternate' carbon can maintain photosynthesis rates resulting in the production of isoprene, independent of atmospheric CO2, through the re-assimilation of internal released CO2 as an 'alternate' carbon sources for isoprene.

  8. Taxonomy of the freshwater crabs of Costa Rica, with a revision of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Célio; Wehrtmann, Ingo S; Lara, Luis Rólier; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy and geographic distribution of the freshwater crabs of the family Pseudothelphusidae Ortmann, 1893, of Costa Rica, Central America, particularly of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964, are revised. Historical materials deposited in major collections of several institutions were examined, as well as valuable collections in the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica that include abundant specimens obtained recently (2007-2010) in the southern region of the country. The pseudothelphusids of Costa Rica consists of 15 currently valid species belonging to Achlidon Smalley, 1964 (two species), Allacanthos Smalley, 1964 (two species), Potamocarcinus H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (three species), and Ptychophallus (eight species). Two species seem to be restricted to the Atlantic drainage, while seven are known only from the Pacific drainage; six species occur in both drainages. Ptychophallus comprises 13 valid species; four new synonymies are proposed: P. osaensis Rodríguez, 2001, P. campylus Pretzmann, 1968, P. tumimanus ingae            Pretzmann, 1978, and P. barbillaensis Rodríguez & Hedström, 2001, as junior synonyms of P. paraxantusi (Bott, 1968), P. tristani (Rathbum 1896), P. tumimanus (Rathbun, 1898), and P. uncinatus Campos & Lemaitre, 1999, respectively. Two species, P. colombianus (Rathbun, 1896) and P. exilipes (Rathbun, 1898), are considered species inquerendae. Lectotype designations are made for P. montanus and P. colombianus. Three species of Ptychophallus are known exclusively from Costa Rica, five exclusively from Panama, and five species occur in both countries; one species appears to be exclusive of the Atlantic drainage, whereas five are known only from the Pacific drainage and seven occur in both drainages. The gonopod morphology of all species is redescribed and illustrated, and maps of their geographic distribution are furnished. A key to the species of Pseudothelphusidae from Costa Rica and to all species of

  9. Photoluminescence probing of interface evolution with annealing in InGa(N)As/GaAs single quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Jun Qi, Zhen; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Xiren; Guo, Shaoling; Zhao, H.; Song, Yuxin; Zha, F.-X.; Wang, S. M.

    2015-10-28

    The effects of thermal annealing on the interfaces of InGa(N)As/GaAs single quantum wells (SQWs) are investigated by excitation-, temperature-, and magnetic field-dependent photoluminescence (PL). The annealing at 750 °C results in more significant blueshift and narrowing to the PL peak than that at 600 °C. Each of the PL spectra can be reproduced with two PL components: (i) the low-energy component (LE) keeps energetically unchanged, while the high-energy component (HE) moves up with excitation and shows at higher energy for the In{sub 0.375}Ga{sub 0.625}As/GaAs but crosses over with the LE at a medium excitation power for the In{sub 0.375}Ga{sub 0.625}N{sub 0.012}As{sub 0.988}/GaAs SQWs. The HE is broader than the corresponding LE, the annealing at 750 °C narrows the LE and HE and shrinks their energetic separation; (ii) the PL components are excitonic, and the InGaNAs shows slightly enhanced excitonic effects relative to the InGaAs SQW; (iii) no typical S-shape evolution of PL energy with temperature is detectable, and similar blueshift and narrowing are identified for the same annealing. The phenomena are mainly from the interfacial processes. Annealing improves the intralayer quality, enhances the interfacial In-Ga interdiffusion, and reduces the interfacial fluctuation. The interfacial interdiffusion does not change obviously by the small N content and hence similar PL-component narrowing and blueshift are observed for the SQWs after a nominally identical annealing. Comparison with previous studies is made and the PL measurements under different conditions are shown to be effective for probing the interfacial evolution in QWs.

  10. The effects of spatial scale on breakdown of leaves in a tropical watershed.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Renan S; Petrucio, Mauricio M; Gonçalves, José F

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of natural variation in the physical structure of the environment on biological communities and on the processing of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Inga laurina and to identify the controlling factors at different scales along stream order gradients. The study area consisted of 14 sampling sites distributed within a tropical watershed (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th order streams replicated in 4 sub-basins). Our samples consisted of 3 g of leaves of E. cloeziana (high-quality) and I. laurina (low-quality) placed in 252 bags with 10mm mesh (measured by the chemical composition of the detritus). Four samples of each leaf type were collected periodically (three times) over a period of 75-125 days and washed on a sieve to separate the invertebrates. A series of leaf disks were cut to determine ash-free dry mass, polyphenol, lignin, cellulose, total microbial biomass and fungal biomass, and the remaining material was oven-dried to determine the dry weight. We performed analyses within and between spatial scales (regional and local) to assess which watershed scale was the more import determinant of the leaf breakdown rate (k). The microbial and shredder were most influenced at the local scale (stream order). Shredders were influenced by microorganisms, with stronger interactions between them than were found to drive the k at the local scale. Moreover, differences in the overall k and abiotic variables were more strongly influenced at the regional scale (sub-basin), showing that the study scale alters the response of the studied variables. We found higher k values at higher values of water velocity, dissolved oxygen and temperature, all of which accelerate biological metabolism in response to variations on the regional scale. Watersheds with warmer microclimates and streams with higher nutrient levels and oxygen could be accelerating the ecosystem metabolism, independent of the detritus quality. PMID:24810918

  11. Bradyrhizobium kavangense sp. nov., a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium from root nodules of traditional Namibian pulses.

    PubMed

    Lasse Grönemeyer, Jann; Hurek, T; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Eight strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region, Namibia, were previously characterized and identified as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To clarify their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized using a polyphasic approach. In phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence the novel group was most closely related to Bradyrhizobium iriomotense EK05T and Bradyrhizobium ingae BR 10250T, and to 'Bradyrhizobium arachidis' CCBAU 051107 in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK sequences placed the strains in a lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. The species status was validated by results of DNA-DNA hybridization. Phylogenetic analysis of nifH and nodC genes placed the novel strains in a group with 'B. arachidis' CCBAU 051107. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Novel strain 14-3T induces effective nodules on Vigna subterranea, Vigna unguiculata, Arachis hypogaea and Lablab purpureus. Based on the data presented, it is concluded that the strains represent a novel species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, for which the name Bradyrhizobium kavangense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 14-3T [ = DSM 100299T = LMG 28790T = NTCCM 0012T (Windhoek)]. The DNA G+C content of strain 14-3T is 63.8 mol% (Tm). PMID:26446190

  12. Structure of 52 132Te80: The two-particle and two-hole spectrum of 50 132Sn82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S.; Palit, R.; Navin, A.; Rejmund, M.; Bisoi, A.; Sarkar, M. Saha; Sarkar, S.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Biswas, D. C.; Caamaño, M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Choudhury, D.; Clément, E.; Danu, L. S.; Delaune, O.; Farget, F.; de France, G.; Hota, S. S.; Jacquot, B.; Lemasson, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Singh, Purnima; Srivastava, P. C.; Tandel, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    High-spin states in 132Te, an isotope with two proton particles and two neutron holes outside of the 132Sn doubly magic core, have been extended up to an excitation energy of 6.17 MeV. The prompt-delayed coincidence technique has been used to correlate states above the T1 /2=3.70 (9 ) μ s isomer in 132Te to the lower states using 232Th(7Li,f ) at 5.4 MeV/u and the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). With 9Be(238U,f ) at 6.2 MeV/u and EXOGAM γ -array coupled with the VAMOS++ spectrometer, the level scheme was extended to higher excitation energies. The high-spin positive-parity states, above Jπ=10+ , in 132Te are expected to arise from the alignment of the particles in the high-j orbitals lying close to the Fermi surface, the π g7/2 2 , and the ν h11/2 -2 configurations. The experimental level scheme has been compared with the large scale shell model calculations. A reduction in the p -n interaction strength resulted in an improved agreement with the measurements up to the spin of 15 ℏ . In contrast, the comparison of the differences between the experiment and these calculations for the N =76 ,78 isotones of Te and Sn shows the increasing disagreement as a function of spin, where the magnitude is larger in Te than in Sn. This behavior could possibly be attributed to the deficiencies in the p -n correlations, in addition to the n -n correlations in Sn.

  13. Growing plants on atoll soils

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  14. 2011 Remediation Effectiveness Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Data and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2011-03-01

    scale, such as contaminant trends at surface water integration points (IFs). Long-term stewardship (LTS) information used in this report is collected, compiled, and tracked by the WRRP in conjunction with the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) program, the BJC Radiation Protection Organization at East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), ETTP Environmental Compliance Program, B&W Y-12 Liquid Waste Treatment Operations, and UT Battelle Facilities Management Division. Additionally, documentation verifying the implementation of administrative land use controls (LUCs) [i.e., property record restrictions, property record notices, zoning notices, and excavation/penetration permit (EPP) program] is also obtained from many sources throughout the fiscal year (FY), including County Register of Deeds offices for property record restrictions and property record notices, City Planning Commission for zoning notices, and BJC project engineers for EPP program verification. Copies of this documentation are obtained by the WRRP and maintained with the project RER files.

  15. Overcoming Barriers to the Remediation of Carbon Tetrachloride Through Manipulation of Competing Reaction Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2003-06-01

    Quantify the kinetics of all competing product-formation pathways, over a range of conditions relevant to groundwater remediation, using well-mixed batch reactors and analysis primarily by chromatography. At OGI, batch experiments were conducted on Fe(0) systems (both Fisher Electrolytic and Nano-sized iron). The experiments were done with and without buffer. The buffered experiments tried to contrast two buffers: an organic buffer (EPPS, presumably a H atom donor), and the inorganic borate. In the buffered experiments, the pH was varied (7.3 and 8.4). For the pre-exposure treatment, after trying a variety of methods, like shaking and not shaking for varied amounts of time, it was decided to stick with not shaking and have a pre-exposure of 24 hours. The unbuffered data did not show any marked trend with increasing mass of Felc. However, 3.5 g of Fe showed about 100% conversion to CHCl3, and 1g of Fe showed 50% conversion. At pHs 8.4 and 7.3, there was no trend observed for branching ratios between EPPS and Borate buffer. kCT (disappearance rate constant of carbon tetrachloride) values were found to be different from CT and CF fits. Experiments with nano-iron (unbuffered, buffered with both buffers at pH 8.3), did not show any trend with respect to Fisher Iron, except for the unbuffered experiments, where the CF ''yield'' was less in the nano iron case. Future experiments involve testing for chloride, formate and CO, and performing experiments over a wider range of pH and buffers. Batch experiments were conducted at PNNL to compare the efficiency and product distribution of representative Fe(II) and Fe(0) systems applied to dechlorination of CCl4. These experiments involved (1) a smectite clay with Fe(III) in its structure that had been reduced to Fe(II) by dithionite treatment, (2) the same clay to which Fe(II) was added as an exchangeable cation, (3) electrolytic Fe(0) from Fisher, and (4) a mixture of the reduced clay and Fe(0). Experiments were conducted in

  16. Comparison study between coherent echoes at VHF range and electron density estimated by Ionosphere Model for Auroral Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Takanori; Nakamura, Takuji; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yoshi; Nishimura, Koji; Sato, Kaoru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Kohma, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Polar Mesosphere Winter Echo (PMWE) is known as back scatter echo from 55 to 85 km in the mesosphere, and it has been observed by MST and IS radar in polar region during non-summer period. Since density of free electrons as scatterer is low in the dark mesosphere during winter, it is suggested that PMWE requires strong ionization of neutral atmosphere associated with Energetic Particles Precipitations (EPPs) during Solar Proton Events [Kirkwood et al., 2002] or during geomagnetically disturbed periods [Nishiyama et al., 2015]. However, studies on relationship between occurrence of PMWE and background electron density has been limited yet [Lübken et al., 2006], partly because the PMWE occurrence rate is known to be quite low (2.9%) [Zeller et al., 2006]. The PANSY (Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS) radar, which is the largest MST radar in Antarctica, observed many PMWE events since it has started mesosphere observations in June 2012. We established an application method of the PANSY radar as riometer, which makes it possible to estimate Cosmic Noise Absorptions (CNA) as proxy of relative variations on background electron density. In addition, electron density profiles from 60 to 150 km altitude are calculated by Ionospheric Model for the Auroral Zone (IMAZ) [McKinnell and Friedrich, 2007] and CNA estimated by the PANSY radar. In this presentation, we would like to focus on strong PMWE during two big geomagnetic storm events, St. Patrick's Day and the Summer Solstice 2015 Event, in order to compare observed PMWE characteristics to model background electron density. On March 19 and 22, recovery phase of St. Patrick's Day Storm, sudden PMWE intensification was detected near 60 km by the PANSY radar. At the same time, strong Cosmic Noise Absorptions (CNA) of 0.8 dB and 1.0 dB were measured, respectively. However, calculated electron density profiles did not show high electron density at the altitude where the PMWE intensification were observed. On June 22, the

  17. Mind navigators of chemicals' experimenters? A web-based description of e-psychonauts.

    PubMed

    Orsolini, Laura; Papanti, Gabriele Duccio; Francesconi, Giulia; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    Within online drug fora communities, there are some "educated and informed" users who can somehow provide reliable information on psychoactive compounds and combinations. These users, also called "e-psychonauts," may possess levels of technical knowledge relating to a range of novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The present project aimed at identifying and describing the e-psychonauts' socio-demographic characteristics and their motivations and patterns of drug intake. A netnographic research methodology, carried out through an unobtrusive observational approach of a list of cyber drug communities (blogs, fora, Facebook, and Twitter pages) was carried out. The fora posts and threads were accurately reviewed, analyzed, and compared using the empirical phenomenological psychological (EPP) method. Data were collected between January and February 2014. Psychonauts typically considered themselves as "psychedelic researchers," "new Shamans," "philosophers," or "alchemists." They appeared to be mainly young, males, unmarried, and Caucasians. They presented with good or excellent employment conditions and with a set of key skills, including attention to their inner "soul"; high standards of knowledge about drugs' chemical and pharmacological issues; and high levels of both IT skills and verbal fluency in reporting their own "on drug" experiences. The e-psychonauts seemed to "test" and at times synthesize a range of drugs to achieve the state of consciousness they find most pleasurable. There is the need to improve both the existing levels of professionals' knowledge on this novel generation of drug misusers and to design and develop novel prevention approaches that are able to attract the attention of the e-psychonauts. PMID:25965863

  18. Post-Newtonian conservation laws in rigid quasilocal frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Paul L.; Chanona, Melanie; Epp, Richard J.; Koop, Michael J.; Mann, Robert B.

    2014-05-01

    In recent work we constructed completely general conservation laws for energy (McGrath et al 2012 Class. Quantum Grav. 29 215012) and linear and angular momentum (Epp et al 2013 Class. Quantum Grav. 30 195019) of extended systems in general relativity based on the notion of a rigid quasilocal frame (RQF). We argued at a fundamental level that these RQF conservation laws are superior to conservation laws based on the local stress-energy-momentum tensor of matter because (1) they do not rely on spacetime symmetries and (2) they properly account for both matter and gravitational effects. Moreover, they provide simple, exact, operational expressions for fluxes of gravitational energy and linear and angular momentum. In this paper we derive the form of these laws in a general first post-Newtonian (1PN) approximation, and then apply these approximate laws to the problem of gravitational tidal interactions. We obtain formulas for tidal heating and tidal torque that agree with the literature, but without resorting to the use of pseudotensors. We describe the physical mechanism of these tidal interactions not in the traditional terms of a Newtonian gravitational force, but in terms of a much simpler and universal mechanism that is an exact, quasilocal manifestation of the equivalence principle in general relativity. As concrete examples, we look at the tidal heating of Jupiter’s moon Io and angular momentum transfer in the Earth-Moon system that causes a gradual spin-down of the Earth and recession of the Moon. In both examples we find agreement with observation.

  19. Designing the optimal semi-warm NIR spectrograph for SALT via detailed thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Marsha J.; Sheinis, Andrew I.; Mulligan, Mark P.; Wong, Jeffrey P.; Rogers, Allen

    2008-07-01

    The near infrared (NIR) upgrade to the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), RSS/NIR, extends the spectral coverage of all modes of the optical spectrograph. The RSS/NIR is a low to medium resolution spectrograph with broadband, spectropolarimetric, and Fabry-Perot imaging capabilities. The optical and NIR arms can be used simultaneously to extend spectral coverage from 3200 Å to approximately 1.6 μm. Both arms utilize high efficiency volume phase holographic gratings via articulating gratings and cameras. The NIR camera incorporates a HAWAII-2RG detector with an Epps optical design consisting of 6 spherical elements and providing subpixel rms image sizes of 7.5 +/- 1.0 μm over all wavelengths and field angles. The NIR spectrograph is semi-warm, sharing a common slit plane and partial collimator with the optical arm. A pre-dewar, cooled to below ambient temperature, houses the final NIR collimator optic, the grating/Fabry-Perot etalon, the polarizing beam splitter, and the first three camera optics. The last three camera elements, blocking filters, and detector are housed in a cryogenically cooled dewar. The semi-warm design concept has long been proposed as an economical way to extend optical instruments into the NIR, however, success has been very limited. A major portion of our design effort entails a detailed thermal analysis using non-sequential ray tracing to interactively guide the mechanical design and determine a truly realizable long wavelength cutoff over which astronomical observations will be sky-limited. In this paper we describe our thermal analysis, design concepts for the staged cooling scheme, and results to be incorporated into the overall mechanical design and baffling.

  20. Science Enabling ASICs and FEEs for the JUICE and JEO Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschalidis, Nicholas; Sittler, Ed; Cooper, John; Christian, Eric; Moore, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A family of science enabling radiation hard Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), Front End Electronics (FEEs) and Event Processing Systems, with flight heritage on many NASA missions, is presented. These technologies play an important role in the miniaturization of instruments -and spacecraft systems- at the same time increasing performance and reducing power. The technologies target time of flight, position sensing, and energy measurements as well as standard housekeeping and telemetry functions for particle and fields instruments, but find applications in other instrument categories too. More specifically the technologies include: the TOF chip, 1D and 2D Delay Lines with MCP detectors, for high precision fast and low power time of flight and position sensing; the Energy chip for multichannel SSD readout with time over threshold and standard voltage read out for TDC and ADC digitization; Fast multi channel read out chip with commandable thresholds; the TRIO chip for multiplexed ADC and housekeeping etc. It should be mentioned that the ASICs include basic trigger capabilities to enable random event processing in a heavy background of penetrators and UV foreground. Typical instruments include time of flight versus energy and look angle particle analyzers such as: plasma composition, energetic particle, neutral atom imaging as well as fast plasma and deltaE/E ion/electron telescopes. Flight missions include: Cassini/LEMMS, IMAGE/HENA, MESSENGER/EPPS/MLA/X-ray/MLA, STEREO, PLUTO-NH/PEPSSI/LORI, IBEX-Lo, JUNO/JEDI, RBSP/RBSPICE, MMS/HPCA/EPD, SO/SIS. Given the proven capability on heavy radiation missions such as JUNO, MMS and RBSB, as well diverse long duration missions such as MESSENGER, PLUTO and Cassini, it is expected that these technologies will play an important role in the particle and fields (at least) instruments on the upcoming JUICE and JEO missions.

  1. Expedite the Processing of Unpressurized Payloads to the International Space Station Using the ExPRESS Pallet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacskay, Allen S.; Gilbert, Paul A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Expedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station (ExPRESS) Pallet will be used as an experiment platform for external/unpressurized payloads to be flown aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of the ExPRESS Pallet is to provide an easy access to the ISS for Scientific Investigators that require an external platform for their experiment hardware. As the name of the ExPRESS Pallet implies, the objective of the ExPRESS program is to provide a simplified integration process in a short time period (24 months) for payloads to be flown on the ISS. The ExPRESS Pallet provides unique opportunities for research across many science disciplines, including earth observation, communications, solar and deep space viewing, and long-term exposure. The ExPRESS Pallet provides access to Ram, Wake, Nadir, Zenith and Earth Limb for viewing and exposure to the space environment. The ExPRESS Pallet will provide standard physical payload interfaces, and a standard integration template. The ExPS consists of the Pallet structure, payload Adapters, a subsystem assembly that includes data controller, power distribution and conversion, and Extra Vehicular Robotics compatibility. The ExPRESS Pallet provides the capability to changeout payloads on-orbit via the ExPRESS Pallet Adapter (ExPA). The following paragraphs will describe the Services and Accommodations available to the Payload developers by the ExPRESS Pallet and a brief description of the Integration process. More detailed information on the ExPRESS Pallet can be found in the ExPRESS Pallet Payload Accommodations Handbook, SSP 52000-PAH-EPP.

  2. Computational and Experimental Simulations of Cr(VI) Remediation via In Situ Reduction in an Alluvial Aquifer at Hinkley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobb, C.; Miller, L. G.; Kent, D. B.; Maher, K.

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in groundwater due to natural and human-induced processes poses a significant health threat as Cr(VI) is both a carcinogen and mutagen. Anthropogenic Cr(VI) contamination has compromised drinking water in the alluvial aquifer underlying the town of Hinkley, CA and extensive in-situ remediation (ISR) is underway to mitigate the threat to residents. ISR capitalizes on the redox sensitivity of chromium by using ethanol to reduce soluble, toxic, Cr(VI) to insoluble and non-hazardous Cr(III). However, the sequence of reduction reactions that occurs within the aquifer is not well understood. Therefore, we use computer-modeled and experimental redox titrations to examine how pH, oxygen supply, mineral surface chemistry, agitation, and microbial activity impact the reduction of Cr(VI) by ethanol. We further use experimental titrations to confirm the validity of our modeled results. Aqueous and gaseous phases are monitored throughout the experiment to track changes in pH, dissolved oxygen, CO2, Mn(II), Fe(II), and SO42-. Aqueous Fe(II) is a dominant control on Cr(VI) reduction; thus the cycling of Fe in the system must be considered. Our modeled results show that reductive dissolution of manganese oxides and Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides increases pH, making sulfate reduction thermodynamically favorable. Simultaneous Fe(III) and sulfate reduction allows precipitation of iron sulfide minerals, limiting the available Fe(II) to reduce Cr(VI). Computational model results indicate that elevated organic buffer (HEPES, MOPS, EPPS) concentrations are required to maintain pH values below 8.8 where simultaneous reduction of Fe(III) and SO42- during ethanol oxidation becomes thermodynamically favorable. Microbial activity within the aquifer may also play a significant role in the transfer of electrons from ethanol to the terminal electron acceptors.

  3. Initial Teacher Training Science Nature and Mathematics and the Teaching of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, Josué Antunes de

    2014-11-01

    Although Astronomy is part of the National Curriculum Parameters, it is rarely taught adequately in basic education. In this regard, this research has been developed aiming to investigate contributions to the use of traditional resources combined with digital technologies, in order to create autonomy for future teachers of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in relation to themes in Astronomy. The following steps were taken: i) analysis of educational pedagogical projects (EPP) from licentiate courses at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (FINMG); ii) analysis of students' preconceptions on Astronomy and digital technologies; iii) elaboration of the course and application, developed under the education modality of blended learning, using the teaching proposal of methological pluralism; iv) application and analysis of the final questionnaire. The research subjects were constituted by thirty-two students of Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences courses. A mixed methodology with a pre-experimental delineation, combined with content analysis, has been used. The results showed the following: at the IFNMG, only the licentiate course in physics includes Astronomy content in several curriculum subjects; students´ rates of previous knowledge of Astronomy are low, and there are indications of meaningful learning of concepts related to Astronomy. This research sought to contribute to initial teacher training, particularly in relation to Astronomy teaching, proposing new alternatives to promote the teaching of this knowledge area. Furthermore, the intention was to respond to requests of institutions for implementation of blended learning or distance courses, since during the survey it was verified that, although discussions in forums are important, there is a need for such courses to promote on-site meetings conducting practical and manipulative activities.

  4. Exact non-Born-Oppenheimer wave functions for three-particle Hookean systems with arbitrary masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Xabier; Ugalde, Jesus M.; Echevarría, Lorenzo; Ludeña, Eduardo V.

    2006-10-01

    A Hookean model of a three-body problem for particles with arbitrary masses and charges where two of them interact with each other through a Coulomb potential and with the third through a harmonic potential is presented. It is shown that a condition relating the masses to the harmonic coupling constants must be satisfied in order to render this problem separable. A general exact analytic solution written in terms of the relative interparticle coordinates is given as well as general expressions for the total and binding energies of this three-body system. We apply these results to examine electronic, muonic, antiprotonic, and pionic families of non-Born-Oppenheimer Hookean systems. The first contains the atoms or atomic ions: Ps-(e+e-e-) , H-(p+e-e-) , D-(d+e-e-) , T-(p+e-e-) , He4(he+2e-e-) , and the following molecular ions: Ps2+(e-e+e+) , H2+(e-p+p+) , HD+(e-d+p+) , HT+(e-t+p+) , DT+(e-d+t+) , D2+(e-d+d+) , T2+(e-t+t+) . The muonic and antiprotonic families are similar to the electronic ones except that the species are formed replacing e- by μ- or p- . The pionic family comprises exotic atoms containing at least one pion. We also apply these results to two-electron three-dimensional spherical quantum dots and for these systems we examine the effect of electronic correlation, particularly on the singlet-triplet transitions and on the collective motion of the electrons and center of mass leading to “floppy”dynamics.

  5. Spiraling patterns in evolutionary models inspired by bacterial games with cyclic dominance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobilia, Mauro

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms allowing the maintenance of biodiversity is a central issue in biology. Evolutionary game theory, where the success of one species depends on what the others are doing, provides a promising framework to investigate this complex problem. Experiments on microbial populations have shown that cyclic local interactions promote species coexistence. In this context, rock-paper-scissors games - in which rock crushes scissors, scissors cut paper, and paper wraps rock - are often used to model the dynamics of populations in cyclic competition. After a brief survey of some inspiring experiments, I will discuss the subtle interplay between individuals' mobility and their local interactions in two-dimensional rock-paper-scissors systems. This leads to the loss of biodiversity above a certain mobility threshold, and to the formation of spiraling patterns below the critical mobility rate. I will then study a generic rock-paper-scissors metapopulation model formulated on a two-dimensional grid of patches. When these have a large carrying capacity, the model's dynamics is faithfully described in terms of the system's complex Ginzburg-Landau equation properly derived from a multiscale expansion. The properties of the ensuing complex Ginzburg-Landau equation are exploited to derive the system's phase diagram and to characterize the spatio-temporal properties of the spiraling patterns in each phase. This enables us to analyze the spiral waves stability, how these are influenced by linear and nonlinear diffusion, and to discuss phenomena such as far-field breakup. Presentation mainy based on joint work with B. Szczesny and A. M. Rucklidge. Fruitful earlier collaborations with E. Frey, Q. He, T. Reichenbach, and U. C. Täuber are also acknowledged. Work supported by the UK EPSRC (Grant No. EP/P505593/1).

  6. Genetic relationships among four minorities in Guangxi revealed by analysis of 15 STRs.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiongying; Xu, Lin; Gong, Jichun; Zhou, Lining; Li, Songfeng; Deng, Xiangfa; Luo, Guorong; Xie, Xiaoxun

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic diversity in 15 STRs (short tandem repeats) loci of four minorities in Guangxi Province and to probe into the genetic variation and relationships among these ethnic groups. Allele frequencies of 15 STR loci were collected from 766 unrelated Mulao, Maonan, Miao, and Yao ethnic individuals by PCR-STR and sequencing, and their allele-frequency distribution were compared with each other. The genetic parameters and genetic distances were calculated, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. Based on the results from this study, 135, 134, 148, and 145 alleles and 424, 432, 445, and 436 genotypes for 15 STR loci were observed in the Mulao, Maonan, Miao, and Yao minorities, respectively. The average heterozygosity of all ethnic groups analyzed was above 0.7; the cumulative power of discrimination (DP), the probabilities of paternity exclusion (EPP), and the polymorphic information content (PIC) were greater than 0.99999. Comparison of the allele-frequency distribution indicated that there were significant differences at most loci between Maonan vs. Miao, Yao vs. other groups, but no distinct differences between Mulao vs. Maonan, and Mulao vs. Miao minorities. The NJ tree based on the genetic distance showed that the four minorities were separated into two groups. Mulao and Maonan were clustered into one group, whereas Miao and Yao into the other. Our results revealed that 15 STR loci of the four minorities possessed high genetic diversities. Therefore, the combination of these 15 STRs is a powerful tool for forensic individual identification and paternity investigation, as well as anthropologic and genetic researches. The genetic variation and relationships among the 4 populations revealed by 15 STRs are basically consistent with their linguistic culture and ethical history. PMID:18155619

  7. Dialysis Withdrawal: Impact and Evaluation of a Multidisciplinary Deliberation Within an Ethics Committee as a Shared-Decision-Making Model.

    PubMed

    Maurizi Balzan, Jocelyne; Cartier, Jean Charles; Calvino-Gunther, Silvia; Carron, Pierre Louis; Baro, Patrice; Palacin, Pedro; Vialtel, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Since dialysis withdrawal in maintenance dialysis patients with limited life expectancy results always in short-term death, nephrologists need a referenced process to make their decision. This study reviews 8 years of operation of an Ethics Committee in Nephrology (ECN). The ECN, within a multidisciplinary team, once a month explores cases reported by caregivers when maintaining dialysis seems not to be in the patient's best interest. Discussion is required when the vital prognosis is engaged by the evolution of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) or the occurrence of an acute medical event. Data are analyzed using a discussion guide. The informed decision is completed with an appropriated palliative care project involving the patient, and recorded in their file. Since 2006, the ECN has deliberated yearly for 10 sessions on 6-18 cases, concerning 380 identified maintenance dialysis patients. Characteristics of the population, cases, sessions and proposals are recorded and analyzed. The only variable associated with dialysis withdrawal was having at least one new comorbid condition. End of life is supported with the help of the palliative care team in the hospital or exceptionally at home. The ECN, through a multidisciplinary deliberation and resolution process, proposes an ethical shared-decision-making model ensuring that dialysis withdrawal follows professional guidelines, and is registered as a method for evaluating professional practice (EPP). Annual activity reports are submitted to the Hospital's Medical Evaluation and Quality Unit. Benefits are individual and collective for patients, relatives and caregivers. Prospects for reducing non-implemented decisions and identifying cases earlier would improve the Committee effectiveness. PMID:25807845

  8. Presynaptic and postsynaptic effects of the venom of the Australian tiger snake at the neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Datyner, M. E.; Gage, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    1. Crude venom (TSV) from the Australian tiger snake (Notechis scutatus scutatus) has both presynaptic and postsynaptic effects at the neuromuscular junctions of toads. 2. TSV (50 μg/ml) rapidly blocked indirectly elicited muscle twitches without affecting the compound action potential in the sciatic nerve or twitches elicited by direct stimulation. 3. Low concentrations of the venom (1-10 μg/ml) reduced the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials (m.e.p.ps) and inhibited the depolarization of muscle fibres normally caused by carbachol. It was concluded that a fraction of the venom binds to acetylcholine receptors. 4. The frequency of m.e.p.ps was at first increased by TSV at a concentration of 1 μg/ml. Occasional, high frequency `bursts' of m.e.p.ps were recorded in some preparations. The mean frequency of m.e.p.ps appeared to fall after several hours in the venom. 5. The quantal content of endplate potentials (e.p.ps) was reduced by the venom. With low concentrations (1 μg/ml), an initial increase in quantal content was often seen. When the quantal content was markedly depressed there was no parallel reduction in the amplitude of nerve terminal spikes recorded extracellularly, though a later fall in size and slowing of time course was often seen. 6. There was evidence that TSV eventually changed the normal Poisson characteristics of the spontaneous release of quanta and this may be correlated with electronmicroscopic changes in nerve terminals. 7. Tiger snake antivenene counteracted the postsynaptic, but not the presynaptic effects of TSV when they had developed. PMID:4367126

  9. Aerial surveys of landslide bodies through light UAVs: peculiarities and advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilotro, Giuseppe; Pellicani, Roberta; Leandro, Gianfranco; Marzo, Cosimo; Manzari, Paola; Belmonte, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    The use of UAV in civil applications and particularly for aerial surveillance or surveying is rapidly expanding for several reasons. The first reason is undoubtedly the lowering of the costs of the machines, accompanied by high technology for their positioning and control. The results are high performances and ease of driving. Authors have surveyed some big landslides by drones, with excellent results, which can retail for this technique a specific role, not in conflict with classical airborne aerial surveys, such as LIDAR and others. Obviously the first difference is in the amount of payload, over 100 Kg for classical airborne apparatus, but 1000 times lower in the case of the drones. Nevertheless the advantages of the use of drones and of their products can be synthesized as follows: -Start from the site, without the need of transfers, flight plans and long time weather forecasts; -Imagery product georeferenced and immediately exportable to GIS -Inspection of areas not easily accessible (impervious areas, high layers of mud, crossing of rivers, etc) or unreachable in safety conditions; -Inspection of specific points, relevant for the interpretation of the type and intensity of movement. -The pilot and the landslide specialist define route and compare images in real time -Possibility of flying at very low altitude and hovering. For the geomorphological interpretation of the big landslide of Montescaglioso (Mt, Italy) has been used a 1.5 m EPP (Expanded polipropilene) fixed wing, driven by 3DR Open Source Autopilot, equipped with a 16 Mp compact camera CANON A2300. Very useful revealed the image of the toe of the landslide, critical point for the interpretation of the mechanics of the whole landslide. Results have been of excellent quality and allowed authors to an early correct analysis Other landslides have been explored with a commercial drone (Phantom Vision 2 Dji), the use of which has proved likewise invaluable for returning images of areas not otherwise

  10. Momentum in general relativity: local versus quasilocal conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, Richard J.; McGrath, Paul L.; Mann, Robert B.

    2013-10-01

    We construct a general relativistic conservation law for linear and angular momentum for matter and gravitational fields in a finite volume of space that does not rely on any spacetime symmetries. This work builds on our previous construction of a general relativistic energy conservation law with the same features (McGrath et al 2012 Class. Quantum Grav. 29 215012). Our approach uses the Brown and York (1993 Phys. Rev. D 47 1407-19) quasilocal stress-energy-momentum tensor for matter and gravitational fields, plus the concept of a rigid quasilocal frame (RQF) introduced in (Epp et al 2009 Class. Quantum Grav. 26 035015; 2012 Classical and Quantum Gravity: Theory, Analysis, and Applications (Nova Science)). The RQF approach allows us to construct, in a generic spacetime, frames of reference whose boundaries are rigid (their shape and size do not change with time), and that have precisely the same six arbitrary time-dependent degrees of freedom as the accelerating and tumbling rigid frames we are familiar with in Newtonian mechanics. These RQFs, in turn, give rise to a completely general conservation law for the six components of momentum (three linear and three angular) of a finite system of matter and gravitational fields. We compare in detail this quasilocal RQF approach to constructing conservation laws with the usual local one based on spacetime symmetries, and discuss the shortcomings of the latter. These RQF conservation laws lead to a deeper understanding of physics in the form of simple, exact, operational definitions of gravitational energy and momentum fluxes, which in turn reveal, for the first time, the exact, detailed mechanisms of gravitational energy and momentum transfer taking place in a wide variety of physical phenomena, including a simple falling apple. As a concrete example, we derive a general relativistic version of Archimedes’ law that we apply to understand electrostatic weight and buoyant force in the context of a Reissner

  11. Pharmacological study on angusticeps-type toxins from mamba snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y; Tsai, M C; Tsaur, M L; Lin, W W; Carlsson, F H; Joubert, F J

    1985-05-01

    Five angusticeps-type toxins, F7, F8 and C10S2C2 from Dendroaspis angusticeps and C and FS2 from D. polylepis polylepis, were tested for action on the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle, the frog rectus abdominis muscle and the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. In the chick muscle, none of these toxins exhibited any stimulatory effect up to 100 micrograms/ml. In the frog muscle, the response to acetylcholine, but not to carbachol, was enhanced dose dependently by F7 and C. No appreciable effect was observed with the other three toxins. In the mouse diaphragm, also only F7 and C augmented responses to indirect stimulation and produced spontaneous fasciculations. On tetanic stimulation, a marked Wedensky inhibition was observed. Their stimulatory effect was abolished by d-tubocurarine. In the presence of d-tubocurarine as well as in the denervated mouse diaphragm, neither toxin increased responses to direct stimulation. In low-calcium (0.6 mM) or high magnesium (4.2 mM) medium, the stimulatory effect of both toxins was markedly attenuated. The resting membrane potential of the mouse diaphragm was not changed. The amplitude and frequency of MEPPs and the quantal content and the half-decay time of EPPs was increased. Both toxins also produced a stimulatory effect on the isolated guinea-pig ileum, which was abolished by atropine. In the rat atrial preparation, both toxins caused negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which were reversed by atropine. If pretreated with atropine, these effects were completely prevented. Both F7 and C markedly inhibited the cholinesterase activity of the homogenized mouse diaphragm and frog rectus abdominis muscle but not that of the chick biventer cervicis muscle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3158733

  12. Hybrid control and acquisition system for distributed sensors for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Boiano, Alfonso; De Rosa, Rosario; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype we developed in Napoli for the implementation of geographycally distributed monitoring and control systems. The system, an improvement of a VME-UDP/IP based system developed by our group for interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC and 16-bit DAC module at 1 MHz, managed by an ALTERA FPGA, that can be used standalone or mounted as mezzanine (also in parallel with other modules) on a motherboard. Both the modules and the motherboard can send/receive the configuration and the acquired/correction data for control through a standard EPP parallel port to an external PC, where the real-time computation is performed. Experimental tests have demonstrated that this architeture allows the implementation of distributed control systems, using a standard laptop PC for the realtime computation, with delay time Δt < 30 μs on a single channel, that is a sustained sampling frequency f c > 30kHz. Each module is also equipped with a 20-bit slower ADC necessary for the acquisition of an external calibration signal. The system is now under extensive test in two different experiments, i.e. the control of a Michelson Interferometer to be used as Velocimeter for Seismic Waves in Geophysics and the control of the end mirrors a suspended Michelson Interferometer through electrostatic actuators, a prototype for mirror control for Interferometric Detectors of Gravitational Waves.

  13. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and of Pu-EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying

    2009-11-20

    The enhanced mobility of radionuclides by co-disposed chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), is likely to occur only under anaerobic conditions. Our extensive effort to enrich and isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria has failed. Others has tried and also failed. To explain the lack of anaerobic biodegradation of EDTA, we proposed that EDTA has to be transported into the cells for metabolism. A failure of uptake may contribute to the lack of EDTA degradation under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrated that an aerobic EDTA-degrading bacterium strain BNC1 uses an ABC-type transporter system to uptake EDTA. The system has a periplasmic binding protein that bind EDTA and then interacts with membrane proteins to transport EDTA into the cell at the expense of ATP. The bind protein EppA binds only free EDTA with a Kd of 25 nM. The low Kd value indicates high affinity. However, the Kd value of Ni-EDTA is 2.4 x 10^(-10) nM, indicating much stronger stability. Since Ni and other trace metals are essential for anaerobic respiration, we conclude that the added EDTA sequestrates all trace metals and making anaerobic respiration impossible. Thus, the data explain the lack of anaerobic enrichment cultures for EDTA degradation. Although we did not obtain an EDTA degrading culture under anaerobic conditions, our finding may promote the use of certain metals that forms more stable metal-EDTA complexes than Pu(III)-EDTA to prevent the enhanced mobility. Further, our data explain why EDTA is the most dominant organic pollutant in surface waters, due to the lack of degradation of certain metal-EDTA complexes.

  14. Simulated solar cycle effects on the middle atmosphere: WACCM3 Versus WACCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, E. D.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Marsh, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model version 4 (WACCM4) is used to quantify solar cycle impacts, including both irradiance and particle precipitation, on the middle atmosphere. Results are compared to previous work using WACCM version 3 (WACCM3) to estimate the sensitivity of simulated solar cycle effects to model modifications. The residual circulation in WACCM4 is stronger than in WACCM3, leading to larger solar cycle effects from energetic particle precipitation; this impacts polar stratospheric odd nitrogen and ozone, as well as polar mesospheric temperatures. The cold pole problem, which is present in both versions, is exacerbated in WACCM4, leading to more ozone loss in the Antarctic stratosphere. Relative to WACCM3, a westerly shift in the WACCM4 zonal winds in the tropical stratosphere and mesosphere, and a strengthening and poleward shift of the Antarctic polar night jet, are attributed to inclusion of the QBO and changes in the gravity wave parameterization in WACCM4. Solar cycle effects in WACCM3 and WACCM4 are qualitatively similar. However, the EPP-induced increase from solar minimum to solar maximum in polar stratospheric NOy is about twice as large in WACCM4 as in WACCM3; correspondingly, maximum increases in polar O3 loss from solar min to solar max are more than twice as large in WACCM4. This does not cause large differences in the WACCM3 versus WACCM4 solar cycle responses in temperature and wind. Overall, these results provide a framework for future studies using WACCM to analyze the impacts of the solar cycle on the middle atmosphere.

  15. Improving technological pedagogical content knowledge development among pre-service science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habowski, Thomas A.

    Many teacher education programs provide pre-service teachers with a limited field experience during the professional block semester prior to student teaching. These programs require few hours in the classroom, mainly composed of observations. Many teacher education programs contain a technology-integration methods course that is not subject-specific and mainly focuses on the use of various technologies, in the absence of content and pedagogy. The purpose of this EPP was to examine a Professional Development School (PDS) Program with respect to technology integration among pre-service science teachers. This examination set out to measure differences in pre-service teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) before and after the first-semester internship in the program, and utilized various data collection instruments in the process. The primary instrument used was a survey which provided quantitative data for measuring changes in TPACK among the interns throughout the first-semester internship. A set of open-ended questions on the survey provided descriptive details concerning models of TPACK observed and co-taught by the interns. Additionally, a focus group and a PDS conference provided descriptive data concerning observed models of technology, the impact of a subject-specific technology integration course, comparisons between the PDS and traditional teacher education programs, and insight into the comfort and success levels with using technology in the science classroom. The survey responses, the focus group responses, and the PDS conference data all suggested that the increased time requirement, in conjunction with the required technology integration course, and the mentorship provided by a co-teaching model led to exposure to valuable models of technology, an increase in self-assessed TPACK, and a feeling of increased confidence as reported by the interns during the first-semester internship of the PDS Program.

  16. Generation of Functional Neuromuscular Junctions from Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Puttonen, Katja A; Ruponen, Marika; Naumenko, Nikolay; Hovatta, Outi H; Tavi, Pasi; Koistinaho, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Several neuromuscular diseases involve dysfunction of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), yet there are no patient-specific human models for electrophysiological characterization of NMJ. We seeded cells of neurally-induced embryoid body-like spheres derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) or embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines as monolayers without basic fibroblast factor (bFGF) and observed differentiation of neuronal as well as spontaneously contracting, multinucleated skeletal myotubes. The myotubes showed striation, immunoreactivity for myosin heavy chain, actin bundles typical for myo-oriented cells, and generated spontaneous and evoked action potentials (APs). The myogenic differentiation was associated with expression of MyoD1, myogenin and type I ryanodine receptor. Neurons formed end plate like structures with strong binding of α-bungarotoxin, a marker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors highly expressed in the postsynaptic membrane of NMJs, and expressed SMI-32, a motoneuron marker, as well as SV2, a marker for synapses. Pharmacological stimulation of cholinergic receptors resulted in strong depolarization of myotube membrane and raised Ca(2+) concentration in sarcoplasm, while electrical stimulation evoked Ca(2+) transients in myotubes. Stimulation of motoneurons with N-Methyl-D-aspartate resulted in reproducible APs in myotubes and end plates displayed typical mEPPs and tonic activity depolarizing myotubes of about 10 mV. We conclude that simultaneous differentiation of neurons and myotubes from patient-specific iPSCs or ESCs results also in the development of functional NMJs. Our human model of NMJ may serve as an important tool to investigate normal development, mechanisms of diseases and novel drug targets involving NMJ dysfunction and degeneration. PMID:26696831

  17. Generation of Functional Neuromuscular Junctions from Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Puttonen, Katja A.; Ruponen, Marika; Naumenko, Nikolay; Hovatta, Outi H.; Tavi, Pasi; Koistinaho, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Several neuromuscular diseases involve dysfunction of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), yet there are no patient-specific human models for electrophysiological characterization of NMJ. We seeded cells of neurally-induced embryoid body-like spheres derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) or embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines as monolayers without basic fibroblast factor (bFGF) and observed differentiation of neuronal as well as spontaneously contracting, multinucleated skeletal myotubes. The myotubes showed striation, immunoreactivity for myosin heavy chain, actin bundles typical for myo-oriented cells, and generated spontaneous and evoked action potentials (APs). The myogenic differentiation was associated with expression of MyoD1, myogenin and type I ryanodine receptor. Neurons formed end plate like structures with strong binding of α-bungarotoxin, a marker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors highly expressed in the postsynaptic membrane of NMJs, and expressed SMI-32, a motoneuron marker, as well as SV2, a marker for synapses. Pharmacological stimulation of cholinergic receptors resulted in strong depolarization of myotube membrane and raised Ca2+ concentration in sarcoplasm, while electrical stimulation evoked Ca2+ transients in myotubes. Stimulation of motoneurons with N-Methyl-D-aspartate resulted in reproducible APs in myotubes and end plates displayed typical mEPPs and tonic activity depolarizing myotubes of about 10 mV. We conclude that simultaneous differentiation of neurons and myotubes from patient-specific iPSCs or ESCs results also in the development of functional NMJs. Our human model of NMJ may serve as an important tool to investigate normal development, mechanisms of diseases and novel drug targets involving NMJ dysfunction and degeneration. PMID:26696831

  18. Molecular mechanisms of dominant expression in porphyria.

    PubMed

    Badminton, M N; Elder, G H

    2005-01-01

    Partial deficiency of enzymes in the haem synthetic pathway gives rise to a group of seven inherited metabolic disorders, the porphyrias. Each deficiency is associated with a characteristic increase in haem precursors that correlates with the symptoms associated with individual porphyrias and allows accurate diagnosis. Two types of clinical presentation occur separately or in combination; acute life-threatening neurovisceral attacks and/or cutaneous symptoms. Five of the porphyrias are low-penetrance autosomal dominant conditions in which clinical expression results from additional factors that act by increasing demand for haem or by causing an additional decrease in enzyme activity or by a combination of these effects. These include both genetic and environmental factors. In familial porphyria cutanea tarda (PCTF), environmental factors that include alcohol, exogenous oestrogens and hepatotropic viruses result in inhibition of hepatic enzyme activity via a mechanism that involves excess iron accumulation. In erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), co-inheritance of a functional polymorphism in trans to a null ferrochelatase allele accounts for most clinically overt cases. In the autosomal dominant acute hepatic porphyrias (acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria), acute neurovisceral attacks occur in a minority of those who inherit one of these disorders. Although various exogenous (e.g. drugs, alcohol) and endogenous factors (e.g. hormones) have been identified as provoking acute attacks, these do not provide a full explanation for the low penetrance of these disorders. It seems probable that genetic background influences susceptibility to acute attacks, but the genes that are involved have not yet been identified. PMID:15868463

  19. Report on FY15 Two-Bar Thermal Ratcheting Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Jetter, Robert I; Baird, Seth T; Pu, Chao; Sham, Sam

    2015-06-22

    Alloy 617 is a reference structural material for very high temperature components of advanced-gas cooled reactors with outlet temperatures in the range of . In order for designers to be able to use Alloy 617 for these high temperature components, Alloy 617 has to be approved for use in Section III (the nuclear section) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. A plan has been developed to submit a draft code for Alloy 617 to ASME Section III by 2015. However, the current rules in Subsection NH* for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above . The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep deformation, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, , is well below the temperature range of interest for this material in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) applications. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis which requires sophisticated material models which have been formulated but not yet verified. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures. These newly proposed rules also address a long-term objective to provide an option for more simple, comprehensive and easily applied rules than the current so called simplified rules These two-bar tests discussed herein are part of an ongoing series of tests with cyclic loading at high temperatures using specimens representing key features of potential component designs. The initial focus of the two-bar ratcheting test program, to verify the procedure for evaluation of strain limits for Alloy 617 at very high temperatures, has been expanded to respond to guidance from

  20. Report on FY15 Alloy 617 SMT Creep-Fatigue Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Jetter, Robert I.; Baird, Seth T.; Pu, Chao; Sham, Sam

    2015-06-22

    viability of the Alloy 617 Code Case, the use of the current elastic analysis based rules in Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits (a precursor for the creep-fatigue rules) and the creep-fatigue rules themselves have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 650C (Corum and Brass, 1991). The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, 650C, is well below the temperature range of interest for this material for the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) as well as the VHTR. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis which requires sophisticated material models which have not yet been formulated and verified. To address the prohibition on the use of current methods at very high temperatures, proposed Code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (E-PP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures. To provide data to implement the proposed rules and to verify their application, a series of tests have been initiated. One test concept, the Simplified Model Test (SMT), takes into account the stress and strain redistribution in real structures by including representative follow-up characteristics in the test specimen. The correlation parameter between test and design is the elastically calculated strain, and the dependent test variable is the observed cycles to failure. Although the initial priority for the SMT approach is to generate data to support validation of the E-PP Code Case for evaluation of creep-fatigue damage, the broader goal of the SMT approach is to develop a methodology for evaluation of creep fatigue damage which is simpler to implement than the current complex rules and applicable to the full temperature range from ambient conditions to the very high temperature creep regime of 900-950C. Also

  1. Tri-axial Shape Coexistence and a New Aligned Band in {sup 178}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Govil, I. M.

    2009-03-10

    The Os nuclei lie in the beginning of the transitional region between the well deformed rare earth and spherical lead isotopes. The nuclei in this region are believed to be soft to changes in gamma deformation due to the softness of nuclear potential which may result in the shape coexistence. The neutron Fermi levels in Os nuclei from A = 170 to A = 186 lie in the middle of i{sub 13/2} orbital so that their shape in the ground state tends to take an appreciable prolate deformation. Hence collective bands with the well defined moment of inertia occur and the effect of different proton orbitals is observed as a modulation of the prolate structure. The anomalies in the yrast sequence, an effect attributed to change in moment of inertia of the ground state rotational band and the band crossing phenomena, are very important and vary strongly with neutron number in case of Os nuclei. The nuclear structure of {sup 178}Os nucleus has been studied using the reaction {sup 165}Ho({sup 20}Ne, p6n){sup 178}Os. Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) consisting of six Clover detectors with anti Compton shields was used for the detection of resulting gamma rays. The Direction Correlation of {gamma}-rays de-exciting Oriented states (DCO) ratio and polarization of gamma rays were measured to assign spin, parity and multipolarity of transitions. Twenty one new transitions belonging to the {sup 178}Os nucleus have been identified. The sudden and rather strong gain in aligned angular momentum is observed in the yrast band of {sup 178}Os. A new aligned rotational band similar to {sup 180}Os is also discovered in this nucleus. This band exhibits a very complex decay pattern with a single linking transition of 1778 keV to the ground state band. The tri-axial shape co-existence is also observed in this nucleus at higher excitation. The experimental results are compared with the Microscopic Hartree-Fock model calculations.

  2. First application of liquid-metal-jet sources for small-animal imaging: High-resolution CT and phase-contrast tumor demarcation

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Lundstroem, Ulf; Burvall, Anna; Hertz, Hans M.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Small-animal studies require images with high spatial resolution and high contrast due to the small scale of the structures. X-ray imaging systems for small animals are often limited by the microfocus source. Here, the authors investigate the applicability of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for such high-resolution small-animal imaging, both in tomography based on absorption and in soft-tissue tumor imaging based on in-line phase contrast. Methods: The experimental arrangement consists of a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source, the small-animal object on a rotating stage, and an imaging detector. The source-to-object and object-to-detector distances are adjusted for the preferred contrast mechanism. Two different liquid-metal-jet sources are used, one circulating a Ga/In/Sn alloy and the other an In/Ga alloy for higher penetration through thick tissue. Both sources are operated at 40-50 W electron-beam power with {approx}7 {mu}m x-ray spots, providing high spatial resolution in absorption imaging and high spatial coherence for the phase-contrast imaging. Results: High-resolution absorption imaging is demonstrated on mice with CT, showing 50 {mu}m bone details in the reconstructed slices. High-resolution phase-contrast soft-tissue imaging shows clear demarcation of mm-sized tumors at much lower dose than is required in absorption. Conclusions: This is the first application of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for whole-body small-animal x-ray imaging. In absorption, the method allows high-resolution tomographic skeletal imaging with potential for significantly shorter exposure times due to the power scalability of liquid-metal-jet sources. In phase contrast, the authors use a simple in-line arrangement to show distinct tumor demarcation of few-mm-sized tumors. This is, to their knowledge, the first small-animal tumor visualization with a laboratory phase-contrast system.

  3. Biogeochemistry and biodiversity interact to govern N2 fixers (Fabaceae) across Amazon tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Beto

    2015-04-01

    Dinitrogen (N2)-fixing trees in the Fabaceae fulfill a central role in tropical rainforests by supplying nitrogen from the atmosphere, yet whether they will support a forest CO2 sink in the future by alleviating nitrogen limitation may depend on whether and how they are controlled by local environmental conditions. Theory predicts that soil nutrients govern the function of N2 fixers, yet there have been no large-scale field-based tests of this idea. Moreover, recent findings indicate that N2-fixing species behave differently in biogeochemical cycles, suggesting that any environmental control may differ by species, and that the diversity of N2-fixing trees may be critical for ensuring tropical forest function. In this talk, we will use the RAINFOR dataset of 108 (~1.0 ha) lowland tropical rainforest plots from across the Amazon Basin to test whether the abundance and diversity of N2-fixing trees are controlled by soil nutrient availability (i.e., increasing with phosphorus and decreasing with nitrogen), or if fixer abundance and diversity simply follow the dynamics of all tree species. We also test an alternative - but not mutually exclusive - hypothesis that the governing factor for fixers is forest disturbance. Results show a surprising lack of control by local nutrients or disturbance on the abundance or diversity of N2 fixers. The dominant driver of fixer diversity was the total number of tree species, with fixers comprising 10% of all species in a forest plot (R2 = 0.75, linear regression). When considering the dominant taxa of N2 fixers (Inga, Swartzia, Tachigali) alone, environmental factors (nitrogen, phosphorus and disturbance) became important and clearly governed their abundance. These taxa, which contain >60% of N2-fixing trees in the data set, appear to have evolved to specialize in different local environmental conditions. The strong biogeochemistry-by-biodiversity interaction observed here points to a need to consider individual species or taxa of N2

  4. Nuclear structure studies close to N = Z = 50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Sihotra, S.; Naik, Z.; Singh, K.; Goswami, J.; Singh, N.; Palit, R.; Muralithar, S.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Mehta, D.

    2014-08-01

    The level structures in 98,99Rh, and 99Pd nuclei have been investigated through in beam γ-ray spectroscopic techniques following the 75As(overflow="scroll">28Si, xpyn) fusion-evaporation reaction at Elab = 120 MeV. These investigations were carried out using Indian-National-Gamma-Array (INGA) consisting of Compton-suppressed clover detectors at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. The level structures observed in 99Pd, and 98,99Rh have been established up to ˜ 11 MeV, 10 MeV and 16 MeV excitation energy and spin ˜ 23ħ, 23ħ, and 28ħ respectively. In the doubly-odd 98Rh nucleus, new band structures and isomeric states have been identified at lower spins and new states below the previously identified 2+ ground state (T1/2 = 8.5 m) are identified. In the present work 99Rh structure have been observed similar to 101Rh which is based on p1/2 and g9/2 orbitals. Various positive and negative parity states in these nuclei are observed to be energetically more favored with respect to the neighboring ones, and are likely to be the maximally aligned states obtained by angular momentum coupling of the valence particles (holes). The level structures observed in 99Pd have been interpreted in the framework of a microscopic theory based on the deformed Hartree-Fock (HF) and angular momentum projection techniques. Band structures at low excitation energy are based on the low-Ω νg7/2 and νd5/2 orbitals, have been observed in 99Pd. Band structure at higher spins are reproduced with the ν(g7/2)2⊗ν(g9/2)-1⊗ν(h11/2)2⊗π(g9/2)6 configurations. Observation of new E1 transitions linking the opposite parity νh11/2 and νd5/2 bands provide fingerprints of possible octupole correlations in 99Pd. The extracted values of the B(E1)/B(E2) ratios for the lower levels in the νh11/2 band are ˜ 10-7 [fm]-2.

  5. [Tropical forest restoration in Costa Rica: the effect of several strategies on litter production, accumulation and decomposition].

    PubMed

    Celentano, Danielle; Zahawi, Rakan A; Finegan, Bryan; Casanoves, Fernando; Ostertag, Rebecca; Cole, Rebecca J; Holl, Karen D

    2011-09-01

    Tropical forest restoration strategies have the potential to accelerate the recovery of the nutrient cycles in degraded lands. Litter production and its decomposition represent the main transfer of organic material and nutrients into the soil substrate. We evaluated litter production, accumulation on the forest floor, and its decomposition under three restoration strategies: plantation (entire area planted with trees), island (trees planted in patches of three different sizes) and control (natural regeneration) plots. We also compared restoration strategies to young secondary forest (7-9 yr). Restoration treatments were established in 50 x 50m plots in June 2004 at six sites in Southern Costa Rica. Planted tree species included two native timber species (Terminalia amazonia and Vochysia guatemalensis) interplanted with two N fixers (Erythrina poeppigiana and Inga edulis). Litter was collected every 15 days between September 2008 and August 2009 in 12 0.25m2 litter traps distributed within each plot; litter that accumulated on the soil surface was collected at four locations (0.25m2 quadrats) within each plot in February and May 2009. Total litter production in plantation (6.3Mg/ha) and secondary forest (7.3Mg/ha) did not differ, but were greater than in islands (3.5Mg/ha) and control (1.4 Mg/ha). Plantation had greatest accumulation of litter on the soil surface (10.6 Mg/ha) as compared to the other treatments (SF = 7.2; I = 6.7; C = 4.9). Secondary forest was the only treatment with a greater annual production of litter than litter accumulation on the soil surface. Carbon storage in litter was similar between plantation and secondary forest, and significantly greater than the other treatments. No differences were found for carbon concentration and storage in the soil among treatments. There was also high variability in the production and accumulation of litter and carbon among sites. Active restoration treatments accelerated the production of litter and carbon

  6. Nuclear structure studies close to N = Z = 50

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Sihotra, S.; Singh, K.; Goswami, J.; Singh, N.; Mehta, D.; Naik, Z.; Palit, R.; Muralithar, S.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2014-08-14

    The level structures in {sup 98,99}Rh, and {sup 99}Pd nuclei have been investigated through in beam γ-ray spectroscopic techniques following the {sup 75}As({sup 28}Si, xpyn) fusion-evaporation reaction at E{sub lab} = 120 MeV. These investigations were carried out using Indian-National-Gamma-Array (INGA) consisting of Compton-suppressed clover detectors at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. The level structures observed in {sup 99}Pd, and {sup 98,99}Rh have been established up to ∼ 11 MeV, 10 MeV and 16 MeV excitation energy and spin ∼ 23ħ, 23ħ, and 28ħ respectively. In the doubly-odd {sup 98}Rh nucleus, new band structures and isomeric states have been identified at lower spins and new states below the previously identified 2{sup +} ground state (T{sub 1/2} = 8.5 m) are identified. In the present work {sup 99}Rh structure have been observed similar to {sup 101}Rh which is based on p{sub 1/2} and g{sub 9/2} orbitals. Various positive and negative parity states in these nuclei are observed to be energetically more favored with respect to the neighboring ones, and are likely to be the maximally aligned states obtained by angular momentum coupling of the valence particles (holes). The level structures observed in {sup 99}Pd have been interpreted in the framework of a microscopic theory based on the deformed Hartree-Fock (HF) and angular momentum projection techniques. Band structures at low excitation energy are based on the low-Ω νg{sub 7/2} and νd{sub 5/2} orbitals, have been observed in {sup 99}Pd. Band structure at higher spins are reproduced with the ν(g{sub 7/2}){sup 2}⊗ν(g{sub 9/2}){sup −1}⊗ν(h{sub 11/2}){sup 2}⊗π(g{sub 9/2}){sup 6} configurations. Observation of new E1 transitions linking the opposite parity νh{sub 11/2} and νd{sub 5/2} bands provide fingerprints of possible octupole correlations in {sup 99}Pd. The extracted values of the B(E1)/B(E2) ratios for the lower levels in the νh{sub 11/2} band are ∼ 10{sup

  7. The water and energy exchange of a shaded coffee plantation in the lower montane cloud forest zone of central Veracruz, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwerda, F.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Barradas, V.; Cervantes, J.

    2012-12-01

    The water and energy fluxes of a shaded coffee plantation in the lower montane cloud forest (LMCF) zone of central Veracruz, Mexico, were measured over a two-year period (September 2006-August 2008) using the eddy covariance method. Complementary measurements of throughfall and stemflow were made to study rainfall interception. The sum of the observed sensible (H) and latent (λE) heat fluxes was almost 95% of the net radiation (Rn) minus the canopy heat storage fluxes, indicating very good energy balance closure. Monthly means of the mid-day (11:00-15:00 h) Bowen ratio (H/λE) and evaporative fraction (λE/Rn) averaged 0.74 +/- 0.12 and 0.56 +/- 0.05, respectively. Energy partitioning showed distinct seasonal variation, with significantly higher Bowen ratios prevailing during the dry season (0.81 +/- 0.13) compared to the rainy season (0.67 +/- 0.06). The lower evaporation rates during the dry season reflected a combination of lower soil moisture availability and a lower leaf area of the Inga shade trees during this part of the year. Both the eddy covariance, and the throughfall and stemflow measurements showed average wet-canopy evaporation rate to be very low (0.05 mm/h) compared to the corresponding rainfall rate (3.06 mm/h). As a result, and despite the low canopy storage capacity of the coffee plantation (Cm, 0.50 mm), interception was dominated by post-event evaporation of intercepted water rather than by within-event evaporation. Comparing the results for the coffee plantation with interception data from mature and secondary LMCFs in the study area suggests that the conversion of LMCF to shade-coffee may lead to a decrease in interception loss of 8-18% of incident rainfall. This decrease is caused by a three- to seven-fold decrease in Cm due to the lower leaf area and smaller epiphyte biomass of the coffee plantation. Comparing the eddy covariance-based estimate of dry-canopy evaporation for the coffee plantation with sapflow-based estimates of

  8. Remotely Sensed Predictions and In Situ Observations of Lower Congo River Dynamics in Support of Fish Evolutionary Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, N.; Bjerklie, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Ongoing research into the evolution of fishes in the lower Congo River suggests a close tie between diversity and hydraulic complexity of flow in the channel. For example, fish populations on each side of the rapids at the head of the lower Congo are within 1.5 km of one another, a distance normally allowing for interbreeding in river systems of comparable size, yet these fish populations show about 5% divergence in their mitochondrial DNA signatures. The proximal reason for this divergence is hydraulic complexity: the speed and turbulence of water moving through the thalweg is a barrier to dispersal for these fishes. Further examination of fish diversity suggests additional correlations of evolutionary divergence of fish clades in association with geomorphic and hydraulic features such as deep pools, extensive systems of rapids, alternating sections of fast and slow current, and recurring whirlpools. Due to prohibitive travel costs, limited field time, and the large geographic domain (approximately 400 river km) of the study area, we undertook a nested set of remote sensing analyses to extract habitat features, geomorphic descriptors, and hydraulic parameters including channel forming velocity, depth, channel roughness, slope, and shear stress. Each of these estimated parameters is mapped for each 1 km segment of the river from the rapids described above to below Inga Falls, a massive cataract where several endemic fish species have been identified. To validate remote sensing estimates, we collected depth and velocity data within the river using gps-enabled sonar measurements from a kayak and Doppler profiling from a motor-driven dugout canoe. Observations corroborate remote sensing estimates of geomorphic parameters. Remote sensing-based estimates of channel-forming velocity and depth were less than the observed maximum channel depth but correlated well with channel properties within 1 km reach segments. This correspondence is notable. The empirical models used

  9. Evaluation of the LLNL Spectrometer for Possible use with the NSTec Optical Streak Camera as a Light Gas Gun Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, J., Cradick, J.

    2012-09-27

    In fiscal year 2012, it was desired to combine a visible spectrometer with a streak camera to form a diagnostic system for recording time-resolved spectra generated in light gas gun experiments. Acquiring a new spectrometer was an option, but it was possible to borrow an existing unit for a period of months, which would be sufficient to evaluate both “off-line” and in-gas gun shots. If it proved adequate for this application, it could be duplicated (with possible modifications); if not, such testing would help determine needed specifications for another model. This report describes the evaluation of the spectrometer (separately and combined with the NSTec LO streak camera) for this purpose. Spectral and temporal resolutions were of primary interest. The first was measured with a monochromatic laser input. The second was ascertained by the combination of the spectrometer’s spatial resolution in the time-dispersive direction and the streak camera’s intrinsic temporal resolution. System responsivity was also important, and this was investigated by measuring the response of the spectrometer/camera system to black body input—the gas gun experiments are expected to be similar to a 3000K black body—as well as measuring the throughput of the spectrometer separately over a range of visible light provided by a monochromator. The flat field (in wavelength) was also measured and the final part of the evaluation was actual fielding on two gas gun shots. No firm specifications for spectral or temporal resolution were defined precisely, but these were desired to be in the 1–2 nm and 1–2 ns ranges, respectively, if possible. As seen below, these values were met or nearly met, depending on wavelength. Other performance parameters were also not given (threshold requirements) but the evaluations performed with laser, black body, and successful gas gun shots taken in aggregate indicate that the spectrometer is adequate for this purpose. Even still, some (relatively

  10. Laser ion source for multi-nucleon transfer reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.; Kim, Y. H.; Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a laser ion source for the target-like fragments (TLFs) produced in multi-nucleon transfer (MNT) reactions. The operation principle of the source is based on the in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) approach. In the source TLFs are thermalized and neutralized in high pressure and high purity argon gas, and are extracted after being selectively re-ionized in a multi-step laser resonance ionization process. The laser ion source has been implemented at the KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) for β-decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich isotopes with N = 126 of nuclear astrophysical interest. The simulations of gas flow and ion-beam optics have been performed to optimize the gas cell for efficient thermalization and fast transporting the TLFs, and the mass-separator for efficient transport with high mass-resolving power, respectively. To confirm the performances expected at the design stage, off-line experiments have been performed by using 56Fe atoms evaporated from a filament in the gas cell. The gas-transport time of 230 ms in the argon cell and the measured KISS mass-resolving power of 900 are consistent with the designed values. The high purity of the gas-cell system, which is extremely important for efficient and highly-selective production of laser ions, was achieved and confirmed from the mass distribution of the extracted ions. After the off-line tests, on-line experiments were conducted by directly injecting energetic 56Fe beam into the gas cell. After thermalization of the injected 56Fe beam, laser-produced singly-charged 56Fe+ ions were extracted. The extraction efficiency and selectivity of the gas cell in the presence of plasma induced by 56Fe beam injection as well as the time profile of the extracted ions were investigated; extraction efficiency of 0.25%, a beam purity of >99% and an extraction time of 270 ms. It has been confirmed that the performance of the KISS laser ion source is satisfactory to start the measurements of

  11. Mixing and turbulent mixing in fluids, plasma and materials: summary of works presented at the 3rd International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Serge; Keane, Christopher J.; Niemela, Joseph J.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.

    2013-07-01

    was held in the summer of 2011 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. The papers are arranged by TMB themes, and within each theme they are ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author. The collection includes regular research papers, a few research briefs and review papers. The review papers are published as 'Comments' articles in Physica Scripta . Canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. Six papers are devoted to canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. Baumert presents a theory of shear-generated turbulence, which is based on a two-fluid concept. Gampert et al investigate the problem of adequate representation of turbulent structures by applying a decomposition of the field of the turbulent kinetic energy into regions of compressive and extensive strain. Paul and Narashima consider the dynamics of a temporal mixing layer using a vortex sheet model. Schaefer et al analyse the joint statistics and conditional mean strain rates of streamline segments in turbulent flows. Sirota and Zybin deepen their discussion of the connection between Lagrangian and Eulerian velocity structure functions in hydrodynamic turbulence. Talbot et al investigate the heterogeneous mixing by considering gases of very nearly equal densities and very different viscosities. Wall-bounded flows. Three papers are dedicated to wall-bounded flows. Mok et al use the Bayesian spectral density approach to identify the dominant free surface fluctuation frequency downstream of an oscillating hydraulic jump. Tejada-Martinez et al employ large eddy numerical simulations to study wind-driven shallow water flows with and without full-depth Langmuir circulation (parallel counter rotating vortices). Wu et al re-evaluate the Karman constant based on a multi-layer analytical theory of Prandtl's mixing length function. Non-equilibrium processes. This theme is represented by two papers. Chasheckhin and Zagumennyi consider non-equilibrium processes

  12. Correcting High-Resolution Borehole Strainmeter Data from Complex External Influences and Partial-Solid Coupling: the Case of Trizonia, Rift of Corinth (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canitano, A.; Bernard, P.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, S.; Boudin, F.

    2014-08-01

    ). The empirical correction of the sea level effect could be explained using a simple Boussinesq's approximation and 1D pore-pressure diffusion model, which contributed to better constraint of some of the poro-elastic parameters in the vicinity of the instrument. After correction, the solid tidal signal at the 24-h period is almost anti-correlated with those of the theoretical solid tide. This surprising result is consistent with a similar anti-correlation observed for the longest period surface waves (200 s) comparing the TRZ dilatometer signals to the strain measured by a nearby borehole strainmeter (MOK, 15 km). This could be related to the presence of a shallow fault close to the instrument, which would creep in response to seismic wave-related stress.

  13. Downscaling 20th century flooding events in complex terrain (Switzerland) using the WRF regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Ulla; Gómez Navarro, Juan Jose; Franke, Jörg; Brönnimann, Stefan; Cattin, Réne

    2016-04-01

    validate the model performance during a larger number of events. Compo, G. P., J. S. Whitaker, P. D. Sardeshmukh, N. Matsui, R. J. Allan, X. Yin,B. E. Gleason, R. S. Vose, G. Rutledge, P. Bessemoulin, S. Bronnimann, M. Brunet, R. I. Crouthamel, A. N. Grant, P. Y. Groisman, P. D. Jones, M. C. Kruk, A. C. Kruger, G. J. Marshall, M. Maugeri, H. Y. Mok, O. Nordli, T. F. Ross, R. M. Trigo, X. L. Wang, S. D. Woodruff, S. J. Worley, 2011: The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly J. Roy. Met. Soc., 137, 1-28, DOI: 10.1002/qj.776. Hohenegger, C., Walser, A., Langhans, H. and Schär, C., 2008, Cloud-resolving ensemble simulations of the August 2005 Alpine flood, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 2008, DOI: 10.1002/qj.252 Stucki, P., Rickli, R., Brönnimann, S., Martius, O., Wanner, H., Grebner, D. and Luterbacher, J., 2012, Weather patterns and hydro-climatological precursors of extreme floods in Switzerland since 1868, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 21, No. 6, 531-550.

  14. Reassessing the impacts and the atmospheric circulation of the large storms over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varino, F.; Trigo, R. M.; Zêzere, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    level pressure fields. Additionally a number of other fields were computed and shown in common graphics, namely precipitation rate and CAPE, wind speed and wind divergence at 250 hPa and at 850 hPa geopotential height levels, air temperature at 850 hPa and geopotential height at 500h Pa and finally wind speed barbs and specific moisture content. Compo G. P., Whitaker J.S., Sardeshmukh P.D., Matsui N., Allan R.J., Yin X., Gleason E., J.r., Vose R. S., Rutledge G., Bessemoulin P., Brönnimann S., Brunet M., Crouthamel R.I., Grant A.N., Groisman P. Y., Jones P. D., Kruk M. C., Kruger A.C., Marshall G. J., Maugeri M., Mok H. Y., Nordlki, Ross T.F., Trigo R. M., Wang X. L., Woodruff S. D., Worley S. J. (2011). The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137(654), 1-28. doi:10.1002/qj.776

  15. Atmospheric circulation leading to record breaking precipitation and floods in southern Iberia in December 1876

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, R. M.; Varino, F.; Vaquero, J.; Valente, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    exception of events in February 2008 in the Lisbon precipitation (Fragoso et al., 2010) and October 1944 in Évora (in both cases for daily precipitation only). Compo G. P., Whitaker J.S., Sardeshmukh P.D., Matsui N., Allan R.J., Yin X., Gleason E., J.r., Vose R. S., Rutledge G., Bessemoulin P., Brönnimann S., Brunet M., Crouthamel R.I., Grant A.N., Groisman P. Y., Jones P. D., Kruk M. C., Kruger A.C., Marshall G. J., Maugeri M., Mok H. Y., Nordlki, Ross T.F., Trigo R. M., Wang X. L., Woodruff S. D., Worley S. J. (2011). The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137(654), 1-28. doi:10.1002/qj.776 Fragoso, M., Trigo, R. M., Zêzere, J. L., & Valente, M. A. (2010). The exceptional rainfall event in Lisbon on 18 February 2008. Weather, 65(2), 31-35. doi:10.1002/wea.513

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of gel containing novel elastic niosomes entrapped with diclofenac diethylammonium.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, A; Jantrawut, P; Manosroi, J

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel elastic bilayer vesicle entrapped with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), diclofenac diethylammonium (DCFD) for topical use. Eighteen bilayer vesicular formulations composing of DPPC or Tween 61 or Span 60 mixed with cholesterol (at 1:1, 3:7 and 1:1 molar ratios, respectively) and ethanol at 0-25% (v/v), by chloroform film method with sonication were developed. The elastic Tween 61 niosomes which gave no sedimentation, no layer separation, unchanged particle sizes (about 200 nm) were selected to entrap DCFD. The entrapment efficiency of the drug in the conventional and elastic Tween 61 niosomes was 65 and 93%, respectively. At least 87% of DCFD determined by HPLC remained in elastic Tween 61 niosomes when kept at 4, 27 and 45 degrees C for 3 months. The deformability index values of the elastic niosomes were 13.76 and 3.44 times higher than the conventional niosomes entrapped and not entrapped with the drug, respectively, indicating the higher flexibility of the elastic vesicle especially, when entrapped with the drug. Transdermal absorption through excised rat skin was performed by vertical Franz diffusion cell at 32+/-2 degrees C for 6h. Gel containing elastic niosomes exhibited fluxes of DCFD in the stratum corneum (SC), deeper skin layer (viable epidermis and dermis, VED) and receiver chamber at 191.27+/-9.52, 16.97+/-2.77 and 3.76+/-0.54 microg/(cm2 h), whereas the commercial emulgel, containing an equivalent DCFD, gave 60.84+/-13.63, 7.33+/-1.70 and 0.14+/-0.01 microg/(cm2 h), respectively. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP)-induced rat ear edema (n=3). DCFD entrapped in the developed elastic niosomes and incorporated in gel gave the same ear edema inhibition percentages of 23.81% at 30 min, but 2 and 9 times more inhibition percentages at 45 and 60 min than the commercial emulgel, respectively. This result has not only demonstrated the

  17. Forcing of stratospheric chemistry and dynamics during the Dalton Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anet, J. G.; Muthers, S.; Rozanov, E.; Raible, C. C.; Peter, T.; Stenke, A.; Shapiro, A. I.; Beer, J.; Steinhilber, F.; Brönnimann, S.; Arfeuille, F.; Brugnara, Y.; Schmutz, W.

    2013-06-01

    especially UV and volcanic eruptions dominate the changes in the ozone, temperature and dynamics while the NOx field is dominated by the EPP. Visible radiation changes have only very minor effects on both stratospheric dynamics and chemistry.

  18. Lagged correlation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curme, Chester

    Technological advances have provided scientists with large high-dimensional datasets that describe the behaviors of complex systems: from the statistics of energy levels in complex quantum systems, to the time-dependent transcription of genes, to price fluctuations among assets in a financial market. In this environment, where it may be difficult to infer the joint distribution of the data, network science has flourished as a way to gain insight into the structure and organization of such systems by focusing on pairwise interactions. This work focuses on a particular setting, in which a system is described by multivariate time series data. We consider time-lagged correlations among elements in this system, in such a way that the measured interactions among elements are asymmetric. Finally, we allow these interactions to be characteristically weak, so that statistical uncertainties may be important to consider when inferring the structure of the system. We introduce a methodology for constructing statistically validated networks to describe such a system, extend the methodology to accommodate interactions with a periodic component, and show how consideration of bipartite community structures in these networks can aid in the construction of robust statistical models. An example of such a system is a financial market, in which high frequency returns data may be used to describe contagion, or the spreading of shocks in price among assets. These data provide the experimental testing ground for our methodology. We study NYSE data from both the present day and one decade ago, examine the time scales over which the validated lagged correlation networks exist, and relate differences in the topological properties of the networks to an increasing economic efficiency. We uncover daily periodicities in the validated interactions, and relate our findings to explanations of the Epps Effect, an empirical phenomenon of financial time series. We also study bipartite community

  19. Application of CCD array digital fiber optic spectrometers in determination of within-tree and within-canopy irradiances of UV-B radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beneski, Erin; Bassman, John H.; Slusser, James R.; Gao, Wei

    2005-08-01

    Although our understanding of the effects of UV-B radiation on annual and crop plants has improved considerably over the past three decades, knowledge of effects on perennial plants, particularly trees, remains much more limited. Understanding the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on forest trees has been hampered by an inability to develop realistic dose-response relationships, which in turn, has resulted from lack of instrumentation sufficient to accurately determine biologically effective UV irradiances within the canopy. Traditional spectroradiometers equipped with spherical domes have sensor heads that are too large to make within-canopy measurements, especially at individual leaf locations or other small targets. Broad-band sensors, which are smaller, lack the wavelength discrimination necessary to calculate biological effective UV-B radiation. Measurement of UV radiation above a plant canopy provides little information about the radiation environment of individual leaves within the canopy. This is important because whole plant response to UV-radiation is an integrated response of all of the leaves, though obviously not all leaves contribute equally. Within leaves, stress stimuli may induce compensatory responses in unaffected portions of the same leaf, in other adjacent leaves, and even in remote leaves. It is not known if this is true for W radiation; the only way of finding out is to have a probe small enough to measure diminutive and precise locations within the canopy. In this study a StellarNet EPP2000C spectrometer equipped with a 400 μm optical fiber and Teflon diffuser was used to determine solar UV-B irradiances above and within the canopy of representative forest trees. Data was collected at different times during the day, for equivalent leaf and canopy positions in several representative trees. Data collected in the open and below-canopy positions are compared with an Optronics OL-754 spectroradiometer and data obtained at the USDA UVB

  20. Epimedium polysaccharide and propolis flavone can synergistically inhibit the cellular infectivity of NDV and improve the curative effect of ND in chicken.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunpeng; Liu, Jiaguo; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Yang, Shujuan; Wang, Junmin; Guo, Liwei; Zhao, Xiaona; Wang, Huali; Jiang, Yu

    2011-04-01

    Four prescriptions, epimedium flavone plus propolis flavone (EF-PF), epimedium flavone plus propolis extracts (EF-PE), epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis flavone (EP-PF) and epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis extracts (EP-PE), were prepared and their antiviral effects were compared. In test in vitro, the four prescriptions within safety concentration scope and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were added into cultured chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) in three modes, pre-, post-adding drug and simultaneous-adding drug and virus after being mixed, the cellular A(570) values were determined by MTT method and the highest virus inhibitory rates were calculated to compare the antiviral activity of four prescriptions. In test in vivo, three hundred 21-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 6 groups and challenged with NDV except for blank control group. After 24h the chickens in four prescription groups were injected with corresponding drugs respectively, in virus control and blank control groups, with physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On days 3, 7 and 14 after challenge, the serum antibody titer was determined. On day 15 after challenge, the mortality, morbidity and cure rate in every group were counted. The results showed that the most of A(570) values in EP-PF group were numberly or significantly larger than those of the corresponding virus control group and the highest virus inhibitory rates of EP-PF at optimal concentration group were the highest among four prescription groups in three drug-adding modes, which confirmed that EP-PF could significantly inhibit the infectivity of NDV to CEF, its action was stronger than those of other three prescriptions; in EP-PF group, the antibody titers and cure rate were the highest and the mortality and morbidity were lowest presenting numberly or significantly differences in comparison with other three prescription groups. These results indicated that epimedium polysaccharide and propolis flavone