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Sample records for epsilon indi ba

  1. The Properties of the local Interstellar Medium and the Interaction of the Stellar Winds of epsilon Indi and lambda Andromedae with the Interstellar Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Alexander, William R.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    We present new observations of the Ly alpha lines of Epsilon Indi (K5 5) and A Andromedae (G8 4-3 + ?) These data were obtained by the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Analysis of the interstellar H 1 and D 1 absorption lines reveals that the velocities and temperatures inferred from the H 1 lines are inconsistent with the parameters inferred from the D 1 lines, unless the H 1 absorption is assumed to be produced by two absorption components. One absorption component is produced by interstellar material. For both lines of sight observed, the velocity of this component is consistent with the velocity predicted by the local flow vector. For the Epsilon Indi data, the large velocity separation between the stellar emission and the interstellar absorption allows us to measure the H 1 column density independent of the shape of the intrinsic stellar Ly alpha profile. This approach permits us to quote an accurate column density and to assess its uncertainty with far more confidence than in previous analyses, for which the errors were dominated by uncertainties in the assumed stellar profiles.

  2. K-H2 quasi-molecular absorption detected in the T-dwarf \\varepsilon Indi Ba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, F.; Allard, N. F.; Homeier, D.; Kielkopf, J.; McCaughrean, M. J.; Spiegelman, F.

    2007-11-01

    Context: T-type dwarfs present a broad and shallow absorption feature centred around 6950 Å in the blue wing of the K doublet at 0.77 μm which resembles in depth and shape the satellite absorption predicted by detailed collisional broadening profiles. In our previous work, the position of the predicted line satellite was however somewhat too blue compared to the observed feature. Aims: In this paper, we investigate whether new calculations of the energy surfaces of the potentials in the K-H2 system, including spin-orbit coupling, result in a closer coincidence of the satellite with the observed position. We also investigate the extent to which CaH absorption bands contribute to the feature and at what T_eff these respective opacity sources predominate. Methods: We present model atmospheres and synthetic spectra, including gravitational settling for an improved description of depth-dependent abundances of refractory elements, and based on new K-H2 line profiles using improved interaction potentials. Results: By comparison with a high signal-to-noise optical spectrum of the T1 dwarf \\varepsilon Indi Ba, we find that these new models do reproduce the observed feature, while CaH does not contribute for the atmospheric parameters considered. We also find that CaH is settled out so deep into the atmosphere that even turbulent vertical mixing would appear insufficient to bring significant amounts of CaH to the observable photosphere in dwarfs of later type than L5. Conclusions: We conclude that previous identification of the feature at this location in the spectra of T dwarfs as well as the latest L dwarfs with CaH was erroneous, as expected on physical grounds: calcium has already condensed onto grains in early L dwarfs and thus should have settled out of the photosphere in cooler brown dwarfs. This finding revokes one of the observational verifications for the cloud-clearing theory assumption: a gradual clearing of the cloud cover in early T dwarfs.

  3. Crystal structures and magnetic order of La{sub 0.5+{delta}} A{sub 0.5-{delta}}Mn{sub 0.5+{epsilon}}Ru{sub 0.5-{epsilon}}O{sub 3} (A=Ca,Sr,Ba): Possible orbital glass ferromagnetic state

    SciTech Connect

    Granado, E.; Huang, Q.; Lynn, J. W.; Gopalakrishnan, J.; Ramesha, K.

    2004-12-01

    The crystallographic and magnetic properties of La{sub 0.5+{delta}}A{sub 0.5-{delta}}Mn{sub 0.5+{epsilon}}Ru{sub 0.5-{epsilon}}O{sub 3}= (A=Ca,Sr,Ba) were investigated by means of neutron powder diffraction. All studied samples show the orthorhombic perovskite crystal structure, space group Pnma, with regular (Mn,Ru)O{sub 6} octahedra and no chemical ordering of the Mn{sup 3+} and Ru{sup 4+} ions. Ferromagnetic spin structures were observed below T{sub c}{approx}200-250 K, with an average ordered moment of {approx}1.8-2.0{mu}{sub B}/(Mn,Ru). The observation of long-range ferromagnetism and the absence of orbital ordering are rationalized in terms of a strong Mn-Ru hybridization, which may freeze the orbital degree of freedom and broaden the e{sub g} valence band, leading to an orbital glass state with carrier-mediated ferromagnetism.

  4. Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Rebecca; Price, A.; Henden, A.

    2009-05-01

    The IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists is planning a multi-year project involving the bright star Eps Aur. The project will go beyond simple observing and also include a major data analysis component. The goal is to introduce the participant to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. It begins with a 10 Star Training Program of several types of binary and transient variable stars that are easy to observe from suburban locations with the naked eye. Participants will be trained both in observing and also in basic data analysis of photometric datasets (light curve and period analysis). Eventually it will lead to a capstone project: monitoring the rare and mysterious 2009-2011 eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae. In the summer of IYA 2009, third-magnitude Eps Aur will experience its next eclipse, which occurs every 27.1 years and lasts 714 days, nearly two years. The star is bright enough to be seen with the naked eye from most urban areas. If fully funded, the project will also involve two public workshops on observing and data analysis in the summers of 2009 and 2010, respectively.

  5. epsilon-Hexachlorocyclohexane (epsilon-HC)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    epsilon - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( epsilon - HC ) ; CASRN 6108 - 10 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard

  6. How to measure epsilon'/epsilon with lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1987-04-01

    A pedagogical discussion is given of a lattice calculation of epsilon'. The method is outlined, and preliminary results are presented. They suggest that epsilon'/epsilon may be reduced from previous estimates by 60-70%.

  7. The epsilon dataflow processor

    SciTech Connect

    Grafe, V.G.; Davidson, G.S.; Hoch, J.E.; Holmes, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    The epsilon dataflow architecture is designed for high speed uniprocessor execution as well as for parallel processing. The epsilon architecture directly matches ready operands, thus eliminating the need for associative matching stores. epsilon also supports low cost data fan out and critical sections. A 10 MFLOPS CMOS/TTL processor prototype is running and its performance has been measured with several benchmarks. The prototype processor has demonstrated sustained performance exceeding that of comparable control flow processors running at higher clock rates (three times faster than a 20 MHz transputer and 24 times faster than a Sun on a suite of arithmetic tests, for example). 22 refs., 16 figs.

  8. The EPSILON-2 multiprocessor system

    SciTech Connect

    Grafe, V.G.; Hoch, J.E. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports on Epsilon-2 which is a general purpose parallel computer architecture that addresses the twin goals of high performance and programmability. Epsilon-2 implements a hybrid computation model that combines the fine-grain parallelism of dataflow computing with the sequential efficiency characteristic of von Neumann computing. It provides instruction-level synchronization, single-cycle context switches, and RISC-like sequential execution. The general parallel computing model and the architecture of Epsilon-2 are described. A sample code is also presented to illustrate Epsilon-2's operation.

  9. Quark masses, B-parameters, and CP violation parameters {epsilon} and {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.

    1998-01-20

    After a brief introduction to lattice QCD, the author summarizes the results for the light quark masses and the bag parameters B{sub K}, B{sub 6}{sup 1/2}, and B{sub 8}{sup 3/2}. The implications of these results for the standard model estimates of CP violation parameters {epsilon} and {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon} are also discussed.

  10. Electronic Health Records Place 1st at Indy 500

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues EHR Electronic Health Records Place 1st at Indy 500 Past ... last May's Indy 500 had thousands of personal Electronic Health Records on hand for those attending—and ...

  11. Eclipse of epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2009-07-01

    The bright, long-period, eclipsing binary star epsilon Aurigae is predicted to begin its next eclipse late July or early August of 2009. Epsilon Aurigae is now past solar conjunction and has reappeared as a morning object. All observers -- both visual and instrumental -- are encouraged to contribute observations of the eclipse during the next two years, beginning immediately for morning observers. Observations are urgently requested right now because it is less likely to be observed in the morning, and the eclipse will begin within the next month. The AAVSO is participating in a global campaign to record this eclipse as part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 celebrations, organized by the Citizen Sky project (http://www.citizensky.org). For experienced visual observers, please observe this star on a weekly basis, using charts available via VSP from the AAVSO website. For novice visual observers, we recommend participating in this observing program by following the Citizen Sky 10-Star tutorial program, which provides a simple training experience in variable star observing. Photoelectric observers belonging to the AAVSO PEP-V program may submit data as usual via the WebObs feature of the AAVSO website Blue&Gold section. Photoelectric observers may also contribute reduced observations in all filters (including infrared J- and H-bands) directly to the AAVSO via WebObs. Observers using wide-field CCD and DSLR systems are also encouraged to participate; avoid saturating the star. For those with narrower-field systems (D < 2 degrees), we recommend taking a large number (10-100) of very short exposures and then stacking the resulting images. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. Aaron Price is coordinating Citizen Sky for the AAVSO, and Dr. Robert Stencel and Jeffrey Hopkins are co-leading the precision photometry efforts.

  12. Natural Hazards within the West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the vulnerability of the West Indies to various natural hazards, especially hurricanes, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Reviews the geologic and meteorologic causes and consequences of the hazards. Suggests methods of incorporating hazards information in geography classes. Includes maps and a hurricane tracking chart. (DK)

  13. The role of INDY in metabolism, health and longevity

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Ryan P.; Rogina, Blanka

    2015-01-01

    Indy (I’m Not Dead Yet) encodes the fly homolog of a mammalian SLC13A5 plasma membrane transporter. INDY is expressed in metabolically active tissues functioning as a transporter of Krebs cycle intermediates with the highest affinity for citrate. Decreased expression of the Indy gene extends longevity in Drosophila and C. elegans. Reduction of INDY or its respective homologs in C. elegans and mice induces metabolic and physiological changes similar to those observed in calorie restriction. It is thought that these physiological changes are due to altered levels of cytoplasmic citrate, which directly impacts Krebs cycle energy production as a result of shifts in substrate availability. Citrate cleavage is a key event during lipid and glucose metabolism; thus, reduction of citrate due to Indy reduction alters these processes. With regards to mammals, mice with reduced Indy (mIndy–/–) also exhibit changes in glucose metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis and are protected from the negative effects of a high calorie diet. Together, these data support a role for Indy as a metabolic regulator, which suggests INDY as a therapeutic target for treatment of diet and age-related disorders such as Type II Diabetes and obesity. PMID:26106407

  14. Middle Passage in the Triangular Slave Trade: The West Indies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawh, Ruth; Scales, Alice M.

    2006-01-01

    Our narrative focuses on the middle passage of the slave trade in the West Indies. Herein we describe why more men, women, and children were imported in the West Indies than other islands. Specifically, our aim was to address how slaves in the middle passage of the triangular slave trade were treated, how they sustained themselves, and how they…

  15. The EPSILON-2 hybrid dataflow architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Grafe, V.G.; Hoch, J.E.

    1989-11-08

    EPSILON-2 is a general parallel computer architecture that combines the fine grain parallelism of dataflow computing with the sequential efficiency common to von Neumann computing. Instruction level synchronization, single cycle context switches, and RISC-like sequential efficiency are all supported in EPSILON-2. The general parallel computing model of EPSILON-2 is described, followed by a description of the processing element architecture. A sample code is presented in detail, and the progress of the physical implementation discussed. 11 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Motility in the epsilon-proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Beeby, Morgan

    2015-12-01

    The epsilon-proteobacteria are a widespread group of flagellated bacteria frequently associated with either animal digestive tracts or hydrothermal vents, with well-studied examples in the human pathogens of Helicobacter and Campylobacter genera. Flagellated motility is important to both pathogens and hydrothermal vent members, and a number of curious differences between the epsilon-proteobacterial and enteric bacterial motility paradigms make them worthy of further study. The epsilon-proteobacteria have evolved to swim at high speed and through viscous media that immobilize enterics, a phenotype that may be accounted for by the molecular architecture of the unusually large epsilon-proteobacterial flagellar motor. This review summarizes what is known about epsilon-proteobacterial motility and focuses on a number of recent discoveries that rationalize the differences with enteric flagellar motility. PMID:26590774

  17. The nucleotide sequence of the mouse immunoglobulin epsilon gene: comparison with the human epsilon gene sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, N; Ueda, S; Hayashida, H; Miyata, T; Honjo, T

    1982-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the immunoglobulin epsilon gene cloned from newborn mouse DNA. The epsilon gene sequence allows prediction of the amino acid sequence of the constant region of the epsilon chain and comparison of it with sequences of the human epsilon and other mouse immunoglobulin genes. The epsilon gene was shown to be under the weakest selection pressure at the protein level among the immunoglobulin genes although the divergence at the synonymous position is similar. Our results suggest that the epsilon gene may be dispensable, which is in accord with the fact that IgE has only obscure roles in the immune defense system but has an undesirable role as a mediator of hypersensitivity. The sequence data suggest that the human and murine epsilon genes were derived from different ancestors duplicated a long time ago. The amino acid sequence of the epsilon chain is more homologous to those of the gamma chains than the other mouse heavy chains. Two membrane exons, separated by an 80-base intron, were identified 1.7 kb 3' to the CH4 domain of the epsilon gene and shown to conserve a hydrophobic portion similar to those of other heavy chain genes. RNA blot hybridization showed that the epsilon membrane exons are transcribed into two species of mRNA in an IgE hybridoma. Images Fig. 4. PMID:6329728

  18. The search for companions to Epsilon Eridani.

    PubMed

    Lawton, A T; Wright, P

    1990-12-01

    The authors review efforts to examine the star Epsilon Eridani and determine the possibility for the existence of an Earth-like planet. Early data indicated that there must be a habitable ecosphere about 82.5 million Km from the primary. Research into the existence of another planetary system determined that Epsilon Eridani was a binary star with an Oort cloud system, indicating the possibility of planet formation. A review of the evidence suggests that the presence of the small red Dwarf companion star precludes the existence of a planetary system surrounding Epsilon Eridani. It is suggested that observations continue to provide further data about the formation of binary systems. PMID:11540498

  19. Systematic effects of the quenched approximation on the strong penguin contribution to epsilon-prime / epsilon

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, C.; Christ, N.H.; Dawson, C.; Laiho, J.W.; Noaki, J.; Li, S.; Soni, A.; /Brookhaven

    2006-03-01

    We discuss the implementation and properties of the quenched approximation in the calculation of the left-right, strong penguin contributions (i.e. Q{sub 6}) to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}. The coefficient of the new chiral logarithm, discovered by Golterman and Pallante, which appears at leading order in quenched chiral perturbation theory is evaluated using both the method proposed by those authors and by an improved approach which is free of power divergent corrections. The result implies a large quenching artifact in the contribution of Q{sub 6} to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}. This failure of the quenched approximation affects only the strong penguin operators and so does not affect the Q8 contribution to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon} nor ReA{sub 0}, ReAP{sub 2} and thus, the {Delta}I = 1/2 rule at tree level in chiral perturbation theory.

  20. Systematic effects of the quenched approximation on the strong penguin contribution to {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon}

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, C.; Christ, N. H.; Li, S.; Dawson, C.; Noaki, J.; Laiho, J. W.; Soni, A.

    2006-08-01

    We discuss the implementation and properties of the quenched approximation in the calculation of the left-right, strong penguin contributions (i.e. Q{sub 6}) to {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon}. The coefficient of the new chiral logarithm, discovered by Golterman and Pallante, which appears at leading order in quenched chiral perturbation theory is evaluated using both the method proposed by those authors and by an improved approach which is free of power divergent corrections. The result implies a large quenching artifact in the contribution of Q{sub 6} to {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon}. This failure of the quenched approximation affects only the strong penguin operators and so does not affect the Q{sub 8} contribution to {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon} nor ReA{sub 0}, ReA{sub 2} and thus, the {delta}I=1/2 rule at tree level in chiral perturbation theory.

  1. Epsilon Aurigae Eclipse 2009 - Ingress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L.; Stencel, Robert E.; Leadbeater, Robin; Beckmann, Paul J.; Buil, Christian; Collins, Donald; Colombo, Tiziano; Garrel, Thierry; Gorodenski, Stanley; Gudmundsson, Snaevarr; Karlsson, Mukund Kurtadikar; Lindberg, Hans-Goran; Loughney, Des; Mauclaire, Benji; McCandless, Brian E.; Melillo, Frank J.; Miles, Richard; Pearson, Robert T.; Samolyk, Gerard; Schanne, Lothar; Strikis, Iakovos Marios; Teyssier, François; Thizy, Olivier

    The mysterious star system epsilon Aurigae undergoes an eclipse every 27.1 years that lasts nearly two years. The most recent eclipse started during the late summer of 2009. An international campaign for observing this eclipse was created in 2006, with a web site for information and, to-date, 17 periodic newsletters for details, as well as a Yahoo forum List for immediate announcements and comments. Photometric data in the UBVRIJH bands have been submitted. Ingress occurred with first contact in the V band estimated at the second week of 2009 August and second contact estimated at 2010 mid-January. Spectroscopic data were also obtained during ingress. Spectroscopic data have been provided in the potassium I region, hydrogen alpha and beta regions and sodium D line region of the star system's spectrum. In this paper we describe details of observations and preliminary analysis during ingress and second contact. We introduce the observers and discuss plans for observing throughout totality and the end of the eclipse in 2011.

  2. University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment (UWIDITE). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Gerald C.; Marrett, Christine

    Since March 1983, the University of the West Indies has been conducting a distance teaching experiment that links its three campuses and the Extra Mural Centres in Antigua, Dominica, and St. Lucia by telecommunications. The network is used for interactive distance teaching and other types of teleconferences. A variety of modern audio and video…

  3. Making data sharing work: The FCP/INDI experience

    PubMed Central

    Mennes, Maarten; Biswal, Bharat; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the fMRI Data Center (fMRIDC) pioneered open-access data sharing in the task-based functional neuroimaging community. Well ahead of its time, the fMRIDC effort encountered logistical, sociocultural and funding barriers that impeded the field-wise instantiation of open-access data sharing. In 2009, ambitions for open-access data sharing were revived in the resting state functional MRI community in the form of two grassroots initiatives: the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project (FCP) and its successor, the International Neuroimaging Datasharing Initiative (INDI). Beyond providing open access to thousands of clinical and non-clinical imaging datasets, the FCP and INDI have also demonstrated the feasibility of large-scale data aggregation for hypothesis generation and testing. Yet, the success of the FCP and INDI should not be confused with widespread embracement of open-access data sharing. Reminiscent of the challenges faced by fMRIDC, key controversies persist and include participant privacy, the role of informatics, and the logistical and cultural challenges of establishing an open science ethos. We discuss the FCP and INDI in the context of these challenges, highlighting the promise of current initiatives and suggesting solutions for possible pitfalls. PMID:23123682

  4. Increased mitochondrial biogenesis preserves intestinal stem cell homeostasis and contributes to longevity in Indy mutant flies

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Ryan P.; Rogina, Blanka

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila Indy (I'm Not Dead Yet) gene encodes a plasma membrane transporter of Krebs cycle intermediates, with robust expression in tissues associated with metabolism. Reduced INDY alters metabolism and extends longevity in a manner similar to caloric restriction (CR); however, little is known about the tissue specific physiological effects of INDY reduction. Here we focused on the effects of INDY reduction in the Drosophila midgut due to the importance of intestinal tissue homeostasis in healthy aging and longevity. The expression of Indy mRNA in the midgut changes in response to aging and nutrition. Genetic reduction of Indy expression increases midgut expression of the mitochondrial regulator spargel/dPGC-1, which is accompanied by increased mitochondrial biogenesis and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS). These physiological changes in the Indy mutant midgut preserve intestinal stem cell (ISC) homeostasis and are associated with healthy aging. Genetic studies confirm that dPGC-1 mediates the regulatory effects of INDY, as illustrated by lack of longevity extension and ISC homeostasis in flies with mutations in both Indy and dPGC1. Our data suggest INDY may be a physiological regulator that modulates intermediary metabolism in response to changes in nutrient availability and organismal needs by modulating dPGC-1 PMID:24827528

  5. No Influence of Indy on Lifespan in Drosophila after Correction for Genetic and Cytoplasmic Background Effects

    PubMed Central

    Toivonen, Janne M; Walker, Glenda A; Martinez-Diaz, Pedro; Bjedov, Ivana; Driege, Yasmine; Jacobs, Howard T; Gems, David; Partridge, Linda

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether alterations in mitochondrial metabolism affect longevity in Drosophila melanogaster, we studied lifespan in various single gene mutants, using inbred and outbred genetic backgrounds. As positive controls we included the two most intensively studied mutants of Indy, which encodes a Drosophila Krebs cycle intermediate transporter. It has been reported that flies heterozygous for these Indy mutations, which lie outside the coding region, show almost a doubling of lifespan. We report that only one of the two mutants lowers mRNA levels, implying that the lifespan extension observed is not attributable to the Indy mutations themselves. Moreover, neither Indy mutation extended lifespan in female flies in any genetic background tested. In the original genetic background, only the Indy mutation associated with altered RNA expression extended lifespan in male flies. However, this effect was abolished by backcrossing into standard outbred genetic backgrounds, and was associated with an unidentified locus on the X chromosome. The original Indy line with long-lived males is infected by the cytoplasmic symbiont Wolbachia, and the longevity of Indy males disappeared after tetracycline clearance of this endosymbiont. These findings underscore the critical importance of standardisation of genetic background and of cytoplasm in genetic studies of lifespan, and show that the lifespan extension previously claimed for Indy mutants was entirely attributable to confounding variation from these two sources. In addition, we saw no effects on lifespan of expression knockdown of the Indy orthologues nac-2 and nac-3 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:17571923

  6. The University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Project. Report to the Advisory Council. ACEP 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Gerald C.

    The three papers in this report relate to the development and activities of the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Project (UWIDITE), through which the University of the West Indies (UWI) is continuing experiments on the use of telecommunications to extend its regional services. A report to the advisory council, the first paper,…

  7. 9 CFR 93.423 - Ruminants from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ruminants from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Central America and West Indies 9 § 93.423 Ruminants from Central America and the West Indies. (a) Ruminants intended...

  8. 9 CFR 93.423 - Ruminants from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ruminants from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Central America and West Indies 9 § 93.423 Ruminants from Central America and the West Indies. (a) Ruminants intended...

  9. 9 CFR 93.423 - Ruminants from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ruminants from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Central America and West Indies 9 § 93.423 Ruminants from Central America and the West Indies. (a) Ruminants intended...

  10. 9 CFR 93.423 - Ruminants from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ruminants from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Central America and West Indies 9 § 93.423 Ruminants from Central America and the West Indies. (a) Ruminants intended...

  11. 9 CFR 93.423 - Ruminants from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ruminants from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Central America and West Indies 9 § 93.423 Ruminants from Central America and the West Indies. (a) Ruminants intended...

  12. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  13. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  14. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  15. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  16. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  17. Chlordecone exposure and adverse effects in French West Indies populations.

    PubMed

    Multigner, Luc; Kadhel, Philippe; Rouget, Florence; Blanchet, Pascal; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2016-01-01

    Chlordecone (Kepone) is an organochlorine insecticide that has been used as insecticide and fungicide. In the French West Indies, Guadeloupe and Martinique, it was intensively applied to banana fields from 1973 to 1993 to control root borers. This pesticide undergoes no significant biotic or abiotic degradation in the environment and is still present in soils where it was applied. It was only in 1999 that health and environmental authorities became aware of the extent of the chlordecone pollution of environmental media, including soils, waterways, and the food chain. Earlier observations and toxicological studies have demonstrated that chlordecone is a reproductive and developmental toxicant, neurotoxic and carcinogenic in rodents, and is an endocrine-disrupting chemical because of its estrogenic properties both in vitro and in vivo. Several surveys have confirmed that the French West Indian population continues to be exposed to this chemical though consumption of contaminated foodstuffs. Here, we report the findings of various epidemiological studies conducted in the French West Indies to assess the impact of environmental exposure to chlordecone on the health of the population. PMID:25940496

  18. epsilon3epsilon4 genotype as risk factor of myocardial infarction in middle-aged people in Spain.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Carmen; Maicas, Carolina; Grande, Rosario; Benavente, Mercedes; Viturro, Enrique; Cano, Beatriz; López, Dolores; de Oya, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in lipid metabolism. Its epsilon4 allele has been consistently associated with lipoprotein disorders but its connection to myocardial infarction (MI) is controversial. Because epsilon4 frequency decreases with age we thought that the contradictory results in different studies could be due to the wide age range of the subjects included. To test our hypothesis, ApoE genotyping was performed in 474 MI cases and an analysis was performed by percentiles of age. The frequencies of epsilon3epsilon4 genotype and epsilon4 allele in the MI group as a whole (subjects aged 31 to 92) were not significantly different from those in our area general population. However, significant differences were observed when comparing by group of age. The frequencies decreased as age increased. The epsilon3epsilon4 and epsilon4 frequencies were significantly higher in MI subjects aged 31 to 56 than in subjects over 74. The epsilon3epsilon4 genotype prevalence in an age and sex matched control group of subjects aged 31 to 56 was significantly lower than in the 31-56 year-old MI group. In conclusion, our data shows different epsilon3epsilon4 and epsilon4 frequencies depending on the age range of the subjects with MI, being significantly higher in the middle-aged group. This finding may help explain the discrepancies between studies analyzing association between apoE genotype and MI, and emphasizes the idea of considering apoE genotype for prevention at early age. PMID:16276010

  19. Epsilon Aur monitoring during predicted pulsation phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.; Templeton, Matthew R.

    2014-09-01

    Dr. Robert Stencel (University of Denver Astronomy Program) has requested that AAVSO observers monitor epsilon Aurigae from now through the end of the observing season. "Studies of the long-term, out-of-eclipse photometry of this enigmatic binary suggest that intervals of coherent pulsation occur at roughly 1/3 of the 27.1-year orbital period. Kloppenborg, et al. noted that stable variation patterns develop at 3,200-day intervals' implying that 'the next span of dates when such events might happen are circa JD ~2457000 (2014 December)'. "These out-of-eclipse light variations often have amplitudes of ~0.1 magnitude in U, and ~0.05 in V, with characteristic timescales of 60-100 days. The AAVSO light curve data to the present may indicate that this coherent phenomenon has begun, but we encourage renewed efforts by observers...to help deduce whether these events are internal to the F star, or externally-driven by tidal interaction with the companion star." Nightly observations or one observation every few days (CCD/PEP/DSLR, VUBR (amplitude too small for visual)) are requested. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. Epsilon Aur was the subject of major international campaigns and the AAVSO's Citizen Sky project as it went through its 27.1-year eclipse in 2009-2011. Over 700 observers worldwide submitted over 20,000 multicolor observations to the AAVSO International Database for this project. Much information on eps Aur is available from the AAVSO, including material on the Citizen Sky website (http://www.aavso.org/epsilon-aurigae and http://www.citizensky.org/content/star-our-project). The Journal of the AAVSO, Volume 40, No. 2 (2012) was devoted to discussion of and research results from this event. See full Alert Notice for more details and observations.

  20. Classical closure theory and Lam's interpretation of epsilon-RNG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    Lam's phenomenological epsilon-renormalization group (RNG) model is quite different from the other members of that group. It does not make use of the correspondence principle and the epsilon-expansion procedure. We demonstrate that Lam's epsilon-RNG model is essentially the physical space version of the classical closure theory in spectral space and consider the corresponding treatment of the eddy viscosity and energy backscatter.

  1. Revealing the Hot Side of Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, Donald; Stencel, Robert; Howell, Steve

    2012-12-01

    We request a small investment of 24 minutes of Spitzer time, to obtain four IRAC observations of epsilon Aurigae. A naked eye object located near Capella, epsilon Aurigae is the eclipsing binary star with the longest known orbital period, showing a single long duration (~2 yr) eclipse every 27.1 yr. For much of the last 200 years, the nature of the eclipsing object defied explanation. We recently demonstrated that epsilon Aurigae consists of a high luminosity F0 post-AGB star in orbit with a B5 V star surrounded by a solar system sized (~8 AU diameter) disk of cool, dust-dominated material. The eclipse of epsilon Aurigae is a rare event; moreover, it is a unique astrophysical opportunity, since the backlighting of the disk by the high luminosity eclipsed star reveals details that cannot be detected in similar dusty disks around single stars. The current eclipse started in August 2009 and ended in July 2011; we are now in the post-eclipse phase, when the irradiation-heated side of the disk will begin rotating into view. The goals for these observations include: (1) extend our ongoing IRAC monitoring campaign covering the current eclipse to post-eclipse visits; (2) provide a consistent, well-calibrated space-based set of IR photometry for comparison with ongoing ground-based work; and (3) use the composite results to constrain the thermal profile of the disk. A key expectation of these particular observations is to reveal the irradiation-heated portion of the disk, which will be visible on its trailing side following eclipse. Observations of this side of the disk will be crucial to test and constrain new models of disk structure. As part of our overall monitoring campaign with Spitzer, Hubble, Herschel, and numerous ground-based facilities, these proposed observations will make an important contribution to the understanding of stellar evolution in binary stars, including mass transfer and evolution studies, along with new insights into astrophysical disks and post

  2. Epsilon Aurigae at the End of Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, Donald; Stencel, R.; Howell, S.

    2011-05-01

    We request a small investment of 24 minutes of Spitzer time, to obtain four IRAC observations of epsilon Aurigae. A naked eye object located near Capella, epsilon Aurigae is the eclipsing binary star with the longest known orbital period, showing a single long duration (~2 yr) eclipse every 27.1 yr. For much of the last 150 years, the nature of the eclipsing object defied explanation. We recently demonstrated that epsilon Aurigae consists of a high luminosity F0 post-AGB star in orbit with a B5 V star surrounded by a solar system sized (~8 AU diameter) disk of cool, dust-dominated material. The eclipse of epsilon Aurigae is a rare event; moreover, it is a unique astrophysical opportunity, since the backlighting of the disk by the high luminosity eclipsed star reveals details that cannot be detected in similar dusty disks around single stars. The current eclipse started in August 2009 and is expected to reach its photometric conclusion in May 2011 (with the spectroscopic conclusion as late as December 2011). The goals for these observations include: (1) extend our ongoing IRAC monitoring campaign covering the current eclipse to late-phase and post-eclipse visits; (2) provide a consistent, well-calibrated space-based set of IR photometry for comparison with ongoing ground-based work; and (3) use the composite results to constrain the thermal profile of the disk. A key expectation of these particular observations is to reveal the irradiation-heated portion of the disk, which will be visible on its trailing side following eclipse. Observations of this side of the disk will be crucial to test and constrain new models of disk structure. As part of our overall monitoring campaign with Spitzer, Hubble, Herschel, and numerous ground-based facilities, these proposed observations will make an important contribution to the understanding of stellar evolution in binary stars, including mass transfer and evolution studies, along with new insights into astrophysical disks and post

  3. New atmospheric model of Epsilon Eridani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieytes, Mariela; Fontenla, Juan; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    We present a new semi-empirical model of the atmosphere of the widely studied K-dwarf Epsilon Eridani (HD 22049). The model is build to reproduce the visible spectral observations from 3800 to 6800 Angstrom and the h and k Mg II lines profiles. The computations were carried out using the Solar-Stellar Radiation Physical Modeling (SSRPM) tools, which calculate non-LTE population for the most important species in the stellar atmosphere. We show a comparison between the synthetic and observed spectrum, obtaining a good agreement in all the studied spectral range.

  4. The Final Measurement of Epsilon'/Epsilon from KTeV

    SciTech Connect

    Worcester, E.T.

    2009-10-01

    The authors present precise measurements of CP and CPT symmetry based on the full dataset of K {yields} {pi}{pi} decays collected by the KTeV experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory during 1996, 1997, and 1999. This dataset contains about 15 million K {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and 70 million K {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays. They measure the direct CP violation parameter Re({epsilon}'/{epsilon}) = (19.2 {+-} 2.1) x 10{sup -4}. they find the K{sub L}-K{sub S} mass difference {Delta}m = (5265 {+-} 10) x 10{sup 6} {bar h}s{sup -1} and the K{sub S} lifetime {tau}{sub S} = (89.62 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -12} s. They test CPT symmetry by finding the phase of the indirect CP violation parameter {epsilon}, {phi}{sub {epsilon}} = (44.09 {+-} 1.00){sup o}, and the difference of the relative phases between the CP violating and CP conserving decay amplitudes for K {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} ({phi}{sub +-}) and for K {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} ({phi}{sub 00}), {Delta}{phi} = (0.29 {+-} 0.31){sup o}. these results are consistent with other experimental results and with CPT symmetry.

  5. The psychiatrist as administrator: the career of W.F. Theunissen in the Dutch East Indies.

    PubMed

    Pols, Hans

    2012-01-01

    W. F. Theunissen (1882-1961) was a leading psychiatrist in the Dutch East Indies. He was the medical director of several large mental hospitals after which he became director of the Dutch East Indies Public Health Service. Theunissen was not known for his research into the causes of mental illness. Instead, he made his mark as an administrator greatly reducing the expenses of the Lawang mental hospital by expanding occupational therapy in new and innovative ways. His accomplishments earned him the position of director of the Indies Public Health Department, where he oversaw the decentralisation of health services and the development of public health initiatives. PMID:23066606

  6. Epsilon Metal Summary Report FY 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, Denis M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Zumhoff, Mac R.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Windisch, Charles F.; Riley, Brian J.

    2011-09-30

    The Epsilon-metal ({var_epsilon}-metal) phase was selected in FY 2009 as a potential waste form to for immobilizing the noble metals found in the undissolved solids + aqueous stream, and the soluble Tc from ion-exchange process, each resulting from proposed aqueous reprocessing. {var_epsilon}-metal phase is observed in used nuclear fuel and the natural reactors of Oklobono in Gabon, where the long-term corrosion behavior was demonstrated. This makes {var_epsilon}-metal a very attractive waste form. Last fiscal year, {var_epsilon}-metal was successfully fabricated by combining the five-metals, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd and Re (surrogate for Tc), into pellets followed by consolidation with an arc melter. The arc melter produced fully dense samples with the epsilon structure. However, some chemistry differences were observed in the microstructure that resulted in regions rich in Re and Mo, and others rich in Pd, while Ru and Rh remained fairly constant throughout. This year, thermal stability (air), and corrosion testing of the samples fabricated by arc melting were the main focus for experimental work. Thermal stability was measured with a differential scanning calorimeter - thermogravimetric analyzer, by both ramp heating as well as step heating. There is clear evidence during the ramp heating experiment of an exothermic event + a weight loss peak both beginning at {approx}700 C. Step heating showed an oxidation event at {approx}690 C with minimal weight gain that occurs just before the weight loss event at 700 C. The conclusion being that the e-metal begins to oxidize and then become volatile. These findings are useful for considering the effects of voloxidation process. Three different pellets were subjected to electrochemical testing to study the corrosion behavior of the epsilon-metal phase in various conditions, namely acidic, basic, saline, and inert. Test was done according to an interim procedure developed for the alloy metal waste form. First an open circuit potential

  7. In-die mask registration for multi-patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, F.; Kunitani, S.; Kamibayashi, T.; Yamana, M.; Fuse, A.; Wagner, M.; Roeth, K.-D.; Ferber, M.; Daneshpanah, M.; Czerkas, S.; Sakaguchi, H.

    2013-09-01

    193nm immersion lithography is the mainstream production technology for the 20nm and 14nm logic nodes. Considering multi-patterning as the technology to solve the very low k1 situation in the resolution equation puts extreme pressure on the intra-field overlay, to which mask registration error is a major error contributor. The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) requests a registration error below 4 nm for each mask of a multi-patterning set forming one layer on the wafer. For mask metrology at the 20nm and 14nm logic nodes, maintaining a precision-to-tolerance (P/T) ratio below 0.25 will be very challenging. Mask registration error impacts intra-field wafer overlay directly and has a major impact on wafer yield. We will discuss a solution to support full in-die registration metrology on reticles.

  8. Underestimation of Leptospirosis Incidence in the French West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Cassadou, Sylvie; Rosine, Jacques; Flamand, Claude; Escher, Martina; Ledrans, Martine; Bourhy, Pascale; Picardeau, Mathieu; Quénel, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis affecting mainly tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, particularly South America and the Caribbean. As in many other countries, under-reporting of cases was suspected in the French West Indies because of inadequate access to diagnostic tests for the general population. Methodology/Principal findings In order to estimate the real incidence of leptospirosis in Guadeloupe and Martinique, a study was performed in 2011 using the three prevailing available biological tests for diagnosis: Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), IgM ELISA and PCR. The study investigated inpatients and outpatients and used active case ascertainment from data provided by a general practitioners’ sentinel network. The epidemiology of the disease was also described in terms of severity and demographic characteristics. Leptospirosis incidence was estimated at 69.4 (95%CI 47.6–91.1) and 60.6 (95%CI 36.3–85.0) annual cases per 100 000 inhabitants in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively, which was 3 and 4 times higher than previous estimations. Conclusion/Significance Inclusion of PCR and IgM ELISA tests for diagnosis of leptospirosis resulted in improved sensitivity in comparison with MAT alone. Our results highlighted the substantial health burden of the disease in these two territories and the importance of access to appropriate laboratory tests. Based on our results, PCR and IgM ELISA tests have now been included in the list of tests reimbursed by the national system of social security insurance in France. Our results also underline the relevance of implementing an integrated strategy for the surveillance, prevention and control of leptospirosis in the French West Indies. PMID:27128631

  9. Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin inhibits the gastrointestinal transit in mice.

    PubMed

    Losada-Eaton, D M; Fernandez-Miyakawa, M E

    2010-12-01

    Epsilon toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens type B and D is a potent toxin that is responsible for a highly fatal enterotoxemia in sheep and goats. In vitro, epsilon toxin produces contraction of the rat ileum as the result of an indirect action, presumably mediated through the autonomic nervous system. To examine the impact of epsilon toxin in the intestinal transit, gastric emptying (GE) and gastrointestinal transit (GIT) were evaluated after intravenous and oral administration of epsilon toxin in mice. Orally administered epsilon toxin produced a delay on the GIT. Inhibition of the small intestinal transit was observed as early as 1 h after the toxin was administered orally but the effects were not observed after 1 week. Epsilon toxin also produced an inhibition in GE and a delay on the GIT when relatively high toxin concentrations were given intravenously. These results indicate that epsilon toxin administered orally or intravenously to mice transitorily inhibits the GIT. The delay in the GIT induced by epsilon toxin could be relevant in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens type B and D enterotoxemia. PMID:20434186

  10. T*{sub {epsilon}} integral analysis of fracture specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Omori, Y.; Ma, L.; Kobayashi, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    T*{sub {epsilon}} integral values associated with stable crack growth in thin 2024-T3 aluminum compact (CT) specimens and A606 HSLA steel single edge notched (SEN) specimens were determined directly from the crack tip displacement field obtained by moire interferometry. Stable crack growth in the SEN specimen was also simulated by an elastic-plastic finite element (FE) model which was driven by the experimentally determined boundary conditions. T*{sub {epsilon}} obtained experimentally and by FE were in reasonable agreements with each other. Unlike the vanishing J integrals with crack extension, T*{sub {epsilon}} reached steady state values with stable crack growth. Thus, for a given integration contour, {Gamma}{sub {epsilon}}, near the crack tip, T*{sub {epsilon}} can be used as a stable crack growth as well as a ductile fracture criteria.

  11. Modeling the Variable Polarization of Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignace, Richard; Henson, Gary D.; Asbury, William

    2016-06-01

    The nature of the edge-on eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae remains perplexing, despite notable progress since the recent 2009-2011 eclipse. The binary involves an early F supergiant with a still unknown companion enshrouded in a disk. Although the eclipse geometry produces a significant broad band polarization signature, semiregular pulsations of the F supergiant are also a source of variable polarization, with an amplitude that is commensurate with the effect of the eclipse. This fact makes use of the polarization for studying the disk of the companion far more challenging. In an effort to better understand the pulsation nature of the supergiant, we explore a simple model for the stellar contribution to the polarization signal. The model does reasonably well in characterizing the gross properties of the time-variable polarization.

  12. Modelling Epsilon Aurigae without solid particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, A. Y. S.; Woolf, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    Three components can be expected to contribute to the emission of epsilon Aurigae. There is a primary F star. There is an opaque disk which occults it, and there is a gas stream which is observed to produce absorption lines. Evidence that the disk is not responsible for the gas stream lines comes both from the radial velocities, which are too small, and from the IR energy distribution out of eclipse, which shows free-free emission that would produce inadequate optical depth in electron scattering. The color temperature of the IR excess can give misleading indications of low temperature material. Free-free emission at 10,000 K between 10 and 20 microns has a color temperature of 350 K. Attempts to mold the system are discussed.

  13. Perturbative matching of the staggered four-fermion operators for {epsilon}'/{epsilon}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Weonjong

    2001-09-01

    Using staggered fermions, we calculate the perturbative corrections to the bilinear and four-fermion operators that are used in the numerical study of weak matrix elements for {epsilon}'/{epsilon}. We present results for one-loop matching coefficients between continuum operators, calculated in the naive dimensional regularization (NDR) scheme, and gauge invariant staggered fermion operators. In particular, we concentrate on Feynman diagrams of the current-current insertion type. We also present results for the tadpole improved operators. These results, combined with existing results for penguin diagrams, provide a complete one-loop renormalization of the staggered four-fermion operators. Therefore, using our results, it is possible to match a lattice calculation of K{sup 0}-{bar K}{sup 0} mixing and K{yields}{pi}{pi} decays to the continuum NDR results with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

  14. VARIABILITY IN OPTICAL SPECTRA OF {epsilon} ORIONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Gregory B.; Morrison, Nancy D. E-mail: nmorris@utnet.utoledo.edu

    2013-04-15

    We present the results of a time series analysis of 130 echelle spectra of {epsilon} Ori (B0 Ia), acquired over seven observing seasons between 1998 and 2006 at Ritter Observatory. The equivalent widths of H{alpha} (net) and He I {lambda}5876 were measured and radial velocities were obtained from the central absorption of He I {lambda}5876. Temporal variance spectra (TVS) revealed significant wind variability in both H{alpha} and He I {lambda}5876. The He I TVS have a double-peaked profile consistent with radial velocity oscillations. A periodicity search was carried out on the equivalent width and radial velocity data, as well as on wavelength-binned spectra. This analysis has revealed several periods in the variability with timescales of two to seven days. Many of these periods exhibit sinusoidal modulation in the associated phase diagrams. Several of these periods were present in both H{alpha} and He I, indicating a possible connection between the wind and the photosphere. Due to the harmonic nature of these periods, stellar pulsations may be the origin of some of the observed variability. Periods on the order of the rotational period were also detected in the He I line in the 1998-1999 season and in both lines during the 2004-2005 season. These periods may indicate rotational modulation due to structure in the wind.

  15. EPSILON AURIGAE: AN IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC ORBITAL SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanik, Robert P.; Torres, Guillermo; Lovegrove, Justin; Latham, David W.; Zajac, Joseph; Pera, Vivian E.; Mazeh, Tsevi

    2010-03-15

    A rare eclipse of the mysterious object {epsilon} Aurigae will occur in 2009-2011. We report an updated single-lined spectroscopic solution for the orbit of the primary star based on 20 years of monitoring at the CfA, combined with historical velocity observations dating back to 1897. There are 518 new CfA observations obtained between 1989 and 2009. Two solutions are presented. One uses the velocities outside the eclipse phases together with mid-times of previous eclipses, from photometry dating back to 1842, which provide the strongest constraint on the ephemeris. This yields a period of 9896.0 {+-} 1.6 days (27.0938 {+-} 0.0044 years) with a velocity semi-amplitude of 13.84 {+-} 0.23 km s{sup -1} and an eccentricity of 0.227 {+-} 0.011. The middle of the current ongoing eclipse predicted by this combined fit is JD 2,455,413.8 {+-} 4.8, corresponding to 2010 August 5. If we use only the radial velocities, we find that the predicted middle of the current eclipse is nine months earlier. This would imply that the gravitating companion is not the same as the eclipsing object. Alternatively, the purely spectroscopic solution may be biased by perturbations in the velocities due to the short-period oscillations of the supergiant.

  16. Interleukin-4 production by Fc epsilon R+ cells.

    PubMed

    Paul, W E

    1991-01-01

    Among non-B, non-T cells in the spleen and among unfractionated bone marrow cells, there is a population of cells that are capable of producing IL-4 in response to cross-linkage of FC epsilon RI or Fc gamma RII. Their IL-4-producing capacity is strikingly enhanced by treatment of the cells or of the animals donating such cells with interleukin-3 (IL-3). Fc epsilon R+ cells constitute 1-2% of splenic non-B, non-T cells and of bone marrow cells from normal donors but they contain all the capacity to produce IL-4 in response to cross-linkage of Fc epsilon RI or Fc gamma RII or to treatment with ionomycin. Fc epsilon R- cells fail to make such responses. Electron-microscopic analysis indicates that virtually all the granulated or vacuolated Fc epsilon R+ cells are of the basophil lineage. However, it has not yet been resolved whether these cells or immature mast cells, presumably in the Fc epsilon R+ granule/vacuole-negative cell population, are the principal producers of IL-4 in response to these stimuli. PMID:1837220

  17. Naturally acquired antibodies against Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin in goats.

    PubMed

    Veschi, Josir Laine A; Bruzzone, Octavio A; Losada-Eaton, Daniela M; Dutra, Iveraldo S; Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2008-09-15

    Clostridium perfringens type D-producing epsilon toxin is a common cause of death in sheep and goats worldwide. Although anti-epsilon toxin serum antibodies have been detected in healthy non-vaccinated sheep, the information regarding naturally acquired antibodies in ruminants is scanty. The objective of the present report was to characterize the development of naturally acquired antibodies against C. perfringens epsilon toxin in goats. The levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies in blood serum of goat kids from two different herds were examined continuously for 14 months. Goats were not vaccinated against any clostridial disease and received heterologous colostrums from cows that were not vaccinated against any clostridial disease. During the survey one of these flocks suffered an unexpectedly severe C. perfringens type D enterotoxemia outbreak. The results showed that natural acquired antibodies against C. perfringens epsilon toxin can appear as early as 6 weeks in young goats and increase with the age without evidence of clinical disease. The enterotoxemia outbreak was coincident with a significant increase in the level of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies. PMID:18538416

  18. INFRARED STUDIES OF EPSILON AURIGAE IN ECLIPSE

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, Robert E.; Kloppenborg, Brian K.; Wall, Randall E.; Hopkins, Jeffrey L.; Howell, Steve B.; Hoard, D. W.; Rayner, John; Bus, Schelte; Tokunaga, Alan; Sitko, Michael L.; Bradford, Suellen; Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K.; Hammel, Heidi; Whitney, Barbara; Orton, Glenn; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma; Hora, Joseph L.; Hinz, Philip; Hoffmann, William; and others

    2011-11-15

    We report here on a series of medium resolution spectro-photometric observations of the enigmatic long period eclipsing binary epsilon Aurigae, during its eclipse interval of 2009-2011, using near-infrared spectra obtained with SpeX on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), mid-infrared spectra obtained with BASS on AOES and IRTF, MIRSI on IRTF, and MIRAC4 on the MMT, along with mid-infrared photometry using MIRSI on IRTF and MIRAC4 on the MMT, plus 1995-2000 timeframe published photometry and data obtained with Denver's TNTCAM2 at WIRO. The goals of these observations included: (1) comparing eclipse depths with prior eclipse data, (2) confirming the re-appearance of CO absorption bands at and after mid-eclipse, associated with sublimation in the disk, (3) seeking evidence for any mid-infrared solid state spectral features from particles in the disk, and (4) providing evidence that the externally irradiated disk has azimuthal temperature differences. IR eclipse depths appear similar to those observed during the most recent (1983) eclipse, although evidence for post-mid-eclipse disk temperature increase is present, due to F star heated portions of the disk coming into view. Molecular CO absorption returned 57 days after nominal mid-eclipse, but was not detected at mid-eclipse plus 34 days, narrowing the association with differentially heated sub-regions in the disk. Transient He I 10830A absorption was detected at mid-eclipse, persisting for at least 90 days thereafter, providing a diagnostic for the hot central region. The lack of solid-state features in Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph, BASS, and MIRAC spectra to date suggests the dominance of large particles (micron-sized) in the disk. Based on these observations, mid-infrared studies out of eclipse can directly monitor and map the disk thermal changes, and better constrain disk opacity and thermal conductivity.

  19. Meeting overlay requirements for future technology nodes with in-die overlay metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Bernd; Seltmann, Rolf; Busch, Jens; Hempel, Fritjof; Cotte, Eric; Alles, Benjamin

    2007-03-01

    As a consequence of the shrinking sizes of the integrated circuit structures, the overlay budget shrinks as well. Overlay is traditionally measured with relatively large test structures which are located in the scribe line of the exposure field, in the four corners. Although the performance of the overlay metrology tools has improved significantly over time it is questionable if this traditional method of overlay control will be sufficient for future technology nodes. For advanced lithography techniques like double exposure or double patterning, in-die overlay is critical and it is important to know how much of the total overlay budget is consumed by in-die components. We reported earlier that small overlay targets were included directly inside die areas and good performance was achieved. This new methodology enables a wide range of investigations. This provides insight into processes which were less important in the past or not accessible for metrology. The present work provides actual data from productive designs, instead of estimates, illustrating the differences between the scribe line and in-die registration and overlay. The influence of the pellicle on pattern placement on mask and wafer overlay is studied. Furthermore the registration overlay error of the reticles is correlated to wafer overlay residuals. The influence of scanner-induced distortions (tool to tool differences) on in-die overlay is shown. Finally, the individual contributors to in-die-overlay are discussed in the context of other overlay contributors. It is proposed to use in-die overlay and registration results to derive guidelines for future overlay and registration specifications. It will be shown that new overlay correction schemes which take advantage of the additional in-die overlay information need to be considered for production.

  20. Asteroseismology of the nearby SN II Progenitor Rigel. II. epsilon-mechanism Triggering Gravity-mode Pulsations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravveji, Ehsan; Moya, Andres; Guinan, Edward F.

    2012-04-01

    The cores of luminous B- and A-type (BA) supergiant stars are the seeds of later core-collapse supernovae. Thus, constraining the near-core conditions in this class of stars can place tighter constraints on the size, mass, and chemical composition of supernova remnants. Asteroseismology of these massive stars is one possible approach into such investigations. Recently, Moravveji et al. in 2012 (hereafter Paper I) extracted 19 significant frequencies from a 6-year radial velocity monitoring of Rigel (β Ori, B8 Ia). The periods they determined broadly range from 1.22 to 74.74 days. Based on our differentially rotating stellar structure and evolution model, Rigel, at its current evolutionary state, is undergoing core He burning and shell H burning. Linear fully non-adiabatic non-radial stability analyses result in the excitation of a dense spectrum of non-radial gravity-dominated mixed modes. The fundamental radial mode (l = 0) and its overtones are all stable. When the hydrogen-burning shell is located even partially in the radiative zone, a favorable condition for destabilization of g-modes through the so-called epsilon-mechanism becomes viable. Only those g-modes that have high relative amplitudes in the hydrogen-burning (radiative) zone can survive the strong radiative damping. From the entire observed range of variability periods of Rigel (found in Paper I), and based on our model, only those modes with periods ranging between 21 and 127 days can be theoretically explained by the epsilon-mechanism. The origin of the short-period variations (found in Paper I) still remains unexplained. Because Rigel is similar to other massive BA supergiants, we believe that the epsilon-mechanism may be able to explain the long-period variations in α Cygni class of pulsating stars.

  1. [Population born in Indonesia or in the former Dutch East-Indies].

    PubMed

    Prins, C J

    1997-04-01

    "The number of persons born in Indonesia or in the former Dutch East Indies and residing in the Netherlands decreases every year. This is primarily caused by ageing. Moreover, immigration from Indonesia has been at a relatively low level for many years. About 178 thousand persons born in Indonesia or in the former Dutch East Indies were living in the Netherlands on 1 January 1996." Information is included on parents' nationality, length of time in the Netherlands, migration policy, and spatial distribution. (EXCERPT) PMID:12348139

  2. Prediction of two-dimensional momentumless wake by k- epsilon - gamma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jong Woo; Sung, Hyung Jin

    1995-04-01

    The k-epsilon-gamma model performance is extended to resolve the jet/wake anomaly, which is encountered in calculating free shear flows by the standard k-epsilon model. In the k-epsilon-gamma model, the relation between the rate of dissipation epsilon and the level of intermittency gamma is well incorporated. The model is run to predict the two-dimensional momentumless wake where a jet and a wake coexist. The predictions of the k-epsilon-gamma model are compared with those of the k-epsilon model as well as the experiment. It is shown that the model performance is generally satisfactory.

  3. TOXOPLASMA GONDII AND NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN DOGS FROM GRENADA, WEST INDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are structurally similar parasites with many common hosts. The prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum was determined in sera from dogs in Grenada, West Indies. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 52 (48.5%) o...

  4. A Historical Perspective: Curriculum Development and Instrumentalism in the Educational System in the British West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deonanan, Carlton R.

    That the instrument of education in any civilization or nation, and in particular the British West Indies relfects the totality of that civilization and vice versa is the thesis of this paper. The instrument of education reveals a structure and a profile with the following components: a design and a structure, a philosophy, a psychology, a system…

  5. Shhh! No Opinions in the Library: "IndyKids" and Kids' Right to an Independent Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vender, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    "Nintendo Power," "Sports Illustrated for Kids," and a biography of President Obama were on prominent display as the author entered the branch library in Forest Hills, Queens. The librarian looked skeptical when the author asked the librarian if she could leave copies of "IndyKids" newspapers on the free literature table. The branch manager…

  6. Observations of the 1761 and 1769 transits of Venus from Batavia (Dutch East Indies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gent, Robert H.

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the observations of the 1761 and 1769 transits of Venus by the Dutch-German clergyman Johan Maurits Mohr (1716-1775) from Batavia (Dutch East Indies). We will investigate how Mohr became interested in observing this phenomenon and how he made the necessary preparations. Finally, the fate of his observatory and his instruments will be discussed.

  7. Art Education in the Former Dutch East Indies in the 1930s: Questions of Different Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rheeden, Herbert

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes drawings by children from a Dutch East Indies exhibition in 1937 organized by educator Johan Toot. Divides the drawings thematically and discusses how the drawings are influenced by various cultures. Describes how Johan Toot worked to replace rote learning with an activity-based education. (KM)

  8. Search for radio emission from the nearby binary brown dwarf system ɛ Indi Bab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, D. L.

    2004-11-01

    We have observed the nearest known brown dwarfs, the binary system ɛ Indi Bab (d= 3.626 pc), for 8.6- and 4.8-GHz radio emission with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. If either brown dwarf emits radio flares, then they are respectively at least 5.5 and 1.2 times weaker than LP 944-20, the nearest brown dwarf with detected radio emission. We associate the ROSAT source 1WGA J2203.9 - 5647 with ɛ Indi Bab since the separation was about 30 arcsec at the time of the ROSAT observation. Assuming the association, then ɛ Indi Bab has an L0.4-2.4keV X-ray luminosity of 5.6 × 1025 erg s-1 which makes it roughly a factor of 2 less luminous than LP 944-20. The radio non-detections imply that ɛ Indi Bab does not violate, or at least does not violate as strongly as LP 944-20, the Güdel-Benz relationship of X-ray and radio emission.

  9. Distance Learner Ecologies of the University of the West Indies Open Campus Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaubrun, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This research project examined the learner ecologies of University of the West Indies (UWI) distance learning program participants in two countries within the regional university's network: Dominica, and Antigua and Barbuda. The descriptive study focused on a period of transition from dual-mode delivery (teleconference and in-person tutorial…

  10. The Challenge of Observing the Recent Eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melillo, Frank J.

    2013-07-01

    This author participated in the 'International Epsilon Aurigae Campaign' in 2009. A total of 100 V-band observations were made in Holtsville, New York for the 2009-2011 eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae. A lightcurve has been plotted using data from these observations, which cover the phase before, during and after the eclipse. The lightcurve shows precise timing during the first, second, third and fourth contacts and possibly mid-eclipse brightening. The magnitude and the duration of the eclipse in photometric V band are discussed. This poster represents the work by Frank J Melillo and the observations were close enough to generate the true shape of the lightcurve.

  11. Epsilon-near-zero mode for active optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Vassant, S; Archambault, A; Marquier, F; Pardo, F; Gennser, U; Cavanna, A; Pelouard, J L; Greffet, J J

    2012-12-01

    The electromagnetic modes of a GaAs quantum well between two AlGaAs barriers are studied. At the longitudinal optical phonon frequency, the system supports a phonon polariton mode confined in the thickness of the quantum well that we call epsilon-near-zero mode. This epsilon-near-zero mode can be resonantly excited through a grating resulting in a very large absorption localized in the single quantum well. We show that the reflectivity can be modulated by applying a voltage. This paves the way to a new class of active optoelectronic devices working in the midinfrared and far infrared at ambient temperature. PMID:23368264

  12. An improved k-epsilon model for near wall turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. H.; Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    An improved k-epsilon model for low Reynolds number turbulence near a wall is presented. In the first part of this work, the near-wall asymptotic behavior of the eddy viscosity and the pressure transport term in the turbulent kinetic energy equation are analyzed. Based on these analyses, a modified eddy viscosity model with the correct near-wall behavior is suggested, and a model for the pressure transport term in the k-equation is proposed. In addition, a modeled dissipation rate equation is reformulated, and a boundary condition for the dissipation rate is suggested. In the second part of the work, one of the deficiencies of the existing k-epsilon models, namely, the wall distance dependency of the equations and the damping functions, is examined. An improved model that does not depend on any wall distance is introduced. Fully developed turbulent channel flows and turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate are studied as validations for the proposed new models. Numerical results obtained from the present and other previous k-epsilon models are compared with data from direct numerical simulation. The results show that the present k-epsilon model, with added robustness, performs as well as or better than other existing models in predicting the behavior of near-wall turbulence.

  13. Observations of Epsilon Lyrae by the Video Drift Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, Rick; Nelson, Nancy; Nelson, Eric; Buehlman, William; Wilson, Earl; Zapata, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    The major components of the famous "double-double" star Epsilon Lyrae, STF2382AB and STF2383CD, were measured by the Video Team at the Apple Valley Double Star Workshop in 2013, using the Video Drift Method. The results are in reasonable agreement with other recent measures and predictions of the latest orbital solutions.

  14. Detection of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Naylor, R D; Martin, P K; Sharpe, R T

    1987-03-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed as an alternative to neutralisation tests in mice to detect Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin in the intestinal contents of animals which have died from suspected enterotoxaemia. The test was sensitive and quantitative and gave excellent agreement with the mouse protection test. PMID:2884704

  15. Fate of the Epsilon Phase in the Oklo Natural Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2005-03-31

    In spent nuclear fuel (SNF), the micron- to submicron-sized epsilon phase (Mo-Ru-Pd-Tc-Rh) is an important host of {sup 99}Tc which has a long half life (2.13 x 10{sup 5} years) and can be an important contributor to dose in safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories. In addition, Tc is predominantly present as TcO{sub 4}{sup -} under oxidizing conditions at wide range of pH, weakly adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, and unlikely to be incorporated into alteration uranyl minerals. In the Oklo natural reactor (2.0 Ga), essentially all of the {sup 99}Tc has decayed to {sup 99}Ru. Thus, this study focuses on Ru and the other metals of the epsilon phase in order to investigate the occurrence and the fate of the epsilon phase during the corrosion of this natural SNF. Samples from reactor zone (RZ)-10 (836, 819, 687); from RZ-13 (864, 910); were investigated using TEM (transmission electron microscopy). Within the UO{sub 2} matrix, a Bi-Pd particle (40-60 nm), fioodite, PdBi{sub 2}, was observed with trace amounts of As, Fe, and Te surrounded by an amorphous Pb-rich area. (Pd,Rh){sub 2}As, palladodymite or rhodarsenide, was observed (400-500 nm in size). Ruthenarsinite, (Ru,Ni)As, was identified in most samples: with a representative composition of As, 59.9: Co, 2.5: Ni, 5.2; Ru, 18.6; Rh, 8.4; Pd, 3.1; Sb, 2.4 in atomic percent. The particles diameters are a few hundred nanometers and, in most cases, surrounded by a Pb-rich phase (400-500 nm). Typically, the ruthenarsenite does not occur as single particle but an aggregate of {approx}200 nm-sized particles. Some Ru-particles revealed a complex phase separation within the grain such as a Ru-particle (600-700 nm) with Pb at the core of the particle and enrichment of Ni, Co, and As at the rim. Some ruthenarsenite crystals were embedded in chlorite immediately adjacent to uraninite. A few particles were still coated by Pb. These results suggest a history for the epsilon phases: (1) The original epsilon phase was

  16. Association of apolipoprotein E allele {epsilon}4 with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lucotte, G.; David, F.; Berriche, S.

    1994-09-15

    Apolipoprotein E, type {epsilon}4 allele (ApoE {epsilon}4), is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (AD) in French patients. The association is highly significant (0.45 AD versus 0.12 controls for {epsilon}4 allele frequencies). These data support the involvement of ApoE {epsilon}4 allele as a very important risk factor for the clinical expression of AD. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. A new extinct species of Snipe (Aves: Scolopacidae: Gallinago) from the West Indies.

    PubMed

    Steadman, David W; Takano, Oona M

    2016-01-01

    We describe an extinct species of snipe (Gallinago kakuki, new species) from late Quaternary fossils in the Bahamian Archipelago (Abaco, New Providence, Little Exuma, Long, and Middle Caicos islands). The new species is known as well from fossils on Cuba, and Cayman Brac in the Cayman Islands. This rather large species of snipe was volant, although because of its relatively short carpometacarpus, the primary flight feathers probably were short. The only other species of Gallinago from the West Indies is the extant, migratory G. delicata, which breeds only in North America. Gallinago kakuki shares more osteological characters with two Eurasian species (G. media, G. hardwickii) than with either of the New World species we examined (G. delicata, G. paraguaiae). A possible inter-hemispherical relationship has been proposed as well for the two extinct, late Quaternary species of woodcocks from the West Indies (Scolopax anthonyi of Puerto Rico, S. brachycarpa of Hispaniola). PMID:27394869

  18. [Mental illness in the former Dutch Indies--four psychiatric syndromes: amok, latah, koro and neurasthenia].

    PubMed

    Bartelsman, M; Eckhardt, P P

    2007-12-22

    --At the beginning of the 20th century Dutch psychiatrists in the former Dutch Indies encountered exotic psychiatric syndromes and variant expressions of psychopathological diseases that were also prevalent in Europe. --The amok and latah syndromes were reported relatively frequently and were considered typical endemic psychopathologies. Amok is an acute condition of insanity in which the affected individual, a man, attempts to kill others. Latah is a shock-like condition in which the affected individual, a woman, mimics the movements and sounds of those nearby against her will. --The koro syndrome is considered a typical but rare psychosis seen primarily among the Chinese population of the former Dutch Indies. Patients have a recurring fear of the penis retracting into the body. --A diagnosis of 'tropical neurasthenia' was frequently made in Europeans for what today would be referred to as dysthymic disorder or minor depressive disorder. PMID:18237055

  19. Effect of epsilon toxin-GFP on MDCK cells and renal tubules in vivo.

    PubMed

    Soler-Jover, Alex; Blasi, Juan; Gómez de Aranda, Inma; Navarro, Piedad; Gibert, Maryse; Popoff, Michel R; Martín-Satué, Mireia

    2004-07-01

    Epsilon toxin (epsilon-toxin), produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, causes fatal enterotoxemia, also known as pulpy kidney disease, in livestock. Recombinant epsilon-toxin-green fluorescence protein (epsilon-toxin-GFP) and epsilon-prototoxin-GFP were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. MTT assays on MDCK cells confirmed that recombinant epsilon-toxin-GFP retained the cytotoxicity of the native toxin. Direct fluorescence analysis of MDCK cells revealed a homogeneous peripheral pattern that was temperature sensitive and susceptible to detergent. epsilon-Toxin-GFP and epsilon-prototoxin-GFP bound to endothelia in various organs of injected mice, especially the brain. However, fluorescence mainly accumulated in kidneys. Mice injected with epsilon-toxin-GFP showed severe kidney alterations, including hemorrhagic medullae and selective degeneration of distal tubules. Moreover, experiments on kidney cryoslices demonstrated specific binding to distal tubule cells of a range of species. We demonstrate with new recombinant fluorescence tools that epsilon-toxin binds in vivo to endothelial cells and renal tubules, where it has a strong cytotoxic effect. Our binding experiments indicate that an epsilon-toxin receptor is expressed on renal distal tubules of mammalian species, including human. PMID:15208360

  20. On the benefit of high resolution and low aberrations for in-die mask registration metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Dirk; Seidel, Dirk; Heisig, Sven; Steinert, Steffen; Töpfer, Susanne; Scherübl, Thomas; Hetzler, Jochen

    2014-10-01

    With the introduction of complex lithography schemes like double and multi - patterning and new design principles like gridded designs with cut masks the requirements for mask to mask overlay have increased dramatically. Still, there are some good news too for the mask industry since more mask are needed and qualified. Although always confronted with throughput demands, latest writing tool developments are able to keep pace with ever increasing pattern placement specs not only for global signatures but for in-die features within the active area. Placement specs less than 3nm (max. 3 Sigma) are expected and needed in all cases in order to keep the mask contribution to the overall overlay budget at an accepted level. The qualification of these masks relies on high precision metrology tools which have to fulfill stringent metrology as well as resolution constrains at the same time. Furthermore, multi-patterning and gridded designs with pinhole type cut masks are drivers for a paradigm shift in registration metrology from classical registration crosses to in-die registration metrology on production features. These requirements result in several challenges for registration metrology tools. The resolution of the system must be sufficiently high to resolve small production features. At the same time tighter repeatability is required. Furthermore, tool induced shift (TIS) limit the accuracy of in-die measurements. This paper discusses and demonstrates the importance of low illumination wavelength together with low aberrations for best contrast imaging for in-die registration metrology. Typical effects like tool induced shift are analyzed and evaluated using the ZEISS PROVE® registration metrology tool. Additionally, we will address performance gains when going to higher resolution. The direct impact on repeatability for small features by registration measurements will be discussed as well.

  1. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sr. Kitts, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in sera from 106 domestic cats from St. Kitts, West Indies. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to this parasite were found in 90 (84.9%) of the cats with titers of 1:20 in 23, 1:40 in 34, 1:80 in 18, 1:160 in 2, 1:32...

  2. A k-epsilon modeling of near wall turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Z.; Shih, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    A k-epsilon model is proposed for turbulent bounded flows. In this model, the turbulent velocity scale and turbulent time scale are used to define the eddy viscosity. The time scale is shown to be bounded from below by the Kolmogorov time scale. The dissipation equation is reformulated using the time scale, removing the need to introduce the pseudo-dissipation. A damping function is chosen such that the shear stress satisfies the near wall asymptotic behavior. The model constants used are the same as the model constants in the commonly used high turbulent Reynolds number k-epsilon model. Fully developed turbulent channel flows and turbulent boundary layer flows over a flat plate at various Reynolds numbers are used to validate the model. The model predictions were found to be in good agreement with the direct numerical simulation data.

  3. Quarks with Twisted Boundary Conditions in the Epsilon Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen; Brian C. Tiburzi

    2005-05-01

    We study the effects of twisted boundary conditions on the quark fields in the epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory. We consider the SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} chiral theory with non-degenerate quarks and the SU(3){sub L} x SU(3){sub R} chiral theory with massless up and down quarks and massive strange quarks. The partition function and condensate are derived for each theory. Because flavor-neutral Goldstone bosons are unaffected by twisted boundary conditions chiral symmetry is still restored in finite volumes. The dependence of the condensate on the twisting parameters can be used to extract the pion decay constant from simulations in the epsilon regime. The relative contribution to the partition function from sectors of different topological charge is numerically insensitive to twisted boundary conditions.

  4. EISCAT observations during MAC/SINE and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, J.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Hall, C.

    1989-01-01

    The EISCAT incoherent scatter radar facility in Tromsoe, Norway was operated during the MAC/SINE campaign for 78 hours in the period 10 June to 17 July 1987, and during the MAC/Epsilon campaign for 90 hours in the period 15 October to 5 November 1987. The VHF (224 MHz) radar operations during MAC/SINE yielded most interesting observations of strong coherent echoes from the mesopause region. Characteristic data of these polar mesospheric summer echoes are presented. The UHF (933 MHz) radar operations during MAC/Epsilon were done with 18 deg off zenith beam and allows the deduction of meridonal and horizontal wind components as well as radial velocity spectra in addition to the usual electron density profiles in the D and lower E regions. Some results from the VHF and UHF radars indicating the presence of gravity waves are examined.

  5. The bacterial dicarboxylate transporter VcINDY uses a two-domain elevator-type mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Christopher; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Kaufmann, Desirée; Li, Yan; Forrest, Lucy R; Mindell, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    Secondary transporters use alternating-access mechanisms to couple uphill substrate movement to downhill ion flux. Most known transporters use a 'rocking bundle' motion, wherein the protein moves around an immobile substrate-binding site. However, the glutamate-transporter homolog GltPh translocates its substrate-binding site vertically across the membrane, through an 'elevator' mechanism. Here, we used the 'repeat swap' approach to computationally predict the outward-facing state of the Na(+)/succinate transporter VcINDY, from Vibrio cholerae. Our model predicts a substantial elevator-like movement of VcINDY's substrate-binding site, with a vertical translation of ~15 Å and a rotation of ~43°. Our observation that multiple disulfide cross-links completely inhibit transport provides experimental confirmation of the model and demonstrates that such movement is essential. In contrast, cross-links across the VcINDY dimer interface preserve transport, thus revealing an absence of large-scale coupling between protomers. PMID:26828963

  6. Structure of the Martian atmosphere from Epsilon Gem occultation observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    Information about Martian atmospheric scale heights derived from observations of the occultation of Epsilon Gem by Mars on April 8, 1976 has been collected. The observations give data in the altitude range of about 50 to 80 km. A rough, unweighted average of results so far available yields a temperatue of approximately 165 K. Excursions of about + or - 4 K about this mean may be present as a function of both altitude and areographic coordinates.

  7. Structure of the Martian atmosphere from Epsilon Gem occultation observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Information has been collected on Martian atmospheric scale heights derived from observations of the occultation of Epsilon Gem by Mars on Apr. 8, 1976; the observations give data in the altitude range of approximately 50-80 km. A rough, unweighted average of results so far available yields a temperature of approximately 165 K. Excursions of plus or minus 40 K about this mean may be present as a function of both altitude and areographic coordinates.

  8. Advanced k-epsilon modeling of heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Okey; Ames, Forrest E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes two approaches to low Reynolds-number k-epsilon turbulence modeling which formulate the eddy viscosity on the wall-normal component of turbulence and a length scale. The wall-normal component of turbulence is computed via integration of the energy spectrum based on the local dissipation rate and is bounded by the isotropic condition. The models account for the anisotropy of the dissipation and the reduced mixing length due to the high strain rates present in the near-wall region. The turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate were computed from the k and epsilon transport equations of Durbin. The models were tested for a wide range of turbulent flows and proved to be superior to other k-epsilon models, especially for nonequilibrium anisotropic flows. For the prediction of airfoil heat transfer, the models included a set of empirical correlations for predicting laminar-turbulent transition and laminar heat transfer augmentation due to the presence of freestream turbulence. The predictions of surface heat transfer were generally satisfactory.

  9. MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR {epsilon} ERIDANI

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Petrucci, R.; Brown, B. P.; Soderblom, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Hall, J. C.; Basu, S.

    2013-02-01

    The active K2 dwarf {epsilon} Eri has been extensively characterized both as a young solar analog and more recently as an exoplanet host star. As one of the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to constrain stellar dynamo theory beyond the Sun. We confirm and document the 3-year magnetic activity cycle in {epsilon} Eri originally reported by Hatzes and coworkers, and we examine the archival data from previous observations spanning 45 years. The data show coexisting 3-year and 13-year periods leading into a broad activity minimum that resembles a Maunder minimum-like state, followed by the resurgence of a coherent 3-year cycle. The nearly continuous activity record suggests the simultaneous operation of two stellar dynamos with cycle periods of 2.95 {+-} 0.03 years and 12.7 {+-} 0.3 years, which, by analogy with the solar case, suggests a revised identification of the dynamo mechanisms that are responsible for the so-called 'active' and 'inactive' sequences as proposed by Boehm-Vitense. Finally, based on the observed properties of {epsilon} Eri, we argue that the rotational history of the Sun is what makes it an outlier in the context of magnetic cycles observed in other stars (as also suggested by its Li depletion), and that a Jovian-mass companion cannot be the universal explanation for the solar peculiarities.

  10. Alzheimer amyloid-beta peptide forms denaturant-resistant complex with type epsilon 3 but not type epsilon 4 isoform of native apolipoprotein E.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Z.; Smith, J. D.; Greengard, P.; Gandy, S.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E (apoE) type epsilon 4 isoform specifies increased cerebral and cerebrovascular accumulation of amyloid-beta protein (A beta) and contributes to the genetic susceptibility underlying a large proportion (approximately 60%) of typical, sporadic Alzheimer disease. Unfortunately, in vitro biochemical studies of direct apoE isoform-specific interactions with A beta have been inconsistent, perhaps due to the use by different research groups of apoE isoform preparations in different conformational states (purified denatured versus native). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the current study, we have investigated the possibility that synthetic A beta(1-40) preferentially associates with native apoE of either the type epsilon 3 or the type epsilon 4 isoform. RESULTS: Here, we demonstrate the preferential association of synthetic A beta(1-40) with native apoE epsilon 3. The complex between apoE epsilon 3 and A beta(1-40) could not be disrupted by sodium dodecyl sulfate. In a parallel assay, no denaturant-resistant association of A beta(1-40) with apoE epsilon 4 was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the notion that the apoE epsilon 4 isoform may foster beta-amyloidogenesis because apoE epsilon 4 is inefficient in forming complexes with A beta. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:8726460

  11. New prediction for the direct CP-violating parameter {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon} and the {Delta}I=1/2 rule

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2001-07-01

    The low-energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale {Lambda}{sub {chi}}{approx_equal}1GeV. Based on the new analyses, we present a consistent prediction for both the direct CP-violating parameter {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon} and the {Delta}I=1/2 rule in kaon decays. In the leading 1/N{sub c} approximation, the isospin amplitudes A{sub 0} and A{sub 2} are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon} is predicted to be large, which also confirms our earlier conclusion. Its numerical value is {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon}=23.6{sub {minus}7.8}{sup +12.4}{times}10{sup {minus}4}(Im{lambda}{sub t}/1.2{times}10{sup {minus}4}) which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes A{sub 0} and A{sub 2}, the ratio {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon} is in favor of the values {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon}=(20{+-}9){times}10{sup {minus}4}.

  12. {epsilon} expansion of the conductivity at the superconductor{endash}Mott-insulator transition

    SciTech Connect

    Fazio, R.; Zappala, D.

    1996-04-01

    We study the critical behavior of the conductivity {sigma}({omega}) at the zero-temperature superconductor{endash}Mott-insulator transition in {ital d} spacetime dimensions for a model of bosons with short-range interaction and no disorder. We obtain {sigma}({omega}{sub {ital n}})=(4{ital e}{sup 2}/{h_bar}){sigma}{sub {epsilon}}{omega}{sub {ital n}}{sup 1{minus}{epsilon}}, as predicted by the scaling theory, and the prefactor {sigma}{sub {epsilon}} is calculated in the {epsilon} expansion, to order {epsilon}{sup 2} ({epsilon}=4{minus}{ital d}). In two spatial dimensions ({ital d}=3), we find a value of the universal conductance {sigma}{sup {sq_bullet}}=0.315(4{ital e}{sup 2}/{ital h}), in good agreement with the known Monte Carlo results. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Epsilon Canis Majoris and the ionization of the local cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Welsh, B. Y.

    1995-01-01

    The Lyman continuum radiation from the brightest extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (Adara), is so intense that it dominates the local stellar EUV radiation field at wavelengths longer than 450 A and therefore sets a lower limit to the ionization of hydrogen in the Local Cloud. Using the EUV (70-730 A) spectrum of epsilon CMa taken with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) and simple models that extrapolate this spectrum to the Lyman edge at 912 A, we have determined the local interstellar hydrogen photionizatin parameter Gamma solely from epsilon CMa to be 1.1 x 10(exp -15)/s. This fiugre is a factor of 7 greater than previous estimates of Gamma calculated for all nearby stars combined (Bruhweiler & Cheng 1988). Using measured values of the density and temperature of neutral interstellar hydrogen gas in the Local Cloud, we derive a particle density of ionized hydrogen n(H(+)) and electrons n(sub e) of 0.015-0.019/cu cm assuming ionization equilibrium and a helium ionization fraction of less than 20%. These values correspond to a hydrogen ionizatin fraction, chi(sub H) from 19% to 15%, respectively. The range of these derived quantities is due to the uncertainties in the local values of the neutral hydrogen and helium interstellar densities derived from both (1) solar backscatter measurements of Ly alpha lines of hydrogen and helium (1216 and 584 A), and (2) the average neutral densities along the line of sight to nearby stars. The local proton density produced by epsilon CMa is enough to allow the ionization mechanism of Ripken & Fahr (1983) to work at the heliopause and explain the discrepancy between the neutral hydrogen density derived from solar backscatter measurements and line-of-sight averages to nearby stars. A large value of electron density in the Local Cloud of n(sub e) is approximately 0.3-0.7/cu cm (T = 7000 K) has recently been reported by Lallement et al. (1994) using observations of Mg II and Mg I

  14. The 1982-1984 Eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A workshop proceedings concerned with the new data collected during the 1982-1984 eclipse period of the 27-year system Epsilon Aurigae is presented. This binary star has been a classic problem in astrophysics because the opaque eclipsing object is nonstellar, and probably disk shaped. Invited papers concerning the history of the system, optical, infrared and ultraviolet photometry, optical polarimetry and ultraviolet spectroscopy are included. An invited paper concerning comprehensive theoretical interpretation in the context of stellar evolution also is included. The information collected herein is unparalleled in scope and will remain a standard reference until the next eclipse cycle in the year 2009 A.D., in all probability.

  15. Observations on the formation of [var epsilon] martensite in an Fe-23. 2%Mn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Akguen, I.; Durlu, T.N. . Dept. of Physics)

    1994-11-15

    In Fe-Mn binary alloys the formation behavior of [var epsilon] martensite is quite sensitive to the Mn percentage and although both [var epsilon] and [alpha][prime] type martensites are formed in low Mn alloys, mostly [gamma] [yields] [var epsilon] transformation occur as the Mn concentration is increased. The present study was undertaken to examine the formation of thermally induced and also strain-induced [var epsilon] martensites, and their intersections in a Fe-23.2%Mn alloy by using transmission electron microscopy techniques.

  16. A new species of Woodcock (Aves: Scolopacidae: Scolopax) from Hispaniola, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Takano, Oona M; Steadman, David W

    2015-01-01

    Several hundred late Holocene fossils from Trouing Jean Paul, a cave in Massif de la Selle, Haiti, represent an extinct species of woodcock (Scolopax brachycarpa, new species). Scolopax brachycarpa is known from most major skeletal elements; although volant, its carpometacarpus was very short relative to its humerus. The only other species of Scolopax from the West Indies is the extinct and presumably closely related S. anthonyi of Puerto Rico, which also had a relatively short carpometacarpus compared to continental congeners. Both Scolopax brachycarpa and S. anthonyi share more osteological characters with the Eurasian S. rusticola than with the North American S. minor. PMID:26624342

  17. An Amateur's Spatial Model of the epsilon Aurigae System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemma, Marina

    This project has its origins in a summer program I attended in astrophysics (COSMOS) last year at the University of California, Irvine. The Intel Corporation offered a small number of 500 grants to students that submitted proposals for an independent research project that had to span the length of the next academic year. I received an initial exposure to astronomical data analysis in the COSMOS summer program, and was interested in expanding my experience with astronomy because I plan to major in astronomy or astrophysics in college. I had heard about the upcoming epsilon Aurigae eclipse, and decided that the eclipse was the perfect option for a research project. I ended up submitting a proposal, and was awarded the 500 grant. The original question I was attempting to answer was: Is it possible for an amateur astronomer to build a spatial model of the object that periodically eclipses the star epsilon Aurigae? One of the requirements of the grant was that the project be presented in the spring of 2010. This paper describes my efforts thus far.

  18. Upgrade of the time-of-flight diffractometer EPSILON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, V.; Walther, K.; Kuznetsov, I.; Frischbutter, A.; Medvedev, E.; Scheffzük, Ch.; Schebetov, A.

    At beam line 7A of the pulsed reactor IBR-2 (JINR Dubna) the strain diffractometer EPSILON has been working for several years. Due to a flight path of 102m a good resolution (Δd/d<3×10-3) was achieved. Nevertheless, further improvements of the instrument were required because of intended studies on geological samples. The modernisation of EPSILON is a renewal of the whole recording system, including collimators and detectors. The two previously used Soller collimators are replaced by nine radial collimators. Each collimator consists of 48 gadolinium oxide coated mylar foils with an angular distance of about 20' of arc to each other and therefore covers a range of nearly 16° for 2Θ. In the other direction a range of about 18° is covered. Three collimators in each case are grouped into a unit covering 66° in the plane perpendicular to the incident beam. Single 3He counter tubes with a diameter of 10mm and an active length of 120mm are used. Each collimator/detector block is mounted on a ring carrier with its surface perpendicular to the incident neutron beam. All blocks have the possibility of adjustment in three directions. The transparency of the collimators is about 90-95%.

  19. High Precision Polarimetry of the Epsilon Aurigae Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane

    2013-07-01

    Polarimetry of the epsilon Aurigae eclipse has the potential to discern the stellar latitude occulted by the companion's dusty disk, which may directly test interferometric results. In addition, the limb polarization of the primary star may be measured, which is an effect predicted by S. Chandrasekhar and verified by spatially resolved observations of the Sun. I will present B band, polarimetric observations of epsilon Aurigae taken over six nights in September and October 2009 using the POLISH high precision polarimeter at the Lick 3-m telescope. Polarimetric precision achieved during each night is of order 1 part in 10^5. Extensive post-eclipse observations have been taken with the significantly upgraded POLISH2 polarimeter at Lick Observatory. This instrument simultaneously measures all four Stokes parameters (I, Q, U, and V) and achieves precision within 2.0 times the photon shot noise limit over an entire observing run. This work is supported by a NExScI Sagan Fellowship, UC Lab Fees Research Grant, and UCO/Lick Observatory.

  20. Ultraviolet observations of cool stars. IV - Intensities of Lyman-alpha and Mg II in epsilon Pegasi and epsilon Eridani, and line width-luminosity correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclintock, W.; Linsky, J. L.; Henry, R. C.; Moos, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    A spectrometer on the Copernicus satellite has been used to confirm the existence of a line width-luminosity relation for the Ly-alpha and Mg II 2800-A chromospheric emission lines in K-type stars by observation of a K2 dwarf (epsilon Eri) and a K2 supergiant (epsilon Peg). Combined with previously reported observations of lines in three K giants (alpha Boo, alpha Tau, and beta Gem), the data are consistent with an identical dependence of line width on absolute visual magnitude for the Ca II K, Ly-alpha, and Mg II 2795-A lines. Surface fluxes of Ly-alpha, Mg II 2800-A, and O V 1218-A (upper limit) for epsilon Eri, and of Mg II 2800-A for epsilon Peg are also compared with values reported previously for the three giant stars.

  1. The strong isospin-breaking correction for the gluonic penguin contribution to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon} at next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Carl E.; Maltman, Kim

    2001-01-01

    The strong isospin-breaking correction {Omega}{sub st}, which appears in estimates of the standard model value for the direct CP-violating ratio {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}, is evaluated to next-to-leading order (NLO) in the chiral expansion using chiral perturbation theory. The relevant linear combinations of the unknown NLO CP-odd weak low-energy constants (LEC's) which, in combination with one-loop and strong LEC contributions, are required for a complete determination at this order, are estimated using two different models. It is found that, to NLO, {Omega}{sub st}=0.08{+-}0.05, significantly reduced from the ''standard'' value, 0.25{+-}0.08, employed in recent analyses. The potentially significant numerical impact of this decrease on standard model predictions for {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}, associated with the decreased cancellation between gluonic penguin and electroweak penguin contributions, is also discussed.

  2. Quantitative comparison of FBP, EM, and Bayesian reconstruction algorithms for the IndyPET scanner.

    PubMed

    Frese, Thomas; Rouze, Ned C; Bouman, Charles A; Sauer, Ken; Hutchins, Gary D

    2003-02-01

    We quantitatively compare filtered backprojection (FBP), expectation-maximization (EM), and Bayesian reconstruction algorithms as applied to the IndyPET scanner--a dedicated research scanner which has been developed for small and intermediate field of view imaging applications. In contrast to previous approaches that rely on Monte Carlo simulations, a key feature of our investigation is the use of an empirical system kernel determined from scans of line source phantoms. This kernel is incorporated into the forward model of the EM and Bayesian algorithms to achieve resolution recovery. Three data sets are used, data collected on the IndyPET scanner using a bar phantom and a Hoffman three-dimensional brain phantom, and simulated data containing a hot lesion added to a uniform background. Reconstruction quality is analyzed quantitatively in terms of bias-variance measures (bar phantom) and mean square error (lesion phantom). We observe that without use of the empirical system kernel, the FBP, EM, and Bayesian algorithms give similar performance. However, with the inclusion of the empirical kernel, the iterative algorithms provide superior reconstructions compared with FBP, both in terms of visual quality and quantitative measures. Furthermore, Bayesian methods outperform EM. We conclude that significant improvements in reconstruction quality can be realized by combining accurate models of the system response with Bayesian reconstruction algorithms. PMID:12716002

  3. Real-time in-die compaction monitoring of dry-coated tablets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingfei; Stephens, James D; Kowalczyk, Brian R; Cetinkaya, Cetin

    2011-07-29

    The practicability of a pulse-echo ultrasonic approach developed for the real-time quality monitoring of dry-coated tablets in the tablet press during compaction is evaluated. The punch-tablet interface (i.e., steel-tablet) is the boundary condition that dictates the viability of acoustic in-die compaction monitoring. The current study utilizes compacted tablets with a simulated punch-tablet interface to achieve the required waveform detectability levels needed for in-die compaction monitoring. The geometric and mechanical properties of a dry-coated tablet are crucial to its structural functions and therapeutic effectiveness, therefore they are monitored especially when the control of dissolution rates of their active ingredients are critically important. Acquired pulse-echo ultrasonic waveforms in the tablet could provide the time-of-flight information needed to determine the thickness, elasticity and/or integrity of the relevant layer, and bonding quality between layers depending on the given parameters. Since the amplitudes of the reflected waves are extremely low due to the high acoustic impedance mismatches of tablet materials and die/punch materials, signal processing techniques are required to extract the wave arrival times. In current study, it is demonstrated that the reflection of an ultrasonic pulse generated by a transducer embedded in a die or a punch from the coat-core interface can be acquired by the same transducer. PMID:21605647

  4. epsilon-N-trimethyllysine availability regulates the rate of carnitine biosynthesis in the growing rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rebouche, C.J.; Lehman, L.J.; Olson, L.

    1986-05-01

    Rates of carnitine biosynthesis in mammals depend on the availability of substrates and the activity of enzymes subserving the pathway. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the availability of epsilon-N-trimethyllysine is rate-limiting for synthesis of carnitine in the growing rat and to evaluate diet as a source of this precursor for carnitine biosynthesis. Rats apparently absorbed greater than 90% of a tracer dose of (methyl-/sup 3/H)epsilon-N-trimethyllysine, and approximately 30% of that was incorporated into tissues as (/sup 3/H)carnitine. Rats given oral supplements of epsilon-N-trimethyllysine (0.5-20 mg/d), but no dietary carnitine, excreted more carnitine than control animals receiving no dietary epsilon-N-trimethyllysine or carnitine. Rates of carnitine excretion increased in a dose-dependent manner. Tissue and serum levels of carnitine also increased with dietary epsilon-N-trimethyllysine supplementation. There was no evidence that the capacity for carnitine biosynthesis was saturated even at the highest level of oral epsilon-N-trimethyllysine supplementation. Common dietary proteins (casein, soy protein and wheat gluten) were found to be poor sources of epsilon-N-trimethyllysine for carnitine biosynthesis. The results of this study indicate that the availability of epsilon-N-trimethyllysine limits the rate of carnitine biosynthesis in the growing rat.

  5. Quality Management in Course Development and Delivery at the University of the West Indies Distance Education Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurab-Nkhosi, Dianne; Marshall, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In 2004, the University of the West Indies Distance Education Centre (UWIDEC) began incorporating the use of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the delivery of its programmes and courses, taking a "blended learning" approach. There is a recognition, however, of the need to ensure the quality of the programme…

  6. Botanical remedies of the former Dutch East Indies (Indonesia). Part I: Eumycetes, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae, Angiospermae (Monocotyledones only).

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, H H

    1983-03-01

    The botanical remedies reported in Heyne's De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indië (Volumes 1--IV, 1913--1922) have been screened out of economic botanical context, translated into English and summarized as a table of names, therapeutic indications, plant parts, and available details of preparation and use. PMID:6345940

  7. Botanical remedies of the former Dutch East Indies (Indonesia). Part II: Dicotyledones up to and including leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, H H

    1983-07-01

    The botanical remedies reported in Heyne's De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indië (Volumes I-IV, 1913-1922) have been screened out of economic botanical context, translated into English and summarized as a table of names, therapeutic indications, plant parts, and available details of preparation and use. PMID:6632938

  8. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Preference of Preschool Children in the West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopaul-McNicol, Sharon-Ann

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the racial attitudes of 302 preschool children in the West Indies whose racial preference was tested using black and white Cabbage Patch dolls. Standard Clark doll questions, plus four researcher-supplied questions, were individually administered. Findings show that 71.9 percent of the children chose to play with a white doll,…

  9. The 5' flanking region of human epsilon-globin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Baralle, F E; Shoulders, C C; Goodbourn, S; Jeffreys, A; Proudfoot, N J

    1980-01-01

    The structural analysis of the 2.0 kb region upstream from the epsilon-globin gene has been carried out. A genomic DNA map around the gene was worked out in some detail to ensure that the cloned DNA was representative of the actual chromosomal arrangement. Furthermore, a new technique was developed to precisely map a reiterated DNA sequence present 1.5 kb to the 5' side of the gene. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 2.0 kb 5' flanking region was then determined and overlapped with the gene. The sequence included the reiterated DNA sequence which is homologous to the so-called AluI family of repeats. Unusual stretches of sequence 50 nucleotides long, where A + T represent about 90% of the bases, are present at both the 5' and 3' sides of the repeat. Images PMID:6253916

  10. Scattered light in the IUE spectra of Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altner, B.; Chapman, R. D.; Kondo, Y.; Stencel, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Recent infrared photometry indicates that the alleged disk of particulate matter surrounding the mysterious secondary object in the Epsilon Aur system is cold, around 500 K. IUE spectra, on the other hand, contain significant flux in excess of that expected from an F0 Ia star in the far UV, which if interpreted as a hot secondary star leads to a possible contradiction with the IR data. Other models of the UV excess have been proposed, including the idea that the bulk of the short-wavelength flux is light scattered into the SWP camera from longer wavelengths. With the recent availability of a detailed generalized IUE descattering algorithm it is possible to thoroughly investigate the scattered-light contribution to the short-wavelength continuum. It is found that the IUE spectra are indeed partially contaminated by scattered light, but that even after correction for this instrumental effect a significant time-dependent UV excess is still present.

  11. Preferential emission into epsilon-near-zero metamaterial [Invited

    SciTech Connect

    Galfsky, Tal; Sun, Zheng; Jacob, Zubin; Menon, Vinod M.

    2015-11-23

    We report the use of epsilon near zero (ENZ) metamaterial to control spontaneous emission from Zinc-Oxide (ZnO) excitons. The ENZ material consists of alternating layers of silver and alumina with subwavelength thicknesses, resulting in an effective medium where one of the components of the dielectric constant approach zero between 370nm-440nm wavelength range. Bulk ZnO with photoluminescence maximum in the ENZ regime was deposited via atomic layer deposition to obtain a smooth film with near field coupling to the ENZ metamaterial. Preferential emission from the ZnO layer into the metamaterial with suppression of forward emission by 90% in comparison to ZnO on silicon is observed. We attribute this observation to the presence of dispersionless plasmonic modes in the ENZ regime as shown by the results of theoretical modeling presented here. Integration of ENZ metamaterials with light emitters is an attractive platform for realizing a low threshold subwavelength laser.

  12. The mid-ultraviolet spectrum of Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, F.; Hoekstra, R.; Kondo, Y.

    1982-01-01

    An LTE synthetic spectrum with Te = 7800 K and log g = 1 has been computed for the 2455-to-3230 A range of Epsilon Aurigae (F0 1a). This has been compared with the spectra observed with 0.2 A resolution with the IUE experiment and with 0.1 A resolution with the BUSS experiment. As a consequence of this comparison, identifications and abundance values have been obtained. Ions definitely present include Mg I, Mg II, Al I, Al II, Si I, Ca II, Ti II, V II, Cr II, Mn II, Fe I, Fe II, Co II, Ni I, Ni II, Zr II. Ions which are possibly present include Ti III, Mn I, Fe III, Nb II, Mo I. The abundances are nearly 10 times the solar values for the iron group, with the exception of Fe, which has solar abundance. The abundances of the other elements are solar.

  13. Terahertz epsilon-near-zero graded-index lens.

    PubMed

    Torres, Víctor; Pacheco-Peña, Víctor; Rodríguez-Ulibarri, Pablo; Navarro-Cía, Miguel; Beruete, Miguel; Sorolla, Mario; Engheta, Nader

    2013-04-01

    An epsilon-near-zero graded-index converging lens with planar faces is proposed and analyzed. Each perfectly-electric conducting (PEC) waveguide comprising the lens operates slightly above its cut-off frequency and has the same length but different cross-sectional dimensions. This allows controlling individually the propagation constant and the normalized characteristic impedance of each waveguide for the desired phase front at the lens output while Fresnel reflection losses are minimized. A complete theoretical analysis based on the waveguide theory and Fermat's principle is provided. This is complemented with numerical simulation results of two-dimensional and three-dimensional lenses, made of PEC and aluminum, respectively, and working in the terahertz regime, which show good agreement with the analytical work. PMID:23572004

  14. K-epsilon models of the lower overshoot layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovay, K.

    Apart from the solar core, the overshoot layer below the convective zone is the layer where some discrepancies between the standard and seismic solar models continue to exist. Non-local mixing length models are in clear conflict with the seismic evidence. A major difficulty for the development of more sophisticated models is the large degree of arbitrariness in formulating expressions for input parameters like the length scale. We propose that the application of the k-epsilon modelling approach, widely used in physics and engineering, could help in alleviating these difficulties. We present some simple overshoot models calculated with this approach, and we point out that the resulting expression of the length scale naturally reduces to the usual mixing length expression (proportional to the pressure scale height) well inside the convectively unstable region. Implications for the solar Li problem and for dynamo theory will also be discussed.

  15. Data Evaluation for 56Co epsilon + beta+ Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.; MacMahon, T. Desmond

    2005-02-28

    Recommended values for nuclear and atomic data pertaining to the {var_epsilon} + {beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 56}Co are provided here, followed by comments on evaluation procedures and a summary of all available experimental data. {sup 56}Co is a radionuclide which is potentially very useful for Ge detector efficiency calibration because it is readily produced via the {sup 56}Fe(p,n) reaction, its half-life of 77.24 days is conveniently long, and it provides a number of relatively strong {gamma} rays with energies up to {approx}3500 keV. The transition intensities recommended here for the strongest lines will be included in the forthcoming International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Programme document ''Update of X- and Gamma-ray Decay Data Standards for Detector Calibration and Other Applications'', and the analysis for all transitions along with relevant atomic data have been provided to the Decay Data Evaluation Project.

  16. Shock initiation of an {epsilon}-CL-20-estane formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C.M.; Simpson, R.L.; Urtiew, P.A.

    1995-07-19

    The shock sensitivity of a pressed solid explosive formulation, LX-19, containing 95.2% by weight epsilon phase 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW) and 4.8% Estane binder, was determined using the wedge test and embedded manganin pressure gauge techniques. This formulation was shown to be slightly more sensitive than LX-14, which contains 95.5% HMX and 4.5% Estane binder. The measured pressure histories for LX-19 were very similar to those obtained using several HMX-inert binder formulations. An Ignition and Growth reactive model for LX-19 was developed which differed from those for HMX-inert binder formulations only by a 25% higher hot spot growth rate.

  17. Shock initiation of an {epsilon}-CL-20-estane formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C.M.; Simpson, R.L.; Urtiew, P.A.

    1996-05-01

    The shock sensitivity of a pressed solid explosive formulation, LX-19, containing 95.2{percent} by weight epsilon phase 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW) and 4.8{percent} Estane binder, was determined using the wedge test and embedded manganin pressure gauge techniques. This formulation was shown to be slightly more sensitive than LX-14, which contains 95.5{percent} HMX and 4.5{percent} Estane binder. The measured pressure histories for LX-19 were very similar to those obtained using several HMX-inert binder formulations. An Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for LX-19 was developed which differed from those for HMX-inert binder formulations only by a 25{percent} higher hot spot growth rate. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Differential regulation of alternative 3{prime} splicing of {epsilon} messenger RNA variants

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Sanchez, D.; Zhang, K.; Saxon, A.

    1995-08-15

    Alternative 3{prime} splicing of the one active human {epsilon} heavy chain gene results in variants of {epsilon} mRNA encoding distinct IgE proteins. The same relative amounts of these {epsilon} mRNA variants were produced by non-atopic donor B cells when driven in a variety of T-dependent or T-independent systems. The most abundant variants were those for classic secreted {epsilon} and a novel secreted form (CH4-M2{double_prime}). In contrast, cells from subjects with high levels of serum IgE secondary to parasitic infection or atopy spontaneously produced higher relative levels of the CH4-M2{prime} {epsilon} mRNA variant, lower relative amounts of both the membrane and CH4-M2{double_prime} secreted variants, and very low levels of the CH4{prime}-CH5 variant. The existence of and corresponding changes in levels of the CH4-M2{prime}-enclosed secreted protein were demonstrated. IL-10 induced this same differential expression of {epsilon} splice variants in vitro when used to costimulate IL-4 plus CD40-driven B cells and could differentially enhance the production of CH4-M2{prime} protein by established IgE-secreting cell lines. Inhibition of IgE by cross-linking the low affinity IgE receptor (CD23) decreased the levels of {epsilon} mRNA and resulted in a distinct pattern of {epsilon} mRNA characterized by a dramatic decrease in CH4-M2{prime} splice variant. IL-6, IL-2, or IFN-{gamma} did not change the {epsilon} mRNA pattern. Overall, the absolute and relative amounts of the different {epsilon} mRNA splice variants produced appear to be controlled in a differentiation-related fashion.

  19. Binding of epsilon-toxin from Clostridium perfringens in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dorca-Arévalo, Jonatan; Soler-Jover, Alex; Gibert, Maryse; Popoff, Michel R; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Blasi, Juan

    2008-09-18

    Epsilon-toxin (epsilon-toxin), produced by Clostridium perfringens type D, is the main agent responsible for enterotoxaemia in livestock. Neurological disorders are a characteristic of the onset of toxin poisoning. Epsilon-Toxin accumulates specifically in the central nervous system, where it produces a glutamatergic-mediated excitotoxic effect. However, no detailed study of putative binding structures in the nervous tissue has been carried out to date. Here we attempt to identify specific acceptor moieties and cell targets for epsilon-toxin, not only in the mouse nervous system but also in the brains of sheep and cattle. An epsilon-toxin-GFP fusion protein was produced and used to incubate brain sections, which were then analyzed by confocal microscopy. The results clearly show specific binding of epsilon-toxin to myelin structures. epsilon-Prototoxin-GFP and epsilon-toxin-GFP, the inactive and active forms of the toxin, respectively, showed identical results. By means of pronase E treatment, we found that the binding was mainly associated to a protein component of the myelin. Myelinated peripheral nerve fibres were also stained by epsilon-toxin. Moreover, the binding to myelin was not only restricted to rodents, but was also found in humans, sheep and cattle. Curiously, in the brains of both sheep and cattle, the toxin strongly stained the vascular endothelium, a result that may explain the differences in potency and effect between species. Although the binding of epsilon-toxin to myelin does not directly explain its neurotoxic effect, this feature opens up a new line of enquiry into its mechanism of toxicity and establishes the usefulness of this toxin for the study of the mammalian nervous system. PMID:18406080

  20. Prevention of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance by second generation antisense oligonucleotides targeted to the longevity gene mIndy (Slc13a5)

    PubMed Central

    Pesta, Dominik H.; Perry, Rachel J.; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Zhang, Dongyan; Jurczak, Michael; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Daniels, Martin A.; Willmes, Diana M.; Bhanot, Sanjay; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Knauf, Felix; Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the expression of the Indy (I'm Not Dead Yet) gene in lower organisms extends life span by mechanisms resembling caloric restriction. Similarly, deletion of the mammalian homolog, mIndy (Slc13a5), encoding for a plasma membrane tricarboxylate transporter, protects from aging- and diet-induced adiposity and insulin resistance in mice. The organ specific contribution to this phenotype is unknown. We examined the impact of selective inducible hepatic knockdown of mIndy on whole body lipid and glucose metabolism using 2′-O-methoxyethyl chimeric anti-sense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in high-fat fed rats. 4-week treatment with 2′-O-methoxyethyl chimeric ASO reduced mIndy mRNA expression by 91% (P<0.001) compared to control ASO. Besides similar body weights between both groups, mIndy-ASO treatment lead to a 74% reduction in fasting plasma insulin concentrations as well as a 35% reduction in plasma triglycerides. Moreover, hepatic triglyceride content was significantly reduced by the knockdown of mIndy, likely mediating a trend to decreased basal rates of endogenous glucose production as well as an increased suppression of hepatic glucose production by 25% during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Together, these data suggest that inducible liver-selective reduction of mIndy in rats is able to ameliorate hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, conditions occurring with high calorie diets and during aging. PMID:26647160

  1. Prevention of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance by second generation antisense oligonucleotides targeted to the longevity gene mIndy (Slc13a5).

    PubMed

    Pesta, Dominik H; Perry, Rachel J; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Zhang, Dongyan; Jurczak, Michael; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Daniels, Martin A; Willmes, Diana M; Bhanot, Sanjay; Bornstein, Stefan R; Knauf, Felix; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I; Birkenfeld, Andreas L

    2015-12-01

    Reducing the expression of the Indy (I'm Not Dead Yet) gene in lower organisms extends life span by mechanisms resembling caloric restriction. Similarly, deletion of the mammalian homolog, mIndy (Slc13a5), encoding for a plasma membrane tricarboxylate transporter, protects from aging- and diet-induced adiposity and insulin resistance in mice. The organ specific contribution to this phenotype is unknown. We examined the impact of selective inducible hepatic knockdown of mIndy on whole body lipid and glucose metabolism using 2'-O-methoxyethyl chimeric anti-sense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in high-fat fed rats. 4-week treatment with 2'-O-methoxyethyl chimeric ASO reduced mIndy mRNA expression by 91% (P=0.001) compared to control ASO. Besides similar body weights between both groups, mIndy-ASO treatment lead to a 74% reduction in fasting plasma insulin concentrations as well as a 35% reduction in plasma triglycerides. Moreover, hepatic triglyceride content was significantly reduced by the knockdown of mIndy, likely mediating a trend to decreased basal rates of endogenous glucose production as well as an increased suppression of hepatic glucose production by 25% during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Together, these data suggest that inducible liver-selective reduction of mIndy in rats is able to ameliorate hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, conditions occurring with high calorie diets and during aging. PMID:26647160

  2. Constraints from Asymmetric Heating: Investigating the Epsilon Aurigae Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Richard L., III; Stencel, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Epsilon Aurigae is a long-period eclipsing binary that likely contains an F0Ia star and a circumstellar disk enshrouding a hidden companion, assumed to be a main-sequence B star. High uncertainty in its parallax has kept the evolutionary status of the system in question and, hence, the true nature of each component. This unknown, as well as the absence of solid state spectral features in the infrared, requires an investigation of a wide parameter space by means of both analytic and Monte Carlo radiative transfer (MCRT) methods. The first MCRT models of epsilon Aurigae that include all three system components are presented here. We seek additional system parameter constraints by melding analytic approximations with MCRT outputs (e.g., dust temperatures) on a first-order level. The MCRT models investigate the effects of various parameters on the disk-edge temperatures; these include two distances, three particle size distributions, three compositions, and two disk masses, resulting in 36 independent models. Specifically, the MCRT temperatures permit analytic calculations of effective heating and cooling curves along the disk edge. These are used to calculate representative observed fluxes and corresponding temperatures. This novel application of thermal properties provides the basis for utilization of other binary systems containing disks. We find degeneracies in the model fits for the various parameter sets. However, the results show a preference for a carbon disk with particle size distributions >=10 μm. Additionally, a linear correlation between the MCRT noon and basal temperatures serves as a tool for effectively eliminating portions of the parameter space.

  3. Campaign Photometry During The 2010 Eclipse Of Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Jeff; Stencel, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    Epsilon Aurigae is a long period (27.1 years) eclipsing binary star system with an eclipse that lasts nearly 2 years, but with severe ambiguities about component masses and shape. The current eclipse began on schedule in August of 2009. During the previous, 1982-1984 eclipse, an International Campaign was formed to coordinate a detailed study of the system. While that Campaign was deemed successful, the evolutionary status of the star system remained unclear. Epsilon Aurigae has been observed nearly continuously since the 1982 eclipse. The current Campaign was officially started in 2006. In addition to a Yahoo forum we have a dedicated web site and more than 18 online newsletters reporting photometry, spectroscopy, interferometry and polarimetry data. High quality UBVRIJH band photometric data since before the start of the current eclipse has been submitted. We explore the color differences among the light curves in terms of eclipse phases and archival data. At least one new model of the star system has been proposed since the current Campaign began: a low mass but very high luminosity F star plus a B star surrounded by a debris disk. The current eclipse and in particular the interferometry and spectroscopic data have caused new thoughts on defining eclipsing variable star contact points and phases of an eclipse. Second contact may not be the same point as start of totality and third contact may not be the same point as the start of egress and end of totality. In addition, the much awaited mid-eclipse brightening may or may not have appeared. This paper identifies the current Campaign contributors and the photometric data. This work was supported in part by the bequest of William Herschel Womble in support of astronomy at the University of Denver, by NSF grant 1016678 to the University of Denver.

  4. CONSTRAINTS FROM ASYMMETRIC HEATING: INVESTIGATING THE EPSILON AURIGAE DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Richard L. III; Stencel, Robert E. E-mail: robert.stencel@du.edu

    2015-01-01

    Epsilon Aurigae is a long-period eclipsing binary that likely contains an F0Ia star and a circumstellar disk enshrouding a hidden companion, assumed to be a main-sequence B star. High uncertainty in its parallax has kept the evolutionary status of the system in question and, hence, the true nature of each component. This unknown, as well as the absence of solid state spectral features in the infrared, requires an investigation of a wide parameter space by means of both analytic and Monte Carlo radiative transfer (MCRT) methods. The first MCRT models of epsilon Aurigae that include all three system components are presented here. We seek additional system parameter constraints by melding analytic approximations with MCRT outputs (e.g., dust temperatures) on a first-order level. The MCRT models investigate the effects of various parameters on the disk-edge temperatures; these include two distances, three particle size distributions, three compositions, and two disk masses, resulting in 36 independent models. Specifically, the MCRT temperatures permit analytic calculations of effective heating and cooling curves along the disk edge. These are used to calculate representative observed fluxes and corresponding temperatures. This novel application of thermal properties provides the basis for utilization of other binary systems containing disks. We find degeneracies in the model fits for the various parameter sets. However, the results show a preference for a carbon disk with particle size distributions ≥10 μm. Additionally, a linear correlation between the MCRT noon and basal temperatures serves as a tool for effectively eliminating portions of the parameter space.

  5. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    PubMed

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  6. Arylhydrocarbon receptor-dependent mIndy (Slc13a5) induction as possible contributor to benzo[a]pyrene-induced lipid accumulation in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Neuschäfer-Rube, Frank; Schraplau, Anne; Schewe, Bettina; Lieske, Stefanie; Krützfeldt, Julia-Mignon; Ringel, Sebastian; Henkel, Janin; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Püschel, Gerhard P

    2015-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a growing problem in industrialized and developing countries. Hepatic lipid accumulation is the result of an imbalance between fatty acid uptake, fatty acid de novo synthesis, β-oxidation and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the hepatocyte. A central regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism is cytosolic citrate that can either be derived from the mitochondrium or be taken up from the blood via the plasma membrane sodium citrate transporter NaCT, the product of the mammalian INDY gene (SLC13A5). mINDY ablation protects against diet-induced steatosis whereas mINDY expression is increased in patients with hepatic steatosis. Diet-induced hepatic steatosis is also enhanced by activation of the arylhyrocarbon receptor (AhR) both in humans and animal models. Therefore, the hypothesis was tested whether the mINDY gene might be a target of the AhR. In accordance with such a hypothesis, the AhR activator benzo[a]pyrene induced the mINDY expression in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes in an AhR-dependent manner. This induction resulted in an increased citrate uptake and citrate incorporation into lipids which probably was further enhanced by the benzo[a]pyrene-dependent induction of key enzymes of fatty acid synthesis. A potential AhR binding site was identified in the mINDY promoter that appears to be conserved in the human promoter. Elimination or mutation of this site largely abolished the activation of the mINDY promoter by benzo[a]pyrene. This study thus identified the mINDY as an AhR target gene. AhR-dependent induction of the mINDY gene might contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis. PMID:26303333

  7. epsilon-Poly-L: -lysine producer, Streptomyces albulus, has feedback-inhibition resistant aspartokinase.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Y; Nicchu, I; Shimizu, T; Onji, Y; Hiraki, J; Takagi, H

    2007-09-01

    Streptomyces albulus NBRC14147 produces epsilon-poly-L: -lysine (epsilon-PL), which is an amino acid homopolymer antibiotic. Despite the commercial importance of epsilon-PL, limited information is available regarding its biosynthesis; the L: -lysine molecule is directly utilized for epsilon-PL biosynthesis. In most bacteria, L: -lysine is biosynthesized by an aspartate pathway. Aspartokinase (Ask), which is the first enzyme in this pathway, is subject to complex regulation such as through feedback inhibition by the end-product amino acids such as L: -lysine and/or L: -threonine. S. albulus NBRC14147 can produce a large amount of epsilon-PL (1-3 g/l). We therefore suspected that Ask(s) of S. albulus could be resistant to feedback inhibition to provide sufficient L: -lysine for epsilon-PL biosynthesis. To address this hypothesis, in this study, we cloned the ask gene from S. albulus and investigated the feedback inhibition of its gene product. As predicted, we revealed the feedback resistance of the Ask; more than 20% relative activity of Ask was detected in the assay mixture even with extremely high concentrations of L: -lysine and L: -threonine (100 mM each). We further constructed a mutated ask gene for which the gene product Ask (M68V) is almost fully resistant to feedback inhibition. The homologous expression of Ask (M68V) further demonstrated the increase in epsilon-PL productivity. PMID:17611754

  8. Antibacterial functionalization of wool via mTGase-catalyzed grafting of epsilon-poly-L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Jin, Guibiao; Fan, Xuerong; Zhao, Xianfei; Cui, Li; Wang, Ping

    2010-04-01

    epsilon-Poly-L-lysine (epsilon-PL), a natural biomacromolecule having a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, was grafted on the wool fiber via the acyl transfer reaction catalyzed by microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) to develop a new strategy for antibacterial functionalization of proteinous materials. The effects of the concentrations of epsilon-PLs and mTGases on the graft yields were investigated. A coating of epsilon-PL that almost completely covered the scale profile on the wool surface was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and further demonstrated in terms of Allwörden's reaction characteristic of wool. Identifiable differences in lysine content and color depth among the stained wool samples reveal the changes in the surface composition and polarity caused by the incorporation of epsilon-PL onto the wool substrate, respectively. The ratio of bacteriostasis to Escherichia coli of the wool fabric grafting epsilon-PL reached 96.6 %, indicating an excellent antibacterial effect. The application of epsilon-PL and corresponding mTGase-catalyzed grafting reaction would provide a worthwhile reference for antibacterial functionalization of proteinous materials in various forms. PMID:19649747

  9. Selection of a Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin producer via dot-blot test.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Luciana A; Lobato, Zélia I P; Silva, Rodrigo O S; Salvarani, Felipe M; Pires, Prhiscylla S; Assis, Ronnie A; Lobato, Francisco C F

    2009-11-01

    Clostridium perfringens type D produces enterotoxemia, an enteric disease in ruminants, also known as pulpy kidney disease. Caused by epsilon toxin, enterotoxemia is a major exotoxin produced by this microorganism. Epsilon toxin is also the main component of vaccines against this enteric disorder. In this study, a standardized dot-blot was used to choose strains of C. perfringens type D that are producers of epsilon toxin. Clones producing epsilon toxin were chosen by limiting dilution; after three passages, lethal minimum dose titers were determined by soroneutralization test in mice. These clones produced epsilon toxin 240 times more concentrated than the original strain. The presence of the epsilon toxin gene (etx) was verified by polymerase chain reaction. All clones were positive, including those determined to be negative by dot-blot tests, suggesting that mechanisms in addition to the presence of the etx gene can influence toxin production. The dot-blot test was efficient for the selection of toxigenic colonies of C. perfringens type D and demonstrated that homogeneous populations selected from toxigenic cultures produce higher titers of epsilon toxin. PMID:19779698

  10. Clostridium perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in cattle: the diagnostic significance of intestinal epsilon toxin.

    PubMed

    Jones, A L; Dagleish, M P; Caldow, G L

    2015-10-17

    The aims of this study were to describe 42 cases of Clostridium perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in cattle seen between 2003 and 2014 and to determine the diagnostic value of detecting epsilon toxin in bovine intestinal content. All cases in the series had histological brain changes considered pathognomonic for C. perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in sheep and goats and the epsilon toxin of C. perfringens was concurrently detected in the intestinal contents of 15 (36 per cent) cases. The data from the case series indicate that intestinal epsilon toxin has a sensitivity of 56 per cent compared with histology of the brain for diagnosis of bovine C. perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia. The diagnostic specificity of detecting epsilon toxin in bovine intestinal content was investigated by screening intestinal contents of 60 bovine carcases submitted for postmortem examination. Epsilon toxin was detected in 11 (18 per cent) carcases but no pathognomonic histological brain change was found in any. The specificity of intestinal epsilon toxin was estimated to be 80.4 per cent. These studies demonstrate that for a definitive diagnosis of C. perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in cattle histological examination of the brain is essential as the presence of epsilon toxin in the intestinal contents alone is neither sensitive nor specific enough. PMID:26428898

  11. [Military veterinary services in the former Dutch East Indies 1849-1950].

    PubMed

    Steltenpool, Bas

    2008-01-01

    The former Dutch colony is a vast archipelago and Java was the center of the Dutch colonial authority. In the outlying districts this authority had lesser influence. The army had a double task, at the one hand the protection of Java against foreign aggression and on the other hand police actions in the outlying districts. As usual during the 19th century, the army used animals, principally horses, but elephants were also used for provisioning the remote districts. In the beginning the veterinary care was in the hands of empiricists, but in 1830 the first officer horsedoctor was active and little by little a military veterinary service was developed and well trained vets came to the colony They were at the basis of the development of; veternnary medicine in the Dutch East Indies. PMID:20642140

  12. Evolution of in vitro fertilization at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Pottinger, A M; Everett-Keane, D; McKenzie, C

    2012-07-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) provides hope for many couples who believed that they could not have children. This paper tracks the development of IVF treatment at The University of the West Indies (UWI), Mona, from its genesis in 2000. It highlights changes over the years in the population seeking IVF at UWI, Mona, and describes clinical services offered to clients, comparing success rates of services internationally. It also reports on seminal research emerging out of UWI, Mona, in the field of assisted reproductive health. The Hugh Wynter Fertility Management Unit (HWFMU), UWI, Mona, leads the way in shaping how society views those challenged with infertility and in its use of assisted reproductive technologies that improve the quality of life for many locally, within the Caribbean and the Diaspora. PMID:23240486

  13. Transcription in vivo of an Alu family member upstream from the human epsilon-globin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Allan, M; Paul, J

    1984-01-01

    The more distal Alu repeat flanking the epsilon-globin gene is transcribed in K562 cells to generate transcripts 350-400 nucleotides in length. Initiation occurs at the start of the repeat, upstream of a putative PolIII control signal. These transcripts originate from the strand which does not code epsilon-globin and are oriented in the opposite direction from the gene. They are non-polyadenylated, nucleus-confined and are only detectable in association with expression of the epsilon-globin gene. Images PMID:6320117

  14. Simulations of free shear layers using a compressible kappa-epsilon model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, S. T.; Chang, C. T.; Marek, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equation with a k-epsilon turbulence model is solved numerically to simulate the flow of a compressible free shear layer. The appropriate form of k and epsilon equations for compressible flow is discussed. Sarkar's modeling is adopted to simulate the compressibility effects in the k and epsilon equations. The numerical results show that the spreading rate of the shear layers decreases with increasing convective Mach number. In addition, favorable comparison was found between the calculated results and experimental data.

  15. Electrically Tunable Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Metafilm Absorbers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Junghyun; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Liu, Xiaoge; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing and spectrally controlling light absorption is of great practical and fundamental importance. In optoelectronic devices consisting of layered semiconductors and metals, absorption has traditionally been manipulated with the help of Fabry-Pérot resonances. Even further control over the spectral light absorption properties of thin films has been achieved by patterning them into dense arrays of subwavelength resonant structures to form metafilms. As the next logical step, we demonstrate electrical control over light absorption in metafilms constructed from dense arrays of actively tunable plasmonic cavities. This control is achieved by embedding indium tin oxide (ITO) into these cavities. ITO affords significant tuning of its optical properties by means of electrically-induced carrier depletion and accumulation. We demonstrate that particularly large changes in the reflectance from such metafilms (up to 15% P) can be achieved by operating the ITO in the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) frequency regime where its electrical permittivity changes sign from negative to positive values. PMID:26549615

  16. Infrared Studies of Epsilon Aurigae in Eclipse 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stencel, Robert E.; Kloppenborg, B.; Wall, R.; Howell, S.; Hoard, D.; Rayner, J.; Bus, S.; Tokunaga, A.; Sitko, M.; Russell, R.; Lynch, D.; Brafford, S.; Hammel, H.; Whitney, B.; Orton, G.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Hora, J.; Hoffman, W.; Skemer, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a series of observations of the enigmatic long period eclipsing binary epsilon Aurigae during its eclipse interval 2009-2011, using near-infrared spectra & photometry obtained with SpeX/IRTF, Spitzer/IRAC, mid-infrared data with BASS on IRTF & AEOS, MIRSI on IRTF and MIRAC4 on MMT, along with MIRSI on IRTF and MIRAC4 on MMT & Denver's TNTCAM2 at WIRO, and an Optec SSP-4 J&H photometer at Mt.Evans Observatory. The objective of these observations include: (1) confirm the appearance of CO absorption bands at and after mid-eclipse, due to the dark disk, and (2) seek evidence for any mid-infrared solid state spectral features from particles in the disk, seen during different portions of total eclipse. The results to date show that the infrared eclipse is less deep than the optical one, and the implied disk temperature has begun to increase from 550K toward 1100K as eclipse progresses past midpoint and heated portions of the disk come into view. Material properties of the disk are consistent with large particles. This work was supported in part by the bequest of William Herschel Womble in support of astronomy at the University of Denver, by NSF grant 1016678 and JPL RSA 1414715 to the University of Denver, by NASA ADP grant NNX09AC73G to the University of Cincinnati, by The Aerospace Corporation's Independent Research and Development Program.

  17. Citizen Sky, Solving the Mystery of epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Rebecca; Price, A.; Kloppenborg, B.; Henden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright star eps Aur. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky goes beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component. The goal is to introduce the participant to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. It begins with a 10 Star Training Program of several types of binary and transient variable stars that are easy to observe from suburban locations with the naked eye. Participants then move on to monitoring the rare and mysterious 2009-2011 eclipse (already underway) of epsilon Aurigae. This object undergoes eclipses only every 27.1 years and each eclipse lasts nearly two years. The star is bright enough to be seen with the naked eye from most urban areas. Training will be provided in observing techniques as well as basic data analysis of photometric and visual datasets (light curve and period analysis). The project also involves two public workshops, one on observing (already held in August of 2009) and one on data analysis and scientific paper writing (to be held in 2010.) This project has been made possible by the National Science Foundation.

  18. Copernicus observations of the Ap star Epsilon Ursae Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallama, A. D.; Molnar, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Spectral scans of the Ap star Epsilon UMa made with the Copernicus satellite show strong line blanketing from profuse Cr II and Fe II lines. In the spectral region covering 1900 to 3000 A, about 500 lines are present which suppress the apparent continuum by at least 15-30%. An accurate line-identification list is compiled showing Eu II present in addition to Mn II and Ni II. The identification of Eu II, however, rests on very stringent identification limits for Fe II. If these are relaxed, the existence of Eu II is dubious. There are no broad features in this spectral region which would suggest strong photoionization discontinuities by metals, but one feature near 2137 A might contain the photoionization edge due to Cr I 5S lying 0.94 eV above the ground level. However, a significant correlation between the line-blanketing strength and the amplitude of the OAO-2 ultraviolet light curves was found such that both monotonically increase in the same proportion toward shorter wavelengths. This gives additional strength to the suggestion that variations in the metal line-blanketing cause the observed photometric variations.

  19. The Fourier analysis technique and epsilon-pseudo-eigenvalues

    SciTech Connect

    Donato, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    The spectral radii of iteration matrices and the spectra and condition numbers of preconditioned systems are important in forecasting the convergence rates for iterative methods. Unfortunately, the spectra of iteration matrices or preconditioned systems is rarely easily available. The Fourier analysis technique has been shown to be a useful tool in studying the effectiveness of iterative methods by determining approximate expressions for the eigenvalues or condition numbers of matrix systems. For non-symmetric matrices the eigenvalues may be highly sensitive to perturbations. The spectral radii of nonsymmetric iteration matrices may not give a numerically realistic indication of the convergence of the iterative method. Trefethen and others have presented a theory on the use of {epsilon}-pseudo-eigenvalues in the study of matrix equations. For Toeplitz matrices, we show that the theory of c-pseudo-eigenvalues includes the Fourier analysis technique as a limiting case. For non-Toeplitz matrices, the relationship is not clear. We shall examine this relationship for non-Toeplitz matrices that arise when studying preconditioned systems for methods applied to a two-dimensional discretized elliptic differential equation.

  20. Coherent perfect absorption in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Simin; Halterman, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    In conventional materials, strong absorption usually requires that the material have either high loss or a large thickness-to-wavelength ratio (d/λ≫1). We find the situation to be vastly different for bilayer structures composed of a metallic substrate and an anisotropic epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial, where the permittivity in the direction perpendicular to its surface, ɛz, vanishes. Remarkably, perfect absorption can occur in situations where the metamaterial is arbitrarily thin (d/λ≪1) and arbitrarily low loss. Our numerical and analytical solutions reveal that under the conditions ɛz→0 and ℑ(ɛz)≫ℜ(ɛz), at perfect absorption there is a linear relationship between the thickness and the loss, which means the thickness of the absorber can be pushed to zero by reducing the material loss to zero. This counterintuitive behavior is explained in terms of coherent perfect absorption (or stimulated absorption) via critical coupling to a fast wave propagating along the ENZ layer.

  1. Polarimetry of Epsilon Aurigae from Mid Eclipse to Third Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Gary M.; Stencel, Robert E.

    2011-05-01

    In a previous paper, the author discussed the construction of an automated dual beam imaging polarimeter and of observations made in the November 2009 to February 2010 period. Here, we discuss observations and instrumental improvements that span the period from late August 2010 through third and into fourth contacts in Spring 2011. Approximately 930 linear polarization measurements of the target star in BVR bands were obtained during 99 nights of observation. Additional measurements were made of both known polarization standards and zero polarization stars to verify instrument calibration. The polarization of Epsilon Aurigae was observed to vary by nearly 0.4% peak to valley during this period. These variations occurred in several major cycles of varying duration. Measurement error is estimated to be on the order of +/-0.05%. The observed variations resemble excess polarization seen during the 1984 eclipse egress, but may show some differences in detail. During this project, a new optical rotator was developed in conjunction with Optec, Inc., and used for the last two months of observations. This project was initiated at the suggestion of Dr. Robert Stencel at the May 2009 SAS meeting to extend measurements done during the 1984 eclipse by Dr. Jack Kemp and followed up by his student, Dr. Gary Henson thereafter.

  2. Electrically Tunable Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Metafilm Absorbers.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyun; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Liu, Xiaoge; Brongersma, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing and spectrally controlling light absorption is of great practical and fundamental importance. In optoelectronic devices consisting of layered semiconductors and metals, absorption has traditionally been manipulated with the help of Fabry-Pérot resonances. Even further control over the spectral light absorption properties of thin films has been achieved by patterning them into dense arrays of subwavelength resonant structures to form metafilms. As the next logical step, we demonstrate electrical control over light absorption in metafilms constructed from dense arrays of actively tunable plasmonic cavities. This control is achieved by embedding indium tin oxide (ITO) into these cavities. ITO affords significant tuning of its optical properties by means of electrically-induced carrier depletion and accumulation. We demonstrate that particularly large changes in the reflectance from such metafilms (up to 15% P) can be achieved by operating the ITO in the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) frequency regime where its electrical permittivity changes sign from negative to positive values. PMID:26549615

  3. Preferential emission into epsilon-near-zero metamaterial [Invited

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Galfsky, Tal; Sun, Zheng; Jacob, Zubin; Menon, Vinod M.

    2015-11-23

    We report the use of epsilon near zero (ENZ) metamaterial to control spontaneous emission from Zinc-Oxide (ZnO) excitons. The ENZ material consists of alternating layers of silver and alumina with subwavelength thicknesses, resulting in an effective medium where one of the components of the dielectric constant approach zero between 370nm-440nm wavelength range. Bulk ZnO with photoluminescence maximum in the ENZ regime was deposited via atomic layer deposition to obtain a smooth film with near field coupling to the ENZ metamaterial. Preferential emission from the ZnO layer into the metamaterial with suppression of forward emission by 90% in comparison to ZnOmore » on silicon is observed. We attribute this observation to the presence of dispersionless plasmonic modes in the ENZ regime as shown by the results of theoretical modeling presented here. Integration of ENZ metamaterials with light emitters is an attractive platform for realizing a low threshold subwavelength laser.« less

  4. The Epsilon Eridani Debris Disk Resolved by Millimeter Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilner, David J.; MacGregor, Meredith A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Jean-Francois, Lestrade; Tahli Maddison, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    At a distance of only 3.22 pc, epsilon Eridani hosts the closest debris disk to the Sun. We present the first millimeter interferometric observations of this system, using the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 1.3 mm and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 7 mm, reaching 4 arcsec (13 AU) resolution. These observations reveal two distinct emission components: (1) the well-known outer dust belt, which is resolved in the radial direction, and (2) a compact source coincident with the position of the star. Model-fitting the visibilities constrains the basic properties of these components. The outer belt is located at 64 +/- 3 AU with fractional width 0.3, wider than the classical Kuiper Belt. This belt shows no significant azimuthal structure, or stellocentric offset, that might result from the presence of unseen giant planets on wide orbits in the system. The flux density of the unresolved central component exceeds predictions for thestellar photosphere; this excess may arise from a stellar chromosphere.

  5. Epsilon toxin: a fascinating pore-forming toxin.

    PubMed

    Popoff, Michel R

    2011-12-01

    Epsilon toxin (ETX) is produced by strains of Clostridium perfringens classified as type B or type D. ETX belongs to the heptameric β-pore-forming toxins including aerolysin and Clostridium septicum alpha toxin, which are characterized by the formation of a pore through the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells consisting in a β-barrel of 14 amphipatic β strands. By contrast to aerolysin and C. septicum alpha toxin, ETX is a much more potent toxin and is responsible for enterotoxemia in animals, mainly sheep. ETX induces perivascular edema in various tissues and accumulates in particular in the kidneys and brain, where it causes edema and necrotic lesions. ETX is able to pass through the blood-brain barrier and stimulate the release of glutamate, which accounts for the symptoms of nervous excitation observed in animal enterotoxemia. At the cellular level, ETX causes rapid swelling followed by cell death involving necrosis. The precise mode of action of ETX remains to be determined. ETX is a powerful toxin, however, it also represents a unique tool with which to vehicle drugs into the central nervous system or target glutamatergic neurons. PMID:21535407

  6. Microstructure and microwave dielectric characteristics of (1 - x)Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xBaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Tzou, W.-C. Yang, Y.-S.; Yang, C-F.; Chung, H.-H.; Huang, C.-J.; Diao, C.-C.

    2007-11-06

    (1 - x)Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xBaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} (0.1 {<=} x {<=} 0.85) composites are prepared by mixing 1150 deg. C-calcined BaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} with 1150 deg. C-calcined Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} powders. The crystal structure, microwave dielectric properties and sinterabilites of the (1 - x)Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xBaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} ceramics have been investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that BaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9}, ordered and disordered Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} phases exist independently over the whole compositional range. The sintering temperatures of (1 - x)Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xBaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} ceramics are about 1240 - 1320 deg. C and obviously lower than those of Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ceramics. The dielectric constants ({epsilon}{sub r}) and the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency ({tau}{sub f}) of (1 - x)Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xBaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} ceramics increase with the increase of BaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} content. Nevertheless, the bulk densities and the quality values (Q x f) of (1 - x)Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xBaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} ceramics increase with the increase of Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} content. The results are attributed to the higher density and quality value of Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ceramics, the better grain growth, and the densification of sintered specimens added a small BaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} content. The (1 - x)Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xBaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} ceramic with x = 0.1 sintered at 1320 deg. C exhibits a {epsilon}{sub r} value of 31.5, a maximum Q x f value of 68500 GHz and a minimum {tau}{sub f} value of 4.1 ppm/deg. C.

  7. Epsilon carbide - A low-temperature component of interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Buseck, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Transmission electron microscope study of a chondritic interplanetary dust particle has revealed the presence of epsilon iron-nickel carbide, a low-temperature carbide previously encountered only in metallurgical studies. In these studies epsilon-carbide was synthesized by carburization of iron or nickel grains in a stream of carbon monoxide or carbon monoxide plus hydrogen. Similar carburization of an iron-nickel metal in situ may have produced epsilon-carbide during particle heating on atmospheric entry or in solar orbit. Alternatively, the epsilon-carbide may be a by-product of Fischer-Tropsch reactions in the solar nebula. Such reactions have been proposed as the mechanism of hydrocarbon formation in the early solar system.

  8. T{sub {epsilon}}{sup *} integral under plane stress crack growth

    SciTech Connect

    Omori, Yoshika; Ma, Leong; Kobayashi, A.S.; Okada, Hiroshi; Atluri, S.N.

    1997-12-01

    The T{sub {epsilon}}{sup *} integral values associated with stable crack growth in A606 HSLA steel single-edge-notched (SEN) specimens were determined experimentally and numerically. The displacement fields obtained through Moire interferometry and elastic-plastic finite element analysis were used to evaluate T{sub {epsilon}}{sup *} associated with the moving crack tip. T{sub {epsilon}}{sup *} decreased with the reduction in the size of the integration contour, {Gamma}{sub {epsilon}}, and continually increased with stable crack growth in this specimen. The measured and computed crack-tip opening angle (CTOA), on the other hand, was a constant 15{degree} during stable crack growth after dropping from the measured and computed initial high values of 35 and 57{degree}, respectively.

  9. Specification of an IF1 to PG translator for the Epsilon-2 dataflow machine

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, W.; Hoch, J.E.

    1992-11-01

    This report describes a mechanism for compiling the functional language SISAL for Sandia`s Epsilon-2 hybrid dataflow machine. The strategy couples the front-end of the standard SISAL compiler (which generates a data dependence graph intermediate form called IF1) with an optimizing code-generator for Epsilon-2. The Epsilon-2 code-generator is the back-end of a compiler for the functional language Id. It translates a data dependence graph intermediate form called Program Graphs into Epsilon-2 machine code. This report describes a translation path from IF1 graphs to Program Graphs. This report also comments on the relative merits of the IF1 and Program Graph representations.

  10. Specification of an IF1 to PG translator for the Epsilon-2 dataflow machine

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, W. . Dept. of Computer Science); Hoch, J.E. )

    1992-11-01

    This report describes a mechanism for compiling the functional language SISAL for Sandia's Epsilon-2 hybrid dataflow machine. The strategy couples the front-end of the standard SISAL compiler (which generates a data dependence graph intermediate form called IF1) with an optimizing code-generator for Epsilon-2. The Epsilon-2 code-generator is the back-end of a compiler for the functional language Id. It translates a data dependence graph intermediate form called Program Graphs into Epsilon-2 machine code. This report describes a translation path from IF1 graphs to Program Graphs. This report also comments on the relative merits of the IF1 and Program Graph representations.

  11. Preclinical memory profile in Alzheimer patients with and without allele APOE-epsilon4.

    PubMed

    Estévez-González, Armando; García-Sánchez, Carmen; Boltes, Anunciación; Otermín, Pilar; Baiget, Montserrat; Escartín, Antonio; del Rio, Elisabeth; Gironell, Alex; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the association between APOE-epsilon4 allele and memory phenotype in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We compared an extensive preclinical memory profile at the baseline evaluation of 2 AD genotype groups: APOE-epsilon4 allele carriers and patients with APOE-epsilon3 homozygosity. Baseline memory performance was carried out at least 2 years (interval of 27.7 +/- 4 months) before AD diagnosis was established, and analysis included different modalities of working memory (visuoperceptive, visuospatial, digit span and processing speed), of declarative memory (recent, verbal learning, prospective and semantic) and of nondeclarative memory (procedural, incidental and priming). We found no significant differences: memory performance was similar in both genotype groups. The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele does not seem to be sufficient to cause a distinctive preclinical memory phenotype in AD patients. PMID:15159600

  12. DNA replication: polymerase epsilon as a non-catalytic converter of the helicase.

    PubMed

    Zegerman, Philip

    2013-04-01

    In eukaryotes DNA polymerase epsilon (ε) synthesises the leading DNA strand during replication. A new study provides insight into how this polymerase also functions independently of its enzyme activity to assemble and activate the replicative helicase. PMID:23578873

  13. Navier-Stokes cascade analysis with a stiff Kappa-Epsilon turbulence solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jong-Shang; Sockol, Peter M.; Prahl, Joseph M.

    1987-01-01

    The two dimensional, compressible, thin layer Navier-Stokes equations with the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and the kinetic energy-energy dissipation (k-epsilon) model are solved numerically to simulate the flow through a cascade. The governing equations are solved for the entire flow domain, without the boundary layer assumptions. The stiffness of the k-epsilon equations is discussed. A semi-implicit, Runge-Kutta, time-marching scheme is developed to solve the k-epsilon equations. The impact of the k-epsilon solver on the explicit Runge-Kutta Navier-Stokes solver is discussed. Numerical solutions are presented for two dimensional turbulent flow over a flat plate and a double circular arc cascade and compared with experimental data.

  14. Calculations of diffuser flows with an anisotropic K-epsilon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Shih, T.-H.

    1995-10-01

    A newly developed anisotropic K-epsilon model is applied to calculate three axisymmetric diffuser flows with or without separation. The new model uses a quadratic stress-strain relation and satisfies the realizability conditions, i.e., it ensures both the positivity of the turbulent normal stresses and the Schwarz' inequality between any fluctuating velocities. Calculations are carried out with a finite-element method. A second-order accurate, bounded convection scheme and sufficiently fine grids are used to ensure numerical credibility of the solutions. The standard K-epsilon model is also used in order to highlight the performance of the new model. Comparison with the experimental data shows that the anisotropic K-epsilon model performs consistently better than does the standard K-epsilon model in all of the three test cases.

  15. Calculations of Diffuser Flows with an Anisotropic K-Epsilon Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, J.; Shih, T.-H.

    1995-01-01

    A newly developed anisotropic K-epsilon model is applied to calculate three axisymmetric diffuser flows with or without separation. The new model uses a quadratic stress-strain relation and satisfies the realizability conditions, i.e., it ensures both the positivity of the turbulent normal stresses and the Schwarz' inequality between any fluctuating velocities. Calculations are carried out with a finite-element method. A second-order accurate, bounded convection scheme and sufficiently fine grids are used to ensure numerical credibility of the solutions. The standard K-epsilon model is also used in order to highlight the performance of the new model. Comparison with the experimental data shows that the anisotropic K-epsilon model performs consistently better than does the standard K-epsilon model in all of the three test cases.

  16. Low Reynolds number k-epsilon modelling with the aid of direct simulation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodi, W.; Mansour, N. N.

    1993-01-01

    The constant C sub mu and the near-wall damping function f sub mu in the eddy-viscosity relation of the k-epsilon model are evaluated from direct numerical simulation (DNS) data for developed channel and boundary layer flow at two Reynolds numbers each. Various existing f sub mu model functions are compared with the DNS data, and a new function is fitted to the high-Reynolds-number channel flow data. The epsilon-budget is computed for the fully developed channel flow. The relative magnitude of the terms in the epsilon-equation is analyzed with the aid of scaling arguments, and the parameter governing this magnitude is established. Models for the sum of all source and sink terms in the epsilon-equation are tested against the DNS data, and an improved model is proposed.

  17. Low Reynolds number kappa-epsilon modeling with the aid of direct simulation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodi, W.; Mansour, N. N.

    1990-01-01

    The constant C(sub mu) and the near-wall damping function f(sub mu) in the eddy-viscosity relation of the kappa-epsilon model are evaluated from direct numerical simulation (DNS) data for developed channel and boundary layer flow at two Reynolds numbers each. Various existing f(sub mu) model functions are compared with the DNS data, and a new function is fitted to the high-Reynolds-number channel flow data. The epsilon-budget is computed for the fully developed channel flow. The relative magnitude of the terms in the epsilon-equation is analyzed with the aid of scaling arguments, and the parameter governing this magnitude is established. Models for the sum of all source and sink terms in the epsilon-equation are tested against the DNS data, and an improved model is proposed.

  18. BA Degree Handbook, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

    This 1978 Open University BA degree Handbook begins with information about the university organization, correspondence materials, assignments and examinations, television and radio broadcasts, audio-cassette loan service, books and libraries, study centers, the computing service, handicapped students, tutor-counselors and course tutors, tuition,…

  19. Regulation of the expression of human C[epsilon] germline transcript

    SciTech Connect

    Ichiki, T.; Takahashi, W.; Watanabe, T. )

    1993-06-15

    Transcriptional regulation for Ig H chain germline transcripts induced by cytokines is a topic of recent interest for the understanding of the mechanism of class switch recombination. Among human B cell lines examined, the authors have found that a human IgM-producing B cell line, DND39 (EBV negative) expressed germ-line transcripts of [epsilon] constant gene (C[epsilon]) when stimulated with lL-4. In this study, the regulatory element responsible for the expression of lL-4-induced human C[epsilon] germ-line transcript was determined using DND39 cells. To identify the lL-4 responsive promotor/enhancer element, deletion analysis of the upstream region of the germ-line exon (l[epsilon]) of the C[epsilon] germ-line transcript which is located 5' to the switch region, was performed by using a luciferase gene as a reporter. Deletion analysis showed that a DNA fragment which lies between [minus]215 and [minus]154 bp upstream from the most 3' transcriptional initiation site of human l[epsilon] gene is fully responsible for the induction of germ-line transcripts by IL-4. According to a mutational analysis, the DNA fragment between [minus]163 and [minus]152 bp was identified to be a novel IL-4 responsive element in a human C[epsilon] gene. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay showed the presence of IL-4-induced nuclear factor that specifically bound to this IL-4 responsive element. This novel IL-4 responsive element and an IL-4-induced DNA binding protein may play an important role for the induction of C[epsilon] germ-line transcript as well as class switching to IgE. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Attenuation of epsilon(sub eff) of coplanar waveguide transmission lines on silicon substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taub, Susan R.; Young, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    Attenuation and epsilon(sub eff) of Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) transmission lines were measured on Silicon substrates with resistivities ranging from 400 to greater than 30,000 ohm-cm, that have a 1000 angstrom coating of SiO2. Both attenuation and epsilon(sub eff) are given over the frequency range 5 to 40 GHz for various strip and slot widths. These measured values are also compared to the theoretical values.

  1. Expression of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein requires C/EBP epsilon.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Gombart, Adrian F; Koeffler, H Phillip; Shiohara, Masaaki

    2007-05-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is a 55-kd cationic protein found mainly in neutrophil primary granules. BPI shows cytotoxicity against Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we studied the role of a myeloid-specific transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein epsilon (C/EBP epsilon), in the regulation of BPI gene expression. A patient with neutrophil-specific granule deficiency with a homozygous inactivating mutation in the CEBP epsilon gene showed severely impaired expression of both BPI messenger RNA (mRNA) and BPI protein. Both U937 and NB4 cells treated with 10-7 M all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 6 days displayed increased levels of BPI protein and accompanying up-regulated C/EBP epsilon expression. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed binding of the C/EBP epsilon protein to the C/EBP-binding site in the BPI gene promoter. U937 cells stably transfected with a zinc-inducible C/EBP epsilon expression vector showed a 30-fold increase in BPI mRNA levels compared with cells transfected with control empty vector after culturing for 48 hours with 100 microM ZnSO4. BPI mRNA expression was severely reduced in the bone marrow of C/EBP epsilon-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Expression of BPI in human cord blood cells was increased by incubation with 10-7 MATRA for 48 hours. These results demonstrate the requirement for C/EBP epsilon in mediating BPI gene expression in myeloid cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17483073

  2. The role of the University of the West Indies Mona libraries in HIV/AIDS information access and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Harris, S

    2013-01-01

    The recommendations for controlling HIV/AIDS, whether prescriptive or descriptive, underscore the value of information: its translation into knowledge, and knowledge into behaviour. Thus, accessing, evaluating, disseminating and applying authoritative, credible and scholarly information on HIV/AIDS are critical elements in the control of this pandemic in the Web 2.0 era. The University of the West Indies (UWI) Mona libraries have embraced this information role. This article provides insights into three of the information initiatives implemented by the UWI Mona libraries in this important capacity. In this regard, it also provides ideas for other West Indian information units and enhances communication on access to information products and services, albeit incrementally, in an important area of health services for the West Indies. PMID:24756597

  3. Carnitine biosynthesis in Neurospora crassa: enzymatic conversion of lysine to epsilon-N-trimethyllysine.

    PubMed Central

    Rebouche, C J; Broquist, H P

    1976-01-01

    The enzymatic conversion of L-lysine, epsilon-N-trimethyl-L-lysine the first series of reactions in the biosynthesis of carnitine in Neurospora crassa, proceeds via sequential methylation of free L-lysine, epsilon-N-methyl-L-lysine, and epsilon -N-dimethyl-L-lysine. The latter two compounds have been shown to be intermediates in the biosynthesis of carnitine by radioisotope dilution and incorporation experiments in growing cultures of N. crassa 33933 (lys-) and 38706 (met-). Methionine but not choline, has been recognized as an effective methyl donor in vivo. Inclusion of choline in the growth medium of strain 33933 does, however, enhance incorporation of the methyl groups of L-[methyl-3H]methionine into carnitine in an apparent "sparing" effect on methionine synthesis. Studies in cell-free extracts of the lysine auxotroph strain 33933 of N. crassa have established that lysine and epsilon-N-methyl and epsilon-N-dimethyllysine are enzymatically methylated, with S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl group donor. The enzyme system appears to have no essential cofactors. Lysine does not induce synthesis of the enzyme system in the wild-type strain 262, whereas both carnitine and epsilon-N-trimethyllysine repress its synthesis in strain 33933. PMID:133101

  4. Phase stability of {epsilon} and {gamma} HNIW (CL-20) at high-pressure and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Gump, Jared C.; Stoltz, Chad A.; Peiris, Suhithi M.

    2007-12-12

    Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) is one of the few ingredients developed since World War II to be considered for transition to military use. Five polymorphs have been identified for CL-20 by FTIR measurements ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, {epsilon}, {zeta}). As CL-20 is transitioned into munitions it will become necessary to predict its response under conditions of detonation, for performance evaluation. Such predictive modeling requires a phase diagram and basic thermodynamic properties of the various phases at high pressure and temperature. Therefore, the epsilon and gamma phases of CL-20 at static high-pressure and temperature were investigated using synchrotron angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments. The samples were compressed and heated using diamond anvil cells (DAC). Pressures and temperatures achieved were around 5 GPa and 240 deg. C, respectively. The epsilon phase was stable to 6.3 GPa at ambient temperature. When heated at ambient pressure the epsilon phase was sustained to a temperature of 120 deg. C then underwent a transition to the gamma phase above 125 deg. C and then thermal decomposition occurred above 150 deg. C. Upon compression, the gamma phase underwent a phase transition at both ambient temperature and 140 deg. C. Pressure--volume data for the epsilon and gamma phase at ambient temperature and the epsilon phase at 75 deg. C were fit to the Birch-Murnaghan formalism to obtain isothermal equations of state.

  5. Notes from Batavia, the Europeans' graveyard: the nineteenth-century debate on acclimatization in the Dutch East Indies.

    PubMed

    Pols, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of European colonial expansion, medical theories of acclimatization have been inextricably related to convictions about the possibility and desirability of white settlement in the colonies, and political ideas of colonial governance. Before 1800, acclimatization theories emphasized the inherent flexibility of the human constitution and its ability to adapt to new environments. During the first half of the nineteenth century, European theorists came to highlight the vulnerability of white Europeans in the tropics to disease, degeneration, and death instead. They consequently argued that white settlement in the tropics was impossible and inadvisable. European physicians in the British and French colonies presented similar views. By contrast, their colleagues in the Dutch East Indies remained optimistic. They associated themselves with the colonial European settler community and shared their grievances against autocratic colonial rule. They presented medical theories which related acclimatization to prudent behavior, morality, and proper management of the environment, thereby downplaying the significance of climate and high temperatures. During the following decades, their views on acclimatization were transferred to the Netherlands, where they were deployed as an argument against the cultivation system, the then-current approach of colonial governance, which emphasized the trade of cash crops grown by the indigenous population, severely limited European settlement, and curtailed the rights of Europeans living in the Indies. Throughout the nineteenth century, the influence of climate and the possibility of acclimatization became recurring themes in debates about colonial governance in both the Dutch East Indies and the Netherlands. PMID:21317422

  6. The Chlordecone crisis in the French West Indies : Its fate in soils and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voltz, Marc; Cattan, Philippe; Saison, Carine; Berns, Anne E.; Colin, François; Crabit, Armand; Crevoisier, David; Fernandez-Bayo, Jesus; Levillain, Joseph; Pak, Lai-Ting; Samouelian, Anatja; Cabidoche, Yves-Marie

    2013-04-01

    In the French West Indies, chlordecone (CLD), an organochlorine pesticide, which is highly persistent in the environment, was applied in banana plantations from 1972 to 1993 against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Pollution surveys conducted in 2001 by the French Department of Health revealed the presence of chlordecone in soils, rivers, springs over large areas in Guadeloupe and Martinique islands. Contamination of drinking water, food crops, aquatic species by CLD has been observed as well as its presence in blood of men, pregnant women and newborns. There is therefore a large social concern about the extent and evolution of CLD pollution in the French West Indies and its impact on human health and ecosystems. From 2008 to 2012 a multidisciplinary project CHLORDEXCO took place to study the CLD fate in water, soils and the contamination characteristics of aquatic species and food crops. Here, we summarize results obtained on the processes controlling the spatial and temporal patterns of soil and water contamination at the scale of the banana cropping area in Guadeloupe and of the Perou catchment. The main soils in the contaminated areas are andosols and nitisols and formed from the weathering of volcanic ashes. They have a high organic carbon content and high content of secondary minerals, allophane for andosols and halloysite for nitisols. An analysis of the spatial distribution of CLD in soil over 1045 field plots showed that the soil type had a strong impact. Andosols, with a high sorption capacity (Koc 20 000 L/kg), had the highest CLD concentrations and stocks, unlike Nitisols, which had 10-fold lower sorption capacities. A significant « farm effect », due to between-farm variations of application times and amounts, was also noticed. The observed stocks of CLD clearly correspond to the accumulation in soil of successive treatments and thereby confirm the high persistence of CLD in soil also observed in incubation studies in soil microcosms. Soil

  7. Protein kinase C epsilon is localized to the Golgi via its zinc-finger domain and modulates Golgi function.

    PubMed Central

    Lehel, C; Olah, Z; Jakab, G; Anderson, W B

    1995-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a multigene family of serine/threonine kinases that are central to many signal transduction pathways. Among the PKC isozymes, only PKC epsilon has been reported to exhibit full oncogenic potential. PKC epsilon also displays unique substrate specificity and intracellular localization. To examine the interrelationship between the biological effects and domain structure of PKC epsilon, NIH 3T3 cells were stably transfected to overexpress different epitope-tagged fragments of PKC epsilon. The overexpressed proteins each contain the epsilon-tag peptide at the C terminus to allow ready detection with an antibody specific for the tag. The holo-PKC epsilon was found to localize with the Golgi network and other compartments, whereas the zinc-finger domain localized exclusively at the Golgi. Golgi-specific glycosaminoglycan sulfation was strongly inhibited in cells overexpressing either holo-PKC epsilon or its zinc-finger domain, while the secretion of sulfated glycosaminoglycans into the medium was impaired in cells expressing the PKC epsilon zinc-finger domain. Thus, these results suggest that PKC epsilon may be involved in specifically regulating Golgi-related processes. Further, the results indicate that PKC epsilon domains other than the kinase domain may also have biological activity and that the zinc-finger domain may function as a subcellular localization signal. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7877991

  8. Lessons Learned During the Recent Epsilon Aurigae Eclipse Observing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stencel, Robert E.

    2011-05-01

    The 18 month long eclipse of the 3rd magnitude star, epsilon Aurigae, is forecast to end during May 2011, based on six eclipse events, in 2010, 1982, 1955, 1930, 1902 and 1874. In partnership with AAVSO, Hopkins Phoenix Observatory and others, we have organized observing campaigns during the past several years in order to maximize data acquired during this rare event and to promote reporting and analysis of observations of all kinds. Hundreds of registered participants have signed up for alert notices and newsletters, and many dozens of observers have contributed photometry, spectra and ideas to the ongoing effort - see websites: www.CitizenSky.org and www.hposoft.com/Campaign09.html . In this presentation, I will provide an update on the participation leading to extensive photometric results. Similarly, bright star spectroscopy has greatly benefited from small telescope plus spectrometer capabilities, now widely available, that complement traditional but less-frequent large telescope high dispersion work. Polarimetry provided key insights during the last eclipse, and we promoted the need for new data using this method. Finally, interferometry has come of age since the last eclipse, leading to the direct detection of the transiting dark disk causing the eclipse. Along with these traditional measurements, I will outline campaign-related efforts to promote Citizen Science opportunities among the public. Support for these efforts derives in part from AAVSO/NSF-Informal Science Education, NSF AAG grant 10-16678 and a bequest to the University of Denver Astronomy Program by alumnus William Herschel Womble, for which I am grateful.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Epsilon-Aminocaproic Acid in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Michael P.; Alfieris, George M; Sweeney, Dawn M; Angona, Ronald E; Cholette, Jill M; Venuto, Charles; Anderson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Antifibrinolytic medications such as epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) are used in pediatric heart surgery to decrease surgical bleeding and transfusion. Dosing schemes for neonates are often based on adult regimens, or are simply empiric, in part due to the lack of neonatal pharmacokinetic information. We sought to determine the pharmacokinetics of EACA in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery and to devise a dosing regimen for this population. Methods Ten neonates undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were given EACA according to standard practice, and blood was drawn at 10 time points to determine drug concentrations. Time-concentration profiles were analyzed using nonlinear mixed effects models. Parameter estimates (standardized to a 70 kg person) were used to develop a dosing regimen intended to maintain a target concentration shown to inhibit fibrinolysis in neonatal plasma (50 mg/L). Results Pharmacokinetics were described using a two compartment model plus an additional compartment for the cardiopulmonary bypass pump. First order elimination was described with a clearance of 5.07 L/h*(WT/70) 0.75. Simulation showed a dosing regimen with a loading dose of 40 mg/kg, and an infusion of 30 mg/kg/h, with a pump prime concentration of 100 mg/L maintained plasma concentrations above 50 mg/L in 90% of neonates during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Conclusions EACA clearance, expressed using allometry, is reduced in neonates compared to older children and adults. Loading dose and infusion dose are approximately half those required in children and adults. PMID:25723765

  10. Discovery of the February Epsilon Virginids (FEV, IAU#506)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steakley, Kathryn; Jenniskens, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Halley type comets are relatively few, but at Earth they are sampled over a large part of the inner solar system because dust accumulates in comparatively stable orbits. We have detected a new meteor shower with a Halley-type orbit, the February epsilon Virginids (FEV), from video observations with the Cameras for All-Sky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) and by examining orbits listed in the SonataCo Japanese database. Twenty-two meteors were detected during the period from February 1st through February 9th of 2008 to 2012 that are part of this shower. The FEVs originate from the geocentric radiant of R.A. = 201.66° and Dec = +10.39° with a mean geocentric velocity of 63.01 km/s. The mean orbital elements of these meteoroids are q = (0.488 ± 0.021) AU, 1/a = ( 0.085 ± 0.095) 1/AU, e = 0.958 ± 0.046, i = 138.05° ± 1.28°, ω = 271.15° ± 3.70°, Ω = 315.26 ± 0.86°, and Π = 228.12°. We investigated whether this meteoroid stream could have originated from comets C/1978 T3 (Bradfield), C/1808 F1 (Pons), or C/1939 H1 (Jurlof-Achmarof-Hassel). If the parent body can be identified, we can determine when the comet was first captured into a low perihelion distance orbit. Future examination of the shower will allow us to examine the physical properties of the parent comet.

  11. [A psychopathologic conflict in the 18th century in the East Indies Squadron].

    PubMed

    Alliez, J; Le Goarant de Tromelin, G

    1989-11-01

    The authors first give a psychological evocation of the Bailli de Suffren, a great captain who vastly contributed to improve the image of the French Navy after the appalling seven years war, but whose character showed, nevertheless, originality, authoritarism, violence, sometimes vindictiveness and often negligence. The quarrels he had with most of his subordinates culminated as he was in command of the East Indies Squadron, applying sometimes exaggerated punishments. Chevalier de Tromelin was hierarchically just under him; this Chevalier had a character as chilly and stiff as the Bailli was the opposite; both were ambitious and deserving officers, the Chevalier being as much conformist as his "adversary" was fiery and bold. The shouts and rancours of the Bailli, when confronted to the rigidity and cold technicity of the Chevalier, marked their relationship. More than objective reasons arising from their duties, the fundamental incompatibility of their characters, explain their conflicts. Suffren played a double-game with his immediate subordinate; not lacking verbal smoothness, he nevertheless abused him in such a way in his reports to the authorities, that when Chevalier de Tromelin, being ill, asked to return to France, he learned that he had been dismissed of the Navy without having ever been heard or able to attempt to defend himself. He then spent his time trying to claim for a hearing without ever obtaining it, writing justificatory reports. He was "rehabilitated" in 1793 and died in half-exile in 1815. The authors were struck by the fact that for 200 years, no historian of the Fast Indies has ever taken into account the Squadron's distinctive features and the personality of Suffren. Thanks to their research in family documents, in the National and especially Navy Archives, they are able to show the importance of this psychological, not to say the psychopathological, aspect. One can only be struck by the silence of the various historians who worked on the

  12. Monoclonal antibody (H107) inhibiting IgE binding to Fc epsilon R(+) human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Noro, N; Yoshioka, A; Adachi, M; Yasuda, K; Masuda, T; Yodoi, J

    1986-08-15

    A hybridoma-producing monoclonal antibody blocking the binding of human IgE to lymphocytes Fc receptor (Fc epsilon R) was established by the fusion of murine myeloma cells. P3X63.653.Ag8, with BALB/c spleen cells immunized with Fc epsilon R(+) human B lymphoblastoid cell line cells, RPMI1788. A clone of the hybridoma (H107) produced a monoclonal IgG2b antibody that inhibited the rosette formation of Fc epsilon R(+) human B lymphoblastoid cell line cells (RPMI1788, RPMI8866, CESS, Dakiki, and IM9) with fixed ox red blood cells (ORBC) conjugated with human IgE (IgE-ORBC). In contrast, the rosette formation with IgG-conjugated ORBC (IgG-ORBC) on Fc gamma R(+), Fc epsilon R(-) Daudi cells were not affected by the H107 antibodies. A close association of Fc epsilon R and the antigenic determinant recognized by H107 antibody was suggested by the following results. First, the bindings of 125I-labeled IgE (125I-IgE) or 125I-labeled H107 IgG2b antibody (125I-H107) to RPMI8866 cells were inhibited by cold human IgE and H107 IgG2b but not by other classes of human Ig (IgA and IgG), MPC11 IgG2b, or unrelated monoclonal antibodies. Second, H107 antibody reacted with Fc epsilon R(+) B cell lines but not with Fc epsilon R(-) B cell lines as determined by an indirect immunofluorescence. Third, Fc epsilon R(+) cells were depleted by the incubation in the dish coated with H107 antibody or IgE but not in the dish coated with unrelated antibodies. Finally, there was a correlation between the increase of Fc epsilon R(+) cells and that of H107(+) cells in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patients with atopic dermatitis. The surface antigens on Fc epsilon R(+) RPMI8866 cells recognized by H107 antibodies had the molecular size of 45,000 as determined by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. PMID:2942602

  13. Functional identification of a novel 14-3-3 epsilon splicing variant suggests dimerization is not necessary for 14-3-3 epsilon to inhibit UV-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Dingding; Ye, Guangming; Liu, Tingting; Chen, Cong; Yang, Xianmei; Wan, Bo; Pan, Yuanwang; Yu, Long

    2010-05-28

    14-3-3 proteins function as a dimer and have been identified to involve in diverse signaling pathways. Here we reported the identification of a novel splicing variant of human 14-3-3 epsilon (14-3-3 epsilon sv), which is derived from a novel exon 1' insertion. The insertion contains a stop codon and leads to a truncated splicing variant of 14-3-3 epsilon. The splicing variant is translated from the exon 2 and results in the deletion of an N-terminal {alpha}-helix which is crucial for the dimerization. Therefore, the 14-3-3 epsilon sv could not form a dimer with 14-3-3 zeta. However, after UV irradiation 14-3-3 epsilon sv could also support cell survival, suggesting monomer of 14-3-3 epsilon is sufficient to protect cell from apoptosis.

  14. Life-limiting mechanisms in Ba-oxide, Ba-dispenser and Ba-Scandate cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, G.; Barratt, D.

    2005-09-01

    Ba-oxide, Ba-dispenser and Ba-Scandate cathodes have been continuously improved in their emission performance in the past decades. Ba-oxide and Ba-dispenser cathodes are also the dominant types of thermionic cathodes used in most vacuum tube applications. When improvements in emissive properties are introduced, their impact on cathode life - where several years in a vacuum tube environment are typically required - also needs to be known. Hence, the investigation of cathode life-limiting effects is the basis of accelerated life predictions and of further cathode improvement. In this contribution, the main effects limiting the operating life of Ba/BaO-based thermionic cathodes are discussed, especially related to intrinsic dispensation and resupply to the emissive surface. Emission poisoning induced by adsorption of poisonous gases will not be addressed here. We will stress common points and point out the differences between the three types.

  15. Resistance of ovine, caprine and bovine endothelial cells to Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Uzal, F A; Rolfe, B E; Smith, N J; Thomas, A C; Kelly, W R

    1999-08-01

    Ovine, caprine and bovine endothelial cells were grown in vitro and challenged with Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin to compare their susceptibility to this toxin. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which are known to be susceptible to epsilon toxin, were used as a positive control. No morphological alterations were observed in any of the endothelial cell cultures tested, even after challenging with doses as high as 1200 MLD50/ml of epsilon toxin. MDCK cells showed contour rounding and nuclear condensation as early as 30 min after exposure to 100 MLD50/ml of epsilon toxin and after 60 min of exposure to 12.5 MLD50/ml of the same toxin. All the MDCK cells were dead after 3 h of exposure to all concentrations of epsilon toxin. The results indicate that ovine, caprine and bovine endothelial cells are not morphologically responsive to the action of epsilon toxin in vitro. PMID:10493114

  16. Anaesthesia for operative deliveries at the University Hospital of the West Indies: a change of practice.

    PubMed

    Crawford-Sykes, A; Scarlett, M; Hambleton, I R; Nelson, M; Rattray, C

    2005-06-01

    There has been an increasing trend worldwide to use regional anaesthesia for operative deliveries. The Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom has demonstrated a steady decline in the anaesthesia-related deaths since the introduction of regional anaesthesia. There are lower morbidity profiles in mothers delivering under regional anaesthesia as well as better infant Apgar scores. In 1997, a decision was taken to have at least 60% of all elective Caesarean sections done at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) performed under spinal anaesthesia. This is a review of the anaesthetic technique for Caesarean sections at the UHWI since 1996. The Deliveries and Anaesthetic Books on the labour ward were reviewed and the type of anaesthesia for elective and emergency Caesarean sections recorded for the period January 1996 to December 2001. At the beginning of the period under study, more than 90% of the Caesarean sections were being done under general anaesthesia. By the middle of 1998, spinal anaesthesia was more commonly employed than general anaesthesia for Caesarean sections and by December 2001, more than eight out of every ten Caesarean sections were being done under spinal anaesthesia. The main reasons for the successful change of practice were that it was consultant-led, there was good communication between relevant departments, the junior staff were properly trained, there was a consistent supply of appropriate drugs and there was a high level of patient satisfaction. PMID:16209224

  17. Reef to basin sediment transport using Halimeda as a sediment tracer, Grand Cayman Island, West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Hilary D.; Moore, Clyde H.

    1988-03-01

    Fragments of the calcareous green alga Halimeda form a large part of the sediment in the fringing reef system and adjacent deep marine environments of Grand Cayman Island, West Indies. Nine species combine to form three depth-related assemblages that are characteristic of the major reef-related environments (lagoonpatch reef, reef terraces, and deep reef). These modern plant assemblages form the basis of the use of Halimeda as a sediment tracer. Halimeda-based tracer studies of Holocene sediments indicate that only sediments containing deep reef species of Halimeda are presently being transported through the reef system by sediment creep and being deposited at the juncture of the upper and lower island slope. Sediments containing shallow reef Halimeda are retained within the reef and lithified by marine carbonate cements. Tracer studies of Pleistocene sediment indicate large amounts of reef-derived carbonate sand containing deep water Halimeda were produced during interglacial high stands of sea level. Much of this material was removed by turbidity currents moving out of the reef system to the island slope down submarine channels perpendicular to the reef trend. These channels may still be identified on bathymetric profiles, but are no longer receiving coarse reef debris and are veneered with a blanket of pelagic carbonate mud.

  18. Serovar Diversity of Pathogenic Leptospira Circulating in the French West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Bourhy, Pascale; Herrmann Storck, Cécile; Theodose, Rafaelle; Olive, Claude; Nicolas, Muriel; Hochedez, Patrick; Lamaury, Isabelle; Zinini, Farida; Brémont, Sylvie; Landier, Annie; Cassadou, Sylvie; Rosine, Jacques; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most important neglected tropical bacterial diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, very little is known about the circulating etiological agents of leptospirosis in this region. In this study, we describe the serological and molecular features of leptospires isolated from 104 leptospirosis patients in Guadeloupe (n = 85) and Martinique (n = 19) and six rats captured in Guadeloupe, between 2004 and 2012. Methods and Findings Strains were studied by serogrouping, PFGE, MLVA, and sequencing 16SrRNA and secY. DNA extracts from blood samples collected from 36 patients in Martinique were also used for molecular typing of leptospires via PCR. Phylogenetic analyses revealed thirteen different genotypes clustered into five main clades that corresponded to the species: L. interrogans, L. kirschneri, L. borgpetersenii, L. noguchi, and L. santarosai. We also identified L. kmetyi in at least two patients with acute leptospirosis. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that this species has been identified in humans. The most prevalent genotypes were associated with L. interrogans serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Copenhageni, L. kirschneri serovar Bogvere, and L. borgpetersenii serovar Arborea. We were unable to identify nine strains at the serovar level and comparison of genotyping results to the MLST database revealed new secY alleles. Conclusions The overall serovar distribution in the French West Indies was unique compared to the neighboring islands. Typing of leptospiral isolates also suggested the existence of previously undescribed serovars. PMID:23516654

  19. The debate about acclimatization in the Dutch East Indies (1840-1860).

    PubMed

    de Knecht-van Eekelen, A

    2000-01-01

    Around the middle of the nineteenth century, conflicting views were put forward on the influence of climate on health and disease in the Dutch East Indies. In this part of the world, old Hippocratic ideas influenced views on the cause of disease much longer than in the Netherlands. Moreover, Brunonian theories--which had been discarded in the Netherlands--fitted the discussion about the effect of temperature on the body. Additionally, scientific medicine was introduced. Scientific methods, such as the collection of meteorological and statistical data, were promoted by a small group of military health officers. However, the use of scientific data did not guarantee a clear-cut opinion on the causes of disease. Numbers proved as disputable as other, less objective, medical observations. Mortality statistics and numbers of patients especially were used as arguments in various discussions. The example of Bosch, who changed his views on the dangers of tropical climate, demonstrates that statistics could be used for different purposes. At first, in his position as General Inspector, he used them as an argument to provide better care for the military personnel; later, when retired and a civilian, he used them as justification for colonization in relation to an intended improvement of the living conditions of the natives. The dangers of tropical climate for the health of Europeans were played down as soon as other--primarily economic--motives for living in the tropics became strong enough. PMID:11769938

  20. Allele doses of apolipoprotein E type {epsilon}4 in sporadic late-onset Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lucotte, G.; Aouizerate, A.; Gerard, N.

    1995-12-18

    Apoliprotein E, type {epsilon}4 allele (ApoE-{epsilon}4) is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (AD). We have found that the cumulative probability of remaining unaffected over time decreases for each dose of ApoE-{epsilon}4 in sporadic, late-onset French AD. The effect of genotypes on age at onset of AD was analyzed using the product limit method, to compare unaffected groups during aging. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Development of a hybrid k-epsilon turbulence model for swirling recirculating flows under moderate to strong swirl intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Chen, Ching-Shun

    1993-03-01

    A hybrid k-epsilon turbulence model, based on the concept that the modification of anisotropic effects should not be made in the flow regions inherent to small streamline curvatures, has been developed and examined with the swirling recirculating flows, with the swirl levels ranging from 0.6 to 1.23 in an abrupt pipe expansion. A fairly satisfactory agreement of model predictions with the experimental data shows that this hybrid k-epsilon model can perform better simulation of swirling recirculating flows as compared to the standard k-epsilon model and the modified k-epsilon model proposed by Abujelala and Lilley (1984).

  2. Stabilization of the HCP [var epsilon] phase in an Fe-21%Mn alloy subjected to cathodic hydrogen charging

    SciTech Connect

    Aikawa, T.; Nishino, Y.; Asano, S. )

    1993-07-01

    Cathodic hydrogen charging induces some phase transformation in the surface layer of FCC iron alloys. Such a hydrogen-induced phase transformation has extensively been studied for austenitic stainless steels, where the FCC [gamma] phase transforms partially into an HCP [var epsilon][sub H] phase. The formation of the [var epsilon][sub H] phase has also been found in FCC Fe-Mn alloys and Fe-Ni-Mn alloys. The [var epsilon][sub H] phase is unstable in the absence of hydrogen and decomposes to an [var epsilon] martensite in the metastable FCC alloys. In order to make clear the nature of the [var epsilon][sub H] phase, it is necessary to reveal the stability of the [var epsilon] phase in FCC iron alloys during cathodic hydrogen charging. In the present study, the authors employed an Fe-21%Mn alloy which consisted of a mixture of the [gamma] and [var epsilon] phases in an as-quenched state. For this two-phase alloy, the [var epsilon] [r arrow] [gamma] transformation has so far been examined by a high-pressure equilibration method in a hydrogen-gas atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to compare the stability of the [gamma] phases in the two-phase alloy subjected to cathodic hydrogen charging in an aqueous solution. The influence of hydrogen on the [var epsilon] phase stability will be discussed, including the transformation in a hydrogen-gas atmosphere.

  3. The early effects of Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin in ligated intestinal loops of goats and sheep.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Miyakawa, M E; Uzal, F A

    2003-04-01

    Clostridium perfringens type D produces enterotoxaemia in goats, sheep and other animals. The disease is caused by C. perfringens epsilon toxin and, while enterotoxaemia in goats is usually characterized by enterocolitis, the disease in sheep is characterized by systemic lesions (such as lung and brain oedema) with minor and inconsistent changes observed in the intestine. A possible explanation for these differences is that epsilon toxin is more promptly absorbed by the ovine than by the caprine intestine. In an attempt to clarify this, we examined the early effects of epsilon toxin on caprine and ovine intestine. Intestinal loop assays were performed to analyse the physiological and morphological changes induced by epsilon toxin in the intestine of these species. Fluid accumulation was observed in caprine and ovine ileum and colon treated with epsilon toxin. Ileal loops from goats treated with epsilon toxin retained sodium and water earlier than ovine ileal loops treated with the same toxin. Histological analysis showed morphological alterations in the colon of both species as early as 2 h after the commencement of epsilon toxin treatment: these changes were more marked in goats than in sheep. No morphological changes were observed in the ileum of either species after 4 h incubation with epsilon toxin. These results suggest that epsilon toxin modifies ion and water transport in the small and the large intestine of goats and sheep through different mechanisms. PMID:12777097

  4. Investigations of the adjustment of nitrogen and carbon in the {epsilon}-phase

    SciTech Connect

    Pietzsch, S.; Bohmer, S.; Spies, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    The phase field of {epsilon}-(carbo)nitride together with its equilibrium solubility of nitrogen and carbon can be calculated by thermodynamic models as a function of the temperature and the nitriding potential K{sub N} = {var_phi}(NH{sub 3})/{var_phi}(H{sub 2}) and carburizing potential K{sub c} = {var_phi}(CO){var_phi}(H{sub 2})/{var_phi}(H{sub 2}O). The results are presented in the form of modified Lehrer diagrams. The calculations show that a non-coupled adjustment of nitrogen and carbon is possible in the {epsilon}-phase by a suitable choice of the nitriding and carburizing potential. However, the experimental adjustment of the interstitials in the {epsilon}-phase is not satisfactory. Therefore, iron foils (thickness: 10 {micro}m) were nitrided in retort-type furnaces (150 liters) with precisely controlled atmospheres. The gas mixtures were controlled by gas chromatographic analysis and oxygen probes. The complete transformation of the iron foils into the {epsilon}-(carbo)nitride was controlled by X-ray analysis. The nitrogen and carbon concentrations in the {epsilon}-phase were determined by chemical analysis. The experimental results are in good agreement with the calculations. The investigations of nitrided specimens allow conclusions for the production of compound layers with various nitrogen and carbon concentrations by the purposeful adjustment of the nitriding and carburizing potential. This is of interest for the corrosion and wear resistance of nitrided components.

  5. Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin increases the small intestinal permeability in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Jorge; Morris, Winston E; Loidl, César Fabián; Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Tironi-Farinatti, Carla; McClane, Bruce A; Uzal, Francisco A; Fernandez Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2009-01-01

    Epsilon toxin is a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, an anaerobic bacterium that causes enterotoxaemia in ruminants. In the affected animal, it causes oedema of the lungs and brain by damaging the endothelial cells, inducing physiological and morphological changes. Although it is believed to compromise the intestinal barrier, thus entering the gut vasculature, little is known about the mechanism underlying this process. This study characterizes the effects of epsilon toxin on fluid transport and bioelectrical parameters in the small intestine of mice and rats. The enteropooling and the intestinal loop tests, together with the single-pass perfusion assay and in vitro and ex vivo analysis in Ussing's chamber, were all used in combination with histological and ultrastructural analysis of mice and rat small intestine, challenged with or without C. perfringens epsilon toxin. Luminal epsilon toxin induced a time and concentration dependent intestinal fluid accumulation and fall of the transepithelial resistance. Although no evident histological changes were observed, opening of the mucosa tight junction in combination with apoptotic changes in the lamina propria were seen with transmission electron microscopy. These results indicate that C. perfringens epsilon toxin alters the intestinal permeability, predominantly by opening the mucosa tight junction, increasing its permeability to macromolecules, and inducing further degenerative changes in the lamina propria of the bowel. PMID:19763257

  6. Potency against enterotoxemia of a recombinant Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxoid in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Lobato, Francisco C F; Lima, Catarina G R D; Assis, Ronnie A; Pires, Prhiscylla S; Silva, Rodrigo O S; Salvarani, Felipe M; Carmo, Anderson O; Contigli, Christiane; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2010-08-31

    Enterotoxemia, a disease that affects domestic ruminants, is caused mainly by the epsilon toxin from Clostridium perfringens type D. Its eradication is virtually impossible, control and prophylaxis are based on systematic vaccination of herds with epsilon toxoids that are efficient in inducing protective antibody production. The use of recombinant toxins is one of the most promising of these strategies. This work evaluates the potency of a Cl. perfringens type D epsilon toxoid expressed by Escherichia coli administered to goats, sheep, and cattle. The etx gene was cloned into the pET-11a plasmid of E. coli strain BL21 to produce the recombinant toxin. Rabbits (n=8), goats, sheep, and cattle (n=5 for each species) were immunized with 0.2mg of the insoluble recombinant protein fraction to evaluate vaccine potency of the epsilon toxoid studied. Antibody titers were 40, 14.3, 26, and 13.1 IU/mL in the rabbit, goat, sheep, and cattle serum pools, respectively. The epsilon toxoid produced and tested in this work is adequate for immunization of ruminants against enterotoxemia. PMID:20670910

  7. Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin Increases the Small Intestinal Permeability in Mice and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Jorge; Morris, Winston E.; Loidl, César Fabián; Tironi-Farinatti, Carla; McClane, Bruce A.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Fernandez Miyakawa, Mariano E.

    2009-01-01

    Epsilon toxin is a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, an anaerobic bacterium that causes enterotoxaemia in ruminants. In the affected animal, it causes oedema of the lungs and brain by damaging the endothelial cells, inducing physiological and morphological changes. Although it is believed to compromise the intestinal barrier, thus entering the gut vasculature, little is known about the mechanism underlying this process. This study characterizes the effects of epsilon toxin on fluid transport and bioelectrical parameters in the small intestine of mice and rats. The enteropooling and the intestinal loop tests, together with the single-pass perfusion assay and in vitro and ex vivo analysis in Ussing's chamber, were all used in combination with histological and ultrastructural analysis of mice and rat small intestine, challenged with or without C. perfringens epsilon toxin. Luminal epsilon toxin induced a time and concentration dependent intestinal fluid accumulation and fall of the transepithelial resistance. Although no evident histological changes were observed, opening of the mucosa tight junction in combination with apoptotic changes in the lamina propria were seen with transmission electron microscopy. These results indicate that C. perfringens epsilon toxin alters the intestinal permeability, predominantly by opening the mucosa tight junction, increasing its permeability to macromolecules, and inducing further degenerative changes in the lamina propria of the bowel. PMID:19763257

  8. The fundamental parameters of the chromospherically active K2 dwarf Epsilon Eridani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Smith, Geoffrey

    1993-01-01

    A silicon array detector was used to record regions exhibiting calcium and iron lines in the spectrum of the chromospherically active K2 dwarf Epsilon Eri at a resolution of 120,000 and with an SNR of not less than 200. The effective temperature, surface gravity, logarithmic iron and calcium abundances, and microturbulence are determined. Three high-excitation lines of Fe I were found to yield anomalously low iron abundances; it is postulated that the origin of the anomaly lies in the nonthermal excitation of the upper photosphere caused by chromospheric emission. It is shown that Epsilon Eri is in an evolutionary stage consistent with an M/solar mass of 0.85 theoretical zero-age main-sequence model. It is suggested that Epsilon Eri is almost certainly a young star of slightly less than one solar mass.

  9. Packaging of DNA by bacteriophage epsilon15: structure, forces, and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Anton S; Lim-Hing, Krista; Harvey, Stephen C

    2007-07-01

    The structure of bacteriophage epsilon15 has recently been determined by 3D reconstruction of single particle cryo-electron microscopy images. Although this study revealed that the viral genome inside the bacteriophage is on average coaxially spooled, individual DNA conformations inside the capsid could not be determined. In the current study, we present the results of 40 independent simulations of DNA packaging into epsilon15 using the previously described low-resolution model for bacteriophages. In addition to coaxially spooled conformations, we also observe a number of folded-toroidal patterns, but the density averaged over all conformations closely resembles the experimental density. Thermodynamic analysis of the simulations predicts that a force of approximately 125 pN would be required to package DNA into epsilon15. We also show that the origin of this force is predominantly due to electrostatic and entropic contributions. However, the DNA conformation is determined primarily by the need to minimize the DNA bending energy. PMID:17637341

  10. Node-avoiding Levy flight - A numerical test of the epsilon expansion. [random walk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halley, J. W.; Nakanishi, H.

    1985-01-01

    A study is conducted of an extension of Levy flight to include self-repulsion in the path of the walk. The extension is called node-avoiding Levy flight and its equivalence to the n approaches 0 limit of a statistical mechanical model for a magnetic system with long-range interactions between the spins is shown. By use of this equivalence it is possible to make a detailed comparison beween the results of the epsilon expansion for the magnetic model, a Monte Carlo simulation of the Levy flight model, and the results of a Flory-type argument. This is the first comparison of the epsilon expansion for epsilon much less than 1 with a numerical simulation for any model. Some speculations are made on applications of the model of node-avoiding Levy flight.

  11. Lattice study of meson correlators in the {epsilon}-regime of two-flavor QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Fukaya, H.; Aoki, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Yamada, N.; Matsufuru, H.; Noaki, J.; Ogawa, K.; Onogi, T.

    2008-04-01

    We calculate mesonic two-point functions in the {epsilon}-regime of two-flavor QCD on the lattice with exact chiral symmetry. We use gauge configurations of size 16{sup 3}x32 at a{approx}0.11 fm generated with dynamical overlap fermions. The sea quark mass is fixed at around 3 MeV and the valence quark mass is varied in the range 1-4 MeV, both of which are in the {epsilon}-regime. We find a good consistency with the expectations from the next-to-leading order calculation in the {epsilon}-expansion of (partially quenched) chiral perturbation theory. From a fit we obtain the pion decay constant F=87.3(5.6) MeV and the chiral condensate {sigma}{sup MS}=[239.8(4.0) MeV]{sup 3} up to next-to-next-to-leading order contributions.

  12. Computation of turbulent flows using an extended k-epsilon turbulence closure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.-S.; Kim, S.-W.

    1987-01-01

    An extended kappa-epsilon turbulence model is proposed and tested with successful results. An improved transport equation for the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy, epsilon, is proposed. The proposed model gives more effective response to the energy production rate than does the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model. An extra time scale of the production range is included in the dissipation rate equation. This enables the present model to perform equally well for several turbulent flows with different characteristics, e.g., plane and axisymmetric jets, turbulent boundary layer flow, turbulent flow over a backward-facing step, and a confined turbulent swirling flow. A second-order accurate finite difference boundary layer code and a nearly second-order accurate finite difference elliptic flow solver are used for the present numerical computations.

  13. Evidence on primate phylogeny from epsilon-globin gene sequences and flanking regions.

    PubMed

    Porter, C A; Sampaio, I; Schneider, H; Schneider, M P; Czelusniak, J; Goodman, M

    1995-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among various primate groups were examined based on sequences of epsilon-globin genes. epsilon-globin genes were sequenced from five species of strepsirhine primates. These sequences were aligned and compared with other known primate epsilon-globin sequences, including data from two additional strepsirhine species, one species of tarsier, 19 species of New World monkeys (representing all extant genera), and five species of catarrhines. In addition, a 2-kb segment upstream of the epsilon-globin gene was sequenced in two of the five strepsirhines examined. This upstream sequence was aligned with five other species of primates for which data are available in this segment. Domestic rabbit and goat were used as outgroups. This analysis supports the monophyly of order Primates but does not support the traditional prosimian grouping of tarsiers, lorisoids, and lemuroids; rather it supports the sister grouping of tarsiers and anthropoids into Haplorhini and the sister grouping of lorisoids and lemuroids into Strepsirhini. The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) and dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) appear to be most closely related to each other, forming a clade with the lemuroids, and are probably not closely related to the lorisoids, as suggested by some morphological studies. Analysis of the epsilon-globin data supports the hypothesis that the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) shares a sister-group relationship with other Malagasy strepsirhines (all being classified as lemuroids). Relationships among ceboids agree with findings from a previous epsilon-globin study in which fewer outgroup taxa were employed. Rates of molecular evolution were higher in lorisoids than in lemuroids. PMID:7714911

  14. Coherent laser excitation of Ba-137 and Ba-138

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Kai-Shue

    1992-01-01

    Computations are carried out for the 1S(6s2)-1P(6s,6p) coherent laser excitation of Ba-137 and Ba-138 in a magnetic field. Results are presented for both the steady-state and time-dependent excited-state populations of the Zeeman-split magnetic sublevels. The quantum-statistical Liouville-equation approach (for the reduced density matrix) is compared to the rate-equations approach. Significant differences are found between these, due to the interference between strongly overlapping lines (especially for Ba-137). The time-evolution profiles indicate that the Ba-137 transient time is much longer than that of Ba-138.

  15. The phylogeography of rabies in Grenada, West Indies, and implications for control.

    PubMed

    Zieger, Ulrike; Marston, Denise A; Sharma, Ravindra; Chikweto, Alfred; Tiwari, Keshaw; Sayyid, Muzzamil; Louison, Bowen; Goharriz, Hooman; Voller, Katja; Breed, Andrew C; Werling, Dirk; Fooks, Anthony R; Horton, Daniel L

    2014-10-01

    In Grenada, West Indies, rabies is endemic, and is thought to be maintained in a wildlife host, the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) with occasional spillover into other hosts. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to improve understanding of rabies epidemiology in Grenada and to inform rabies control policy. Mongooses were trapped island-wide between April 2011 and March 2013 and examined for the presence of Rabies virus (RABV) antigen using the direct fluorescent antibody test (dFAT) and PCR, and for serum neutralizing antibodies (SNA) using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test (FAVN). An additional cohort of brain samples from clinical rabies suspects submitted between April 2011 and March 2014 were also investigated for the presence of virus. Two of the 171 (1.7%) live-trapped mongooses were RABV positive by FAT and PCR, and 20 (11.7%) had SNAs. Rabies was diagnosed in 31 of the submitted animals with suspicious clinical signs: 16 mongooses, 12 dogs, 2 cats and 1 goat. Our investigation has revealed that rabies infection spread from the northeast to the southwest of Grenada within the study period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the viruses from Grenada formed a monophyletic clade within the cosmopolitan lineage with a common ancestor predicted to have occurred recently (6-23 years ago), and are distinct from those found in Cuba and Puerto Rico, where mongoose rabies is also endemic. These data suggest that it is likely that this specific strain of RABV was imported from European regions rather than the Americas. These data contribute essential information for any potential rabies control program in Grenada and demonstrate the importance of a sound evidence base for planning interventions. PMID:25330178

  16. Ralstonia solanacearum Strains from Martinique (French West Indies) Exhibiting a New Pathogenic Potential▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wicker, Emmanuel; Grassart, Laurence; Coranson-Beaudu, Régine; Mian, Danièle; Guilbaud, Caroline; Fegan, Mark; Prior, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    We investigated a destructive pathogenic variant of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum that was consistently isolated in Martinique (French West Indies). Since the 1960s, bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops in Martinique has been caused primarily by strains of R. solanacearum that belong to either phylotype I or phylotype II. Since 1999, anthurium shade houses have been dramatically affected by uncharacterized phylotype II strains that also affected a wide range of species, such as Heliconia caribea, cucurbitaceous crops, and weeds. From 1989 to 2003, a total of 224 R. solanacearum isolates were collected and compared to 6 strains isolated in Martinique in the 1980s. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of selected strains from Martinique were assessed (multiplex PCRs, mutS and egl DNA sequence analysis) and compared to the genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of 32 reference strains covering the known diversity within the R. solanacearum species complex. Twenty-four representative isolates were tested for pathogenicity to Musa species (banana) and tomato, eggplant, and sweet pepper. Based upon both PCR and sequence analysis, 119 Martinique isolates from anthurium, members of the family Cucurbitaceae, Heliconia, and tomato, were determined to belong to a group termed phylotype II/sequevar 4 (II/4). While these strains cluster with the Moko disease-causing strains, they were not pathogenic to banana (NPB). The strains belonging to phylotype II/4NPB were highly pathogenic to tomato, eggplant, and pepper, were able to wilt the resistant tomato variety Hawaii7996, and may latently infect cooking banana. Phylotype II/4NPB constitutes a new pathogenic variant of R. solanacearum that has recently appeared in Martinique and may be latently prevalent throughout Caribbean and Central/South America. PMID:17720825

  17. The Phylogeography of Rabies in Grenada, West Indies, and Implications for Control

    PubMed Central

    Zieger, Ulrike; Marston, Denise A.; Sharma, Ravindra; Chikweto, Alfred; Tiwari, Keshaw; Sayyid, Muzzamil; Louison, Bowen; Goharriz, Hooman; Voller, Katja; Breed, Andrew C.; Werling, Dirk; Fooks, Anthony R.; Horton, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    In Grenada, West Indies, rabies is endemic, and is thought to be maintained in a wildlife host, the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) with occasional spillover into other hosts. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to improve understanding of rabies epidemiology in Grenada and to inform rabies control policy. Mongooses were trapped island-wide between April 2011 and March 2013 and examined for the presence of Rabies virus (RABV) antigen using the direct fluorescent antibody test (dFAT) and PCR, and for serum neutralizing antibodies (SNA) using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test (FAVN). An additional cohort of brain samples from clinical rabies suspects submitted between April 2011 and March 2014 were also investigated for the presence of virus. Two of the 171 (1.7%) live-trapped mongooses were RABV positive by FAT and PCR, and 20 (11.7%) had SNAs. Rabies was diagnosed in 31 of the submitted animals with suspicious clinical signs: 16 mongooses, 12 dogs, 2 cats and 1 goat. Our investigation has revealed that rabies infection spread from the northeast to the southwest of Grenada within the study period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the viruses from Grenada formed a monophyletic clade within the cosmopolitan lineage with a common ancestor predicted to have occurred recently (6–23 years ago), and are distinct from those found in Cuba and Puerto Rico, where mongoose rabies is also endemic. These data suggest that it is likely that this specific strain of RABV was imported from European regions rather than the Americas. These data contribute essential information for any potential rabies control program in Grenada and demonstrate the importance of a sound evidence base for planning interventions. PMID:25330178

  18. Coastal accretion on leeward margins of carbonate platforms, Turks and Caicos Islands, British West Indies

    SciTech Connect

    Wanless, H.R.; Rossinsky, V. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Chance creation of a small patch of emergent topography can initiate an expansive sequence of coastal accretion on leeward margins of carbonate platforms. Without initiating topography, leeward margins remain a featureless marine environment where offbank transport smothers attempts at reefal growth and depletes sand reservoirs. The Pleistocene-Holocene limestones forming West Caicos Island on the leeward (west) margin of Caicos Bank (British West Indies) are an example. Here, two north-south-trending oolitic sand ridges formed about 3 km in from the platform edge in the early Pleistocene. These ridges blocked cross-platform and offplatform flow for a section of the margin. A leeward-margin coral reef formed and built to sea level along this sector. Ooid production on, and influx to, the windward (east) side of the ridges was swept longshore to the ridge ends and then westward by crossbank currents toward the platform margin. These are preserved as fossil beach ridges. Continued ooid production (supply) generated a northward- and southward-prograding series of arcuate beach ridges. At the leeward platform margin, now protected from cross-bank flow, waves and longshore currents moved oolitic sand spits across the reef buildup, smothering it. As the island elongated north-south, longshore removal of oolitic sand became ineffective, triggering a final stage of bankward (eastward) beach-ridge progradation. Although this sequence was interrupted by several glacial sea level lowerings, the scenario is not dependent on them. This accreting coastal complex has severely modified both the leeward platform and offplatform facies. With time it could completely separate this leeward margin from the platform interior.

  19. Detecting the small island effect and nestedness of herpetofauna of the West Indies.

    PubMed

    Gao, De; Perry, Gad

    2016-08-01

    To detect the small island effect (SIE) and nestedness patterns of herpetofauna of the West Indies, we derived and updated data on the presence/absence of herpetofauna in this region from recently published reviews. We applied regression-based analyses, including linear regression and piecewise regressions with two and three segments, to detect the SIE and then used the Akaike's information criterion (AIC) as a criterion to select the best model. We used the NODF (a nestedness metric based on overlap and decreasing fill) to quantify nestedness and employed two null models to determine significance. Moreover, a random sampling effort was made to infer about the degree of nestedness at portions of the entire community. We found piecewise regression with three segments performed best, suggesting the species-area relationships possess three different patterns that resulted from two area thresholds: a first one, delimiting the SIE, and a second one, delimiting evolutionary processes. We also found that taxa with lower resource requirement, higher dispersal ability, and stronger adaptation to the environment generally displayed lower corresponding threshold values, indicating superior taxonomic groups could earlier end the SIE period and start in situ speciation as the increase of island size. Moreover, the traditional two-segment piecewise regression method may cause poor estimations for both slope and threshold value of the SIE. Therefore, we suggest previous SIE detection works that conducted by two-segment piecewise regression method, ignoring the possibility of three segments, need to be reanalyzed. Antinestedness occurred in the entire system, whereas high degree of nestedness could still occur in portions within the region. Nestedness may still be applicable to conservation planning at portions even if it is antinested at the regional scale. However, nestedness may not be applicable to conservation planning at the regional scale even if nestedness does exist

  20. Ralstonia solanacearum strains from Martinique (French West Indies) exhibiting a new pathogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Emmanuel; Grassart, Laurence; Coranson-Beaudu, Régine; Mian, Danièle; Guilbaud, Caroline; Fegan, Mark; Prior, Philippe

    2007-11-01

    We investigated a destructive pathogenic variant of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum that was consistently isolated in Martinique (French West Indies). Since the 1960s, bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops in Martinique has been caused primarily by strains of R. solanacearum that belong to either phylotype I or phylotype II. Since 1999, anthurium shade houses have been dramatically affected by uncharacterized phylotype II strains that also affected a wide range of species, such as Heliconia caribea, cucurbitaceous crops, and weeds. From 1989 to 2003, a total of 224 R. solanacearum isolates were collected and compared to 6 strains isolated in Martinique in the 1980s. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of selected strains from Martinique were assessed (multiplex PCRs, mutS and egl DNA sequence analysis) and compared to the genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of 32 reference strains covering the known diversity within the R. solanacearum species complex. Twenty-four representative isolates were tested for pathogenicity to Musa species (banana) and tomato, eggplant, and sweet pepper. Based upon both PCR and sequence analysis, 119 Martinique isolates from anthurium, members of the family Cucurbitaceae, Heliconia, and tomato, were determined to belong to a group termed phylotype II/sequevar 4 (II/4). While these strains cluster with the Moko disease-causing strains, they were not pathogenic to banana (NPB). The strains belonging to phylotype II/4NPB were highly pathogenic to tomato, eggplant, and pepper, were able to wilt the resistant tomato variety Hawaii7996, and may latently infect cooking banana. Phylotype II/4NPB constitutes a new pathogenic variant of R. solanacearum that has recently appeared in Martinique and may be latently prevalent throughout Caribbean and Central/South America. PMID:17720825

  1. Survey of Naegleria fowleri in Geothermal Recreational Waters of Guadeloupe (French West Indies)

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Mirna; De Jonckheere, Johan F.; Guerlotté, Jérôme; Richard, Vincent; Bastaraud, Alexandra; Romana, Marc; Talarmin, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 a fatal case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, due to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri, occurred in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, after a child swam in a bath fed with geothermal water. In order to improve the knowledge on free-living amoebae in this tropical part of France, we investigated on a monthly basis, the presence of Naegleria spp. in the recreational baths, and stream waters which feed them. A total of 73 water samples, 48 sediments and 54 swabs samples were collected from 6 sampling points between June 2011 and July 2012. The water samples were filtered and the filters transferred to non-nutrient agar plates seeded with a heat-killed suspension of Escherichia coli while sediment and swab samples were placed directly on these plates. The plates were incubated at 44°C for the selective isolation of thermophilic Naegleria. To identify the Naegleria isolates the internal transcribed spacers, including the 5.8S rDNA, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the sequence of the PCR products was determined. Thermophilic amoebae were present at nearly all collection sites. The pathogenic N. fowleri was the most frequently encountered thermophilic species followed by N. lovaniensis. The concentration of N. fowleri was rather low in most water samples, ranging from 0 to 22 per liter. Sequencing revealed that all N. fowleri isolates belonged to a common Euro-American genotype, the same as detected in the human case in Guadeloupe. These investigations need to be continued in order to counsel the health authorities about prevention measures, because these recreational thermal baths are used daily by local people and tourists. PMID:23349880

  2. Factors affecting hatch success of hawksbill sea turtles on Long Island, Antigua, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Ditmer, Mark Allan; Stapleton, Seth Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Current understanding of the factors influencing hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) hatch success is disparate and based on relatively short-term studies or limited sample sizes. Because global populations of hawksbills are heavily depleted, evaluating the parameters that impact hatch success is important to their conservation and recovery. Here, we use data collected by the Jumby Bay Hawksbill Project (JBHP) to investigate hatch success. The JBHP implements saturation tagging protocols to study a hawksbill rookery in Antigua, West Indies. Habitat data, which reflect the varied nesting beaches, are collected at egg deposition, and nest contents are exhumed and categorized post-emergence. We analyzed hatch success using mixed-model analyses with explanatory and predictive datasets. We incorporated a random effect for turtle identity and evaluated environmental, temporal and individual-based reproductive variables. Hatch success averaged 78.6% (SD: 21.2%) during the study period. Highly supported models included multiple covariates, including distance to vegetation, deposition date, individual intra-seasonal nest number, clutch size, organic content, and sand grain size. Nests located in open sand were predicted to produce 10.4 more viable hatchlings per clutch than nests located >1.5 m into vegetation. For an individual first nesting in early July, the fourth nest of the season yielded 13.2 more viable hatchlings than the initial clutch. Generalized beach section and inter-annual variation were also supported in our explanatory dataset, suggesting that gaps remain in our understanding of hatch success. Our findings illustrate that evaluating hatch success is a complex process, involving multiple environmental and individual variables. Although distance to vegetation and hatch success were inversely related, vegetation is an important component of hawksbill nesting habitat, and a more complete assessment of the impacts of specific vegetation types on hatch

  3. Anomalous nonlinear absorption in epsilon-near-zero materials: optical limiting and all-optical control.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, M A; de Ceglia, D; Scalora, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We investigate nonlinear absorption in films of epsilon-near-zero materials. The combination of large local electric fields at the fundamental frequency and material losses at the harmonic frequencies induce unusual intensity-dependent phenomena. We predict that the second-order nonlinearity of a low-damping, epsilon-near-zero slab produces an optical limiting effect that mimics a two-photon absorption process. Anomalous absorption profiles that depend on low permittivity values at the pump frequency are also predicted for third-order nonlinearities. These findings suggest new opportunities for all-optical light control and novel ways to design reconfigurable and tunable nonlinear devices. PMID:27472631

  4. Psychological knowledge in a colonial context: theories on the nature of the "native mind" in the former Dutch East Indies.

    PubMed

    Pols, Hans

    2007-05-01

    This article analyzes the views of 3 Dutch physicians working in the former Dutch East Indies during the first part of the 20th century. These physicians based ideas about the nature of the normal indigenous psyche on both their analysis of Indonesian individuals suffering from mental illness and on casual observations that represented widely shared cultural stereotypes. On that basis, they advocated a psychological colonial policy, which was to be based on a scientific understanding of the psyche of the Indonesian people. Using these ideas, they advocated political repression, justified inequality and racism, and limited educational opportunities for Indonesians. Representatives of the Indonesian nationalist movement vigorously protested against these ideas. PMID:17645127

  5. Cloning of the novel human myeloid-cell-specific C/EBP-epsilon transcription factor.

    PubMed Central

    Chumakov, A M; Grillier, I; Chumakova, E; Chih, D; Slater, J; Koeffler, H P

    1997-01-01

    Chicken NF-M transcription factor, in cooperation with either c-Myb or v-Myb, is active in the combinatorial activation of myeloid-cell-specific genes in heterologous cell types, such as embryonic fibroblasts. In humans, similar effects were observed with homologous members of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcriptional regulators, especially the human homolog of chicken NF-M, C/EBP-beta (NF-IL6). However, the NF-IL6 gene is expressed in a variety of nonmyeloid cell types and is strongly inducible in response to inflammatory stimuli, making it an unlikely candidate to have an exclusive role as a combinatorial differentiation switch during myelopoiesis in human cells. By using a reverse transcription-PCR-based approach and a set of primers specific for the DNA-binding domains of highly homologous members of the C/EBP family of transcriptional regulators, we have cloned a novel human gene encoding a member of the C/EBP gene family, identified as the human homolog of CRP1, C/EBP-epsilon. A 1.2-kb cDNA encoding full-length human C/EBP-epsilon was cloned from a promyelocyte-late myeloblast-derived lambda gt11 library. Molecular analysis of the cDNA and genomic clones indicated the presence of two exons encoding a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa and a pI of 9.5. Primer extension analysis of C/EBP-epsilon mRNA detected a single major transcription start site approximately 200 bp upstream of the start codon. The putative promoter area is similar to those of several other myeloid-cell-specific genes in that it contains no TATAAA box but has a number of purine-rich stretches with multiple sites for the factors of the Ets family of transcriptional regulators. Northern blot analyses indicated a highly restricted mRNA expression pattern, with the strongest expression occurring in promyelocyte and late-myeloblast-like cell lines. Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies using rabbit anti-C/EBP-epsilon antibodies raised against the N

  6. Numerical solution of turbulent flow past a backward facing step using a nonlinear K-epsilon model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speziale, C. G.; Ngo, Tuan

    1987-01-01

    The problem of turbulent flow past a backward facing step is important in many technological applications and has been used as a standard test case to evaluate the performance of turbulence models in the prediction of separated flows. It is well known that the commonly used kappa-epsilon (and K-l) models of turbulence yield inaccurate predictions for the reattachment points in this problem. By an analysis of the mean vorticity transport equation, it will be argued that the intrinsically inaccurate prediction of normal Reynolds stress differences by the Kappa-epsilon and K-l models is a major contributor to this problem. Computations using a new nonlinear kappa-epsilon model (which alleviates this deficiency) are made with the TEACH program. Comparisons are made between the improved results predicted by this nonlinear kappa-epsilon model and those obtained from the linear kappa-epsilon model as well as from second-order closure models.

  7. Modification of the Two-equation Turbulence Model in NPARC to a Chien Low Reynolds Number K-epsilon Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Chitsomboon, Tawit; Zhu, Jiang

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the changes that were made to the two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model in the NPARC (National-PARC) code. The previous model based on the low Reynolds number model of Speziale, was replaced with the low Reynolds number k-epsilon model of Chien. The most significant difference was in the turbulent Prandtl numbers appearing in the diffusion terms of the k and epsilon transport equations. A new inflow boundary condition and stability enhancements were also implemented into the turbulence model within NPARC. The report provides the rationale for making the change to the Chien model, code modifications required, and comparisons of the performances of the new model with the previous k-epsilon model and algebraic models used most often in PARC/NPARC. The comparisons show that the Chien k-epsilon model installed here improves the capability of NPARC to calculate turbulent flows.

  8. IKK{epsilon} modulates RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B-dependent gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Bao Xiaoyong; Indukuri, Hemalatha; Liu Tianshuang; Liao Suiling; Tian, Bing; Brasier, Allan R.; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Casola, Antonella

    2010-12-20

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a negative-strand RNA virus, is the most common cause of epidemic respiratory disease in infants and young children. RSV infection of airway epithelial cells induces the expression of immune/inflammatory genes through the activation of a subset of transcription factors, including Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study we have investigated the role of the non canonical I{kappa}B kinase (IKK){epsilon} in modulating RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. Our results show that inhibition of IKK{epsilon} activation results in significant impairment of viral-induced NF-{kappa}B-dependent gene expression, through a reduction in NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity, without changes in nuclear translocation or DNA-binding activity. Absence of IKK{epsilon} results in a significant decrease of RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B phosphorylation on serine 536, a post-translational modification important for RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B-dependent gene expression, known to regulate NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity without affecting nuclear translocation. This study identifies a novel mechanism by which IKK{epsilon} regulates viral-induced cellular signaling.

  9. N. sup. var epsilon. -acetyl-. beta. -lysine: An osmolyte synthesized by mothanogenic archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, K.R.; Gunsalus, R.P. ); Robertson, D.E.; Noll, D.; Roberts, M.F. )

    1990-12-01

    Methanosarcina thermophila, a nonmarine methanogenic archaebacterium, can grow in a range of saline concentrations. At less than 0.4 M NaCl, Ms. thermophila accumulated glutamate in response to increasing osmotic stress. At greater than 0.4 M NaCl, this organism synthesized a modified {beta}-amino acid that was identified as N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine by NMR spectroscopy and ion-exchange HPLC. This {beta}-amino acid derivative accumulated to high intracellular concentrations (up to 0.6 M) in Ms. thermophila and in another methanogen examined - Methanogenium cariaci, a marine species. The compound has features that are characteristic of a compatible solute: it is neutrally charged at physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological compatible solute, N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine synthesis was repressed and glycine betaine was accumulated. N{sup {var epsilon}}-Acetyl-{beta}-lysine was synthesized by species from three phylogenetic families when grown in high solute concentrations, suggesting that it may be ubiquitous among the methanogens. The ability to control the biosynthesis of N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine in response to extracellular solute concentration indicates that the methanogenic archaebacteria have a unique {beta}-amino acid biosynthetic pathway that is osmotically regulated.

  10. Using contour plots in elecgroproduction to examine regions in {epsilon}, Q{sup 2}, W space

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.

    1994-04-01

    In determining incident CEBAF beam energies for CLAS electroproduction experiments that separate the longitudinal and transverse cross section components, contour plots of {epsilon} defined over a 2 dimensional Q{sup 2}, W space can be useful. This note describes an approximate method of constructing such plots.

  11. Epsilon Metal Waste Form for Immobilization of Noble Metals from Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Rohatgi, Aashish; Zumhoff, Mac R.

    2013-10-01

    Epsilon metal (ε-metal), an alloy of Mo, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Tc, is being developed as a waste form to treat and immobilize the undissolved solids and dissolved noble metals from aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel. Epsilon metal is an attractive waste form for several reasons: increased durability relative to borosilicate glass, it can be fabricated without additives (100% waste loading), and in addition it also benefits borosilicate glass waste loading by eliminating noble metals from the glass and thus the processing problems related there insolubility in glass. This work focused on the processing aspects of the epsilon metal waste form development. Epsilon metal is comprised of refractory metals resulting in high reaction temperatures to form the alloy, expected to be 1500 - 2000°C making it a non-trivial phase to fabricate by traditional methods. Three commercially available advanced technologies were identified: spark-plasma sintering, microwave sintering, and hot isostatic pressing, and investigated as potential methods to fabricate this waste form. Results of these investigations are reported and compared in terms of bulk density, phase assemblage (X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy).

  12. The Students' Take on the Epsilon-Delta Definition of a Limit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a sequence of lessons from two Calculus I classes for teaching the epsilon-delta definition of a limit. In these lessons, the author elicited students' misconceptions and perceptions of this definition through a reading/writing lesson and then used these student ideas to design a lesson aimed at addressing these misconceptions…

  13. Perfect electromagnetic absorption using graphene and epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobet, Michaël; Majerus, Bruno; Henrard, Luc; Lambin, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The ability of graphene/polymer heterostructures to absorb GHz electromagnetic radiation was recently evidenced both theoretically and experimentally [Batrakov et al., Sci. Rep. 4, 7191 (2014), 10.1038/srep07191 and Lobet et al., Nanotechnology 26, 285702 (2015), 10.1088/0957-4484/26/28/285702]. Maximum absorption was shown to depend solely on refractive indices of incident and emergence media once impedance matching conditions are fulfilled. In this paper, analytical models and numerical simulations are performed for both semi-infinite and finite slab substrate. We evidenced that only three graphene layers separated by a dielectric spacer and an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial as emergence medium allow a perfect absorption for normal incidence. The use of lossless epsilon-near-zero metamaterial prevents radiations to go through the device, because of infinite impedance, and forces them to be totally absorbed in the dissipative medium (graphene). The device is proved to be robust regarding angular incidence up to 45 deg for a semi-infinite epsilon-near-zero metamaterial. The proposed strategy is universal and can be applied to any kind of two-dimensional dissipative materials lying on epsilon-near-zero metamaterial. The proposed absorber does not rely on surface patterning or texturing and hence is more appealing for device applications.

  14. [Bacteria that degrade low-molecular linear epsilon-caprolactam olygomers].

    PubMed

    Esikova, T Z; Akatova, E V; Taran, S A

    2014-01-01

    Five bacterial strains with the unique ability to utilize low-molecular linear caprolactam olygomers (nylon olygomers) were isolated from soil samples contaminated with industrial wastes of epsilon-caprolactam. Based on the properties studied and also on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences, the strains BS2,BS3, BS9, BS38, and BS57 were classified to the general Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Microbacteriun, Gulosibacter, and Achromobacter, respectively. All of the strains also utilized 6-aminohexanoic and adipic acids, which are intermidiates of the epsilon-caprolactam catabolism. This indirectly points to the fact that degradation of olygomers in these bacteria occurs via the monomer degradation pathway. The BS9 and BS57 strains utilized only olygomers of the epsilon-caprolactam, while BS2, BS3, and BS38 also degraded epsilon-caprolactam and its homologs, enantolactam and caprylolactam, which differentiates the latter from the previously known degraders of olygomers and suggests the presence in these strains of enzymes with lactam hydrolase activity, in addition to 6-aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase. PMID:25707105

  15. N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine: an osmolyte synthesized by methanogenic archaebacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, K R; Robertson, D E; Noll, D; Gunsalus, R P; Roberts, M F

    1990-01-01

    Methanosarcina thermophila, a nonmarine methanogenic archaebacterium, can grow in a range of saline concentrations. At less than 0.4 M NaCl, Ms. thermophila accumulated glutamate in response to increasing osmotic stress. At greater than 0.4 M NaCl, this organism synthesized a modified beta-amino acid that was identified as N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine by NMR spectroscopy and ion-exchange HPLC. This beta-amino acid derivative accumulated to high intracellular concentrations (up to 0.6 M) in Ms. thermophila and in another methanogen examined--Methanogenium cariaci, a marine species. The compound has features that are characteristic of a compatible solute: it is neutrally charged at physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological compatible solute, N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine synthesis was repressed and glycine betaine was accumulated. N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine was synthesized by species from three phylogenetic families when grown in high solute concentrations, suggesting that it may be ubiquitous among the methanogens. The ability to control the biosynthesis of N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine in response to extracellular solute concentration indicates that the methanogenic archaebacteria have a unique beta-amino acid biosynthetic pathway that is osmotically regulated. PMID:2123548

  16. The Use of Visual Approach in Teaching and Learning the Epsilon-Delta Definition of Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pešic, Duška; Pešic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new collaborative technique in teaching and learning the epsilon-delta definition of a continuous function at the point from its domain, which connects mathematical logic, combinatorics and calculus. This collaborative approach provides an opportunity for mathematical high school students to engage in mathematical…

  17. Two-flavor lattice QCD in the {epsilon} regime and chiral random matrix theory

    SciTech Connect

    Fukaya, H.; Aoki, S.; Chiu, T. W.; Ogawa, K.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Yamada, N.; Matsufuru, H.; Noaki, J.; Onogi, T.

    2007-09-01

    The low-lying eigenvalue spectrum of the QCD Dirac operator in the {epsilon} regime is expected to match with that of chiral random matrix theory (ChRMT). We study this correspondence for the case including sea quarks by performing two-flavor QCD simulations on the lattice. Using the overlap fermion formulation, which preserves exact chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacings, we push the sea quark mass down to {approx}3 MeV on a 16{sup 3}x32 lattice at a lattice spacing a{approx_equal}0.11 fm. We compare the low-lying eigenvalue distributions and find a good agreement with the analytical predictions of ChRMT. By matching the lowest-lying eigenvalue we extract the chiral condensate, {sigma}{sup MS}(2 GeV)=(251{+-}7{+-}11 MeV){sup 3}, where errors represent statistical and higher order effects in the {epsilon} expansion. We also calculate the eigenvalue distributions on the lattices with heavier sea quarks at two lattice spacings. Although the {epsilon} expansion is not applied for those sea quarks, we find a reasonable agreement of the Dirac operator spectrum with ChRMT. The value of {sigma}, after extrapolating to the chiral limit, is consistent with the estimate in the {epsilon} regime.

  18. Experience with k-epsilon turbulence models for heat transfer computations in rotating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tekriwal, Prabbat

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses geometry and flow configuration, effect of y+ on heat transfer computations, standard and extended k-epsilon turbulence model results with wall function, low-Re model results (the Lam-Bremhorst model without wall function), a criterion for flow reversal in a radially rotating square duct, and a summary.

  19. Experience with k-epsilon turbulence models for heat transfer computations in rotating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekriwal, Prabbat

    1995-03-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses geometry and flow configuration, effect of y+ on heat transfer computations, standard and extended k-epsilon turbulence model results with wall function, low-Re model results (the Lam-Bremhorst model without wall function), a criterion for flow reversal in a radially rotating square duct, and a summary.

  20. Functional analysis of neutralizing antibodies against Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin.

    PubMed

    McClain, Mark S; Cover, Timothy L

    2007-04-01

    The Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin causes a severe, often fatal illness (enterotoxemia) characterized by cardiac, pulmonary, kidney, and brain edema. In this study, we examined the activities of two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against the C. perfringens epsilon-toxin. Both antibodies inhibited epsilon-toxin cytotoxicity towards cultured MDCK cells and inhibited the ability of the toxin to form pores in the plasma membranes of cells, as shown by staining cells with the membrane-impermeant dye 7-aminoactinomycin D. Using an antibody competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a peptide array, and analysis of mutant toxins, we mapped the epitope recognized by one of the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to amino acids 134 to 145. The antibody competition ELISA and analysis of mutant toxins suggest that the second neutralizing monoclonal antibody also recognizes an epitope in close proximity to this region. The region comprised of amino acids 134 to 145 overlaps an amphipathic loop corresponding to the putative membrane insertion domain of the toxin. Identifying the epitopes recognized by these neutralizing antibodies constitutes an important first step in the development of therapeutic agents that could be used to counter the effects of the epsilon-toxin. PMID:17261609

  1. An Optimality Theoretic Account of Hungarian ESL Learners' Acquisition of /[epsilon]/ and /[ash]/

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunta, Ferenc; Major, Roy C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an Optimality Theoretic account of how Hungarian learners of English acquire /[epsilon]/ and /[ash]/. It is hypothesized that as the learners' pronunciation becomes more nativelike, L1 transfer substitutions will diminish; non-transfer substitutions will be especially prevalent in the intermediate stages, and that all learners…

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Zn-B-Si-O nano-composites and their doped BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Ruiyuan; Cui, Bin; Du, Fengtao; Chang, Zhuguo; Tang, Zongxun

    2010-10-15

    We synthesized Zn-B-Si-O (ZBSO) nano-composites via sol-gel process, and then used them to dope BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics. The ZBSO nano-composites and their ceramics were characterized by means of thermogravimetric, Fourier-transform infrared, and X-ray diffraction methods, and using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We also characterized the dielectric properties of the ceramics. The results indicated that the ZBSO nano-composites were nanometer-scale powders with an amorphous structure. The particle size of the powders increased with increasing pH value, but initially decreased and then increased with increasing calcining temperature. At pH about 2 and with calcining at 400 {sup o}C, the nano-composites attained minimum particle size (about 30 nm). The sintering temperature of the BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics could be reduced to 1100 {sup o}C by adding 5 wt% of the ZBSO nano-composites. Uniform, fine-grained BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics with a high permittivity ({epsilon}{sub r} = 2946 and {epsilon}{sub max} = 5072) were obtained by adding nano-composites; these properties were superior to the ZBSO glass doped BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics.

  3. THE FATE OF THE EPSILON PHASE IN UO2 OF THE OKLO NATURAL FISSON REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2005-09-08

    In spent nuclear fuel (SNF), the micron- to nano-sized epsilon phase (Mo-Ru-Pd-Tc-Rh) is an important host of {sup 99}Tc which has a long half life (2.13 x 10{sup 5} years) and can be an important contributor to dose in safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories. In order to examine the occurrence and the fate of the epsilon phase during the corrosion of SNF over long time periods, samples of uraninite from the Oklo natural reactors ({approx}2.0 Ga) have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Because essentially all of the {sup 99}Tc has decayed to {sup 99}Ru, this study focuses on 4d-elements of the epsilon phase. Samples were obtained from the research collection at University of Michigan representing reactor zone (RZ) 10 (836, 819,687) and from RZ 13 (864,910). Several phases with 4d-metals have been identified within UO{sub 2} matrix at the scale of 50-700 nm; fioodite, PdBi{sub 2}, with trace amounts of As, Fe, and Te, and palladodymite or rhodarsenide, (Pd,Rh){sub 2}As. The most abundant 4d-metal phase is ruthenarsinite, (Ru,Ni)As, which has a representative composition: As, 59.9; Coy 2.5; Ni, 5.2; Ru, 18.6; Rh, 8.4; Pd, 3.1; Sb, 2.4 in atomic%. Ruthenarsenite nanoparticles are typically surrounded by Pb-rich domains, galena in most cases; whereas, some particles reveal a complexly zoned composition within the grain, such as a Pb-rich domain at the core and enrichment of Ni, Co, and As at the rim. Some ruthenarsenites and Rh-Bi-particles are embedded in surrounding alteration products, e.g., chlorite, adjacent to uraninite (no further than {approx}5 {micro}m). A few of those particles are still coated by a Pb-rich layer. Based on these results, the history that epsilon phases have experienced can be described as follows: (1) The original epsilon phase was changed to, in most cases, ruthenarsenite, by As-rich fluids with other trace metals. Dissolution and a simultaneous precipitation may be responsible for the phase change. (2

  4. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele differentiates the clinical response to donepezil in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bizzarro, A; Marra, C; Acciarri, A; Valenza, A; Tiziano, F D; Brahe, C; Masullo, C

    2005-01-01

    The existence of an association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported in several studies. The possession of an ApoE epsilon4 allele is now considered a genetic risk factor for sporadic AD. There has been a growing agreement about the role exerted by the ApoE epsilon4 allele on the neuropsychological profile and the rate of cognitive decline in AD patients. However, a more controversial issue remains about a possible influence of the APOE genotype on acetylcholinesterase inhibitor therapy response in AD patients. In order to address this issue, 81 patients diagnosed as having probable AD were evaluated by a complete neuropsychological test battery at the time of diagnosis (baseline) and after 12-16 months (retest). Patients were divided into two subgroups: (1) treated with donepezil at a dose of 5 mg once a day (n = 41) and (2) untreated (n = 40). Donepezil therapy was started after baseline evaluation. The APOE genotype was determined according to standardized procedures. We evaluated the possible effect of the APOE genotype on the neuropsychological tasks in relation to donepezil therapy. The statistical analysis of the results showed a global worsening of cognitive performances for all AD patients at the retest. Differences in the clinical outcome were analysed in the four subgroups of AD patients for each neuropsychological task. ApoE epsilon4 carriers/treated patients had improved or unchanged scores at retest evaluation for the following tasks: visual and verbal memory, visual attention and inductive reasoning and Mini Mental State Examination. These results indicate an effect of donepezil on specific cognitive domains (attention and memory) in the ApoE epsilon4 carriers with AD. This might suggest an early identification of AD patients carrying at least one epsilon4 allele as responders to donepezil therapy. PMID:16103669

  5. Neodymium and strontium isotopic constraints on soil sources in Barbados, West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Lars E.; Banner, Jay L.

    1996-11-01

    Neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions and Sm/Nd ratios are used to constrain the sources of silicate-rich soils developed on uplifted Pleistocene coral-reef limestones on Barbados, West Indies. The geographic and geologic setting of Barbados facilitates the application of these tracers to the evaluation of the following soil sources: (1) Pleistocene reef limestone regolith, (2) Tertiary carbonate rocks, sandstones, and mudstones that are exposed in northeastern Barbados, (3) volcanic ash erupted from the Lesser Antilles arc, (4) Saharan dust transported by trade winds, and (5) fertilizer. The soils have ɛNd values that range from -6.6 to -1.9, 87Sr /86Sr values of 0.70890 to 0.71067, and Sm/Nd ratios of 0.223-0.260. The Pleistocene limestone component is the most significant source of Sr in the soils and a negligible source of Nd. Comparison of Sm and Nd concentrations and neodymium isotopic compositions of soil samples that are weathered to varying extents indicates that Sm and Nd are relatively unfractionated and retained in the soils during weathering. ɛNd and Sm/Nd variations in the soils, therefore, primarily reflect the compositions and proportions of the silicate sources. Mass balance calculations based on SmNd systematics require that the silicate soil components contain between 30-85% volcanic ash, with the remaining silicate fraction comprised of old, continentally-derived sediment. In contrast to Sm and Nd, Sr is mobilized and removed from the soils during weathering. Strontium from volcanic and carbonate sources is preferentially removed relative to continental silicate sources. The strontium isotopic compositions of the soils, therefore, reflect the combined effects of the degree of weathering and the compositions and proportions of the soil sources. Mass balance calculations indicate that at least 35-60% of the initial Sr in the soils has been removed by weathering. These results illustrate (1) the utility of radiogenic isotopes in

  6. Combined adverse effects of cascading events on systems' functionality: an insular case study, French West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desramaut, Nicolas; Wang, Justin; Gehl, Pierre; Marti, Jose; Baills, Audrey; Reveillere, Arnaud

    2013-04-01

    In our modern societies, lifelines play a vital role, even in normal conditions. Therefore, during crises, the dependency to critical infrastructures is likely to be exacerbated. Indeed, in order to provide quick emergency services to the population, systems have to be functional. However, even if not directly damaged, in order to be functional, elements of the different systems have to receive enough resources but also to be able to supply their own services. In a multi-risk approach, this necessity to take into account systemic vulnerability to assess the real impact of natural hazards on society is even made more obvious. For example, impacts of one hazard, taken separately, might not significantly affect societies, but might reduce redundancy, and therefore could increase functional vulnerability to other hazards. The present study aims at analyzing the effects of cascading events on the behaviour of interdependent systems and on the capacities of the health care system to treat the victims. In order to work on a close system, an insular context (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) has been selected. The hazard cascading scenario consists of a M6.3 earthquake striking Basse-Terre, and triggering landslides in the mountainous areas where antecedent precipitations have made the area prone to slide. Damages due to earthquakes have been estimated for the 5 considered systems (buildings, healthcare system, electrical network, water supply network and transportation). Due to their localization in mountainous areas, landslides would affect only transportation networks, with closure of roads. The inter- and intra-dependencies of systems have been modeled thanks to the I2Sim platform developed at UBC. The functionality of each element is therefore the consequence of the physical (direct damage) but also functional (indirect) damage. Analyses are performed for different strategies of resources allocations, and one of the final results is the impact of the induced landslides

  7. Hydrothermal Venting at Kick'Em Jenny Submarine Volcano (West Indies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Roman, C.; Smart, C.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Ballard, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny is a frequently-erupting, shallow submarine volcano located ~8 km off the northwest coast of Grenada in the West Indies. The last eruption took place in 2001 but did not breach the sea surface. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (~100 x 100 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 meters. Near the center of the depression clear fluids are being discharged from a focused mound-like vent at a maximum temperature of 180o C with the simultaneous discharge of numerous bubble streams. The gas consists of 93-96% CO2 with trace amounts of methane and hydrogen. A sulfur component likely contributes 1-4% of the gas total. Gas flux measurements on individual bubble streams ranged from 10 to 100 kg of CO2 per day. Diffuse venting with temperatures 5 to 35o C above ambient occurs throughout the depression and over large areas of the main crater. These zones are extensively colonized by reddish-yellow bacterial mats with the production of loose Fe-oxyhydroxides largely as a surface coating and in some cases, as fragile spires up to several meters in height. A high-resolution photo mosaic of the crater depression was constructed using the remotely operated vehicle Hercules on cruise NA039 of the E/V Nautilus. The image revealed prominent fluid flow patterns descending the sides of the depression towards the base. We speculate that the negatively buoyant fluid flow may be the result of second boiling of hydrothermal fluids at Kick'em Jenny generating a dense saline component that does not rise despite its elevated temperature. Increased density may also be the result of high dissolved CO2 content of the fluids, although we were not able to measure this directly. The low amount of sulphide mineralization on the crater floor suggests that deposition may be occurring mostly subsurface, in accord with models of second boiling mineralization from other hydrothermal vent systems.

  8. Ecological energetics of the tropical sea urchin Diadema antillarum Philippi in Barbados, West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Christopher M.; Lewis, John B.

    1982-12-01

    The common tropical sea urchin Diadema antillarum Philippi is the dominant herbivore on fringing coral reefs in Barbados, West Indies. The biological importance of Diadema as an agent of energy transfer was evaluated from energy budgets constructed for the population and for individuals of 10 size groups. Monthly energy budgets for urchins of various size groups balance within 1 kcal except for urchins of the largest size group examined. Approximately 20% of the monthly net benthic primary production of the fringing coral reef is consumed by Diadema. This percentage is considerably larger than the 7% reported for the consumption of benthic algal production by a population of the temperate water sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, feeding in kelp beds but is lower than the 47% reported for the consumption of sea grass by the tropical urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Higher rates of secondary production of Diadema compared to that of Strongylocentrotus may be in part due to higher net and gross growth efficiencies exhibited by Diadema. It is apparent that Diadema is more efficient at converting its algal food resources into urchin biomass than is Strongylocentrotus of similar size. In comparison to Strongylocentrotus and Lytechinus, Diadema releases as much energy to the benthos in the form of fecal pellet detritus as do the other two species. The production of fecal pellet detritus is the most important pathway of energy transfer on the fringing coral reef. Fecal pellet detritus contributes approximately 26 kcal m -2 month -1 to the benthic community. This amount is equivalent to 7·4% of the monthly net primary production of the benthic algae or approximately 37% of the caloric intake of the urchin population. In addition fecal pellet detritus produced by Diadema contains about 10 times the caloric content of surface sediments found to the north and south of the fringing reef and approximately 1·7 times the caloric content of sediments within the reef. The

  9. Denitrification with epsilon-caprolactam by acclimated mixed culture and by pure culture of bacteria isolated from polyacrylonitrile fibre manufactured wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Lee, C M; Wang, C C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate denitrifying bacteria utilizing epsilon-caprolactam as the substrate, from a polyacrylonitrile fibre manufactured wastewater treatment system. The aim is also to compare the performance of PAN (polyacrylonitrile) mixed bacteria cultures acclimated to epsilon-caprolactam and isolated pure strain for treating different initial epsilon-caprolactam concentrations from synthetic wastewater under anoxic conditions. The result showed that the PAN mixed bacteria cultures acclimated to epsilon-caprolactam could utilize 1538.5 mg/l of epsilon-caprolactam as a substrate for denitrification. Sufficient time and about 2200 mg/l of nitrate were necessary for the complete epsilon-caprolactam removal. Paracoccus thiophilus was isolated from the polyacrylonitrile fibre manufactured wastewater treatment system and it could utilize 1722.5 mg/l of epsilon-caprolactam as a substrate for denitrification. About 3500 mg/l of nitrate was necessary for the complete removal of epsilon-caprolactam. When the initial epsilon-caprolactam concentration was below 784.3 mg/l, the removal efficiency of epsilon-caprolactam by Paracoccus thiophilus was better than that for the PAN mixed bacteria cultures. The growth of Paracoccus thiophilus was better. However, when the initial epsilon-caprolactam concentration was as high as 1445.8 mg/l, both the epsilon-caprolactam removal efficiency by Paracoccus thiophilus and Paracoccus thiophilus specific growth rate were similar to the PAN mixed bacteria cultures. PMID:15137443

  10. A novel, myeloid transcription factor, C/EBP epsilon, is upregulated during granulocytic, but not monocytic, differentiation.

    PubMed

    Morosetti, R; Park, D J; Chumakov, A M; Grillier, I; Shiohara, M; Gombart, A F; Nakamaki, T; Weinberg, K; Koeffler, H P

    1997-10-01

    Human C/EBP epsilon is a newly cloned CCAAT/enhancer-binding transcription factor. Initial studies indicated it may be an important regulator of human myelopoiesis. To elucidate the range of expression of C/EBP epsilon, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and examined its expression in 28 hematopoietic and 14 nonhematopoietic cell lines, 16 fresh myeloid leukemia samples, and normal human hematopoietic stem cells and their mature progeny. Prominent expression of C/EBP epsilon mRNA occurred in the late myeloblastic and promyelocytic cell lines (NB4, HL60, GFD8), the myelomonoblastic cell lines (U937 and THP-1), the early myeloblast cell lines (ML1, KCL22, MDS92), and the T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines CEM and HSB-2. For the acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4, C/EBP epsilon was the only C/EBP family member that was easily detected by RT-PCR. No C/EBP epsilon mRNA was found in erythroid, megakaryocyte, basophil, B lymphoid, or nonhematopoietic cell lines. Most acute myeloid leukemia samples (11 of 12) from patients expressed C/EBP epsilon. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that C/EBP epsilon mRNA decreased when the HL60 and KG-1 myeloblast cell lines were induced to differentiate toward macrophages. Similarly, Western blot analysis showed that expression of C/EBP epsilon protein was either unchanged or decreased slightly as the promyelocytic cell line NB4 differentiated down the macrophage-like pathway after treatment with a potent vitamin D3 analog (KH1060). In contrast, C/EBP epsilon protein levels increased dramatically as NB4 cells were induced to differentiate down the granulocytic pathway after exposure to 9-cis retinoic acid. Furthermore, very early, normal hematopoietic stem cells (CD34+/CD38-), purified from humans had very weak expression of C/EBP epsilon mRNA, but levels increased as these cells differentiated towards granulocytes. Likewise, purified granulocytes appeared to express higher

  11. Does one need the O({epsilon})- and O({epsilon}{sup 2})-terms of one-loop amplitudes in a next-to-next-to-leading order calculation ?

    SciTech Connect

    Weinzierl, Stefan

    2011-10-01

    This article discusses the occurrence of one-loop amplitudes within a next-to-next-to-leading-order calculation. In a next-to-next-to-leading-order calculation, the one-loop amplitude enters squared and one would therefore naively expect that the O({epsilon})- and O({epsilon}{sup 2})-terms of the one-loop amplitudes are required. I show that the calculation of these terms can be avoided if a method is known, which computes the O({epsilon}{sup 0})-terms of the finite remainder function of the two-loop amplitude.

  12. An Assessment of Support Strategies Used to Facilitate Distance Students' Participation in a Web-Based Learning Environment in the University of the West Indies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuboni, Olabisi; Martin, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a study undertaken to analyse learner participation in an online teaching-learning environment in the distance education program of the University of the West Indies. In outlining the context of the study, special emphasis was placed on the role of the course coordinator and the site-based technician in facilitating…

  13. Predictors of Student Success in an Online Learning Environment in the English-Speaking Caribbean: Evidence from the University of the West Indies Open Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrican, S. Joel; Leacock, Coreen J.; Thompson, Benita P.; Alleyne, Melissa L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated success rates and possible predictors of success among students at The University of the West Indies Open Campus. Archival data were mined from admissions and academic records of students from the 2008 intake to explore retention and completion rates, and for students enrolled in two online undergraduate courses in Semester…

  14. Isolation and characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii isolates revealed possible high frequency of mixed infection in feral cats (felis domesticus) from St. Kitts, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are essential in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts in nature. Samples of serum, feces, and tissues from feral cats from St. Kitts, West Indies were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gon...

  15. In Quest of an Ideal Library Environment: The Case of the Main Library, the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Reginald

    2002-01-01

    Explains the need for attention to library environment in terms of conservation, disaster planning, and external environmental factors. Discusses measures adopted at the University of the West Indies Trinidad related to operation and maintenance of buildings and physical plant, describes a workplace evaluation project, and examines factors…

  16. Effects of Corporal Punishment, Perceived Caretaker Warmth, and Cultural Beliefs on the Psychological Adjustment of Children in St. Kitts, West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Structural equation modeling analysis of 349 youths, aged 9-16, in St. Kitts, West Indies, showed that physical punishment by itself does make a modest, but significant, direct and negative contribution to youths' psychological adjustment. Children tended to experience themselves to be rejected in direct proportion to the frequency and severity of…

  17. A Psycholinguistic Analysis of the Oral and Silent Reading Performance of Selected Standard IV Subjects in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. Technical Report No. 468.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoroso, Henry Carmelo, Jr.

    Students from Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies, participated in a study to determine their overall reading ability as measured by norm- and criterion-referenced reading tests and to discover the extent to which linguistically related reading difficulties were manifested in their oral and silent reading performance. The Gates-MacGinitie Reading…

  18. Problem-based Compared with Traditional Methods at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies: A Model Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, T.; Shirley, A.; Bennett, C.; Addae, J.; Walrond, E.; West, S.; Pinto Pereira, L.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes results from the final clinical examinations of two separate campuses of the University of the West Indies that use two different learning approaches. Concludes that, except for a few isolated cases, there were no statistically significant differences between the performance of the traditional group and the problem based learning (PBL)…

  19. Innovation in Tertiary Education in the Caribbean: Distance Teaching in the Faculty of Education at the University of the West Indies. Verhandelingen No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Zellyne D.

    The University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment (UWIDITE) is an example of a conventional institution with a distance teaching department. The UWI is one of two regional universities serving a region covering 17 countries. Some countries are fairly prosperous; others are suffering severe economic difficulties. All the territories…

  20. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) in the West Indies: distribution of natural enemies and a possible test bed for release of self-sustaining biocontrol agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample collections of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were taken from 20 islands of the West Indies and evaluated for the presence of key pathogens and parasites of this invasive pest ant. We hypothesized that bottleneck events during the introduction of this ant species in the West In...

  1. Band-overlap metallization of BaS, BaSe and BaTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlsson, A. E.; Wilkins, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The insulator-metal transition volumes for BaS, BaSe, and BaTe are calculated for the first time, using the self-consistent augmented spherical wave technique. The metallized transition volumes are smaller than those corresponding to the NaCl yields CsCl structural transitions, but, 10 to 15% larger than those obtained by the Herzfeld dielectric theory. The calculated equilibrium energy gaps in the NaCl structure underestimate the measured ones by 50 to 60%.

  2. Evaluation of different fluids for detection of Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin in sheep with experimental enterotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Layana, Jorge E; Fernandez Miyakawa, Mariano E; Uzal, Francisco A

    2006-08-01

    Enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D is a highly lethal disease of sheep, goats and other ruminants. The diagnosis of this condition is usually confirmed by detection of epsilon toxin, a major exotoxin produced by C. perfringens types B and D, in the intestinal content of affected animals. It has been suggested that other body fluids can also be used for detection of epsilon toxin. This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of intestinal content versus other body fluids in detecting epsilon toxin in cases of sheep enterotoxemia. Samples of duodenal, ileal and colon contents, pericardial and abdominal fluids, aqueous humor and urine from 15 sheep with experimentally induced enterotoxemia, were analysed for epsilon toxin using a capture ELISA. Epsilon toxin was detected in 92% of the samples of ileal content, 64% of the samples of duodenal content, 57% of the samples of colon content and in 7% of the samples of pericardial fluid and aqueous humor. No epsilon toxin was found in samples of abdominal fluid or urine from the animals with enterotoxemia or in any samples from six clinically healthy sheep used as negative controls. The results of this study indicate that with the diagnostic capture ELISA used, intestinal content (preferably ileum) should be used for C. perfringens type D epsilon toxin detection in suspected cases of sheep enterotoxemia. PMID:16857397

  3. Reverse phase passive haemagglutination and single radial immunodiffusion to detect epsilon antigen of Clostridium perfringens type D.

    PubMed

    Beh, K J; Buttery, S H

    1978-11-01

    Two in vitro immunological assays were developed for detection of the epsilon (epsilon) antigen of Cl. perfringens type D. It was found that the reverse phase passive haemagglutination assay (RPHA) was able to detect concentrations of epsilon-antigen as low as 6 x 10-7 mg/ml whereas the single radial immunodiffusion techniques (SRID) was capable of detecting concentrations of epsilon-antigen above 0.01 mg/ml. When applied to gut contents from freshly dead infected sheep the RPHA test was found to be more sensitive than mouse toxicity assay in detecting the presence of epsilon-antigen. However, very low titres were detected in gut contents from normal sheep which meant that in a diagnostic situation interpretation of RPHA titres would be difficult. No epsilon-antigen was detected by SRID in gut contents from normal sheep or in gut contents from freshly dead infected sheep. The SRID assay could detect epsilon-antigen in gut contents from infected sheep allowed to decompose for 20 h post-mortem. PMID:223537

  4. Influence of CuO addition to BaSm{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} microwave ceramics on sintering behavior and dielectric properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo Mingwen; Li Wei . E-mail: liwei@mail.sic.ac.cn; Shi Jianlin; Zeng Qun

    2006-06-15

    Microwave dielectric ceramics of tungsten-bronze-type BaSm{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} were prepared by doping CuO (up to 2 wt.%) as the liquid-phase sintering aid. The effects of CuO additive on the densification, micro structure and dielectric properties were investigated. Due to the liquid-phase effect, the sintering temperature of BaSm{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics with 1 wt.% CuO addition can be effectively reduced to 1160 deg. C, about 200 deg. C lower than that of pure BaSm{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics, while good microwave dielectric properties of {epsilon} {sub r} = 75.8, Q*f = 4914.6 GHz and {tau} {sub f} = -7.65 ppm/deg. C were still achieved.

  5. Heat transfer predictions with extended kappa-epsilon turbulence model in radical cooling ducts rotating in orthogonal mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekriwal, P.

    1994-05-01

    Standard and extended kappa-epsilon turbulence closure models have been employed for three-dimensional heat transfer calculations for radially outward flow in rectangular and square cooling passages rotating in orthogonal mode. The objective of this modeling effort is to validate the numerical model in an attempt to fill the gap between model predictions and the experimental data for heat transfer in rotating systems. While the trend of heat transfer predictions by the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model is satisfactory, the differences between the data and the predictions are approximately 30 percent or so in the case of high rotation number flow. The extended kappa-epsilon turbulence model takes an approach where an extra 'source' term based on a second time scale of the turbulent kinetic energy production rate is added to the equation for the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy. This yields a more effective calculation of turbulent kinetic energy as compared to the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model in the case of high rotation number and high density ratio flow. As a result, comparison with the experimental data available in the literature shows that an improvement of up to a significant 15 percent (with respect to data) in the heat transfer coefficient predictions is achieved over the standard kappa-epsilon model in the case of high rotation number flow. Comparisons between the results of the standard kappa-epsilon model and the extended formulation are made at different rotation numbers, different Reynolds numbers, and varying temperature ratio. The results of the extended kappa-epsilon turbulence model are either as good or better than those of the standard kappa-epsilon model in all these cases of parametric study. Thus, the extended kappa-epsilon turbulence model proves to be more general and reduces the discrepancy between the model predictions and the experimental data for heat transfer in rotating systems.

  6. Association of the apolipoprotein E {epsilon}4 allele with clinical subtypes of autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer`s Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Zubenko, G.S.; Stiffler, S.; Kopp, U.

    1994-09-15

    Consistent with previous reports, we observed a significant association of the APOE {epsilon}4 allele with Alzheimer`s Disease (AD) in a series of 91 autopsy-confirmed cases. The {epsilon}4 allele frequency was higher in cases with a family history of AD-like dementia (0.54 {+-} 0.07), although the {epsilon}4 allele frequency in the AD cases with a negative family history (0.38 {+-} 0.05) remained significantly greater than that for the non-AD control group (0.13 {+-} 0.03). A similar increase in {epsilon}4 allele frequency (0.54 {+-} 0.07) was observed in the AD cases with amyloid angiopathy, compared to those who did not have amyloid angiopathy (0.35 {+-} 0.04). Contrary to previous reports, no effect of the dosage of the {epsilon}4 allele was found on the age of onset of dementia among the AD cases and, contrary to reports suggesting an association of {epsilon}4 and atherosclerosis, the {epsilon}4 allele frequency was similar in cases with or without concurrent brain infarcts. Modest but consistent correlations were observed between the dosage of {epsilon}4 alleles and the cortical density of senile plaques, but not neurofibrillary tangles. The last finding suggests that the pathogenic events mediated by the {epsilon}4 allele may be more directly involved in the formation of senile plaques, the identifying lesions in AD, than neurofibrillary tangles. A robust association of both the presence of an {epsilon}4 allele and a family history of AD-like dementia with concurrent amyloid angiopathy occurred within our sample of AD cases. This association arose from an interaction of the {epsilon}4 allele with a separate familial factor for which a family history of dementia served as a surrogate. These results suggest that amyloid angiopathy may be a common or central feature of a form of familial AD that is associated with the transmission of the APOE {epsilon}4 allele. 22 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Development of an injection molded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) intravaginal insert for the delivery of progesterone to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rathbone, Michael J; Bunt, Craig R; Ogle, Colin R; Burggraaf, Shane; Macmillan, Keith L; Pickering, Kim

    2002-12-13

    This paper reports experiments conducted to research, develop and clinically evaluate an injection molded intravaginal insert manufactured from the biodegradable polyester poly(epsilon-caprolactone). The study demonstrated that it is possible to engineer poly(epsilon-caprolactone) into a shape that is well retained, and can be used as a platform for the controlled delivery of progesterone via the vagina of cows. Field evaluation showed that the poly(epsilon-caprolactone) intravaginal inserts containing 10% (w/w) progesterone were at least as effective clinically as the commercially available CIDR intravaginal insert. PMID:12480312

  8. Limitations and empirical extensions of the k-epsilon model as applied to turbulent confined swirling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, D. G.; Abujelala, M. T.

    1984-01-01

    Shortcomings and recommended corrections to the standard two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model suggested by previous investigators are presented. They are assessed regarding their applicability to turbulent swirling recirculating flow. Recent experimental data on swirling confined flows, obtained with a five-hole pitot probe and a six-orientation hot-wire probe, are used to obtain optimum values of the turbulence parameters C-mu, C2, and sigma-epsilon for swirling flows. General predictions of moderately and strongly swirling flows with these values are more accurate than predictions with the standard or previous simple extensions of the k-epsilon turbulence model.

  9. Imaging subsurface density distribution beneath Montserrat (West Indies) from Bouguer gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautmann, S.; Camacho, A. G.; Gottsmann, J.; Odbert, H. M.; Syers, T.

    2012-12-01

    High resolution static gravity data allow to resolve for spatial inhomogeneities in the Earth's gravity field by providing information on the density distribution in the shallow subsurface. Images of the subsurface density distribution and identification of structural discontinuities in the ground are of particular interest in active volcanic regions, as they bear implications for fluid migration, edifice stability and the subsurface transmission of volcanically induced stresses. Although the persistently active Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV; Montserrat, West Indies) is currently one of the most extensively studied actively erupting stratovolcanos, a local Bouguer anomaly map of the volcano and the island of Montserrat is missing to date. In June/July 2012 we conducted a static gravity survey on Montserrat. Using a Scintrex CG-5 Autograv a total of 160 new gravity data were collected on the entire island. Site positions and elevations were obtained via a TOPCON Hiperpro dual frequency GNSS receiver/antenna. Our Bouguer gravity network provides a dense coverage (distance of 200 m between adjacent sites) of the accessible regions of the older volcanic complexes Silver Hills and Centre Hills, while (due to operator's safety) the network coverage around the active SHV is more sparse with about 1 km distance between adjacent sites. The recorded gravity data were corrected for Solid Earth Tides and ocean loading and reduced for the effect of benchmark elevation (free-air effect) and latitude. The correction for topographic effects was done via an automated algorithm based on a digital elevation model and bathymetric data. In order to model our data we performed a non-linear inversion using the inversion package GROWTH 2.0. The inversion is based on a 3-D aggregation of M parallelepiped cells, which are filled, in a growth process, by means of prescribed positive and/or negative density contrasts. This methodology provides, via an automatic approach, a free 3-D geometry

  10. Investigation of nanocomposites based on semi-interpenetrating network of [L-poly (epsilon-caprolactone)]/[net-poly (epsilon-caprolactone)] and hydroxyapatite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianyuan; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Shaobing; Li, Zhen; Deng, Xianmo

    2003-04-01

    In this paper the semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) technique was used for the first time to prepare bone implant composites containing hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocrystals. The prepared nanocomposites are expected to combine several property advantages including good mechanical strength, modified degradation rate and excellent osteoconductivity. The semi-IPN matrix based on the linear poly (epsilon-caprolactone) (L-PCL) and the network poly (epsilon-caprolactone) (net-PCL) structures are revealed to be phase separation structures. The morphology of net-PCL is featured by intracrosslinked microdomains (1-10 microm) that further interconnect with each other to form the network over the whole sample. The net-PCL component is totally amorphous at room temperature for the nanocomposites containing HAP up to 12.3 wt%. Further, the crystallinity of L-PCL is greatly decreased due to the presence of net-PCL as compared with that for pure L-PCL. The incorporation of L-PCL into the net-PCL network could significantly improve the mechanical properties of pure net-PCL. A great improvement in mechanical properties is observed for the nanocomposites if the HAP content is increased to 15.8 wt%. This transition is in agreement with that the net-PCL component changes from amorphous state to crystalline state at this composition. PMID:12559813