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Sample records for equation ble model

  1. Analysis of latency performance of bluetooth low energy (BLE) networks.

    PubMed

    Cho, Keuchul; Park, Woojin; Hong, Moonki; Park, Gisu; Cho, Wooseong; Seo, Jihoon; Han, Kijun

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a short-range wireless communication technology aiming at low-cost and low-power communication. The performance evaluation of classical Bluetooth device discovery have been intensively studied using analytical modeling and simulative methods, but these techniques are not applicable to BLE, since BLE has a fundamental change in the design of the discovery mechanism, including the usage of three advertising channels. Recently, there several works have analyzed the topic of BLE device discovery, but these studies are still far from thorough. It is thus necessary to develop a new, accurate model for the BLE discovery process. In particular, the wide range settings of the parameters introduce lots of potential for BLE devices to customize their discovery performance. This motivates our study of modeling the BLE discovery process and performing intensive simulation. This paper is focused on building an analytical model to investigate the discovery probability, as well as the expected discovery latency, which are then validated via extensive experiments. Our analysis considers both continuous and discontinuous scanning modes. We analyze the sensitivity of these performance metrics to parameter settings to quantitatively examine to what extent parameters influence the performance metric of the discovery processes. PMID:25545266

  2. Analysis of Latency Performance of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Keuchul; Park, Woojin; Hong, Moonki; Park, Gisu; Cho, Wooseong; Seo, Jihoon; Han, Kijun

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a short-range wireless communication technology aiming at low-cost and low-power communication. The performance evaluation of classical Bluetooth device discovery have been intensively studied using analytical modeling and simulative methods, but these techniques are not applicable to BLE, since BLE has a fundamental change in the design of the discovery mechanism, including the usage of three advertising channels. Recently, there several works have analyzed the topic of BLE device discovery, but these studies are still far from thorough. It is thus necessary to develop a new, accurate model for the BLE discovery process. In particular, the wide range settings of the parameters introduce lots of potential for BLE devices to customize their discovery performance. This motivates our study of modeling the BLE discovery process and performing intensive simulation. This paper is focused on building an analytical model to investigate the discovery probability, as well as the expected discovery latency, which are then validated via extensive experiments. Our analysis considers both continuous and discontinuous scanning modes. We analyze the sensitivity of these performance metrics to parameter settings to quantitatively examine to what extent parameters influence the performance metric of the discovery processes. PMID:25545266

  3. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J.; McArdle, John J.

    2016-01-01

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM’s utility. PMID:27398019

  4. Structural Equation Model Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  5. Structural Equation Model Trees

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree structures that separate a data set recursively into subsets with significantly different parameter estimates in a SEM. SEM Trees provide means for finding covariates and covariate interactions that predict differences in structural parameters in observed as well as in latent space and facilitate theory-guided exploration of empirical data. We describe the methodology, discuss theoretical and practical implications, and demonstrate applications to a factor model and a linear growth curve model. PMID:22984789

  6. Generalized Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Skrondal, Anders; Pickles, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A unifying framework for generalized multilevel structural equation modeling is introduced. The models in the framework, called generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM), combine features of generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) and structural equation models (SEM) and consist of a response model and a structural model for the latent…

  7. Modelling by Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaachoua, Hamid; Saglam, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to show the close relation between physics and mathematics taking into account especially the theory of differential equations. By analysing the problems posed by scientists in the seventeenth century, we note that physics is very important for the emergence of this theory. Taking into account this analysis, we show the…

  8. Research on two equation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The k-epsilon model is the most widely used turbulence model in engineering calculations. However, the model has several deficiencies that need to be fixed. This document presents improvements to the capabilities of the k-epsilon model in the following areas: a Galilean and tensorial invariant k-epsilon model for near wall turbulence; a new set of wall functions for attached flows; a new model equation for the dissipation rate, which has a better theoretical basis, contains the contribution of flow inhomogeneity, and captures the effect of the pressure gradient accurately; and a better model for bypass transition due to freestream turbulence.

  9. Model Equations: "Black Box" Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    Black box reconstruction is both the most difficult and the most tempting modelling problem when any prior information about an appropriate model structure is lacking. An intriguing thing is that a model capable of reproducing an observed behaviour or predicting further evolution should be obtained only from an observed time series, i.e. "from nothing" at first sight. Chances for a success are not large. Even more so, a "good" model would become a valuable tool to characterise an object and understand its dynamics. Lack of prior information causes one to utilise universal model structures, e.g. artificial neural networks, radial basis functions and algebraic polynomials are included in the right-hand sides of dynamical model equations. Such models are often multi-dimensional and involve quite many free parameters.

  10. One-Equation Algebraic Model Of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, B. S.; Barth, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    One-equation model of turbulence based on standard equations of k-epsilon model of turbulence, where k is turbulent energy and e is rate of dissipation of k. Derivation of one-equation model motivated partly by inaccuracies of flows computed by some Navier-Stokes-equations-solving algorithms incorporating algebraic models of turbulence. Satisfies need to avoid having to determine algebraic length scales.

  11. The Specific Analysis of Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roderick P.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional structural equation modeling fits a covariance structure implied by the equations of the model. This treatment of the model often gives misleading results because overall goodness of fit tests do not focus on the specific constraints implied by the model. An alternative treatment arising from Pearl's directed acyclic graph theory…

  12. Model Comparison of Bayesian Semiparametric and Parametric Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Xia, Ye-Mao; Pan, Jun-Hao; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Structural equation models have wide applications. One of the most important issues in analyzing structural equation models is model comparison. This article proposes a Bayesian model comparison statistic, namely the "L[subscript nu]"-measure for both semiparametric and parametric structural equation models. For illustration purposes, we consider…

  13. Congeneric Models and Levine's Linear Equating Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    In 1955, R. Levine introduced two linear equating procedures for the common-item non-equivalent populations design. His procedures make the same assumptions about true scores; they differ in terms of the nature of the equating function used. In this paper, two parameterizations of a classical congeneric model are introduced to model the variables…

  14. Modeling Projects in a Differential Equations Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus-McGahan, Elly

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the value of student-designed, in-depth, modeling projects in a differential equations course and how to prepare students. Provides excerpts from worksheets, a list of computer software for Macintosh that can be used in teaching differential equations, and an annotated bibliography. (Author/ASK)

  15. Stochastic differential equation model to Prendiville processes

    SciTech Connect

    Granita; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-10-22

    The Prendiville process is another variation of the logistic model which assumes linearly decreasing population growth rate. It is a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) taking integer values in the finite interval. The continuous time Markov chain can be approximated by stochastic differential equation (SDE). This paper discusses the stochastic differential equation of Prendiville process. The work started with the forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain of Prendiville process. Then it was formulated in the form of a central-difference approximation. The approximation was then used in Fokker-Planck equation in relation to the stochastic differential equation of the Prendiville process. The explicit solution of the Prendiville process was obtained from the stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the mean and variance function of the Prendiville process could be easily found from the explicit solution.

  16. Multiplicity Control in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbie, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers conducting structural equation modeling analyses rarely, if ever, control for the inflated probability of Type I errors when evaluating the statistical significance of multiple parameters in a model. In this study, the Type I error control, power and true model rates of famsilywise and false discovery rate controlling procedures were…

  17. Differential equation models for sharp threshold dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Harrison C; Dimitrov, Nedialko B

    2014-01-01

    We develop an extension to differential equation models of dynamical systems to allow us to analyze probabilistic threshold dynamics that fundamentally and globally change system behavior. We apply our novel modeling approach to two cases of interest: a model of infectious disease modified for malware where a detection event drastically changes dynamics by introducing a new class in competition with the original infection; and the Lanchester model of armed conflict, where the loss of a key capability drastically changes the effectiveness of one of the sides. We derive and demonstrate a step-by-step, repeatable method for applying our novel modeling approach to an arbitrary system, and we compare the resulting differential equations to simulations of the system's random progression. Our work leads to a simple and easily implemented method for analyzing probabilistic threshold dynamics using differential equations. PMID:24184349

  18. A Brief Guide to Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Rebecca; Gore, Paul A., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    To complement recent articles in this journal on structural equation modeling (SEM) practice and principles by Martens and by Quintana and Maxwell, respectively, the authors offer a consumer's guide to SEM. Using an example derived from theory and research on vocational psychology, the authors outline six steps in SEM: model specification,…

  19. Causality, Confirmation, Credulity, and Structural Equation Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Bruce J.; Marlin, Marjorie M.

    1987-01-01

    Defines structural equation modeling (SEM) and points out its relation to other more familiar data-analytic techniques, as well as some of the potentials and pitfalls of SEM in the analysis of developmental data. Discussion focuses on causal modeling, path diagrams, ordinary least-squares regression analysis, and powerful methods for model…

  20. Mediation from Multilevel to Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Valente, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The purpose of this article is to outline multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) for mediation analysis of longitudinal data. The introduction of mediating variables can improve experimental and nonexperimental studies of child growth in several ways as discussed throughout this article. Single-mediator individual-level and multilevel mediation models illustrate several current issues in the estimation of mediation with longitudinal data. The strengths of incorporating structural equation modeling (SEM) with multilevel mediation modeling are described. Summary and Key Messages Longitudinal mediation models are pervasive in many areas of research including child growth. Longitudinal mediation models are ideally modeled as repeated measurements clustered within individuals. Further, the combination of MSEM and SEM provides an ideal approach for several reasons, including the ability to assess effects at different levels of analysis, incorporation of measurement error and possible random effects that vary across individuals. PMID:25413658

  1. Experiences with two-equation turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Ashok K.; Lai, Yong G.; Avva, Ram K.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the following: introduction to CFD Research Corporation; experiences with two-equation models - models used, numerical difficulties, validation and applications, and strengths and weaknesses; and answers to three questions posed by the workshop organizing committee - what are your customers telling you, what are you doing in-house, and how can NASA-CMOTT (Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition) help.

  2. Sandia Equation of State Model Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-08-29

    The software provides a general interface for querying thermodynamic states of material models along with implementation of both general and specific equation of state models. In particular, models are provided for the IAPWS-IF97 and IAPWS95 water standards as well as the associated water standards for viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. The interface supports implementation of models in a variety of independent variable spaces. Also, model support routines are included that allow for coupling ofmore » models and determination and representation of phase boundaries.« less

  3. Sandia Equation of State Model Library

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John H.

    2013-08-29

    The software provides a general interface for querying thermodynamic states of material models along with implementation of both general and specific equation of state models. In particular, models are provided for the IAPWS-IF97 and IAPWS95 water standards as well as the associated water standards for viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. The interface supports implementation of models in a variety of independent variable spaces. Also, model support routines are included that allow for coupling of models and determination and representation of phase boundaries.

  4. Structural Equation Modeling in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Fong; Lee, Gloria K.; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Kubota, Coleen; Allen, Chase A.

    2007-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) has become increasingly popular in counseling, psychology, and rehabilitation research. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the basic concepts and applications of SEM in rehabilitation counseling research using the AMOS statistical software program.

  5. Asymptotic-preserving Boltzmann model equations for binary gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sha; Liang, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    An improved system of Boltzmann model equations is developed for binary gas mixture. This system of model equations has a complete asymptotic preserving property that can strictly recover the Navier-Stokes equations in the continuum limit with the correct constitutive relations and the correct viscosity, thermal conduction, diffusion, and thermal diffusion coefficients. In this equation system, the self- and cross-collision terms in Boltzmann equations are replaced by single relaxation terms. In monocomponent case, this system of equations can be reduced to the commonly used Shakhov equation. The conservation property and the H theorem which are important for model equations are also satisfied by this system of model equations.

  6. Asymptotic-preserving Boltzmann model equations for binary gas mixture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sha; Liang, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    An improved system of Boltzmann model equations is developed for binary gas mixture. This system of model equations has a complete asymptotic preserving property that can strictly recover the Navier-Stokes equations in the continuum limit with the correct constitutive relations and the correct viscosity, thermal conduction, diffusion, and thermal diffusion coefficients. In this equation system, the self- and cross-collision terms in Boltzmann equations are replaced by single relaxation terms. In monocomponent case, this system of equations can be reduced to the commonly used Shakhov equation. The conservation property and the H theorem which are important for model equations are also satisfied by this system of model equations. PMID:26986408

  7. Bayesian Data-Model Fit Assessment for Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Bayesian approaches to modeling are receiving an increasing amount of attention in the areas of model construction and estimation in factor analysis, structural equation modeling (SEM), and related latent variable models. However, model diagnostics and model criticism remain relatively understudied aspects of Bayesian SEM. This article describes…

  8. Partial differential equation models in macroeconomics.

    PubMed

    Achdou, Yves; Buera, Francisco J; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Moll, Benjamin

    2014-11-13

    The purpose of this article is to get mathematicians interested in studying a number of partial differential equations (PDEs) that naturally arise in macroeconomics. These PDEs come from models designed to study some of the most important questions in economics. At the same time, they are highly interesting for mathematicians because their structure is often quite difficult. We present a number of examples of such PDEs, discuss what is known about their properties, and list some open questions for future research. PMID:25288811

  9. A New Reynolds Stress Algebraic Equation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Lumley, John L.

    1994-01-01

    A general turbulent constitutive relation is directly applied to propose a new Reynolds stress algebraic equation model. In the development of this model, the constraints based on rapid distortion theory and realizability (i.e. the positivity of the normal Reynolds stresses and the Schwarz' inequality between turbulent velocity correlations) are imposed. Model coefficients are calibrated using well-studied basic flows such as homogeneous shear flow and the surface flow in the inertial sublayer. The performance of this model is then tested in complex turbulent flows including the separated flow over a backward-facing step and the flow in a confined jet. The calculation results are encouraging and point to the success of the present model in modeling turbulent flows with complex geometries.

  10. Structural equation modeling: strengths, limitations, and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Tomarken, Andrew J; Waller, Niels G

    2005-01-01

    Because structural equation modeling (SEM) has become a very popular data-analytic technique, it is important for clinical scientists to have a balanced perception of its strengths and limitations. We review several strengths of SEM, with a particular focus on recent innovations (e.g., latent growth modeling, multilevel SEM models, and approaches for dealing with missing data and with violations of normality assumptions) that underscore how SEM has become a broad data-analytic framework with flexible and unique capabilities. We also consider several limitations of SEM and some misconceptions that it tends to elicit. Major themes emphasized are the problem of omitted variables, the importance of lower-order model components, potential limitations of models judged to be well fitting, the inaccuracy of some commonly used rules of thumb, and the importance of study design. Throughout, we offer recommendations for the conduct of SEM analyses and the reporting of results. PMID:17716081

  11. Model Specification Searches in Structural Equation Modeling Using Tabu Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoulides, George A.; Drezner, Zvi; Schumacker, Randall E.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces an alternative structural equation modeling (SEM) specification search approach based on the Tabu search procedure. Using data with known structure, the procedure is illustrated, and its capabilities for specification searches in SEM are demonstrated. (Author/SLD)

  12. Wave equation modelling using Julia programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ahreum; Ryu, Donghyun; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    Julia is a young high-performance dynamic programming language for scientific computations. It provides an extensive mathematical function library, a clean syntax and its own parallel execution model. We developed 2d wave equation modeling programs using Julia and C programming languages and compared their performance. We used the same modeling algorithm for the two modeling programs. We used Julia version 0.3.9 in this comparison. We declared data type of function arguments and used inbounds macro in the Julia program. Numerical results showed that the C programs compiled with Intel and GNU compilers were faster than Julia program, about 18% and 7%, respectively. Taking the simplicity of dynamic programming language into consideration, Julia can be a novel alternative of existing statically typed programming languages.

  13. Parameter Estimation of Partial Differential Equation Models

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Xiaolei; Cao, Jiguo; Mallick, Bani; Carroll, Raymond J.; Maity, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) models are commonly used to model complex dynamic systems in applied sciences such as biology and finance. The forms of these PDE models are usually proposed by experts based on their prior knowledge and understanding of the dynamic system. Parameters in PDE models often have interesting scientific interpretations, but their values are often unknown, and need to be estimated from the measurements of the dynamic system in the present of measurement errors. Most PDEs used in practice have no analytic solutions, and can only be solved with numerical methods. Currently, methods for estimating PDE parameters require repeatedly solving PDEs numerically under thousands of candidate parameter values, and thus the computational load is high. In this article, we propose two methods to estimate parameters in PDE models: a parameter cascading method and a Bayesian approach. In both methods, the underlying dynamic process modeled with the PDE model is represented via basis function expansion. For the parameter cascading method, we develop two nested levels of optimization to estimate the PDE parameters. For the Bayesian method, we develop a joint model for data and the PDE, and develop a novel hierarchical model allowing us to employ Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to make posterior inference. Simulation studies show that the Bayesian method and parameter cascading method are comparable, and both outperform other available methods in terms of estimation accuracy. The two methods are demonstrated by estimating parameters in a PDE model from LIDAR data. PMID:24363476

  14. Parameter Estimation of Partial Differential Equation Models.

    PubMed

    Xun, Xiaolei; Cao, Jiguo; Mallick, Bani; Carroll, Raymond J; Maity, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) models are commonly used to model complex dynamic systems in applied sciences such as biology and finance. The forms of these PDE models are usually proposed by experts based on their prior knowledge and understanding of the dynamic system. Parameters in PDE models often have interesting scientific interpretations, but their values are often unknown, and need to be estimated from the measurements of the dynamic system in the present of measurement errors. Most PDEs used in practice have no analytic solutions, and can only be solved with numerical methods. Currently, methods for estimating PDE parameters require repeatedly solving PDEs numerically under thousands of candidate parameter values, and thus the computational load is high. In this article, we propose two methods to estimate parameters in PDE models: a parameter cascading method and a Bayesian approach. In both methods, the underlying dynamic process modeled with the PDE model is represented via basis function expansion. For the parameter cascading method, we develop two nested levels of optimization to estimate the PDE parameters. For the Bayesian method, we develop a joint model for data and the PDE, and develop a novel hierarchical model allowing us to employ Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to make posterior inference. Simulation studies show that the Bayesian method and parameter cascading method are comparable, and both outperform other available methods in terms of estimation accuracy. The two methods are demonstrated by estimating parameters in a PDE model from LIDAR data. PMID:24363476

  15. Exploratory structural equation modeling of personality data.

    PubMed

    Booth, Tom; Hughes, David J

    2014-06-01

    The current article compares the use of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as an alternative to confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models in personality research. We compare model fit, factor distinctiveness, and criterion associations of factors derived from ESEM and CFA models. In Sample 1 (n = 336) participants completed the NEO-FFI, the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form, and the Creative Domains Questionnaire. In Sample 2 (n = 425) participants completed the Big Five Inventory and the depression and anxiety scales of the General Health Questionnaire. ESEM models provided better fit than CFA models, but ESEM solutions did not uniformly meet cutoff criteria for model fit. Factor scores derived from ESEM and CFA models correlated highly (.91 to .99), suggesting the additional factor loadings within the ESEM model add little in defining latent factor content. Lastly, criterion associations of each personality factor in CFA and ESEM models were near identical in both inventories. We provide an example of how ESEM and CFA might be used together in improving personality assessment. PMID:24682748

  16. The reservoir model: a differential equation model of psychological regulation.

    PubMed

    Deboeck, Pascal R; Bergeman, C S

    2013-06-01

    Differential equation models can be used to describe the relationships between the current state of a system of constructs (e.g., stress) and how those constructs are changing (e.g., based on variable-like experiences). The following article describes a differential equation model based on the concept of a reservoir. With a physical reservoir, such as one for water, the level of the liquid in the reservoir at any time depends on the contributions to the reservoir (inputs) and the amount of liquid removed from the reservoir (outputs). This reservoir model might be useful for constructs such as stress, where events might "add up" over time (e.g., life stressors, inputs), but individuals simultaneously take action to "blow off steam" (e.g., engage coping resources, outputs). The reservoir model can provide descriptive statistics of the inputs that contribute to the "height" (level) of a construct and a parameter that describes a person's ability to dissipate the construct. After discussing the model, we describe a method of fitting the model as a structural equation model using latent differential equation modeling and latent distribution modeling. A simulation study is presented to examine recovery of the input distribution and output parameter. The model is then applied to the daily self-reports of negative affect and stress from a sample of older adults from the Notre Dame Longitudinal Study on Aging. PMID:23527605

  17. Transfer equations for modeling interrill erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bako Amina, Nouhou; Frédéric, Darboux; François, James; Carine, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    Numerous models are available for matter transfer along an hillslope. They are usually process-specific, requiring to use several models to simulate transfers along an hillslope. To overcome this issue, we develop a new model valid for chemical (nutrients, pollutants, dissolved carbon) and particle transfers by water. It is able to simulate both interrill and rill erosion. This new equation encompasses the previous models of Gao et al. (2004), Hairsine and Rose (1992, 1991) and Lajeunesse et al. (2013) in a single and unified form. We show that it can account for multi-class particle transport able to simulate both linear and non-linear behaviors. Surface conditions (crusts) is accounted for, making possible for space and time changes of soil properties. For the calibration of the model, specific laboratory experiments have been carried out to validate the effect of rainfall on travel distance of particles. These experiments allow to separate detachment by raindrops from the agitation of the flow by the drops. Different particle sizes and rainfall kinetic energies are investigated. The results assess the exact role of rainfall on sediment transport. Our new model is able to represent adequately these experimental results.

  18. A Realizable Reynolds Stress Algebraic Equation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Lumley, John L.

    1993-01-01

    The invariance theory in continuum mechanics is applied to analyze Reynolds stresses in high Reynolds number turbulent flows. The analysis leads to a turbulent constitutive relation that relates the Reynolds stresses to the mean velocity gradients in a more general form in which the classical isotropic eddy viscosity model is just the linear approximation of the general form. On the basis of realizability analysis, a set of model coefficients are obtained which are functions of the time scale ratios of the turbulence to the mean strain rate and the mean rotation rate. The coefficients will ensure the positivity of each component of the mean rotation rate. These coefficients will ensure the positivity of each component of the turbulent kinetic energy - realizability that most existing turbulence models fail to satisfy. Separated flows over backward-facing step configurations are taken as applications. The calculations are performed with a conservative finite-volume method. Grid-independent and numerical diffusion-free solutions are obtained by using differencing schemes of second-order accuracy on sufficiently fine grids. The calculated results are compared in detail with the experimental data for both mean and turbulent quantities. The comparison shows that the present proposal significantly improves the predictive capability of K-epsilon based two equation models. In addition, the proposed model is able to simulate rotational homogeneous shear flows with large rotation rates which all conventional eddy viscosity models fail to simulate.

  19. A discrete model of a modified Burgers' partial differential equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.; Shoosmith, J. N.

    1990-01-01

    A new finite-difference scheme is constructed for a modified Burger's equation. Three special cases of the equation are considered, and the 'exact' difference schemes for the space- and time-independent forms of the equation are presented, along with the diffusion-free case of Burger's equation modeled by a difference equation. The desired difference scheme is then obtained by imposing on any difference model of the initial equation the requirement that, in the appropriate limits, its difference scheme must reduce the results of the obtained equations.

  20. Teaching Modeling with Partial Differential Equations: Several Successful Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Joseph; Trubatch, David; Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the introduction and teaching of partial differential equations (heat and wave equations) via modeling physical phenomena, using a new approach that encompasses constructing difference equations and implementing these in a spreadsheet, numerically solving the partial differential equations using the numerical differential equation…

  1. Model Comparison of Nonlinear Structural Equation Models with Fixed Covariates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Song, Xin-Yuan

    2003-01-01

    Proposed a new nonlinear structural equation model with fixed covariates to deal with some complicated substantive theory and developed a Bayesian path sampling procedure for model comparison. Illustrated the approach with an illustrative example using data from an international study. (SLD)

  2. Robust estimation for ordinary differential equation models.

    PubMed

    Cao, J; Wang, L; Xu, J

    2011-12-01

    Applied scientists often like to use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to model complex dynamic processes that arise in biology, engineering, medicine, and many other areas. It is interesting but challenging to estimate ODE parameters from noisy data, especially when the data have some outliers. We propose a robust method to address this problem. The dynamic process is represented with a nonparametric function, which is a linear combination of basis functions. The nonparametric function is estimated by a robust penalized smoothing method. The penalty term is defined with the parametric ODE model, which controls the roughness of the nonparametric function and maintains the fidelity of the nonparametric function to the ODE model. The basis coefficients and ODE parameters are estimated in two nested levels of optimization. The coefficient estimates are treated as an implicit function of ODE parameters, which enables one to derive the analytic gradients for optimization using the implicit function theorem. Simulation studies show that the robust method gives satisfactory estimates for the ODE parameters from noisy data with outliers. The robust method is demonstrated by estimating a predator-prey ODE model from real ecological data. PMID:21401565

  3. Alternative field representations and integral equations for modeling inhomogeneous dielectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.

    1992-01-01

    New volume and volume-surface integral equations are presented for modeling inhomogeneous dielectric regions. The presented integral equations result in more efficient numerical implementations and should, therefore, be useful in a variety of electromagnetic applications.

  4. Stable expression of antibiotic-resistant gene ble from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus in the mitochondria of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhangli; Fan, Zhun; Zhao, Zhonglin; Chen, Jun; Li, Jiancheng

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial expression of exogenous antibiotic resistance genes has not been demonstrated successfully to date, which has limited the development of antibiotic resistance genes as selectable markers for mitochondrial site-directed transformation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In this work, the plasmid pBSLPNCB was constructed by inserting the gene ble of Streptoalloteichus hindustanus (Sh ble), encoding a small (14-kilodalton) protective protein into the site between TERMINVREP-Left repeats and the cob gene in a fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of C. reinhardtii. The fusion DNA-construct, which contained TERMINVREP-Left, Sh ble, cob, and partial nd4 sequence, were introduced into the mitochondria of the respiratory deficient dum-1 mutant CC-2654 of C. reinhardtii by biolistic particle delivery system. A large number of transformants were obtained after eight weeks in the dark. Subsequent subculture of the transformants on the selection TAP media containing 3 ìg/mL Zeomycin for 12 months resulted in genetically modified transgenic algae MT-Bs. Sequencing and Southern analyses on the mitochondrial genome of the different MT-B lines revealed that Sh ble gene had been integrated into the mitochondrial genome of C. reinhardtii. Both Western blot, using the anti-BLE monoclonal antibody, and Zeomycin tolerance analysis confirmed the presence of BLE protein in the transgenic algal cells. It indicates that the Sh ble gene can be stably expressed in the mitochondria of C. reinhardtii. PMID:22530046

  5. USING STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING TO INVESTIGATE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ECOLOGICAL VARIABLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper gives an introductory account of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and demonstrates its application using LISREL< with a model utilizing environmental data. Using nine EMAP data variables, we analyzed their correlation matrix with an SEM model. The model characterized...

  6. Fitting ARMA Time Series by Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Buuren, Stef

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines how the stationary ARMA (p,q) model (G. Box and G. Jenkins, 1976) can be specified as a structural equation model. Maximum likelihood estimates for the parameters in the ARMA model can be obtained by software for fitting structural equation models. The method is applied to three problem types. (SLD)

  7. Parameter Estimates in Differential Equation Models for Chemical Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the need for devoting time in differential equations courses to modelling and the completion of the modelling process with efforts to estimate the parameters in the models using data. We estimate the parameters present in several differential equation models of chemical reactions of order n, where n = 0, 1, 2, and apply more general…

  8. BLE protection scheme for light-trail WDM mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Junwei; Wang, Hongxiang; Ji, Yuefeng

    2007-11-01

    Light-trail is a solution to providing high resource utilization and sub-wavelength support [1]. A light-trail is a multi-point light-path, such that multiple users can take part in communication along the trail, through time (differentiated) non-overlapping connections. This multi-point flow model leads to a new set of problems in the area of protecting and restoring light-trail based networks. Conventional link protection which just protects the existed connection in the light-trail at the time of the failure is not sufficient for light-trails because of the potential of having multiple possible source-destination pairs in the same trail over time. The fact is demonstrated and explained detailedly in [4]. In this paper, a novel protection mechanism is proposed for light-trail WDM mesh network, which is Backup Light-trail Expending scheme. Subsequently the performance of this scheme is evaluated and compared to conventional Connection Dedicated Protection Scheme. Numerical results obtained by simulation indicate that, Backup Light-trail Expending Scheme has a faster restoration time and better wavelength utilization.

  9. Equating Parameter Estimates from the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.

    Three common methods for equating parameter estimates from binary item response theory models are extended to the generalized grading unfolding model (GGUM). The GGUM is an item response model in which single-peaked, nonmonotonic expected value functions are implemented for polytomous responses. GGUM parameter estimates are equated using extended…

  10. Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Souad; Louai, Fatima Zohra; Nait-Said, Nasreddine; Benabou, Abdelkader

    2016-07-01

    An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.

  11. Approximate flash calculations for equation-of-state compositional models

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, L.X.; Li, Y.K.

    1985-02-01

    An approximate method for flash calculations (AFC) with an equation of state is presented. The equations for AFC are obtained by linearizing the thermodynamic equilibrium equations at an equilibrium condition termed reference condition. The AFC equations are much simpler than the actual equations for flash calculations and yet give almost the same results. A procedure for generating new reference conditions to keep the AFC results close to the true flash calculation (TFC) results is described. AFC is compared to TFC in the calculation of standard laboratory tests and in the simulation of gas injection processes with a composition model. Excellent results are obtained with AFC in less than half the original execution time.

  12. Dirac Equation for Electrodynamic Model Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng-Johansson, J. X.

    2008-03-01

    We set up the Maxwell's equations and subsequently the classical wave equations for the electromagnetic waves which together with their generating source, an oscillatory charge of zero rest mass, make up a particle travelling at velocity v as with the charge in the fields of an external scalar and vector potentials. The direct solutions in constant external field are Doppler-displaced plane waves propagating at the velocity of light c; at the de Broglie wavelength scale and expressed in terms of the dynamically equivalent and appropriate geometric mean wave variables, these render as functons identical to the space-time functions of the Dirac spinor, and these are identical to the de Broglie phase waves given previously from explicit superposition. For two spin-half particles of a common set of space-time functions constrained with antisymmetric spin functions as follows the Pauli principle for same charges and as separately indirectly induced based on experiment for opposite charges, the complete wave functions are identical to a Dirac spinor. The back-substitution of the so explicitly determined complete wave functions in the corresponding classical wave equations of the two particles, subjected further to reductions appropriate for the stationary- state particle motion and to rotation invariance when in three dimensions, give a Dirac equation set; the procedure and conclusion are directly extendible to arbitrarily varying potentials by use of the Furious theorem and to three dimensions (full paper: QTS5).

  13. Dirac equation for electrodynamic model particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng-Johansson, J. X.

    2008-08-01

    We set up the Maxwell's equations and subsequently the classical wave equations for the electromagnetic waves which together with their generating source, an oscillatory charge of zero rest mass in general travelling, make up a particle travelling similarly as the source at velocity ν in the field of an external scalar and vector potentials. The direct solutions in constant external field are Doppler-displaced plane waves propagating at the velocity of light c; at the de Broglie wavelength scale and expressed in terms of the dynamically equivalent and appropriate geometric mean wave variables, these render as functions identical to the space-time functions of a corresponding Dirac spinor, and in turn identical to de Broglie phase waves previously obtained from explicit superposition. For two spin-half particles of a common set of space-time functions constrained with antisymmetric spin functions as follows the Pauli principle for same charges and as separately indirectly induced based on experiment for opposite charges, the complete wave functions are identical to the Dirac spinor. The back-substitution of the so explicitly determined complete wave functions in the corresponding classical wave equations of the two particles, subjected further to reductions appropriate for the stationary-state particle motion and to rotation invariance when in three dimensions, give a Dirac equation set; the procedure and conclusion are directly extendible to arbitrarily varying potentials by use of the Furious theorem and to particle motions in three dimensions by virtue of the characteristics of de Broglie particle motion. Through the derivation of the Dirac equation, the study hopes to lend insight into the connections between the Dirac wave functions and the electrodynamic components of simple particles under the government by the well established basic laws of electrodynamics.

  14. Two Rules of Identification for Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Kenneth A.; Davis, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    Identification of structural equation models remains a challenge to many researchers. Although empirical tests of identification are readily available in structural equation modeling software, these examine local identification and rely on sample estimates of parameters. Rules of identification are available, but do not include all models…

  15. A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Influences on Juvenile Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    This study examined influences on delinquency and recidivism using structural equation modeling. The sample comprised 199,204 individuals: 99,602 youth whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and a matched control group of 99,602 youth without juvenile records. Structural equation modeling for the…

  16. A Hybrid Method of Moment Equations and Rate Equations to Modeling Gas-Grain Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Y.; Herbst, E.

    2011-05-01

    Grain surfaces play a crucial role in catalyzing many important chemical reactions in the interstellar medium (ISM). The deterministic rate equation (RE) method has often been used to simulate the surface chemistry. But this method becomes inaccurate when the number of reacting particles per grain is typically less than one, which can occur in the ISM. In this condition, stochastic approaches such as the master equations are adopted. However, these methods have mostly been constrained to small chemical networks due to the large amounts of processor time and computer power required. In this study, we present a hybrid method consisting of the moment equation approximation to the stochastic master equation approach and deterministic rate equations to treat a gas-grain model of homogeneous cold cloud cores with time-independent physical conditions. In this model, we use the standard OSU gas phase network (version OSU2006V3) which involves 458 gas phase species and more than 4000 reactions, and treat it by deterministic rate equations. A medium-sized surface reaction network which consists of 21 species and 19 reactions accounts for the productions of stable molecules such as H_2O, CO, CO_2, H_2CO, CH_3OH, NH_3 and CH_4. These surface reactions are treated by a hybrid method of moment equations (Barzel & Biham 2007) and rate equations: when the abundance of a surface species is lower than a specific threshold, say one per grain, we use the ``stochastic" moment equations to simulate the evolution; when its abundance goes above this threshold, we use the rate equations. A continuity technique is utilized to secure a smooth transition between these two methods. We have run chemical simulations for a time up to 10^8 yr at three temperatures: 10 K, 15 K, and 20 K. The results will be compared with those generated from (1) a completely deterministic model that uses rate equations for both gas phase and grain surface chemistry, (2) the method of modified rate equations (Garrod

  17. Landscape evolution models: A review of their fundamental equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Alex; Darbon, Jérôme; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2014-08-01

    This paper reviews the main physical laws proposed in landscape evolution models (LEMs). It discusses first the main partial differential equations involved in these models and their variants. These equations govern water runoff, stream incision, regolith-bedrock interaction, hillslope evolution, and sedimentation. A synthesis of existing LEMs is proposed. It proposes three models with growing complexity and with a growing number of components: two-equation models with only two components, governing water and bedrock evolution; three-equation models with three components where water, bedrock, and sediment interact; and finally models with four equations and four interacting components, namely water, bedrock, suspended sediment, and regolith. This analysis is not a mere compilation of existing LEMs. It attempts at giving the simplest and most general physically consistent set of equations, coping with all requirements stated in LEMs and LEM software. Three issues are in particular addressed and hopefully resolved. The first one is a correct formulation of the water transport equation down slopes. A general formulation for this equation is proposed, coping not only with the simplest form computing the drainage area but also with a sound energy dissipation argument associated with the Saint-Venant shallow water equations. The second issue arises from the coexistence of two competing modes, namely the detachment-limited erosion mode on hillslopes, and the transport-limited sediment transport on river beds. The third issue (linked to the second) is the fact that no conservation law is available for material in these two modes. A simple solution proposed to resolve these issues is the introduction, as suggested by several authors, of an additional variable for suspended sediment load in water. With only three variables and three equations, the above-mentioned contradictions seem to be eliminated. Several numerical experiments on real digital elevation models (DEMs

  18. Structural Equation Model of Adolescent Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Leanne; And Others

    This study of 1,093 public high school students was designed to test an integrated theoretical model of delinquency, consisting of elements of social control and social learning theories, with LISREL procedures. The model confirmed with LISREL was very similar to the hypothesized model. The hypothesized model was fitted to data on one random…

  19. Student Difficulties with Units in Differential Equations in Modelling Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David R.

    2006-01-01

    First-year undergraduate engineering students' understanding of the units of factors and terms in first-order ordinary differential equations used in modelling contexts was investigated using diagnostic quiz questions. Few students appeared to realize that the units of each term in such equations must be the same, or if they did, nevertheless…

  20. Skyrme models and nuclear matter equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Haberichter, M.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the role of pressure in a class of generalized Skyrme models. We introduce pressure as the trace of the spatial part of the energy-momentum tensor and show that it obeys the usual thermodynamical relation. Then, we compute analytically the mean-field equation of state in the high- and medium-pressure regimes by applying topological bounds on compact domains. The equation of state is further investigated numerically for the charge-one Skyrmions. We identify which term in a generalized Skyrme model is responsible for which part in the equation of state. Further, we compare our findings with the corresponding results in the Walecka model.

  1. Implementing Restricted Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is now a generic modeling framework for many multivariate techniques applied in the social and behavioral sciences. Many statistical models can be considered either as special cases of SEM or as part of the latent variable modeling framework. One popular extension is the use of SEM to conduct linear mixed-effects…

  2. Fractal ladder models and power law wave equations

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, James F.; McGough, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic attenuation coefficient in mammalian tissue is approximated by a frequency-dependent power law for frequencies less than 100 MHz. To describe this power law behavior in soft tissue, a hierarchical fractal network model is proposed. The viscoelastic and self-similar properties of tissue are captured by a constitutive equation based on a lumped parameter infinite-ladder topology involving alternating springs and dashpots. In the low-frequency limit, this ladder network yields a stress-strain constitutive equation with a time-fractional derivative. By combining this constitutive equation with linearized conservation principles and an adiabatic equation of state, a fractional partial differential equation that describes power law attenuation is derived. The resulting attenuation coefficient is a power law with exponent ranging between 1 and 2, while the phase velocity is in agreement with the Kramers–Kronig relations. The fractal ladder model is compared to published attenuation coefficient data, thus providing equivalent lumped parameters. PMID:19813816

  3. Finite Feedback Cycling in Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayduk, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    In models containing reciprocal effects, or longer causal loops, the usual effect estimates assume that any effect touching a loop initiates an infinite cycling of effects around that loop. The real world, in contrast, might permit only finite feedback cycles. I use a simple hypothetical model to demonstrate that if the world permits only a few…

  4. Point model equations for neutron correlation counting: Extension of Böhnel's equations to any order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favalli, Andrea; Croft, Stephen; Santi, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Various methods of autocorrelation neutron analysis may be used to extract information about a measurement item containing spontaneously fissioning material. The two predominant approaches being the time correlation analysis (that make use of a coincidence gate) methods of multiplicity shift register logic and Feynman sampling. The common feature is that the correlated nature of the pulse train can be described by a vector of reduced factorial multiplet rates. We call these singlets, doublets, triplets etc. Within the point reactor model the multiplet rates may be related to the properties of the item, the parameters of the detector, and basic nuclear data constants by a series of coupled algebraic equations - the so called point model equations. Solving, or inverting, the point model equations using experimental calibration model parameters is how assays of unknown items is performed. Currently only the first three multiplets are routinely used. In this work we develop the point model equations to higher order multiplets using the probability generating functions approach combined with the general derivative chain rule, the so called Faà di Bruno Formula. Explicit expression up to 5th order are provided, as well the general iterative formula to calculate any order. This work represents the first necessary step towards determining if higher order multiplets can add value to nondestructive measurement practice for nuclear materials control and accountancy.

  5. Point model equations for neutron correlation counting: Extension of Böhnel's equations to any order

    SciTech Connect

    Favalli, Andrea; Croft, Stephen; Santi, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Various methods of autocorrelation neutron analysis may be used to extract information about a measurement item containing spontaneously fissioning material. The two predominant approaches being the time correlation analysis (that make use of a coincidence gate) methods of multiplicity shift register logic and Feynman sampling. The common feature is that the correlated nature of the pulse train can be described by a vector of reduced factorial multiplet rates. We call these singlets, doublets, triplets etc. Within the point reactor model the multiplet rates may be related to the properties of the item, the parameters of the detector, and basic nuclear data constants by a series of coupled algebraic equations – the so called point model equations. Solving, or inverting, the point model equations using experimental calibration model parameters is how assays of unknown items is performed. Currently only the first three multiplets are routinely used. In this work we develop the point model equations to higher order multiplets using the probability generating functions approach combined with the general derivative chain rule, the so called Faà di Bruno Formula. Explicit expression up to 5th order are provided, as well the general iterative formula to calculate any order. This study represents the first necessary step towards determining if higher order multiplets can add value to nondestructive measurement practice for nuclear materials control and accountancy.

  6. Point model equations for neutron correlation counting: Extension of Böhnel's equations to any order

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Favalli, Andrea; Croft, Stephen; Santi, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Various methods of autocorrelation neutron analysis may be used to extract information about a measurement item containing spontaneously fissioning material. The two predominant approaches being the time correlation analysis (that make use of a coincidence gate) methods of multiplicity shift register logic and Feynman sampling. The common feature is that the correlated nature of the pulse train can be described by a vector of reduced factorial multiplet rates. We call these singlets, doublets, triplets etc. Within the point reactor model the multiplet rates may be related to the properties of the item, the parameters of the detector, and basic nuclearmore » data constants by a series of coupled algebraic equations – the so called point model equations. Solving, or inverting, the point model equations using experimental calibration model parameters is how assays of unknown items is performed. Currently only the first three multiplets are routinely used. In this work we develop the point model equations to higher order multiplets using the probability generating functions approach combined with the general derivative chain rule, the so called Faà di Bruno Formula. Explicit expression up to 5th order are provided, as well the general iterative formula to calculate any order. This study represents the first necessary step towards determining if higher order multiplets can add value to nondestructive measurement practice for nuclear materials control and accountancy.« less

  7. A critical comparison of two-equation turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, N. J.; Shih, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    Several two-equation models were proposed and tested against benchmark flows by various researchers. For each study, different numerical methods or codes were used to obtain the results which were reported to be an improvement over other models. However, these comparisons may be overshadowed by the different numerical schemes used to obtain the results. With this in mind, several existing two-equation turbulence models, including k-epsilon, k-tau, k-omega, and q-omega models, are implemented into a common flow solver code for near wall turbulent flows. The quality of each model is based on several criteria, including robustness and accuracy of predicting the turbulent quantities.

  8. An Extended Equation of State Modeling Method I. Pure Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalabrin, G.; Bettio, L.; Marchi, P.; Piazza, L.; Richon, D.

    2006-09-01

    A new technique is proposed here to represent the thermodynamic surface of a pure fluid in the fundamental Helmholtz energy form. The peculiarity of the present method is the extension of a generic equation of state for the target fluid, which is assumed as the basic equation, through the distortion of its independent variables by individual shape functions, which are represented by a neural network used as function approximator. The basic equation of state for the target fluid can have the simple functional form of a cubic equation, as, for instance, the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation assumed in the present study. A set of nine fluids including hydrocarbons, haloalkane refrigerants, and strongly polar substances has been considered. For each of them the model has been regressed and then validated against volumetric and caloric properties generated in the vapor, liquid, and supercritical regions from highly accurate dedicated equations of state. In comparison with the underlying cubic equation of state, the prediction accuracy is improved by a factor between 10 and 100, depending on the property and on the region. It has been verified that about 100 density experimental points, together with from 10 to 20 coexistence data, are sufficient to guarantee high prediction accuracy for different thermodynamic properties. The method is a promising modeling technique for the heuristic development of multiparameter dedicated equations of state from experimental data.

  9. Development of one-equation transition/turbulence models

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.R.; Roy, C.J.; Blottner, F.G.; Hassan, H.A.

    2000-01-14

    This paper reports on the development of a unified one-equation model for the prediction of transitional and turbulent flows. An eddy viscosity--transport equation for nonturbulent fluctuation growth based on that proposed by Warren and Hassan is combined with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model for turbulent fluctuation growth. Blending of the two equations is accomplished through a multidimensional intermittency function based on the work of Dhawan and Narasimha. The model predicts both the onset and extent of transition. Low-speed test cases include transitional flow over a flat plate, a single element airfoil, and a multi-element airfoil in landing configuration. High-speed test cases include transitional Mach 3.5 flow over a 5{degree} cone and Mach 6 flow over a flared-cone configuration. Results are compared with experimental data, and the grid-dependence of selected predictions is analyzed.

  10. Modeling Meandering Channel by Two-Dimensional Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; Duan, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    This research is to simulate the process of channel meandering using a two-dimensional depth-averaged hydrodynamic model. The multiple interactions between unsteady flow, turbulence, secondary flow, nonequilibrium sediment transport and bank erosion are considered by the model. The governing equations are the 2D depth-averaged Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (2D-RANS) equations and the Exner equation for bed elevation evolution. The Reynolds stresses are calculated by the k-ɛ turbulence model. The secondary flow, is modeled by the dispersion terms in momentum equations. The spatial lag between the instantaneous flow properties and the rate of sediment transport is simulated by the nonequilibrium sediment transport model. During the process of adaptation, the sediment transport rate gradually develops into the transport capacity of a given flow condition. The evolution of channel bed and bank is modeled by the general Exner equation that accounts for both vertical deformation of bed elevation as well as lateral migration of bank. The system of governing equations is solved by a semi-implicit finite volume method over the Cartesian mesh. The advective fluxes across each cell interface are simultaneously calculated by the extended HLL Riemann solver. At each time step, the diffusion terms in the governing equations are solved by the implicit Euler scheme. The source terms are discretized in a well-balanced way to retain the C-property of the proposed model. Application of the model to different test cases indicates that the model can correctly simulate different phases of meandering channel evolution which include streamwise migration, transverse migration and rotation of channel bends.

  11. Parameter Estimates in Differential Equation Models for Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    We estimate the parameters present in several differential equation models of population growth, specifically logistic growth models and two-species competition models. We discuss student-evolved strategies and offer "Mathematica" code for a gradient search approach. We use historical (1930s) data from microbial studies of the Russian biologist,…

  12. Introduction to Structural Equation Modeling: Issues and Practical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a versatile statistical modeling tool. Its estimation techniques, modeling capacities, and breadth of applications are expanding rapidly. This module introduces some common terminologies. General steps of SEM are discussed along with important considerations in each step. Simple examples are provided to…

  13. People Are Variables Too: Multilevel Structural Equations Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Paras D.; Neale, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    The article uses confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) as a template to explain didactically multilevel structural equation models (ML-SEM) and to demonstrate the equivalence of general mixed-effects models and ML-SEM. An intuitively appealing graphical representation of complex ML-SEMs is introduced that succinctly describes the underlying model and…

  14. Structural Equation Modelling: A Primer for Music Education Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation modelling (SEM) is a method for analysis of multivariate data from both non-experimental and experimental research. The method combines a structural model linking latent variables and a measurement model linking observed variables with latent variables. Its use in social science and educational research has grown since the…

  15. Structural Equation Modeling Diagnostics Using R Package Semdiag and EQS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Yuan and Hayashi (2010) introduced 2 scatter plots for model and data diagnostics in structural equation modeling (SEM). However, the generation of the plots requires in-depth understanding of their underlying technical details. This article develops and introduces an R package semdiag for easily drawing the 2 plots. With a model specified in EQS…

  16. Latent Growth Curves within Developmental Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, J. J.; Epstein, David

    1987-01-01

    Uses structural equation modeling to combine traditional ideas from repeated-measures ANOVA with some traditional ideas from longitudinal factor analysis. The model describes a latent growth curve model that permits the estimation of parameters representing individual and group dynamics. (Author/RH)

  17. Case Residuals in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinale, John

    2011-01-01

    From the beginning, lead methodologists in psychometrics and quantitative psychology have been well aware of the problems of fitting structural and confirmatory factor models. The question we approach in our research is how to best detect this misfit and how to identify specific sources of misfit by scrutinizing the data at the case level. Since…

  18. Lattice Boltzmann model for generalized nonlinear wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Huilin; Ma, Changfeng

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann model is developed to solve a class of the nonlinear wave equations. Through selecting equilibrium distribution function and an amending function properly, the governing evolution equation can be recovered correctly according to our proposed scheme, in which the Chapman-Enskog expansion is employed. We validate the algorithm on some problems where analytic solutions are available, including the second-order telegraph equation, the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation, and the damped, driven sine-Gordon equation. It is found that the numerical results agree well with the analytic solutions, which indicates that the present algorithm is very effective and can be used to solve more general nonlinear problems.

  19. Approximate flash calculations for equation-of-state compositional models--

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, L.X.; Li, Y.K. )

    1990-02-01

    An approximate flash-calculation (AFC) method with an equation of state (EOS) is presented. The equations for AFC are obtained by linearizing the thermodynamic equilibrium equations at an equilibrium condition called the reference condition. The AFC equations are much simpler than the actual equations for flash calculations and yet give almost the same results. A procedure for generating new reference conditions to keep the AFC results close to the true flash-calculation (TFC) results is described. AFC is compared with TFC in the calculation of standard laboratory tests and in the simulation of gas-injection processes with a compositional model. Excellent results are obtained with AFC in less than half the original execution time.

  20. The Landau-Lifshitz equation in atomistic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, M. O. A.; Evans, R. F. L.; Ostler, T. A.; Barker, J.; Atxitia, U.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Chantrell, R. W.

    2015-09-01

    The Landau-Lifshitz (LL) equation, originally proposed at the macrospin level, is increasingly used in Atomistic Spin Dynamic (ASD) models. These models are based on a spin Hamiltonian featuring atomic spins of fixed length, with the exchange introduced using the Heisenberg formalism. ASD models are proving a powerful approach to the fundamental understanding of ultrafast magnetization dynamics, including the prediction of the thermally induced magnetization switching phenomenon in which the magnetization is reversed using an ultra-fast laser pulse in the absence of an externally applied field. This paper outlines the ASD model approach and considers the role and limitations of the LL equation in this context.

  1. Quantum hydrodynamic model by moment closure of Wigner equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhenning; Fan, Yuwei; Li, Ruo; Lu, Tiao; Wang, Yanli

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we derive the quantum hydrodynamics models based on the moment closure of the Wigner equation. The moment expansion adopted is of the Grad type first proposed by Grad ["On the kinetic theory of rarefied gases," Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 2(4), 331-407 (1949), 10.1002/cpa.3160020403]. The Grad's moment method was originally developed for the Boltzmann equation. Recently, a regularization method for the Grad's moment system of the Boltzmann equation was proposed by Cai et al. [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. "Globally hyperbolic regularization of Grad's moment system" (in press)] to achieve the global hyperbolicity so that the local well-posedness of the moment system is attained. With the moment expansion of the Wigner function, the drift term in the Wigner equation has exactly the same moment representation as in the Boltzmann equation, thus the regularization applies. The moment expansion of the nonlocal Wigner potential term in the Wigner equation turns out to be a linear source term, which can only induce very mild growth of the solution. As a result, the local well-posedness of the regularized moment system for the Wigner equation remains as for the Boltzmann equation.

  2. An Extended Equation of State Modeling Method II. Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalabrin, G.; Marchi, P.; Stringari, P.; Richon, D.

    2006-09-01

    This work is the extension of previous work dedicated to pure fluids. The same method is extended to the representation of thermodynamic properties of a mixture through a fundamental equation of state in terms of the Helmholtz energy. The proposed technique exploits the extended corresponding-states concept of distorting the independent variables of a dedicated equation of state for a reference fluid using suitable scale factor functions to adapt the equation to experimental data of a target system. An existing equation of state for the target mixture is used instead of an equation for the reference fluid, completely avoiding the need for a reference fluid. In particular, a Soave-Redlich-Kwong cubic equation with van der Waals mixing rules is chosen. The scale factors, which are functions of temperature, density, and mole fraction of the target mixture, are expressed in the form of a multilayer feedforward neural network, whose coefficients are regressed by minimizing a suitable objective function involving different kinds of mixture thermodynamic data. As a preliminary test, the model is applied to five binary and two ternary haloalkane mixtures, using data generated from existing dedicated equations of state for the selected mixtures. The results show that the method is robust and straightforward for the effective development of a mixture- specific equation of state directly from experimental data.

  3. Shock-wave structure using nonlinear model Boltzmann equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, B. M.; Ferziger, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    The structure of strong plane shock waves in a perfect monatomic gas was studied using four nonlinear models of the Boltzmann equation. The models involved the use of a simplified collision operator with velocity-independent collision frequency, in place of the complicated Boltzmann collision operator. The models employed were the BGK and ellipsoidal models developed by earlier authors, and the polynomial and trimodal gain function models developed during the work. An exact set of moment equations was derived for the density, velocity, temperature, viscous stress, and heat flux within the shock. This set was reduced to a pair of coupled nonlinear integral equations and solved using specially adapted numerical techniques. A new and simple Gauss-Seidel iteration was developed during the work and found to be as efficient as the best earlier iteration methods.

  4. Revised predictive equations for salt intrusion modelling in estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisen, J. I. A.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Nijzink, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    For one-dimensional salt intrusion models to be predictive, we need predictive equations to link model parameters to observable hydraulic and geometric variables. The one-dimensional model of Savenije (1993b) made use of predictive equation for the Van der Burgh coefficient K and the dispersion at the seaward boundary D0. Here we have improved these equations by using an expanded database, including new previously un-surveyed estuaries. Furthermore, we derived a revised predictive equation for the dispersion at tidal average (TA) condition and with the boundary situated at the well identifiable inflection point where the estuary changes from wave-dominated to tide-dominated geometry. We used 89 salinity profiles in 30 estuaries (including 7 recently studied estuaries in Malaysia), and empirically derived a range of equations using various combinations of dimensionless parameters. We split our data in two separated datasets: (1) with more reliable data for calibration, and (2) with less reliable data for validation. The dimensionless parameters that gave the best performance depended on the geometry, tidal strength, friction and the Richardson Number. The limitation of the equations is that the friction is generally unknown. In order to overcome this problem, a coupling has been made with the analytical hydraulic model of Cai et al. (2012), which makes use of observed tidal damping and by which the friction can be determined.

  5. Revised predictive equations for salt intrusion modelling in estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisen, J. I. A.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Nijzink, R. C.

    2015-06-01

    For one-dimensional salt intrusion models to be predictive, we need predictive equations to link model parameters to observable hydraulic and geometric variables. The one-dimensional model of Savenije (1993b) made use of predictive equations for the Van der Burgh coefficient K and the dispersion at the seaward boundary D0. Here we have improved these equations by using an expanded database, including new previously un-surveyed estuaries. Furthermore, we derived a revised predictive equation for the dispersion at tidal average condition and with the boundary situated at the well identifiable inflection point where the estuary changes from wave-dominated to tide-dominated geometry. We used 89 salinity profiles in 30 estuaries (including seven recently studied estuaries in Malaysia), and empirically derived a range of equations using various combinations of dimensionless parameters. We split our data in two separated data sets: (1) with more reliable data for calibration, and (2) with less reliable data for validation. The dimensionless parameters that gave the best performance depended on the geometry, tidal strength, friction and the Richardson number. The limitation of the equations is that the friction is generally unknown. In order to overcome this problem, a coupling has been made with the analytical hydraulic model of Cai et al. (2012), which makes use of observed tidal damping and by which the friction can be determined.

  6. Modeling adsorption with lattice Boltzmann equation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Long; Xiao, Lizhi; Shan, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    The research of adsorption theory has recently gained renewed attention due to its critical relevance to a number of trending industrial applications, hydrogen storage and shale gas exploration for instance. The existing theoretical foundation, laid mostly in the early twentieth century, was largely based on simple heuristic molecular interaction models and static interaction potential which, although being insightful in illuminating the fundamental mechanisms, are insufficient for computations with realistic adsorbent structure and adsorbate hydrodynamics, both critical for real-life applications. Here we present and validate a novel lattice Boltzmann model incorporating both adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbent interactions with hydrodynamics which, for the first time, allows adsorption to be computed with real-life details. Connection with the classic Ono-Kondo lattice theory is established and various adsorption isotherms, both within and beyond the IUPAC classification are observed as a pseudo-potential is varied. This new approach not only enables an important physical to be simulated for real-life applications, but also provides an enabling theoretical framework within which the fundamentals of adsorption can be studied. PMID:27256325

  7. Modeling adsorption with lattice Boltzmann equation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long; Xiao, Lizhi; Shan, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    The research of adsorption theory has recently gained renewed attention due to its critical relevance to a number of trending industrial applications, hydrogen storage and shale gas exploration for instance. The existing theoretical foundation, laid mostly in the early twentieth century, was largely based on simple heuristic molecular interaction models and static interaction potential which, although being insightful in illuminating the fundamental mechanisms, are insufficient for computations with realistic adsorbent structure and adsorbate hydrodynamics, both critical for real-life applications. Here we present and validate a novel lattice Boltzmann model incorporating both adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbent interactions with hydrodynamics which, for the first time, allows adsorption to be computed with real-life details. Connection with the classic Ono-Kondo lattice theory is established and various adsorption isotherms, both within and beyond the IUPAC classification are observed as a pseudo-potential is varied. This new approach not only enables an important physical to be simulated for real-life applications, but also provides an enabling theoretical framework within which the fundamentals of adsorption can be studied. PMID:27256325

  8. Computational modeling of femtosecond optical solitons from Maxwell's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Taflove, Allen; Joseph, Rose M.; Hagness, Susan C.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm is developed that permits the direct time integration of full-vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations. This capability permits the modeling of both linear and nonlinear instantaneous and dispersive effects in the electric polarization in material media. The modeling of the optical carrier is retained. The fundamental innovation is to notice that it is possible to treat the linear and nonlinear convolution integrals, which describe the dispersion, as new dependent variables. A coupled system of nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations can then be derived for the linear and nonlinear convolution integrals, by differentiating them in the time domain. These equations, together with Maxwell's equations, are solved to determine the electromagnetic fields in nonlinear dispersive media. Results are presented of calculations in one dimension of the propagation and collision of femtosecond electromagnetic solitons that retain the optical carrier, taking into account as the Kerr and Raman interactions.

  9. Generalized cable equation model for myelinated nerve fiber.

    PubMed

    Einziger, Pinchas D; Livshitz, Leonid M; Mizrahi, Joseph

    2005-10-01

    Herein, the well-known cable equation for nonmyelinated axon model is extended analytically for myelinated axon formulation. The myelinated membrane conductivity is represented via the Fourier series expansion. The classical cable equation is thereby modified into a linear second order ordinary differential equation with periodic coefficients, known as Hill's equation. The general internal source response, expressed via repeated convolutions, uniformly converges provided that the entire periodic membrane is passive. The solution can be interpreted as an extended source response in an equivalent nonmyelinated axon (i.e., the response is governed by the classical cable equation). The extended source consists of the original source and a novel activation function, replacing the periodic membrane in the myelinated axon model. Hill's equation is explicitly integrated for the specific choice of piecewise constant membrane conductivity profile, thereby resulting in an explicit closed form expression for the transmembrane potential in terms of trigonometric functions. The Floquet's modes are recognized as the nerve fiber activation modes, which are conventionally associated with the nonlinear Hodgkin-Huxley formulation. They can also be incorporated in our linear model, provided that the periodic membrane point-wise passivity constraint is properly modified. Indeed, the modified condition, enforcing the periodic membrane passivity constraint on the average conductivity only leads, for the first time, to the inclusion of the nerve fiber activation modes in our novel model. The validity of the generalized transmission-line and cable equation models for a myelinated nerve fiber, is verified herein through a rigorous Green's function formulation and numerical simulations for transmembrane potential induced in three-dimensional myelinated cylindrical cell. It is shown that the dominant pole contribution of the exact modal expansion is the transmembrane potential solution of our

  10. A Multiple Equation Model of Demand for Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Wirick, Grover C.

    1966-01-01

    Planning health care facilities for the future requires a means of estimating future consumption of services. Demand for medical care is looked upon as demand for separate components (hospital, doctor, dentist, medicine, other) rather than for a single, homogeneous product. A simultaneous equation model is proposed, and measures representing the forces thought to influence consumption (need, realization, motivation, resources, and availability of service) are fitted into the five equations. An optimized analysis variance method is employed on data from a sample survey of Michigan's population in 1958 to obtain single equation estimates of the five demand functions as a preliminary test of the model. The optimizing feature, which also includes an examination of complex interactions, retains variables in the equation on the basis of their estimating ability. The results indicate that a high degree of joint dependency exists among the components and that a simultaneous equation model is warranted. The study, intended as a research design, also reveals considerable variety in component equations, certain relevant and irrelevant variables, several important interactions, and a need for refining some measures in future studies. PMID:5971639

  11. Flow equations for the ionic Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, Mohsen; Jafari, S. A.; Abolhassani, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Taking the site-diagonal terms of the ionic Hubbard model (IHM) in one and two spatial dimensions, as H, we employ Continuous Unitary Transformations (CUT) to obtain a “classical” effective Hamiltonian in which hopping term has been renormalized to zero. For this Hamiltonian spin gap and charge gap are calculated at half-filling and subject to periodic boundary conditions. Our calculations indicate two transition points. In fixed Δ, as U increases from zero, there is a region in which both spin gap and charge gap are positive and identical; characteristic of band insulators. Upon further increasing U, first transition occurs at U=Uc_1, where spin and charge gaps both vanish and remain zero up to U=Uc_2. A gap-less state in charge and spin sectors characterizes a metal. For U>Uc_2 spin gap remains zero and charge gap becomes positive. This third region corresponds to a Mott insulator in which charge excitations are gaped, while spin excitations remain gap-less.

  12. Transonic Turbulent Flow Predictions With Two-Equation Turbulence Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, William W.; Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    1996-01-01

    Solutions of the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for two well-documented transonic turbulent flows are compared in detail with existing experimental data. While the boundary layer in the first case remains attached, a region of extensive flow separation has been observed in the second case. Two recently developed k-epsilon, two-equation, eddy-viscosity models are used to model the turbulence field. These models satisfy the realizability constraints of the Reynolds stresses. Comparisons with the measurements are made for the wall pressure distribution, the mean streamwise velocity profiles, and turbulent quantities. Reasonably good agreement is obtained with the experimental data.

  13. A Structural Equation Model of Expertise in College Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2009-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics was tested on a sample of 374 college students in 2 different level physics courses. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expert performance in physics including strategy use, pictorial representation, categorization skills, and motivation, and these…

  14. Analyzing Mixed-Dyadic Data Using Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peugh, James L.; DiLillo, David; Panuzio, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-dyadic data, collected from distinguishable (nonexchangeable) or indistinguishable (exchangeable) dyads, require statistical analysis techniques that model the variation within dyads and between dyads appropriately. The purpose of this article is to provide a tutorial for performing structural equation modeling analyses of cross-sectional…

  15. Testing Structural Equation Models or Detection of Misspecifications?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saris, Willem E.; Satorra, Albert; van der Veld, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the correctness of a structural equation model is essential to avoid drawing incorrect conclusions from empirical research. In the past, the chi-square test was recommended for assessing the correctness of the model but this test has been criticized because of its sensitivity to sample size. As a reaction, an abundance of fit indexes…

  16. Climate Modeling in the Calculus and Differential Equations Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Emek; Kunze, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Students in college-level mathematics classes can build the differential equations of an energy balance model of the Earth's climate themselves, from a basic understanding of the background science. Here we use variable albedo and qualitative analysis to find stable and unstable equilibria of such a model, providing a problem or perhaps a…

  17. Multiplicity Control in Structural Equation Modeling: Incorporating Parameter Dependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carrie E.; Cribbie, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    When structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses are conducted, significance tests for all important model relationships (parameters including factor loadings, covariances, etc.) are typically conducted at a specified nominal Type I error rate ([alpha]). Despite the fact that many significance tests are often conducted in SEM, rarely is…

  18. A Note on Structural Equation Modeling Estimates of Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2010-01-01

    Reliability can be estimated using structural equation modeling (SEM). Two potential problems with this approach are that estimates may be unstable with small sample sizes and biased with misspecified models. A Monte Carlo study was conducted to investigate the quality of SEM estimates of reliability by themselves and relative to coefficient…

  19. A Structural Equation Model for Predicting Business Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomykalski, James J.; Dion, Paul; Brock, James L.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a structural equation model that accounted for 79% of the variability of a student's final grade point average by using a sample size of 147 students. The model is based on student grades in 4 foundational business courses: introduction to business, macroeconomics, statistics, and using databases. Educators and…

  20. A Bayesian Approach for Analyzing Longitudinal Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Hser, Yih-Ing; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    This article considers a Bayesian approach for analyzing a longitudinal 2-level nonlinear structural equation model with covariates, and mixed continuous and ordered categorical variables. The first-level model is formulated for measures taken at each time point nested within individuals for investigating their characteristics that are dynamically…

  1. A Structural Equation Model of Conceptual Change in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2011-01-01

    A model of conceptual change in physics was tested on introductory-level, college physics students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to conceptual change in physics including an approach goal orientation, need for cognition, motivation, and course grade. Conceptual change in physics…

  2. Bayesian Semiparametric Structural Equation Models with Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Mingan; Dunson, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation models (SEMs) with latent variables are widely useful for sparse covariance structure modeling and for inferring relationships among latent variables. Bayesian SEMs are appealing in allowing for the incorporation of prior information and in providing exact posterior distributions of unknowns, including the latent variables. In…

  3. An evolution equation modeling inversion of tulip flames

    SciTech Connect

    Dold, J.W.; Joulin, G.

    1995-02-01

    The authors attempt to reduce the number of physical ingredients needed to model the phenomenon of tulip-flame inversion to a bare minimum. This is achieved by synthesizing the nonlinear, first-order Michelson-Sivashinsky (MS) equation with the second order linear dispersion relation of Landau and Darrieus, which adds only one extra term to the MS equation without changing any of its stationary behavior and without changing its dynamics in the limit of small density change when the MS equation is asymptotically valid. However, as demonstrated by spectral numerical solutions, the resulting second-order nonlinear evolution equation is found to describe the inversion of tulip flames in good qualitative agreement with classical experiments on the phenomenon. This shows that the combined influences of front curvature, geometric nonlinearity and hydrodynamic instability (including its second-order, or inertial effects, which are an essential result of vorticity production at the flame front) are sufficient to reproduce the inversion process.

  4. Computerized power supply analysis: State equation generation and terminal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    To aid engineers that design power supply systems two analysis tools that can be used with the state equation analysis package were developed. These tools include integration routines that start with the description of a power supply in state equation form and yield analytical results. The first tool uses a computer program that works with the SUPER SCEPTRE circuit analysis program and prints the state equation for an electrical network. The state equations developed automatically by the computer program are used to develop an algorithm for reducing the number of state variables required to describe an electrical network. In this way a second tool is obtained in which the order of the network is reduced and a simpler terminal model is obtained.

  5. On the limiters of two-equation turbulence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang Hwan; Park, Seung O.

    2005-01-01

    When two-equation turbulence models are used, unrealistically large values of turbulence variables can appear due to the infringement of a realizability condition or to numerical error. To cure this in practical calculations, various limiters on the source terms are often employed. In the present work, a mathematically correct bound for eddy viscosity is obtained from the realizability condition itself. From this, realizability bounds for several terms of model equations are given. The effects of various bounds including the present one, are investigated on the predictions of fundamental flows including simple shear flows, supersonic compression ramp flow and supersonic base flow. It is shown that the limiter affects the prediction very significantly.

  6. A Comparison of Contextual Analysis Models: A Single Equation and a Separate Equation to Analyze Student Learning Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongbundhit, Yuwadee

    Two approaches for conceptualizing and estimating a contextual model for analyzing student achievement are the separate equation approach and the single equation approach. The separate equation method determines the relationship between the individual-level independent variable and the individual-level dependent variable within each group. It then…

  7. Equation-free mechanistic ecosystem forecasting using empirical dynamic modeling

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hao; Beamish, Richard J.; Glaser, Sarah M.; Grant, Sue C. H.; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Richards, Laura J.; Schnute, Jon T.; Sugihara, George

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that current equilibrium-based models fall short as predictive descriptions of natural ecosystems, and particularly of fisheries systems that exhibit nonlinear dynamics. For example, model parameters assumed to be fixed constants may actually vary in time, models may fit well to existing data but lack out-of-sample predictive skill, and key driving variables may be misidentified due to transient (mirage) correlations that are common in nonlinear systems. With these frailties, it is somewhat surprising that static equilibrium models continue to be widely used. Here, we examine empirical dynamic modeling (EDM) as an alternative to imposed model equations and that accommodates both nonequilibrium dynamics and nonlinearity. Using time series from nine stocks of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from the Fraser River system in British Columbia, Canada, we perform, for the the first time to our knowledge, real-data comparison of contemporary fisheries models with equivalent EDM formulations that explicitly use spawning stock and environmental variables to forecast recruitment. We find that EDM models produce more accurate and precise forecasts, and unlike extensions of the classic Ricker spawner–recruit equation, they show significant improvements when environmental factors are included. Our analysis demonstrates the strategic utility of EDM for incorporating environmental influences into fisheries forecasts and, more generally, for providing insight into how environmental factors can operate in forecast models, thus paving the way for equation-free mechanistic forecasting to be applied in management contexts. PMID:25733874

  8. Equation-free mechanistic ecosystem forecasting using empirical dynamic modeling.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hao; Beamish, Richard J; Glaser, Sarah M; Grant, Sue C H; Hsieh, Chih-Hao; Richards, Laura J; Schnute, Jon T; Sugihara, George

    2015-03-31

    It is well known that current equilibrium-based models fall short as predictive descriptions of natural ecosystems, and particularly of fisheries systems that exhibit nonlinear dynamics. For example, model parameters assumed to be fixed constants may actually vary in time, models may fit well to existing data but lack out-of-sample predictive skill, and key driving variables may be misidentified due to transient (mirage) correlations that are common in nonlinear systems. With these frailties, it is somewhat surprising that static equilibrium models continue to be widely used. Here, we examine empirical dynamic modeling (EDM) as an alternative to imposed model equations and that accommodates both nonequilibrium dynamics and nonlinearity. Using time series from nine stocks of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from the Fraser River system in British Columbia, Canada, we perform, for the the first time to our knowledge, real-data comparison of contemporary fisheries models with equivalent EDM formulations that explicitly use spawning stock and environmental variables to forecast recruitment. We find that EDM models produce more accurate and precise forecasts, and unlike extensions of the classic Ricker spawner-recruit equation, they show significant improvements when environmental factors are included. Our analysis demonstrates the strategic utility of EDM for incorporating environmental influences into fisheries forecasts and, more generally, for providing insight into how environmental factors can operate in forecast models, thus paving the way for equation-free mechanistic forecasting to be applied in management contexts. PMID:25733874

  9. Modelling biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yuanling; Burrage, Kevin; Chen, Luonan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we gave a new framework for modelling and simulating biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection not in a heuristic way but in a mathematical way. The model is computationally efficient compared with the discrete-state Markov chain approach, and it ensures that both analytic and numerical solutions remain in a biologically plausible region. Specifically, our model mathematically ensures that species numbers lie in the domain D, which is a physical constraint for biochemical reactions, in contrast to the previous models. The domain D is actually obtained according to the structure of the corresponding chemical Langevin equations, i.e., the boundary is inherent in the biochemical reaction system. A variant of projection method was employed to solve the reflected stochastic differential equation model, and it includes three simple steps, i.e., Euler-Maruyama method was applied to the equations first, and then check whether or not the point lies within the domain D, and if not perform an orthogonal projection. It is found that the projection onto the closure D¯ is the solution to a convex quadratic programming problem. Thus, existing methods for the convex quadratic programming problem can be employed for the orthogonal projection map. Numerical tests on several important problems in biological systems confirmed the efficiency and accuracy of this approach. PMID:26920245

  10. A lattice Boltzmann model for the Burgers-Fisher equation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianying; Yan, Guangwu

    2010-06-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model is developed for the one- and two-dimensional Burgers-Fisher equation based on the method of the higher-order moment of equilibrium distribution functions and a series of partial differential equations in different time scales. In order to obtain the two-dimensional Burgers-Fisher equation, vector sigma(j) has been used. And in order to overcome the drawbacks of "error rebound," a new assumption of additional distribution is presented, where two additional terms, in first order and second order separately, are used. Comparisons with the results obtained by other methods reveal that the numerical solutions obtained by the proposed method converge to exact solutions. The model under new assumption gives better results than that with second order assumption. PMID:20590325

  11. Langevin equation model of dispersion in the convective boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Nasstrom, J S

    1998-08-01

    This dissertation presents the development and evaluation of a Lagrangian stochastic model of vertical dispersion of trace material in the convective boundary layer (CBL). This model is based on a Langevin equation of motion for a fluid particle, and assumes the fluid vertical velocity probability distribution is skewed and spatially homogeneous. This approach can account for the effect of large-scale, long-lived turbulent structures and skewed vertical velocity distributions found in the CBL. The form of the Langevin equation used has a linear (in velocity) deterministic acceleration and a skewed randomacceleration. For the case of homogeneous fluid velocity statistics, this ""linear-skewed" Langevin equation can be integrated explicitly, resulting in a relatively efficient numerical simulation method. It is shown that this approach is more efficient than an alternative using a "nonlinear-Gaussian" Langevin equation (with a nonlinear deterministic acceleration and a Gaussian random acceleration) assuming homogeneous turbulence, and much more efficient than alternative approaches using Langevin equation models assuming inhomogeneous turbulence. "Reflection" boundary conditions for selecting a new velocity for a particle that encounters a boundary at the top or bottom of the CBL were investigated. These include one method using the standard assumption that the magnitudes of the particle incident and reflected velocities are positively correlated, and two alternatives in which the magnitudes of these velocities are negatively correlated and uncorrelated. The constraint that spatial and velocity distributions of a well-mixed tracer must be the same as those of the fluid, was used to develop the Langevin equation models and the reflection boundary conditions. The two Langevin equation models and three reflection methods were successfully tested using cases for which exact, analytic statistical properties of particle velocity and position are known, including well

  12. Numerical modelling in biosciences using delay differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocharov, Gennadii A.; Rihan, Fathalla A.

    2000-12-01

    Our principal purposes here are (i) to consider, from the perspective of applied mathematics, models of phenomena in the biosciences that are based on delay differential equations and for which numerical approaches are a major tool in understanding their dynamics, (ii) to review the application of numerical techniques to investigate these models. We show that there are prima facie reasons for using such models: (i) they have a richer mathematical framework (compared with ordinary differential equations) for the analysis of biosystem dynamics, (ii) they display better consistency with the nature of certain biological processes and predictive results. We analyze both the qualitative and quantitative role that delays play in basic time-lag models proposed in population dynamics, epidemiology, physiology, immunology, neural networks and cell kinetics. We then indicate suitable computational techniques for the numerical treatment of mathematical problems emerging in the biosciences, comparing them with those implemented by the bio-modellers.

  13. Analysis of two-equation turbulence models for recirculating flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thangam, S.

    1991-01-01

    The two-equation kappa-epsilon model is used to analyze turbulent separated flow past a backward-facing step. It is shown that if the model constraints are modified to be consistent with the accepted energy decay rate for isotropic turbulence, the dominant features of the flow field, namely the size of the separation bubble and the streamwise component of the mean velocity, can be accurately predicted. In addition, except in the vicinity of the step, very good predictions for the turbulent shear stress, the wall pressure, and the wall shear stress are obtained. The model is also shown to provide good predictions for the turbulence intensity in the region downstream of the reattachment point. Estimated long time growth rates for the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate of homogeneous shear flow are utilized to develop an optimal set of constants for the two equation kappa-epsilon model. The physical implications of the model performance are also discussed.

  14. Gender Differences in Explaining Grades Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruban, Lilia M.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the differential impacts of SAT scores and high school rank, college academic level, motivational variables, and self-regulatory variables in explaining variance in the academic achievement of male and female collegians using structural equation modeling and multiple groups analyses. Significantly, in light of earlier research,…

  15. Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices for Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.; Choi, Ikkyu

    2015-01-01

    Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the…

  16. Sensitivity Analysis in Structural Equation Models: Cases and Their Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pek, Jolynn; MacCallum, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The detection of outliers and influential observations is routine practice in linear regression. Despite ongoing extensions and development of case diagnostics in structural equation models (SEM), their application has received limited attention and understanding in practice. The use of case diagnostics informs analysts of the uncertainty of model…

  17. Building Context with Tumor Growth Modeling Projects in Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Julie C.; Gevertz, Jana L.; Howard, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modeling projects serves to integrate, reinforce, and extend student knowledge. Here we present two projects related to tumor growth appropriate for a first course in differential equations. They illustrate the use of problem-based learning to reinforce and extend course content via a writing or research experience. Here we discuss…

  18. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Nonlinear Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Zhu, Hong-Tu

    2002-01-01

    Developed an EM type algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of a general nonlinear structural equation model in which the E-step is completed by a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Illustrated the methodology with results from a simulation study and two real examples using data from previous studies. (SLD)

  19. Local Influence Analysis of Nonlinear Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Tang, Nian-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    By regarding the latent random vectors as hypothetical missing data and based on the conditional expectation of the complete-data log-likelihood function in the EM algorithm, we investigate assessment of local influence of various perturbation schemes in a nonlinear structural equation model. The basic building blocks of local influence analysis…

  20. The Use of Structural Equation Modeling in Counseling Psychology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Matthew P.

    2005-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) has become increasingly popular for analyzing data in the social sciences, although several broad reviews of psychology journals suggest that many SEM researchers engage in questionable practices when using the technique. The purpose of this study is to review and critique the use of SEM in counseling psychology…

  1. Robust Structural Equation Modeling with Missing Data and Auxiliary Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    The paper develops a two-stage robust procedure for structural equation modeling (SEM) and an R package "rsem" to facilitate the use of the procedure by applied researchers. In the first stage, M-estimates of the saturated mean vector and covariance matrix of all variables are obtained. Those corresponding to the substantive variables are then…

  2. Asymptotic behaviour of the Boltzmann equation as a cosmological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho

    2016-08-01

    As a Newtonian cosmological model the Vlasov-Poisson-Boltzmann system is considered, and a slightly modified Boltzmann equation, which describes the stability of an expanding universe, is derived. Asymptotic behaviour of solutions turns out to depend on the expansion of the universe, and in this paper we consider the soft potential case and will obtain asymptotic behaviour.

  3. Linking Models: Reasoning from Patterns to Tables and Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, J. Matt

    2013-01-01

    Patterns are commonly used in middle years mathematics classrooms to teach students about functions and modelling with tables, graphs, and equations. Grade 6 students are expected to, "continue and create sequences involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals," and "describe the rule used to create the sequence." (Australian…

  4. Model Lorentz-like equation with continuous spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudyński, Marek

    2016-07-01

    We present a new model of the Lorentz gas kinetic equation for a system where the integral collision operator has a spectrum consisting of a continuous and discrete part. The spectral gap between the two kinds of the spectrum is an adjustable parameter of the model. This allows for the analysis of the existence and property of the hydrodynamical eigenstates and the meaning of the Grad's method of moments for the transition between hard and soft interactions.

  5. Development of a One-Equation Transition/Turbulence Model

    SciTech Connect

    EDWARDS,JACK R.; ROY,CHRISTOPHER J.; BLOTTNER,FREDERICK G.; HASSAN,HASSAN A.

    2000-09-26

    This paper reports on the development of a unified one-equation model for the prediction of transitional and turbulent flows. An eddy viscosity - transport equation for non-turbulent fluctuation growth based on that proposed by Warren and Hassan (Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 35, No. 5) is combined with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model for turbulent fluctuation growth. Blending of the two equations is accomplished through a multidimensional intermittence function based on the work of Dhawan and Narasimha (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, No. 4). The model predicts both the onset and extent of transition. Low-speed test cases include transitional flow over a flat plate, a single element airfoil, and a multi-element airfoil in landing configuration. High-speed test cases include transitional Mach 3.5 flow over a 5{degree} cone and Mach 6 flow over a flared-cone configuration. Results are compared with experimental data, and the spatial accuracy of selected predictions is analyzed.

  6. Lattice Boltzmann model for a steady radiative transfer equation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hong-Liang; Yao, Feng-Ju; Tan, He-Ping

    2016-08-01

    A complete lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) is proposed for the steady radiative transfer equation (RTE). The RTE can be regarded as a pure convection equation with a source term. To derive the expressions for the equilibrium distribution function and the relaxation time, an artificial isotropic diffusion term is introduced to form a convection-diffusion equation. When the dimensionless relaxation time has a value of 0.5, the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) is exactly applicable to the original steady RTE. We also perform a multiscale analysis based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion to recover the macroscopic RTE from the mesoscopic LBE. The D2Q9 model is used to solve the LBE, and the numerical results obtained by the LBM are comparable to the results obtained by other methods or analytical solutions, which demonstrates that the proposed model is highly accurate and stable in simulating multidimensional radiative transfer. In addition, we find that the convergence rate of the LBM depends on the transport properties of RTE: for diffusion-dominated RTE with a large optical thickness, the LBM shows a second-order convergence rate in space, while for convection-dominated RTE with a small optical thickness, a lower convergence rate is observed. PMID:27627417

  7. New Kinematic Model in comparing with Langevin equation and Fokker Planck Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung; Wang, Zhijian; Gardner, Robin

    2010-03-01

    An analytic approximate solution of New Kinematic Model with the boundary conditions is developed for the incompressible packing condition in Pebble Bed Reactors. It is based on velocity description of the packing density in the hopper. The packing structure can be presented with a jamming phenomenon from flow types. The gravity-driven macroscopic motions are governed not only by the geometry and external boundary conditions of silos and hoppers, but by flow prosperities of granular materials, such as friction, viscosity and porosity. The analytical formulas for the quasi-linear diffusion and convection coefficients of the velocity profile are obtained. Since it was found that the New Kinematic Model is dependent upon the granular packing density distribution, we are motivated to study the Langevin equation with friction under the influence of the Gravitational field. We also discuss the relation with the Fokker Planck Equation using Detailed balance and Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are shown to be a non-Maxwellian distribution function with the mean velocity of the field particles having an effective temperature.

  8. The truncation model of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Arriaga, G.; Hada, T.; Nariyuki, Y.

    2009-04-15

    The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation is explored using a truncation model with three resonant traveling waves. In the conservative case, the system derives from a time-independent Hamiltonian function with only one degree of freedom and the solutions can be written using elliptic functions. In spite of its low dimensional order, the truncation model preserves some features from the DNLS equation. In particular, the modulational instability criterion fits with the existence of two hyperbolic fixed points joined by a heteroclinic orbit that forces the exchange of energy between the three waves. On the other hand, numerical integrations of the DNLS equation show that the truncation model fails when wave energy is increased or left-hand polarized modulational unstable modes are present. When dissipative and growth terms are added the system exhibits a very complex dynamics including appearance of several attractors, period doubling bifurcations leading to chaos as well as other nonlinear phenomenon. In this case, the validity of the truncation model depends on the strength of the dissipation and the kind of attractor investigated.

  9. Non-Equilibrium Turbulence and Two-Equation Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Two-equation turbulence models are analyzed from the perspective of spectral closure theories. Kolmogorov theory provides useful information for models, but it is limited to equilibrium conditions in which the energy spectrum has relaxed to a steady state consistent with the forcing at large scales; it does not describe transient evolution between such states. Transient evolution is necessarily through nonequilibrium states, which can only be found from a theory of turbulence evolution, such as one provided by a spectral closure. When the departure from equilibrium is small, perturbation theory can be used to approximate the evolution by a two-equation model. The perturbation theory also gives explicit conditions under which this model can be valid, and when it will fail. Implications of the non-equilibrium corrections for the classic Tennekes-Lumley balance in the dissipation rate equation are drawn: it is possible to establish both the cancellation of the leading order Re1/2 divergent contributions to vortex stretching and enstrophy destruction, and the existence of a nonzero difference which is finite in the limit of infinite Reynolds number.

  10. Modeling tree crown dynamics with 3D partial differential equations.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry

    2014-01-01

    We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth toward light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications. PMID:25101095

  11. Immersed boundary method for Boltzmann model kinetic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekardan, Cem; Chigullapalli, Sruti; Sun, Lin; Alexeenko, Alina

    2012-11-01

    Three different immersed boundary method formulations are presented for Boltzmann model kinetic equations such as Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) and Ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (ESBGK) model equations. 1D unsteady IBM solution for a moving piston is compared with the DSMC results and 2D quasi-steady microscale gas damping solutions are verified by a conformal finite volume method solver. Transient analysis for a sinusoidally moving beam is also carried out for the different pressure conditions (1 atm, 0.1 atm and 0.01 atm) corresponding to Kn=0.05,0.5 and 5. Interrelaxation method (Method 2) is shown to provide a faster convergence as compared to the traditional interpolation scheme used in continuum IBM formulations. Unsteady damping in rarefied regime is characterized by a significant phase-lag which is not captured by quasi-steady approximations.

  12. Annotated bibliography of structural equation modelling: technical work.

    PubMed

    Austin, J T; Wolfle, L M

    1991-05-01

    Researchers must be familiar with a variety of source literature to facilitate the informed use of structural equation modelling. Knowledge can be acquired through the study of an expanding literature found in a diverse set of publishing forums. We propose that structural equation modelling publications can be roughly classified into two groups: (a) technical and (b) substantive applications. Technical materials focus on the procedures rather than substantive conclusions derived from applications. The focus of this article is the former category; included are foundational/major contributions, minor contributions, critical and evaluative reviews, integrations, simulations and computer applications, precursor and historical material, and pedagogical textbooks. After a brief introduction, we annotate 294 articles in the technical category dating back to Sewall Wright (1921). PMID:1873237

  13. Numerical Solution of a Model Equation of Price Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernogorova, T.; Vulkov, L.

    2009-10-01

    The paper [2] is devoted to the effect of reconciling the classical Black-Sholes theory of option pricing and hedging with various phenomena observed in the markets such as the influence of trading and hedging on the dynamics of an asset. Here we will discuss the numerical solution of initial boundary-value problems to a model equation of the theory. The lack of regularity in the solution as a result from Dirac delta coefficient reduces the accuracy in the numerical computations. First, we apply the finite volume method to discretize the differential problem. Second, we implement a technique of local regularization introduced by A-K. Tornberg and B. Engquist [7] for handling this equation. We derived the numerical regularization process into two steps: the Dirac delta function is regularized and then the regularized differential equation is discretized by difference schemes. Using the discrete maximum principle a priori bounds are obtained for the difference equations that imply stability and convergence of difference schemes for the problem under consideration. Numerical experiments are discussed.

  14. Modeling Inflation Using a Non-Equilibrium Equation of Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Inflation is a change in the prices of goods that takes place without changes in the actual values of those goods. The Equation of Exchange, formulated clearly in a seminal paper by Irving Fisher in 1911, establishes an equilibrium relationship between the price index P (also known as "inflation"), the economy's aggregate output Q (also known as "the real gross domestic product"), the amount of money available for spending M (also known as "the money supply"), and the rate at which money is reused V (also known as "the velocity of circulation of money"). This paper offers first a qualitative discussion of what can cause these factors to change and how those causes might be controlled, then develops a quantitative model of inflation based on a non-equilibrium version of the Equation of Exchange. Causal relationships are different from equations in that the effects of changes in the causal variables take time to play out-often significant amounts of time. In the model described here, wages track prices, but only after a distributed lag. Prices change whenever the money supply, aggregate output, or the velocity of circulation of money change, but only after a distributed lag. Similarly, the money supply depends on the supplies of domestic and foreign money, which depend on the monetary base and a variety of foreign transactions, respectively. The spreading of delays mitigates the shocks of sudden changes to important inputs, but the most important aspect of this model is that delays, which often have dramatic consequences in dynamic systems, are explicitly incorporated.macroeconomics, inflation, equation of exchange, non-equilibrium, Athena Project

  15. One-way nesting for a primitive equation ocean model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    Prognostic numerical models for atmospheric and oceanic circulations require initial fields, boundary conditions, and forcing functions in addition to a consistent set of partial differential equations, including a state relation and equations expressing conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Depending on the horizontal domain to be modeled, the horizontal boundary conditions are either physically obvious or extremely difficult to specify consistently. If the entire atmosphere is modeled, periodic horizontal boundary conditions are appropriate. On the other hand, the physical horizontal boundaries on the entire ocean are solid walls. Obviously, the normal velocity at a solid wall is zero while the specification of the tangential velocity depends on the mathematical treatment of the horizontal viscous terms. Limitations imposed by computer capacity and cost, as well as research interests, have led to the use of limited area models to study flows in the atmosphere and ocean. The limited area models do not have physical horizontal boundaries, merely numerical ones. Correctly determining these open boundary conditions for limited-area numerical models has both intrigued and frustrated numerical modelers for decades. One common approach is to use the closed or solid wall boundary conditions for a limited-area model. The argument given for this approach is that the boundary conditions affect flow near the walls but that none of these effects are propagated into the interior. Therefore, one chooses a big enough domain that the central region of interest is not corrupted by the boundary flow. Research in progress to model the North Atlantic circulation vividly illustrates the pitfalls of this approach. Two model runs are compared: (1) the southern boundary at 20S between latitudes 0 and 40W is artificially closed; and (2) the same boundary is specified as open with an inward transport of 15 Sv (determined from a global model with the same physics) uniformly spread

  16. Statistical Models and Inference for the True Equating Transformation in the Context of Local Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González, B. Jorge; von Davier, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Based on Lord's criterion of equity of equating, van der Linden (this issue) revisits the so-called local equating method and offers alternative as well as new thoughts on several topics including the types of transformations, symmetry, reliability, and population invariance appropriate for equating. A remarkable aspect is to define equating…

  17. Modeling taper charge with a non-linear equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    Work aimed at modeling the charge voltage and current characteristics of nickel-cadmium cells subject to taper charge is presented. Work reported at previous NASA Battery Workshops has shown that the voltage of cells subject to constant current charge and discharge can be modeled very accurately with the equation: voltage = A + (B/(C-X)) + De to the -Ex where A, B, D, and E are fit parameters and x is amp-hr of charge removed during discharge or returned during charge. In a constant current regime, x is also equivalent to time on charge or discharge.

  18. Integral equation model for warm and hot dense mixtures.

    PubMed

    Starrett, C E; Saumon, D; Daligault, J; Hamel, S

    2014-09-01

    In a previous work [C. E. Starrett and D. Saumon, Phys. Rev. E 87, 013104 (2013)] a model for the calculation of electronic and ionic structures of warm and hot dense matter was described and validated. In that model the electronic structure of one atom in a plasma is determined using a density-functional-theory-based average-atom (AA) model and the ionic structure is determined by coupling the AA model to integral equations governing the fluid structure. That model was for plasmas with one nuclear species only. Here we extend it to treat plasmas with many nuclear species, i.e., mixtures, and apply it to a carbon-hydrogen mixture relevant to inertial confinement fusion experiments. Comparison of the predicted electronic and ionic structures with orbital-free and Kohn-Sham molecular dynamics simulations reveals excellent agreement wherever chemical bonding is not significant. PMID:25314550

  19. New Equation of State Models for Hydrodynamic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, David A.; Barbee, Troy W., III; Rogers, Forrest J.

    1997-07-01

    Accurate models of the equation of state of matter at high pressures and temperatures are increasingly required for hydrodynamic simulations. We have developed two new approaches to accurate EOS modeling: 1) ab initio phonons from electron band structure theory for condensed matter and 2) the ACTEX dense plasma model for ultrahigh pressure shocks. We have studied the diamond and high pressure phases of carbon with the ab initio model and find good agreement between theory and experiment for shock Hugoniots, isotherms, and isobars. The theory also predicts a comprehensive phase diagram for carbon. For ultrahigh pressure shock states, we have studied the comparison of ACTEX theory with experiments for deuterium, beryllium, polystyrene, water, aluminum, and silicon dioxide. The agreement is good, showing that complex multispecies plasmas are treated adequately by the theory. These models will be useful in improving the numerical EOS tables used by hydrodynamic codes.

  20. Modeling of Flow Transition Using an Intermittency Transport Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    A new transport equation for intermittency factor is proposed to model transitional flows. The intermittent behavior of the transitional flows is incorporated into the computations by modifying the eddy viscosity, mu(sub t), obtainable from a turbulence model, with the intermittency factor, gamma: mu(sub t, sup *) = gamma.mu(sub t). In this paper, Menter's SST model (Menter, 1994) is employed to compute mu(sub t) and other turbulent quantities. The proposed intermittency transport equation can be considered as a blending of two models - Steelant and Dick (1996) and Cho and Chung (1992). The former was proposed for near-wall flows and was designed to reproduce the streamwise variation of the intermittency factor in the transition zone following Dhawan and Narasimha correlation (Dhawan and Narasimha, 1958) and the latter was proposed for free shear flows and was used to provide a realistic cross-stream variation of the intermittency profile. The new model was used to predict the T3 series experiments assembled by Savill (1993a, 1993b) including flows with different freestream turbulence intensities and two pressure-gradient cases. For all test cases good agreements between the computed results and the experimental data are observed.

  1. Two-equation turbulence modeling for 3-D hypersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.; Marvin, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation to verify, incorporate and develop two-equation turbulence models for three-dimensional high speed flows is presented. The current design effort of hypersonic vehicles has led to an intensive study of turbulence models for compressible hypersonic flows. This research complements an extensive review of experimental data and the current development of 2D turbulence models. The review of experimental data on 2D and 3D flows includes complex hypersonic flows with pressure profiles, skin friction, wall heat transfer, and turbulence statistics data. In a parallel effort, turbulence models for high speed flows have been tested against flat plate boundary layers, and are being tested against the 2D database. In the present paper, we present the results of 3D Navier-Stokes numerical simulations with an improved k-omega two-equation turbulence model against experimental data and empirical correlations of an adiabatic flat plate boundary layer, a cold wall flat plate boundary layer, and a 3D database flow, the interaction of an oblique shock wave and a thick turbulent boundary layer with a free stream Mach number = 8.18 and Reynolds number = 5 x 10 to the 6th.

  2. Modeling rapid mass movements using the shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, S.; Robl, J.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new method to model rapid mass movements on complex topography using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates. These equations are the widely used standard approximation for the flow of water in rivers and shallow lakes, but the main prerequisite for their application - an almost horizontal fluid table - is in general not satisfied for avalanches and debris flows in steep terrain. Therefore, we have developed appropriate correction terms for large topographic gradients. In this study we present the mathematical formulation of these correction terms and their implementation in the open source flow solver GERRIS. This novel approach is evaluated by simulating avalanches on synthetic and finally natural topographies and the widely used Voellmy flow resistance law. The results are tested against analytical solutions and the commercial avalanche model RAMMS. The overall results are in excellent agreement with the reference system RAMMS, and the deviations between the different models are far below the uncertainties in the determination of the relevant fluid parameters and involved avalanche volumes in reality. As this code is freely available and open source, it can be easily extended by additional fluid models or source areas, making this model suitable for simulating several types of rapid mass movements. It therefore provides a valuable tool assisting regional scale natural hazard studies.

  3. Validation of two-equation turbulence models for propulsion flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Manish; Venkateswaran, S.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the capability of two-equation turbulence models for simulating propulsion-related flowfields. The standard kappa-epsilon model with Chien's low Reynolds number formulation for near-wall effects is used as the baseline turbulence model. Several experimental test cases, representative of rocket combustor internal flowfields, are used to catalog the performance of the baseline model. Specific flowfields considered here include recirculating flow behind a backstep, mixing between coaxial jets and planar shear layers. Since turbulence solutions are notoriously dependent on grid and numerical methodology, the effects of grid refinement and artificial dissipation on numerical accuracy are studied. In the latter instance, computational results obtained with several central-differenced and upwind-based formulations are compared. Based on these results, improved turbulence modes such as enhanced kappa-epsilon models as well as other two-equation formulations (e.g., kappa-omega) are being studied. In addition, validation of swirling and reacting flowfields are also currently underway.

  4. On the Connection Between One-and Two-Equation Models of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menter, F. R.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A formalism will be presented that allows the transformation of two-equation eddy viscosity turbulence models into one-equation models. The transformation is based on an assumption that is widely accepted over a large range of boundary layer flows and that has been shown to actually improve predictions when incorporated into two-equation models of turbulence. Based on that assumption, a new one-equation turbulence model will be derived. The new model will be tested in great detail against a previously introduced one-equation model and against its parent two-equation model.

  5. Mathematical and numerical studies of nonstandard difference equation models of differential equations. Final technical report, September 1995--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Mickens, R.E.

    1997-12-12

    The major thrust of this proposal was to continue our investigations of so-called non-standard finite-difference schemes as formulated by other authors. These schemes do not follow the standard rules used to model continuous differential equations by discrete difference equations. The two major aspects of this procedure consist of generalizing the definition of the discrete derivative and using a nonlocal model (on the computational grid or lattice) for nonlinear terms that may occur in the differential equations. Our aim was to investigate the construction of nonstandard finite-difference schemes for several classes of ordinary and partial differential equations. These equations are simple enough to be tractable, yet, have enough complexity to be both mathematically and scientifically interesting. It should be noted that all of these equations differential equations model some physical phenomena under an appropriate set of experimental conditions. The major goal of the project was to better understand the process of constructing finite-difference models for differential equations. In particular, it demonstrates the value of using nonstandard finite-difference procedures. A secondary goal was to construct and study a variety of analytical techniques that can be used to investigate the mathematical properties of the obtained difference equations. These mathematical procedures are of interest in their own right and should be a valuable contribution to the mathematics research literature in difference equations. All of the results obtained from the research done under this project have been published in the relevant research/technical journals or submitted for publication. Our expectation is that these results will lead to improved finite difference schemes for the numerical integration of both ordinary and partial differential equations. Section G of the Appendix gives a concise summary of the major results obtained under funding by the grant.

  6. On an evolution equation in a cell motility model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuhara, Matthew S.; Berlyand, Leonid; Rybalko, Volodymyr; Zhang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the evolution equation of a curve obtained as the sharp interface limit of a non-linear system of two reaction-diffusion PDEs. This system was introduced as a phase-field model of (crawling) motion of eukaryotic cells on a substrate. The key issue is the evolution of the cell membrane (interface curve) which involves shape change and net motion. This issue can be addressed both qualitatively and quantitatively by studying the evolution equation of the sharp interface limit for this system. However, this equation is non-linear and non-local and existence of solutions presents a significant analytical challenge. We establish existence of solutions for a wide class of initial data in the so-called subcritical regime. Existence is proved in a two step procedure. First, for smooth (H2) initial data we use a regularization technique. Second, we consider non-smooth initial data that are more relevant from the application point of view. Here, uniform estimates on the time when solutions exist rely on a maximum principle type argument. We also explore the long time behavior of the model using both analytical and numerical tools. We prove the nonexistence of traveling wave solutions with nonzero velocity. Numerical experiments show that presence of non-linearity and asymmetry of the initial curve results in a net motion which distinguishes it from classical volume preserving curvature motion. This is done by developing an algorithm for efficient numerical resolution of the non-local term in the evolution equation.

  7. Modeling Dynamic Functional Neuroimaging Data Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Larry R.; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Ingham, Roger J.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to present a method for developing a path analytic network model using data acquired from positron emission tomography. Regions of interest within the human brain were identified through quantitative activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis. Using this information, a "true" or population path model was then…

  8. Low Reynolds number two-equation modeling of turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelassi, V.; Shih, T.-H.

    1991-01-01

    A k-epsilon model that accounts for viscous and wall effects is presented. The proposed formulation does not contain the local wall distance thereby making very simple the application to complex geometries. The formulation is based on an existing k-epsilon model that proved to fit very well with the results of direct numerical simulation. The new form is compared with nine different two-equation models and with direct numerical simulation for a fully developed channel flow at Re = 3300. The simple flow configuration allows a comparison free from numerical inaccuracies. The computed results prove that few of the considered forms exhibit a satisfactory agreement with the channel flow data. The model shows an improvement with respect to the existing formulations.

  9. The remarkable ability of turbulence model equations to describe transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how well the k-omega turbulence model describes the nonlinear growth of flow instabilities from laminar flow into the turbulent flow regime. Viscous modifications are proposed for the k-omega model that yield close agreement with measurements and with Direct Numerical Simulation results for channel and pipe flow. These modifications permit prediction of subtle sublayer details such as maximum dissipation at the surface, k approximately y(exp 2) as y approaches 0, and the sharp peak value of k near the surface. With two transition specific closure coefficients, the model equations accurately predict transition for an incompressible flat-plate boundary layer. The analysis also shows why the k-epsilon model is so difficult to use for predicting transition.

  10. Bayesian structural equation modeling in sport and exercise psychology.

    PubMed

    Stenling, Andreas; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban; Lindwall, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    Bayesian statistics is on the rise in mainstream psychology, but applications in sport and exercise psychology research are scarce. In this article, the foundations of Bayesian analysis are introduced, and we will illustrate how to apply Bayesian structural equation modeling in a sport and exercise psychology setting. More specifically, we contrasted a confirmatory factor analysis on the Sport Motivation Scale II estimated with the most commonly used estimator, maximum likelihood, and a Bayesian approach with weakly informative priors for cross-loadings and correlated residuals. The results indicated that the model with Bayesian estimation and weakly informative priors provided a good fit to the data, whereas the model estimated with a maximum likelihood estimator did not produce a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation are discussed as well as potential advantages and caveats with the Bayesian approach. PMID:26442771

  11. Mesoscale Eddy Parameterization in an Idealized Primitive Equations Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anstey, J.; Zanna, L.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension are strongly influenced by mesoscale eddies, which have spatial scales of order 10-100 km. The effects of these eddies are poorly represented in many state-of-the-art ocean general circulation models (GCMs) due to the inadequate spatial resolution of these models. In this study we examine the response of the large-scale ocean circulation to the rectified effects of eddy forcing - i.e., the role played by surface-intensified mesoscale eddies in sustaining and modulating an eastward jet that separates from an intense western boundary current (WBC). For this purpose a primitive equations ocean model (the MITgcm) in an idealized wind-forced double-gyre configuration is integrated at eddy-resolving resolution to reach a forced-dissipative equilibrium state that captures the essential dynamics of WBC-extension jets. The rectified eddy forcing is diagnosed as a stochastic function of the large-scale state, this being characterized by the manner in which potential vorticity (PV) contours become deformed. Specifically, a stochastic function based on the Laplacian of the material rate of change of PV is examined in order to compare the primitive equations results with those of a quasi-geostrophic model in which this function has shown some utility as a parameterization of eddy effects (Porta Mana and Zanna, 2014). The key question is whether an eddy parameterization based on quasi-geostrophic scaling is able to carry over to a system in which this scaling is not imposed (i.e. the primitive equations), in which unbalanced motions occur.

  12. Relationship between Modelling Accuracy and Inflection Point Attributes of Several Equations while Modelling Stand Diameter Distributions.

    PubMed

    Duan, Aiguo; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiongqing; He, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, seven popular equations, including 3-parameter Weibull, 2-parameter Weibull, Gompertz, Logistic, Mitscherlich, Korf and R distribution, were used to model stand diameter distributions for exploring the relationship between the equations' inflection point attributes and model accuracy. A database comprised of 146 diameter frequency distributions of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations was used to demonstrate model fitting and comparison. Results showed that the inflection points of the stand diameter cumulative percentage distribution ranged from 0.4 to 0.6, showing a 1/2 close rule. The equation's inflection point attribute was strongly related to its model accuracy. Equation with an inflection point showed much higher accuracy than that without an inflection point. The larger the effective inflection point interval of the fitting curve of the equation was, and the closer the inflection point was to 0.5 for the equations with fixed inflection points, the higher the equation's accuracy was. It could be found that the equation's inflection point had close relationship with skewness of diameter distribution and stand age, stand density, which provided a scientific basis for model selection of a stand diameter distribution for Chinese fir plantations and other tree species. PMID:26016995

  13. Integrable cosmological models from higher dimensional Einstein equations

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Masakazu; Suzuki, Hisao

    2007-09-15

    We consider the cosmological models for the higher dimensional space-time which includes the curvatures of our space as well as the curvatures of the internal space. We find that the condition for the integrability of the cosmological equations is that the total space-time dimensions are D=10 or D=11 which is exactly the conditions for superstrings or M theory. We obtain analytic solutions with generic initial conditions in the four-dimensional Einstein frame and study the accelerating universe when both our space and the internal space have negative curvatures.

  14. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective. PMID:25288814

  15. New equation of state models for hydrodynamic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, David A.; Barbee, Troy W.; Rogers, Forrest J.

    1998-07-01

    Two new theoretical methods for computing the equation of state of hot, dense matter are discussed. The ab initio phonon theory gives a first-principles calculation of lattice frequencies, which can be used to compare theory and experiment for isothermal and shock compression of solids. The ACTEX dense plasma theory has been improved to allow it to be compared directly with ultrahigh pressure shock data on low-Z materials. The comparisons with experiment are good, suggesting that these models will be useful in generating global EOS tables for hydrodynamic simulations.

  16. New equation of state model for hydrodynamic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.A.; Barbee, T.W. III; Rogers, F.J.

    1997-07-01

    Two new theoretical methods for computing the equation of state of hot, dense matter are discussed.The ab initio phonon theory gives a first-principles calculation of lattice frequencies, which can be used to compare theory and experiment for isothermal and shock compression of solids. The ACTEX dense plasma theory has been improved to allow it to be compared directly with ultrahigh pressure shock data on low-Z materials. The comparisons with experiment are good, suggesting that these models will be useful in generating global EOS tables for hydrodynamic simulations.

  17. Structural Equation Modeling: Applications in ecological and evolutionary biology research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pugesek, Bruce H.; von Eye, Alexander; Tomer, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to the methodology of structural equation modeling, illustrates its use, and goes on to argue that it has revolutionary implications for the study of natural systems. A major theme of this book is that we have, up to this point, attempted to study systems primarily using methods (such as the univariate model) that were designed only for considering individual processes. Understanding systems requires the capacity to examine simultaneous influences and responses. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has such capabilities. It also possesses many other traits that add strength to its utility as a means of making scientific progress. In light of the capabilities of SEM, it can be argued that much of ecological theory is currently locked in an immature state that impairs its relevance. It is further argued that the principles of SEM are capable of leading to the development and evaluation of multivariate theories of the sort vitally needed for the conservation of natural systems. Supplementary information can be found at the authors website, http://www.jamesbgrace.com/. • Details why multivariate analyses should be used to study ecological systems • Exposes unappreciated weakness in many current popular analyses • Emphasizes the future methodological developments needed to advance our understanding of ecological systems.

  18. A one-equation turbulence model for recirculating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Bai, JunQiang; Xu, JingLei; Li, Yi

    2016-06-01

    A one-equation turbulence model which relies on the turbulent kinetic energy transport equation has been developed to predict the flow properties of the recirculating flows. The turbulent eddy-viscosity coefficient is computed from a recalibrated Bradshaw's assumption that the constant a 1 = 0.31 is recalibrated to a function based on a set of direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. The values of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy consist of the near-wall part and isotropic part, and the isotropic part involves the von Karman length scale as the turbulent length scale. The performance of the new model is evaluated by the results from DNS for fully developed turbulence channel flow with a wide range of Reynolds numbers. However, the computed result of the recirculating flow at the separated bubble of NACA4412 demonstrates that an increase is needed on the turbulent dissipation, and this leads to an advanced tuning on the self-adjusted function. The improved model predicts better results in both the non-equilibrium and equilibrium flows, e.g. channel flows, backward-facing step flow and hump in a channel.

  19. Equation of State of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model.

    PubMed

    Cocchi, Eugenio; Miller, Luke A; Drewes, Jan H; Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Köhl, Michael

    2016-04-29

    The subtle interplay between kinetic energy, interactions, and dimensionality challenges our comprehension of strongly correlated physics observed, for example, in the solid state. In this quest, the Hubbard model has emerged as a conceptually simple, yet rich model describing such physics. Here we present an experimental determination of the equation of state of the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model over a broad range of interactions 0≲U/t≲20 and temperatures, down to k_{B}T/t=0.63(2) using high-resolution imaging of ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices. We show density profiles, compressibilities, and double occupancies over the whole doping range, and, hence, our results constitute benchmarks for state-of-the-art theoretical approaches. PMID:27176527

  20. Equation of State of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocchi, Eugenio; Miller, Luke A.; Drewes, Jan H.; Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Köhl, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The subtle interplay between kinetic energy, interactions, and dimensionality challenges our comprehension of strongly correlated physics observed, for example, in the solid state. In this quest, the Hubbard model has emerged as a conceptually simple, yet rich model describing such physics. Here we present an experimental determination of the equation of state of the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model over a broad range of interactions 0 ≲U /t ≲20 and temperatures, down to kBT /t =0.63 (2 ) using high-resolution imaging of ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices. We show density profiles, compressibilities, and double occupancies over the whole doping range, and, hence, our results constitute benchmarks for state-of-the-art theoretical approaches.

  1. Computationally efficient statistical differential equation modeling using homogenization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Garlick, Martha J.; Powell, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical models using partial differential equations (PDEs) to describe dynamically evolving natural systems are appearing in the scientific literature with some regularity in recent years. Often such studies seek to characterize the dynamics of temporal or spatio-temporal phenomena such as invasive species, consumer-resource interactions, community evolution, and resource selection. Specifically, in the spatial setting, data are often available at varying spatial and temporal scales. Additionally, the necessary numerical integration of a PDE may be computationally infeasible over the spatial support of interest. We present an approach to impose computationally advantageous changes of support in statistical implementations of PDE models and demonstrate its utility through simulation using a form of PDE known as “ecological diffusion.” We also apply a statistical ecological diffusion model to a data set involving the spread of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in Idaho, USA.

  2. A Boolean delay equation model of ENSO variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Amira; Ghil, Michael

    2001-12-01

    Boolean delay equations (BDEs) provide a mathematical framework to formulate and analyze conceptual models of complex multi-component systems. This framework is used here to construct a simple conceptual model for the El-Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. ENSO involves the coupling of atmospheric and oceanic processes that are far from being completely understood. Our BDE model uses Boolean variables to represent key atmospheric and oceanic quantities and equations that involve logical operators to describe their evolution. Two distinct time-delay parameters, one for the local atmosphere-ocean coupling effects and the other for oceanic wave propagation, are introduced. Over a range of physically relevant delay values, this truly minimal model captures two essential features of ENSO’s interannual variability - its regularity and its tendency to phase-lock to the annual cycle. Oscillations with average cycle length that is an integer multiple of the seasonal cycle are prevalent and range from 2 to 7 years. Transition zones - where the average period lengths are noninteger rational multiples of the forcing period - exhibit Devil’s staircases, a signature of the quasi-periodic (QP) route to chaos. Our BDE model thus validates results from previous studies of the interaction of the seasonal cycle with ENSO’s “delayed oscillator”. It gives therewith support to the view that the observed irregularity results predominantly from low-order chaotic processes rather than from stochastic weather noise. Moreover, in the transition zone between the two integer periodicities of 2 and 3 years, a heretofore unsuspected, self-similar “fractal sunburst” pattern emerges in phase-parameter space. This pattern provides a distinct and more complex scenario than the QP route to chaos found in earlier, more detailed ENSO models. Period selection in this 2-3-year transitional region seems to play a key role in ENSO’s irregularity, as well as in the appearance of

  3. Linear Equating for the NEAT Design: Parameter Substitution Models and Chained Linear Relationship Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael T.; Mroch, Andrew A.; Suh, Youngsuk; Ripkey, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes five linear equating models for the "nonequivalent groups with anchor test" (NEAT) design with internal anchors (i.e., the anchor test is part of the full test). The analysis employs a two-dimensional framework. The first dimension contrasts two general approaches to developing the equating relationship. Under a "parameter…

  4. Assessments of a Turbulence Model Based on Menter's Modification to Rotta's Two-Equation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to construct a turbulence model with a more reliable second equation simulating length scale. In the present paper, we assess the length scale equation based on Menter s modification to Rotta s two-equation model. Rotta shows that a reliable second equation can be formed in an exact transport equation from the turbulent length scale L and kinetic energy. Rotta s equation is well suited for a term-by-term modeling and shows some interesting features compared to other approaches. The most important difference is that the formulation leads to a natural inclusion of higher order velocity derivatives into the source terms of the scale equation, which has the potential to enhance the capability of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to simulate unsteady flows. The model is implemented in the PAB3D solver with complete formulation, usage methodology, and validation examples to demonstrate its capabilities. The detailed studies include grid convergence. Near-wall and shear flows cases are documented and compared with experimental and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data. The results from this formulation are as good or better than the well-known SST turbulence model and much better than k-epsilon results. Overall, the study provides useful insights into the model capability in predicting attached and separated flows.

  5. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  6. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns.

    PubMed

    Brown, E N; Meehan, P M; Dempster, A P

    2001-03-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems. PMID:11171600

  7. On Insensitivity of the Chi-Square Model Test to Nonlinear Misspecification in Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooijaart, Ab; Satorra, Albert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that for some structural equation models (SEM), the classical chi-square goodness-of-fit test is unable to detect the presence of nonlinear terms in the model. As an example, we consider a regression model with latent variables and interactions terms. Not only the model test has zero power against that type of…

  8. NONHOMOGENEOUS TERMS IN THE UNSTEADY FLOW EQUATIONS: MODELING ASPECTS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, Chintu; Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Baltzer, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    A study is in progress to identify the relative significance, effects, and benefits attributable to the use of one-dimensional, unsteady, open-channel, flow-simulation models employing a variety of nonhomogeneous terms in their equation formulations. Nonhomogeneous terms being analyzed include those representing bed slope, frictional resistance, nonprismatic channel geometry, lateral flow, and (surface) wind stress. After an initial theoretical discussion, the results of a set of numerical experiments are presented that demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships and intercomparisons achieved by neglect or improper treatment of important nonhomogeneous terms. Preliminary results of this study are discussed and presented in this paper, both in the form of qualitative considerations and quantitative tabular findings. These results are expected to yield a definitive set of guidelines and suggestions useful to model engineers.

  9. A fractional diffusion equation model for cancer tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyiola, Olaniyi Samuel; Zaman, F. D.

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we consider cancer tumor models and investigate the need for fractional order derivative as compared to the classical first order derivative in time. Three different cases of the net killing rate are taken into account including the case where net killing rate of the cancer cells is dependent on the concentration of the cells. At first, we use a relatively new analytical technique called q-Homotopy Analysis Method on the resulting time-fractional partial differential equations to obtain analytical solution in form of convergent series with easily computable components. Our numerical analysis enables us to give some recommendations on the appropriate order (fractional) of derivative in time to be used in modeling cancer tumor.

  10. A partial differential equation model of metastasized prostatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Avner; Jain, Harsh Vardhan

    2013-06-01

    Biochemically failing metastatic prostate cancer is typically treated with androgen ablation. However, due to the emergence of castration-resistant cells that can survive in low androgen concentrations, such therapy eventually fails. Here, we develop a partial differential equation model of the growth and response to treatment of prostate cancer that has metastasized to the bone. Existence and uniqueness results are derived for the resulting free boundary problem. In particular, existence and uniqueness of solutions for all time are proven for the radially symmetric case. Finally, numerical simulations of a tumor growing in 2-dimensions with radial symmetry are carried in order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of different treatment strategies. These simulations are able to reproduce a variety of clinically observed responses to treatment, and suggest treatment strategies that may result in tumor remission, underscoring our model's potential to make a significant contribution in the field of prostate cancer therapeutics. PMID:23906138

  11. Modeling Dynamic Ductility: An Equation of State for Porous Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, J

    2007-07-27

    Enhanced heating from shock compression of a porous material can potentially suppress or delay cracking of the material on subsequent expansion. In this paper we quantify the expected enhanced heating in an experiment in which a sector of a thin cylindrical shell is driven from the inside surface by SEMTEX high explosive ({approx}1 {micro}s FWHM pressure pulse with peak pressure {approx}21.5 GPa). We first derive an analytical equation of state (EOS) for porous metals, then discuss the coupling of this EOS with material elastic-plastic response in a 2D hydrocode, and then discuss the modeling of the HE experiment with both fully dense and 10% porous Ta and a Bi/Ta composite. Finally, we compare our modeling with some recent experimental data.

  12. Modeling disease transmission near eradication: An equation free approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Matthew O.; Proctor, Joshua L.; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Although disease transmission in the near eradication regime is inherently stochastic, deterministic quantities such as the probability of eradication are of interest to policy makers and researchers. Rather than running large ensembles of discrete stochastic simulations over long intervals in time to compute these deterministic quantities, we create a data-driven and deterministic "coarse" model for them using the Equation Free (EF) framework. In lieu of deriving an explicit coarse model, the EF framework approximates any needed information, such as coarse time derivatives, by running short computational experiments. However, the choice of the coarse variables (i.e., the state of the coarse system) is critical if the resulting model is to be accurate. In this manuscript, we propose a set of coarse variables that result in an accurate model in the endemic and near eradication regimes, and demonstrate this on a compartmental model representing the spread of Poliomyelitis. When combined with adaptive time-stepping coarse projective integrators, this approach can yield over a factor of two speedup compared to direct simulation, and due to its lower dimensionality, could be beneficial when conducting systems level tasks such as designing eradication or monitoring campaigns.

  13. Controlled Nonlinear Stochastic Delay Equations: Part I: Modeling and Approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2012-08-15

    This two-part paper deals with 'foundational' issues that have not been previously considered in the modeling and numerical optimization of nonlinear stochastic delay systems. There are new classes of models, such as those with nonlinear functions of several controls (such as products), each with is own delay, controlled random Poisson measure driving terms, admissions control with delayed retrials, and others. There are two basic and interconnected themes for these models. The first, dealt with in this part, concerns the definition of admissible control. The classical definition of an admissible control as a nonanticipative relaxed control is inadequate for these models and needs to be extended. This is needed for the convergence proofs of numerical approximations for optimal controls as well as to have a well-defined model. It is shown that the new classes of admissible controls do not enlarge the range of the value functions, is closed (together with the associated paths) under weak convergence, and is approximatable by ordinary controls. The second theme, dealt with in Part II, concerns transportation equation representations, and their role in the development of numerical algorithms with much reduced memory and computational requirements.

  14. Quantifying uncertainty, variability and likelihood for ordinary differential equation models

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In many applications, ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are subject to uncertainty or variability in initial conditions and parameters. Both, uncertainty and variability can be quantified in terms of a probability density function on the state and parameter space. Results The partial differential equation that describes the evolution of this probability density function has a form that is particularly amenable to application of the well-known method of characteristics. The value of the density at some point in time is directly accessible by the solution of the original ODE extended by a single extra dimension (for the value of the density). This leads to simple methods for studying uncertainty, variability and likelihood, with significant advantages over more traditional Monte Carlo and related approaches especially when studying regions with low probability. Conclusions While such approaches based on the method of characteristics are common practice in other disciplines, their advantages for the study of biological systems have so far remained unrecognized. Several examples illustrate performance and accuracy of the approach and its limitations. PMID:21029410

  15. Probabilistic delay differential equation modeling of event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Ostwald, Dirk; Starke, Ludger

    2016-08-01

    "Dynamic causal models" (DCMs) are a promising approach in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data due to their biophysical interpretability and their consolidation of functional-segregative and functional-integrative propositions. In this theoretical note we are concerned with the DCM framework for electroencephalographically recorded event-related potentials (ERP-DCM). Intuitively, ERP-DCM combines deterministic dynamical neural mass models with dipole-based EEG forward models to describe the event-related scalp potential time-series over the entire electrode space. Since its inception, ERP-DCM has been successfully employed to capture the neural underpinnings of a wide range of neurocognitive phenomena. However, in spite of its empirical popularity, the technical literature on ERP-DCM remains somewhat patchy. A number of previous communications have detailed certain aspects of the approach, but no unified and coherent documentation exists. With this technical note, we aim to close this gap and to increase the technical accessibility of ERP-DCM. Specifically, this note makes the following novel contributions: firstly, we provide a unified and coherent review of the mathematical machinery of the latent and forward models constituting ERP-DCM by formulating the approach as a probabilistic latent delay differential equation model. Secondly, we emphasize the probabilistic nature of the model and its variational Bayesian inversion scheme by explicitly deriving the variational free energy function in terms of both the likelihood expectation and variance parameters. Thirdly, we detail and validate the estimation of the model with a special focus on the explicit form of the variational free energy function and introduce a conventional nonlinear optimization scheme for its maximization. Finally, we identify and discuss a number of computational issues which may be addressed in the future development of the approach. PMID:27114057

  16. Stochastic modeling of driver behavior by Langevin equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    A procedure based on stochastic Langevin equations is presented and shows how a stochastic model of driver behavior can be estimated directly from given data. The Langevin analysis allows the separation of a given data-set into a stochastic diffusion- and a deterministic drift field. Form the drift field a potential can be derived. In particular the method is here applied on driving data from a simulator. We overcome typical problems like varying sampling rates, low noise levels, low data amounts, inefficient coordinate systems, and non-stationary situations. From the estimation of the drift- and diffusion vector-fields derived from the data, we show different ways how to set up Monte-Carlo simulations for the driver behavior.

  17. Fitting Data to Model: Structural Equation Modeling Diagnosis Using Two Scatter Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces two simple scatter plots for model diagnosis in structural equation modeling. One plot contrasts a residual-based M-distance of the structural model with the M-distance for the factor score. It contains information on outliers, good leverage observations, bad leverage observations, and normal cases. The other plot contrasts…

  18. Malignant Potential of Gastrointestinal Cancers Assessed by Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Kei; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Okahara, Satoshi; Kodaira, Junichi; Oohashi, Hirokazu; Isshiki, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kentaro; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Hosokawa, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Background Parameters reported in pathologic reviews have been failing to assess exactly the malignant potential of gastrointestinal cancers. We hypothesized that malignant potential could be defined by common latent variables (hypothesis I), but there are substantial differences in the associations between malignant potential and pathologic parameters according to the origin of gastrointestinal cancers (hypothesis II). We shed light on these issues by structural equation modeling. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 217 esophageal, 192 gastric, and 175 colorectal cancer patients who consecutively underwent curative surgery for their pathologic stage I cancers at Keiyukai Sapporo Hospital. Latent variables identified by factor analysis and seven conventional pathologic parameters were introduced in the structural equation modeling analysis. Results Because latent variables were disparate except for their number, 'three' in the examined gastrointestinal cancers, the first hypothesis was rejected. Because configural invariance across gastrointestinal cancers was not approved, the second hypothesis was verified. We could trace the three significant paths on the causal graph from latent variables to lymph node metastasis, which were mediated through depth, lymphatic invasion, and matrilysin expression in esophageal cancer, whereas only one significant path could be traced in both gastric and colorectal cancer. Two of the three latent variables were exogenous in esophageal cancer, whereas one factor was exogenous in the other gastrointestinal cancers. Cancer stemness promoted viability in esophageal cancer, but it was suppressed in others. Conclusion These results reflect the malignant potential of esophageal cancer is higher than that of the other gastrointestinal cancers. Such information might contribute to refining clinical treatments for gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:26889682

  19. A Differential Equation Model for the Dynamics of Youth Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Do, Tae Sug; Lee, Young S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examine the dynamics of gambling among young people aged 16–24 years, how prevalence rates of at-risk gambling and problem gambling change as adolescents enter young adulthood, and prevention and control strategies. Methods A simple epidemiological model is created using ordinary nonlinear differential equations, and a threshold condition that spreads gambling is identified through stability analysis. We estimate all the model parameters using a longitudinal prevalence study by Winters, Stinchfield, and Botzet to run numerical simulations. Parameters to which the system is most sensitive are isolated using sensitivity analysis. Results Problem gambling is endemic among young people, with a steady prevalence of approximately 4–5%. The prevalence of problem gambling is lower in young adults aged 18–24 years than in adolescents aged 16–18 years. At-risk gambling among young adults has increased. The parameters to which the system is most sensitive correspond to primary prevention. Conclusion Prevention and control strategies for gambling should involve school education. A mathematical model that includes the effect of early exposure to gambling would be helpful if a longitudinal study can provide data in the future. PMID:25379374

  20. Iterative solvers for Navier-Stokes equations: Experiments with turbulence model

    SciTech Connect

    Page, M.; Garon, A.

    1994-12-31

    In the framework of developing software for the prediction of flows in hydraulic turbine components, Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with {kappa}-{omega} two-equation turbulence model are discretized by finite element method. Since the resulting matrices are large, sparse and nonsymmetric, strategies based on CG-type iterative methods must be devised. A segregated solution strategy decouples the momentum equation, the {kappa} transport equation and the {omega} transport equation. These sets of equations must be solved while satisfying constraint equations. Experiments with orthogonal projection method are presented for the imposition of essential boundary conditions in a weak sense.

  1. Using structural equation modeling to investigate relationships among ecological variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malaeb, Z.A.; Kevin, Summers J.; Pugesek, B.H.

    2000-01-01

    Structural equation modeling is an advanced multivariate statistical process with which a researcher can construct theoretical concepts, test their measurement reliability, hypothesize and test a theory about their relationships, take into account measurement errors, and consider both direct and indirect effects of variables on one another. Latent variables are theoretical concepts that unite phenomena under a single term, e.g., ecosystem health, environmental condition, and pollution (Bollen, 1989). Latent variables are not measured directly but can be expressed in terms of one or more directly measurable variables called indicators. For some researchers, defining, constructing, and examining the validity of latent variables may be the end task of itself. For others, testing hypothesized relationships of latent variables may be of interest. We analyzed the correlation matrix of eleven environmental variables from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuaries (EMAP-E) using methods of structural equation modeling. We hypothesized and tested a conceptual model to characterize the interdependencies between four latent variables-sediment contamination, natural variability, biodiversity, and growth potential. In particular, we were interested in measuring the direct, indirect, and total effects of sediment contamination and natural variability on biodiversity and growth potential. The model fit the data well and accounted for 81% of the variability in biodiversity and 69% of the variability in growth potential. It revealed a positive total effect of natural variability on growth potential that otherwise would have been judged negative had we not considered indirect effects. That is, natural variability had a negative direct effect on growth potential of magnitude -0.3251 and a positive indirect effect mediated through biodiversity of magnitude 0.4509, yielding a net positive total effect of 0

  2. Damping models in the truncated derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Arriaga, G.; Sanmartin, J. R.; Elaskar, S. A.

    2007-08-15

    Four-dimensional flow in the phase space of three amplitudes of circularly polarized Alfven waves and one relative phase, resulting from a resonant three-wave truncation of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation, has been analyzed; wave 1 is linearly unstable with growth rate {gamma}, and waves 2 and 3 are stable with damping {gamma}{sub 2} and {gamma}{sub 3}, respectively. The dependence of gross dynamical features on the damping model (as characterized by the relation between damping and wave-vector ratios, {gamma}{sub 2}/{gamma}{sub 3}, k{sub 2}/k{sub 3}), and the polarization of the waves, is discussed; two damping models, Landau ({gamma}{proportional_to}k) and resistive ({gamma}{proportional_to}k{sup 2}), are studied in depth. Very complex dynamics, such as multiple blue sky catastrophes and chaotic attractors arising from Feigenbaum sequences, and explosive bifurcations involving Intermittency-I chaos, are shown to be associated with the existence and loss of stability of certain fixed point P of the flow. Independently of the damping model, P may only exist for {gamma}<2({gamma}{sub 2}+{gamma}{sub 3})/3, as against flow contraction just requiring {gamma}<{gamma}{sub 2}+{gamma}{sub 3}. In the case of right-hand (RH) polarization, point P may exist for all models other than Landau damping; for the resistive model, P may exist for RH polarization only if {gamma}<({gamma}{sub 2}+{gamma}{sub 3})/2.

  3. Agent-Based vs. Equation-based Epidemiological Models:A Model Selection Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Nutaro, James J

    2012-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the need to design model validation strategies for epidemiological disease-spread models. We consider both agent-based and equation-based models of pandemic disease spread and study the nuances and complexities one has to consider from the perspective of model validation. For this purpose, we instantiate an equation based model and an agent based model of the 1918 Spanish flu and we leverage data published in the literature for our case- study. We present our observations from the perspective of each implementation and discuss the application of model-selection criteria to compare the risk in choosing one modeling paradigm to another. We conclude with a discussion of our experience and document future ideas for a model validation framework.

  4. Bayesian Estimation and Uncertainty Quantification in Differential Equation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaumik, Prithwish

    In engineering, physics, biomedical sciences, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PKPD) and many other fields the regression function is often specified as solution of a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) given by. dƒtheta(t) / dt = F(t), ƒtheta(, t),theta), t ∈ [0, 1]; here F is a known appropriately smooth vector valued function. Our interest lies in estimating theta from the noisy data. A two-step approach to solve this problem consists of the first step fitting the data nonparametrically, and the second step estimating the parameter by minimizing the distance between the nonparametrically estimated derivative and the derivative suggested by the system of ODEs. In Chapter 2 we consider a Bayesian analog of the two step approach by putting a finite random series prior on the regression function using B-spline basis. We establish a Bernstein-von Mises theorem for the posterior distribution of the parameter of interest induced from that on the regression function with the n --1/2 contraction rate. Although this approach is computationally fast, the Bayes estimator is not asymptotically efficient. This can be remedied by directly considering the distance between the function in the nonparametric model and a Runge-Kutta (RK4) approximate solution of the ODE while inducing the posterior distribution on the parameter as done in Chapter 3. We also study the asymptotic properties of a direct Bayesian method obtained from the approximate likelihood obtained by the RK4 method in Chapter 3. Chapters 4 and 5 contain the extensions of the methods discussed so far for higher order ODE's and partial differential equations (PDE's) respectively. We have mentioned the scopes of some future works in Chapter 6.

  5. A Study of Two-Equation Turbulence Models on the Elliptic Streamline Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaisdell, Gregory A.; Qin, Jim H.; Shariff, Karim; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Several two-equation turbulence models are compared to data from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the homogeneous elliptic streamline flow, which combines rotation and strain. The models considered include standard two-equation models and models with corrections for rotational effects. Most of the rotational corrections modify the dissipation rate equation to account for the reduced dissipation rate in rotating turbulent flows, however, the DNS data shows that the production term in the turbulent kinetic energy equation is not modeled correctly by these models. Nonlinear relations for the Reynolds stresses are considered as a means of modifying the production term. Implications for the modeling of turbulent vortices will be discussed.

  6. One-dimensional transport equation models for sound energy propagation in long spaces: simulations and experiments.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yun; Xiang, Ning

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, the accuracy and efficiency of the previously discussed one-dimensional transport equation models [Y. Jing et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 2312-2322 (2010)] are examined both numerically and experimentally. The finite element method is employed to solve the equations. Artificial diffusion is applied in the numerical implementation to suppress oscillations of the solution. The transport equation models are then compared with the ray-tracing based method for different scenarios. In general, they are in good agreement, and the transport equation models are substantially less time consuming. In addition, the two-group model is found to yield more accurate results than the one-group model for the tested cases. Lastly, acoustic experimental results obtained from a 1:10 long room scale-model are used to verify the transport equation models. The results suggest that the transport equation models are able to accurately model the sound field in a long space. PMID:20370014

  7. Hyperbolicity of the Nonlinear Models of Maxwell's Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, Denis

    . We consider the class of nonlinear models of electromagnetism that has been described by Coleman & Dill [7]. A model is completely determined by its energy density W(B,D). Viewing the electromagnetic field (B,D) as a 3×2 matrix, we show that polyconvexity of W implies the local well-posedness of the Cauchy problem within smooth functions of class Hs with s>1+d/2. The method follows that designed by Dafermos in his book [9] in the context of nonlinear elasticity. We use the fact that B×D is a (vectorial, non-convex) entropy, and we enlarge the system from 6 to 9 equations. The resulting system admits an entropy (actually the energy) that is convex. Since the energy conservation law does not derive from the system of conservation laws itself (Faraday's and Ampère's laws), but also needs the compatibility relations divB=divD=0 (the latter may be relaxed in order to take into account electric charges), the energy density is not an entropy in the classical sense. Thus the system cannot be symmetrized, strictly speaking. However, we show that the structure is close enough to symmetrizability, so that the standard estimates still hold true.

  8. Ages estimated from a diffusion equation model for scarp degradation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Watson, K.E.N.

    1983-01-01

    The diffusion equation derived from the continuity equation for hillslopes is applied to scarp erosion in unconsolidated materials. Solutions to this equation allow direct calculation of the product of the rate coefficient and the age of the scarp from measurements of scarp morphology. Where the rate coefficient can be estimated or can be derived from scarps of known age, this method allows direct calculation of unknown ages of scarps.

  9. Multigrid solution of compressible turbulent flow on unstructured meshes using a two-equation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, D. J.; Martinelli, L.

    1991-01-01

    The system of equations consisting of the full Navier-Stokes equations and two turbulence equations was solved for in the steady state using a multigrid strategy on unstructured meshes. The flow equations and turbulence equations are solved in a loosely coupled manner. The flow equations are advanced in time using a multistage Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme with a stability bound local time step, while the turbulence equations are advanced in a point-implicit scheme with a time step which guarantees stability and positively. Low Reynolds number modifications to the original two equation model are incorporated in a manner which results in well behaved equations for arbitrarily small wall distances. A variety of aerodynamic flows are solved for, initializing all quantities with uniform freestream values, and resulting in rapid and uniform convergence rates for the flow and turbulence equations.

  10. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment Model: A Structural Equation Model Examination of Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Susan E.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain…

  11. A Comparison of Equating Methods under the Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Allan S.; Kim, Seock-Ho

    Equating tests from different calibrations under item response theory (IRT) requires calculation of the slope and intercept of the appropriate linear transformation. Two methods have been proposed recently for equating graded response items under IRT, a test characteristic curve method and a minimum chi-square method. These two methods are…

  12. POD/DEIM nonlinear model order reduction of an ADI implicit shallow water equations model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ştefănescu, R.; Navon, I. M.

    2013-03-01

    In the present paper we consider a 2-D shallow-water equations (SWE) model on a β-plane solved using an alternating direction fully implicit (ADI) finite-difference scheme on a rectangular domain. The scheme was shown to be unconditionally stable for the linearized equations. The discretization yields a number of nonlinear systems of algebraic equations. We then use a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to reduce the dimension of the SWE model. Due to the model nonlinearities, the computational complexity of the reduced model still depends on the number of variables of the full shallow - water equations model. By employing the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) we reduce the computational complexity of the reduced order model due to its depending on the nonlinear full dimension model and regain the full model reduction expected from the POD model. To emphasize the CPU gain in performance due to use of POD/DEIM, we also propose testing an explicit Euler finite difference scheme (EE) as an alternative to the ADI implicit scheme for solving the swallow water equations model. We then proceed to assess the efficiency of POD/DEIM as a function of number of spatial discretization points, time steps, and POD basis functions. As was expected, our numerical experiments showed that the CPU time performances of POD/DEIM schemes are proportional to the number of mesh points. Once the number of spatial discretization points exceeded 10000 and for 90 DEIM interpolation points, the CPU time decreased by a factor of 10 in case of POD/DEIM implicit SWE scheme and by a factor of 15 for the POD/DEIM explicit SWE scheme in comparison with the corresponding POD SWE schemes. Moreover, our numerical tests revealed that if the number of points selected by DEIM algorithm reached 50, the approximation errors due to POD/DEIM and POD reduced systems have the same orders of magnitude, thus supporting the theoretical results existing in the literature.

  13. The Role of Sign in Students' Modeling of Scalar Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Kate; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2010-04-01

    Helping students set up equations is one of the major goals of teaching a course in physics that contains elements of problem solving. Students must take the stories we present, interpret them, and turn them into physics; from there, they must turn that physical, idealized story into mathematics. How they do so and what problems lie along the way are a major source of difficulty for us as instructors. In this paper, we consider just one such difficulty, getting the plus and minus signs correct when setting a net force equal to mass times acceleration. Even in such simple equations, we find that students make common errors in how they connect the mathematics and the physics. Specifically, we have seen college physics students use physical and mathematical reasoning inconsistently when determining signs of terms in equations. The problem seems to lie in how a vector equation gets interpreted into a scalar equation (whose form depends on one's choice of coordinate system).

  14. Evaluation of Structural Equation Mixture Models: Parameter Estimates and Correct Class Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tueller, Stephen; Lubke, Gitta

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation mixture models (SEMMs) are latent class models that permit the estimation of a structural equation model within each class. Fitting SEMMs is illustrated using data from 1 wave of the Notre Dame Longitudinal Study of Aging. Based on the model used in the illustration, SEMM parameter estimation and correct class assignment are…

  15. Regularized lattice Boltzmann model for a class of convection-diffusion equations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Shi, Baochang; Chai, Zhenhua

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a regularized lattice Boltzmann model for a class of nonlinear convection-diffusion equations with variable coefficients is proposed. The main idea of the present model is to introduce a set of precollision distribution functions that are defined only in terms of macroscopic moments. The Chapman-Enskog analysis shows that the nonlinear convection-diffusion equations can be recovered correctly. Numerical tests, including Fokker-Planck equations, Buckley-Leverett equation with discontinuous initial function, nonlinear convection-diffusion equation with anisotropic diffusion, are carried out to validate the present model, and the results show that the present model is more accurate than some available lattice Boltzmann models. It is also demonstrated that the present model is more stable than the traditional single-relaxation-time model for the nonlinear convection-diffusion equations. PMID:26565368

  16. Occupants' satisfaction toward building environmental quality: structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Kamaruzzaman, Syahrul Nizam; Egbu, C O; Zawawi, Emma Marinie Ahmad; Karim, Saipol Bari Abd; Woon, Chen Jia

    2015-05-01

    It is accepted that occupants who are more satisfied with their workplace's building internal environment are more productive. The main objective of the study was to measure the occupants' level of satisfaction and the perceived importance of the design or refurbishment on office conditions. The study also attempted to determine the factors affecting the occupants' satisfaction with their building or office conditions. Post-occupancy evaluations were conducted using a structured questionnaire developed by the Built Environment Research Group at the University of Manchester, UK. Our questionnaires incorporate 22 factors relating to the internal environment and rate these in terms of "user satisfaction" and "degree of importance." The questions were modified to reflect the specific setting of the study and take into consideration the local conditions and climate in Malaysia. The overall mean satisfaction of the occupants toward their office environment was 5.35. The results were measured by a single item of overall liking of office conditions in general. Occupants were more satisfied with their state of health in the workplace, but they were extremely dissatisfied with the distance away from a window. The factor analysis divided the variables into three groups, namely intrusion, air quality, and office appearance. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to determine which factor had the most significant influence on occupants' satisfaction: appearance. The findings from the study suggest that continuous improvement in aspects of the building's appearance needs to be supported with effective and comprehensive maintenance to sustain the occupants' satisfaction. PMID:25864077

  17. Three-dimensional parabolic equation modeling of mesoscale eddy deflection.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Kevin D; Campbell, Richard L

    2016-02-01

    The impact of mesoscale oceanography, including ocean fronts and eddies, on global scale low-frequency acoustics is examined using a fully three-dimensional parabolic equation model. The narrowband acoustic signal, for frequencies from 2 to 16 Hz, is simulated from a seismic event on the Kerguellen Plateau in the South Indian Ocean to an array of receivers south of Ascension Island in the South Atlantic, a distance of 9100 km. The path was chosen for its relevance to seismic detections from the HA10 Ascension Island station of the International Monitoring System, for its lack of bathymetric interaction, and for the dynamic oceanography encountered as the sound passes the Cape of Good Hope. The acoustic field was propagated through two years (1992 and 1993) of the eddy-permitting ocean state estimation ECCO2 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II) system. The range of deflection of the back-azimuth was 1.8° with a root-mean-square of 0.34°. The refraction due to mesoscale oceanography could therefore have significant impacts upon localization of distant low-frequency sources, such as seismic or nuclear test events. PMID:26936572

  18. Is racism dead? Comparing (expressive) means and (structural equation) models.

    PubMed

    Leach, C W; Peng, T R; Volckens, J

    2000-09-01

    Much scholarship suggests that racism--belief in out-group inferiority--is unrelated to contemporary attitudes. Purportedly, a new form of racism, one which relies upon a belief in cultural difference, has become a more acceptable basis for such attitudes. The authors argue that an appropriate empirical assessment of racism (both 'old' and 'new') depends upon (1) clear conceptualization and operationalization, and (2) attention to both mean-level expression and explanatory value in structural equation models. This study assessed the endorsement of racism and belief in cultural difference as well as their association with a measure of general attitude in a secondary analysis of parallel representative surveys of attitudes toward different ethnic out-groups in France, The Netherlands, Western Germany and Britain (N = 3242; see Reif & Melich, 1991). For six of the seven out-group targets, racism was strongly related to ethnic majority attitudes, despite low mean-level endorsement. In a pattern consistent with a 'new', indirect racism, the relationship between British racism and attitudes toward Afro-Caribbeans was mediated by belief in cultural difference. PMID:11041013

  19. Modeling asymmetric cavity collapse with plasma equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, Brett; Hawker, Nicholas; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2016-05-01

    We explore the effect that equation of state (EOS) thermodynamics has on shock-driven cavity-collapse processes. We account for full, multidimensional, unsteady hydrodynamics and incorporate a range of relevant EOSs (polytropic, QEOS-type, and SESAME). In doing so, we show that simplified analytic EOSs, like ideal gas, capture certain critical parameters of the collapse such as velocity of the main transverse jet and pressure at jet strike, while also providing a good representation of overall trends. However, more sophisticated EOSs yield different and more relevant estimates of temperature and density, especially for higher incident shock strengths. We model incident shocks ranging from 0.1 to 1000 GPa, the latter being of interest in investigating the warm dense matter regime for which experimental and theoretical EOS data are difficult to obtain. At certain shock strengths, there is a factor of two difference in predicted density between QEOS-type and SESAME EOS, indicating cavity collapse as an experimental method for exploring EOS in this range.

  20. Multigrid solution of incompressible turbulent flows by using two-equation turbulence models

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Sung, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    Most of practical flows are turbulent. From the interest of engineering applications, simulation of realistic flows is usually done through solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence model equations. It has been widely accepted that turbulence modeling plays a very important role in numerical simulation of practical flow problem, particularly when the accuracy is of great concern. Among the most used turbulence models today, two-equation models appear to be favored for the reason that they are more general than algebraic models and affordable with current available computer resources. However, investigators using two-equation models seem to have been more concerned with the solution of N-S equations. Less attention is paid to the solution method for the turbulence model equations. In most cases, the turbulence model equations are loosely coupled with N-S equations, multigrid acceleration is only applied to the solution of N-S equations due to perhaps the fact the turbulence model equations are source-term dominant and very stiff in sublayer region.

  1. Factors of home dream recall: a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Wittmann, Lutz; Ciric, Petra; Götz, Simon

    2003-06-01

    Previous research has indicated that personality factors such as openness to experience, creativity, visual memory, attitude toward dreams, and sleep behavior is related to home dream recall frequency (DRF). However, a study investigating all areas simultaneously within one sample in order to determine the percentage of variance explained by all variables and to take intercorrelations between the influencing factors into account has not been performed till now. The present study with 444 participants fills this gap. Using several indicators for each of the variables mentioned above, a structural equation model was tested. Although the model fit was satisfying, the four factors which were significantly related to DRF: personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams, explained only 8.4% of the total variance. As this value is considerably lower than those of studies investigating a single influencing factor and using similar measurement instruments in similar samples, one might speculate about possible expectancy effects in these previous studies, an effect which has been demonstrated for DRF in the laboratory setting. In addition, the small percentage of explained variance of each single factors (<3%) may indicate that other, in this study unmeasured, variables such as sleep duration (state aspect), introspection, and cognitive functioning immediately upon awakening (sleep inertia) show substantial covariance with the interindividual differences in DRF. Future studies should focus on longitudinal aspects in order to differentiate between state versus trait factors (although methodologic issues, e.g. the effect of the measurement technique on DRF itself, have to be clarified) and investigate additional variables which might be associated with DRF (see above). PMID:12753350

  2. Habitat fragmentation and reproductive success: a structural equation modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Le Tortorec, Eric; Helle, Samuli; Käyhkö, Niina; Suorsa, Petri; Huhta, Esa; Hakkarainen, Harri

    2013-09-01

    1. There is great interest on the effects of habitat fragmentation, whereby habitat is lost and the spatial configuration of remaining habitat patches is altered, on individual breeding performance. However, we still lack consensus of how this important process affects reproductive success, and whether its effects are mainly due to reduced fecundity or nestling survival. 2. The main reason for this may be the way that habitat fragmentation has been previously modelled. Studies have treated habitat loss and altered spatial configuration as two independent processes instead of as one hierarchical and interdependent process, and therefore have not been able to consider the relative direct and indirect effects of habitat loss and altered spatial configuration. 3. We investigated how habitat (i.e. old forest) fragmentation, caused by intense forest harvesting at the territory and landscape scales, is associated with the number of fledged offspring of an area-sensitive passerine, the Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris). We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine the complex hierarchical associations between habitat loss and altered spatial configuration on the number of fledged offspring, by controlling for individual condition and weather conditions during incubation. 4. Against generally held expectations, treecreeper reproductive success did not show a significant association with habitat fragmentation measured at the territory scale. Instead, our analyses suggested that an increasing amount of habitat at the landscape scale caused a significant increase in nest predation rates, leading to reduced reproductive success. This effect operated directly on nest predation rates, instead of acting indirectly through altered spatial configuration. 5. Because habitat amount and configuration are inherently strongly collinear, particularly when multiple scales are considered, our study demonstrates the usefulness of a SEM approach for hierarchical partitioning

  3. Bayesian Analysis of Structural Equation Models with Nonlinear Covariates and Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we formulate a nonlinear structural equation model (SEM) that can accommodate covariates in the measurement equation and nonlinear terms of covariates and exogenous latent variables in the structural equation. The covariates can come from continuous or discrete distributions. A Bayesian approach is developed to analyze the…

  4. Informed Conjecturing of Solutions for Differential Equations in a Modeling Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We examine two differential equations. (i) first-order exponential growth or decay; and (ii) second order, linear, constant coefficient differential equations, and show the advantage of learning differential equations in a modeling context for informed conjectures of their solution. We follow with a discussion of the complete analysis afforded by…

  5. Modelling with Difference Equations Supported by GeoGebra: Exploring the Kepler Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    The use of difference and differential equations in the modelling is a topic usually studied by advanced students in mathematics. However difference and differential equations appear in the school curriculum in many direct or hidden ways. Difference equations first enter in the curriculum when studying arithmetic sequences. Moreover Newtonian…

  6. Relationship between Modelling Accuracy and Inflection Point Attributes of Several Equations while Modelling Stand Diameter Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Aiguo; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiongqing; He, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, seven popular equations, including 3-parameter Weibull, 2-parameter Weibull, Gompertz, Logistic, Mitscherlich, Korf and R distribution, were used to model stand diameter distributions for exploring the relationship between the equations’ inflection point attributes and model accuracy. A database comprised of 146 diameter frequency distributions of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations was used to demonstrate model fitting and comparison. Results showed that the inflection points of the stand diameter cumulative percentage distribution ranged from 0.4 to 0.6, showing a 1/2 close rule. The equation’s inflection point attribute was strongly related to its model accuracy. Equation with an inflection point showed much higher accuracy than that without an inflection point. The larger the effective inflection point interval of the fitting curve of the equation was, and the closer the inflection point was to 0.5 for the equations with fixed inflection points, the higher the equation’s accuracy was. It could be found that the equation’s inflection point had close relationship with skewness of diameter distribution and stand age, stand density, which provided a scientific basis for model selection of a stand diameter distribution for Chinese fir plantations and other tree species. PMID:26016995

  7. Modeling Multibody Stage Separation Dynamics Using Constraint Force Equation Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Pamadi, Bandu N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of the constraint force equation methodology and its implementation for multibody separation problems using three specially designed test cases. The first test case involves two rigid bodies connected by a fixed joint, the second case involves two rigid bodies connected with a universal joint, and the third test case is that of Mach 7 separation of the X-43A vehicle. For the first two cases, the solutions obtained using the constraint force equation method compare well with those obtained using industry- standard benchmark codes. For the X-43A case, the constraint force equation solutions show reasonable agreement with the flight-test data. Use of the constraint force equation method facilitates the analysis of stage separation in end-to-end simulations of launch vehicle trajectories

  8. Exactly Solvable Wormhole and Cosmological Models with a Barotropic Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhfittig, P. K. F.

    An exact solution of the Einstein field equations given the barotropic equation of state $p=\\omega\\rho$ yields two possible models: (1) if $\\omega <-1$, we obtain the most general possible anisotropic model for wormholes supported by phantom energy and (2) if $\\omega >0$, we obtain a model for galactic rotation curves. Here the equation of state represents a perfect fluid which may include dark matter. These results illustrate the power and usefulness of exact solutions.

  9. Numerical solution of the Richards equation based catchment runoff model with dd-adaptivity algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuraz, Michal

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents pseudo-deterministic catchment runoff model based on the Richards equation model [1] - the governing equation for the subsurface flow. The subsurface flow in a catchment is described here by two-dimensional variably saturated flow (unsaturated and saturated). The governing equation is the Richards equation with a slight modification of the time derivative term as considered e.g. by Neuman [2]. The nonlinear nature of this problem appears in unsaturated zone only, however the delineation of the saturated zone boundary is a nonlinear computationally expensive issue. The simple one-dimensional Boussinesq equation was used here as a rough estimator of the saturated zone boundary. With this estimate the dd-adaptivity algorithm (see Kuraz et al. [4, 5, 6]) could always start with an optimal subdomain split, so it is now possible to avoid solutions of huge systems of linear equations in the initial iteration level of our Richards equation based runoff model.

  10. Exploring Term Dependences in Probabilistic Information Retrieval Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Bong-Hyun; Lee, Changki; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    2003-01-01

    Describes a theoretic process to apply Bahadur-Lazarsfeld expansion (BLE) to general probabilistic models and the state-of-the-art 2-Poisson model. Through experiments on two standard document collections, one in Korean and one in English, it is demonstrated that incorporation of term dependences using BLE significantly contributes to performance…

  11. Applications of Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling to Cross-Cultural Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Au, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) has been proposed as an extension to structural equation modeling for analyzing data with nested structure. We have begun to see a few applications in cross-cultural research in which MSEM fits well as the statistical model. However, given that cross-cultural studies can only afford collecting data…

  12. A Bayesian Approach for Analyzing Hierarchical Data with Missing Outcomes through Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation models are widely appreciated in behavioral, social, and psychological research to model relations between latent constructs and manifest variables, and to control for measurement errors. Most applications of structural equation models are based on fully observed data that are independently distributed. However, hierarchical…

  13. Langevin equation with fluctuating diffusivity: A two-state model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaguchi, Tomoshige; Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-07-01

    Recently, anomalous subdiffusion, aging, and scatter of the diffusion coefficient have been reported in many single-particle-tracking experiments, though the origins of these behaviors are still elusive. Here, as a model to describe such phenomena, we investigate a Langevin equation with diffusivity fluctuating between a fast and a slow state. Namely, the diffusivity follows a dichotomous stochastic process. We assume that the sojourn time distributions of these two states are given by power laws. It is shown that, for a nonequilibrium ensemble, the ensemble-averaged mean-square displacement (MSD) shows transient subdiffusion. In contrast, the time-averaged MSD shows normal diffusion, but an effective diffusion coefficient transiently shows aging behavior. The propagator is non-Gaussian for short time and converges to a Gaussian distribution in a long-time limit; this convergence to Gaussian is extremely slow for some parameter values. For equilibrium ensembles, both ensemble-averaged and time-averaged MSDs show only normal diffusion and thus we cannot detect any traces of the fluctuating diffusivity with these MSDs. Therefore, as an alternative approach to characterizing the fluctuating diffusivity, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the time-averaged MSD is utilized and it is shown that the RSD exhibits slow relaxation as a signature of the long-time correlation in the fluctuating diffusivity. Furthermore, it is shown that the RSD is related to a non-Gaussian parameter of the propagator. To obtain these theoretical results, we develop a two-state renewal theory as an analytical tool.

  14. Langevin equation with fluctuating diffusivity: A two-state model.

    PubMed

    Miyaguchi, Tomoshige; Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-07-01

    Recently, anomalous subdiffusion, aging, and scatter of the diffusion coefficient have been reported in many single-particle-tracking experiments, though the origins of these behaviors are still elusive. Here, as a model to describe such phenomena, we investigate a Langevin equation with diffusivity fluctuating between a fast and a slow state. Namely, the diffusivity follows a dichotomous stochastic process. We assume that the sojourn time distributions of these two states are given by power laws. It is shown that, for a nonequilibrium ensemble, the ensemble-averaged mean-square displacement (MSD) shows transient subdiffusion. In contrast, the time-averaged MSD shows normal diffusion, but an effective diffusion coefficient transiently shows aging behavior. The propagator is non-Gaussian for short time and converges to a Gaussian distribution in a long-time limit; this convergence to Gaussian is extremely slow for some parameter values. For equilibrium ensembles, both ensemble-averaged and time-averaged MSDs show only normal diffusion and thus we cannot detect any traces of the fluctuating diffusivity with these MSDs. Therefore, as an alternative approach to characterizing the fluctuating diffusivity, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the time-averaged MSD is utilized and it is shown that the RSD exhibits slow relaxation as a signature of the long-time correlation in the fluctuating diffusivity. Furthermore, it is shown that the RSD is related to a non-Gaussian parameter of the propagator. To obtain these theoretical results, we develop a two-state renewal theory as an analytical tool. PMID:27575079

  15. Effect of the Number of Variables on Measures of Fit in Structural Equation Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, David A.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2003-01-01

    Used three approaches to understand the effect of the number of variables in the model on model fit in structural equation modeling through computer simulation. Developed a simple formula for the theoretical value of the comparative fit index. (SLD)

  16. Structural Equation Modelling of Multiple Facet Data: Extending Models for Multitrait-Multimethod Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Maris, Gunter

    2004-01-01

    This paper is about the structural equation modelling of quantitative measures that are obtained from a multiple facet design. A facet is simply a set consisting of a finite number of elements. It is assumed that measures are obtained by combining each element of each facet. Methods and traits are two such facets, and a multitrait-multimethod…

  17. Evaluating Small Sample Approaches for Model Test Statistics in Structural Equation Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevitt, Jonathan

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) attempts to remove the negative influence of measurement error and allows for investigation of relationships at the level of the underlying constructs of interest. SEM has been regarded as a "large sample" technique since its inception. Recent developments in SEM, some of which are currently available in popular…

  18. The Cusp Catastrophe Model as Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Mixture Structural Equation Models

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Witkiewitz, Katie; Grasman, Raoul P. P. P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Catastrophe theory (Thom, 1972, 1993) is the study of the many ways in which continuous changes in a system’s parameters can result in discontinuous changes in one or several outcome variables of interest. Catastrophe theory–inspired models have been used to represent a variety of change phenomena in the realm of social and behavioral sciences. Despite their promise, widespread applications of catastrophe models have been impeded, in part, by difficulties in performing model fitting and model comparison procedures. We propose a new modeling framework for testing one kind of catastrophe model — the cusp catastrophe model — as a mixture structural equation model (MSEM) when cross-sectional data are available; or alternatively, as an MSEM with regime-switching (MSEM-RS) when longitudinal panel data are available. The proposed models and the advantages offered by this alternative modeling framework are illustrated using two empirical examples and a simulation study. PMID:25822209

  19. Is the Langevin phase equation an efficient model for oscillating neurons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Keisuke; Tsunoda, Takamasa; Omori, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Shigeo; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Okada, Masato; Aonishi, Toru

    2009-12-01

    The Langevin phase model is an important canonical model for capturing coherent oscillations of neural populations. However, little attention has been given to verifying its applicability. In this paper, we demonstrate that the Langevin phase equation is an efficient model for neural oscillators by using the machine learning method in two steps: (a) Learning of the Langevin phase model. We estimated the parameters of the Langevin phase equation, i.e., a phase response curve and the intensity of white noise from physiological data measured in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. (b) Test of the estimated model. We verified whether a Fokker-Planck equation derived from the Langevin phase equation with the estimated parameters could capture the stochastic oscillatory behavior of the same neurons disturbed by periodic perturbations. The estimated model could predict the neural behavior, so we can say that the Langevin phase equation is an efficient model for oscillating neurons.

  20. On the basic equations for the second-order modeling of compressible turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, W. W.; Shih, T.-H.

    1991-01-01

    Equations for the mean and turbulent quantities for compressible turbulent flows are derived. Both the conventional Reynolds average and the mass-weighted, Favre average were employed to decompose the flow variable into a mean and a turbulent quality. These equations are to be used later in developing second order Reynolds stress models for high speed compressible flows. A few recent advances in modeling some of the terms in the equations due to compressibility effects are also summarized.

  1. Bianchi type-I cosmological model with quadratic equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, D. R. K.; Adhav, K. S.; Purandare, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    Bianchi type-I cosmological model containing perfect fluid with quadratic equation of state has been studied in general theory of relativity. The general solutions of the Einstein's field equations for Bianchi type-I space-time have been obtained under the assumption of quadratic equation of state (EoS) p= αρ 2- ρ, where α is constant and strictly α≠0. The physical and geometrical aspects of the model are discussed.

  2. The Role of Sign in Students' Modeling of Scalar Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Kate; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Helping students set up equations is one of the major goals of teaching a course in physics that contains elements of problem solving. Students must take the stories we present, interpret them, and turn them into physics; from there, they must turn that physical, idealized story into mathematics. How they do so and what problems lie along the way…

  3. Generalized Path Analysis and Generalized Simultaneous Equations Model for Recursive Systems with Responses of Mixed Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Tien-Lung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Hu, Fu-Chang

    2006-01-01

    This article generalizes linear path analysis (PA) and simultaneous equations models (SiEM) to deal with mixed responses of different types in a recursive or triangular system. An efficient instrumental variable (IV) method for estimating the structural coefficients of a 2-equation partially recursive generalized path analysis (GPA) model and…

  4. Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling (MASEM): Comparison of the Multivariate Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analytic Structural Equation Modeling (MASEM) has drawn interest from many researchers recently. In doing MASEM, researchers usually first synthesize correlation matrices across studies using meta-analysis techniques and then analyze the pooled correlation matrix using structural equation modeling techniques. Several multivariate methods of…

  5. Comparison of Control Approaches in Genetic Regulatory Networks by Using Stochastic Master Equation Models, Probabilistic Boolean Network Models and Differential Equation Models and Estimated Error Analyzes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglar, Mehmet Umut; Pal, Ranadip

    2011-03-01

    Central dogma of molecular biology states that ``information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid''. However, this assumption is not exactly correct in most of the cases. There are a lot of feedback loops and interactions between different levels of systems. These types of interactions are hard to analyze due to the lack of cell level data and probabilistic - nonlinear nature of interactions. Several models widely used to analyze and simulate these types of nonlinear interactions. Stochastic Master Equation (SME) models give probabilistic nature of the interactions in a detailed manner, with a high calculation cost. On the other hand Probabilistic Boolean Network (PBN) models give a coarse scale picture of the stochastic processes, with a less calculation cost. Differential Equation (DE) models give the time evolution of mean values of processes in a highly cost effective way. The understanding of the relations between the predictions of these models is important to understand the reliability of the simulations of genetic regulatory networks. In this work the success of the mapping between SME, PBN and DE models is analyzed and the accuracy and affectivity of the control policies generated by using PBN and DE models is compared.

  6. Delay equation models for populations that experience competition at immature life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong

    2015-09-01

    We consider stage-structured population models of intra- and inter-specific competition at immature life stages. A prototype delay model is derived for a single species that experiences larval competition. Its solutions are bounded for any birth function. Other ways of modelling the birth rate can lead to nonlinear integral equations. In some situations the technique of reducing an age-structured model to a system of delay equations applies. In the case of immature competition the delay equations cannot always be written down explicitly because their right hand sides depend on the solutions of the nonlinear ordinary differential equations that arise when one solves the nonlinear age-structured equations that determine the maturation rates in terms of the birth rates. This situation arises in the case of competition between two strains or species. However, in our two-strain competition model, vital properties of those right hand sides can be indirectly inferred using monotone systems theory.

  7. IT vendor selection model by using structural equation model & analytical hierarchy process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Sarit; Dominic, P. D. D.

    2012-11-01

    Selecting and evaluating the right vendors is imperative for an organization's global marketplace competitiveness. Improper selection and evaluation of potential vendors can dwarf an organization's supply chain performance. Numerous studies have demonstrated that firms consider multiple criteria when selecting key vendors. This research intends to develop a new hybrid model for vendor selection process with better decision making. The new proposed model provides a suitable tool for assisting decision makers and managers to make the right decisions and select the most suitable vendor. This paper proposes a Hybrid model based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for long-term strategic vendor selection problems. The five steps framework of the model has been designed after the thorough literature study. The proposed hybrid model will be applied using a real life case study to assess its effectiveness. In addition, What-if analysis technique will be used for model validation purpose.

  8. Using Structural Equation Modeling To Test for Differential Reliability and Validity: An Empirical Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines-Eudy, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates empirically a structural equation modeling technique for group comparison of reliability and validity. Data, which are from a study of 495 mothers' attitudes toward pregnancy, have a one-factor measurement model and three sets of subpopulation comparisons. (SLD)

  9. Clausius relation and Friedmann equation in FRW universe model

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Qiao-Jun; Chen, Yi-Xin; Shao, Kai-Nan E-mail: yxchen@zimp.zju.edu.cn

    2010-05-01

    It has been shown that Friedmann equation of FRW universe can be derived from the first law of thermodynamics in Einstein gravity, Gauss-Bonnet gravity, Lovelock gravity, scalar-tensor gravity and f(R) gravity. Moreover, it was pointed out that the temperature of the apparent horizon can be obtained using the tunneling formalism for the corresponding observers defined by Kodama vector. In this article, we find that the energy flux through the apparent horizon can be determined by using the Kodama vector. This implies the fact that the Clausius relation and the first law of thermodynamics associated with the apparent horizon in FRW universe is relative to the Kodama observers. We illustrate the derivation of Friedmann equation, and also extend the study to the cases of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity and IR modified Hořava-Lifshitz gravity.

  10. A Parabolic Equation Approach to Modeling Acousto-Gravity Waves for Local Helioseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Bene, Kevin; Lingevitch, Joseph; Doschek, George

    2016-08-01

    A wide-angle parabolic-wave-equation algorithm is developed and validated for local-helioseismic wave propagation. The parabolic equation is derived from a factorization of the linearized acousto-gravity wave equation. We apply the parabolic-wave equation to modeling acoustic propagation in a plane-parallel waveguide with physical properties derived from helioseismic data. The wavenumber power spectrum and wave-packet arrival-time structure for receivers in the photosphere with separation up to 30° is computed, and good agreement is demonstrated with measured values and a reference spectral model.

  11. A Parabolic Equation Approach to Modeling Acousto-Gravity Waves for Local Helioseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Bene, Kevin; Lingevitch, Joseph; Doschek, George

    2016-07-01

    A wide-angle parabolic-wave-equation algorithm is developed and validated for local-helioseismic wave propagation. The parabolic equation is derived from a factorization of the linearized acousto-gravity wave equation. We apply the parabolic-wave equation to modeling acoustic propagation in a plane-parallel waveguide with physical properties derived from helioseismic data. The wavenumber power spectrum and wave-packet arrival-time structure for receivers in the photosphere with separation up to 30° is computed, and good agreement is demonstrated with measured values and a reference spectral model.

  12. Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Data Analysis Software v. 1.2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-02-24

    The purpose of this software is estimate the useable life of rechargeable batteries (e.g., lithium-ion). The software employs a generalized statistical approach to model cell data in the context of accelerated aging experiments. The cell performance is modeled in two parts. The first part consists of a deterministic degradation model which models the average cell behavior. The second part relates to the statistical variation in performance of the cells (error model). Experimental data from anmore » accelerated aging experiment will be input from an Excel worksheet. The software will then query the user for a specific model form (within the generalized model framework). Model parameters will be estimated by the software using various statistical methodologies. Average cell life will be predicted using the estimated model parameters. The uncertainty in the estimated cell life will also be computed using bootstrap simulations. This software can be used in several modes: 1) fit only, 2) fit and simulation, and 3) simulation only« less

  13. Forward flight of a model butterfly: Simulation by equations of motion coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hua; Sun, Mao

    2012-12-01

    The forward flight of a model butterfly was studied by simulation using the equations of motion coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model butterfly moved under the action of aerodynamic and gravitational forces, where the aerodynamic forces were generated by flapping wings which moved with the body, allowing the body oscillations of the model butterfly to be simulated. The main results are as follows: (1) The aerodynamic force produced by the wings is approximately perpendicular to the long-axis of body and is much larger in the downstroke than in the upstroke. In the downstroke the body pitch angle is small and the large aerodynamic force points up and slightly backward, giving the weight-supporting vertical force and a small negative horizontal force, whilst in the upstroke, the body angle is large and the relatively small aerodynamic force points forward and slightly downward, giving a positive horizontal force which overcomes the body drag and the negative horizontal force generated in the downstroke. (2) Pitching oscillation of the butterfly body plays an equivalent role of the wing-rotation of many other insects. (3) The body-massspecific power of the model butterfly is 33.3 W/kg, not very different from that of many other insects, e.g., fruitflies and dragonflies.

  14. The lattice Boltzmann model for the second-order Benjamin-Ono equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Huilin; Ma, Changfeng

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, in order to extend the lattice Boltzmann method to deal with more complicated nonlinear equations, we propose a 1D lattice Boltzmann scheme with an amending function for the second-order (1 + 1)-dimensional Benjamin-Ono equation. With the Taylor expansion and the Chapman-Enskog expansion, the governing evolution equation is recovered correctly from the continuous Boltzmann equation. The equilibrium distribution function and the amending function are obtained. Numerical simulations are carried out for the 'good' Boussinesq equation and the 'bad' one to validate the proposed model. It is found that the numerical results agree well with the analytical solutions. The present model can be used to solve more kinds of nonlinear partial differential equations.

  15. Primitive-Equation-Based Low-Order Models with Seasonal Cycle. Part I: Model Construction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achatz, Ulrich; Opsteegh, J. D.

    2003-02-01

    In a continuation of previous investigations on deterministic reduced atmosphere models with compact state space representation, two main modifications are introduced. First, primitive equation dynamics is used to describe the nonlinear interactions between resolved scales. Second, the seasonal cycle in its main aspects is incorporated. Stability considerations lead to a gridpoint formulation of the basic equations in the dynamical core. A total energy metric consistent with the equations can be derived, provided surface pressure is treated as constant in time. Using this metric, a reduction in the number of degrees of freedom is achieved by a projection onto three-dimensional empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), each of them encompassing simultaneously all prognostic variables (winds and temperature). The impact of unresolved scales and not explicitly described physical processes is incorporated via an empirical linear parameterization. The basis patterns having been determined from 3 sigma levels from a GCM dataset, it is found that, in spite of the presence of a seasonal cycle, at most 500 are needed for describing 90% of the variance produced by the GCM. If compared to previous low-order models with quasigeostrophic dynamics, the reduced models exhibit at this and lower-order truncations, a considerably enhanced capability to predict GCM tendencies. An analysis of the dynamical impact of the empirical parameterization is given, hinting at an important role in controlling the seasonally dependent storm track dynamics.

  16. A one-equation turbulence transport model for high Reynolds number wall-bounded flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Barrett S.; Barth, Timothy J.

    1990-01-01

    A one-equation turbulence model that avoids the need for an algebraic length scale is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. After calibration based on well established properties of the flow over a flat plate, predictions of several other flows are compared with experiment. The preliminary results presented indicate that the model has predictive and numerical properties of sufficient interest to merit further investigation and refinement. The one-equation model is also analyzed numerically and robust solution methods are presented.

  17. Modeling the dissipation-rate equation with the aid of direct simulation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodi, W.; Mansour, N. N.

    1992-01-01

    The epsilon-budget was computed from the direct simulation data (DNS) of Kim (1990) for developed channel flow at Re(tau) = 395. The relative magnitude of the terms in the epsilon-equation is shown with the aid of scaling arguments, and the parameter governing this magnitude is established. The modeling of the terms in the equation is then addressed in the context of eddy-viscosity k-epsilon models. Some existing models for the sum of all source and sink terms in the epsilon-equation are tested against DNS data, and an improved model is proposed on the basis of these data.

  18. A one-equation turbulence transport model for high Reynolds number wall-bounded flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Barrett S.; Barth, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    A one-equation turbulence model that avoids the need for an algebraic length scale is derived from a simplified form of the standard-k-epsilon model equations. After calibration based on well established properties of the flow over a flat plate, predictions of several other flows are compared with experiment. The preliminary results presented indicate that the model has predictive and numerical properties of sufficient interest to merit further investigation and refinement. The one-equation model is also analyzed numerically and robust solution methods are presented.

  19. A diagonally inverted LU implicit multigrid scheme for the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations and a two equation model of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, Jeffrey W.

    1988-01-01

    An LU implicit multigrid algorithm is developed to calculate 3-D compressible viscous flows. This scheme solves the full 3-D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with a two-equation kappa-epsilon model of turbulence. The flow equations are integrated by an efficient, diagonally inverted, LU implicit multigrid scheme while the kappa-epsilon equations are solved, uncoupled from the flow equations, by a block LU implicit algorithm. The flow equations are solved within the framework of the multigrid method using a four-grid level W-cycle, while the kappa-epsilon equations are iterated only on the finest grid. This treatment of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations proves to be an efficient method for calculating 3-D compressible viscous flows.

  20. The Hill equation: a review of its capabilities in pharmacological modelling.

    PubMed

    Goutelle, Sylvain; Maurin, Michel; Rougier, Florent; Barbaut, Xavier; Bourguignon, Laurent; Ducher, Michel; Maire, Pascal

    2008-12-01

    The Hill equation was first introduced by A.V. Hill to describe the equilibrium relationship between oxygen tension and the saturation of haemoglobin. In pharmacology, the Hill equation has been extensively used to analyse quantitative drug-receptor relationships. Many pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models have used the Hill equation to describe nonlinear drug dose-response relationships. Although the Hill equation is widely used, its many properties are not all well known. This article aims at reviewing the various properties of the Hill equation. The descriptive aspects of the Hill equation, in particular mathematical and graphical properties, are examined, and related to Hill's original work. The mechanistic aspect of the Hill equation, involving a strong connection with the Guldberg and Waage law of mass action, is also described. Finally, a probabilistic view of the Hill equation is examined. Here, we provide some new calculation results, such as Fisher information and Shannon entropy, and we introduce multivariate probabilistic Hill equations. The main features and potential applications of this probabilistic approach are also discussed. Thus, within the same formalism, the Hill equation has many different properties which can be of great interest for those interested in mathematical modelling in pharmacology and biosciences. PMID:19049668

  1. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granita, Bahar, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found.

  2. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    SciTech Connect

    Granita; Bahar, A.

    2015-03-09

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found.

  3. Electrophoretic transport equations - Electrophoretic models based on migration only and their interrelationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thormann, Wolfgang; Mosher, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    The general equations which describe the electrophoretic transport of components in solution are restated using Newman's general concept of mobilities. A concise derivation of the moving boundary equation and the regulating function from the continuity equation is presented. Various other regulating principles across moving and stationary boundaries are also discussed, which permits a review of the features and interrelationships of the electrophoretic models based on electromigration only. The effect of considering an interactive (dissociating) solvent on the mathematical treatment is discussed.

  4. Population Uncertainty in Model Ecosystem: Analysis by Stochastic Differential Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Satoru; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Nagata, Hiroyasu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2008-09-01

    Perturbation experiments are carried out by the numerical simulations of a contact process and its mean-field version. Here, the mortality rate increases or decreases suddenly. It is known that fluctuation enhancement (FE) occurs after perturbation, where FE indicates population uncertainty. In the present paper, we develop a new theory of stochastic differential equation. The agreement between the theory and the mean-field simulation is almost perfect. This theory enables us to find a much stronger FE than that reported previously. We discuss the population uncertainty in the recovering process of endangered species.

  5. The Issue of Isopower in Power Analysis for Tests of Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCallum, Robert; Lee, Taehun; Browne, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Two general frameworks have been proposed for evaluating statistical power of tests of model fit in structural equation modeling (SEM). Under the Satorra-Saris (1985) approach, to evaluate the power of the test of fit of Model A, a Model B, within which A is nested, is specified as the alternative hypothesis and considered as the true model. We…

  6. Incorporation of an Energy Equation into a Pulsed Inductive Thruster Performance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Reneau, Jarred P.; Sankaran, Kameshwaran

    2011-01-01

    A model for pulsed inductive plasma acceleration containing an energy equation to account for the various sources and sinks in such devices is presented. The model consists of a set of circuit equations coupled to an equation of motion and energy equation for the plasma. The latter two equations are obtained for the plasma current sheet by treating it as a one-element finite volume, integrating the equations over that volume, and then matching known terms or quantities already calculated in the model to the resulting current sheet-averaged terms in the equations. Calculations showing the time-evolution of the various sources and sinks in the system are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the model, with two separate resistivity models employed to show an example of how the plasma transport properties can affect the calculation. While neither resistivity model is fully accurate, the demonstration shows that it is possible within this modeling framework to time-accurately update various plasma parameters.

  7. Technical Note: Alternative in-stream denitrification equation for the INCA-N model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etheridge, J. R.; Birgand, F.; Burchell, M. R., II; Lepistö, A.; Rankinen, K.; Granlund, K.

    2014-04-01

    The Integrated Catchment model for Nitrogen (INCA-N) is a semi-distributed, process based model that has been used to model the impacts of land use, climate, and land management changes on hydrology and nitrogen loading. An observed problem with the INCA-N model is reproducing low nitrate-nitrogen concentrations during the summer growing season in some catchments. In this study, the current equation used to simulate the rate of in-stream denitrification was replaced with an alternate equation that uses a mass transfer coefficient and the stream bottom area. The results of simulating in-stream denitrification using the two different methods were compared for a one year simulation period of the Yläneenjoki catchment in Finland. The alternate equation (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.61) simulated concentrations during the periods of the growing season with the lowest flow that were closer to the observed concentrations than the current equation (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.60), but the results were mixed during other portions of the year. The results of the calibration and validation of the model using the two equations show that the alternate equation will simulate lower nitrate-nitrogen concentrations during the growing season when compared to the current equation, but promote investigation into other errors in the model that may be causing inaccuracies in the modeled concentrations.

  8. Applicability of equations of state for modeling helium systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rijo Jacob; Dutta, Rohan; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2012-07-01

    Proper design of helium systems with large number of components and involved configurations such as helium liquefiers/refrigerators requires the use of tools like process simulators. The accuracy of the simulation results, to a great extent, depends on the accuracy of property data. For computation of thermodynamic properties of helium, the 32-parameter MBWR equation of state proposed by McCarty and Arp [1] is widely used. However, it is computationally involved, makes the simulation process more time-consuming and sometimes leads to computational difficulties such as numerical oscillations, divergence in solution especially, when the process operates over a wide thermodynamic region and is constituted of many components. Substituting MBWR EOS by simpler equations of state (EOS(s)) at selected thermodynamic planes, where the simpler EOS(s) have the similar accuracy as that of MBWR EOS may enhance ease of computation. In the present paper, the methodology to implement this concept has been elucidated with examples of steady state and dynamic simulation of helium liquefier/refrigerator based on Collins cycle. The above concept can be applied to thermodynamic analysis of other process cycles where computation of fluid property is involved.

  9. Modeling of human movement monitoring using Bluetooth Low Energy technology.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, G; Zhang, Q; Karunanithi, M

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless communication technology which can be used to monitor human movements. In this monitoring system, a BLE signal scanner scans signal strength of BLE tags carried by people, to thus infer human movement patterns within its monitoring zone. However to the extent of our knowledge one main aspect of this monitoring system which has not yet been thoroughly investigated in literature is how to build a sound theoretical model, based on tunable BLE communication parameters such as scanning time interval and advertising time interval, to enable the study and design of effective and efficient movement monitoring systems. In this paper, we proposed and developed a statistical model based on Monte-Carlo simulation, which can be utilized to assess impacts of BLE technology parameters in terms of latency and efficiency, on a movement monitoring system, and can thus benefit a more efficient system design. PMID:26737430

  10. Modeling Noisy Data with Differential Equations Using Observed and Expected Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboeck, Pascal R.; Boker, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Complex intraindividual variability observed in psychology may be well described using differential equations. It is difficult, however, to apply differential equation models in psychological contexts, as time series are frequently short, poorly sampled, and have large proportions of measurement and dynamic error. Furthermore, current methods for…

  11. A note on the Dirichlet problem for model complex partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Karaca, Bahriye

    2016-08-01

    Complex model partial differential equations of arbitrary order are considered. The uniqueness of the Dirichlet problem is studied. It is proved that the Dirichlet problem for higher order of complex partial differential equations with one complex variable has infinitely many solutions.

  12. A Comparison of Two Methods of Test Equating in the Rasch Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard M.; Kramer, Gene A.

    1992-01-01

    The common item equating method (weighted and unweighted) and the one-step missing data calibration method used with Rasch measurement models were compared using data from six equivalent forms of a perceptual ability test administered as part of the Dental Admission Test. Results suggest little difference among the equating methods. (SLD)

  13. Selection Strategies for Univariate Loglinear Smoothing Models and Their Effect on Equating Function Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Holland, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared 12 statistical strategies proposed for selecting loglinear models for smoothing univariate test score distributions and for enhancing the stability of equipercentile equating functions. The major focus was on evaluating the effects of the selection strategies on equating function accuracy. Selection strategies' influence…

  14. A lattice Boltzmann model with an amending function for simulating nonlinear partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin-Jie; Ma, Chang-Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a lattice Boltzmann model with an amending function for one-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) in the form ut + αuux + βunux + γuxx + δuxxx + ζuxxxx = 0. This model is different from existing models because it lets the time step be equivalent to the square of the space step and derives higher accuracy and nonlinear terms in NPDEs. With the Chapman-Enskog expansion, the governing evolution equation is recovered correctly from the continuous Boltzmann equation. The numerical results agree well with the analytical solutions.

  15. The Dissipation Rate Transport Equation and Subgrid-Scale Models in Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Ye, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The dissipation rate transport equation remains the most uncertain part of turbulence modeling. The difficulties arc increased when external agencies like rotation prevent straightforward dimensional analysis from determining the correct form of the modelled equation. In this work, the dissipation rate transport equation and subgrid scale models for rotating turbulence are derived from an analytical statistical theory of rotating turbulence. In the strong rotation limit, the theory predicts a turbulent steady state in which the inertial range energy spectrum scales as k(sup -2) and the turbulent time scale is the inverse rotation rate. This scaling has been derived previously by heuristic arguments.

  16. Model equations in rarefied gas dynamics: Viscous-slip and thermal-slip coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, C. E.; Sharipov, Felix

    2002-12-01

    Various model equations are used to define the viscous-slip and the thermal-slip coefficients in rarefied gas dynamics. More specifically, the BGK model, the S model, the variable collision model and the CES model are used to establish the slip coefficients basic to Kramers' problem and the half-space problem of thermal creep. While the most general results are developed from use of the Maxwell boundary condition, results for the BGK model and the S model as defined by the Cercignani-Lampis boundary condition are also reported. An analytical discrete-ordinates method is used to establish the reported numerical results, and when available results from a numerical solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation are used as reference values. In addition to the numerical work based on model equations, the important issue of how to define meaningful ways (appropriate mean-free paths) to compare the results for the various models is discussed.

  17. Simulations of diffusion-reaction equations with implications to turbulent combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girimaji, Sharath S.

    1993-01-01

    An enhanced diffusion-reaction reaction system (DRS) is proposed as a statistical model for the evolution of multiple scalars undergoing mixing and reaction in an isotropic turbulence field. The DRS model is close enough to the scalar equations in a reacting flow that other statistical models of turbulent mixing that decouple the velocity field from scalar mixing and reaction (e.g. mapping closure model, assumed-pdf models) cannot distinguish the model equations from the original equations. Numerical simulations of DRS are performed for three scalars evolving from non-premixed initial conditions. A simple one-step reversible reaction is considered. The data from the simulations are used (1) to study the effect of chemical conversion on the evolution of scalar statistics, and (2) to evaluate other models (mapping-closure model, assumed multivariate beta-pdf model).

  18. A Hierarchical Latent Stochastic Differential Equation Model for Affective Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oravecz, Zita; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    In this article a continuous-time stochastic model (the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) is presented to model the perpetually altering states of the core affect, which is a 2-dimensional concept underlying all our affective experiences. The process model that we propose can account for the temporal changes in core affect on the latent level. The key…

  19. A ballistic limit equation for hypervelocity impacts on CFRP Al H/C satellite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, S.; Schäfer, F.; Destefanis, R.; Lambert, M.

    Composite sandwich panels consisting of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic facesheets bonded to Aluminum honeycomb cores CFRP Al H C SP are amongst the most commonly used structures for satellites due to their relative low mass and high thermal and mechanical stability To assess the threat of micrometeoroid orbital debris M OD on a satellite mission equations which define the limits of structural perforation in terms of impactor mass velocity and angle are required This type of equation is referred to as a Ballistic Limit Equation BLE There is presently no validated BLE existing for application in the risk assessment of CFRP Al H C SP structures During a recent experimental test campaign performed in the framework of ESA Contract 16721 e g 1 using EMI s two-stage light-gas guns the ballistic performance of multiple representative CFRP Al HC SP structural configurations GOCE Radarsat-2 Herschel Planck BeppoSax was investigated The experimental results have been used to adjust and validate a new empirical BLE derived from an existing Whipple Shield BLE which provides a significant improvement in the accuracy of ballistic performance prediction over existing techniques Additionally the equation is capable of predicting the ballistic limit of an Electronic-box representative structure located behind the structural wall Good agreement with the experimental results is achieved for the vast majority of test set-ups For some set-ups the ballistic limit was conservatively predicted however this is attributed to the additional

  20. A data storage model for novel partial differential equation descretizations.

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Wendy S.K.; Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to define a standard interface for storing and retrieving novel, non-traditional partial differential equation (PDE) discretizations. Although it focuses specifically on finite elements where state is associated with edges and faces of volumetric elements rather than nodes and the elements themselves (as implemented in ALEGRA), the proposed interface should be general enough to accommodate most discretizations, including hp-adaptive finite elements and even mimetic techniques that define fields over arbitrary polyhedra. This report reviews the representation of edge and face elements as implemented by ALEGRA. It then specifies a convention for storing these elements in EXODUS files by extending the EXODUS API to include edge and face blocks in addition to element blocks. Finally, it presents several techniques for rendering edge and face elements using VTK and ParaView, including the use of VTK's generic dataset interface for interpolating values interior to edges and faces.

  1. Bypass Transitional Flow Calculations Using a Navier-Stokes Solver and Two-Equation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liuo, William W.; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, L. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Bypass transitional flows over a flat plate were simulated using a Navier-Stokes solver and two equation models. A new model for the bypass transition, which occurs in cases with high free stream turbulence intensity (TI), is described. The new transition model is developed by including an intermittency correction function to an existing two-equation turbulence model. The advantages of using Navier-Stokes equations, as opposed to boundary-layer equations, in bypass transition simulations are also illustrated. The results for two test flows over a flat plate with different levels of free stream turbulence intensity are reported. Comparisons with the experimental measurements show that the new model can capture very well both the onset and the length of bypass transition.

  2. On the selection of ordinary differential equation models with application to predator-prey dynamical models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Cao, Jiguo; Carroll, Raymond J

    2015-03-01

    We consider model selection and estimation in a context where there are competing ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, and all the models are special cases of a "full" model. We propose a computationally inexpensive approach that employs statistical estimation of the full model, followed by a combination of a least squares approximation (LSA) and the adaptive Lasso. We show the resulting method, here called the LSA method, to be an (asymptotically) oracle model selection method. The finite sample performance of the proposed LSA method is investigated with Monte Carlo simulations, in which we examine the percentage of selecting true ODE models, the efficiency of the parameter estimation compared to simply using the full and true models, and coverage probabilities of the estimated confidence intervals for ODE parameters, all of which have satisfactory performances. Our method is also demonstrated by selecting the best predator-prey ODE to model a lynx and hare population dynamical system among some well-known and biologically interpretable ODE models. PMID:25287611

  3. Control of Stochastic Master Equation Models of Genetic Regulatory Networks by Approximating Their Average Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umut Caglar, Mehmet; Pal, Ranadip

    2010-10-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology states that ``information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid.'' However, this assumption is not exactly correct in most of the cases. There are a lot of feedback loops and interactions between different levels of systems. These types of interactions are hard to analyze due to the lack of data in the cellular level and probabilistic nature of interactions. Probabilistic models like Stochastic Master Equation (SME) or deterministic models like differential equations (DE) can be used to analyze these types of interactions. SME models based on chemical master equation (CME) can provide detailed representation of genetic regulatory system, but their use is restricted by the large data requirements and computational costs of calculations. The differential equations models on the other hand, have low calculation costs and much more adequate to generate control procedures on the system; but they are not adequate to investigate the probabilistic nature of interactions. In this work the success of the mapping between SME and DE is analyzed, and the success of a control policy generated by DE model with respect to SME model is examined. Index Terms--- Stochastic Master Equation models, Differential Equation Models, Control Policy Design, Systems biology

  4. Parameter Estimation for Differential Equation Models Using a Framework of Measurement Error in Regression Models.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hua; Wu, Hulin

    2008-12-01

    Differential equation (DE) models are widely used in many scientific fields that include engineering, physics and biomedical sciences. The so-called "forward problem", the problem of simulations and predictions of state variables for given parameter values in the DE models, has been extensively studied by mathematicians, physicists, engineers and other scientists. However, the "inverse problem", the problem of parameter estimation based on the measurements of output variables, has not been well explored using modern statistical methods, although some least squares-based approaches have been proposed and studied. In this paper, we propose parameter estimation methods for ordinary differential equation models (ODE) based on the local smoothing approach and a pseudo-least squares (PsLS) principle under a framework of measurement error in regression models. The asymptotic properties of the proposed PsLS estimator are established. We also compare the PsLS method to the corresponding SIMEX method and evaluate their finite sample performances via simulation studies. We illustrate the proposed approach using an application example from an HIV dynamic study. PMID:19956350

  5. Theta function solutions of the quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard equation for a face model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Peter E.; Weston, Robert; Zinn-Justin, Paul

    2016-02-01

    We consider the quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard equation for a face model with elliptic weights, the SOS model. We provide explicit solutions as theta functions. On the so-called combinatorial line, in which the model is equivalent to the three-colour model, these solutions are shown to be eigenvectors of the transfer matrix with periodic boundary conditions.

  6. A compressible Navier-Stokes solver with two-equation and Reynolds stress turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.

    1992-01-01

    This report outlines the development of a general purpose aerodynamic solver for compressible turbulent flows. Turbulent closure is achieved using either two equation or Reynolds stress transportation equations. The applicable equation set consists of Favre-averaged conservation equations for the mass, momentum and total energy, and transport equations for the turbulent stresses and turbulent dissipation rate. In order to develop a scheme with good shock capturing capabilities, good accuracy and general geometric capabilities, a multi-block cell centered finite volume approach is used. Viscous fluxes are discretized using a finite volume representation of a central difference operator and the source terms are treated as an integral over the control volume. The methodology is validated by testing the algorithm on both two and three dimensional flows. Both the two equation and Reynolds stress models are used on a two dimensional 10 degree compression ramp at Mach 3, and the two equation model is used on the three dimensional flow over a cone at angle of attack at Mach 3.5. With the development of this algorithm, it is now possible to compute complex, compressible high speed flow fields using both two equation and Reynolds stress turbulent closure models, with the capability of eventually evaluating their predictive performance.

  7. Navier-Stokes Computations With One-Equation Turbulence Model for Flows Along Concave Wall Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chi R.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the use of a time-marching three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation numerical solver with a one-equation turbulence model to simulate the flow fields developed along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension flat wall surface. The 3-D Navier- Stokes numerical solver came from the NASA Glenn-HT code. The one-equation turbulence model was derived from the Spalart and Allmaras model. The computational approach was first calibrated with the computations of the velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles of a steady flat plate boundary layer flow. The computational approach was then used to simulate developing boundary layer flows along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension wall. The author investigated the computational results of surface friction factors, near surface velocity components, near wall temperatures, and a turbulent shear stress component in terms of turbulence modeling, computational mesh configurations, inlet turbulence level, and time iteration step. The computational results were compared with existing measurements of skin friction factors, velocity components, and shear stresses of the developing boundary layer flows. With a fine computational mesh and a one-equation model, the computational approach could predict accurately the skin friction factors, near surface velocity and temperature, and shear stress within the flows. The computed velocity components and shear stresses also showed the vortices effect on the velocity variations over a concave wall. The computed eddy viscosities at the near wall locations were also compared with the results from a two equation turbulence modeling technique. The inlet turbulence length scale was found to have little effect on the eddy viscosities at locations near the concave wall surface. The eddy viscosities, from the one-equation and two-equation modeling, were comparable at most stream-wise stations. The present one-equation

  8. Equation-oriented specification of neural models for simulations

    PubMed Central

    Stimberg, Marcel; Goodman, Dan F. M.; Benichoux, Victor; Brette, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Simulating biological neuronal networks is a core method of research in computational neuroscience. A full specification of such a network model includes a description of the dynamics and state changes of neurons and synapses, as well as the synaptic connectivity patterns and the initial values of all parameters. A standard approach in neuronal modeling software is to build network models based on a library of pre-defined components and mechanisms; if a model component does not yet exist, it has to be defined in a special-purpose or general low-level language and potentially be compiled and linked with the simulator. Here we propose an alternative approach that allows flexible definition of models by writing textual descriptions based on mathematical notation. We demonstrate that this approach allows the definition of a wide range of models with minimal syntax. Furthermore, such explicit model descriptions allow the generation of executable code for various target languages and devices, since the description is not tied to an implementation. Finally, this approach also has advantages for readability and reproducibility, because the model description is fully explicit, and because it can be automatically parsed and transformed into formatted descriptions. The presented approach has been implemented in the Brian2 simulator. PMID:24550820

  9. Equation-oriented specification of neural models for simulations.

    PubMed

    Stimberg, Marcel; Goodman, Dan F M; Benichoux, Victor; Brette, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Simulating biological neuronal networks is a core method of research in computational neuroscience. A full specification of such a network model includes a description of the dynamics and state changes of neurons and synapses, as well as the synaptic connectivity patterns and the initial values of all parameters. A standard approach in neuronal modeling software is to build network models based on a library of pre-defined components and mechanisms; if a model component does not yet exist, it has to be defined in a special-purpose or general low-level language and potentially be compiled and linked with the simulator. Here we propose an alternative approach that allows flexible definition of models by writing textual descriptions based on mathematical notation. We demonstrate that this approach allows the definition of a wide range of models with minimal syntax. Furthermore, such explicit model descriptions allow the generation of executable code for various target languages and devices, since the description is not tied to an implementation. Finally, this approach also has advantages for readability and reproducibility, because the model description is fully explicit, and because it can be automatically parsed and transformed into formatted descriptions. The presented approach has been implemented in the Brian2 simulator. PMID:24550820

  10. Connecting neutron star observations to the high density equation of state of a quasiparticle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Cao, Jing; Luo, Xin-Lian; Sun, Wei-Min; Zong, Hongshi

    2012-12-01

    The observation of the 1.97±0.04 solar-mass neutronlike star gives constraint on the equation of state of cold, condensed matter. In this paper, the equation of state for both the pure quark star and the hybrid star with a quark core described by the quasiparticle model are considered. The parameters of the quasiparticle model that affect the mass of both the quark star and the hybrid star can be constrained by the observation.

  11. Testing strong factorial invariance using three-level structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Jak, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Within structural equation modeling, the most prevalent model to investigate measurement bias is the multigroup model. Equal factor loadings and intercepts across groups in a multigroup model represent strong factorial invariance (absence of measurement bias) across groups. Although this approach is possible in principle, it is hardly practical when the number of groups is large or when the group size is relatively small. Jak et al. (2013) showed how strong factorial invariance across large numbers of groups can be tested in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework, by treating group as a random instead of a fixed variable. In the present study, this model is extended for use with three-level data. The proposed method is illustrated with an investigation of strong factorial invariance across 156 school classes and 50 schools in a Dutch dyscalculia test, using three-level structural equation modeling. PMID:25120499

  12. Dielectric Resonator Transmission Line Models Employing the Generalized Telegraphist's Equation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbay, David

    1990-01-01

    A new comprehensive model that is applicable to both Dielectric Resonators (DR) and Dielectric Ring Resonators (DRR) has been developed. The dielectric resonator is typically a high dielectric constant material cylinder, where the ring resonator is modified by the addition of a concentric hole usually used for mounting. Both resonators are typically used in miniaturized high Q filtering at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies. The model is produced through a modal Fourier type expansion and results in a transmission line equivalent circuit. It is derived rigorously and its accuracy is not limited by a priori assumptions. However, a well selected set of basis functions achieves rapid convergence of the expansion series. It is therefore possible to truncate the modal expansion quite radically without greatly sacrificing its accuracy. Complete knowledge of the fields surrounding the resonator in association with the new model would provide an exact solution for the resonator network parameters. The concept of 'surface admittances' is introduced into the model formulation to represent the totality of the emanating and incident outside fields. As such, this technique allows the model to incorporate evanescent and radiating fields accurately. However, lacking an exact formulation for these fields, the derivation resorts to the use of approximations for the fields surrounding the resonator. The approximations are justifiable on physical grounds and allow a closed form treatment of the entire problem. The new model is used to predict the free-space resonance frequency and the results are compared to measured data and predictions which are based on other models. The predictions of the new model compare well with available data and illustrate some interesting phenomena associated with the dielectric resonator. This model is novel in that the equivalent circuit is derived with respect to the circular direction. The result is an equivalent circuit model possessing

  13. Integrating occupancy models and structural equation models to understand species occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Maxwell B.; Preston, Daniel L.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of species occurrence is a fundamental goal in basic and applied ecology. Occupancy models have emerged as a popular approach for inferring species occurrence because they account for problems associated with imperfect detection in field surveys. Current models, however, are limited because they assume covariates are independent (i.e., indirect effects do not occur). Here, we combined structural equation and occupancy models to investigate complex influences on species occurrence while accounting for imperfect detection. These two methods are inherently compatible because they both provide means to make inference on latent or unobserved quantities based on observed data. Our models evaluated the direct and indirect roles of cattle grazing, water chemistry, vegetation, nonnative fishes, and pond permanence on the occurrence of six pond-breeding amphibians, two of which are threatened: the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense), and the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii). While cattle had strong effects on pond vegetation and water chemistry, their overall effects on amphibian occurrence were small compared to the consistently negative effects of nonnative fish. Fish strongly reduced occurrence probabilities for four of five native amphibians, including both species of conservation concern. These results could help to identify drivers of amphibian declines and to prioritize strategies for amphibian conservation. More generally, this approach facilitates a more mechanistic representation of ideas about the causes of species distributions in space and time. As shown here, occupancy modeling and structural equation modeling are readily combined, and bring rich sets of techniques that may provide unique theoretical and applied insights into basic ecological questions. PMID:27197402

  14. Integrating occupancy models and structural equation models to understand species occurrence.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Maxwell B; Preston, Daniel L; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the drivers of species occrrece s a fundamenal goal in basic and applied ecology. Occupancy models have emerged as a popular approach for inferring species occurrence because they account for problems associated with imperfect detection in field surveys. Current models, however, are limited because they assume covariates are independent (i.e., indirect effects do not occur). Here, we combined structural equation and occupancy models to investigate complex influences on species occurrence while accounting for imperfect detection. These two methods are inherently compatible because they both provide means to make inference on latent or unobserved quantities based on observed data. Our models evaluated the direct and indirect roles of cattle grazing, water chemistry, vegetation, nonnative fishes, and pond permanence on the occurrence of six pond-breeding amphibians, two of which are threatened: the California tiger salamander (Ambysloma californiense) and the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonil). While cattle had strong effects on pond vegetation and water chemistry, their overall effects on amphibian occurrence were small compared to the consistently negative effects of nonnative fish. Fish strongly reduced occurrence probabilities for four of five native amphibians, including both species of conservation concern. These results could help to identify drivers of amphibian declines and to prioritize strategies for amphibian conservation. More generally, this approach facilitates a more mechanistic representation of ideas about the causes of species distributions in space and time. As shown here, occupancy modeling and structural equation modeling are readily combined, and bring rich sets of techniques that may provide unique theoretical and applied insights into basic ecological questions. PMID:27197402

  15. Stochastic differential equations: singularity of coefficients, regression models, and stochastic approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel'nikov, A. V.

    1996-10-01

    Contents Introduction Chapter I. Basic notions and results from contemporary martingale theory §1.1. General notions of the martingale theory §1.2. Convergence (a.s.) of semimartingales. The strong law of large numbers and the law of the iterated logarithm Chapter II. Stochastic differential equations driven by semimartingales §2.1. Basic notions and results of the theory of stochastic differential equations driven by semimartingales §2.2. The method of monotone approximations. Existence of strong solutions of stochastic equations with non-smooth coefficients §2.3. Linear stochastic equations. Properties of stochastic exponentials §2.4. Linear stochastic equations. Applications to models of the financial market Chapter III. Procedures of stochastic approximation as solutions of stochastic differential equations driven by semimartingales §3.1. Formulation of the problem. A general model and its relation to the classical one §3.2. A general description of the approach to the procedures of stochastic approximation. Convergence (a.s.) and asymptotic normality §3.3. The Gaussian model of stochastic approximation. Averaged procedures and their effectiveness Chapter IV. Statistical estimation in regression models with martingale noises §4.1. The formulation of the problem and classical regression models §4.2. Asymptotic properties of MLS-estimators. Strong consistency, asymptotic normality, the law of the iterated logarithm §4.3. Regression models with deterministic regressors §4.4. Sequential MLS-estimators with guaranteed accuracy and sequential statistical inferences Bibliography

  16. Computation of Separated and Unsteady Flows with One- and Two-Equation Turbulence Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekaterinaris, John A.; Menter, Florian R.

    1994-01-01

    The ability of one- and two-equation turbulence models to predict unsteady separated flows over airfoils is evaluated. An implicit, factorized, upwind-biased numerical scheme is used for the integration of the compressible, Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent eddy viscosity is obtained from the computed mean flowfield by integration of the turbulent field equations. The two-equation turbulence models are discretized in space with an upwind-biased, second order accurate total variation diminishing scheme. One and two-equation turbulence models are first tested for a separated airfoil flow at fixed angle of incidence. The same models are then applied to compute the unsteady flowfields about airfoils undergoing oscillatory motion at low subsonic Mach numbers. Experimental cases where the flow has been tripped at the leading edge and where natural transition was allowed to occur naturally are considered. The more recently developed field-equation turbulence models capture the physics of unsteady separated flow significantly better than the standard kappa-epsilon and kappa-omega models. However, certain differences in the hysteresis effects are obtained. For an untripped high-Reynolds-number flow, it was found necessary to take into account the leading edge transitional flow region in order to capture the correct physical mechanism that leads to dynamic stall.

  17. Equations for the kinetic modeling of supersonically flowing electrically excited lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    The equations for the kinetic modeling of a supersonically flowing electrically excited laser system are presented. The work focuses on the use of diatomic gases, in particular carbon monoxide mixtures. The equations presented include the vibrational rate equation which describes the vibrational population distribution, the electron, ion and electronic level rate equations, the gasdynamic equations for an ionized gas in the presence of an applied electric field, and the free electron Boltzmann equation including flow and gradient coupling terms. The model developed accounts for vibration-vibration collisions, vibration-translation collisions, electron-molecule inelastic excitation and superelastic de-excitation collisions, charge particle collisions, ionization and three body recombination collisions, elastic collisions, and radiative decay, all of which take place in such a system. A simplified form of the free electron Boltzmann equation is developed and discussed with emphasis placed on its coupling with the supersonic flow. A brief description of a possible solution procedure for the set of coupled equations is then discussed.

  18. Shock wave structure using nonlinear model Boltzmann equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, Ben Maurice

    1971-01-01

    The structure of a strong plane shock wave in a monatomic rarefied perfect gas is one of the simplest problems able to be posed in kinetic theory, and one of the hardest to solve. Its simplicity lies in the absence of solid boundaries, geometrical complications, or internal molecular energy. Its difficulty arises from the great departure of the gas from equilibrium within the shock, which invalidates many of the techniques used successfully elsewhere in kinetic theory. In addition to this theoretical challenge, the modern development of ballistics and hypersonic flight has helped to stimulate extensive theoretical and experimental interest in the shock problem. The experimenters in turn have encountered great difficulties on account of the very small physical dimensions of shocks. In fact, until very recently indeed, any close comparisons of theoretical and experimental shock structure results have been rather unprofitable due to the inadequacies of both theory and experiment. During the last few years this situation has been appreciably improved by development of the Monte Carlo method. This allows idealized 'experiments' to be performed on large computers instead of in wind tunnels, using a known intermolecular force law. The most developed of these methods has been shown to be equivalent theoretically to the Boltzmann equation and to give results which agree extremely closely with measurements of high accuracy. Thus Monte Carlo results not only form the soundest basis for our present theoretical knowledge of shock wave structure, but, for purposes of developing other theories, can also be considered a very valuable experimental resource. However, such results remain very expensive to obtain. In this thesis we develop more economical kinetic theory methods for the approximate prediction of shock structure, and compare our results with those of the Monte Carlo method.

  19. HuBLE-UK, the Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment: Insights into the formation of the Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastow, I. D.; Kendall, J.; Helffrich, G.; Wookey, J.; Thompson, D.; Eaton, D.; Snyder, D.

    2008-12-01

    Hudson Bay lies in the Precambrian core of North America, which is comprised of the Canadian Shield and contiguous platform regions. The region is underlain by one of the largest lithospheric keels on Earth; it is also the site of one of the largest negative geoid anomalies. We have deployed 10 broadband seismic stations in the northern part of the bay that complement the existing POLARIS, CHASME and CNSN network stations in the region. Here we present preliminary SKS shear wave splitting analyses and independent tomographic inversion of P- and S-wave travel-time data in order to: 1) understand better the origin and evolution of the Hudson Bay cratonic interior basins; 2) to illuminate possible relationships between the lithospheric keel, sub-lithospheric mantle flow and formation of the Hudson Bay basin; 3) to improve understanding of postglacial isostatic rebound; 4) to map the lithospheric structure of the Trans-Hudson orogen in a region characterized by extreme salient-reentrant geometry, possibly analogous to the western syntaxis of the Himalayan front. SKS delay times vary from 0.5-1.2s, which indicate a lithospheric-scale anisotropic layer up to 150km thick. However, SKS fast directions and preliminary tomographic images do not relate simply to the structural trends of the Trans Hudson Orogen and neighboring Archean terranes. Our work complements ongoing HuBLE studies that focus on receiver function analyses, dispersion analysis of teleseismic Rayleigh waves, and applications of ambient noise tomography that extract more information about lithospheric structure of the Hudson Bay basin.

  20. Wireless Fading Channel Models: From Classical to Stochastic Differential Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; Djouadi, Seddik M; Charalambous, Prof. Charalambos

    2010-01-01

    The wireless communications channel constitutes the basic physical link between the transmitter and the receiver antennas. Its modeling has been and continues to be a tantalizing issue, while being one of the most fundamental components based on which transmitters and receivers are designed and optimized. The ultimate performance limits of any communication system are determined by the channel it operates in. Realistic channel models are thus of utmost importance for system design and testing. In addition to exponential power path-loss, wireless channels suffer from stochastic short term fading (STF) due to multipath, and stochastic long term fading (LTF) due to shadowing depending on the geographical area. STF corresponds to severe signal envelope fluctuations, and occurs in densely built-up areas filled with lots of objects like buildings, vehicles, etc. On the other hand, LTF corresponds to less severe mean signal envelope fluctuations, and occurs in sparsely populated or suburban areas. In general, LTF and STF are considered as superimposed and may be treated separately. Ossanna was the pioneer to characterize the statistical properties of the signal received by a mobile user, in terms of interference of incident and reflected waves. His model was better suited for describing fading occurring mainly in suburban areas (LTF environments). It is described by the average power loss due to distance and power loss due to reflection of signals from surfaces, which when measured in dB's give rise to normal distributions, and this implies that the channel attenuation coefficient is log-normally distributed. Furthermore, in mobile communications, the LTF channel models are also characterized by their special correlation characteristics which have been reported. Clarke introduced the first comprehensive scattering model describing STF occurring mainly in urban areas. An easy way to simulate Clarke's model using a computer simulation is described. This model was later

  1. Stochastic modeling of stock price process induced from the conjugate heat equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeng, Seong-Hun

    2015-02-01

    Currency can be considered as a ruler for values of commodities. Then the price is the measured value by the ruler. We can suppose that inflation and variation of exchange rate are caused by variation of the scale of the ruler. In geometry, variation of the scale means that the metric is time-dependent. The conjugate heat equation is the modified heat equation which satisfies the heat conservation law for the time-dependent metric space. We propose a new model of stock prices by using the stochastic process whose transition probability is determined by the kernel of the conjugate heat equation. Our model of stock prices shows how the volatility term is affected by inflation and exchange rate. This model modifies the Black-Scholes equation in light of inflation and exchange rate.

  2. Reduced-order-model based feedback control of the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goumiri, Imene; Rowley, Clarence; Ma, Zhanhua; Gates, David; Parker, Jeffrey; Krommes, John

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the development of model-based feedback control for stabilization of an unstable equilibrium obtained in the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation is applied; a model reduction technique that has been proved successful in flow control design problems, to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. A model-based feedback controller is then designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators (LQR) then a linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) control. The controllers are then applied on the original linearized and nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulences.

  3. One-dimensional transport equation models for sound energy propagation in long spaces: theory.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yun; Larsen, Edward W; Xiang, Ning

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional transport equation model is developed to describe the sound energy propagation in a long space. Then this model is reduced to a one-dimensional model by approximating the solution using the method of weighted residuals. The one-dimensional transport equation model directly describes the sound energy propagation in the "long" dimension and deals with the sound energy in the "short" dimensions by prescribed functions. Also, the one-dimensional model consists of a coupled set of N transport equations. Only N=1 and N=2 are discussed in this paper. For larger N, although the accuracy could be improved, the calculation time is expected to significantly increase, which diminishes the advantage of the model in terms of its computational efficiency. PMID:20370013

  4. A near-wall four-equation turbulence model for compressible boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommer, T. P.; So, R. M. C.; Zhang, H. S.

    1992-01-01

    A near-wall four-equation turbulence model is developed for the calculation of high-speed compressible turbulent boundary layers. The four equations used are the k-epsilon equations and the theta(exp 2)-epsilon(sub theta) equations. These equations are used to define the turbulent diffusivities for momentum and heat fluxes, thus allowing the assumption of dynamic similarity between momentum and heat transport to be relaxed. The Favre-averaged equations of motion are solved in conjunction with the four transport equations. Calculations are compared with measurements and with another model's predictions where the assumption of the constant turbulent Prandtl number is invoked. Compressible flat plate turbulent boundary layers with both adiabatic and constant temperature wall boundary conditions are considered. Results for the range of low Mach numbers and temperature ratios investigated are essentially the same as those obtained using an identical near-wall k-epsilon model. In general, the numerical predictions are in very good agreement with measurements and there are significant improvements in the predictions of mean flow properties at high Mach numbers.

  5. Comparison of Approaches to Constructing Confidence Intervals for Mediating Effects Using Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W. L.

    2007-01-01

    Mediators are variables that explain the association between an independent variable and a dependent variable. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used to test models with mediating effects. This article illustrates how to construct confidence intervals (CIs) of the mediating effects for a variety of models in SEM. Specifically, mediating…

  6. A Study of Factors that Influence College Academic Achievement: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugutt, John K.; Chemosit, Caroline C.

    2005-01-01

    The authors of this study used the structural equation model (SEM) approach to test a model that hypothesized the influence of student learning strategies, internet and campus technology, quality of instruction and overall college experience, and student-faculty interaction on student academic achievement. Further a SEM model was developed to link…

  7. A Structural Equation Model at the Individual and Group Level for Assessing Faking-Related Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere Joan; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a comprehensive approach based on structural equation modeling for assessing the amount of trait-level change derived from faking-motivating situations. The model is intended for a mixed 2-wave 2-group design, and assesses change at both the group and the individual level. Theoretically the model adopts an integrative…

  8. Embedding IRT in Structural Equation Models: A Comparison with Regression Based on IRT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Irene R. R.; Thomas, D. Roland; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the problems associated with using item response theory (IRT)-based latent variable scores for analytical modeling, discusses the connection between IRT and structural equation modeling (SEM)-based latent regression modeling for discrete data, and compares regression parameter estimates obtained using predicted IRT scores and…

  9. Structural Equation Modeling versus Ordinary Least Squares Canonical Analysis: Some Heuristic Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Thomas E.

    This paper describes structural equation modeling (SEM) in comparison with another overarching analysis within the general linear model (GLM) analytic family: canonical correlation analysis. The uninitiated reader can gain an understanding of SEM's basic tenets and applications. Latent constructs discovered via a measurement model are explored and…

  10. A Graphical Method for Assessing the Identification of Linear Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eusebi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    A graphical method is presented for assessing the state of identifiability of the parameters in a linear structural equation model based on the associated directed graph. We do not restrict attention to recursive models. In the recent literature, methods based on graphical models have been presented as a useful tool for assessing the state of…

  11. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parental Influence upon Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Mi; Neff, James Alan

    2010-01-01

    A model incorporating the direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring on adolescent alcohol use was evaluated by applying structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to data on 4,765 tenth-graders in the 2001 Monitoring the Future Study. Analyses indicated good fit of hypothesized measurement and structural models. Analyses supported both…

  12. Integral formulation of shallow-water equations with anisotropic porosity for urban flood modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Brett F.; Schubert, Jochen E.; Gallegos, Humberto A.

    2008-11-01

    SummaryAn integral form of the shallow-water equations suitable for urban flood modeling is derived by applying Reynolds transport theorem to a finite control volume encompassing buildings on a flood plain. The effect of buildings on storage and conveyance is modeled with a binary density function i(x,y) that equals unity when (x,y) corresponds to a void, and nil otherwise, and can be measured using remote sensing data such as classified aerial imagery; the effect of buildings on flow resistance is modeled with a drag formulation. Discrete equations are obtained by applying the integral equations to a computational cell and adopting a Godunov-type, piecewise linear distribution of flow variables. The discrete equations include a volumetric porosity ϕ that represents the integral of i over the cell, normalized by the cell area, and an areal porosity ψ that represents the integral of i over an edge of the mesh, normalized by the edge length. The latter is directionally dependent which introduces anisotropy to the shallow-water equations and captures sub-grid preferential flow directions which occur in urban settings due to asymmetric building shapes and spacings and the alignment of buildings along streets. A important implication is that model predictions are necessarily grid dependent; therefore, a mesh design strategy is proposed. First- and second-order accurate numerical methods are presented to solve the discrete equations, and applications are shown for verification and validation purposes including the ability of the model to resolve preferential flow directions.

  13. Kappa-symmetry of superstring sigma model and generalized 10d supergravity equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, A. A.; Wulff, L.

    2016-06-01

    We determine the constraints imposed on the 10d target superspace geometry by the requirement of classical kappa-symmetry of the Green-Schwarz superstring. In the type I case we find that the background must satisfy a generalization of type I supergravity equations. These equations depend on an arbitrary vector X a and imply the one-loop scale invariance of the GS sigma model. In the special case when X a is the gradient of a scalar ϕ (dilaton) one recovers the standard type I equations equivalent to the 2d Weyl invariance conditions of the superstring sigma model. In the type II case we find a generalized version of the 10d supergravity equations the bosonic part of which was introduced in arXiv:1511.05795. These equations depend on two vectors X a and K a subject to 1st order differential relations (with the equations in the NS-NS sector depending only on the combination X a = X a + K a ). In the special case of K a = 0 one finds that X a = ∂ a ϕ and thus obtains the standard type II supergravity equations. New generalized solutions are found if K a is chosen to be a Killing vector (and thus they exist only if the metric admits an isometry). Non-trivial solutions of the generalized equations describe K-isometric backgrounds that can be mapped by T-duality to type II supergravity solutions with dilaton containing a linear isometry-breaking term. Examples of such backgrounds appeared recently in the context of integrable η-deformations of AdS n × S n sigma models. The classical kappa-symmetry thus does not, in general, imply the 2d Weyl invariance conditions for the GS sigma model (equivalent to type II supergravity equations) but only weaker scale invariance type conditions.

  14. Teacher Change Beliefs: Validating a Scale with Structural Equation Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kin, Tai Mei; Abdull Kareem, Omar; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari; Wai Bing, Khuan

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to validate a substantiated Teacher Change Beliefs Model (TCBM) and an instrument to identify critical components of teacher change beliefs (TCB) in Malaysian secondary schools. Five different pilot test approaches were applied to ensure the validity and reliability of the instrument. A total of 936 teachers from…

  15. Moment Testing for Interaction Terms in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooijaart, Ab; Satorra, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Starting with Kenny and Judd ("Psychol. Bull." 96:201-210, 1984) several methods have been introduced for analyzing models with interaction terms. In all these methods more information from the data than just means and covariances is required. In this paper we also use more than just first- and second-order moments; however, we are aiming to…

  16. A Structural Equation Model for ICT Usage in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usluel, Yasemin Kocak; Askar, Petek; Bas, Turgay

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) usage, which is the indicator of diffusion. A model composed of the variables which can explain ICT usage in Turkish higher education is established and tested within the study. The two dimensions of ICT usage are considered: instructional and managerial. The data collected…

  17. Application of Structural Equation Models to Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Song, Xin-Yuan; Skevington, Suzanne; Hao, Yua-Tao

    2005-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has become an important concept for health care. As QOL is a multidimensional concept that is best evaluated by a number of latent constructs, it is well recognized that latent variable models, such as exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are useful tools for analyzing QOL data. Recently,…

  18. A mathematical model for Vertical Attitude Takeoff and Landing (VATOL) aircraft simulation. Volume 2: Model equations and base aircraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenbaugh, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Equations incorporated in a VATOL six degree of freedom off-line digital simulation program and data for the Vought SF-121 VATOL aircraft concept which served as the baseline for the development of this program are presented. The equations and data are intended to facilitate the development of a piloted VATOL simulation. The equation presentation format is to state the equations which define a particular model segment. Listings of constants required to quantify the model segment, input variables required to exercise the model segment, and output variables required by other model segments are included. In several instances a series of input or output variables are followed by a section number in parentheses which identifies the model segment of origination or termination of those variables.

  19. Professional identity acquisition process model in interprofessional education using structural equation modelling: 10-year initiative survey.

    PubMed

    Kururi, Nana; Tozato, Fusae; Lee, Bumsuk; Kazama, Hiroko; Katsuyama, Shiori; Takahashi, Maiko; Abe, Yumiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Saitoh, Takayuki; Kanaizumi, Shiomi; Makino, Takatoshi; Shinozaki, Hiromitsu; Yamaji, Takehiko; Watanabe, Hideomi

    2016-01-01

    The mandatory interprofessional education (IPE) programme at Gunma University, Japan, was initiated in 1999. A questionnaire of 10 items to assess the students' understanding of the IPE training programme has been distributed since then, and the factor analysis of the responses revealed that it was categorised into four subscales, i.e. "professional identity", "structure and function of training facilities", "teamwork and collaboration", and "role and responsibilities", and suggested that these may take into account the development of IPE programme with clinical training. The purpose of this study was to examine the professional identity acquisition process (PIAP) model in IPE using structural equation modelling (SEM). Overall, 1,581 respondents of a possible 1,809 students from the departments of nursing, laboratory sciences, physical therapy, and occupational therapy completed the questionnaire. The SEM technique was utilised to construct a PIAP model on the relationships among four factors. The original PIAP model showed that "professional identity" was predicted by two factors, namely "role and responsibilities" and "teamwork and collaboration". These two factors were predicted by the factor "structure and function of training facilities". The same structure was observed in nursing and physical therapy students' PIAP models, but it was not completely the same in laboratory sciences and occupational therapy students' PIAP models. A parallel but not isolated curriculum on expertise unique to the profession, which may help to understand their professional identity in combination with learning the collaboration, may be necessary. PMID:26930464

  20. Anisotropic Elastic Resonance Scattering model for the Neutron Transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed Ouisloumen; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Shadi Z. Ghrayeb

    2014-11-24

    The resonance scattering transfer cross-section has been reformulated to account for anisotropic scattering in the center-of-mass of the neutron-nucleus system. The main innovation over previous implementations is the relaxation of the ubiquitous assumption of isotropic scattering in the center-of-mass and the actual effective use of scattering angle distributions from evaluated nuclear data files in the computation of the angular moments of the resonant scattering kernels. The formulas for the high order anisotropic moments in the laboratory system are also derived. A multi-group numerical formulation is derived and implemented into a module incorporated within the NJOY nuclear data processing code. An ultra-fine energy mesh cross section library was generated using these new theoretical models and then was used for fuel assembly calculations with the PARAGON lattice physics code. The results obtained indicate a strong effect of this new model on reactivity, multi-group fluxes and isotopic inventory during depletion.

  1. An H Theorem for Boltzmann's Equation for the Yard-Sale Model of Asset Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, Bruce M.; Johnson, Merek; Marcq, Jeremy A.

    2015-12-01

    In recent work (Boghosian, Phys Rev E 89:042804-042825, 2014; Boghosian, Int J Mod Phys 25:1441008-1441015, 2014), Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck equations were derived for the "Yard-Sale Model" of asset exchange. For the version of the model without redistribution, it was conjectured, based on numerical evidence, that the time-asymptotic state of the model was oligarchy—complete concentration of wealth by a single individual. In this work, we prove that conjecture by demonstrating that the Gini coefficient, a measure of inequality commonly used by economists, is an H function of both the Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck equations for the model.

  2. Quantum lattice-gas models for the many-body schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Boghosian, B.M.; Taylor, W. IV

    1997-08-01

    A general class of discrete unitary models are described whose behavior in the continuum limit corresponds to a many-body Schroedinger equation. On a quantum computer, these models could be used to simulate quantum many-body systems with an exponential speedup over analogous simulations on classical computers. On a classical computer, these models give an explicitly unitary and local prescription for discretizing the Schroedinger equation. It is shown that models of this type can be constructed for an arbitrary number of particles moving in an arbitrary number of dimensions with an arbitrary interparticle interaction.

  3. Eikonal solutions to optical model coupled-channel equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Khandelwal, Govind S.; Maung, Khin M.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Methods of solution are presented for the Eikonal form of the nucleus-nucleus coupled-channel scattering amplitudes. Analytic solutions are obtained for the second-order optical potential for elastic scattering. A numerical comparison is made between the first and second order optical model solutions for elastic and inelastic scattering of H-1 and He-4 on C-12. The effects of bound-state excitations on total and reaction cross sections are also estimated.

  4. Is it appropriate to model turbidity currents with the three-equation model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peng; Pähtz, Thomas; He, Zhiguo

    2015-07-01

    The three-equation model (TEM) was developed in the 1980s to model turbidity currents (TCs) and has been widely used ever since. However, its physical justification was questioned because self-accelerating TCs simulated with the steady TEM seemed to violate the turbulent kinetic energy balance. This violation was considered as a result of very strong sediment erosion that consumes more turbulent kinetic energy than is produced. To confine bed erosion and thus remedy this issue, the four-equation model (FEM) was introduced by assuming a proportionality between the bed shear stress and the turbulent kinetic energy. Here we analytically proof that self-accelerating TCs simulated with the original steady TEM actually never violate the turbulent kinetic energy balance, provided that the bed drag coefficient is not unrealistically low. We find that stronger bed erosion, surprisingly, leads to more production of turbulent kinetic energy due to conversion of potential energy of eroded material into kinetic energy of the current. Furthermore, we analytically show that, for asymptotically supercritical flow conditions, the original steady TEM always produces self-accelerating TCs if the upstream boundary conditions ("ignition" values) are chosen appropriately, while it never does so for asymptotically subcritical flow conditions. We numerically show that our novel method to obtain the ignition values even works for Richardson numbers very near to unity. Our study also includes a comparison of the TEM and FEM closures for the bed shear stress to simulation data of a coupled Large Eddy and Discrete Element Model of sediment transport in water, which suggests that the TEM closure might be more realistic than the FEM closure.

  5. Modeling scalar dissipation and scalar variance in large eddy simulation: Algebraic and transport equation closures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, E.; Richardson, E. S.; Doran, E. M.; Pitsch, H.; Chen, J. H.

    2012-05-01

    Scalar dissipation rates and subfilter scalar variances are important modeling parameters in large eddy simulations (LES) of reacting flows. Currently available models capture the general behavior of these parameters, but these models do not always perform with the degree of accuracy that is needed for predictive LES. Here, two direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to analyze LES dissipation rate and variance models, and to propose a new model for the dissipation rate that is based on a transport equation. The first DNS that is considered is a non-premixed auto-igniting C2H4 jet flame simulation originally performed by Yoo et al. [Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 1619-1627 (2011)], 10.1016/j.proci.2010.06.147. A LES of this case is run using algebraic models for the dissipation rate and subfilter variance. It is shown that the algebraic models fail to adequately reproduce the DNS results. This motivates the introduction of a transport equation model for the LES dissipation rate. Closure of the equation is addressed by formulating a new adapted dynamic approach. This approach borrows dynamically computed information from LES quantities that, unlike the dissipation rate, do not reside on the smallest flow length scales. The adapted dynamic approach is analyzed by considering a second DNS of scalar mixing in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Data from this second DNS are used to confirm that the adapted dynamic approach successfully closes the dissipation rate equation over a wide range of LES filter widths. The first reacting jet case is then returned to and used to test the LES transport equation models. The transport equation model for the dissipation rate is shown to be more accurate than its algebraic counterpoint, and the dissipation rate is eliminated as a source of error in the transported variance model.

  6. Linearized model collision operators for multiple ion species plasmas and gyrokinetic entropy balance equations

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Nunami, M.

    2009-11-15

    Linearized model collision operators for multiple ion species plasmas are presented that conserve particles, momentum, and energy and satisfy adjointness relations and Boltzmann's H-theorem even for collisions between different particle species with unequal temperatures. The model collision operators are also written in the gyrophase-averaged form that can be applied to the gyrokinetic equation. Balance equations for the turbulent entropy density, the energy of electromagnetic fluctuations, the turbulent transport fluxes of particle and heat, and the collisional dissipation are derived from the gyrokinetic equation including the collision term and Maxwell equations. It is shown that, in the steady turbulence, the entropy produced by the turbulent transport fluxes is dissipated in part by collisions in the nonzonal-mode region and in part by those in the zonal-mode region after the nonlinear entropy transfer from nonzonal to zonal modes.

  7. Transonic viscous flow calculations for a turbine cascade with a two equation turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boretti, A. A.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical method for the study of steady, transonic, turbulent viscous flow through plane turbine cascades is presented. The governing equations are written in Favre-averaged form and closed with a first order model. The turbulent quantities are expressed according to a two-equation kappa-epsilon model where low Reynolds number and compressibility effects are included. The solution is obtained by using a pseudo-unsteady method with improved perturbation propagation properties. The equations are discretized in space by using a finite volume formulation. An explicit multistage dissipative Runge-Kutta algorithm is then used to advance the flow equations in the pseudo-time. First results of calculations compare fairly well with experimental data.

  8. Impact of the nuclear equation of state on models of rotating neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.

    1991-06-03

    The impact of the nuclear equation of state on the properties of rotating neutron stars from two different sources, stable rotation at the general relativistic Kepler period and rotation at the gravitational radiation-reaction driven instability mode, is analyzed. For this purpose models of rotating neutron stars are constructed in the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity by applying a refined version of Hartle's perturbative stellar structure equations. The investigation is based on a representative collection of a total of seventeen nuclear equations of state, covering both non-relativistic as well as relativistic ones. 41 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A two-equation integral model for particle transport in renewal statistical media

    SciTech Connect

    Zuchuat, O.; Sanchez, R.

    1995-12-31

    The authors consider the problem of particle transport including scattering in renewal statistical media. The general description of this problem leads to an infinite hierarchy of equations. A new closure scheme is developed to obtain a more tractable set of equations. Numerical results in planar geometry are given which compare the predictions of this new closure with exact benchmark results as well as with a previous model available in the literature. The development of the new closure and the comparisons the authors make underline the importance of having a physical basis in the elaboration of closure schemes for the hierarchy of equations describing the transport of particle with collisions in stochastic mixtures.

  10. The SMM Model as a Boundary Value Problem Using the Discrete Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel

    2007-01-01

    A generalized single step stepwise mutation model (SMM) is developed that takes into account an arbitrary initial state to a certain partial difference equation. This is solved in both the approximate continuum limit and the more exact discrete form. A time evolution model is developed for Y DNA or mtDNA that takes into account the reflective boundary modeling minimum microsatellite length and the original difference equation. A comparison is made between the more widely known continuum Gaussian model and a discrete model, which is based on modified Bessel functions of the first kind. A correction is made to the SMM model for the probability that two individuals are related that takes into account a reflecting boundary modeling minimum microsatellite length. This method is generalized to take into account the general n-step model and exact solutions are found. A new model is proposed for the step distribution.

  11. Finite difference modeling of Biot's poroelastic equations atseismic frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Masson, Y.J.; Pride, S.R.; Nihei, K.T.

    2006-02-24

    Across the seismic band of frequencies (loosely defined as<10 kHz), a seismic wave propagating through a porous material willcreate flow in the pore space that is laminar; that is, in thislow-frequency "seismic limit," the development of viscous boundary layersin the pores need not be modeled. An explicit time steppingstaggered-grid finite difference scheme is presented for solving Biot'sequations of poroelasticity in this low-frequency limit. A key part ofthis work is the establishment of rigorous stability conditions. It isdemonstrated that over a wide range of porous material properties typicalof sedimentary rock and despite the presenceof fluid pressure diffusion(Biot slow waves), the usual Courant condition governs the stability asif the problem involved purely elastic waves. The accuracy of the methodis demonstrated by comparing to exact analytical solutions for both fastcompressional waves and slow waves. Additional numerical modelingexamples are also presented.

  12. Review of Integrated Noise Model (INM) Equations and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor); Forsyth, David W.; Gulding, John; DiPardo, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) relies on the methods of the SAE AIR-1845 'Procedure for the Calculation of Airplane Noise in the Vicinity of Airports' issued in 1986. Simplifying assumptions for aerodynamics and noise calculation were made in the SAE standard and the INM based on the limited computing power commonly available then. The key objectives of this study are 1) to test some of those assumptions against Boeing source data, and 2) to automate the manufacturer's methods of data development to enable the maintenance of a consistent INM database over time. These new automated tools were used to generate INM database submissions for six airplane types :737-700 (CFM56-7 24K), 767-400ER (CF6-80C2BF), 777-300 (Trent 892), 717-200 (BR7 15), 757-300 (RR535E4B), and the 737-800 (CFM56-7 26K).

  13. ANALYSIS OF TWO-PHASE FLOW MODELS WITH TWO MOMENTUM EQUATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    KROSHILIN,A.E.KROSHILIN,V.E.KOHUT,P.

    2004-03-15

    An analysis of the standard system of differential equations describing multi-speed flows of multi-phase media is performed. It is proved that the Cauchy problem, as posed in most best-estimate thermal-hydraulic codes, results in unstable solutions and potentially unreliable description of many physical phenomena. A system of equations, free from instability effects, is developed allowing more rigorous numerical modeling.

  14. Finite-difference models of ordinary differential equations - Influence of denominator functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, Ronald E.; Smith, Arthur

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence on the solutions of finite-difference schemes of using a variety of denominator functions in the discrete modeling of the derivative for any ordinary differential equation. The results obtained are a consequence of using a generalized definition of the first derivative. A particular example of the linear decay equation is used to illustrate in detail the various solution possibilities that can occur.

  15. Insights of finite difference models of the wave equation and Maxwell's equations into the geometry of space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, James B.

    2014-09-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm is a popular tool for photonics design and simulations, but it also can yield deep insights into the fundamental nature of light and - more speculatively - into the discretization and connectivity and geometry of space-time. The CFL stability limit in FDTD can be interpreted as a limit on the speed of light. It depends not only on the dimensionality of space-time, but also on its connectivity. Thus the speed of light not only tells us something about the dimensionality of space-time but also about its connectivity. The computational molecule in conventional 2-D FDTD is (х +/- h,y)-(x,+/- y h)-(x-y), where h= triangle x = triangle y . It yields the CFL stability limit ctriangle/h<= t/h 1 √2 . Including diagonal nodes (x+/- h, y +/- h) in the computational molecule changes the connectivity of the space and changes the CFL limit. The FDTD model also predicts precursor signals (which physically exist). The Green's function of the FDTD model, which differs from that of the wave equation, may tell us something about underlying periodicities in space-time. It may be possible to experimentally observe effects of space-time discretization and connectivity in optics experiments.

  16. Advances in modeling the pressure correlation terms in the second moment equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Shabbir, Aamir; Lumley, John L.

    1991-01-01

    In developing turbulence models, various model constraints were proposed in an attempt to make the model equations more general (or universal). The most recent of these are the realizability principle, the linearity principle, the rapid distortion theory, and the material indifference principle. Several issues are discussed concerning these principles and special attention is payed to the realizability principle. Realizability (defined as the requirement of non-negative energy and Schwarz' inequality between any fluctuating quantities) is the basic physical and mathematical principle that any modeled equation should obey. Hence, it is the most universal, important and also the minimal requirement for a model equation to prevent it from producing unphysical results. The principle of realizability is described in detail, the realizability conditions are derived for various turbulence models, and the model forms are proposed for the pressure correlation terms in the second moment equations. Detailed comparisons of various turbulence models with experiments and direct numerical simulations are presented. As a special case of turbulence, the two dimensional two-component turbulence modeling is also discussed.

  17. A near-wall two-equation model for compressible turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, H. S.; So, R. M. C.; Speziale, C. G.; Lai, Y. G.

    1991-01-01

    A near-wall two-equation turbulence model of the K - epsilon type is developed for the description of high-speed compressible flows. The Favre-averaged equations of motion are solved in conjunction with modeled transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and solenoidal dissipation wherein a variable density extension of the asymptotically consistent near-wall model of So and co-workers is supplemented with new dilatational models. The resulting compressible two-equation model is tested in the supersonic flat plate boundary layer - with an adiabatic wall and with wall cooling - for Mach numbers as large as 10. Direct comparisons of the predictions of the new model with raw experimental data and with results from the K - omega model indicate that it performs well for a wide range of Mach numbers. The surprising finding is that the Morkovin hypothesis, where turbulent dilatational terms are neglected, works well at high Mach numbers, provided that the near wall model is asymptotically consistent. Instances where the model predictions deviate from the experiments appear to be attributable to the assumption of constant turbulent Prandtl number - a deficiency that will be addressed in a future paper.

  18. Phenomenological neutron star equations of state. 3-window modeling of QCD matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojo, Toru

    2016-03-01

    We discuss the 3-window modeling of cold, dense QCD matter equations of state at density relevant to neutron star properties. At low baryon density, nBlesssim 2ns (ns: nuclear saturation density), we utilize purely hadronic equations of state that are constrained by empirical observations at density n_B˜ n_s and neutron star radii. At high density, nBgtrsim 5ns, we use the percolated quark matter equations of state which must be very stiff to pass the two-solar mass constraints. The intermediate domain at 2lesssim nB/ns lesssim 5 is described as neither purely hadronic nor percolated quark matter, and the equations of state are inferred by interpolating hadronic and percolated quark matter equations of state. Possible forms of the interpolation are severely restricted by the condition on the (square of) speed of sound, 0le cs2 le 1. The characteristics of the 3-window equation of state are compared with those of conventional hybrid and self-bound quark matters. Using a schematic quark model for the percolated domain, it is argued that the two-solar mass constraint requires the model parameters to be as large as their vacuum values, indicating that the gluon dynamics remains strongly non-perturbative to nB˜ 10ns. The hyperon puzzle is also briefly discussed in light of quark descriptions.

  19. Noise modeling from high-permeability shields using Kirchhoff equations

    SciTech Connect

    Sandin, Henrik J; Volegov, Petr L; Espy, Michelle A; Matlashov, Andrei N; Savukov, Igor M; Schultz, Larry J

    2010-01-01

    Progress in the development of high-sensitivity magnetic-field measurements has stimulated interest in understanding magnetic noise of conductive materials, especially of magnetic shields (DC or rf) based on high-permeability materials and/or high-conductivity materials. For example, SQUIDs and atomic magnetometers have been used in many experiments with mu-metal shields, and additionally SQUID systems frequently have rf shielding based on thin conductive materials. Typical existing approaches to modeling noise only work with simple shield and sensor geometries while common experimental setups today consist of multiple sensor systems arbitrary shapes and complex shield geometries. With complex sensor arrays used in, for example, MEG and Ultra Low Field MRI studies the knowledge of the noise correlation between sensors is as important as the knowledge of the noise itself. This is crucial for incorporating efficient noise cancelation schemes for the system. We developed an approach that allows us to calculate the Johnson noise for any geometrically shaped shield and multiple sensor systems. The approach uses a fraction of the processing power of other approaches and with a multiple sensor system our approach not only calculates the noise for each sensor but it also calculates the noise correlation matrix between sensors. Here we will show the algorithm and examples where it can be implemented.

  20. Validating SESAME Equations of State for Use in Hydrocode Models of Small Solar System Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherine, Plesko; Ferguson, Jim; Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, Robert P.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrodynamic models of small solar system body impacts, collisions, and hazard mitigation require material-specific equations of state (EOS's) in order to close the system of equations that comprise the model and accurately predict the response of such objects to shocks and other hydrodynamic phenomena. Current models approximate meteoritic and cometary materials using Earth-analogue EOS's, e.g., quartz, dunite, hydrated tuff, water ice, and numerical convolutions of analog EOS's. Earth-analogues are used because the formulation of a comprehensive equation of state requires a large amount of experimental data that is destructive to the often rare samples. Analogue EOS's can, however, perform very differently from the original material under shock loading. Some experimental data has become available over time for various meteorite types. Here we compare the available shock data for meteoritic materials to analogue EOS's available in the public Los Alamos National Laboratory SESAME EOS database to explore the applicability and limitations of these models.

  1. Impact of the Equation of State in Models for Surfactant Spreading Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Rachel

    2014-11-01

    Pulmonary surfactant spreading models often rely on an equation of state relating surfactant concentration to surface tension. Mathematically, these models have been analyzed with simple functional relationships. However, to model an experiment with a given fluid and surfactant, a physically meaningful equation of state can be derived from experimentally obtained isotherms. We discuss the comparison between model and experiment for NBD-PC lipid (surfactant) spreading on glycerol for an empirically-determined equation of state, and compare those results to simulations with traditionally employed functional forms. In particular we compare the timescales by tracking the leading edge of surfactant, the central fluid height and dynamics of the Marangoni ridge. We consider both outward spreading of a disk-shaped region of surfactant and the hole-closure problem in which a disk-shaped surfactant-free region self-heals. Support from NSF-DMS-FRG 0968154, RCSA-CCS-19788, and HHMI.

  2. Putting Phase Equilibria into Geodynamic Models: An Equation of State Approach (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, J.

    2009-12-01

    The use of free energy minimization codes to calculate the proportions and properties of minerals and consequently bulk rock properties is now commonplace in geophysical modeling. In effect such applications imply the existence of an equation of state, which is the optimized free energy as a function of its independent variables, for the rocks of interest. The essential feature of the equation of state is that all thermodynamic properties can be derived from it, a feature that requires that its derivatives are continuous. The equation of state may be calculated dynamically within the larger framework of a geodynamic code or it may be implemented statically via tables that are calculated prior to the solution of the geodynamic application. The virtues of static implementation is its extreme simplicity, computational efficiency, and that the finite resolution of the table assures that the equation of state is numerically differentiable for any choice of independent state variables. However, the memory required to store the requisite multidimensional tables may necessitate dynamic implementations for problems involving multi-component mass transfer, e.g., as in reactive melt transport. Paradoxically, the unlimited accuracy of dynamic solutions creates a potential numerical instability, the Stefan problem, for geodynamic governing equations formulated in terms of pressure and temperature. This instability arises because the derivatives of an equation of state for a polyphase aggregate as a function of pressure and temperature are singular at the conditions of a low order phase transformation. An equation of state as a function of specific entropy, specific volume and chemical composition eliminates this difficulty and, additionally, leads to a robust formulation of the energy and mass conservation equations. In this formulation, energy and mass conservation furnish evolution equations for entropy and volume and the equation of state serves as an update rule for

  3. The use of copulas to practical estimation of multivariate stochastic differential equation mixed effects models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupšys, P.

    2015-10-01

    A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE.

  4. The use of copulas to practical estimation of multivariate stochastic differential equation mixed effects models

    SciTech Connect

    Rupšys, P.

    2015-10-28

    A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE.

  5. Stochastic processes with finite correlation time: Modeling and application to the generalized Langevin equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srokowski, T.

    2001-09-01

    The kangaroo process (KP) is characterized by various forms of covariance and can serve as a useful model of random noises. We discuss properties of that process for the exponential, stretched exponential, and algebraic (power-law) covariances. Then we apply the KP as a model of noise in the generalized Langevin equation and simulate solutions by a Monte Carlo method. Some results appear to be incompatible with requirements of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem because probability distributions change when the process is inserted into the equation. We demonstrate how one can construct a model of noise free of that difficulty. This form of the KP is especially suitable for physical applications.

  6. A solution algorithm for the fluid dynamic equations based on a stochastic model for molecular motion

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny, Patrick Torrilhon, Manuel; Heinz, Stefan

    2010-02-20

    In this paper, a stochastic model is presented to simulate the flow of gases, which are not in thermodynamic equilibrium, like in rarefied or micro situations. For the interaction of a particle with others, statistical moments of the local ensemble have to be evaluated, but unlike in molecular dynamics simulations or DSMC, no collisions between computational particles are considered. In addition, a novel integration technique allows for time steps independent of the stochastic time scale. The stochastic model represents a Fokker-Planck equation in the kinetic description, which can be viewed as an approximation to the Boltzmann equation. This allows for a rigorous investigation of the relation between the new model and classical fluid and kinetic equations. The fluid dynamic equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier are fully recovered for small relaxation times, while for larger values the new model extents into the kinetic regime. Numerical studies demonstrate that the stochastic model is consistent with Navier-Stokes in that limit, but also that the results become significantly different, if the conditions for equilibrium are invalid. The application to the Knudsen paradox demonstrates the correctness and relevance of this development, and comparisons with existing kinetic equations and standard solution algorithms reveal its advantages. Moreover, results of a test case with geometrically complex boundaries are presented.

  7. Technical Note: Alternative in-stream denitrification equation for the INCA-N model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etheridge, J. R.; Birgand, F.; Burchell, M. R., II; Lepistö, A.; Rankinen, K.; Granlund, K.

    2013-11-01

    The Integrated Catchment model for Nitrogen (INCA-N) is a semi-distributed, process based model that has been used to model the impacts of land use, climate, and land management changes on hydrology and nitrogen loading. An observed problem with the INCA-N model is reproducing low nitrate-nitrogen concentrations during the summer growing season in some catchments. In this study, the current equation used to simulate the rate of in-stream denitrification was replaced with an alternate equation that uses a mass transfer coefficient and the stream bottom area. The results of simulating in-stream denitrification using the two different methods were compared for a 9 month simulation period of the Yläneenjoki catchment in Finland. The alternate equation (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.59) simulated concentrations during the growing season that were closer to the observed concentrations than the current equation (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.47). The results of this work promote the incorporation of the alternate equation into the model for further testing.

  8. Matrix Solution of Coupled Differential Equations and Looped Car Following Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A simple mathematical model for the behaviour of how vehicles follow each other along a looped stretch of road is described. The resulting coupled first order differential equations are solved using appropriate matrix techniques and the physical significance of the model is discussed. A number possible classroom exercises are suggested to help…

  9. Organizational Cynicism, School Culture, and Academic Achievement: The Study of Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadag, Engin; Kilicoglu, Gökhan; Yilmaz, Derya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain constructed theoretical models that organizational cynicism perceptions of primary school teachers affect school culture and academic achievement, by using structural equation modeling. With the assumption that there is a cause-effect relationship between three main variables, the study was constructed with…

  10. Reliability of Summed Item Scores Using Structural Equation Modeling: An Alternative to Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating reliability using structural equation modeling (SEM) that allows for nonlinearity between factors and item scores. Assuming the focus is on consistency of summed item scores, this method for estimating reliability is preferred to those based on linear SEM models and to the most commonly reported estimate of…

  11. Fractional Advective-Dispersive Equation as a Model of Solute Transport in Porous Media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding and modeling transport of solutes in porous media is a critical issue in the environmental protection. The common model is the advective-dispersive equation (ADE) describing the superposition of the advective transport and the Brownian motion in water-filled pore space. Deviations from...

  12. Bayesian Analysis of Nonlinear Structural Equation Models with Nonignorable Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum

    2006-01-01

    A Bayesian approach is developed for analyzing nonlinear structural equation models with nonignorable missing data. The nonignorable missingness mechanism is specified by a logistic regression model. A hybrid algorithm that combines the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is used to produce the joint Bayesian estimates of…

  13. Relationships among Adolescents' Leisure Motivation, Leisure Involvement, and Leisure Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Li, Ren-Hau; Chen, Sheng-Hwang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test a cause-and-effect model of factors affecting leisure satisfaction among Taiwanese adolescents. A structural equation model was proposed in which the relationships among leisure motivation, leisure involvement, and leisure satisfaction were explored. The study collected data from 701 adolescent…

  14. Modeling Solute Transport in Soil Columns Using Advective-Dispersive Equation with Fractional Spatial Derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been reported that this model cannot take into account several important features of solute movement through soil. Recently, a new model has been suggested that results in a solute transport equation with fractional spatial derivatives, or FADE. We have assembled a database on published solu...

  15. An Examination of Statistical Power in Multigroup Dynamic Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prindle, John J.; McArdle, John J.

    2012-01-01

    This study used statistical simulation to calculate differential statistical power in dynamic structural equation models with groups (as in McArdle & Prindle, 2008). Patterns of between-group differences were simulated to provide insight into how model parameters influence power approximations. Chi-square and root mean square error of…

  16. A Two-Stage Approach to Synthesizing Covariance Matrices in Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W. L.; Chan, Wai

    2009-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used as a statistical framework to test complex models in behavioral and social sciences. When the number of publications increases, there is a need to systematically synthesize them. Methodology of synthesizing findings in the context of SEM is known as meta-analytic SEM (MASEM). Although correlation…

  17. A Demonstration of a Systematic Item-Reduction Approach Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larwin, Karen; Harvey, Milton

    2012-01-01

    Establishing model parsimony is an important component of structural equation modeling (SEM). Unfortunately, little attention has been given to developing systematic procedures to accomplish this goal. To this end, the current study introduces an innovative application of the jackknife approach first presented in Rensvold and Cheung (1999). Unlike…

  18. Prescriptive Statements and Educational Practice: What Can Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal structural equation modeling (SEM) can be a basis for making prescriptive statements on educational practice and offers yields over "traditional" statistical techniques under the general linear model. The extent to which prescriptive statements can be made will rely on the appropriate accommodation of key elements of research design,…

  19. Parsimonious Structural Equation Models for Repeated Measures Data, with Application to the Study of Consumer Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Terry; Haubl, Gerald; Tipps, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reflects a growing awareness of the value of using structural equation models to analyze repeated measures data. However, such data, particularly in the presence of covariates, often lead to models that either fit the data poorly, are exceedingly general and hard to interpret, or are specified in a manner that is highly data…

  20. Developing soil erodibility prediction equations for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erodibility is a key factor for estimating soil erosion using physically based models. In this study, a new parameterization approach for estimating erodibility was developed for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM). The approach uses empirical equations that were developed by apply...

  1. Exploring Mediating Effect of Metacognitive Awareness on Comprehension of Science Texts through Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru; Chen, Shin-Feng

    2014-01-01

    This study used a Chinese-language version of the Index of Science Reading Awareness (ISRA) to investigate metacognitive awareness and the Reading Comprehension of Science Test (RCST) to explore comprehension of science text by Taiwanese students. Structural equation modeling (SEM) results confirmed the validity of the underlying models of…

  2. A Structural Equation Model of Burnout and Job Exit among Child Protective Services Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Brett; Yadama, Gautam N.

    1996-01-01

    Uses a structural equation model to examine the three elements of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)--emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment--in relation to job exit among child protective services workers over a 15-month period. The model was supported, showing the relevance of all three MBI elements of job exit.…

  3. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  4. Testing Mediation in Structural Equation Modeling: The Effectiveness of the Test of Joint Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leth-Steensen, Craig; Gallitto, Elena

    2016-01-01

    A large number of approaches have been proposed for estimating and testing the significance of indirect effects in mediation models. In this study, four sets of Monte Carlo simulations involving full latent variable structural equation models were run in order to contrast the effectiveness of the currently popular bias-corrected bootstrapping…

  5. A Structural Equation Model of Parental Involvement, Motivational and Aptitudinal Characteristics, and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Gonzalez-Pumariega, Soledad; Alvarez, Luis; Roces, Cristina; Garcia, Marta

    2002-01-01

    Used the structural equation model approach to test a model hypothesizing the influence of parental involvement on students' academic aptitudes, self-concept, and causal attributions, as well as the influence of these variables on academic achievement. Results for 261 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years suggest that cognitive-affective variables are…

  6. Introduction of the Notion of Differential Equations by Modelling Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budinski, Natalija; Takaci, Djurdjica

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes modelling based learning as a tool for learning and teaching mathematics. The example of modelling real world problems leading to the exponential function as the solution of differential equations is described, as well as the observations about students' activities during the process. The students were acquainted with the…

  7. Keep Your Distance! Using Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations to Model Traffic Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Mark

    2004-01-01

    A simple mathematical model for how vehicles follow each other along a stretch of road is presented. The resulting linear second-order differential equation with constant coefficients is solved and interpreted. The model can be used as an application of solution techniques taught at first-year undergraduate level and as a motivator to encourage…

  8. A moist Boussinesq shallow water equations set for testing atmospheric models

    SciTech Connect

    Zerroukat, M. Allen, T.

    2015-06-01

    The shallow water equations have long been used as an initial test for numerical methods applied to atmospheric models with the test suite of Williamson et al. being used extensively for validating new schemes and assessing their accuracy. However the lack of physics forcing within this simplified framework often requires numerical techniques to be reworked when applied to fully three dimensional models. In this paper a novel two-dimensional shallow water equations system that retains moist processes is derived. This system is derived from three-dimensional Boussinesq approximation of the hydrostatic Euler equations where, unlike the classical shallow water set, we allow the density to vary slightly with temperature. This results in extra (or buoyancy) terms for the momentum equations, through which a two-way moist-physics dynamics feedback is achieved. The temperature and moisture variables are advected as separate tracers with sources that interact with the mean-flow through a simplified yet realistic bulk moist-thermodynamic phase-change model. This moist shallow water system provides a unique tool to assess the usually complex and highly non-linear dynamics–physics interactions in atmospheric models in a simple yet realistic way. The full non-linear shallow water equations are solved numerically on several case studies and the results suggest quite realistic interaction between the dynamics and physics and in particular the generation of cloud and rain. - Highlights: • Novel shallow water equations which retains moist processes are derived from the three-dimensional hydrostatic Boussinesq equations. • The new shallow water set can be seen as a more general one, where the classical equations are a special case of these equations. • This moist shallow water system naturally allows a feedback mechanism from the moist physics increments to the momentum via buoyancy. • Like full models, temperature and moistures are advected as tracers that interact

  9. Bidirectional plant canopy reflection models derived from the radiation transfer equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeth, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    A collection of bidirectional canopy reflection models was obtained from the solution of the radiation transfer equation for a horizontally homogeneous canopy. A phase function is derived for a collection of bidirectionally reflecting and transmitting planar elements characterized geometrically by slope and azimuth density functions. Two approaches to solving the radiation transfer equation for the canopy are presented. One approach factors the radiation transfer equation into a solvable set of three first-order linear differential equations by assuming that the radiation field within the canopy can be initially approximated by three components: uniformly diffuse downwelling, uniformly diffuse upwelling, and attenuated specular. The solution to these equations, which can be iterated to any degree of accuracy, was used to obtain overall canopy reflection from the formal solution to the radiation transfer equation. A programable solution to canopy overall bidirectional reflection is given for this approach. The special example of Lambertian leaves with constant leaf bidirectional reflection and scattering functions is considered, and a programmable solution for this example is given. The other approach to solving the radiation transfer equation, a generalized Chandrasekhar technique, is presented in the appendix.

  10. Ballistic Limit Equation for Single Wall Titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, J. M.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Bryant, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations were used to determine the ballistic limit equation (BLE) for perforation of a titanium wall, as a function of wall thickness. Two titanium alloys were considered, and separate BLEs were derived for each. Tested wall thicknesses ranged from 0.5mm to 2.0mm. The single-wall damage equation of Cour-Palais [ref. 1] was used to analyze the Ti wall's shielding effectiveness. It was concluded that the Cour-Palais single-wall equation produced a non-conservative prediction of the ballistic limit for the Ti shield. The inaccurate prediction was not a particularly surprising result; the Cour-Palais single-wall BLE contains shield material properties as parameters, but it was formulated only from tests of different aluminum alloys. Single-wall Ti shield tests were run (thicknesses of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm) on Ti 15-3-3-3 material custom cut from rod stock. Hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were used to establish the failure threshold empirically, using the additional constraint that the damage scales with impact energy, as was indicated by hydrocode simulations. The criterion for shield failure was defined as no detached spall from the shield back surface during HVI. Based on the test results, which confirmed an approximately energy-dependent shield effectiveness, the Cour-Palais equation was modified.

  11. Modeling Latent Growth Curves With Incomplete Data Using Different Types of Structural Equation Modeling and Multilevel Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Emilio; Hamagami, Fumiaki; McArdle, John J.

    2004-01-01

    This article offers different examples of how to fit latent growth curve (LGC) models to longitudinal data using a variety of different software programs (i.e., LISREL, Mx, Mplus, AMOS, SAS). The article shows how the same model can be fitted using both structural equation modeling and multilevel software, with nearly identical results, even in…

  12. Coefficients of an analytical aerosol forcing equation determined with a Monte-Carlo radiation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Taufiq; Moosmüller, H.; Chung, Chul E.

    2015-10-01

    Simple analytical equations for global-average direct aerosol radiative forcing are useful to quickly estimate aerosol forcing changes as function of key atmosphere, surface and aerosol parameters. The surface and atmosphere parameters in these analytical equations are the globally uniform atmospheric transmittance and surface albedo, and have so far been estimated from simplified observations under untested assumptions. In the present study, we take the state-of-the-art analytical equation and write the aerosol forcing as a linear function of the single scattering albedo (SSA) and replace the average upscatter fraction with the asymmetry parameter (ASY). Then we determine the surface and atmosphere parameter values of this equation using the output from the global MACR (Monte-Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiation) model, as well as testing the validity of the equation. The MACR model incorporated spatio-temporally varying observations for surface albedo, cloud optical depth, water vapor, stratosphere column ozone, etc., instead of assuming as in the analytical equation that the atmosphere and surface parameters are globally uniform, and should thus be viewed as providing realistic radiation simulations. The modified analytical equation needs globally uniform aerosol parameters that consist of AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth), SSA, and ASY. The MACR model is run here with the same globally uniform aerosol parameters. The MACR model is also run without cloud to test the cloud effect. In both cloudy and cloud-free runs, the equation fits in the model output well whether SSA or ASY varies. This means the equation is an excellent approximation for the atmospheric radiation. On the other hand, the determined parameter values are somewhat realistic for the cloud-free runs but unrealistic for the cloudy runs. The global atmospheric transmittance, one of the determined parameters, is found to be around 0.74 in case of the cloud-free conditions and around 1.03 with cloud. The surface

  13. Computation of turbulent high speed mixing layers using a two-equation turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, J. R.; Sekar, B.

    1991-01-01

    A two-equation turbulence model was extended to be applicable for compressible flows. A compressibility correction based on modelling the dilational terms in the Reynolds stress equations were included in the model. The model is used in conjunction with the SPARK code for the computation of high speed mixing layers. The observed trend of decreasing growth rate with increasing convective Mach number in compressible mixing layers is well predicted by the model. The predictions agree well with the experimental data and the results from a compressible Reynolds stress model. The present model appears to be well suited for the study of compressible free shear flows. Preliminary results obtained for the reacting mixing layers are included.

  14. Observational constraints on cosmological models with Chaplygin gas and quadratic equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharov, G. S.

    2016-06-01

    Observational manifestations of accelerated expansion of the universe, in particular, recent data for Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, for the Hubble parameter H(z) and cosmic microwave background constraints are described with different cosmological models. We compare the ΛCDM, the models with generalized and modified Chaplygin gas and the model with quadratic equation of state. For these models we estimate optimal model parameters and their permissible errors with different approaches to calculation of sound horizon scale rs(zd). Among the considered models the best value of χ2 is achieved for the model with quadratic equation of state, but it has 2 additional parameters in comparison with the ΛCDM and therefore is not favored by the Akaike information criterion.

  15. Conservation equations and physical models for hypersonic air flows in thermal and chemical nonequilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Gnoffo, P.A.; Gupta, R.N.; Shinn, J.L.

    1989-02-01

    The conservation equations for simulating hypersonic flows in thermal and chemical nonequilibrium and details of the associated physical models are presented. These details include the curve fits used for defining thermodynamic properties of the 11 species air model, curve fits for collision cross sections, expressions for transport properties, the chemical kinetics models, and the vibrational and electronic energy relaxation models. The expressions are formulated in the context of either a two or three temperature model. Greater emphasis is placed on the two temperature model in which it is assumed that the translational and rotational energy models are in equilibrium at the translational temperature, T, and the vibrational, electronic, and electron translational energy modes are in equilibrium at the vibrational temperature, T sub v. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors associated with the Jacobian of the flux vector are also presented in order to accommodate the upwind based numerical solutions of the complete equation set.

  16. Conservation equations and physical models for hypersonic air flows in thermal and chemical nonequilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Gupta, Roop N.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1989-01-01

    The conservation equations for simulating hypersonic flows in thermal and chemical nonequilibrium and details of the associated physical models are presented. These details include the curve fits used for defining thermodynamic properties of the 11 species air model, curve fits for collision cross sections, expressions for transport properties, the chemical kinetics models, and the vibrational and electronic energy relaxation models. The expressions are formulated in the context of either a two or three temperature model. Greater emphasis is placed on the two temperature model in which it is assumed that the translational and rotational energy models are in equilibrium at the translational temperature, T, and the vibrational, electronic, and electron translational energy modes are in equilibrium at the vibrational temperature, T sub v. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors associated with the Jacobian of the flux vector are also presented in order to accommodate the upwind based numerical solutions of the complete equation set.

  17. Bayesian model comparison of nonlinear structural equation models with missing continuous and ordinal categorical data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Song, Xin-Yuan

    2004-05-01

    Missing data are very common in behavioural and psychological research. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian approach in the context of a general nonlinear structural equation model with missing continuous and ordinal categorical data. In the development, the missing data are treated as latent quantities, and provision for the incompleteness of the data is made by a hybrid algorithm that combines the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. We show by means of a simulation study that the Bayesian estimates are accurate. A Bayesian model comparison procedure based on the Bayes factor and path sampling is proposed. The required observations from the posterior distribution for computing the Bayes factor are simulated by the hybrid algorithm in Bayesian estimation. Our simulation results indicate that the correct model is selected more frequently when the incomplete records are used in the analysis than when they are ignored. The methodology is further illustrated with a real data set from a study concerned with an AIDS preventative intervention for Filipina sex workers. PMID:15171804

  18. Multilevel multiple imputation: A review and evaluation of joint modeling and chained equations imputation.

    PubMed

    Enders, Craig K; Mistler, Stephen A; Keller, Brian T

    2016-06-01

    Although missing data methods have advanced in recent years, methodologists have devoted less attention to multilevel data structures where observations at level-1 are nested within higher-order organizational units at level-2 (e.g., individuals within neighborhoods; repeated measures nested within individuals; students nested within classrooms). Joint modeling and chained equations imputation are the principal imputation frameworks for single-level data, and both have multilevel counterparts. These approaches differ algorithmically and in their functionality; both are appropriate for simple random intercept analyses with normally distributed data, but they differ beyond that. The purpose of this paper is to describe multilevel imputation strategies and evaluate their performance in a variety of common analysis models. Using multiple imputation theory and computer simulations, we derive 4 major conclusions: (a) joint modeling and chained equations imputation are appropriate for random intercept analyses; (b) the joint model is superior for analyses that posit different within- and between-cluster associations (e.g., a multilevel regression model that includes a level-1 predictor and its cluster means, a multilevel structural equation model with different path values at level-1 and level-2); (c) chained equations imputation provides a dramatic improvement over joint modeling in random slope analyses; and (d) a latent variable formulation for categorical variables is quite effective. We use a real data analysis to demonstrate multilevel imputation, and we suggest a number of avenues for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26690775

  19. A moist Boussinesq shallow water equations set for testing atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerroukat, M.; Allen, T.

    2015-06-01

    The shallow water equations have long been used as an initial test for numerical methods applied to atmospheric models with the test suite of Williamson et al. [1] being used extensively for validating new schemes and assessing their accuracy. However the lack of physics forcing within this simplified framework often requires numerical techniques to be reworked when applied to fully three dimensional models. In this paper a novel two-dimensional shallow water equations system that retains moist processes is derived. This system is derived from three-dimensional Boussinesq approximation of the hydrostatic Euler equations where, unlike the classical shallow water set, we allow the density to vary slightly with temperature. This results in extra (or buoyancy) terms for the momentum equations, through which a two-way moist-physics dynamics feedback is achieved. The temperature and moisture variables are advected as separate tracers with sources that interact with the mean-flow through a simplified yet realistic bulk moist-thermodynamic phase-change model. This moist shallow water system provides a unique tool to assess the usually complex and highly non-linear dynamics-physics interactions in atmospheric models in a simple yet realistic way. The full non-linear shallow water equations are solved numerically on several case studies and the results suggest quite realistic interaction between the dynamics and physics and in particular the generation of cloud and rain.

  20. Role of secondary instability theory and parabolized stability equations in transition modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Hady, Nabil M.; Dinavahi, Surya P.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Zang, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    In modeling the laminar-turbulent transition region, the designer depends largely on benchmark data from experiments and/or direct numerical simulations that are usually extremely expensive. An understanding of the evolution of the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and quantifies in the transport equations like the dissipation and production is essential in the modeling process. The secondary instability theory and the parabolized stability equations method are used to calculate these quantities, which are then compared with corresponding quantities calculated from available direct numerical simulation data for the incompressible boundary-layer flow of laminar-turbulent transition conditions. The potential of the secondary instability theory and the parabolized stability equations approach in predicting these quantities is discussed; results indicate that inexpensive data that are useful for transition modeling in the early stages of the transition region can be provided by these tools.

  1. New non-equilibrium matrix imbibition equation for double porosity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyukhov, Andrey; Pankratov, Leonid

    2016-07-01

    The paper deals with the global Kondaurov double porosity model describing a non-equilibrium two-phase immiscible flow in fractured-porous reservoirs when non-equilibrium phenomena occur in the matrix blocks, only. In a mathematically rigorous way, we show that the homogenized model can be represented by usual equations of two-phase incompressible immiscible flow, except for the addition of two source terms calculated by a solution to a local problem being a boundary value problem for a non-equilibrium imbibition equation given in terms of the real saturation and a non-equilibrium parameter.

  2. Modelling of Short Term Interest Rate Based on Fractional Relaxation Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, K.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we try to model the dynamics of short term interest rate using the fractional nonhomogeneous differential equation with stochastic free term. This type of equation is similar to one which represents the viscoelastic behavior of certain materials from rheologic point of view. As a final result we obtain the closed formula for prices of zero-coupon bonds. They are analogous to those in Vasiček model, where instead of the exponential functions we have the Mittag-Leffler ones.

  3. Aerodynamic flow simulation using a pressure-based method and a two-equation turbulence model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y. G. J.; Przekwas, A. J.; So, R. M. C.

    1993-07-01

    In the past, most aerodynamic flow calculations were carried out with density-based numerical methods and zero-equation turbulence models. However, pressure-based methods and more advanced turbulence models have been routinely used in industry for many internal flow simulations and for incompressible flows. Unfortunately, their usefulness in calculating aerodynamic flows is still not well demonstrated and accepted. In this study, an advanced pressure-based numerical method and a recently proposed near-wall compressible two-equation turbulence model are used to calculate external aerodynamic flows. Several TVD-type schemes are extended to pressure-based method to better capture discontinuities such as shocks. Some improvements are proposed to accelerate the convergence of the numerical method. A compressible near-wall two-equation turbulence model is then implemented to calculate transonic turbulent flows over NACA 0012 and RAE 2822 airfoils with and without shocks. The calculated results are compared with wind tunnel data as well as with results obtained from the Baldwin-Lomax model. The performance of the two-equation turbulence model is evaluated and its merits or lack thereof are discussed.

  4. Bayesian structural equation modeling: a more flexible representation of substantive theory.

    PubMed

    Muthén, Bengt; Asparouhov, Tihomir

    2012-09-01

    This article proposes a new approach to factor analysis and structural equation modeling using Bayesian analysis. The new approach replaces parameter specifications of exact zeros with approximate zeros based on informative, small-variance priors. It is argued that this produces an analysis that better reflects substantive theories. The proposed Bayesian approach is particularly beneficial in applications where parameters are added to a conventional model such that a nonidentified model is obtained if maximum-likelihood estimation is applied. This approach is useful for measurement aspects of latent variable modeling, such as with confirmatory factor analysis, and the measurement part of structural equation modeling. Two application areas are studied, cross-loadings and residual correlations in confirmatory factor analysis. An example using a full structural equation model is also presented, showing an efficient way to find model misspecification. The approach encompasses 3 elements: model testing using posterior predictive checking, model estimation, and model modification. Monte Carlo simulations and real data are analyzed using Mplus. The real-data analyses use data from Holzinger and Swineford's (1939) classic mental abilities study, Big Five personality factor data from a British survey, and science achievement data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. PMID:22962886

  5. Evaluation of structural equation mixture models Parameter estimates and correct class assignment

    PubMed Central

    Tueller, Stephen; Lubke, Gitta

    2009-01-01

    Structural Equation Mixture Models(SEMMs) are latent class models that permit the estimation of a structural equation model within each class. Fitting SEMMs is illustrated using data from one wave of the Notre Dame Longitudinal Study of Aging. Based on the model used in the illustration, SEMM parameter estimation and correct class assignment are investigated in a large scale simulation study. Design factors of the simulation study are (im)balanced class proportions, (im)balanced factor variances, sample size, and class separation. We compare the fit of models with correct and misspecified within-class structural relations. In addition, we investigate the potential to fit SEMMs with binary indicators. The structure of within-class distributions can be recovered under a wide variety of conditions, indicating the general potential and flexibility of SEMMs to test complex within-class models. Correct class assignment is limited. PMID:20582328

  6. RAS one-equation turbulence model with non-singular eddy-viscosity coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. M.; Agarwal, R. K.; Siikonen, T.

    2016-02-01

    A simplified consistency formulation for Pk/ε (production to dissipation ratio) is devised to obtain a non-singular Cμ (coefficient of eddy-viscosity) in the explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model of Gatski and Speziale. The coefficient Cμ depends non-linearly on both rotational/irrotational strains and is used in the framework of an improved RAS (Rahman-Agarwal-Siikonen) one-equation turbulence model to calculate a few well-documented turbulent flows, yielding predictions in good agreement with the direct numerical simulation and experimental data. The strain-dependent Cμ assists the RAS model in constructing the coefficients and functions such as to benefit complex flows with non-equilibrium turbulence. Comparisons with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model and the shear stress transport k-ω model demonstrate that Cμ improves the response of RAS model to non-equilibrium effects.

  7. Population stochastic modelling (PSM)--an R package for mixed-effects models based on stochastic differential equations.

    PubMed

    Klim, Søren; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Kristensen, Niels Rode; Overgaard, Rune Viig; Madsen, Henrik

    2009-06-01

    The extension from ordinary to stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is an emerging field and has been motivated in a number of articles [N.R. Kristensen, H. Madsen, S.H. Ingwersen, Using stochastic differential equations for PK/PD model development, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 109-141; C.W. Tornøe, R.V. Overgaard, H. Agersø, H.A. Nielsen, H. Madsen, E.N. Jonsson, Stochastic differential equations in NONMEM: implementation, application, and comparison with ordinary differential equations, Pharm. Res. 22 (August(8)) (2005) 1247-1258; R.V. Overgaard, N. Jonsson, C.W. Tornøe, H. Madsen, Non-linear mixed-effects models with stochastic differential equations: implementation of an estimation algorithm, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 85-107; U. Picchini, S. Ditlevsen, A. De Gaetano, Maximum likelihood estimation of a time-inhomogeneous stochastic differential model of glucose dynamics, Math. Med. Biol. 25 (June(2)) (2008) 141-155]. PK/PD models are traditionally based ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with an observation link that incorporates noise. This state-space formulation only allows for observation noise and not for system noise. Extending to SDEs allows for a Wiener noise component in the system equations. This additional noise component enables handling of autocorrelated residuals originating from natural variation or systematic model error. Autocorrelated residuals are often partly ignored in PK/PD modelling although violating the hypothesis for many standard statistical tests. This article presents a package for the statistical program R that is able to handle SDEs in a mixed-effects setting. The estimation method implemented is the FOCE(1) approximation to the population likelihood which is generated from the individual likelihoods that are approximated using the Extended Kalman Filter's one-step predictions. PMID:19268387

  8. Complete Galilean-Invariant Lattice BGK Models for the Navier-Stokes Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Yue-Hong; Zhou, Ye

    1998-01-01

    Galilean invariance has been an important issue in lattice-based hydrodynamics models. Previous models concentrated on the nonlinear advection term. In this paper, we take into account the nonlinear response effect in a systematic way. Using the Chapman-Enskog expansion up to second order, complete Galilean invariant lattice BGK models in one dimension (theta = 3) and two dimensions (theta = 1) for the Navier-Stokes equation have been obtained.

  9. Master equation for a kinetic model of a trading market and its analytic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.; Stinchcombe, Robin B.

    2005-08-01

    We analyze an ideal-gas-like model of a trading market with quenched random saving factors for its agents and show that the steady state income (m) distribution P(m) in the model has a power law tail with Pareto index ν exactly equal to unity, confirming the earlier numerical studies on this model. The analysis starts with the development of a master equation for the time development of P(m) . Precise solutions are then obtained in some special cases.

  10. KdV-Burgers equation in the modified continuum model considering anticipation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaqing; Zheng, Pengjun; Zhu, Keqiang; Ge, Hongxia

    2015-11-01

    The new continuum model mentioned in this paper is developed based on optimal velocity car-following model, which takes the drivers' anticipation effect into account. The critical condition for traffic flow is derived, and nonlinear analysis shows density waves occur in traffic flow because of the small disturbance. Near the neutral stability line, the KdV-Burgers equation is derived and one of the solutions is given. Numerical simulation is carried out to show the local cluster described by the model.

  11. A New Equation Solver for Modeling Turbulent Flow in Coupled Matrix-Conduit Flow Models.

    PubMed

    Hubinger, Bernhard; Birk, Steffen; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Karst aquifers represent dual flow systems consisting of a highly conductive conduit system embedded in a less permeable rock matrix. Hybrid models iteratively coupling both flow systems generally consume much time, especially because of the nonlinearity of turbulent conduit flow. To reduce calculation times compared to those of existing approaches, a new iterative equation solver for the conduit system is developed based on an approximated Newton-Raphson expression and a Gauß-Seidel or successive over-relaxation scheme with a single iteration step at the innermost level. It is implemented and tested in the research code CAVE but should be easily adaptable to similar models such as the Conduit Flow Process for MODFLOW-2005. It substantially reduces the computational effort as demonstrated by steady-state benchmark scenarios as well as by transient karst genesis simulations. Water balance errors are found to be acceptable in most of the test cases. However, the performance and accuracy may deteriorate under unfavorable conditions such as sudden, strong changes of the flow field at some stages of the karst genesis simulations. PMID:26821785

  12. Implementation of a two-equation k-omega turbulence model in NPARC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Dennis A.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Orkwis, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    The implementation of a two-equation k-omega turbulence model into the NPARC flow solver is described. Motivation for the selection of this model is given, major code modifications are outlined, new imputs to the code are described, and results are presented for several validation cases: an incompressible flow over a smooth flat plate, a subsonic diffuser flow, and a shock-induced separated flow. Comparison of results with the k-epsilon model indicate that the k-omega model predicts simple flows equally well whereas, for adverse pressure gradient flows, the k-omega model outperforms the other turbulence models in NPARC.

  13. Modeling Individual Damped Linear Oscillator Processes with Differential Equations: Using Surrogate Data Analysis to Estimate the Smoothing Parameter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboeck, Pascal R.; Boker, Steven M.; Bergeman, C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Among the many methods available for modeling intraindividual time series, differential equation modeling has several advantages that make it promising for applications to psychological data. One interesting differential equation model is that of the damped linear oscillator (DLO), which can be used to model variables that have a tendency to…

  14. Computation of oscillating airfoil flows with one- and two-equation turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekaterinaris, J. A.; Menter, F. R.

    1994-01-01

    The ability of one- and two-equation turbulence models to predict unsteady separated flows over airfoils is evaluated. An implicit, factorized, upwind-biased numerical scheme is used for the integration of the compressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent eddy viscosity is obtained from the computed mean flowfield by integration of the turbulent field equations. One- and two-equation turbulence models are first tested for a separated airfoil flow at fixed angle of incidence. The same models are then applied to compute the unsteady flowfields about airfoils undergoing oscillatory motion at low subsonic Mach numbers. Experimental cases where the flow has been tripped at the leading-edge and where natural transition was allowed to occur naturally are considered. The more recently developed turbulence models capture the physics of unsteady separated flow significantly better than the standard kappa-epsilon and kappa-omega models. However, certain differences in the hysteresis effects are observed. For an untripped high-Reynolds-number flow, it was found necessary to take into account the leading-edge transitional flow region to capture the correct physical mechanism that leads to dynamic stall.

  15. Modelling the rheological behavior of high solids CWM systems using a new rheological equation

    SciTech Connect

    Hafaiedh, A.; Dinger, D.R.; Funk, J.E.

    1986-05-01

    The understanding of the rheology of concentrated suspensions is an important part of the control and preparation of ceramic slips and pastes and coal water slurries. Many studies have been conducted on concentrated suspensions; many attempts have been made to formulate equations which describe their behavior; and many attempts have been made to use these equations to predict the behavior of slurries and slips. This paper describes a modification to one of the more commonly used rheological equations, the Bingham equation (E.C. Bingham, ''An Investigation of the Laws of Plastic Flow'', Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards'', Volume 13, pp. 309-353 (1916-1917)), and the initial attempts to use it to understand and model the rheological behavior of high solids CWM. The paper will include the description of the new equation, its derivation, and examples of the various forms of the resulting rheograms. Then in the second part of the paper, the equation will be used to analyze the behavior of some typical CWM systems made from Cedar Grove and Moss seam coals. 8 refs., 18 figs.

  16. Electrical Circuit Modeling Considering a Transient Space Charge for Nonsteady Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2015-10-01

    Transient space charge phenomena at high step voltages are interesting since they play a central role in many exotic nonequilibrium phenomena of ion dynamics in an electrolyte. However, the fundamental equations [i.e., the nonsteady Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations] have not been solved analytically at high applied voltages because of their large nonlinearity. In this study, on the basis of the steady PNP solution, we propose an electrical circuit model that considers transient space charge effects and find that the dc and ac responses of the total charge of the electrical double layer are in fairly good agreement with the numerical results even at large applied voltages. Furthermore, on the basis of this model, we find approximate analytical solutions for the nonsteady PNP equations that are in good agreement with the numerical solutions of the concentration, charge density, and potential distribution at high applied voltages at each time in a surface region.

  17. Modeling for cardiac excitation propagation based on the Nernst-Planck equation and homogenization.

    PubMed

    Okada, Jun-ichi; Sugiura, Seiryo; Hisada, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    The bidomain model is a commonly used mathematical model of the electrical properties of the cardiac muscle that takes into account the anisotropy of both the intracellular and extracellular spaces. However, the equations contain self-contradiction such that the update of ion concentrations does not consider intracellular or extracellular ion movements due to the gradient of electric potential and the membrane charge as capacitive currents in spite of the fact that those currents are taken into account in forming Kirchhoff's first law. To overcome this problem, we start with the Nernst-Planck equation, the ionic conservation law, and the electroneutrality condition at the cellular level, and by introducing a homogenization method and assuming uniformity of variables at the microscopic scale, we derive rational bidomain equations at the macroscopic level. PMID:23848709

  18. Modeling for cardiac excitation propagation based on the Nernst-Planck equation and homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Jun-ichi; Sugiura, Seiryo; Hisada, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    The bidomain model is a commonly used mathematical model of the electrical properties of the cardiac muscle that takes into account the anisotropy of both the intracellular and extracellular spaces. However, the equations contain self-contradiction such that the update of ion concentrations does not consider intracellular or extracellular ion movements due to the gradient of electric potential and the membrane charge as capacitive currents in spite of the fact that those currents are taken into account in forming Kirchhoff's first law. To overcome this problem, we start with the Nernst-Planck equation, the ionic conservation law, and the electroneutrality condition at the cellular level, and by introducing a homogenization method and assuming uniformity of variables at the microscopic scale, we derive rational bidomain equations at the macroscopic level.

  19. Analysis of a microcrack model and constitutive equations for time-dependent dilatancy of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zuan

    2003-11-01

    Based on experimental observations and theoretical analyses, the author introduces an ideal microcrack model in which an array of cracks with the same shape and initial size is distributed evenly in rocks. The mechanism of creep dilatancy for rocks is analysed theoretically. Initiation, propagation and linkage of pre-existing microcracks during creep are well described. Also, the relationship between the velocity of microcrack growth and the duration of the creep process is derived numerically. The relationship agrees well with the character of typical experimental creep curves, and includes three stages of creep. Then the damage constitutive equations and damage evolution equations, which describe the dilatant behaviour of rocks, are presented. Because the dilatant estimated value is taken as the damage variable, the relationship between the microscopic model and the macroscopic constitutive equations is established. In this way the mechanical behaviour of rocks can be predicted.

  20. A new lattice Boltzmann model for solving the coupled viscous Burgers’ equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Huilin; Ma, Changfeng

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a new lattice Boltzmann model for the coupled nonlinear system of viscous Burgers’ equation is proposed by using the double evolutionary equations. Through selecting equilibrium distribution functions and amending functions properly, the governing evolution system can be recovered correctly according to our proposed scheme, in which the Chapman-Enskog expansion is employed. The effects of space and time resolutions on the accuracy and stability of the model are numerically investigated in detail. The numerical solutions for various initial and boundary conditions are calculated and validated against analytic solutions or other numerical solutions reported in previous studies. It is found that the numerical results agree well with the analytic solutions, which indicates the potential of the present algorithm for solving the coupled nonlinear system of viscous Burgers’ equation.

  1. Fractional cable equation models for anomalous electrodiffusion in nerve cells: infinite domain solutions.

    PubMed

    Langlands, T A M; Henry, B I; Wearne, S L

    2009-12-01

    We introduce fractional Nernst-Planck equations and derive fractional cable equations as macroscopic models for electrodiffusion of ions in nerve cells when molecular diffusion is anomalous subdiffusion due to binding, crowding or trapping. The anomalous subdiffusion is modelled by replacing diffusion constants with time dependent operators parameterized by fractional order exponents. Solutions are obtained as functions of the scaling parameters for infinite cables and semi-infinite cables with instantaneous current injections. Voltage attenuation along dendrites in response to alpha function synaptic inputs is computed. Action potential firing rates are also derived based on simple integrate and fire versions of the models. Our results show that electrotonic properties and firing rates of nerve cells are altered by anomalous subdiffusion in these models. We have suggested electrophysiological experiments to calibrate and validate the models. PMID:19221755

  2. Turbulent flow past a backward-facing step - A critical evaluation of two-equation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thangam, S.; Speziale, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of two-equation models to accurately predict separated flows is analyzed from a combined theoretical and computational standpoint. Turbulent flow past a backward facing step is chosen as a test case in an effort to resolve the variety of conflicting results that were published during the past decade concerning the performance of two-equation models. It is found that the errors in the reported predictions of the k-epsilon model have two major origins: (1) numerical problems arising from inadequate resolution, and (2) inaccurate predictions for normal Reynolds stress differences arising from the use of an isotropic eddy viscosity. Inadequacies in near wall modelling play a substantially smaller role. Detailed calculations are presented which strongly indicate the standard k-epsilon model - when modified with an independently calibrated anisotropic eddy viscosity - can yield surprisingly good predictions for the backstep problem.

  3. Minimal moment equations for stochastic models of biochemical reaction networks with partially finite state space.

    PubMed

    Ruess, Jakob

    2015-12-28

    Many stochastic models of biochemical reaction networks contain some chemical species for which the number of molecules that are present in the system can only be finite (for instance due to conservation laws), but also other species that can be present in arbitrarily large amounts. The prime example of such networks are models of gene expression, which typically contain a small and finite number of possible states for the promoter but an infinite number of possible states for the amount of mRNA and protein. One of the main approaches to analyze such models is through the use of equations for the time evolution of moments of the chemical species. Recently, a new approach based on conditional moments of the species with infinite state space given all the different possible states of the finite species has been proposed. It was argued that this approach allows one to capture more details about the full underlying probability distribution with a smaller number of equations. Here, I show that the result that less moments provide more information can only stem from an unnecessarily complicated description of the system in the classical formulation. The foundation of this argument will be the derivation of moment equations that describe the complete probability distribution over the finite state space but only low-order moments over the infinite state space. I will show that the number of equations that is needed is always less than what was previously claimed and always less than the number of conditional moment equations up to the same order. To support these arguments, a symbolic algorithm is provided that can be used to derive minimal systems of unconditional moment equations for models with partially finite state space. PMID:26723647

  4. Minimal moment equations for stochastic models of biochemical reaction networks with partially finite state space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruess, Jakob

    2015-12-01

    Many stochastic models of biochemical reaction networks contain some chemical species for which the number of molecules that are present in the system can only be finite (for instance due to conservation laws), but also other species that can be present in arbitrarily large amounts. The prime example of such networks are models of gene expression, which typically contain a small and finite number of possible states for the promoter but an infinite number of possible states for the amount of mRNA and protein. One of the main approaches to analyze such models is through the use of equations for the time evolution of moments of the chemical species. Recently, a new approach based on conditional moments of the species with infinite state space given all the different possible states of the finite species has been proposed. It was argued that this approach allows one to capture more details about the full underlying probability distribution with a smaller number of equations. Here, I show that the result that less moments provide more information can only stem from an unnecessarily complicated description of the system in the classical formulation. The foundation of this argument will be the derivation of moment equations that describe the complete probability distribution over the finite state space but only low-order moments over the infinite state space. I will show that the number of equations that is needed is always less than what was previously claimed and always less than the number of conditional moment equations up to the same order. To support these arguments, a symbolic algorithm is provided that can be used to derive minimal systems of unconditional moment equations for models with partially finite state space.

  5. Governing Equations of Tissue Modelling and Remodelling: A Unified Generalised Description of Surface and Bulk Balance

    PubMed Central

    Buenzli, Pascal R.

    2016-01-01

    Several biological tissues undergo changes in their geometry and in their bulk material properties by modelling and remodelling processes. Modelling synthesises tissue in some regions and removes tissue in others. Remodelling overwrites old tissue material properties with newly formed, immature tissue properties. As a result, tissues are made up of different “patches”, i.e., adjacent tissue regions of different ages and different material properties, within evolving boundaries. In this paper, generalised equations governing the spatio-temporal evolution of such tissues are developed within the continuum model. These equations take into account nonconservative, discontinuous surface mass balance due to creation and destruction of material at moving interfaces, and bulk balance due to tissue maturation. These equations make it possible to model patchy tissue states and their evolution without explicitly maintaining a record of when/where resorption and formation processes occurred. The time evolution of spatially averaged tissue properties is derived systematically by integration. These spatially-averaged equations cannot be written in closed form as they retain traces that tissue destruction is localised at tissue boundaries. The formalism developed in this paper is applied to bone tissues, which exhibit strong material heterogeneities due to their slow mineralisation and remodelling processes. Evolution equations are proposed in particular for osteocyte density and bone mineral density. Effective average equations for bone mineral density (BMD) and tissue mineral density (TMD) are derived using a mean-field approximation. The error made by this approximation when remodelling patchy tissue is investigated. The specific signatures of the time evolution of BMD or TMD during remodelling events are exhibited. These signatures may provide a way to detect remodelling events at lower, unseen spatial resolutions from microCT scans. PMID:27043309

  6. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 1; Matrix Constitutive Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.

  7. Parallel FEM LES with one-equation subgrid-scale model for incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Liu, Chun-Ho; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) with a one-equation subgrid-scale (SGS) model based on the Galerkin finite element method and three-dimensional (3D) brick elements. The governing filtered Navier-Stokes equations were solved by a second-order accurate fractional-step method, which decomposed the implicit velocity-pressure coupling in incompressible flow and segregated the solution to the advection and diffusion terms. The transport equation for the SGS turbulent kinetic energy was solved to calculate the SGS processes. This FEM LES model was applied to study the turbulence of the benchmark open channel flow at a Reynolds number Reτ = 180 (based on the friction velocity and channel height) using different model constants and grid resolutions. By comparing the turbulence statistics calculated by the current model with those obtained from direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiments in literature, an optimum set of model constants for the current FEM LES model was established. The budgets of turbulent kinetic energy and vertical Reynolds stress were then analysed for the open channel flow. Finally, the flow structures were visualised to further reveal some important characteristics. It was demonstrated that the current model with the optimum model constants can predict well the organised structure near the wall and free surface, and can be further applied to other fundamental and engineering applications.

  8. Do Test Design and Uses Influence Test Preparation? Testing a Model of Washback with Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin; Andrews, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces Expectancy-value motivation theory to explain the paths of influences from perceptions of test design and uses to test preparation as a special case of washback on learning. Based on this theory, two conceptual models were proposed and tested via Structural Equation Modeling. Data collection involved over 870 test takers of…

  9. A Model for Integrating Fixed-, Random-, and Mixed-Effects Meta-Analyses into Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) are two important statistical methods in the behavioral, social, and medical sciences. They are generally treated as two unrelated topics in the literature. The present article proposes a model to integrate fixed-, random-, and mixed-effects meta-analyses into the SEM framework. By applying an…

  10. Modeling ballistic effects in frequency-dependent transient thermal transport using diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maassen, Jesse; Lundstrom, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Understanding ballistic phonon transport effects in transient thermoreflectance experiments and explaining the observed deviations from classical theory remains a challenge. Diffusion equations are simple and computationally efficient but are widely believed to break down when the characteristic length scale is similar or less than the phonon mean-free-path. Building on our prior work, we demonstrate how well-known diffusion equations, namely, the hyperbolic heat equation and the Cattaneo equation, can be used to model ballistic phonon effects in frequency-dependent periodic steady-state thermal transport. Our analytical solutions are found to compare excellently to rigorous numerical results of the phonon Boltzmann transport equation. The correct physical boundary conditions can be different from those traditionally used and are paramount for accurately capturing ballistic effects. To illustrate the technique, we consider a simple model problem using two different, commonly used heating conditions. We demonstrate how this framework can easily handle detailed material properties, by considering the case of bulk silicon using a full phonon dispersion and mean-free-path distribution. This physically transparent approach provides clear insights into the nonequilibrium physics of quasi-ballistic phonon transport and its impact on thermal transport properties.

  11. Theoretical and numerical modelling of chaotic electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) oscillations by Jerk equation

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, A. M. Kumar Shaw, Pankaj; Janaki, M. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.

    2014-02-15

    In the last few years, third order explicit autonomous differential equations, known as jerk equations, have generated great interest as they show features of regular and chaotic motion. In this paper, we have modelled chaotic electrostatic ion cyclotron oscillations using a third order nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) and investigated its nonlinear dynamical properties. The nonlinear ODE has been derived for a plasma system from a two fluid model in the presence of a source term, under the influence of an external magnetic field, which is perpendicular to the direction of the wave vector. It is seen that the equation does not require an external forcing term to obtain chaotic behaviour. The stability of the solutions of the equation has been investigated analytically as well as numerically, and the bifurcation diagram obtained shows a number of interesting phenomena for various regimes of parameters. The coexisting attractors as well as their corresponding basins are shown and the phase space portraits at different conditions are obtained numerically and shown here. The results obtained here are in agreement with preliminary experiments conducted for a similar configuration of a plasma system.

  12. Proton transport model in the ionosphere 1. Multistream approach of the transport equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galand, M.; Lilensten, J.; Kofman, W.; Sidje, R. B.

    1997-09-01

    The suprathermal particles, electrons and protons, coming from the magnetosphere and precipitating into the high-latitude atmosphere are an energy source of the Earth's ionosphere. They interact with ambient thermal gas through inelastic and elastic collisions. The physical quantities perturbed by these precipitations, such as the heating rate, the electron production rate, or the emission intensities, can be provided in solving the kinetic stationary Boltzmann equation. This equation yields particle fluxes as a function of altitude, energy, and pitch angle. While this equation has been solved through different ways for the electron transport and fully tested, the proton transport is more complicated. Because of charge-changing reactions, the latter is a set of two-coupled transport equations that must be solved: one for protons and the other for H atoms. We present here a new approach that solves the multistream proton/hydrogen transport equations encompassing the collision angular redistributions and the magnetic mirroring effect. In order to validate our model we discuss the energy conservation and we compare with another model under the same inputs and with rocket observations. The influence of the angular redistributions is discussed in a forthcoming paper.

  13. Improving the Significance of MM/SD Risk Analysis by Application of the SRL Ballistic Limit Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Frank; Putzar, Robin; Ryan, Shannon; Lambert, Michel

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, a new ballistic limit equation (BLE) for satellite equipment placed behind satellite structure walls is presented. Application of this equation in micrometeoroid and space debris (MM/SD) risk analysis (RA) tools for satellites can lead to a more realistic quantitative assessment of the actual failure risk of satellite equipment from hypervelocity impacts (HVI) and hence, of the failure risk of a satellite. This is because in contrast to the BLEs that are currently in use in RA tools, in the new equation the intrinsic shielding capabilities of the satellite equipment are considered explicitly.The BLE has been developed for application to configurations consisting of a Whipple shield or a honeycomb sandwich panel placed in front of a backwall. It considers explicitly the thickness, material and spacing of each of the three involved plates. The backwall represents the cover plate or the external wall of spacecraft equipment that is placed behind the spacecraft's structure wall. The BLE has been experimentally calibrated to the most common spacecraft equipment: fuel and heat pipes, pressure vessels, electronics boxes, harness, and batteries. Further, suitable failure criteria have been defined for each equipment type. The critical projectile masses calculated with the new BLE for satellite equipment placed behind satellite structure walls are considerably larger than the critical projectile masses calculated for the standalone structure wall of the satellite.

  14. Model Selection for Equating Testlet-Based Tests in the NEAT Design: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei; Li, Feifei; Wolfe, Edward W.; Mao, Xia

    2012-01-01

    For those tests solely composed of testlets, local item independency assumption tends to be violated. This study, by using empirical data from a large-scale state assessment program, was interested in investigates the effects of using different models on equating results under the non-equivalent group anchor-test (NEAT) design. Specifically, the…

  15. Student Interpretations of the Terms in First-Order Ordinary Differential Equations in Modelling Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David R.; Jovanoski, Zlatko

    2004-01-01

    A study of first-year undergraduate students' interpretational difficulties with first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in modelling contexts was conducted using a diagnostic quiz, exam questions and follow-up interviews. These investigations indicate that when thinking about such ODEs, many students muddle thinking about the function…

  16. Multilevel Structural Equation Models for the Analysis of Comparative Data on Educational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harvey; Bonnet, Gerard; Rocher, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment comparative study of reading performance among 15-year-olds is reanalyzed using statistical procedures that allow the full complexity of the data structures to be explored. The article extends existing multilevel factor analysis and structural equation models and shows how this can extract richer…

  17. Using Structural Equation Modeling to Assess Functional Connectivity in the Brain: Power and Sample Size Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios; Simos, Panagiotis; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Fletcher, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed the impact of sample size on the power and fit of structural equation modeling applied to functional brain connectivity hypotheses. The data consisted of time-constrained minimum norm estimates of regional brain activity during performance of a reading task obtained with magnetoencephalography. Power analysis was first…

  18. The Effect of Perceived Instructional Effectiveness on Student Loyalty: A Multilevel Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Gulhayat Golbasi; Noyan, Fatma

    2009-01-01

    Social sciences research often entails the analysis of data with a multilevel structure. An example of multilevel data is containing measurement on university students nested within instructors. This paper concentrates on multilevel analysis of structural equation modeling with educational data. Data used in this study were gathered from 17647…

  19. Testing Mediation Using Multiple Regression and Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in Secondary Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Spencer D.

    2011-01-01

    Mediation analysis in child and adolescent development research is possible using large secondary data sets. This article provides an overview of two statistical methods commonly used to test mediated effects in secondary analysis: multiple regression and structural equation modeling (SEM). Two empirical studies are presented to illustrate the…

  20. Numerical solutions of reaction-diffusion equations: Application to neural and cardiac models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yanyan Claire; Fenton, Flavio H.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the implementation of the explicit Euler, Crank-Nicolson, and implicit alternating direction methods for solving partial differential equations and apply these methods to obtain numerical solutions of three excitable-media models used to study neurons and cardiomyocyte dynamics. We discuss the implementation, accuracy, speed, and stability of these numerical methods.

  1. A Polychoric Instrumental Variable (PIV) Estimator for Structural Equation Models with Categorical Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Kenneth A.; Maydeu-Olivares, Albert

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new polychoric instrumental variable (PIV) estimator to use in structural equation models (SEMs) with categorical observed variables. The PIV estimator is a generalization of Bollen's (Psychometrika 61:109-121, 1996) 2SLS/IV estimator for continuous variables to categorical endogenous variables. We derive the PIV estimator…

  2. Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling: A More Flexible Representation of Substantive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthen, Bengt; Asparouhov, Tihomir

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a new approach to factor analysis and structural equation modeling using Bayesian analysis. The new approach replaces parameter specifications of exact zeros with approximate zeros based on informative, small-variance priors. It is argued that this produces an analysis that better reflects substantive theories. The proposed…

  3. A New Look at the Big Five Factor Structure through Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Muthen, Bengt; Asparouhov, Tihomir; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    NEO instruments are widely used to assess Big Five personality factors, but confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) conducted at the item level do not support their a priori structure due, in part, to the overly restrictive CFA assumptions. We demonstrate that exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), an integration of CFA and exploratory…

  4. Teacher's Corner: Structural Equation Modeling with the Sem Package in R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, John

    2006-01-01

    R is free, open-source, cooperatively developed software that implements the S statistical programming language and computing environment. The current capabilities of R are extensive, and it is in wide use, especially among statisticians. The sem package provides basic structural equation modeling facilities in R, including the ability to fit…

  5. Latent Differential Equation Modeling of Self-Regulatory and Coregulatory Affective Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Joel S.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We examine emotion self-regulation and coregulation in romantic couples using daily self-reports of positive and negative affect. We fit these data using a damped linear oscillator model specified as a latent differential equation to investigate affect dynamics at the individual level and coupled influences for the 2 partners in each couple.…

  6. Using a Structural Equation Model to Examine Factors Affecting Married Individuals' Sexual Embarrassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Eyup; Arici, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to predict the effects of levels of sexual awareness, sexual courage, and sexual self-disclosure on sexual embarrassment. Data was collected from 336 married individuals, who have students in the Sultangazi District of Istanbul. According to the structural equation model (SEM), sexual self-disclosure, directly, and sexual courage…

  7. Sample Size Requirements for Structural Equation Models: An Evaluation of Power, Bias, and Solution Propriety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Erika J.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Miller, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Determining sample size requirements for structural equation modeling (SEM) is a challenge often faced by investigators, peer reviewers, and grant writers. Recent years have seen a large increase in SEMs in the behavioral science literature, but consideration of sample size requirements for applied SEMs often relies on outdated rules-of-thumb.…

  8. A Program Implementing Mardia's Multivariate Normality Test for Use in Structural Equation Modeling with Latent Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntosh, Randall

    1997-01-01

    Presents KANT, a FORTRAN 77 software program that tests assumptions of multivariate normality in a data set. Based on the test developed by M. V. Mardia (1985), the KANT program is useful for those engaged in structural equation modeling with latent variables. (SLD)

  9. Understanding the Impact of Trauma Exposure on Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xing-Li; Shi, Jian-Nong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of trauma exposure on the posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) of children who resided near the epicenter of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The mechanisms of this impact were explored via structural equation models with self-esteem and coping strategies included as mediators. The…

  10. A Robust Bayesian Approach for Structural Equation Models with Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Xia, Ye-Mao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, normal/independent distributions, including but not limited to the multivariate t distribution, the multivariate contaminated distribution, and the multivariate slash distribution, are used to develop a robust Bayesian approach for analyzing structural equation models with complete or missing data. In the context of a nonlinear…

  11. Accurate integral equation theory for the central force model of liquid water and ionic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiye, Toshiko; Haymet, A. D. J.

    1988-10-01

    The atom-atom pair correlation functions and thermodynamics of the central force model of water, introduced by Lemberg, Stillinger, and Rahman, have been calculated accurately by an integral equation method which incorporates two new developments. First, a rapid new scheme has been used to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation. This scheme combines the renormalization methods of Allnatt, and Rossky and Friedman with an extension of the trigonometric basis-set solution of Labik and co-workers. Second, by adding approximate ``bridge'' functions to the hypernetted-chain (HNC) integral equation, we have obtained predictions for liquid water in which the hydrogen bond length and number are in good agreement with ``exact'' computer simulations of the same model force laws. In addition, for dilute ionic solutions, the ion-oxygen and ion-hydrogen coordination numbers display both the physically correct stoichiometry and good agreement with earlier simulations. These results represent a measurable improvement over both a previous HNC solution of the central force model and the ex-RISM integral equation solutions for the TIPS and other rigid molecule models of water.

  12. Emptiness Formation Probability of the Six-Vertex Model and the Sixth Painlevé Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaev, A. V.; Pronko, A. G.

    2016-07-01

    We show that the emptiness formation probability of the six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions at its free-fermion point is a {τ}-function of the sixth Painlevé equation. Using this fact we derive asymptotics of the emptiness formation probability in the thermodynamic limit.

  13. Application of Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling to Evaluate the Academic Motivation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frédéric; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Litalien, David; Valois, Pierre; Vallerand, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the authors examined the construct validity of scores of the Academic Motivation Scale using exploratory structural equation modeling. Study 1 and Study 2 involved 1,416 college students and 4,498 high school students, respectively. First, results of both studies indicated that the factor structure tested with exploratory…

  14. Complex structures and zero-curvature equations for σ-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Dmitri

    2016-09-01

    We construct zero-curvature representations for the equations of motion of a class of σ-models with complex homogeneous target spaces, not necessarily symmetric. We show that in the symmetric case the proposed flat connection is gauge-equivalent to the conventional one.

  15. Structural Equation Modeling in Language Testing and Learning Research: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In'nami, Yo; Koizumi, Rie

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recent increase of structural equation modeling (SEM) in language testing and learning research and Kunnan's (1998) call for the proper use of SEM to produce useful findings, there seem to be no reviews about how SEM is applied in these areas or about the extent to which the current application accords with appropriate practices. To…

  16. Self-Conscious Emotions in Response to Perceived Failure: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidjerano, Temi

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the occurrence of self-conscious emotions in response to perceived academic failure among 4th-grade students from the United States and Bulgaria, and the author investigated potential contributors to such negative emotional experiences. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that regardless of country, negative…

  17. Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Structural Equation Models with Multiple Interaction and Quadratic Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Andreas G.; Muthen, Bengt O.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a nonlinear structural equation model is introduced and a quasi-maximum likelihood method for simultaneous estimation and testing of multiple nonlinear effects is developed. The focus of the new methodology lies on efficiency, robustness, and computational practicability. Monte-Carlo studies indicate that the method is highly…

  18. A Bayesian Approach for Nonlinear Structural Equation Models with Dichotomous Variables Using Logit and Probit Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Song, Xin-Yuan; Cai, Jing-Heng

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of ordered binary and unordered binary data has received considerable attention in social and psychological research. This article introduces a Bayesian approach, which has several nice features in practical applications, for analyzing nonlinear structural equation models with dichotomous data. We demonstrate how to use the software…

  19. Scholastic Achievement in High School Explained? Validation of a Longitudinal Structural Equations Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellle, Laura; Tuijula, Tiina; Laakkonen, Eero

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to shed light on the mechanisms behind scholastic achievement in high school by testing a structural equations model based on the work by Vermunt (1998). It was presumed that self-regulation of learning would predict scholastic achievement and that learning orientations would predict self-regulation of learning. A…

  20. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  1. The One and Two Loops Renormalization Group Equations in the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez W, S. Rebeca; Solis R, H. Gabriel; Kielanowski, P.

    2006-01-06

    In the context of the Standard Model (SM), we compare the analytical and the numerical solutions of the Renormalization Group Equations (RGE) for the relevant couplings to one and two loops. This information will be an important ingredient for the precise evaluation of boundary values on the physical Higgs Mass.

  2. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling, Integrating CFA and EFA: Application to Students' Evaluations of University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Muthen, Bengt; Asparouhov, Tihomir; Ludtke, Oliver; Robitzsch, Alexander; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    This study is a methodological-substantive synergy, demonstrating the power and flexibility of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) methods that integrate confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses (CFA and EFA), as applied to substantively important questions based on multidimentional students' evaluations of university teaching…

  3. Cross Coursing in Mathematics: Physical Modelling in Differential Equations Crossing to Discrete Dynamical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2012-01-01

    We give an example of cross coursing in which a subject or approach in one course in undergraduate mathematics is used in a completely different course. This situation crosses falling body modelling in an upper level differential equations course into a modest discrete dynamical systems unit of a first-year mathematics course. (Contains 1 figure.)

  4. Use of Item Parceling in Structural Equation Modeling with Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcan, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Parceling is referred to as a procedure for computing sums or average scores across multiple items. Parcels instead of individual items are then used as indicators of latent factors in the structural equation modeling analysis (Bandalos 2002, 2008; Little et al., 2002; Yang, Nay, & Hoyle, 2010). Item parceling may be applied to alleviate some…

  5. Factors Affecting Higher Order Thinking Skills of Students: A Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budsankom, Prayoonsri; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Damrongpanit, Suntorapot; Chuensirimongkol, Jariya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to develop and identify the validity of factors affecting higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. The thinking skills can be divided into three types: analytical, critical, and creative thinking. This analysis is done by applying the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) based on a database of…

  6. Structural Equation Modeling in Assessing Students' Understanding of the State Changes of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsitsipis, Georgios; Papageorgiou, George

    2012-01-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling (SEM) is applied to an instrument assessing students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter, the collective properties and physical changes, such as melting, evaporation, boiling and condensation. The structural relationships among particular groups of items were investigated. In addition,…

  7. Bias and Efficiency in Structural Equation Modeling: Maximum Likelihood versus Robust Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Xiaoling; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2011-01-01

    In the structural equation modeling literature, the normal-distribution-based maximum likelihood (ML) method is most widely used, partly because the resulting estimator is claimed to be asymptotically unbiased and most efficient. However, this may not hold when data deviate from normal distribution. Outlying cases or nonnormally distributed data,…

  8. Unification of the general non-linear sigma model and the Virasoro master equation

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, J. de; Halpern, M.B. |

    1997-06-01

    The Virasoro master equation describes a large set of conformal field theories known as the affine-Virasoro constructions, in the operator algebra (affinie Lie algebra) of the WZW model, while the einstein equations of the general non-linear sigma model describe another large set of conformal field theories. This talk summarizes recent work which unifies these two sets of conformal field theories, together with a presumable large class of new conformal field theories. The basic idea is to consider spin-two operators of the form L{sub ij}{partial_derivative}x{sup i}{partial_derivative}x{sup j} in the background of a general sigma model. The requirement that these operators satisfy the Virasoro algebra leads to a set of equations called the unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation, in which the spin-two spacetime field L{sub ij} cuples to the usual spacetime fields of the sigma model. The one-loop form of this unified system is presented, and some of its algebraic and geometric properties are discussed.

  9. A Structural Equation Modelling of the Academic Self-Concept Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matovu, Musa

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at validating the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005) in measuring academic self-concept among university students. Structural equation modelling was used to validate the scale which was composed of two subscales; academic confidence and academic effort. The study was conducted on university students; males and…

  10. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

    2011-01-01

    OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the "R" statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are introduced--these…

  11. Spiritual Leadership and Organizational Culture: A Study of Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadag, Engin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the spiritual leadership behaviors of school principles in a structural equation model. The study is designed to test causality with the assumption that causality exists between the two variables. In this study, spiritual leadership behavior of managers is treated as the independent variable whereas the…

  12. A Structural Equation Modelling Approach for Massive Blended Synchronous Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannan, Kalpana; Narayanan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach for blended synchronous teacher training workshop. It examines the relationship among various factors that influence the Satisfaction (SAT) of participating teachers. Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire from about 500 engineering college teachers. These teachers…

  13. Superwoman Schema: Using Structural Equation Modeling to Investigate Measurement Invariance in a Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Teneka C.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument is critical to understanding how well an instrument measures what it intends to measure, and ensuring proposed use and interpretation of questionnaire scores are valid. The current study uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques to examine the factorial structure and…

  14. University Students' Behaviors Pertaining to Sustainability: A Structural Equation Model with Sustainability-Related Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Elvan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Teksoz, Gaye

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct a structural equation model to examine the links among attitudes, values, and behaviors pertaining to sustainability, participation in outdoor recreation as well as gender and tendency to follow mass media for university students. The data were collected by on-line administration of a survey to 958…

  15. Testing Time-Invariance of Variable Specificity in Repeated Measure Designs Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Amemiya, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    A structural equation modeling method for examining time-invariance of variable specificity in longitudinal studies with multiple measures is outlined, which is developed within a confirmatory factor-analytic framework. The approach represents a likelihood ratio test for the hypothesis of stability in the specificity part of the residual term…

  16. Mathematical Modeling with a "CAS" in an Introductory Course of Differential Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderas Puga, Angel

    In this paper are described some features of the intensive use of math software, primarily Derive, in the context of modeling in an introductory university course in differential equations. Different aspects are detailed: changes in the curriculum that includes not only course contents, but also the sequence of introduction to various topics and…

  17. An Extension of IRT-Based Equating to the Dichotomous Testlet Response Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Wei; Cao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Current procedures for equating number-correct scores using traditional item response theory (IRT) methods assume local independence. However, when tests are constructed using testlets, one concern is the violation of the local item independence assumption. The testlet response theory (TRT) model is one way to accommodate local item dependence.…

  18. The Relation among Fit Indexes, Power, and Sample Size in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kevin H.

    2005-01-01

    The relation among fit indexes, power, and sample size in structural equation modeling is examined. The noncentrality parameter is required to compute power. The 2 existing methods of computing power have estimated the noncentrality parameter by specifying an alternative hypothesis or alternative fit. These methods cannot be implemented easily and…

  19. Reliability of Scales with General Structure: Point and Interval Estimation Using a Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a method for obtaining point and interval estimates of reliability for composites of measures with a general structure. The approach is based on fitting a correspondingly constrained structural equation model and generalizes earlier covariance structure analysis methods for scale reliability estimation with congeneric tests. (SLD)

  20. Structural Equation Modeling towards Online Learning Readiness, Academic Motivations, and Perceived Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Kaymak, Zeliha Demir; Gungoren, Ozlem Canan

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between online learning readiness, academic motivations, and perceived learning was investigated via structural equation modeling in the research. The population of the research consisted of 750 students who studied using the online learning programs of Sakarya University. 420 of the students who volunteered for the research and…

  1. Anti-Transgender Prejudice: A Structural Equation Model of Associated Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbe, Esther N.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify theoretically relevant key correlates of anti-transgender prejudice. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to test the unique relations of anti-lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) prejudice; traditional gender role attitudes; need for closure; and social dominance orientation with anti-transgender prejudice.…

  2. The Effects of Selection Strategies for Bivariate Loglinear Smoothing Models on NEAT Equating Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Holland, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, eight statistical strategies were evaluated for selecting the parameterizations of loglinear models for smoothing the bivariate test score distributions used in nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) equating. Four of the strategies were based on significance tests of chi-square statistics (Likelihood Ratio, Pearson,…

  3. Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling: A Two-Stage Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W. L.; Chan, Wai

    2005-01-01

    To synthesize studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM), researchers usually use Pearson correlations (univariate r), Fisher z scores (univariate z), or generalized least squares (GLS) to combine the correlation matrices. The pooled correlation matrix is then analyzed by the use of SEM. Questionable inferences may occur for these ad hoc…

  4. How To Generate Non-normal Data for Simulation of Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Stefan

    1997-01-01

    A procedure is proposed to generate non-normal data for simulation of structural equation models. The procedure uses a simple transformation of univariate random variables for the generation of data on latent and error variables under some restrictions for the elements of the covariance matrices for these variables. (SLD)

  5. Application of partial differential equation modeling of the control/structural dynamics of flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Rajiyah, H.

    1991-01-01

    Partial differential equations for modeling the structural dynamics and control systems of flexible spacecraft are applied here in order to facilitate systems analysis and optimization of these spacecraft. Example applications are given, including the structural dynamics of SCOLE, the Solar Array Flight Experiment, the Mini-MAST truss, and the LACE satellite. The development of related software is briefly addressed.

  6. An Application of Structural Equation Modeling for Developing Good Teaching Characteristics Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phiakoksong, Somjin; Niwattanakul, Suphakit; Angskun, Thara

    2013-01-01

    Ontology is a knowledge representation technique which aims to make knowledge explicit by defining the core concepts and their relationships. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is a statistical technique which aims to explore the core factors from empirical data and estimates the relationship between these factors. This article presents an…

  7. Implementation of Advanced Two Equation Turbulence Models in the USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Qun-Zhen; Massey, Steven J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.

    2000-01-01

    USM3D is a widely-used unstructured flow solver for simulating inviscid and viscous flows over complex geometries. The current version (version 5.0) of USM3D, however, does not have advanced turbulence models to accurately simulate complicated flow. We have implemented two modified versions of the original Jones and Launder k-epsilon "two-equation" turbulence model and the Girimaji algebraic Reynolds stress model in USM3D. Tests have been conducted for three flat plate boundary layer cases, a RAE2822 airfoil and an ONERA M6 wing. The results are compared with those from direct numerical simulation, empirical formulae, theoretical results, and the existing Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model.

  8. A coupling model of the radiative transport equation for calculating photon migration in biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hiroyuki; Okawa, Shinpei; Yamada, Yukio; Hoshi, Yoko; Watanabe, Masao

    2015-12-01

    Development of a physically accurate and computationally efficient photon migration model for turbid media is crucial for optical computed tomography such as diffuse optical tomography. For the development, this paper constructs a space-time coupling model of the radiative transport equation with the photon diffusion equation. In the coupling model, a space-time regime of the photon migration is divided into the ballistic and diffusive regimes with the interaction between the both regimes to improve the accuracy of the results and the efficiency of computation. The coupling model provides an accurate description of the photon migration in various turbid media in a wide range of the optical properties, and reduces computational loads when compared with those of full calculation of the RTE.

  9. NASA Trapezoidal Wing Simulation Using Stress-w and One- and Two-Equation Turbulence Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodio, J. J.; Xiao, X; Hassan, H. A.; Rumsey, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    The Wilcox 2006 stress-omega model (also referred to as WilcoxRSM-w2006) has been implemented in the NASA Langley code CFL3D and used to study a variety of 2-D and 3-D configurations. It predicted a variety of basic cases reasonably well, including secondary flow in a supersonic rectangular duct. One- and two-equation turbulence models that employ the Boussinesq constitutive relation were unable to predict this secondary flow accurately because it is driven by normal turbulent stress differences. For the NASA trapezoidal wing at high angles of attack, the WilcoxRSM-w2006 model predicted lower maximum lift than experiment, similar to results of a two-equation model.

  10. Parametric reduced models for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlim, John; Li, Xiantao

    2015-05-01

    Reduced models for the (defocusing) nonlinear Schrödinger equation are developed. In particular, we develop reduced models that only involve the low-frequency modes given noisy observations of these modes. The ansatz of the reduced parametric models are obtained by employing a rational approximation and a colored-noise approximation, respectively, on the memory terms and the random noise of a generalized Langevin equation that is derived from the standard Mori-Zwanzig formalism. The parameters in the resulting reduced models are inferred from noisy observations with a recently developed ensemble Kalman filter-based parametrization method. The forecasting skill across different temperature regimes are verified by comparing the moments up to order four, a two-time correlation function statistics, and marginal densities of the coarse-grained variables.

  11. Solving Navier-Stokes Equations with Advanced Turbulence Models on Three-Dimensional Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Qun-Zhen; Massey, Steven J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Frink, Neal T.

    1999-01-01

    USM3D is a widely-used unstructured flow solver for simulating inviscid and viscous flows over complex geometries. The current version (version 5.0) of USM3D, however, does not have advanced turbulence models to accurately simulate complicated flows. We have implemented two modified versions of the original Jones and Launder k-epsilon two-equation turbulence model and the Girimaji algebraic Reynolds stress model in USM3D. Tests have been conducted for two flat plate boundary layer cases, a RAE2822 airfoil and an ONERA M6 wing. The results are compared with those of empirical formulae, theoretical results and the existing Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model.

  12. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005

  13. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005

  14. An equation-of-state for methane for modeling hydrogen attack in ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odette, G. R.; Vagarali, S. S.

    1982-02-01

    A statistical mechanical-based high temperature and high pressure equation-of-state for methane has been developed using the McQuarrie and Katz formulation based on Leonard-Jones (n, 6) intermolecular potential. Fugacity coefficients for methane have been estimated, and it is shown that for plain carbon steels during hydrogen attack the methane pressures are considerably lower than the fugacities and fall into a physically meaningful range (≤2500 MPa). Further, simple, but reasonably accurate, expressions for both the equation-of-state and fugacity coefficient have been developed for the purpose of modeling hydrogen attack kinetics in ferritic steels.

  15. Solutions of the Dirac equation with the Morse potential energy model in higher spatial dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Long, Hui-Cheng; Jia, Chun-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Analytical solutions of the Dirac equation with the Morse potential energy model in higher spatial dimensions have been explored. We present the bound-state energy equation and the corresponding upper and lower radial wave functions. We find that the behavior of the higher-dimensional relativistic vibrational energies remains similar to that of the three-dimensional molecular system for the X^2sum^+ state of the CP molecule. This symmetry phenomenon will break at the critical point through which the system undergoes a phase transition from a stable to an unstable state.

  16. Diagnostic evaluation of numerical model simulations using the tendency equation. [cyclogenesis prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jusem, Juan C.; Atlas, Robert

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is proposed to expand the diagnostic capabilities of the pressure tendency equation of a primitive equation NWP model by computing the pressure tendency in physical coordinates. The advantages of isolating the density advection as a diagnostic tool to understand pressure changes is shown. By simple thermodynamic arguments it is demonstrated that in areas of synoptic-scale cyclonic development, the vertically integrated density advection is more than sufficient to explain the depletion of mass over a growing depression. Consequently, the joint contribution of the net divergence and vertical motion opposes the pressure fall. This is illustrated for a case of rapid cyclogenesis in southern South America.

  17. A dynamically adaptive multigrid algorithm for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations: Validation and model problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. P.; Leaf, G. K.; Vanrosendale, J.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm is described for the solution of the laminar, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The basic algorithm is a multigrid based on a robust, box-based smoothing step. Its most important feature is the incorporation of automatic, dynamic mesh refinement. This algorithm supports generalized simple domains. The program is based on a standard staggered-grid formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations for robustness and efficiency. Special grid transfer operators were introduced at grid interfaces in the multigrid algorithm to ensure discrete mass conservation. Results are presented for three models: the driven-cavity, a backward-facing step, and a sudden expansion/contraction.

  18. A Tutorial on RxODE: Simulating Differential Equation Pharmacometric Models in R.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Hallow, K M; James, D A

    2016-01-01

    This tutorial presents the application of an R package, RxODE, that facilitates quick, efficient simulations of ordinary differential equation models completely within R. Its application is illustrated through simulation of design decision effects on an adaptive dosing regimen. The package provides an efficient, versatile way to specify dosing scenarios and to perform simulation with variability with minimal custom coding. Models can be directly translated to Rshiny applications to facilitate interactive, real-time evaluation/iteration on simulation scenarios. PMID:26844010

  19. A multigrid method for a model of the implicit immersed boundary equations

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, Robert; Philip, Bobby

    2012-01-01

    Explicit time stepping schemes for the immersed boundary method require very small time steps in order to maintain stability. Solving the equations that arise from an implicit discretization is difficult. Recently, several different approaches have been proposed, but a complete understanding of this problem is still emerging. A multigrid method is developed and explored for solving the equations in an implicit time discretization of a model of the immersed boundary equations. The model problem consists of a scalar Poisson equation with conformation-dependent singular forces on an immersed boundary. This model does not include the inertial terms or the incompressibility constraint. The method is more efficient than an explicit method, but the efficiency gain is limited. The multigrid method alone may not be an effective solver, but when used as a preconditioner for Krylov methods, the speed-up over the explicit time method is substantial. For example, depending on the constitutive law for the boundary force, with a time step 100 times larger than the explicit method, the implicit method is about 15-100 times more efficient than the explicit method. A very attractive feature of this method is that the efficiency of the multigrid preconditioned Krylov solver is shown to be independent of the number of immersed boundary points.

  20. PANSYM: a symbolic equation generator for mathematical modelling, analysis and control of metabolic and pharmacokinetic systems.

    PubMed

    Thomaseth, K

    1994-02-14

    Software is presented for automatic generation of first-order ordinary differential equations (ODE) that arise from lumped parameter representations of metabolic and pharmacokinetic systems. The definition of system structures is accomplished by fractional transfer rates between state variables, together with input/output equations and initial conditions of state variables. General non-linear mathematical expressions can be assigned to all structure definition items. The software parses and interprets the system definitions and generates symbolically the mathematical expression of the model's set of ODE. In addition, symbolic derivatives of state equations are determined with respect to model parameters, state variables and external inputs. These derivatives represent the constituents of systems of sensitivity-differential and adjoint-differential equations that arise in identification and optimal control problems. Finally, output routines generate source code that, once compiled and linked to simulation programs, allows efficient numerical integration of the system of ODE. This software has been developed in PROLOG on Macintosh computers and has been extensively used with the programming environment MATLAB. Possible applications of this software include model building, sensitivity analysis, identification, optimal experiment design and numerical solution of optimal control problems. PMID:8205801

  1. Unified Einstein-Virasoro Master Equation in the General Non-Linear Sigma Model

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, J. de; Halpern, M.B.

    1996-06-05

    The Virasoro master equation (VME) describes the general affine-Virasoro construction $T=L^abJ_aJ_b+iD^a \\dif J_a$ in the operator algebra of the WZW model, where $L^ab$ is the inverse inertia tensor and $D^a $ is the improvement vector. In this paper, we generalize this construction to find the general (one-loop) Virasoro construction in the operator algebra of the general non-linear sigma model. The result is a unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation which couples the spacetime spin-two field $L^ab$ to the background fields of the sigma model. For a particular solution $L_G^ab$, the unified system reduces to the canonical stress tensors and conventional Einstein equations of the sigma model, and the system reduces to the general affine-Virasoro construction and the VME when the sigma model is taken to be the WZW action. More generally, the unified system describes a space of conformal field theories which is presumably much larger than the sum of the general affine-Virasoro construction and the sigma model with its canonical stress tensors. We also discuss a number of algebraic and geometrical properties of the system, including its relation to an unsolved problem in the theory of $G$-structures on manifolds with torsion.

  2. Investigation of acoustically coupled enclosures using a diffusion-equation model.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ning; Jing, Yun; Bockman, Alexander C

    2009-09-01

    Recent application of coupled-room systems in performing arts spaces has prompted active research on sound fields in these complex geometries. This paper applies a diffusion-equation model to the study of acoustics in coupled-rooms. Acoustical measurements are conducted on a scale-model of two coupled-rooms. Using the diffusion model and the experimental results the current work conducts in-depth investigations on sound pressure level distributions, providing further evidence supporting the valid application of the diffusion-equation model. Analysis of the results within the Bayesian framework allows for quantification of the double-slope characteristics of sound-energy decays obtained from the diffusion-equation numerical modeling and the experimental measurements. In particular, Bayesian decay analysis confirms sound-energy flux modeling predictions that time-dependent sound-energy flows in coupled-room systems experience feedback in the form of energy flow-direction change across the aperture connecting the two rooms in cases where the dependent room is more reverberant than the source room. PMID:19739732

  3. Regional primitive equation modeling and analysis of the polymode data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spall, Michael A.

    A regional, hybrid coordinate, primitive equation (PE) model is applied to a 60-day period of the POLYMODE data set. The initialization techniques and open boundary conditions introduced by Spall and Robinson are shown to produce stable, realistic, and reasonably accurate hindcasts for the 2-month data set. Comparisons with quasi-geostrophic (QG) modeling studies indicate that the PE model reproduced the jet formation that dominates the region more accurately than did the QG model. When the PE model used boundary conditions that were partially adjusted by the QG model, the resulting fields were very similar to the QG fields, indicating a rapid degradation of small-scale features near the boundaries in the QG calculation. A local term-by-term primitive equation energy and vorticity analysis package is also introduced. The full vorticity, horizontal divergence, kinetic energy, and available gravitational energy equations are solved diagnostically from the output of the regional PE model. Through the analysis of a time series of horizontal maps, the dominant processes in the flow are illustrated. The individual terms are also integrated over the region of jet formation to highlight the net balances as a function of time. The formation of the deep thermocline jet is shown to be due to horizontal advection through the boundary, baroclinic conversion in the deep thermocline and vertical pressure work, which exports the deep energy to the upper thermocline levels. It is concluded here that the PE model reproduces the observed jet formation better than the QG model because of the increased horizontal advection and stronger vertical pressure work. Although the PE model is shown to be superior to the QG model in this application, it is believed that both PE and QG models can play an important role in the regional study of mid-ocean mesoscale eddies.

  4. The generalized kinetic equation as a model for the nonlinear transfer in third-generation wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramstad, Odin; Babanin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    An alternative model for the nonlinear interaction term S n l in spectral wave models, the so called generalized kinetic equation (Janssen J Phys Oceanogr 33(4):863-884, 2003; Annenkov and Shrira J Fluid Mech 561:181-207, 2006b; Gramstad and Stiassnie J Fluid Mech 718:280-303, 2013), is discussed and implemented in the third generation wave model WAVEWATCH-III. The generalized kinetic equation includes the effects of near-resonant nonlinear interactions, and is therefore able, in theory, to describe faster nonlinear evolution than the existing forms of S n l which are based on the standard Hasselmann kinetic equation (Hasselmann J Fluid Mech 12:481-500, 1962). Numerical simulations with WAVEWATCH have been carried out to thoroughly test the performance of the new form of S n l , and to compare it to the existing models for S n l in WAVEWATCH; the DIA and WRT. Some differences between the different models for S n l are observed. As expected, the DIA is shown to perform less well compared to the exact terms in certain situations, in particular for narrow wave spectra. Also for the case of turning wind significant differences between the different models are observed. Nevertheless, different from the case of unidirectional waves where the generalized kinetic equation represents a obvious improvement to the standard forms of S n l (Gramstad and Stiassnie 2013), the differences seems to be less pronounced for the more realistic cases considered in this paper.

  5. Modeling Neutron Star Stability with a Modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaykov, Spasen; O'Brien, James

    2016-03-01

    The Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation represents the solution to the Einstein field equations where the source of curvature is given by the stress-energy tensor of a perfect fluid. In flat space it has the form Tμν = (ρ + p) UμUν + pημν and the convention for curved space-time is to just replace the Minkowski metric with gμν. For our research we instead use a modified stress-energy tensor of the form Tμν = (ρ + p) UμUν + pgμν +πμν where the anisotropic πμν is a symmetric, traceless rank two tensor which obeys Uμπμν = 0 . The motivation is that such a term in the stress-energy tensor can account for effects due to the curvature of space-time and would not be present in the tensor describing flat space.The final revised TOV equation is of the form -r2p' = GMρ [ 1 +p/- 2 q ρ ] [ 1 +4/πr3 (p - 2 q) M ] [ 1 -2/GM r ] - 1 - 2r2q' - 6 rq where the primes indicate differentiation with respect to the radial coordinate and the q terms arise from the components of πμν. The equation was then solved numerically with both a polytropic and a MIT bag model equations of state. The result is a changed prediction for the stability range of neutron stars.

  6. Study of hydrogen isotopes behavior in tungsten by a multi trapping macroscopic rate equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodille, E. A.; Ferro, Y.; Fernandez, N.; Becquart, C. S.; Angot, T.; Layet, J. M.; Bisson, R.; Grisolia, C.

    2016-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) studies show that in tungsten a mono vacancy can contain up to six hydrogen isotopes (HIs) at 300 K with detrapping energies varying with the number of HIs in the vacancy. Using these predictions, a multi trapping rate equation model has been built and used to model thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) experiments performed on single crystal tungsten after deuterium ions implantation. Detrapping energies obtained from the model to adjust temperature of TDS spectrum observed experimentally are in good agreement with DFT values within a deviation below 10%. The desorption spectrum as well as the diffusion of deuterium in the bulk are rationalized in light of the model results.

  7. Modeling tracer transport in randomly heterogeneous porous media by nonlocal moment equations: Anomalous transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Casique, E.; Lezama-Campos, J. L.; Guadagnini, A.; Neuman, S. P.

    2013-05-01

    Modeling tracer transport in geologic porous media suffers from the corrupt characterization of the spatial distribution of hydrogeologic properties of the system and the incomplete knowledge of processes governing transport at multiple scales. Representations of transport dynamics based on a Fickian model of the kind considered in the advection-dispersion equation (ADE) fail to capture (a) the temporal variation associated with the rate of spreading of a tracer, and (b) the distribution of early and late arrival times which are often observed in field and/or laboratory scenarios and are considered as the signature of anomalous transport. Elsewhere we have presented exact stochastic moment equations to model tracer transport in randomly heterogeneous aquifers. We have also developed a closure scheme which enables one to provide numerical solutions of such moment equations at different orders of approximations. The resulting (ensemble) average and variance of concentration fields were found to display a good agreement against Monte Carlo - based simulation results for mildly heterogeneous (or well-conditioned strongly heterogeneous) media. Here we explore the ability of the moment equations approach to describe the distribution of early arrival times and late time tailing effects which can be observed in Monte-Carlo based breakthrough curves (BTCs) of the (ensemble) mean concentration. We show that BTCs of mean resident concentration calculated at a fixed space location through higher-order approximations of moment equations display long tailing features of the kind which is typically associated with anomalous transport behavior and are not represented by an ADE model with constant dispersive parameter, such as the zero-order approximation.

  8. A solution scheme for the Euler equations based on a multi-dimensional wave model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Kenneth G.; Barth, Timothy J.; Parpia, Ijaz H.

    1993-01-01

    A scheme for the solution of scalar advection on an unstructured mesh has been developed, tested, and extended to the Euler equations. The scheme preserves a linear function exactly, and yields nearly monotone results. The flux function associated with the Euler scheme is based on a discrete 'wave model' for the system of equations. The wave model decomposes the solution gradient at a location into shear waves, entropy waves and acoustic waves and calculates the speeds, strengths and directions associated with the waves. The approach differs from typical flux-difference splitting schemes in that the waves are not assumed to propagate normal to the faces of the control volumes; directions of propagation of the waves are instead computed from solution-gradient information. Results are shown for three test cases, and two different wave models. The results are compared to those from other approaches, including MUSCL and Galerkin least squares schemes.

  9. An unstructured grid, three-dimensional model based on the shallow water equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casulli, V.; Walters, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    A semi-implicit finite difference model based on the three-dimensional shallow water equations is modified to use unstructured grids. There are obvious advantages in using unstructured grids in problems with a complicated geometry. In this development, the concept of unstructured orthogonal grids is introduced and applied to this model. The governing differential equations are discretized by means of a semi-implicit algorithm that is robust, stable and very efficient. The resulting model is relatively simple, conserves mass, can fit complicated boundaries and yet is sufficiently flexible to permit local mesh refinements in areas of interest. Moreover, the simulation of the flooding and drying is included in a natural and straightforward manner. These features are illustrated by a test case for studies of convergence rates and by examples of flooding on a river plain and flow in a shallow estuary. Copyright ?? 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Modeling Heat Conduction and Radiation Transport with the Diffusion Equation in NIF ALE-AMR

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A C; Bailey, D S; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B N; Masters, N D; Koniges, A E; Eder, D C; Anderson, R W

    2009-10-06

    The ALE-AMR code developed for NIF is a multi-material hydro-code that models target assembly fragmentation in the aftermath of a shot. The combination of ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian) hydro with AMR (Adaptive Mesh Refinement) allows the code to model a wide range of physical conditions and spatial scales. The large range of temperatures encountered in the NIF target chamber can lead to significant fluxes of energy due to thermal conduction and radiative transport. These physical effects can be modeled approximately with the aid of the diffusion equation. We present a novel method for the solution of the diffusion equation on a composite mesh in order to capture these physical effects.

  11. Study of the Bellman equation in a production model with unstable demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrosova, N. K.; Shananin, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    A production model with allowance for a working capital deficit and a restricted maximum possible sales volume is proposed and analyzed. The study is motivated by the urgency of analyzing well-known problems of functioning low competitive macroeconomic structures. The original formulation of the task represents an infinite-horizon optimal control problem. As a result, the model is formalized in the form of a Bellman equation. It is proved that the corresponding Bellman operator is a contraction and has a unique fixed point in the chosen class of functions. A closed-form solution of the Bellman equation is found using the method of steps. The influence of the credit interest rate on the firm market value assessment is analyzed by applying the developed model.

  12. Unsteady heat transfer in stator-rotor interaction by two-equation turbulence model

    SciTech Connect

    Michelassi, V.; Martelli, F,; Denos, R.; Arts, T.; Sieverding, C.H.

    1999-07-01

    A transonic turbine stage is computed by means of an unsteady Navier-Stokes solver. A two-equation turbulence model is coupled to a transition model based on integral parameters and an extra transport equation. The transonic stage is modeled in two dimensions with a variable span height for the rotor row. The analysis of the transonic turbine stage with stator trailing edge coolant ejection is carried out to compute the unsteady pressure and heat transfer distribution on the rotor blade under variable operating conditions. The stator coolant ejection allows the total pressure losses to be reduced, although no significant effects on the rotor heat transfer are found both in the computer simulation and the measurements. The results compare favorable with experiments in terms of both pressure distribution and heat transfer around the rotor blade.

  13. Maximum profile likelihood estimation of differential equation parameters through model based smoothing state estimates.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D A; Chkrebtii, O

    2013-12-01

    Statistical inference for biochemical models often faces a variety of characteristic challenges. In this paper we examine state and parameter estimation for the JAK-STAT intracellular signalling mechanism, which exemplifies the implementation intricacies common in many biochemical inference problems. We introduce an extension to the Generalized Smoothing approach for estimating delay differential equation models, addressing selection of complexity parameters, choice of the basis system, and appropriate optimization strategies. Motivated by the JAK-STAT system, we further extend the generalized smoothing approach to consider a nonlinear observation process with additional unknown parameters, and highlight how the approach handles unobserved states and unevenly spaced observations. The methodology developed is generally applicable to problems of estimation for differential equation models with delays, unobserved states, nonlinear observation processes, and partially observed histories. PMID:23579098

  14. Phylogenetic structural equation modelling reveals no need for an 'origin' of the leaf economics spectrum.

    PubMed

    Mason, Chase M; Goolsby, Eric W; Humphreys, Devon P; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a prominent ecophysiological paradigm that describes global variation in leaf physiology across plant ecological strategies using a handful of key traits. Nearly a decade ago, Shipley et al. (2006) used structural equation modelling to explore the causal functional relationships among LES traits that give rise to their strong global covariation. They concluded that an unmeasured trait drives LES covariation, sparking efforts to identify the latent physiological trait underlying the 'origin' of the LES. Here, we use newly developed phylogenetic structural equation modelling approaches to reassess these conclusions using both global LES data as well as data collected across scales in the genus Helianthus. For global LES data, accounting for phylogenetic non-independence indicates that no additional unmeasured traits are required to explain LES covariation. Across datasets in Helianthus, trait relationships are highly variable, indicating that global-scale models may poorly describe LES covariation at non-global scales. PMID:26563777

  15. Bidirectional relationship between chronic kidney and periodontal disease: a study using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Monica A; Taylor, George W; West, Brady T; McCarthy, Ellen T

    2011-02-01

    Periodontal disease is associated with diabetes, heart disease, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), relationships postulated to be due in part to vascular inflammation. A bidirectional relationship between CKD and periodontal disease is plausible, though this relationship has not been previously reported. In this study, we assessed the potential for connections between CKD and periodontal disease, and mediators of these relationships using structural equation models of data from 11,211 adults ≥ 18 years of age who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test the hypothesis that periodontal disease was independently associated with CKD. Given the potential that the periodontal disease and CKD relationship may be bidirectional, a two-step analytic approach was used that involved tests for mediation and structural equation models to examine more complex direct and indirect effects of periodontal disease on CKD, and vice versa. In two separate models, periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio of 1.62), edentulism (adjusted odds ratio of 1.83), and the periodontal disease score were associated with CKD when simultaneously adjusting for 14 other factors. Altogether, three of four structural equation models support the hypothesized relationship. Thus, our analyses support a bidirectional relationship between CKD and periodontal disease, mediated by hypertension and the duration of diabetes. PMID:20927035

  16. Enhanced Modeling of First-Order Plant Equations of Motion for Aeroelastic and Aeroservoelastic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pototzky, Anthony S.

    2010-01-01

    A methodology is described for generating first-order plant equations of motion for aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic applications. The description begins with the process of generating data files representing specialized mode-shapes, such as rigid-body and control surface modes, using both PATRAN and NASTRAN analysis. NASTRAN executes the 146 solution sequence using numerous Direct Matrix Abstraction Program (DMAP) calls to import the mode-shape files and to perform the aeroelastic response analysis. The aeroelastic response analysis calculates and extracts structural frequencies, generalized masses, frequency-dependent generalized aerodynamic force (GAF) coefficients, sensor deflections and load coefficients data as text-formatted data files. The data files are then re-sequenced and re-formatted using a custom written FORTRAN program. The text-formatted data files are stored and coefficients for s-plane equations are fitted to the frequency-dependent GAF coefficients using two Interactions of Structures, Aerodynamics and Controls (ISAC) programs. With tabular files from stored data created by ISAC, MATLAB generates the first-order aeroservoelastic plant equations of motion. These equations include control-surface actuator, turbulence, sensor and load modeling. Altitude varying root-locus plot and PSD plot results for a model of the F-18 aircraft are presented to demonstrate the capability.

  17. Some Remarks on the Riccati Equation Expansion Method for Variable Separation of Nonlinear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Peng; Dai, Chao-Qing

    2015-10-01

    Based on the Riccati equation expansion method, 11 kinds of variable separation solutions with different forms of (2+1)-dimensional modified Korteweg-de Vries equation are obtained. The following two remarks on the Riccati equation expansion method for variable separation are made: (i) a remark on the equivalence of different solutions constructed by the Riccati equation expansion method. From analysis, we find that these seemly independent solutions with different forms actually depend on each other, and they can transform from one to another via some relations. We should avoid arbitrarily asserting so-called "new" solutions; (ii) a remark on the construction of localised excitation based on variable separation solutions. For two or multi-component systems, we must be careful with excitation structures constructed by all components for the same model lest the appearance of some un-physical structures. We hope that these results are helpful to deeply study exact solutions of nonlinear models in physical, engineering and biophysical contexts.

  18. A critical evaluation of two-equation models for near wall turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speziale, Charles G.; Abid, Ridha; Anderson, E. Clay

    1990-01-01

    A variety of two-equation turbulence models,including several versions of the K-epsilon model as well as the K-omega model, are analyzed critically for near wall turbulent flows from a theoretical and computational standpoint. It is shown that the K-epsilon model has two major problems associated with it: the lack of natural boundary conditions for the dissipation rate and the appearance of higher-order correlations in the balance of terms for the dissipation rate at the wall. In so far as the former problem is concerned, either physically inconsistent boundary conditions have been used or the boundary conditions for the dissipation rate have been tied to higher-order derivatives of the turbulent kinetic energy which leads to numerical stiffness. The K-omega model can alleviate these problems since the asymptotic behavior of omega is known in more detail and since its near wall balance involves only exact viscous terms. However, the modeled form of the omega equation that is used in the literature is incomplete-an exact viscous term is missing which causes the model to behave in an asymptotically inconsistent manner. By including this viscous term and by introducing new wall damping functions with improved asymptotic behavior, a new K-tau model (where tau is identical with 1/omega is turbulent time scale) is developed. It is demonstrated that this new model is computationally robust and yields improved predictions for turbulent boundary layers.

  19. Using delay differential equations to induce alternans in a model of cardiac electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Justin; Sass, Julian; Gomes, Johnny M; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Cherry, Elizabeth M

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac electrical alternans is a period-2 dynamical behavior with alternating long and short action potential durations (APD) that often precedes dangerous arrhythmias associated with cardiac arrest. Despite the importance of alternans, many current ordinary differential equations models of cardiac electrophysiology do not produce alternans, thereby limiting the use of these models for studying the mechanisms that underlie this condition. Because delay differential equations (DDEs) commonly induce complex dynamics in other biological systems, we investigate whether incorporating DDEs can lead to alternans development in cardiac models by studying the Fox et al. canine ventricular action potential model. After suppressing the alternans in the original model, we show that alternans can be obtained by introducing DDEs in the model gating variables, and we quantitatively compare the DDE-induced alternans with the alternans present in the original model. We analyze the behavior of the voltage, currents, and gating variables of the model to study the effects of the delays and to determine how alternans develops in that setting, and we discuss the mathematical and physiological implications of our findings. In future work, we aim to apply our approach to induce alternans in models that do not naturally exhibit such dynamics. PMID:27302910

  20. Derivation of the Linear Landau Equation and Linear Boltzmann Equation from the Lorentz Model with Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcozzi, M.; Nota, A.

    2016-03-01

    We consider a test particle moving in a random distribution of obstacles in the plane, under the action of a uniform magnetic field, orthogonal to the plane. We show that, in a weak coupling limit, the particle distribution behaves according to the linear Landau equation with a magnetic transport term. Moreover, we show that, in a low density regime, when each obstacle generates an inverse power law potential, the particle distribution behaves according to the linear Boltzmann equation with a magnetic transport term. We provide an explicit control of the error in the kinetic limit by estimating the contributions of the configurations which prevent the Markovianity. We compare these results with those ones obtained for a system of hard disks in Bobylev et al. (Phys Rev Lett 75:2, 1995), which show instead that the memory effects are not negligible in the Boltzmann-Grad limit.

  1. Models of universe with a polytropic equation of state: I. The early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2014-02-01

    We construct models of universe with a generalized equation of state having a linear component and a polytropic component. Concerning the linear equation of state , we assume . This equation of state describes radiation ( or pressureless matter (. Concerning the polytropic equation of state , we remain very general allowing the polytropic constant k and the polytropic index n to have arbitrary values. In this paper, we consider positive indices n > 0 . In that case, the polytropic component dominates the linear component in the early universe where the density is high. For , n = 1 and , where g/m3 is the Planck density, we obtain a model of early universe describing the transition from the vacuum energy era to the radiation era. The universe exists at any time in the past and there is no primordial singularity. However, for t < 0 , its size is less than the Planck length m. In this model, the universe undergoes an inflationary expansion with the Planck density g/m3 (vacuum energy) that brings it from the Planck size m at t = 0 to a size m at s (corresponding to about 23.3 Planck times s). For , n = 1 and , we obtain a model of early universe with a new form of primordial singularity: The universe starts at t = 0 with an infinite density and a finite radius a = a 1 . Actually, this universe becomes physical at a time s from which the velocity of sound is less than the speed of light. When , the universe enters in the radiation era and evolves like in the standard model. We describe the transition from the vacuum energy era to the radiation era by analogy with a second-order phase transition where the Planck constant ℏ plays the role of finite-size effects (the standard Big Bang theory is recovered for ℏ = 0.

  2. Improved two-equation k-omega turbulence models for aerodynamic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menter, Florian R.

    1992-01-01

    Two new versions of the k-omega two-equation turbulence model will be presented. The new Baseline (BSL) model is designed to give results similar to those of the original k-omega model of Wilcox, but without its strong dependency on arbitrary freestream values. The BSL model is identical to the Wilcox model in the inner 50 percent of the boundary-layer but changes gradually to the high Reynolds number Jones-Launder k-epsilon model (in a k-omega formulation) towards the boundary-layer edge. The new model is also virtually identical to the Jones-Lauder model for free shear layers. The second version of the model is called Shear-Stress Transport (SST) model. It is based on the BSL model, but has the additional ability to account for the transport of the principal shear stress in adverse pressure gradient boundary-layers. The model is based on Bradshaw's assumption that the principal shear stress is proportional to the turbulent kinetic energy, which is introduced into the definition of the eddy-viscosity. Both models are tested for a large number of different flowfields. The results of the BSL model are similar to those of the original k-omega model, but without the undesirable freestream dependency. The predictions of the SST model are also independent of the freestream values and show excellent agreement with experimental data for adverse pressure gradient boundary-layer flows.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann model for the correct convection-diffusion equation with divergence-free velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying

    2015-03-01

    A lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for the convection-diffusion equation (CDE) with divergence-free velocity field is proposed, and the Chapman-Enskog analysis shows that the CDE can be recovered correctly. In the present model, the convection term is treated as a source term in the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) rather than being directly recovered by LBE; thus the CDE is intrinsically solved as a pure diffusion equation with a corresponding source term. To avoid the adoption of a nonlocal finite-difference scheme for computing the convection term, a local scheme is developed based on the Chapman-Enskog analysis. Most importantly, by properly specifying the discrete source term in the moment space, the local scheme can reach the same order (ɛ2) at which the CDE is recovered by a LB model. Numerical tests, including a one-dimensional periodic problem, diffusion of a Gaussian hill, diffusion of a rectangular pulse, and natural convection in a square cavity, are carried out to verify the present model. Numerical results are satisfactorily consistent with analytical solutions or previous numerical results, and show higher accuracy due to the correct recovery of CDE.

  4. OpenMx 2.0: Extended Structural Equation and Statistical Modeling.

    PubMed

    Neale, Michael C; Hunter, Michael D; Pritikin, Joshua N; Zahery, Mahsa; Brick, Timothy R; Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Estabrook, Ryne; Bates, Timothy C; Maes, Hermine H; Boker, Steven M

    2016-06-01

    The new software package OpenMx 2.0 for structural equation and other statistical modeling is introduced and its features are described. OpenMx is evolving in a modular direction and now allows a mix-and-match computational approach that separates model expectations from fit functions and optimizers. Major backend architectural improvements include a move to swappable open-source optimizers such as the newly written CSOLNP. Entire new methodologies such as item factor analysis and state space modeling have been implemented. New model expectation functions including support for the expression of models in LISREL syntax and a simplified multigroup expectation function are available. Ease-of-use improvements include helper functions to standardize model parameters and compute their Jacobian-based standard errors, access to model components through standard R $ mechanisms, and improved tab completion from within the R Graphical User Interface. PMID:25622929

  5. Modeling the Relationships among Topical Knowledge, Anxiety, and Integrated Speaking Test Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny

    2010-01-01

    Thus far, few research studies have examined the practice of integrated speaking test tasks in the field of second/foreign language oral assessment. This dissertation utilized structural equation modeling (SEM) and qualitative techniques to explore the relationships among topical knowledge, anxiety, and integrated speaking test performance and to…

  6. Bayesian analysis of non-linear differential equation models with application to a gut microbial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Daniel J; Holtrop, Grietje; Flint, Harry

    2011-07-01

    Process models specified by non-linear dynamic differential equations contain many parameters, which often must be inferred from a limited amount of data. We discuss a hierarchical Bayesian approach combining data from multiple related experiments in a meaningful way, which permits more powerful inference than treating each experiment as independent. The approach is illustrated with a simulation study and example data from experiments replicating the aspects of the human gut microbial ecosystem. A predictive model is obtained that contains prediction uncertainty caused by uncertainty in the parameters, and we extend the model to capture situations of interest that cannot easily be studied experimentally. PMID:21681780

  7. One-equation near-wall turbulence modeling with the aid of direct simulation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodi, W.; Mansour, N. N.; Michelassi, V.

    1993-01-01

    The length scales appearing in the relations for the eddy viscosity and dissipation rate in one-equation models were evaluated from direct numerical (DNS) simulation data for developed channel and boundary-layer flow at two Reynolds numbers each. To prepare the ground for the evaluation, the distribution of the most relevant mean-flow and turbulence quantities is presented and discussed, also with respect to Reynolds-number influence and to differences between channel and boundary-layer flow. An alternative model is tested as near wall component of a two-layer model by application to developed-channel, boundary-layer and backward-facing-step flows.

  8. Scaling Equations for Ballistic Modeling of Solid Rocket Motor Case Breach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Joshua E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the development of a series of scaling equations that can take a known nominal motor performance and scale it for small and growing case failures. This model was developed for the Malfunction-Turn Study as part of Return to Flight activities for the Space Shuttle program. To verify the model, data from the Challenger accident (STS- 51L) were used. The model is able to predict the motor performance beyond the last recorded Challenger data and show how the failed right hand booster would have performed if the vehicle had remained intact.

  9. Modelling of tearing mode suppression experiments in TEXTOR based on the generalized Rutherford equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayten, B.; De Lazzari, D.; de Baar, M. R.; Hennen, B. A.; Westerhof, E.; TEXTOR Team

    2011-04-01

    Modelling of the experiments on TEXTOR on tearing mode suppression by electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive based on the generalized Rutherford equation (GRE) is presented. The comparison between the model and the experimental data provides a satisfactory agreement taking into account the experimental uncertainties. Both the model and the experimental observations confirm that in TEXTOR heating is the dominant suppression mechanism above that of current drive. As a conclusion, these experiments provide a positive benchmark for the stabilizing term in the GRE arising from the localized heating.

  10. Using second-order generalized estimating equations to model heterogeneous intraclass correlation in cluster randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Catherine M.; Wong, Weng Kee; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY In cluster randomized trials, it is commonly assumed that the magnitude of the correlation among subjects within a cluster is constant across clusters. However, the correlation may in fact be heterogeneous and depend on cluster characteristics. Accurate modeling of the correlation has the potential to improve inference. We use second-order generalized estimating equations to model heterogeneous correlation in cluster randomized trials. Using simulation studies we show that accurate modeling of heterogeneous correlation can improve inference when the correlation is high or varies by cluster size. We apply the methods to a cluster randomized trial of an intervention to promote breast cancer screening. PMID:19109804

  11. Implementation of two-equation soot flamelet models for laminar diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonell, D.; Oliva, A.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.

    2009-03-15

    The two-equation soot model proposed by Leung et al. [K.M. Leung, R.P. Lindstedt, W.P. Jones, Combust. Flame 87 (1991) 289-305] has been derived in the mixture fraction space. The model has been implemented using both Interactive and Non-Interactive flamelet strategies. An Extended Enthalpy Defect Flamelet Model (E-EDFM) which uses a flamelet library obtained neglecting the soot formation is proposed as a Non-Interactive method. The Lagrangian Flamelet Model (LFM) is used to represent the Interactive models. This model uses direct values of soot mass fraction from flamelet calculations. An Extended version (E-LFM) of this model is also suggested in which soot mass fraction reaction rates are used from flamelet calculations. Results presented in this work show that the E-EDFM predict acceptable results. However, it overpredicts the soot volume fraction due to the inability of this model to couple the soot and gas-phase mechanisms. It has been demonstrated that the LFM is not able to predict accurately the soot volume fraction. On the other hand, the extended version proposed here has been shown to be very accurate. The different flamelet mathematical formulations have been tested and compared using well verified reference calculations obtained solving the set of the Full Transport Equations (FTE) in the physical space. (author)

  12. A Global Semi-Lagrangian Spectral Model of the Shallow-Water Equations with Variable Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John B; Guo, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    A time-dependent focusing grid works together with the formulation of a semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian spectral method for the shallow-water equations in a rotated and stretched spherical geometry. The conformal mapping of the underlying discrete grid based on the Schmidt transformation, focuses grid on a particular region or path with variable resolution. A new advective form of the vorticity-divergence equations allows for the conformal map to be incorporated while maintaining an efficient spectral transform algorithm. A shallow water model on the sphere is used to test the spectral model with variable resolution. We are able to focus on a specified location resolving local details of the flow. More importantly, we could follow the features of the flow at all time.

  13. Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasmas using double adiabatic model and gyro-kinetic equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun; Cao, Jintao

    2014-12-15

    Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic tokamak plasmas is theoretically analyzed by using double adiabatic model and gyro-kinetic equation. The bi-Maxwellian distribution function for guiding-center ions is assumed to obtain a self-consistent form, yielding pressures satisfying the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) anisotropic equilibrium condition. The double adiabatic model gives the dispersion relation of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), which agrees well with the one derived from gyro-kinetic equation. The GAM frequency increases with the ratio of pressures, p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}, and the Landau damping rate is dramatically decreased by p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}. MHD result shows a low-frequency zonal flow existing for all p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}, while according to the kinetic dispersion relation, no low-frequency branch exists for p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}≳ 2.

  14. Modeling spatial competition for light in plant populations with the porous medium equation.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Robert; Etard, Octave; Cournède, Paul-Henry; Laurent-Gengoux, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    We consider a plant's local leaf area index as a spatially continuous variable, subject to particular reaction-diffusion dynamics of allocation, senescence and spatial propagation. The latter notably incorporates the plant's tendency to form new leaves in bright rather than shaded locations. Applying a generalized Beer-Lambert law allows to link existing foliage to production dynamics. The approach allows for inter-individual variability and competition for light while maintaining robustness-a key weakness of comparable existing models. The analysis of the single plant case leads to a significant simplification of the system's key equation when transforming it into the well studied porous medium equation. Confronting the theoretical model to experimental data of sugar beet populations, differing in configuration density, demonstrates its accuracy. PMID:24623311

  15. Unoriented strings, loop equations, and N=1 superpotentials from matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Sujay K.; Corrado, Richard; Halmagyi, Nick; Kennaway, Kristian D.; Römelsberger, Christian

    2003-04-01

    We apply the proposal of Dijkgraaf and Vafa to analyze N=1 gauge theory with SO(N) and Sp(N) gauge groups with arbitrary tree-level superpotentials using matrix model techniques. We derive the planar and leading nonplanar contributions to the large M SO(M) and Sp(M) matrix model free energy by applying the technology of higher-genus loop equations and by straightforward diagrammatics. The loop equations suggest that the RP2 free energy is given as a derivative of the sphere contribution, a relation which we verify diagrammatically. With a refinement of the proposal of Dijkgraaf and Vafa for the effective superpotential, we find agreement with field theory expectations.

  16. Solving the master equation without kinetic Monte Carlo: Tensor train approximations for a CO oxidation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelß, Patrick; Matera, Sebastian; Schütte, Christof

    2016-06-01

    In multiscale modeling of heterogeneous catalytic processes, one crucial point is the solution of a Markovian master equation describing the stochastic reaction kinetics. Usually, this is too high-dimensional to be solved with standard numerical techniques and one has to rely on sampling approaches based on the kinetic Monte Carlo method. In this study we break the curse of dimensionality for the direct solution of the Markovian master equation by exploiting the Tensor Train Format for this purpose. The performance of the approach is demonstrated on a first principles based, reduced model for the CO oxidation on the RuO2(110) surface. We investigate the complexity for increasing system size and for various reaction conditions. The advantage over the stochastic simulation approach is illustrated by a problem with increased stiffness.

  17. 3-D electromagnetic modeling for very early time sounding of shallow targets using integral equations

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Z.; Tripp, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an integral equation algorithm for 3D EM modeling at high frequencies for applications in engineering an environmental studies. The integral equation method remains the same for low and high frequencies, but the dominant roles of the displacements currents complicate both numerical treatments and interpretations. With singularity extraction technique they successively extended the application of the Hankel filtering technique to the computation of Hankel integrals occurring in high frequency EM modeling. Time domain results are calculated from frequency domain results via Fourier transforms. While frequency domain data are not obvious for interpretations, time domain data show wave-like pictures that resemble seismograms. Both 1D and 3D numerical results show clearly the layer interfaces.

  18. Stochastic Heat Equation Limit of a (2 + 1)d Growth Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Alexei; Corwin, Ivan; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2016-07-01

    We determine a {q to 1} limit of the two-dimensional q-Whittaker driven particle system on the torus studied previously in Corwin and Toninelli (Electron. Commun. Probab. 21(44):1-12, 2016). This has an interpretation as a (2 + 1)-dimensional stochastic interface growth model, which is believed to belong to the so-called anisotropic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class. This limit falls into a general class of two-dimensional systems of driven linear SDEs which have stationary measures on gradients. Taking the number of particles to infinity we demonstrate Gaussian free field type fluctuations for the stationary measure. Considering the temporal evolution of the stationary measure, we determine that along characteristics, correlations are asymptotically given by those of the (2 + 1)-dimensional additive stochastic heat equation. This confirms (for this model) the prediction that the non-linearity for the anisotropic KPZ equation in (2 + 1)-dimension is irrelevant.

  19. About the coupling of turbulence closure models with averaged Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandromme, D.; Ha Minh, H.

    1986-01-01

    The MacCormack implicit predictor-corrector model (1981) for numerical solution of the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flows is extended to nonconservative multiequation turbulence models, as well as the inclusion of second-order Reynolds stress turbulence closure. A scalar effective pressure turbulent contribution to the pressure field is defined to approximate the effects of the Reynolds stress in strongly sheared flows. The Jacobian matrices of the transport equations are diagonalized to reduce the required computer memory and run time. Techniques are defined for including turbulence in the diagonalization. Application of the method is demonstrated with solutions generated for transonic nozzle flow and for the interaction between a supersonic flat plate boundary layer and a 12 deg compression-expansion ramp.

  20. On Rayleigh-Plesset based cavitation modelling of fluid film bearings using the Reynolds equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Troy A.; Braun, Minel J.; Pierson, Kristopher

    2015-12-01

    In the ‘universe’ of the general cavitation phenomena the issue of cavitation in bearings, due to its particular application and the mostly non-homogeneous working fluids associated with it, has presented a rather specialized challenge. The present paper models the phenomenon of pseudo-cavitation in fluid film bearings and offers a physics-based approach that conserves mass while solving the Reynolds (RE) and Rayleigh-Plesset (RP) equations in a coupled, fully transient environment. The RP solution calculates a time dependent void fraction synchronized with the RE transient solution, where density and viscosity are (re)calculated at every grid point of this homogeneous two-phase fluid. The growth and evolution of the cavitation zone expanse is physics-based and thus can accommodate evaporation, diffusion, or pseudocavitation as separate processes. This is a step beyond the present available cavitation models both for the RE and the Navier-Stokes equations.