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Sample records for equatorial atlantic ocean

  1. Equatorial deep jets in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, P.; Greatbatch, R. J.; Didwischus, S.-H.; Claus, M.; Hormann, V.; Funk, A.; Dengler, M.

    2012-04-01

    Vertically alternating deep zonal jets of short vertical wavelength were discovered in the equatorial oceans more than 35 years ago. These jets that are observed to be coherent across the equatorial basins are characterized by vertically alternating eastward and westward currents lying within 1° of the equator, with amplitudes of 0.1-0.2 ms-1 and vertical wavelengths between 300 and 700 m. In the Atlantic, equatorial deep jets oscillate with a period of about 4.5 years, while their energy propagates upward. The 4.5 year signal can be seen in sea surface temperature as well as atmospheric data (e.g. surface wind and rainfall) indicating the significance of the deep jets for climate. Here we analyse velocity data from more than 7 years of moored observations at the equator, 23°W as well as shipboard hydrographic and current observations along the 23°W repeat section. Our focus is on intermediate depth levels (300-700 m), where the deep jets are superimposed on a mean flow composed of the westward flowing Equatorial Intermediate Current centred on the equator and the eastward Southern and Northern Intermediate Countercurrents located at 2°S and 2°N, respectively. The large zonal oxygen gradient from the well ventilated western boundary toward low-oxygen values near the eastern boundary makes the meridional oxygen distribution in the central equatorial Atlantic sensitive to zonal flow variations in time and latitude. We compare the observed meridional structures of the mean and anomalous oxygen and zonal velocity distributions as well as their temporal evolution with results of an advection-diffusion model driven by a prescribed velocity field, restoring to high oxygen values at the western boundary, and otherwise constant oxygen consumption. The prescribed velocity field is composed of a high order baroclinic vertical normal mode aimed at representing the 4.5-year cycle and a mean velocity field resembling the observed mean zonal current structure. Similarities

  2. Anthropogenic CO2 changes in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, N. M.; Guallart, E. F.; Steinfeldt, R.; Ríos, A. F.; Pelegrí, J. L.; Pelejero, C.; Calvo, E.; Pérez, F. F.

    2015-05-01

    Methods based on CO2 and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) data are used to describe and evaluate the anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) concentrations, Cant specific inventories, and Cant storage rates in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The Cant variability in the water masses is evaluated from the comparison of two hydrographic sections along 7.5°N carried out in 1993 and 2010. During both cruises, high Cant concentrations are detected in the upper layers, with values decreasing progressively towards the deep layers. Overall, the Cant concentrations increase from 1993 to 2010, with a large increment in the upper North Atlantic Deep Water layer of about 0.18 ± 0.03 μmol kg-1 y-1. In 2010, the Cant inventory along the whole section amounts to 58.9 ± 2.2 and 45.1 ± 2.0 mol m-2 using CO2 and CFC based methods, respectively, with most Cant accumulating in the western basin. Considering the time elapsed between the two cruises, Cant storage rates of 1.01 ± 0.18 and 0.75 ± 0.17 mol m-2 y-1 (CO2 and CFC based methods, respectively) are obtained. Below ∼1000 m, these rates follow the pace expected from a progressive increase of Cant at steady state; above ∼1000 m, Cant increases faster, mainly due to the retreat of the Antarctic Intermediate Waters.

  3. Simulation of the nitrate seasonal cycle in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean during 1983 and 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukos, Harilaos; MéMery, Laurent

    1999-07-01

    We use a three-dimensional, off-line geochemical model to simulate the nitrate cycle in the equatorial Atlantic during the years 1983-1984 corresponding to the Français Océan et Climat dans l'Atlantique Equatorial (FOCAL) and Seasonal Response of the Equatorial Atlantic programs. After comparing our simulations with FOCAL data, we investigate interactions between equatorial circulation and biological activity on both seasonal and interannual timescales. Our results suggest that the upwelling of nitrate in the surface layer is strongly dependent on the behavior of both the nitracline and Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC). In the western basin, the equatorial upwelling partly feeds the EUC and has a low signature on surface nitrate. On the contrary, in the eastern basin, where the upwelling core and the nitracline are closer to the surface, vertical advection is the driving mechanism causing seasonal variations of nitrate concentration. Above the EUC, nitrate is transferred to the very surface by vertical diffusion, whereas the contribution by vertical advection is negligible. While slightly cold oceanic conditions prevailed in 1983, a warm anomaly produced by a decrease in trade winds and upwelling was observed in 1984. In our simulations, the significant changes in circulation do not notably alter the seasonal cycle of new production. Consequently, variations of annual primary production between 1983 and 1984 are small (9% decrease in the 2°S-2°N band) compared to the amplitude of the seasonal cycle (twofold variations). Contrary to the Pacific Ocean, where the interannual signal dominates, our results suggests that seasonal variability is the most significant large-scale signal on primary production in the equatorial Atlantic.

  4. Objective analysis of simulated equatorial Atlantic Ocean data on seasonal time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, M. J.; Reverdin, G.; Merle, J.; du Penhoat, Y.; Kartavtseff, A.

    1984-05-01

    In this study we objectively analyze simulated equatorial Atlantic Ocean data on seasonal time scales using a technique based on optimal interpolation. The purpose is twofold: (1) to estimate the accuracy of the FOCAL/SEQUAL (Programme Francais Ocean-Climat en Atlantique Equatorial/Seasonal Equatorial Atlantic Response Program) array for mapping large-scale seasonal variations in the depth of the 20° isotherm, and (2) to examine the potential of 20 FOCAL drifting buoys drogued with thermistor chains for enhancing that mapping accuracy. This latter point leads to the development of a heuristic model for drifter motion in order to identify the most favorable time and location for buoy deployments. Results are discussed for a number of assumptions about oceanic variability required by both the optimal interpolation procedure and the drifting buoy model. From these we conclude that with data provided by the FOCAL/SEQUAL array, excluding FOCAL drifters, one can expect to map large-scale seasonal variations in the depth of the 20°C isotherm to within 5 m over about 65% of the equatorial Atlantic. This region of expected 5 m accuracy expands to nearly 90% of the equatorial Atlantic if FOCAL drifters are deployed between 2 and 4°S at 5°W in four quarterly installments of five each. Drifters deployed further to the east or to the west will be less useful in defining large-scale, low-frequency thermal variations since they do not disperse as widely as do those deployed at 5°W.

  5. Equatorial Atlantic Ocean temperature and current variations during 1983 and 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Robert H.; Colin, Christian

    1986-07-01

    The equatorial regions of the Earth's oceans are climatically sensitive ones because of the zonal sea-surface temperature contrasts observed there1. Equatorial sea-surface temperature normally varies on an annual cycle with the prevailing trade winds but deviations from this cycle may have significant global implications as occurred for example during the 1982-83 Pacific Ocean El Niño/Southern Oscillation event2. Understanding the annual and interannual variability of the tropical oceans has therefore been the goal of several measurement programmes. In the Atlantic Ocean, the Seasonal Response of the Equatorial Atlantic (SEQUAL) Experiment and the Programme Francais Ocean et Climat dans l'Atlantique Equatorial (FOCAL) have provided a basin-wide and synoptic data set over two annual cycles. We present here results from surface moored current meters which were one of several fixed and shipborne measurement systems employed by SEQUAL and FOCAL. We will describe the evolution of the upper ocean thermal and zonal velocity component variations in relation to forcing by the trade winds, show differences observed along the Equator at 28° W and 4° W, and compare the oceans responses at these locations during 1983 and 1984. The synoptic data realizations of these years differed from climatology and these differences are related to the rapidly varying nature and intensity of the wind stress in a given year. Changes in wind stress from year to year result in interannual variability as a modulated annual cycle and 1984, a year of weak winds relative to 1983, offers a case in point. The zonal sea-surface temperature gradient vanished along the Equator in 1984 during the season when it normally would have been a maximum.

  6. THE ATMOSPHERIC CYCLING AND AIR-SEA EXCHANGE OF MERCURY SPECIES IN THE SOUTH AND EQUATORIAL ATLANTIC OCEAN. (R829796)

    EPA Science Inventory


    Measurements of gas-, particle- and precipitation-phases of atmospheric mercury
    (Hg) were made in the South and equatorial Atlantic Ocean as part of the 1996
    IOC Trace Metal Baseline Study (Montevideo, Uruguay to Barbados). Total gaseous
    mercury (TGM) ranged from ...

  7. Sources and cycling of selenium in the western and equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, Gregory A.; Cutter, Lynda S.

    The concentration and chemical speciation of selenium were determined at six vertical profile stations along a 11,000-km-long horizontal transect from 34°S to 8°N in the western Atlantic. The depth profiles of total dissolved selenium, selenite (SeIV), and selenate (VI) all showed surface-water depletion and deep-water enrichment characteristic of the nutrient-like behavior of selenium that has been observed in other ocean basins. In North Atlantic Deep Water, the Se(IV)/Se(VI) ratios were generally similar to those found in the eastern Atlantic and North Pacific (0.7), but waters originating in the higher latitudes of the southern hemisphere, Antarctic Intermediate (AAIW) and Bottom Water, and Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW), were enriched in selenate and had correspondingly low Se(IV)/Se(VI) ratios (ca. 0.4). In contrast to these inorganic selenium species, organic selenide had maxima in the surface waters of the oligotrophic stations and undetectable concentrations in the mid- and deep waters. One exception to this pattern was found at the southernmost station (33°S) where a secondary organic selenide maximum was found in the AAIW and UCDW (700-1900 m). This observation can be explained by considering the 10-year residence time of organic selenide in the water column and the relatively young age (<3 yr) of these subducted surface waters. In the surface transect, total dissolved selenium showed only minor variations with oceanic regime (0.55-0.83 nM) except in the offshore plume of the Amazon River, where concentrations dropped as low as 0.19 nM. Organic selenide was the predominant form of dissolved selenium in surface waters (50±11%), followed by selenate (36±13%) and then selenite (14±6%). Cross-flow ultra filtration experiments indicated that surface water dissolved organic selenide is in a<1-kD fraction and thus truly dissolved. Selenate had higher concentrations in the southern hemisphere (0.24 nM) than in the north (0.17 nM), but the highest

  8. Abyssal ostracods from the South and Equatorial Atlantic Ocean: Biological and paleoceanographic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Cronin, T. M.; Martinez, Arbizu P.

    2008-01-01

    We report the distribution of ostracods from ???5000 m depth from the Southeast and Equatorial Atlantic Ocean recovered from the uppermost 10 cm of minimally disturbed sediments taken by multiple-corer during the R/V Meteor DIVA2 expedition M63.2. Five cores yielded the following major deep-sea genera: Krithe, Henryhowella, Poseidonamicus, Legitimocythere, Pseudobosquetina, and Pennyella. All genera are widely distributed in abyssal depths in the world's oceans and common in Cenozoic deep-sea sediments. The total number of ostracod specimens is higher and ostracod shell preservation is better near the sediment-water interface, especially at the 0-1 cm core depths. Core slices from ???5 to 10 cm were barren or yielded a few poorly preserved specimens. The DIVA2 cores show that deep-sea ostracod species inhabit corrosive bottom water near the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) even though their calcareous valves are rarely preserved as fossils in sediment cores due to postmortem dissolution. Their occurrence at great water depths may partially explain the well-known global distributions of major deep-sea taxa in the world's oceans, although further expeditions using minimal-disturbance sampling devices are needed to fill geographic gaps. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Early Cenozoic Ichthyolith Record from Demerara Rise (ODP Site 1258: Equatorial Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, R. M.; Sibert, E. C.; Norris, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Peak global warmth during the early Eocene is a partial analog to the future structure of marine ecosystems in a high pCO2 world. Early Eocene oceans are generally regarded as supporting warmer oceans with lower overall productivity than today owing to the low concentrations of preserved organic matter in pelagic sediments. It has also been proposed that Eocene oceans were about as productive as now, but higher respiration rates in a warmer-than-modern ocean more efficiently recycled organic matter and nutrients. We investigated Eocene export productivity and its link to taxonomic diversity using the pelagic ichthyolith record. Ichthyoliths are calcium phosphate microfossils including fish teeth and shark denticles and their fragments, and are a unique paleoceanographic proxy because they represent a fossil record for marine vertebrates, a charismatic and tangible part of the ecosystem that generally goes unrepresented in the fossil record. Analysis of the ichthyolith record in Ocean Drilling Program Site 1258 (NE South America) shows a remarkable increase in accumulation rate of ichthyoliths from the Paleocene into the Eocene, suggesting that onset of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum in the equatorial Atlantic was favorable to fish production. Our results suggest that, if anything, the early Eocene maintained higher productivity than in the late Paleocene. These results compare favorably with a record of ichthyolith accumulation in the South Pacific (DSDP 596), which also indicates unusually high rates of fish productivity in the peak of Eocene warm climates. Low resolution data sets from the Pacific suggest an explosion of morphotypes during the warm period associated with an increase in ichthyolith mass accumulation rates. Peak global warmth, therefore, appears to be associated with both higher fish production and higher taxonomic diversity than suggested by previous reconstructions of Eocene primary production. Increasing the amount of continuous records of

  10. Metagenomic analysis of sediments under seaports influence in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Tallita Cruz Lopes; Normando, Leonardo Ribeiro Oliveira; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel

    2016-07-01

    Maritime ports are anthropogenic interventions capable of causing serious alterations in coastal ecosystems. In this study, we examined the benthic microbial diversity and community structure under the influence of two maritime ports, Mucuripe (MUC) and Pecém (PEC), at Equatorial Atlantic Ocean in Northeast Brazil. Those seaports differ in architecture, time of functioning, cargo handling and contamination. The microbiomes from MUC and PEC were also compared in silico to 11 other globally distributed marine microbiomes. The comparative analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) retrieved by PCR-DGGE showed that MUC presents greater richness and β diversity of Bacteria and Archaea than PEC. In line with these results, metagenomic analysis showed that MUC and PEC benthic microbial communities share the main common bacterial phyla found in coastal environments, although can be distinguish by greater abundance of Cyanobacteria in MUC and Deltaproteobacteria in PEC. Both ports differed in Archaea composition, being PEC port sediments dominated by Thaumarchaeota. The microbiomes showed little divergence in their potential metabolic pathways, although shifts on the microbial taxonomic signatures involved in nitrogen and sulphur metabolic pathways were observed. The comparative analysis of different benthic marine metagenomes from Brazil, Australia and Mexico grouped them by the geographic location rather than by the type of ecosystem, although at phylum level seaport sediments share a core microbiome constituted by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Tenericuteres, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes and Euryarchaeota. Our results suggest that multiple physical and chemical factors acting on sediments as a result of at least 60years of port operation play a role in shaping the benthic microbial communities at taxonomic level, but not at functional level. PMID:27088626

  11. Vulnerability to longline fisheries of three hammerhead shark Sphyrna species in the south-western and equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, N P A; Travassos, P; Hazin, F H V

    2016-08-01

    Catch and effort data from 29 418 longline sets from Brazilian tuna longline vessels operating in the south-western and equatorial Atlantic Ocean between 2004 and 2011 were analysed to investigate the distribution, catch rate and size of three species of hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna mokarran and Sphyrna zygaena). During that period, 6172 hammerhead sharks were caught. Among the elasmobranchs, the highest percentage of hammerhead sharks were caught in 2007, when they accounted for 3·90% of the group, while the lowest value of 0·40% was recorded in 2010. In general, the spatial distribution of the mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) by years and quarters showed a trend of higher catches near the equatorial region and in southern Brazil. The nominal mean CPUE was 0·12 Sphyrna spp. 1000(-1) hooks, with the highest value being recorded in 2007 (0·30 Sphyrna spp. 1000(-1) hooks). The standardized yearly CPUE estimated by a generalized linear model assuming a zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB) distribution were not much different from nominal values. Of the 205 sexed specimens, 117 were females and 88 were males, resulting in a sex ratio with a predominance of females (1·30:1·00), although not statistically significant. The total length of females ranged from 1200 to 2800 mm and of males from 1100 to 3100 mm. Juvenile hammerhead sharks represented 82 and 54% of the sexed female and male specimens, respectively. PMID:27349350

  12. Seasonal influence of ENSO on the Atlantic ITCZ and equatorial South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münnich, M.; Neelin, J. D.

    2005-11-01

    In late boreal spring, especially May, a strong relationship exists in observations among precipitation anomalies over equatorial South America and the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and eastern equatorial Pacific and central equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). A chain of correlations of equatorial Pacific SSTA, western equatorial Atlantic wind stress (WEA), equatorial Atlantic SSTA, sea surface height, and precipitation supports a causal chain in which El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induces WEA stress anomalies, which in turn affect Atlantic equatorial ocean dynamics. These correlations show strong seasonality, apparently arising within the atmospheric links of the chain. This pathway and the influence of equatorial Atlantic SSTA on South American rainfall in May appear independent of that of the northern tropical Atlantic. Brazil's Nordeste is affected by the northern tropical Atlantic. The equatorial influence lies further to the north over the eastern Amazon and the Guiana Highlands.

  13. High precision glacial-interglacial benthic foraminiferal Sr/Ca records from the eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chuan-Chou; Hastings, David W.; Lee, Typhoon; Chiu, Chin-Hsin; Lee, Meng-Yang; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2001-08-01

    Glacial-interglacial variation in the marine Sr/Ca ratio has important implications for coral Sr thermometry [J.W. Beck et al., Science 257 (1992) 644-647]. A possible variation of 1-3% was proposed based on ocean models [H.M. Stoll and D.P. Schrag, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 62 (1998) 1107-1118]. Subsequently, studies have used fossil foraminifera to test this prediction [P.A. Martin et al., Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 1 (1999); H.M. Stoll et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 63 (1999) 3535-3547; H. Elderfield et al., Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 1 (2000)]. But whether some component of foraminiferal Sr/Ca variation can be uniquely ascribed to seawater Sr variation is still not clear. To address this question, we developed cleaning and analysis techniques and measured Sr/Ca ratios on individual shells of the modern benthic foraminifer Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi. We showed that different size shells have different Sr/Ca ratios; however, samples with shell sizes of 355-500 μm appear to have normally distributed Sr/Ca ratios (1σ=1.8%). For multi-shell measurements (with estimated errors of 0.12-0.39%), the ratio varied by as much as 7.2±0.5% during the last glaciation for two Caribbean records at the same site and by 3.7±0.5% over the past 40,000 yr for one record from the Sierra Leone Rise in the eastern equatorial Atlantic. The two Caribbean records are very similar indicating that the behavior of shell Sr uptake was identical locally and that the shell Sr/Ca ratio faithfully reflects the local environment. The Atlantic record differs from the Caribbean records by as much as several percent. Thus, the foraminiferal Sr/Ca changes cannot be solely due to changes in seawater Sr/Ca unless the glacial deep ocean had spatial variation in Sr/Ca well in excess of the modern ocean. Certain similarities between the three records do exist. Notably, the rate of change of Sr/Ca is similar between 9 and 0 ka (-0.25%/kyr) and between 25 and 16 ka (+0.16%/kyr). This suggests that

  14. An oceanic teleconnection between the equatorial and southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, M. W.; de Ruijter, W. P. M.; van Leeuwen, P. J.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2002-08-01

    Sequences of Kelvin and Rossby waves are found to rapidly carry sea surface height anomalies across the Indian Ocean, and have an impact on Indian to Atlantic interocean exchange. Satellite altimeter data reveal an oceanic teleconnection between equatorial winds and variability of the interocean exchange. Four times per year, we observe an equatorial Kelvin wave to hit Indonesia, forced by monsoon variability. The signal then propagates southward along the Indonesian coast and triggers Rossby waves that propagate westward across the subtropical Indian Ocean. On reaching the Madagascar and Mozambique Channel regions, large rings form at the same four per year frequency. These drift towards the Agulhas retroflection where they control the shedding of Agulhas rings. Disturbances of this pin-ball-like propagating signal can be traced from Indian Ocean Dipole/El Niño events in 1994 and 1997/1998, to decreases of Indian-Atlantic ocean exchange by Agulhas rings over two years later.

  15. In situ wind measurement and the ocean response in the Equatorial Atlantic during the Programme Français Océan et Climat dans l'Atlantique Equatorial and Seasonal Response of the Atlantic Ocean experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Christian; Garzoli, Silvia L.

    1987-04-01

    In situ wind measurements collected as part of the Programme Français Océan et Climat dans l'Atlantique Equatorial (FOCAL)/Seasonal Response of the Equatorial Atlantic (SEQUAL) experiment (1983-1984) in the western and eastern parts of the equatorial Atlantic basin are described. They were obtained from meteorological stations placed Saint Peter Peter and Saint Paul Rocks (SPP) (1°N, 29°W) and at the top of a surface buoy moored in the Gulf of Guinea (0°N, 4°W). From the wind observations the wind stress was inferred, and results are compared with climatology. The wind stress time series show the abrupt increase of the winds during the spring that, at SPP, reaches a value as high as 0.35 dyn/cm2 in 2 weeks for both observed years. The 11-day running mean time series shows that the onset of the zonal component of the wind stress occurs at SPP on April 10, 1983, and on May 17, 1984, and in the Gulf of Guinea (GG) on April 5, 1983, and April 10, 1984. The monthly mean observations show an interannual variability both in the time of the onset and in the strength of the trade winds. At SPP and GG the total wind stress increases 1 month earlier than climatology in 1983 but at the same time as climatology in 1984. At SPP the zonal component of the wind stress also intensifies 1 month earlier than climatology in 1983 but 1 month later in 1984. The equatorial temperature records at 28°W and 4°W show that the depth of the 20°C isotherm, on a seasonal time scale, decreases during the relaxation period of the trade winds (boreal winter). In 1983-1984 this occurred in December 1983 at 28°W and in March 1984 at 4°W. After the onset of the local trade winds, the thermocline continues to move upward during 1 month at 28°W and during 3 months at 4°W; thereafter, the thermocline deepens at both locations. At the surface, the temperature decreases when the trade winds intensify and remains low as long as the trade winds are blowing. The seasonal variations of the

  16. Vertical transport of steroid alcohols and ketones measured in a sediment trap experiment in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagosian, Robert B.; Smith, Steven O.; Nigrelli, Gale E.

    1982-07-01

    The vertical flux and free steroid alcohol (sterol) and ketone composition of particulate material was determined using sediment traps deployed at 389, 988, 3755 and 5068 m at a station in the equatorial North Atlantic, PARFLUX E. Cholest-5-en-3β-ol (cholesterol) was found to be the dominant sterol in all the traps. This compound had a maximum flux at 988 m, accounting for more than 90% of the sterols at this depth. Inputs from mesopelagic Zooplankton populations living in or migrating to depths between the 389 and 988 m traps appear to be responsible for this distribution. The deeper two traps exhibited an increased flux of phytosterols relative to cholesterol, probably due to (a) the incorporation of labile phytoplankton remains in fecal pellets and rapid transport into the deep sea and (b) differential dissolution of heterogeneous large particles. A maximum of 5-22% of the sterols produced in the euphotic zone were present in the 389 m trap. This value drops to less than 1% for the 5068 m trap, 200 m above the sediment surface. In general steroid ketone fluxes gradually decreased with depth. Δ4-Stenones were found in greater abundance than their saturated counterparts. Cholest-4-en-3-one was the major steroid ketone detected in all the traps. A five-fold increase with depth in the cholest-4-en-3-one to cholesterol ratio is most likely due to microbial oxidation of sterols to steroid ketones, or higher Δ4-stenone inputs relative to sterols from organisms.

  17. Detailed Phosphorus Geochemistry of Sediments from the Equatorial Proto-Atlantic at Demerara Rise During Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. E.; Latimer, J.; Pugh, E.

    2011-12-01

    Oceanic anoxic events (OAE) are associated with increased organic matter burial and possibly major changes in marine nutrient cycling. Phosphorus (P) limits biological productivity on geologic timescales, thus detailed P geochemistry may provide insight into the role of nutrients on the formation of these organic-rich deposits. P geochemical records that encompass the complete OAE 2 interval across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (CTB, ~94 Ma) are rare, and detailed P geochemical records are usually limited to relatively shallow settings. In this study, a sequential extraction (SEDEX) technique is employed to evaluate the sedimentary distribution of P (oxide-associated, authigenic, detrital and organic) in sediments mainly consisting of laminated black shales spanning the CTB/OAE2 interval at a sample resolution of ~2-5 cm collected from Demerara Rise during ODP Leg 207. Intermediate (Site 1260, 2549 m) and deep-sea (Site 1258, 3292 m) water depths will be compared to assess variations in P distribution across the CTB, with paleo-water depths of ~500 to 1000 m respectively. Diagenetic and redox conditions result in alterations of the sedimentary distribution of P in ancient sediments; most notably the effect of "sink-switching" of organic P to authigenic and/or oxide-associated phases. Here we evaluate the impacts of diagenetic remobilization of P through the critical OAE 2 interval. Sequential extraction enables an examination of the dominant pathways of P removal from the ocean thus providing insight into marine P mass balance. Initial results reveal little or undetectable concentrations of oxide-associated and organic P. Authigenic and detrital phases dominate the extractable P. Under anoxic conditions Fe-oxides would no longer be a major sedimentary sink and would likely lead to losses of oxide-associated P from the sediments. Low concentrations of organic P are likely due to diagenetic alteration to authigenic carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) and oxide

  18. Basin-Wavelength Equatorial Deep Jet Signals Across Three Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngs, M. K.; Johnson, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Equatorial Deep Jets (EDJs) are equatorially trapped, stacked, zonal currents that reverse direction every few hundred meters in depth throughout much of the water column. This study evaluates their structure observationally in all three oceans using new high vertical resolution Argo float conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) instrument profiles from 2010--2014 augmented with historical shipboard CTD from 1972--2014 and lower vertical resolution Argo float profiles from 2007--2014. Vertical strain of density is calculated from the profiles and analyzed in a stretched vertical coordinate system determined from the mean vertical density structure. The power spectra of vertical strain in each basin are analyzed using a wavelet decomposition. In the Indian and Pacific oceans, there are two distinct peaks in the power spectra, one Kelvin-wave-like and the other entirely consistent with the dispersion relation of a linear first-meridional-mode equatorial Rossby wave. In the Atlantic Ocean, the first-meridional-mode Rossby wave signature is very strong, and dominates. In all three ocean basins Rossby-wave-like signatures are coherent across the basin width, and appear to have wavelengths the scale of the basin width, with periods of about 5 years in the Indian and Atlantic oceans and about 12 years in the Pacific Ocean. Their observed meridional scales are about 1.5 times the linear theoretical values. Their phase propagation is downward with time, implying upward energy propagation if linear wave dynamics hold.

  19. Pelagic microplastics around an archipelago of the Equatorial Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário; Cysneiros, Francisco José A

    2013-10-15

    Plastic marine debris is presently widely recognised as an important environmental pollutant. Such debris is reported in every habitat of the oceans, from urban tourist beaches to remote islands and from the ocean surface to submarine canyons, and is found buried and deposited on sandy and cobble beaches. Plastic marine debris varies from micrometres to several metres in length and is potentially ingested by animals of every level of the marine food web. Here, we show that synthetic polymers are present in subsurface plankton samples around Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. To explain the distribution of microplastics around the Archipelago, we proposed a generalised linear model (GLM) that suggests the existence of an outward gradient of mean plastic-particle densities. Plastic items can be autochthonous or transported over large oceanic distances. One probable source is the small but persistent fishing fleet using the area. PMID:23953893

  20. Coupled marine productivity and salinity and West African monsoon variability over the last 30,000 years in the eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marret, F.; Kim, S.-Y.; Scourse, J.; Kennedy, H.

    2009-04-01

    around 20 cal ka BP, and the second from 15.2 to 13.2 cal ka BP, during the deglaciation period, when strengthening of the monsoon occurred in a context of open vegetation, allowing an increased erosion of soil. Evidence of decrease salinity due to strengthening of the monsoon dynamics is also observed from the Sanaga core, with the increased abundance of a marine taxon linked to low saline context from 12.5 cal ka BP onwards (2). The study of these integrated records of marine and terrestrial proxies illustrates the complexity of interactions between land-ocean and atmospheric systems and emphasizes the need for high-resolution records to fully understand the coupled equatorial climate system. References 1- Marret, F., Scourse, J., Kennedy, H. Ufkes, E., and Jansen, J.H.F., 2008. Marine production in the Congo-influenced SE Atlantic over the past 30,000 years: A novel dinoflagellate-cyst based transfer function approach. Marine Micropaleontology 68, 198-222. 2- Kim, S.Y., 2007, Dinoflagellate cyst and pollen stratigraphy of Niger and Ogouée fan sediments covering the last glacial cycle. PhD thesis, Bangor University.

  1. Interannual Variability of Boreal Summer Rainfall in the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Guojun; Adler, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    Tropical Atlantic rainfall patterns and variation during boreal summer [June-July-August (JJA)] are quantified by means of a 28-year (1979-2006) monthly precipitation dataset from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Rainfall variability during boreal spring [March-April-May (MAM)] is also examined for comparison in that the most intense interannual variability is usually observed during this season. Comparable variabilities in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) strength and the basin-mean rainfall are found during both seasons. Interannual variations in the ITCZ's latitudinal location during JJA however are generally negligible, in contrasting to intense year-to-year fluctuations during MAM. Sea surface temperature (SST) oscillations along the equatorial region (usually called the Atlantic Nino events) and in the tropical north Atlantic (TNA) are shown to be the two major local factors modulating the tropical Atlantic climate during both seasons. During MAM, both SST modes tend to contribute to the formation of an evident interhemispheric SST gradient, thus inducing anomalous shifting of the ITCZ and then forcing a dipolar structure of rainfall anomalies across the equator primarily in the western basin. During JJA the impacts however are primarily on the ITCZ strength likely due to negligible changes in the ITCZ latitudinal location. The Atlantic Nino reaches its peak in JJA, while much weaker SST anomalies appear north of the equator in JJA than in MAM, showing decaying of the interhemispheric SST mode. SST anomalies in the tropical central-eastern Pacific (the El Nino events) have a strong impact on tropical Atlantic including both the tropical north Atlantic and the equatorial-southern Atlantic. However, anomalous warming in the tropical north Atlantic following positive SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific disappears during JJA because of seasonal changes in the large-scale circulation cutting off the ENSO influence passing through the

  2. What controls equatorial Atlantic winds in boreal spring?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Ingo; Behera, Swadhin K.; Doi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Bunmei; Masumoto, Yukio; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2014-12-01

    The factors controlling equatorial Atlantic winds in boreal spring are examined using both observations and general circulation model (GCM) simulations from the coupled model intercomparison phase 5. The results show that the prevailing surface easterlies flow against the attendant pressure gradient and must therefore be maintained by other terms in the momentum budget. An important contribution comes from meridional advection of zonal momentum but the dominant contribution is the vertical transport of zonal momentum from the free troposphere to the surface. This implies that surface winds are strongly influenced by conditions in the free troposphere, chiefly pressure gradients and, to a lesser extent, meridional advection. Both factors are linked to the patterns of deep convection. Applying these findings to GCM errors indicates, that, consistent with the results of previous studies, the persistent westerly surface wind bias found in most GCMs is due mostly to precipitation errors, in particular excessive precipitation south of the equator over the ocean and deficient precipitation over equatorial South America. Free tropospheric influences also dominate the interannual variability of surface winds in boreal spring. GCM experiments with prescribed climatological sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) indicate that the free tropospheric influences are mostly associated with internal atmospheric variability. Since the surface wind anomalies in boreal spring are crucial to the development of warm SST events (Atlantic Niños), the results imply that interannual variability in the region may rely far less on coupled air-sea feedbacks than is the case in the tropical Pacific.

  3. Re-Os systematics of St. Paul's Rocks, equatorial Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blusztajn, J.; Hart, S. R.

    2006-12-01

    St. Paul's Rocks, small islets in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic (0°56'N, 29°22'W) just north of the St. Paul's Fracture zone, represent oceanic peridotites that are unique compared to abyssal peridotites. The main difference is the occurrence of modally metasomatized peridotites containing hornblende and pargasite. These mantle peridotites from St. Paul's Rocks show large Os isotopic heterogeneity, with present day 187Os/188Os ratios ranging from 0.1179 to 0.1273. In contrast, two hornblendite samples have very radiogenic Os isotopic compositions of 0.221 and 0.284. The Os concentrations vary from 0.003 ppb (hornblendite) to 5.8 ppb (spinel peridotite). Pargasite peridotites contain on average about 1.6 ppb Os. Even modally metasomatized samples with hornblende and pargasite have subchondritic Os isotopic ratios, indicating that enrichment processes did not disturb the Os isotopic system. The only indication of pervasive enrichment is a very high Re content in two of the amphibole peridotites (0.7 and 2.2 ppb). The unradiogenic Os isotopic ratios in the peridotites record ancient melting events with model ages of about 1.5 Ga. Three alkali basalts dredged on the flank of St. Paul's Rocks (1966 Atlantis II-20 cruise) have relatively high Os contents (62 to 167 ppt) and are quite radiogenic, with 187Os/188Os ranging from 0.167 to 0.239. Data from this study indicates that mixing of the different lithologies observed on St. Paul's Rocks cannot produce 187Os/188Os as high as that observed in the dredged basalts. On the other hand, the similar 187Os/188Os in the hornblendites and alkali basalts show that interaction between basalts and mantle peridotites took place. The very low Os isotopic ratios in St. Paul's Rocks, in conjunction with other Os studies from the equatorial Atlantic, indicate dispersed heterogeneities of old subcontinental lithospheric material in the oceanic mantle.

  4. An Overlooked November-December Cooling in the Equatorial Atlantic: PIRATA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Y.; Xie, S.

    2004-05-01

    Seasonal cycle of sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial Atlantic is characterized by a rapid cooling from April to July. With the onset of summer monsoon over West Africa, enhanced cross-equatorial southeasterly winds cool the equatorial ocean through Ekman upwelling and thermocline shoaling in the east. Previous studies suggest that the ocean dynamics plays more important role in this Atlantic seasonal cooling than in its Pacific counterpart. Surface winds over the ocean, on the other hand, are strongly influenced by the surrounding continents. Our GCM experiments show that the summer easterly acceleration is largely forced by the continental rainfall distribution in the Gulf of Guinea while the air-sea interaction is essential in the central/western basin, much like in the Pacific (Okumura and Xie, 2004). Whereas the annual harmonic is dominant in equatorial Atlantic SST, the easterly wind and thermocline depth show significant semiannual signals in the east. The easterlies accelerate in October-November, resulting in a shoaling of the thermocline. Using high-resolution satellite data, we show that the central Atlantic SST decreases from late November to early December in response to the accelerated easterlies and the shoaling thermocline. This secondary cooling has not been captured well in some widely used climatologies because of their low monthly resolution. The six-year PIRATA observations support the existence of a secondary seasonal cooling in November-December, suggesting a stronger thermocline feedback on SST than previously thought. Further studies will be needed to elucidate the mechanism for the easterly reacceleration and its influence on the ocean. Reference Okumura, Y. and S.-P. Xie, 2004: Interaction of the Atlantic equatorial cold tongue and African monsoon. J. Climate, revised.

  5. Distribution and activity of diazotrophs in the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rachel A; Subramaniam, Ajit; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2009-04-01

    The gene abundance and gene expression of six diazotroph populations from the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic in June 2007 were examined using nifH gene quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q PCR) methods. Of all the diazotrophs, Trichodesmium spp. was the most abundant with the highest number of gene copies in the Gulf of Guinea. Trichodesmium also had the highest nitrogenase gene transcript abundance overall with the maximum in samples collected at the equator and in waters influenced by the Congo River plume (> 10(5) cDNA nifH copies l(-1)). Both cyanobacterial unicellular groups (A and B) were detected, where group A was the second most abundant in surface samples, in particular at the stations along the equator. Transcript abundance for group A, however, was at the detection limit and suggests that it was not actively fixing N(2). Trichodesmium and group B nifH gene abundances co-varied (P < 0.0001). Richelia associated with Hemiaulus hauckii diatoms were detected in 9 of 10 surface samples and the highest abundances (> 10(4)nifH copies l(-1)) were found north-west of the Congo River plume. In contrast, the Calothrix symbionts (het-3) of Chaetoceros had low abundances at the surface, but were present at 3.7 x 10(4)nifH copies l(-1) at 40 m depth in the equatorial upwelling. This is the first report of the Calothrix symbiont in the Atlantic Ocean. This is also the first report of nifH gene copy and transcript abundance in an Equatorial upwelling zone. Although the number of gene copies for Richelia associated with Rhizosolenia were the lowest, the transcript abundance were high (9.4 x 10(1)-1.8 x 10(4) cDNA nifH copies l(-1)) and similar to that of Trichodesmium. The distribution of the diazotroph groups, especially the three strains of symbiotic cyanobacteria, was different, and appeared largely controlled by riverine inputs and upwelling. PMID:19175790

  6. Phase locking of equatorial Atlantic variability through the seasonal migration of the ITCZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Ingo; Xie, Shang-Ping; Morioka, Yushi; Doi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Bunmei; Behera, Swadhin

    2016-07-01

    The equatorial Atlantic is marked by significant interannual variability in sea-surface temperature (SST) that is phase-locked to late boreal spring and early summer. The role of the atmosphere in this phase locking is examined using observations, reanalysis data, and model output. The results show that equatorial zonal surface wind anomalies, which are a main driver of warm and cold events, typically start decreasing in June, despite SST and sea-level pressure gradient anomalies being at their peak during this month. This behavior is explained by the seasonal northward migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in early summer. The north-equatorial position of the Atlantic ITCZ contributes to the decay of wind anomalies in three ways: (1) horizontal advection associated with the cross-equatorial winds transports air masses of comparatively low zonal momentum anomalies from the southeast toward the equator. (2) The absence of deep convection leads to changes in vertical momentum transport that reduce the equatorial wind anomalies at the surface, while anomalies aloft remain relatively strong. (3) The cross-equatorial flow is associated with increased total wind speed, which increases surface drag and deposit of momentum into the ocean. Previous studies have shown that convection enhances the surface wind response to SST anomalies. The present study indicates that convection also amplifies the surface zonal wind response to sea-level pressure gradients in the western equatorial Atlantic, where SST anomalies are small. This introduces a new element into coupled air-sea interaction of the tropical Atlantic.

  7. Tropical atmospheric response to decadal changes in the Atlantic Equatorial Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, T.; Rodríguez-Fonseca, B.

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that the atmospheric response to the Atlantic Equatorial Mode is non-stationary. After the 1970s, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Atlantic are able to alter the atmosphere in the tropical Pacific via modifications of the Walker circulation. Such changes could be related to the differences in the background state of the global SSTs before and after the 1970s, but also to changes in the interannual Equatorial Mode itself. In this work we first describe the differences in the interannual Equatorial Mode before and after the 1970s. Then we use two AGCMs to perform different sensitivity experiments changing the spatial structure of the Equatorial Mode, and we explore the differences in the atmospheric response over the tropical Pacific region to each of the SST patterns considered. It is shown that the changes in the Walker Atlantic-Pacific cell produced by the EM are stronger after the 1970s, and are reinforced by the change in the impact of the EM over the Indian Ocean and the Maritime Continent. It is also shown that, although the Atlantic-Pacific connection is established by the aforementioned changes in the Walker circulation between the two basins, the modulation of the Indian sector is crucial for a realistic simulation of such connection by climate models.

  8. The influence of ENSO on the equatorial Atlantic precipitation through the Walker circulation in a CGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Wataru; Doi, Takeshi; Richards, Kelvin J.; Masumoto, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The link between El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the equatorial Atlantic precipitation during boreal spring (March-April-May) is explored using a coupled general circulation model (CGCM). Interannual variability of the equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in the CGCM is excluded by nudging the modeled SST toward the climatological monthly mean of observed SST in the equatorial Atlantic, but full air-sea coupling is allowed elsewhere. It is found that the equatorial Atlantic precipitation is reduced (increased) during El Niño (La Niña) in the case where the interannual variability of the equatorial Atlantic SST is disabled. The precipitation anomalies in the equatorial Atlantic during ENSO are not strongly associated with the meridional migration of the Atlantic inter-tropical convergence zone. We find the reduced precipitation in the equatorial Atlantic during El Niño is associated with an enhanced Atlantic Walker circulation characterized by strengthened low-level easterlies and anomalous dry, downward winds over the equatorial Atlantic, while the Pacific Walker circulation is weakened. The upper-level anomalous westerlies over the equatorial Atlantic are consistent with a Matsuno-Gill-type response to heating in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Our results of the CGCM experiments suggest that changes to the Walker circulation induced by ENSO contribute significantly to changes in precipitation over the equatorial Atlantic.

  9. Abstracting the Pacific Ocean's Impact on North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghmous, J.; Le, M.; Liess, S.; Mesquita, M.; Kumar, V.

    2012-12-01

    The warming anomalies of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the near- equatorial Pacific Ocean (ENSO) have well documented global long-range weather teleconnections from rainfall in southern India to mudslides in the western United States. In this work, we focus on ENSO's teleconnections with North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity. Traditionally, ENSO's impact on Atlantic TCs has been abstracted by monitoring the warming of static regions along the equatorial Pacific Ocean. We propose that the spatial distribution of Pacific Ocean warming might provide better predictive insights into ENSO-Atlantic TC impact than warming anomalies alone. We present a distance-based ENSO index (S-ENSO for spatial ENSO) that tracks the location of the maximum near-tropical Pacific warming anomaly instead the absolute warming of a static region. Our spatial ENSO index correlates better with seasonal TC activity than standard ENSO indices, especially with increased lead times.

  10. Halocarbon emissions and sources in the equatorial Atlantic Cold Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepach, H.; Quack, B.; Raimund, S.; Fischer, T.; Atlas, E. L.; Bracher, A.

    2015-11-01

    Halocarbons from oceanic sources contribute to halogens in the troposphere, and can be transported into the stratosphere where they take part in ozone depletion. This paper presents distribution and sources in the equatorial Atlantic from June and July 2011 of the four compounds bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), methyl iodide (CH3I) and diiodomethane (CH2I2). Enhanced biological production during the Atlantic Cold Tongue (ACT) season, indicated by phytoplankton pigment concentrations, led to elevated concentrations of CHBr3 of up to 44.7 and up to 9.2 pmol L-1 for CH2Br2 in surface water, which is comparable to other tropical upwelling systems. While both compounds correlated very well with each other in the surface water, CH2Br2 was often more elevated in greater depth than CHBr3, which showed maxima in the vicinity of the deep chlorophyll maximum. The deeper maximum of CH2Br2 indicates an additional source in comparison to CHBr3 or a slower degradation of CH2Br2. Concentrations of CH3I of up to 12.8 pmol L-1 in the surface water were measured. In contrary to expectations of a predominantly photochemical source in the tropical ocean, its distribution was mostly in agreement with biological parameters, indicating a biological source. CH2I2 was very low in the near surface water with maximum concentrations of only 3.7 pmol L-1. CH2I2 showed distinct maxima in deeper waters similar to CH2Br2. For the first time, diapycnal fluxes of the four halocarbons from the upper thermocline into and out of the mixed layer were determined. These fluxes were low in comparison to the halocarbon sea-to-air fluxes. This indicates that despite the observed maximum concentrations at depth, production in the surface mixed layer is the main oceanic source for all four compounds and one of the main driving factors of their emissions into the atmosphere in the ACT-region. The calculated production rates of the compounds in the mixed layer are 34 ± 65 pmol m-3 h-1 for CHBr3, 10

  11. Halocarbon emissions and sources in the equatorial Atlantic Cold Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepach, H.; Quack, B.; Raimund, S.; Fischer, T.; Atlas, E. L.; Bracher, A.

    2015-04-01

    Halocarbons from oceanic sources contribute to halogens in the troposphere, and can be transported into the stratosphere where they take part in ozone depletion. This paper presents distribution and sources in the equatorial Atlantic from June and July 2011 of the four compounds bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), methyl iodide (CH3I) and diiodomethane (CH2I2). Enhanced biological production during the Atlantic Cold Tongue (ACT) season, indicated by phytoplankton pigment concentrations, led to elevated concentrations of CHBr3 of up to 44.7 pmol L-1 and up to 9.2 pmol L-1 for CH2Br2 in surface water, which is comparable to other tropical upwelling systems. While both compounds correlated very well with each other in the surface water,CH2Br2 was often more elevated in greater depth than CHBr3, which showed maxima in the vicinity of the deep chlorophyll maximum. The deeper maximum of CH2Br2 indicates an additional source in comparison to CHBr3 or a slower degradation of CH2Br2. Concentrations of CH3I of up to 12.8 pmol L-1 in the surface water were measured. In contrary to expectations of a predominantly photochemical source in the tropical ocean, its distribution was mostly in agreement with biological parameters, indicating a~biological source. CH2I2 was very low in the near surface water with maximum concentrations of only 3.7 pmol L-1, and the observed anticorrelation with global radiation was likely due to its strong photolysis. CH2I2 showed distinct maxima in deeper waters similar to CH2Br2. For the first time, diapycnal fluxes of the four halocarbons from the upper thermocline into and out of the mixed layer were determined. These fluxes were low in comparison to the halocarbon sea-to-air fluxes. This indicates that despite the observed maximum concentrations at depth, production in the surface mixed layer is the main oceanic source for all four compounds and has an influence on emissions into the atmosphere. The calculated production rates of the

  12. Turbidity distribution in the Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, S.; Thorndike, E.M.; Sullivan, L.

    1976-01-01

    The regional coverage of Lamont nephelometer data in the North and South Atlantic can be used to map seawater turbidity at all depths. At the level of the clearest water, in the mid-depth regions, the turbidity distribution primarily reflects the pattern of productivity in the surface waters. This suggests that the 'background' turbidity level in the oceans is largely a function of biogenic fallout. The bottom waters of the western Atlantic generally exhibit large increases in turbidity. The most intense benthic nepheloid layers are in the southwestern Argentine basin and northern North American basin; the lowest bottom water turbidity in the western Atlantic is in the equatorial regions. Both the Argentine and North American basin bottom waters appear to derive their high turbidity largely from local resuspension of terrigenous input in these basins. In contrast to the west, the eastern Atlantic basins show very low turbidities with the exception of three regions: the Mediterranean outflow area, the Cape basin, and the West European basin. ?? 1976.

  13. Evidence for Atlantic thermal differentiation in the late middle Eocene to early Oligocene, eastern equatorial Atlantic DSDP Site 366

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabideaux, N. M.; Cramer, B. S.; Katz, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene climate transition marked a pronounced shift in global climate from greenhouse to icehouse conditions. We present new late middle to late Eocene (~33-39 Ma) benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records (δ18O, δ13C), including Oi-1, from DSDP Site 366 on the Sierra Leone Rise (04°40.70'N, 19°51.10'W) that extend published latest Eocene-early Oligocene Site 366 records (Miller et al. 1989), in an attempt to identify the influence Northern Component Water (NCW) and Southern Component Water (SCW), and possibly Tethyan Outflow Water (TOW), had on deepwater circulation in the Atlantic at this time. Site 366 provides constraints on eastern equatorial Atlantic deepwaters (~2700m paleodepth) during this time. Comparisons with published isotope records (Cramer et al., 2009) indicate a distinct δ18O offset between ODP Site 689 (Deister-Haass and Zahn, 1996) and Site 366 indicating cooler waters in the Southern Ocean than in the eastern equatorial Atlantic. South Atlantic δ18O records generally fall between the Site 689 and Site 366 values throughout the late middle Eocene-early Oligocene, and may indicate relative contributions of northern- and southern-sourced deepwater.

  14. Annual, orbital, and enigmatic variations in tropical oceanography recorded by the Equatorial Atlantic amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Equatorial Atlantic surface waters respond directly to changes in zonal and meridional lower tropospheric winds forced by annual insolation. This mechanism has its maximum effect along the equatorial wave guide centered on 10 deg W. The result is to amplify even subtle tropical climate changes such that they are recorded by marked amplitude changes in the proxy signals. Model realizations, NCAR AGCM and OGCM for 0 Ka and 126 Ka (January and July), and paleoceanographic proxy data show that these winds are also forced by insolation changes at the orbital periods of precession and obliquity. Perhelion in boreal summer produces a strengthened monsoon, e.g., increase meridional and decrease zonal wind stress. This reduces oceanic Ekman divergence and thermocline/nutricline shallowing. The result, in the equatorial Atlantic, is reduced primary productivity and higher euphotic zone temperatures; vice versa for perihelion in boreal winter. Perihelion is controlled by precession. Thus, the dominant period in spectra from a stacked SST record (0-252 Ka BP) at the site of the equatorial Atlantic amplifier is 23 Ky (53 percent of the total variance). This precessional period is coherent (k = 0.920) and in phase with boreal summer insolation. Oscillations of shorter period are present in records from cores sited beneath the amplifier region. These occur between 12.5 and 74.5 Ka BP, when eccentricity modulation of precession is at a minimum. Within this time interval there are 21 cycles with mean periods of 3.0 plus or minus 0.5 Ky. Similar periods have been documented from high latitude regions, e.g., Greenland ice cores from Camp Century. The Camp Century signal in this same time interval contains 21 cycles. A subjective correlation was made between the Camp Century and the equatorial records; the signals were statistically similar, r = 0.722 and k = 0.960.

  15. Changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation controlled by ocean circulation.

    PubMed

    Straub, Marietta; Sigman, Daniel M; Ren, Haojia; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Meckler, A Nele; Hain, Mathis P; Haug, Gerald H

    2013-09-12

    In the ocean, the chemical forms of nitrogen that are readily available for biological use (known collectively as 'fixed' nitrogen) fuel the global phytoplankton productivity that exports carbon to the deep ocean. Accordingly, variation in the oceanic fixed nitrogen reservoir has been proposed as a cause of glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Marine nitrogen fixation, which produces most of the ocean's fixed nitrogen, is thought to be affected by multiple factors, including ocean temperature and the availability of iron and phosphorus. Here we reconstruct changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation over the past 160,000 years from the shell-bound nitrogen isotope ratio ((15)N/(14)N) of planktonic foraminifera in Caribbean Sea sediments. The observed changes cannot be explained by reconstructed changes in temperature, the supply of (iron-bearing) dust or water column denitrification. We identify a strong, roughly 23,000-year cycle in nitrogen fixation and suggest that it is a response to orbitally driven changes in equatorial Atlantic upwelling, which imports 'excess' phosphorus (phosphorus in stoichiometric excess of fixed nitrogen) into the tropical North Atlantic surface. In addition, we find that nitrogen fixation was reduced during glacial stages 6 and 4, when North Atlantic Deep Water had shoaled to become glacial North Atlantic intermediate water, which isolated the Atlantic thermocline from excess phosphorus-rich mid-depth waters that today enter from the Southern Ocean. Although modern studies have yielded diverse views of the controls on nitrogen fixation, our palaeobiogeochemical data suggest that excess phosphorus is the master variable in the North Atlantic Ocean and indicate that the variations in its supply over the most recent glacial cycle were dominated by the response of regional ocean circulation to the orbital cycles. PMID:23965620

  16. Reconstructing past particle fluxes in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, W. B.; Lohmann, G. P.

    1990-08-01

    Using a research strategy analogous to modern sediment trap studies, sediment accumulation patterns on submarine rises can be interpreted in terms of past ocean chemistry and circulation. We have followed this research strategy to reconstruct the history of surface water productivity and deep-water chemistry and circulation in the eastern equatorial Atlantic (Sierra Leone Rise) and western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) during the last glacial maximum (˜18,000 B.P.). On shallow sections of these rises, at depths with little carbonate particle degradation, we assume that the accumulation of skeletal carbonate approximates the carbonate production rate in surface water. During the last glacial maximum, the rate of carbonate productivity was lower in the eastern Atlantic than it is today, while the western Atlantic exhibited no glacial-interglacial difference in carbonate productivity. Based on the difference in carbonate accumulation rates between shallow and deep cores on the rises, we observed greater dissolution in both basins during the last glaciation. The eastern Atlantic always had a lower rate of dissolution than the western Atlantic, despite having deep water with a lower δ13C during the last glacial maximum. Organic carbon accumulation in the eastern Atlantic increased with depth in the water column during the last glaciation, suggesting that there was a bathymetric decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration at that time. These observations are consistent with a glacial decrease in the production rate of northern source deep water during the last glaciation. At that time, the mixing zone between northern source and southern source deep water migrated to the north in the Atlantic, resulting in a greater proportion of corrosive, southern source deep water in the western Atlantic, and entering the eastern Atlantic through low-latitude fracture zones. Today the ratio of northern and southern components entering the eastern Atlantic is about 4:1. Based on

  17. Upper-level circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ray G.; Stramma, Lothar

    In this paper we present a literature survey of the South Atlantic's climate and its oceanic upper-layer circulation and meridional heat transport. The opening section deals with climate and is focused upon those elements having greatest oceanic relevance, i.e., distributions of atmospheric sea level pressure, the wind fields they produce, and the net surface energy fluxes. The various geostrophic currents comprising the upper-level general circulation are then reviewed in a manner organized around the subtropical gyre, beginning off southern Africa with the Agulhas Current Retroflection and then progressing to the Benguela Current, the equatorial current system and circulation in the Angola Basin, the large-scale variability adn interannual warmings at low latitudes, the Brazil Current, the South Atlantic Current, and finally to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current system in which the Falkland (Malvinas) Current is included. A summary of estimates of the meridional heat transport at various latitudes in the South Atlantic ends the survey.

  18. Sediment Provenance in the Equatorial Atlantic and its Implications on Paleocirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahler, S. H.; Franzese, A. M.; Hemming, S. R.

    2005-12-01

    Ocean circulation in the Equatorial Atlantic is composed of a diverse range of currents from the surface level equatorial currents and countercurrents to the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Sediments deposited in this region are derived from Africa and South America by a combination of aeolian and fluvial pathways and then transported by ocean currents. Fifteen cores from the Equatorial Atlantic (10°N to 10°S, 0° to 45°W) were used to determine sediment provenance during the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and specifically to test whether sediment was transported by surface or deep water currents. The radiogenic isotopic composition of any rock depends on its age, initial composition and its geologic history. The strontium isotopic composition of the terrigenous portion of marine sediments can often be used to identify the source rock(s) from which they weathered. By incorporating this new sediment core data from both Holocene and LGM depths with previous research designating the 87Sr/86Sr ratios for source areas in Africa and South America we were able to connect possible source areas with core locations. In general, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios from the Holocene are higher than those from the LGM, indicating a greater contribution from geologically older sediment sources during the Holocene. Primary sediment transport from African sources is best explained by wind transport, while sediment derived from South American sources is most easily explained by river input. The geographic pattern of 87Sr/86Sr ratios appears to be correlated to deep ocean circulation, specifically the NADW which flows southward along the western side of the Atlantic near South America and then cuts east along the Romanche Fracture Zone (RFZ, ~0°) before continuing south once again in the eastern basin near Africa. Based on our results, there is no observable difference in transport mechanisms between the Holocene and LGM; however, the difference in ratios between the two time

  19. Fracture zones in the equatorial Atlantic and the breakup of western Pangea

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.J.W.

    1987-06-01

    The early breakup of western Pangea has been investigated by mapping the pattern of fracture zones and distribution of seismic reflectors within the sedimentary cover of the Atlantic between the Cape Verde Islands and the equator. Two distinct sets of transverse oceanic lineaments are present, separated by the Guinea Fracture Zone near lat 10/sup 0/N. Lineaments to the north are associated with the formation of the central Atlantic in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; those in the south relate to the Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic. The Guinea Fracture Zone is thus the conjugate of the Jurassic transform boundary under peninsular Florida, which linked the Atlantic with the Gulf of Mexico. The distribution of dated seismic reflectors suggests that deposition of deep-water sediments was confined to the region north of the Guinea transform until Aptian time, when the Sierra Leone Basin began to open. The latter started to widen at least 15 m.y. after the initiation of the Cape Basin off southwest Africa, an age difference that can be explained if a short-lived plate boundary developed in either Africa or South America during the Early Cretaceous. Neither the trends of the equatorial fracture zones nor the seismic stratigraphy supports the existence of a predrift gap between west Africa and Brazil.

  20. Mechanisms of climate anomalies in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastenrath, Stefan; Polzin, Dierk

    2005-04-01

    Building on earlier work on the interannual variability of the boreal autumn equatorial westerlies (UEQ) over the Indian Ocean and concomitant rainfall anomalies at the coast of East Africa and in Indonesia, the inherent circulation mechanisms are here explored further from long-term surface and upper air data. Fast UEQ and deficient East African rainfall come with positive sea level pressure (P) and negative sea surface temperature (T) departures in a domain (W) at the northwestern extremity and opposite departures in a domain (E) at the southeastern extremity of the equatorial Indian Ocean. However, there is no seesaw between W and E in either P or T and no indication of local forcing of T on P. The large-scale pressure field, in particular the zonal pressure gradient along the equator and the South Indian Ocean pressure and southern tradewinds, control the evolution of UEQ. Fast UEQ steepens the zonal temperature gradient, thus tightening the inverse relationships between the zonal gradients of pressure and temperature. The rainfall anomalies associated with the interannual variability of UEQ, surface manifestation of a zonal circulation cell along the Indian Ocean equator, are favored by the kinematic and thermodynamic conditions in W and E. Thus, with fast UEQ the domain W features departure lower tropospheric divergence and subsidence and, favored by the cold T and subsidence, reduced precipitable water, all conducive to deficient precipitation. By contrast, E has departure lower tropospheric convergence and ascending motion and, favored by the warm T and ascending motion, enhanced precipitable water, in conjunction conducive to abundant rainfall. The interannual variability of the boreal autumn equatorial westerlies, dominated as it is by the large-scale pressure field, is crucial in the climate dynamics of the equatorial Indian Ocean region. This leads to the question: What controls the pressure pattern over the Indian Ocean basin?

  1. Isotopic composition of dissolved iron in the Equatorial Pacific and the Southern oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radic, A.; Lacan, F.; Jeandel, C.; Poitrasson, F.; Sarthou, G.

    2009-12-01

    Iron is a fundamental element linking ocean biogeochemistry and climate. Iron isotopes are a very promising tool for the study of the iron oceanic cycle, notably for tracing its sources to the ocean and/or for studying its speciation. Several studies reports iron isotopic data in the marine environment: in plankton tows, pore waters, aerosols, seafloor or marginal seas (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006; Severmann et al., 2006; De Jong et al., 2007). To link these isotopic data together and to fully study the iron isotope marine cycle, we need to document the central reservoir in the marine environment : dissolved iron in seawater, espacially in High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (NHLC) areas. So far there are very few comunicated data of dissolved iron isotopic composition in the open ocean (Rouxel, 2008; Lacan et al., 2008; John and Andkins, 2009;). Here, the first profiles in HNLC areas will be presented : 2 full-depth profiles in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (EUCFe 2006), 2 full-depth profiles in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (Bonus-GoodHope 2008) and some data from the Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean, KEOPS 2005). δ56Fe values range from -0.7‰ to more than 1.0‰. All the samples from the Equatorial Pacific Ocean display positive values (heavy iron) whereas samples from the Sourthern Ocean display rather negative values (light iron), especially around 450 m deepth. These results will be discussed in terms of iron sources to ocean. Potential applications of this new tracer for studying internal oceanic processes, such as biological uptake, will be discussed.

  2. The response of a linear baroclinic equatorial ocean to periodic forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, M. A.; Sarachik, E. S.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the periodic response of the linear inviscid shallow water equations in a meridionally unbounded basin to zonal forcings at a single low frequency omega. A general solution in the long wave approximation and on an equatorial beta-plane is obtained by summing the Kelvin mode and the finite sum of Rossby modes whose turning points lie equatorward of the turning latitude at frequency omega. The results of the investigation suggest that even if the low frequency forcing has a simple structure, considerable spatial inhomogeneity in the deep ocean response would have to be expected. On the basis of linear inviscid theory, some conclusions are drawn about the causes of the differences between equatorial thermocline response in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  3. Ocean-atmosphere interaction in the seasonal to decadal variations of tropical Atlantic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Yuko

    The tropical Atlantic ocean and atmosphere display distinct seasonal cycles with considerable year-to-year variations superimposed. The present study investigates processes and mechanisms important for tropical Atlantic climate and its variability, using numerical models and observational data, with an emphasis on ocean-atmosphere interaction. For the seasonal cycle, topics of particular interest are the rapid development of the monsoon-cold tongue complex in boreal summer and the oceanic response to the secondary acceleration of equatorial easterly winds in November; for interannual-to-decadal variability, they are the effect of the November thermocline shoaling on the equatorial zonal mode and the atmospheric response to the meridional sea surface temperature (SST) dipole mode. Atmospheric model experiments indicate that interaction between the equatorial cold tongue and the West African monsoon is essential for the rapid seasonal transition from boreal spring to summer. Mechanisms are identified for the summertime acceleration of equatorial easterly wind, which contributes to rapid equatorial cooling by forcing upwelling and thermocline shoaling. Analysis of high-resolution satellite/in-situ data reveals the equatorial SST change associated with the November easterly wind acceleration and thermocline shoaling. This overlooked climatic feature is further shown to give rise to a new mode of tropical Atlantic variability---Atlantic Nino II---which resembles the boreal summer zonal mode but peaks in November--December, and is statistically independent of the preceding summer events. Atlantic Nino II significantly affects interannual rainfall variations in the coastal Congo-Angola region, and evolves into the meridional mode in the following spring, affecting rainfall variations in northeast Brazil. It thus fills an important climate predictability gap in time, during the season for which the local variability was otherwise poorly understood. The atmospheric model

  4. The Low-Frequency Variability of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haekkinen, Sirpa; Mo, Kingtse C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Upper ocean temperature variability in the tropical Atlantic is examined from the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) as well as from an ocean model simulation forced by COADS anomalies appended to a monthly climatology. Our findings are as follows: Only the sea surface temperatures (SST) in the northern tropics are driven by heat fluxes, while the southern tropical variability arises from wind driven ocean circulation changes. The subsurface temperatures in the northern and southern tropics are found to have a strong linkage to buoyancy forcing changes in the northern North Atlantic. Evidence for Kelvin-like boundary wave propagation from the high latitudes is presented from the model simulation. This extratropical influence is associated with wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) forcing and manifests itself in the northern and southern tropical temperature anomalies of the same sign at depth of 100-200 meters as result of a Rossby wave propagation away from the eastern boundary in the wake of the boundary wave passage. The most apparent association of the southern tropical sea surface temperature anomalies (STA) arises with the anomalous cross-equatorial winds which can be related to both NAO and the remote influence from the Pacific equatorial region. These teleconnections are seasonal so that the NAO impact on the tropical SST is the largest it mid-winter but in spring and early summer the Pacific remote influence competes with NAO. However, NAO appears to have a more substantial role than the Pacific influence at low frequencies during the last 50 years. The dynamic origin of STA is indirectly confirmed from the SST-heat flux relationship using ocean model experiments which remove either anomalous wind stress forcing or atmospheric forcing anomalies contributing to heat exchange.

  5. Modeling Mesoscale Eddies in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Yi

    1999-01-01

    Ocean modeling plays an important role in understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting the future climate change. Modeling the ocean at eddy-permitting and/or eddy resolving resolutions (1/3 degree or higher) has a two-fold objective. One part is to represent the ocean as realistically as possible, because mesoscale eddies have an impact on the large-scale circulation. The second objective is to learn how to represent effects of mesoscale eddies without explicitly resolving them. This is particularly important for climate models which cannot be run at eddy-resolving resolutions because of the computational constraints. At JPL, a 1/6 degree latitude by 1/6 degree longitude with 37 vertical levels Atlantic Ocean model has been developed. The model is based on the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Using the 256-processor Cray T3D, we have conducted a 40-year integration of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model. A regional analysis demonstrate that many observed features associated with the Caribbean Sea eddies can be realistically simulated by this model. Analysis of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model further suggests that these Caribbean Sea eddies are connected with eddies formed outside the Caribbean Sea at the confluence of the North Brazil Current (NBC) and the North Equatorial Countercurrent. The diagram of the model simulated surface current shows that the Caribbean eddies ultimately originate in the NBC retroflection region, traveling more than a year from the North Brazil coast through the Lesser Antilles into the Caribbean Sea and eventually into the Gulf of Mexico. Additional information is contained in the original.

  6. Organic matter in eolian dusts over the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The elemental and mineralogical composition and the microfossil and detritus content of particulate fallout from the lower troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean have been extensively documented in earlier work, and it was possible to ascribe terrigenous source areas to such fallout. A brief review of the organic geochemistry of eolian dusts is also presented here. The lipids of eolian dusts sampled from the air mass over the eastern Atlantic from about 35 deg N to 30 deg S were analyzed here. These lipids consisted mainly of normal alkanes, carboxylic acids and alcohols. The n-alkanes were found to range from n-C23 to n-C35 with high CPI values and maximizing at n-C27 in the North Atlantic, at n-C29 in the equatorial Atlantic and at n-C31 in the South Atlantic. The n-fatty acids had mostly bimodal distributions, ranging from n-C12 to n-C30 (high CPI), with maxima at n-C16 and in the northern samples at n-C24 and in the southern samples at n-C26. The n-alcohols ranged from n-C12 to n-C32, with high CPI values and maxima mainly at n-C28. The compositions of these lipids indicated that their terrigenous sources were comprised mainly of higher plant vegetation and desiccated lacustrine mud flats on the African continent.

  7. Seasonal sea surface cooling in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue controlled by ocean mixing.

    PubMed

    Moum, James N; Perlin, Alexander; Nash, Jonathan D; McPhaden, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is a critical control on the atmosphere, and numerical models of atmosphere-ocean circulation emphasize its accurate prediction. Yet many models demonstrate large, systematic biases in simulated SST in the equatorial 'cold tongues' (expansive regions of net heat uptake from the atmosphere) of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, particularly with regard to a central but little-understood feature of tropical oceans: a strong seasonal cycle. The biases may be related to the inability of models to constrain turbulent mixing realistically, given that turbulent mixing, combined with seasonal variations in atmospheric heating, determines SST. In temperate oceans, the seasonal SST cycle is clearly related to varying solar heating; in the tropics, however, SSTs vary seasonally in the absence of similar variations in solar inputs. Turbulent mixing has long been a likely explanation, but firm, long-term observational evidence has been absent. Here we show the existence of a distinctive seasonal cycle of subsurface cooling via mixing in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue, using multi-year measurements of turbulence in the ocean. In boreal spring, SST rises by 2 kelvin when heating of the upper ocean by the atmosphere exceeds cooling by mixing from below. In boreal summer, SST decreases because cooling from below exceeds heating from above. When the effects of lateral advection are considered, the magnitude of summer cooling via mixing (4 kelvin per month) is equivalent to that required to counter the heating terms. These results provide quantitative assessment of how mixing varies on timescales longer than a few weeks, clearly showing its controlling influence on seasonal cooling of SST in a critical oceanic regime. PMID:23883934

  8. The Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, Roi; Dyment, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    The separation of South America from Africa during the Cretaceous is poorly understood due to the long period of stable polarity of the geomagnetic field, the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS, lasted between ∼121 and 83.6 Myr ago). We present a new identification of magnetic anomalies located within the southern South Atlantic magnetic quiet zones that have arisen due to past variations in the strength of the dipolar geomagnetic field. Using these anomalies, together with fracture zone locations, we calculate the first set of magnetic anomalies-based finite rotation parameters for South America and Africa during that period. The kinematic solutions are generally consistent with fracture zone traces and magnetic anomalies outside the area used to construct them. The rotations indicate that seafloor spreading rates increased steadily throughout most of the Cretaceous and decreased sharply at around 80 Myr ago. A change in plate motion took place in the middle of the superchron, roughly 100 Myr ago, around the time of the final breakup (i.e., separation of continental-oceanic boundary in the Equatorial Atlantic). Prominent misfit between the calculated synthetic flowlines (older than Anomaly Q1) and the fracture zones straddling the African Plate in the central South Atlantic could only be explained by a combination of seafloor asymmetry and internal dextral motion (<100 km) within South America, west of the Rio Grande fracture zone. This process has lasted until ∼92 Myr ago after which both Africa and South America (south of the equator) behaved rigidly. The clearing of the continental-oceanic boundaries within the Equatorial Atlantic Gateway was probably completed by ∼95 Myr ago. The clearing was followed by a progressive widening and deepening of the passageway, leading to the emergence of north-south flow of intermediate and deep-water which might have triggered the global cooling of bottom water and the end for the Cretaceous greenhouse period.

  9. Intraseasonal variability of upwelling in the equatorial Eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengxin; Han, Weiqing; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Dongxiao; Shinoda, Toshiaki

    2015-11-01

    By analyzing satellite observations and conducting a series of ocean general circulation model experiments, this study examines the physical processes that determine intraseasonal variability (ISV) of the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) upwelling for the 2001-2011 period. The ISV of EIO upwelling—as indicated by sea level, thermocline depth, and sea surface temperature (SST)—is predominantly forced by atmospheric intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs), and shows larger amplitudes during winter-spring season (November-April) when atmospheric ISOs are stronger than summer-fall (May-October). The chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentration, another indicator of upwelling, however reveals its largest intraseasonal variability during May-October, when the mean thermocline is shallow and seasonal upwelling occurs. For both winter-spring and summer-fall seasons, the ISV of EIO sea level and thermocline depth is dominated by remote forcing from the equatorial Indian Ocean wind stress, which drives Kelvin waves that propagate along the equator and subsequently along the Sumatra-Java coasts. Local wind forcing within the EIO plays a secondary role. The ISV of SST, however, is dominated by upwelling induced by remote equatorial wind only during summer-fall, with less contribution from surface heat fluxes for this season. During winter-spring, the ISV of SST results primarily from shortwave radiation and turbulent heat flux induced by wind speed associated with the ISOs, and local forcing dominates the SST variability. In this season, the mean thermocline is deep in the warm pool and thus thermocline variability decouples from the ISV of SST. Only in summer-fall when the mean thermocline is shallow, upwelling has important impact on SST.

  10. Climate Forcing on the Sedimentary Pb Isotope Record of the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouchami, W.; Zabel, M.

    2001-12-01

    The forcing mechanism for the radiogenic isotopes variations recorded in marine sediments over the past few million years remains debatable and a causal link between isotope tracers and climate is difficult to ascertain. We report evidence for a climate control on Pb sources to the Equatorial Atlantic using high precision Pb triple spike data (Galer, 1999) on two sediments cores covering the last six Marine Isotope Stages ( ~200 ka). Core GeoB1523-1 (3° 49,9'N, 41° 37.3'W, 3292m) is located on the Ceará Rise (West Atlantic) close to the Amazon mouth and core GeoB2910-1 (4° 50.7'N, 21° 03.2'W, 2703m) on the Sierra Leone Rise (East Atlantic) on the downwind trajectory of the boreal winter Saharan dust plume. These cores are ideally situated for monitoring climate-related Pb isotopic variations, since they have been shown to record past variations in terrigenous fluxes in response to Earth's orbital changes (Zabel et al., 1999; Rühlemann et al., 2001). Pb isotope data were obtained on bulk sediments which, given the two orders of magnitude difference in Pb contents of detritus ( ~10ppm) and carbonate (1-10ppb), will essentially reflect the composition of the terrigenous fraction. Pb isotope ratios display periodic fluctuations over the last ~200 ka in both cores and are quite distinct in the two basins. The east Atlantic core exhibits higher 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb but lower 206Pb/204Pb than the west Atlantic core. The Pb isotope signal is cyclical and closely follows the \\delta 18O record, interglacial periods being systematically more radiogenic than glacial periods. This pattern is observed in both cores, although changes in the western Atlantic seem to lead those in the eastern Atlantic. In Pb isotope space, the west Atlantic data form a unique Pb isotope array that is quite distinct from the east Atlantic where two trends are found. This clearly demonstrates that the Pb sources feeding the two basins are different. Furthermore, the persistence of a

  11. Atmospheric Blocking and Atlantic Multidecadal Ocean Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthen, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by affecting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a warmer, more saline subpolar ocean. The correspondence between blocked westerly winds and warm ocean holds in recent decadal episodes (especially 1996 to 2010). It also describes much longer time scale Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV), including the extreme pre-greenhouse-gas northern warming of the 1930s to 1960s. The space-time structure of the wind forcing associated with a blocked regime leads to weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange, both of which contribute to the warm phase of AMV.

  12. The sources of deep ocean infragravity waves observed in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Wayne; Ballu, Valerie; Bertin, Xavier; Karpytchev, Mikhail

    2015-07-01

    Infragravity waves are long-period (25-250 s) ocean surface gravity waves generated in coastal zones through wave-wave interactions or oscillation of the breaking point. Most of the infragravity wave energy is trapped or dissipated near coastlines, but a small percentage escapes into the open oceans. The source of deep ocean infragravity waves is debated, specifically whether they come mostly from regions with strong source waves or from sites with particular morphologies/orientations. We correlate measurements of infragravity waves in the deep North Atlantic Ocean with infragravity wave generation parameters throughout the Atlantic Ocean to find the dominant sources of deep ocean infragravity wave energy in the North Atlantic Ocean. The deep ocean infragravity wave data are from a 5 year deployment of absolute pressure gauges west of the Azores islands (37°N, 35°W) and shorter data sets from seafloor tsunami gauges (DART buoys). Two main sources are identified: one off of the west coast of southern Europe and northern Africa (25°N-40°N) in northern hemisphere winter and the other off the west coast of equatorial Africa (the Gulf of Guinea) in southern hemisphere winter. These regions have relatively weak source waves and weak infragravity wave propagation paths to the main measurement site, indicating that that the site morphology/orientation dominates the creation of deep ocean infragravity waves. Both regions have also been identified as potential sources of global seismological noise, suggesting that the same mechanisms may be behind the generation of deep ocean infragravity waves and global seismological noise in the frequency band from 0.001 to 0.04 Hz.

  13. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  14. Biogeography and Potential Exchanges Among the Atlantic Equatorial Belt Cold-Seep Faunas

    PubMed Central

    Olu, Karine; Cordes, Erik E.; Fisher, Charles R.; Brooks, James M.; Sibuet, Myriam; Desbruyères, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Like hydrothermal vents along oceanic ridges, cold seeps are patchy and isolated ecosystems along continental margins, extending from bathyal to abyssal depths. The Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB), from the Gulf of Mexico to the Gulf of Guinea, was one focus of the Census of Marine Life ChEss (Chemosynthetic Ecosystems) program to study biogeography of seep and vent fauna. We present a review and analysis of collections from five seep regions along the AEB: the Gulf of Mexico where extensive faunal sampling has been conducted from 400 to 3300m, the Barbados accretionary prism, the Blake ridge diapir, and in the Eastern Atlantic from the Congo and Gabon margins and the recently explored Nigeria margin. Of the 72 taxa identified at the species level, a total of 9 species or species complexes are identified as amphi-Atlantic. Similarity analyses based on both Bray Curtis and Hellinger distances among 9 faunal collections, and principal component analysis based on presence/absence of megafauna species at these sites, suggest that within the AEB seep megafauna community structure is influenced primarily by depth rather than by geographic distance. Depth segregation is observed between 1000 and 2000m, with the middle slope sites either grouped with those deeper than 2000m or with the shallower sites. The highest level of community similarity was found between the seeps of the Florida escarpment and Congo margin. In the western Atlantic, the highest degree of similarity is observed between the shallowest sites of the Barbados prism and of the Louisiana slope. The high number of amphi-atlantic cold-seep species that do not cluster according to biogeographic regions, and the importance of depth in structuring AEB cold-seep communities are the major conclusions of this study. The hydrothermal vent sites along the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) did not appear as “stepping stones” for dispersal of the AEB seep fauna, however, the south MAR and off axis regions should be further

  15. Atlantic and Indian Oceans Pollution in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  16. Carbon disulfide measurements in the atmosphere of the western North Atlantic and the northwestern South Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Johnson, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) measurements were made over the western and equatorial North Atlantic Ocean and the northwestern and equatorial South Atlantic Ocean. Carbon disulfide was in the range 0.4-50 pptrv in the atmosphere of the western North Atlantic Ocean. Emissions from anthropogenic sources and wet lands were found to be important although anthropogenic sources were 4-6 times larger than biogenic sources. The flux of CS2 from eastern North America between 30 and 39 deg latitude was estimated to be 2 x 10(exp 8)g/yr or sulfur. The anthropogenic contribution was 1.8 x 10(exp 8)g/yr of sulfur whereas the contribution of marshes was 0.2 x 10(exp 8)g/yr of sulfur. Sources of CS2 at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere were comparatively weak. Carbon disulfide levels in the western South Atlantic Ocean between -5 and 1 deg latitude were in the range 0.2-6 pptrv. Most of the CS2 appeared to come from biomass burning in Africa. Carbon disulfide was much higher close to shore suggesting that the South American continent was a significant source although too few data were available to quantify it. On ferry lights from Wallops, Virginia to Natal, Brazil, CS2 levels at the ferry altitude of about 6 km averaged 1.2 pptrv. This background CS2 was adequate to account for all the carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the atmosphere.

  17. Two-day Convective Disturbances in the Equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Kuo, H. C.; Johnson, R. H.; Ciesielski, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Quasi two-day convective disturbances were observed in the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) convectively active period in the equatorial Indian Ocean during the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign in 2011. The initial focus of the study is on seven significant precipitating events at Gan in October having two-days periodicity identified using TRMM 3B42(V7) rainfall data. In this study, gridded observations, TRMM rainfall and Meteosat-7 IR brightness temperature datasets were analyzed, the time-longitude diagrams and the composite analyses show that the two-day periodicity is related to westward propagating convection with propagation speed ~12m/s and zonal spatial scale ~2000km. In order to examine the vertical structure of the two-day convective disturbances, high-vertical resolution upper-air sounding data and the combined KAZR/S-Pol radar data (only available at Gan Island, 0.69°S, 73.15°E) from DYNAMO were also used to construct composite fields over a 48-hour period centered at the maximum rain rate of these precipitating events. The composited moisture, stability, temperature anomaly and cloud radiative effect reveal a distinct pattern of convective evolution - shallow convection to deep convection to stratiform precipitation - similar to that observed on longer time scales all the way up to that of the MJO. These results indicate several characteristics of two-day disturbances over the equatorial Indian Ocean, which can also be found in the western Pacific during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE).

  18. On the water masses and mean circulation of the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramma, Lothar; England, Matthew

    1999-09-01

    We examine recent observations of water mass distribution and circulation schemes at different depths of the South Atlantic Ocean to propose a layered, qualitative representation of the mean distribution of flow in this region. This furthers the simple upper layer geostrophic flow estimates of Peterson and Stramma [1991]. In addition, we assess how well ocean general circulation models (GCMs) capture the overall structure of flow in the South Atlantic in this regard. The South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) is of South Atlantic origin in the subtropical gyre, while the SACW in the tropical region in part originates from the South Indian Ocean. The Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Atlantic originates from a surface region of the circumpolar layer, especially in the northern Drake Passage and the Falkland Current loop, but also receives some water from the Indian Ocean. The subtropical South Atlantic above the North Atlantic Deep Water and north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is dominated by the anticyclonic subtropical gyre. In the eastern tropical South Atlantic the cyclonic Angola Gyre exists, embedded in a large tropical cyclonic gyre. The equatorial part of the South Atlantic shows several depth-dependent zonal current bands besides the Angola Gyre. Ocean GCMs have difficulty capturing this detailed zonal circulation structure, even at eddy-permitting resolution. The northward extent of the subtropical gyre reduces with increasing depth, located near Brazil at 16°S in the near-surface layer and at 26°S in the Antarctic Intermediate Water layer, while the tropical cyclonic gyre progresses southward. The southward shift of the northern part of the subtropical gyre is well resolved in global ocean GCMs. However, high horizontal resolution is required to capture the South Atlantic Current north of the ACC. The North Atlantic Deep Water in the South Atlantic progresses mainly southward in the Deep Western Boundary Current, but some water also

  19. Detrital and Authigenic Magnetic Micro- and Nanoparticles in Pelagic Sediments of the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, C.; von Dobeneck, T.; Dekkers, M.

    2004-12-01

    Magnetic paleofield and paleoenvironmental information of marine sediments is mostly carried by submicron magnetic particles from various sources. Most existing studies make plausible, but largely unconfirmed assumptions about the origin, mineralogy and grain size of the magnetic mineral assemblages of pelagic sediments. This study intends to provide a detailed characterization of magnetic micro- and nanoparticles in oxic to mildly suboxic sedimentary environments of the Equatorial Atlantic and compares three sites (Ceará Rise, Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR), Sierra Leone Rise) along a W-E transect. This region offers magnetic particle sources such as continental dust, fluvial discharge and weathering of ocean ridge basalts. Remanence, hysteresis, low- and high-temperature rock magnetic investigations were performed on bulk sediments, magnetic extracts and heavy liquid separates and were combined with analytic scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Curie temperatures between 580 and 600° C indicate oxidized magnetite as the major low coercivity component in all samples. The Verwey transition ( ˜110 K) is weakly expressed in the samples from the Ceará Rise and the MAR and disappears at the Sierra Leone Rise. SEM studies on the magnetic extracts show that the quantitative main components are detrital titanomagnetite particles with increasing Ti-content throughout the transect towards the East. Magnetite particles with very low to zero Ti-content provide about one third of the detrital component. They often show shrinking cracks indicating external maghemitization. Further components are octahedral titanomagnetite crystals, silicates with (titano-) magnetite inclusions and spherules with low Ti-content. An important high coercive component, most likely goethite, is unsaturated at 2.5 T and missing in the magnetic extracts. It is manifested by a large discrepancy of the slopes in field cooling and the zero field cooling low-temperature curves, which

  20. Intraseasonal mixed-layer heat budget in the equatorial Atlantic during the cold tongue development in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordani, Hervé; Caniaux, Guy; Voldoire, Aurore

    2013-02-01

    Estimating the mixed-layer heat budget is a key issue for understanding the cold tongue development in the eastern equatorial Atlantic. A high-resolution ocean regional model is used to diagnose the mixed-layer heat budget online during the EGEE-3 experiment from May to August 2006. The heat budget shows the major role of the horizontal advection and turbulent mixing in the mixed-layer temperature balance in the cold tongue. The surface net heat flux and entrainment processes play a minor role. The equatorial cooling is mainly induced by low-frequency advection, which is balanced by high-frequency zonal and meridional advections. The high-frequency advections are organized in patterns along the northern edge of the cold tongue, where they are associated with strong sea surface temperature gradients and well-developed tropical instability waves in the western Atlantic. Special attention is paid to the wind energy flux, which controls horizontal advection and turbulent mixing. We suggest that the wind energy flux drives the vertical velocity, which in turn adjusts the mixed-layer depth, its stratification, and the vertical shear of the horizontal current. Although vertical advection is not essential in providing cold water in the Atlantic cold tongue, it is shown that the vertical velocity plays a central role in preconditioning the mixed layer and maximizes the turbulent mixing.

  1. Modeled surface dynamic height in 1964-1984: An effort to assess how well the low frequencies in the equatorial Atlantic were sampled in 1982-1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, Gilles; Penhoat Du, Yves

    1987-02-01

    A wind-forced linear model has been used to produce 21 years (1964-1984) of monthly time series of surface dynamic height in the equatorial Atlantic. The climatological seasonal cycle is subtracted, and the statistical characteristics of the residuals are analyzed. An empirical orthogonal function analysis reveals that the most significant pattern has deviations of one sign in the western equatorial Atlantic associated with near-simultaneous deviations of the opposite sign in the eastern equatorial Atlantic. The anomalies in the last 2 years, 1983 and 1984, are particularly large. The time component of the first empirical orthogonal function peaks in July 1983, changes sign at the end of 1983, and has an extremum of the opposite sign in April 1984. At that time, the zonal slope of dynamic height had reversed with respect to normal along the equator. In 1983-1984 a large data set was collected to study the seasonal variability in the equatorial Atlantic. We do not analyze the real data here but evaluate the ability of this data set to cover correctly the time and space scales of the modeled anomalies. The model time series are sampled at the positions of the data. An optimal interpolation scheme is used with the adequate statistics extracted from the model time series, and the analysis is compared with the simulation. Our results suggest that the most noticeable features of the model anomalies for 1983-1984 are reproduced in the analysis, although the results would have been better if more data had been collected in the western equatorial Atlantic at the end of 1983. According to this study, subsets which have already been analyzed for the same period (for example, the Programme Français Ocean Climat dans l'Atlantique Equatorial conductivity-temperature-depth cruises) would also have retained the reversal of sign of the anomaly between the end of 1983 and early 1984, although the overall accuracy would have been reduced.

  2. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  3. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  4. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  5. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  6. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  7. Long-term variations of SST and heat content in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huonsou-gbo, Aubains; Servain, Jacques; Caniaux, Guy; Araujo, Moacyr; Bourlès, Bernard; Veleda, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies (eg. Wen et al. 2010; Servain et al. 2014) suggest that subsurface processes influence the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Atlantic through the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) with time lags of several months. In this study, we used observed SST and Ocean heat content to test such hypothesis during the period 1964-2013. First results indicate great similarities in the positive linear trends of monthly standardized anomalies of SST, upper ocean heat content (0-500m) and deeper ocean heat content (500-2000m) averaged over the whole Atlantic Ocean. Strong positive trends of SST and deeper heat content occurred in the equatorial Atlantic, while a strong positive trend of the upper heat content was observed in the northeast Atlantic. These positive trends were the highest during the last two decades. The lagged positive correlation patterns between upper heat content anomalies over the whole gridded Atlantic Ocean and SST anomalies averaged over the equatorial region (60°W-15°E; 10°N-10°S) show a slow temporal evolution, which is roughly in agreement with the upper MOC. More detailed works about the mechanism, as well as about the origin of the highest positive trend of the deeper heat content in the equatorial region, are presently under investigation. References Servain J., G. Caniaux, Y. K. Kouadio, M. J. McPhaden, M. Araujo (2014). Recent climatic trends in the tropical Atlantic. Climate Dynamics, Vol. 43, 3071-3089, DOI 10.1007/s00382-014-2168-7.

  8. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  9. Anisotropic tomography of the Atlantic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, G.; Stutzmann, E.

    2003-04-01

    We present a regional tri-dimensional model of the Atlantic Ocean with anisotropy. The model, derived from Rayleigh and Love phase velocity measurements, is defined from the Moho down to 300 km depth with a lateral resolution of about 500 km and is presented in terms of average isotropic S-wave velocity, azimuthal anisotropy and transverse isotropy. The cratons beneath North America, Brazil and Africa are clearly associated with fast S-wave velocity anomalies. The Mid Atlantic Ridge is a shallow structure in the North Atlantic corresponding to a negative velocity anomaly down to about 150 km depth. In contrast, the ridge negative signature is visible in the South Atlantic down to the deepest depth inverted, that is 300~km depth. This difference is probably related to the presence of hot-spots along or close to the ridge axis in the South Atlantic and may indicate a different mechanism for the ridge between the North and South Atlantic. Negative velocity anomalies are clearly associated with hot-spots from the surface down to at least 300km depth, they are much broader that the supposed size of the hot-spots and seem to be connected along a North-South direction. Down to 100 km depth, a fast S-wave velocity anomaly is extenting from Africa into the Atlantic Ocean within the zone defined as the Africa superswell area. This result indicates that the hot material rising from below does not reach the surface in this area but may be pushing the lithosphere upward. In most parts of the Atlantic, the azimuthal anisotropy directions remain stable with increasing depth. Close to the ridge, the fast S-wave velocity direction is roughly parallel to the sea floor spreading direction. The hot-spot anisotropy signature is striking beneath Bermuda, Cape Verde and Fernando Noronha islands where the fast S-wave velocity direction seems to diverge radially from the hot-spots. The Atlantic average radial anisotropy is similar to that of the PREM model, that is positive down to about

  10. Influence of physical and biological processes on the seasonal cycle of biogenic flux in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidya, P. J.; Prasanna Kumar, S.; Gauns, M.; Verenkar, A.; Unger, D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2013-02-01

    Seasonal cycle of biogenic fluxes obtained from sediment trap at two locations 5° 24' N, 86° 46' E (SBBT) and 3° 34' N, 77° 46' E (EIOT) within the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) were examined to understand the factors that control them. The sediment trap data at SBBT were collected for ten years from November 1987 while that at EIOT was for one year period from January 1996. The characteristic of biogenic flux at SBBT was the strong seasonality with peak flux in August, while lack of seasonality characterized the flux at EIOT. At the SBBT and EIOT, the higher chlorophyll biomass during summer monsoon was supported by wind-mixing, which supplied new nitrogen to the upper ocean. The stronger winds at SBBT compared to EIOT resulted in greater entrainment of nutrients to the euphotic zone, which supported higher chlorophyll biomass. High cell counts of phytoplankton (> 5 μm) at SBBT dominated by diatoms suggest the operation of classical food web and high carbon export. On the contrary, one-and-half time higher magnitude of micro-zooplankton biomass dominated by picophytoplankton along with 2-fold lesser meso-zooplankton at EIOT indicated the importance of microbial loop. The substantial decrease in the carbon export at EIOT indicated faster remineralization of photosynthetically produced organic matter. We see a striking similarity between the biological process that operates in the SBBT with that of the equatorial Atlantic and EIOT with that of the equatorial Pacific, though the physical forcing in these three regions, namely EIO, the equatorial Atlantic and the equatorial Pacific, are very different.

  11. Ocean Modeling of the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seminar, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Present modeling of the North Atlantic is inadequate and can be improved in a number of ways. A number of important physical processes are listed in five categories from the viewpoints of how they are treated in isolation, how they are usually represented in present ocean basin models, and how they may be better represented in future models. In the first two categories of vertical boundary processes and internal vertical mixing, parameterizations exist which can easily be incorporated into models and which will have important effects on the simulated structure of the North Atlantic. For the third catagory (mesoscale eddy effects), adequate parameterizations do not exist; but the order of magnitude of the effects is known from observational and process-model studies. A horizontal grid spacing of 100 km or less in required to allow parameterizations with this order of magnitude, as well as to resolve the time-averaged ocean fields. In the fourth category of large scale transports improvements are suggested by way of increased vertical resolution and by the requirement that lateral mixing due to eddies takes place on isopycnal surfaces. Model incorporation of the latter phenomenta is underway. In the fifth category of miscellaneous high-latitude processes, formulations for the treatment of sea ice are available for use. However, the treatment of gravitational instability, which is crucial to deepwater formation in the Atlantic Ocean, will require additional refinements to account for the unresolved physics of chimney formations in the open ocean and buoyant plumes near ocean boundaries.

  12. Estimates of the zonal slope and seasonal transport of the Atlantic North Equatorial Countercurrent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carton, James A.; Katz, Eli J.

    1990-01-01

    Data from six inverted echo sounder moorings and the Geosat satellite altimeter are used to examine the seasonal variability of sea surface elevation. Monthly sea level maps are constructed using a contemporaneous subsurface temperature survey to provide a reference sea level field. The maps are then used to describe the origin and structure of the western tropical Atlantic North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) during a two-year period beginning in November 1987. The data reveal a zonal current which is confined between 3 deg N and 9 deg N with a typical width of 300 km. The NECC flows strongly eastward during November and December 1986 and May 1987 through January 1988. The reappearance of the current is then delayed until August, but the current flows strongly from August until the end of the record in October 1988. Volume transport is estimated for the two-year period from surface elevation by approximating the vertical structure of the ocean as a two-layer fluid. It is found that the NECC has a maximum transport of 40 x 10 to the 6th cu m/s at 38 deg W.

  13. Deep currents and the eastward salinity tongue in the equatorial Atlantic: Results from an eddy-resolving, primitive equation model

    SciTech Connect

    Boening, C.W.; Schott, F.A. )

    1993-04-15

    The authors study the time and spatial dependence of the velocity of deep water circulation in the equatorial Atlantic by using a high resolution model of the wind-driven and thermohaline circulation. The model is the [open quotes]community modeling effort[close quotes], developed for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, which is here extended to look at deeper waters. In the Atlantic, the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) spreads cold, saline water south, the majority of which is carried in the deep western boundary current (DWBC), and this flow is compensated by northward motion of warmer surface waters. The actual flow velocities and patterns of this deep flow water are not well known, or well modelled at present. Salinity measurements indicate a major east west flow of deep water at the equator. The authors extend this ocean circulation model to deeper waters to try to address such flow questions, given surface wind forcing, and thermohaline circulation. The sparse experimental data indicates the presence of zonal currents at different depths, but such little data is available that it is difficult to assess the bearing this should have on model predictions.

  14. Radiocarbon evidence for a possible abyssal front near 3.1 km in the glacial equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keigwin, L. D.; Lehman, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the radiocarbon ventilation age in deep equatorial Pacific sediment cores using the difference in conventional 14C age between coexisting benthic and planktonic foraminifera, and integrate those results with similar data from around the North Pacific Ocean in a reconstruction for the last glaciation (15 to 25 conventional 14C ka). Most new data from both the Equatorial Pacific and the Emperor Seamounts in the northwestern Pacific come from maxima in abundance of benthic taxa because this strategy reduces the effect of bioturbation. Although there remains considerable scatter in the ventilation age estimates, on average, ventilation ages in the Equatorial Pacific were significantly greater below 3.2 km (∼ 3080 ± 1125 yrs, n = 15) than in the depth interval 1.9 to 3.0 km (∼ 1610 ± 250 yrs, n = 12). When compared to the average modern seawater Δ14C profile for the North Pacific, the Equatorial Pacific glacial data suggest an abyssal front located somewhere between 3.0 and 3.2 km modern water depth. Above that depth, the data may indicate slightly better ventilation than today, and below that depth, glacial Equatorial Pacific data appear to be as old as last glacial maximum (LGM) deep water ages reported for the deep southern Atlantic. This suggests that a glacial reservoir of aged waters extended throughout the circumpolar Southern Ocean and into the Equatorial Pacific. Renewed ventilation of such a large volume of aged (and, by corollary, carbon-rich) water would help to account for the rise in atmospheric pCO2 and the fall in Δ14C as the glaciation drew to a close.

  15. Tectonic provinces of the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushcharovsky, Yu. M.

    2009-05-01

    The tectonic structure of the floor of the Atlantic Ocean beyond the continental margins is insufficiently studied. This is also true of its tectonic demarcation. The segmentation of the floor into regional-scale tectonic provinces of several orders proposed in this paper is primarily based on structural and historical geological features. It is shown that deep oceanic basins and fault tectonics are of particular importance in this respect. Tectonic provinces of two orders are distinguished by a set of attributes. The first-order provinces are the North, Central, South, and Antarctic domains of the Atlantic Ocean. They are separated by wide demarcation fracture zones into Transatlantic (transverse) second-order tectonic provinces. Ten such provinces are recognized (from the north southward): Greenland-Lofoten, Greenland-Scandinavia, Greenland-Ireland, Newfoundland-European, North American-African, Antilles-African, Angola-Brazil, Cape-Argentine, North Antarctic, and South Antarctic. This subdivision demonstrates significant differentiation in the geodynamic state of the oceanic lithosphere that determines nonuniform ocean formation and the tectonic features of the ocean floor. The latitudinal orientation of the second-order provinces inherits the past tectonic pattern, though newly formed structural units cannot be ruled out. The Earth rotation exerts a crucial effect on the crust and the mantle.

  16. Ocean Color and the Equatorial Annual Cycle in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammann, A. C.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of chlorophyll, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and other scatterers in ocean surface waters affect the flux divergence of solar radiation and thus the vertical distribution of radiant heating of the ocean. While this may directly alter the local mixed-layer depth and temperature (Martin 1985; Strutton & Chavez 2004), non-local changes are propagated through advection (Manizza et al. 2005; Murtugudde et al. 2002; Nakamoto et al. 2001; Sweeny et al. 2005). In and coupled feedbacks (Lengaigne et al. 2007; Marzeion & Timmermann 2005). Anderson et al. (2007), Anderson et al. (2009) and Gnanadesikan & Anderson (2009) have performed a series of experiments with a fully coupled climate model which parameterizes the e-folding depth of solar irradiance in terms of surface chlorophyll-a concentration. The results have so far been discussed with respect to the climatic mean state and ENSO variability in the tropical Pacific. We extend the discussion here to the Pacific equatorial annual cycle. The focus of the coupled experiments has been the sensitivity of the coupled system to regional differences in chlorophyll concentration. While runs have been completed with realistic SeaWiFS-derived monthly composite chlorophyll ('green') and with a globally chlorophyll-free ocean ('blue'), the concentrations in two additional runs have been selectively set to zero in specific regions: the oligotrophic subtropical gyres ('gyre') in one case and the mesotrophic gyre margins ('margin') in the other. The annual cycle of ocean temperatures exhibits distinctly reduced amplitudes in the 'blue' and 'margin' experiments, and a slight reduction in 'gyre' (while ENSO variability almost vanishes in 'blue' and 'gyre', but amplifies in 'margin' - thus the frequently quoted inverse correlation between ENSO and annual amplitudes holds only for the 'green' / 'margin' comparison). It is well-known that on annual time scales, the anomalous divergence of surface currents and vertical

  17. Magnetic petrology of equatorial Atlantic sediments: Electron microscopy results and their implications for environmental magnetic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Christine; von Dobeneck, Tilo; Drury, Martyn R.; Meeldijk, Johannes D.; Dekkers, Mark J.

    2007-12-01

    The magnetic microparticle and nanoparticle inventories of marine sediments from equatorial Atlantic sites were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy to classify all present detrital and authigenic magnetic mineral species and to investigate their regional distribution, origin, transport, and preservation. This information is used to establish source-to-sink relations and to constrain environmental magnetic proxy interpretations for this area. Magnetic extracts were prepared from sediments of three supralysoclinal open ocean gravity cores located at the Ceará Rise (GeoB 1523-1; 3°49.9'N/41°37.3'W), the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (GeoB 4313-2; 4°02.8'N/33°26.3'W), and the Sierra Leone Rise (GeoB 2910-1; 4°50.7'N/21°03.2'W). Sediments from two depths corresponding to marine isotope stages 4 and 5.5 were processed. This selection represents glacial and interglacial conditions of sedimentation for the western, central, and eastern equatorial Atlantic and avoids interferences from subsurface and anoxic processes. Crystallographic, elemental, morphological, and granulometric data of more than 2000 magnetic particles were collected by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. On basis of these properties, nine particle classes could be defined: detrital magnetite, titanomagnetite (fragmental and euhedral), titanomagnetite-hemoilmentite intergrowths, silicates with magnetic inclusions, microcrystalline hematite, magnetite spherules, bacterial magnetite, goethite needles, and nanoparticle clusters. Each class can be associated with fluvial, eolian, subaeric, and submarine volcanic, biogenic, or chemogenic sources. Large-scale sedimentation patterns are delineated as well: detrital magnetite is typical of Amazon discharge, fragmental titanomagnetite is a submarine weathering product of mid-ocean ridge basalts, and titanomagnetite-hemoilmenite intergrowths are common magnetic particles in West African dust. This clear regionalization underlines

  18. NOAA Research Vessel Explores Atlantic Ocean Seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-10-01

    Mike Ford, a biological oceanographer with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), sat rapt in front of a bank of high-definition monitors. They provided live video and data feeds from a tethered pair of instrument-laden remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) that were descending 4692 meters on their deepest dive ever. Their target: an unnamed and unexplored New England seamount discovered in the North Atlantic last year.

  19. Hurricane Bonnie, Northeast of Bermuda, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Hurricane Bonnie was over the North Atlantic Ocean about 500 miles northeast of Bermuda (39.0N, 56.5W) when this photo was taken. Compare this view with Hurricane Iniki, also photographed on this mission (STS-47-77-058). Bonnie is small but in her prime, having a well defined eye, a tight spiral gyre indicating high wind speeds and numerous thunderheads. Iniki, on the other hand, was decaying when photographed and no longer presented a threat.

  20. Miocene oceanographic changes of the western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.

    2010-09-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent a time-interval of major changes in palaeoceanography that favoured the cooling of the climate and culminated in the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). The basis for the development of the modern deepwater circulation pattern, e.g. thermohaline circulation, was hereby established. Tectonic events played a key role in the progressing Miocene oceanography, such as the narrowing of the Panama gateway (e.g. Duque-Caro 1990) and the possible linked changes in North Atlantic Deep Water formation (Lear et al. 2003). However, the complex interaction between the closing of the Panama Gateway, the development of NADW, and thus the oceanographic progression towards our present day circulation is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) associations. Within this study, we investigated sediment samples from ODP Site 926A by defining the calcareous dinocyst assemblage. Site 926A is located at the southwestern flank of the Ceara Rise, an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. At about 12 Ma, when NADW production increased (e.g. Wright et al. 1992), we see a distinct increase in the absolute abundances of the calcareous dinocysts. This might be related to enhanced productivity or to better carbonate preservation. At 11.3 Ma, Leonella granifera, a species known to be strongly related to terrestrial input occurs. This could be a signal for the initiation of the Amazon River as a transcontinental river with the development of the Amazon fan (11.8 - 11.3 Ma; Figueiredo et al. 2009) in relation to Andean tectonism. References: Duque-Caro, H. (1990): Neogene stratigraphy, paleoceanography and palebiology in Northwest South America and the evolution of the Panama Seaway. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology

  1. Air-sea interactions and oceanic processes in the development of different Atlantic Niño patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Rey, Marta; Polo, Irene; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Lazar, Alban

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Niño is the leading mode of inter-annual variability of the tropical Atlantic basin at inter-annual time scales. A recent study has put forward that two different Atlantic Niño patterns co-exist in the tropical Atlantic basin during negative phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The leading mode, Basin-Wide (BW) Atlantic Niño is characterized by an anomalous warming extended along the whole tropical basin. The second mode, the Dipolar (D) Atlantic Niño presents positive Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies in the central-eastern equatorial band, surrounded by negative ones in the North and South tropical Atlantic. The BW Atlantic Niño is associated with a weakening of both Azores and Sta Helena High, which reduces the tropical trades during previous autumn-winter. On the other hand, the D-Atlantic Niño is related to a strengthening of the Azores and a weakening of Helena High given rise to a meridional Sea Level Pressure (SLP) gradient that originates an intensification of the subtropical trades and anomalous westerlies along the equatorial band. This different wind forcing suggests that different oceanic processes could act in the development of the BW and D Atlantic Niño patterns. For this reason, an inter-annual simulation with the ocean NEMO model has been performed and the heat budget analysis has been analysed for each Atlantic Niño mode. The results suggest that the two Atlantic Nino configurations have different timing. The heat budget analysis reveals that BW Atlantic Nino SST pattern is due to anomalous air-sea heat fluxes in the south tropical and western equatorial Atlantic during the autumn-winter, while vertical processes are responsible of the warming in the central and eastern part of the basin during late-winter and spring. For the D-Atlantic Nino, the subtropical cooling is attributed to turbulent heat fluxes, the equatorial SST signal is mainly forced by vertical entrainment. The role of the oceanic waves in the

  2. Biogeochemical variability in the central equatorial Indian Ocean during the monsoon transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutton, P. G.; Coles, V. J.; Hood, R. R.; Matear, R. J.; McPhaden, M. J.; Phillips, H. E.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we examine time-series measurements of near-surface chlorophyll concentration from a mooring that was deployed at 80.5°E on the equator in the Indian Ocean in 2010. These data reveal at least six striking spikes in chlorophyll from October through December, at approximately 2-week intervals, that coincide with the development of the fall Wyrtki jets during the transition between the summer and winter monsoons. Concurrent meteorological and in situ physical measurements from the mooring reveal that the chlorophyll pulses are associated with the intensification of eastward winds at the surface and eastward currents in the mixed layer. These observations are inconsistent with upwelling dynamics as they occur in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, since eastward winds that force Wyrtki jet intensification should drive downwelling. The chlorophyll spikes could be explained by two alternative mechanisms: (1) turbulent entrainment of nutrients and/or chlorophyll from across the base of the mixed layer by wind stirring or Wyrtki jet-induced shear instability or (2) enhanced southward advection of high chlorophyll concentrations into the equatorial zone. The first mechanism is supported by the phasing and amplitude of the relationship between wind stress and chlorophyll, which suggests that the chlorophyll spikes are the result of turbulent entrainment driven by synoptic zonal wind events. The second mechanism is supported by the observation of eastward flows over the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge, generating high chlorophyll to the north of the equator. Occasional southward advection can then produce the chlorophyll spikes that are observed in the mooring record. Wind-forced biweekly mixed Rossby gravity waves are a ubiquitous feature of the ocean circulation in this region, and we examine the possibility that they may play a role in chlorophyll variability. Statistical analyses and results from the OFAM3 (Ocean Forecasting Australia Model, version 3) eddy

  3. The impact of mean state errors on equatorial Atlantic interannual variability in a climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hui; Keenlyside, Noel; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun; Wahl, Sebastian

    2015-02-01

    Observations show that the Equatorial Atlantic Zonal Mode (ZM) obeys similar physics to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO): positive Bjerknes and delayed negative feedbacks. This implies the ZM may be predictable on seasonal timescales, but models demonstrate little prediction skill in this region. In this study using different configurations of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) exhibiting different levels of systematic error, we show that a reasonable simulation of the ZM depends on realistic representation of the mean state, i.e., surface easterlies along the equator, upward sloping thermocline to the east, with an equatorial SST cold tongue in the east. We further attribute the differences in interannual variability among the simulations to the individual components of the positive Bjerknes and delayed negative feedbacks. Differences in the seasonality of the variability are similarly related to the impact of seasonal biases on the Bjerknes feedback. Our results suggest that model physics must be enhanced to enable skillful seasonal predictions in the Tropical Atlantic Sector, although some improvement with regard to the simulation of Equatorial Atlantic interannual variability may be achieved by momentum flux correction. This pertains especially to the seasonal phase locking of interannual SST variability.

  4. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, MD to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement in the restricted area in order to protect mariners from the hazards associated with air show...

  5. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  6. 77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). ] Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  7. Equatorward shift of annual Rossby waves in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao; Sun, Che

    2016-01-01

    Annual Rossby wave is a key component of the ENSO phenomenon in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Due to the paucity and seasonal bias in historical hydrographic data, previous studies on equatorial Rossby waves only gave qualitative description. The accumulation of Argo measurements in recent years has greatly alleviated the data problem. In this study, seasonal variation of the equatorial Pacific Ocean is examined with annual harmonic analysis of Argo gridded data. Results show that strong seasonal signal is present in the western equatorial Pacific and explains more than 50% of the thermal variance below 500 m. Lag-correlation tracing further shows that this sub-thermocline seasonal signal originates from the eastern equatorial Pacific via downward and southwestward propagation of annual Rossby waves. Possible mechanisms for the equatorward shift of Rossby wave path are also discussed.

  8. Sea-air partitioning of mercury in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.P.; Fitzgerald, W.F.

    1986-03-07

    The partitioning of gaseous mercury between the atmosphere and surface waters was determined in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The highest concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury occurred in cooler, nutrient-rich waters that characterize equatorial upwelling and increased biological productivity at the sea surface. The surface waters were supersaturated with respect to elemental mercury; a significant flux of elemental mercury to the atmosphere is predicted for the equatorial Pacific. When normalized to primary production on a global basis, the ocean effluxes of mercury may rival anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere. 23 references, 2 figures.

  9. Miocene oceanographic changes of the western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Sonja; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Willems, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent a time-interval of major changes in palaeoclimate leading to global cooling forming the precursor of the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciations (NHG). These climate changes are thought to be strongly controlled by oceanographic modifications although the nature of the relationship between ocean and climate change is far from clear. It has for instance been observed that in this time interval the modern deepwater circulation system; the thermohaline circulation was established. It is thought that tectonic events, such as the narrowing of the Panama gateway, played a key role in the progressing of these Miocene oceanographic changes (e.g. Duque-Caro 1990; Lear et al. 2003). However, the complex interaction between the closing of the Panama Gateway, the development of NADW, and thus the oceanographic progression towards our present day circulation is far from being fully understood. A key region to study these interactions is the Caribbean region, notably the Ceara Rise since it is an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. Here we intent to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) associations. For this, we investigated sediment samples from ODP Site 926A by defining the calcareous dinocyst assemblage. Site 926A is located at the southwestern flank of the Ceara Rise, an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. At about 11 Ma, we see a distinct increase in the absolute abundances of the calcareous dinocysts suggesting enhanced productivity and better carbonate preservation that can be related to the intensification of NADW formation (Woodruff & Savin 1989). At 11.3 Ma, Leonella granifera, a species known to be strongly related to terrestrial input increases. This could be a signal for the initiation of the

  10. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity.

  11. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years.

    PubMed

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F; Jaccard, Samuel L; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-31

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity. PMID:27185933

  12. Metal quotas of plankton in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Benjamin S.; Baines, Stephen B.; Bozard, James B.; Vogt, Stefan; Walker, Elyse A.; Nelson, David M.

    2011-03-01

    The micronutrient metals Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Zn are required for phytoplankton growth, and their availability influences ocean productivity and biogeochemistry. Here we report the first direct measurements of these metals in phytoplankton and protozoa from the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Cells representing 4 functional groups (diatoms, autotrophic flagellates, heterotrophic flagellates and autotrophic picoplankton) were collected from the surface mixed layer using trace-metal clean techniques during transects across the equator at 110°W and along the equator between 110°W and 140°W. Metal quotas were determined for individual cells with synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy, and cellular stoichiometries were calculated relative to measured P and S, as well as to C calculated from biovolume. Bulk particulate (>3 μm) metal concentrations were also determined at 3 stations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for comparison to single-cell stoichiometries. Phosphorus-normalized Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn ratios were significantly higher in diatoms than other cell types, while Co stoichiometries were highest in autotrophic flagellates. The magnitude of these effects ranged from approximately 2-fold for Mn in diatoms and autotrophic flagellates to nearly an order of magnitude for Fe in diatoms and picoplankton. Variations in S-normalized metal stoichiometries were also significant but of lower magnitude (1.4 to 6-fold). Cobalt and Mn quotas were 1.6 and 3-fold higher in autotrophic than heterotrophic flagellates. Autotrophic picoplankton were relatively enriched in Ni but depleted in Zn, matching expectations based on known uses of these metals in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Significant spatial variability in metal stoichiometries was also observed. At two stations deviations in Fe stoichiometries reflected features in the dissolved Fe distribution. At these same stations, high Ni stoichiometries in autotrophic flagellates were correlated with elevated ammonium

  13. Calculation of wind-driven surface currents in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, T. H.; Turner, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Calculations to simulate the wind driven near surface currents of the North Atlantic Ocean are described. The primitive equations were integrated on a finite difference grid with a horizontal resolution of 2.5 deg in longitude and latitude. The model ocean was homogeneous with a uniform depth of 100 m and with five levels in the vertical direction. A form of the rigid-lid approximation was applied. Generally, the computed surface current patterns agreed with observed currents. The development of a subsurface equatorial countercurrent was observed.

  14. Distribution and composition of suspended particulate matter in the Atlantic Ocean: Direct measurements and satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisitzin, A. P.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Burenkov, V. I.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Politova, N. V.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Klyuvitkina, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study the real distribution and spatial-temporal variations of suspended particulate matter and its main components in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean on the basis of direct and satellite measurements for development of new and perfection of available algorithms for converting satellite data. The distribution fields of suspended particulate matter were calculated and plotted for the entire Atlantic Ocean. It is established that its distribution in the open ocean is subordinate to the latitudinal climatic zonality. The areas with maximum concentrations form latitudinal belts corresponding to high-productivity eutrophic and mesotrophic waters of the northern and southern temperate humid belts and with the equatorial humid zone. Phytoplankton, the productivity of which depends primarily on the climatic zonality, is the main producer of suspended particulate matter in the surface water layer.

  15. Sensitivity of the Oceanic Turbulent Boundary Layer to Cyclic Insolation Change with Response Periods of 23 to 2.5 Ky: an Equatorial Atlantic Record for the Last 200 Ka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    Time series of sea-surface temperature in cores sited beneath the region of maximum divergence centered on 10 degrees W are characterized by two sets of periodic signals. The dominant signal is centered on a period of 23 Ky and is coherent with and lags, approx. 2.5 Ky, the precessional component of orbitally controlled insolation. The subdominant periods occur between 4.0 and 2.5 Ky. Both sets of signals record variation in the seasonal intensity of oceanic divergence modulated by variation in tropical easterly intensity. The longer periods are a response to precessional forcing. The forcing responsible for the shorter periods is unknown.

  16. Tropical Atlantic Impacts on the Decadal Climate Variability of the Tropical Ocean and Atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Xie, S. P.; Gille, S. T.; Yoo, C.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies revealed atmospheric bridges between the tropical Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean. In particular, several recent works indicate that the Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) may contribute to the climate variability over the equatorial Pacific. Inspired by these studies, our work aims at investigating the impact of the tropical Atlantic on the entire tropical climate system, and uncovering the physical dynamics under these tropical teleconnections. We first performed a 'pacemaker' simulation by restoring the satellite era tropical Atlantic SST changes in a fully coupled model - the CESM1. Results reveal that the Atlantic warming heats the Indo-Western Pacific and cools the Eastern Pacific, enhances the Walker circulation and drives the subsurface Pacific to a La Niña mode, contributing to 60-70% of the above tropical changes in the past 30 years. The same pan-tropical teleconnections have been validated by the statistics of observations and 106 CMIP5 control simulations. We then used a hierarchy of atmospheric and oceanic models with different complexities, to single out the roles of atmospheric dynamics, atmosphere-ocean fluxes, and oceanic dynamics in these teleconnections. With these simulations we established a two-step mechanism as shown in the schematic figure: 1) Atlantic warming generates an atmospheric deep convection and induces easterly wind anomalies over the Indo-Western Pacific in the form of Kelvin waves, and westerly wind anomalies over the eastern equatorial Pacific as Rossby waves, in line with Gill's solution. This circulation changes warms the Indo-Western Pacific and cools the Eastern Pacific with the wind-evaporation-SST effect, forming a temperature gradient over the Indo-Pacific basins. 2) The temperature gradient further generates a secondary atmospheric deep convection, which reinforces the easterly wind anomalies over the equatorial Pacific and enhances the Walker circulation, triggering the Pacific to a La Ni

  17. Does eddy subduction matter in the northeast Atlantic Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbie, Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Mesoscale eddies are an important contributor to subduction in the Gulf Stream region and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, but is eddy subduction also important in the relatively quiescent interior of the world's subtropical gyres? Observations from the Subduction Experiment of the northeast Atlantic do not have the spatial resolution necessary to calculate eddy subduction and answer this question. Regional numerical models can diagnose subduction, but their representativeness is unknown. Furthermore, water mass budgets in an open-ocean domain show that the simulated properties of subducted water directly depend upon uncertain open-boundary conditions and surface fluxes. To remedy these problems, a state estimate of the ocean circulation is formed by constraining an eddy-permitting general circulation model to observations by adjusting the model parameters within their uncertainty. The resulting estimate is self-consistent with the equations of motion and has the necessary resolution for diagnosing subduction. In the northeast Atlantic during 1991-1993, the time-variable circulation contributes less than 1 Sv of net subduction, while the total subduction is 4 Sv. Eddy volume fluxes of 40 m/yr in the North Equatorial Current and the Azores Current, however, are significant and rival the subduction by Ekman pumping locally. Furthermore, a state estimate at 1/6° resolution has 2-3 Sv more subduction in the density bands centered around σ = 24.0 kg/m3 and σ = 26.0 kg/m3 than a 2° state estimate. This result implies that the inability to accurately simulate mesoscale phenomena and surface fluxes in climate models would lead to an accumulation of errors in water mass properties over 10-20 years, even in the interior of the subtropical gyre.

  18. Seismic Imaging Of The South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, K.; White, N.; Hobbs, R.

    2008-12-01

    Seismic oceanography is a powerful, new technique which utilises seismic reflection profiling to yield detailed acoustic images of ocean finestructure. The method uses seismic reflections generated by acoustic impedance changes which occur across water mass boundaries as a result of variations in temperature and salinity. Here we present a series of seismic images of the water column from a region in the southwest Atlantic using legacy seismic reflection datasets shot in the 1990s. The seismic surveys follow the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as it veers northward after exiting Drake Passage, looping around the Falkland Trough and finally entering the Argentinian Basin, largely following the Sub Antarctic Front route. Finestructure imaged in the data occurs dominantly in the boundary layer between Antarctic Intermediate Water and underlying Upper Circumpolar Deep Water, and correlates well with hydrographic interpretations. Structures such as dipping bands of heterogeneous water and eddies characterized by homogeneous cores and strong reflective inter-leaving edges are seen in the vicinity of ocean fronts. Further to the north, interesting thermohaline structures associated with the intrusion of North Atlantic Deep Water into the region have been captured. Seasonal variations in the time of data acquisition and the subsequent differences in the acoustic images provide interesting insights into the temporal variability of the water masses. Turbulent mixing in this part of the Southern Ocean is known to be remarkably intense and widespread and thought to contribute significantly to driving the upward transport of water closing the ocean's meridional overturning circulation. The deformation of thermohaline finestructure by such mixing and the ambient internal wavefield results in small undulations along seismic reflection horizons. Spectral analysis of these sinusoidal displacements has been used to extract quantitative information on internal wave energy and deduce

  19. High connectivity across the fragmented chemosynthetic ecosystems of the deep Atlantic Equatorial Belt: efficient dispersal mechanisms or questionable endemism?

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Sara; Olu, Karine; Decker, Carole; Cunha, Regina L; Fuchs, Sandra; Hourdez, Stéphane; Serrão, Ester A; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie

    2013-09-01

    Chemosynthetic ecosystems are distributed worldwide in fragmented habitats harbouring seemingly highly specialized communities. Yet, shared taxa have been reported from highly distant chemosynthetic communities. These habitats are distributed in distinct biogeographical regions, one of these being the so-called Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB). Here, we combined genetic data (COI) from several taxa to assess the possible existence of cryptic or synonymous species and to detect the possible occurrence of contemporary gene flow among populations of chemosynthetic species located on both sides of the Atlantic. Several Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs) of Alvinocarididae shrimp and Vesicomyidae bivalves were found to be shared across seeps of the AEB. Some were also common to hydrothermal vent communities of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), encompassing taxa morphologically described as distinct species or even genera. The hypothesis of current or very recent large-scale gene flow among seeps and vents was supported by microsatellite analysis of the shrimp species Alvinocaris muricola/Alvinocaris markensis across the AEB and MAR. Two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses may explain these findings. The dispersion of larvae or adults following strong deep-sea currents, possibly combined with biochemical cues influencing the duration of larval development and timing of metamorphosis, may result in large-scale effective migration among distant spots scattered on the oceanic seafloor. Alternatively, these results may arise from the prevailing lack of knowledge on the ocean seabed, apart from emblematic ecosystems (chemosynthetic ecosystems, coral reefs or seamounts), where the widespread classification of endemism associated with many chemosynthetic taxa might hide wider distributions in overlooked parts of the deep sea. PMID:23927457

  20. IRON LIMITATION OF PHYTOPLANKTON PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN THE EQUATORIAL PACIFIC OCEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The surface waters of the equatorial Pacific have unusually high nitrate and phosphate concentrations, but relatively low phytoplankton biomass. his high nitrate, low chlorophyll' (HNLC) phenomenon has been ascribed to 'top-down' grazing pressure by herbivores which prevent the p...

  1. Variations in terrigenous input into the deep equatorial atlantic during the past 24,000 years.

    PubMed

    Francois, R; Bacon, M P

    1991-03-22

    Estimates of terrigenous fluxes at three different water depths at two sites in the equatorial Atlantic by normalization against excess (230)Th flux indicate that the flux of terrigenous material to the seafloor was significantly higher during the last glacial period than it is today. Fluxes started to decrease during deglaciation and reached minimal values in the middle of the Holocene. From 15,000 to 5,000 years ago, there was a substantial increase in flux with increasing water depth below 2,800 meters; this increase may reflect resuspension and lateral transport of slope and rise sediment, possibly because of intensification of deepwater circulation during that period. PMID:17779441

  2. Late Quaternary surface circulation in the east equatorial South Atlantic: Evidence from Alkenone sea surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Ralph R.; Müller, Peter J.; Ruhland, GöTz

    1995-04-01

    Angola Basin and Walvis Ridge records of past sea surface temperatures (SST) derived from the alkenone Uk37 index are used to reconstruct the surface circulation in the east equatorial South Atlantic for the last 200,000 years. Comparison of SST estimates from surface sediments between 5° and 20°S with modern SST data suggests that the alkenone temperatures represent annual mean values of the surface mixed layer. Alkenone-derived temperatures for the warm climatic maxima of the Holocene and the penultimate interglacial are 1 to 4°C higher than latest Holocene values. All records show glacial to interglacial differences of about 3.5°C in annual mean SST, which is about 1.5°C greater than the difference estimated by CLIMAP (1981) for the eastern Angola Basin. At the Walvis Ridge, significant SST variance is observed at all of the Earth's orbital periodicities. SST records from the Angola Basin vary predominantly at 23- and 100-kyr periodicities. For the precessional cycle, SST changes at the Walvis Ridge correspond to variations of boreal summer insolation over Africa and lead ice volume changes, suggesting that the east equatorial South Atlantic is sensitive to African monsoon intensity via trade-wind zonality. Angola Basin SST records lag those from the Walvis Ridge and the equatorial Atlantic by about 3 kyr. The comparison of Angola Basin and Walvis Ridge SST records implies that the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF) (currently at about 14-16°S) has remained fairly stationary between 12° and 20°S (the limits of our cores) during the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. The temperature contrast associated with the ABF exhibits a periodic 23-kyr variability which is coherent with changes in boreal summer insolation over Africa. These observations suggest that surface waters north of the present ABF have not directly responded to monsoon-modulated changes in the trade-wind vector, that the central field of zonally directed trades in the southern hemisphere was not

  3. Relative paleointensity from Oligocene-Miocene equatorial Pacific and South Atlantic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, J. E.; Lanci, L.

    2013-12-01

    We compare three 9-Myr-long records of relative paleointensity (RPI) for the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene from the equatorial Pacific (IODP Site U1334 and ODP Site 1218) and South Atlantic (ODP Site 1090). The three records are compared with published RPI records for the same time interval from IODP Site U1333 (equatorial Pacific) and DSDP Site 522 (South Atlantic). Age models at all sites are constrained by magnetic polarity stratigraphy through correlation to a common geomagnetic polarity timescale. The RPI records do not contain significant power at specific (orbital) frequencies, and hence there is no significant coherency between RPI proxies and the normalizers used to construct the proxies, although ~400 kyr eccentricity power is significant in some of the normalizers. There is no obvious control on RPI proxies from mean sedimentation rate within polarity chrons, magnetic grain size proxies or magnetic concentration parameters. The salient test is whether the equatorial Pacific records can be correlated one to another, and to the records from the South Atlantic. All records are dominated by RPI minima at polarity reversals, as expected, although the comparison within polarity chrons is compelling enough to conclude that the intensity of the Earth's axial dipole is being recorded. This is supported by the fit of RPI data after refined correlation of Sites U1334 and 1218 using core-scanning data, rather than polarity reversals alone. We do not see a consistent relationship between polarity-chron duration and mean RPI, and no consistent skewness ('sawtooth' pattern) for RPI within polarity chrons. Stacks of RPI records for 17.5 Ma to 26.5 Ma are similar whether 3, 4 or 5 RPI records are incorporated into the stack. Long-term changes in RPI on Myr timescales are apparent, attributed to core-mantle boundary heat-flow variations, and superimposed on a pacing that that resembles RPI records for the Quaternary where minima are associated with polarity reversals

  4. North Atlantic Finite Element Ocean Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veluthedathekuzhiyil, Praveen

    This thesis presents a modified version of the Finite Element Ocean Model (FEOM) developed at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) for the North Atlantic Ocean. A reasonable North Atlantic Ocean simulation is obtained against the observational data sets in a Control simulation (CS) where the surface boundary conditions are relaxed to a climatology. The vertical mixing in the model was tuned to represent convection in the model, also the horizontal mixing and diffusion coefficients to represent the changes in the resolution of the model’s unstructured grid. In addition, the open boundaries in the model are treated with a sponge layer where tracers are relaxed to climatology. The model is then further modified to accept the atmospheric flux forcing at the surface boundary with an added net heat flux correction and freshwater forcing from major rivers that are flowing into the North Atlantic Ocean. The impact of this boundary condition on the simulation results is then analyzed and shows many improvements albeit the drift in tracer properties around the Gulf Stream region remains as that of the CS case. However a comparison of the vertical sections at Cape Desolation and Cape Farewell with the available observational data sets shows many improvements in this simulation compared to that of the CS case. But the freshwater content in the Labrador Sea interior shows a continued drift as that of the CS case with an improvement towards the 10th model year. A detailed analysis of the boundary currents around the Labrador Sea shows the weak offshore transport of freshwater from the West Greenland Current (WGC) as one of the causes. To further improve the model and reasonably represent the boundary currents and associated sub-grid scale eddies in the model, a modified sub-grid scale parameterization based on Gent and McWilliams, (1990) is adopted. The sensitivity of using various approaches in the thickness diffusion parameter ( Kgm) for this

  5. Space Radar Image of North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image showing surface features on the open ocean in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. There is no land mass in this image. The purple line in the lower left of the image is the stern wake of a ship. The ship creating the wake is the bright white spot on the middle, left side of the image. The ship's wake is about 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in this image and investigators believe that is because the ship may be discharging oil. The oil makes the wake last longer and causes it to stand out in this radar image. A fairly sharp boundary or front extends from the lower left to the upper right corner of the image and separates two distinct water masses that have different temperatures. The different water temperature affects the wind patterns on the ocean. In this image, the light green area depicts rougher water with more wind, while the purple area is calmer water with less wind. The dark patches are smooth areas of low wind, probably related to clouds along the front, and the bright green patches are likely due to ice crystals in the clouds that scatter the radar waves. The overall 'fuzzy' look of this image is caused by long ocean waves, also called swells. Ocean radar imagery allows the fine detail of ocean features and interactions to be seen, such as the wake, swell, ocean front and cloud effects, which can then be used to enhance the understanding of ocean dynamics on smaller and smaller scales. The image is centered at 42.8 degrees north latitude, 26.2 degrees west longitude and shows an area approximately 35 kilometers by 65 kilometers (22 by 40 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  6. On forecasting abnormal climatic events in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servain, Jacques; Arnault, Sabine

    1995-09-01

    Modelling and observational evidence indicate that interannual variabilities of dynamic height and sea surface temperature (SST) in the eastern part of the tropical Atlantic Ocean (Gulf of Guinea) are largely induced by preceding fluctuations in wind stress, mainly in the western equatorial basin. A wind-driven linear ocean model is used here to test the possibility of forecasting the abnormal dynamic heights. A control run of the model, forced by 1964-1993 wind stress monthly means, is first conducted. Yearly test runs (1964-1994) are subsequently performed from January to August by forcing the model with observed winds from January to May, and then by forcing with the May wind assumed to persist from June to August. During the last three decades the largest deviations of dynamic height simulated by the control run in the Gulf of Guinea in boreal summer would have been correctly forecast from wind data related only to conditions in May of each year. However, for weak climatic anomalies, the model may forecast overestimated values. For the most part (about 20 times during the last 30 years), the sign of the observed SST anomaly in the centre of the Gulf of Guinea during the boreal summer is identical to the sign of simulated anomalies of dynamic height deduced from both control and test runs. Along the eastern equatorial waveguide, the sea level forecasting skill slowly decreases from the first 2 weeks of June until the second 2 weeks of August, but remains high on both sides of the equator throughout boreal summer, as is expected from the adjustment in a linear ocean model. It is established that throughout the year in the Gulf of Guinea the accuracy of the 1-month forecast dynamic height anomaly provided by the simple linear method is greater than that of the 1-month forecast assuming persistence. Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to Prof. A. K. Sen of the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics, University of Calcutta for valuable discussions. One of

  7. On the relationship between east equatorial Atlantic SST and ISM through Eurasian wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ramesh Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The dominant mode of July-August (JA) seasonal variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) are obtained by performing empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first dominant mode of ISMR and its relationships with the sea surface temperature (SST), pressure level wind and geopotential height (GPH) fields are examined using gridded datasets for the period 1979-2014. The principal component of the first leading mode (PC1) obtained in the EOF analysis of JA rainfall over Indian landmass is highly correlated with north-west and central India rainfall, and anti-correlated with east-equatorial Atlantic SST (EEASST). The positive EEASST anomaly intensifies the inter-tropical convergence zone over Atlantic and west equatorial Africa which generates stationary wave meridionally, as meridional transfer of energy is strong, as the influence of background jet-streams are minimal over North Africa and Europe. The anomalous positive and negative GPH are generated over sub-tropics and extra-tropics, respectively, due to the stationary wave. This increases the climatological background steep pressure gradient between sub-tropics and extra-tropics consisting of anomalous negative GPH field over north-west (NW) Europe and vice versa for negative EEASST anomaly. The anomalous positive GPH over NW Europe acts as center of action for the propagation of a Rossby wave train to NW India via Europe consisting of anomalous high over NW of India. This intensifies the Tibetan High westward which reinforces the outbreak of monsoon activities over central and NW India.

  8. The tectonic setting of the Seychelles, Mascarene and Amirante Plateaus in the Western Equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mart, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A system of marine plateaus occurs in the western equatorial Indian Ocean, forming an arcuate series of wide and shallow banks with small islands in places. The oceanic basins that surround the Seychelles - Amirante region are of various ages and reflect a complex seafloor spreading pattern. The structural analysis of the Seychelle - Amirante - Mascarene region reflects the tectonic evolution of the western equatorial Indian Ocean. It is suggested that due to the seafloor spreading during a tectonic stage, the Seychelles continental block drifted southwestwards to collide with the oceanic crust of the Mascarene Basin, forming an elongated folded structure at first, and then a subduction zone. The morphological similarity, the lithological variability and the different origin of the Seychelles Bank, the Mascarene Plateau and the Amirante Arc emphasizes the significant convergent effects of various plate tectonic processes on the development of marine plateaus.

  9. Solitary Waves in the Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, R.; Merrifield, M.; McPhaden, M.; Picaut, J.; Rutledge, S.; Siegel, D.; Washburn, L.

    1997-01-01

    During the spring tides of early January and February 1993, groups of solitary internal waves were observed propagating through the Intensive Flux Array of the TOGA COARE experiment. The waves appear to originate near the islands of Nugarba (3 deg S 30 deg S - 154 deg 30'E). They travel north-eastward at 2.5-3 m/s, closely coupled with the semi-diurnal baroclinic tide. Peak amplitudes exceed 60 m. Velocities are in excess of .8 m/s. Sea-surface vertical displacements of order.3 m can be inferred directly from the lateral acceleration of surface waters. The Equatorial Undercurrent is displaced by soliton passage but apparently is unaffected otherwise. The intrinsic shear of the solitary crests is small compared to ambient equatorial shears. The crests, while not themselves unstable, are effective at triggering instabilities on the background flow. The motions potentially contribute 10-15 Watts/sq m to the flux of heat into the mixed layer.

  10. Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean T-S variations with El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, O.; Fukumori, I.; Lee, T.; Johnson, G. C.

    2004-01-01

    Temperature-Salinity (T-S) relationship variability in the pycnocline of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (NINO3 region, 5 degrees S ??degrees N, 150 degrees W ?? degrees W) over the last two decades is investigated using observational data and model simulation.

  11. Numerical simulation of the seasonal and interannual variability of the tropical Atlantic Ocean circulation during the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Bohua.

    1992-01-01

    A nine-year (1980-88) surface wind stress data set over the tropical Atlantic ocean is constructed based on the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) twice-daily wind analysis. Its quality is checked against an independent data set by Servain et al. (1985) based on ship observations. A comprehensive analysis of these two data sets shows a strong seasonal cycle of the wind stress over the equatorial Atlantic ocean. Interannually, the stress field is dominated by a seesaw between the northeast and southeast trade winds, with anomalously strong (weak) southeast (northeast) trade winds during 1980-83 and a reversed pattern during 1984-88. Two nine-year simulations of the tropical Atlantic ocean circulation are performed with a general circulation model, one forced by the twice-daily, and the second by monthly averaged ECMWF surface wind stresses. Comparisons with available observations show that the seasonal ocean circulation and interannual signals of the sea surface temperature (SST), i.e., the dipole oscillation and abnormal warmings, are that the seasonal cycle of the subtropical and tropical Atlantic has an in-phase relationship with the seasonal change of the surface wind stress and the interannual SST dipole oscillation is generally in balance with the seesaw pattern of the trade wind systems although wave processes are important during the transition of phase. In 1984, the transition of the SST dipole from north-warm/south-cold to its opposite occurred during an equatorial warming event. This warming event was initiated by the relaxation of equatorial easterly wind, which stimulated heat transfer first eastward along the equator, then to the southern ocean and caused a deepening of the thermocline in the Gulf of Guinea and the southern ocean. Another warming event occurred in 1987-88, which restored the disappearing north cold/warm dipole.

  12. Variability of the Atlantic off-equatorial eastward currents during 1993-2010 using a synthetic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, Marlos; Goni, Gustavo; Hormann, Verena; Perez, Renellys C.

    2013-06-01

    We have developed, validated, and applied a synthetic method to monitor the off-equatorial eastward currents in the central tropical Atlantic. This method combines high-density expendable bathythermograph (XBT) temperature data along the AX08 transect with altimetric sea level anomalies (SLAs) to estimate dynamic height fields from which the mean properties of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC), the North Equatorial Undercurrent (NEUC) and the South Equatorial Undercurrent (SEUC), and their variability can be estimated on seasonal to interannual timescales. On seasonal to interannual timescales, the synthetic method is well suited for reconstructions of the NECC variability, reproduces the variability of the NEUC with considerable skill, and less efficiently describes variations of the SEUC, which is located in a region of low SLA variability. A positive correlation is found between interannual variations of the NECC transport and two indices based on an interhemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient and southeasterly wind stress in the central tropical Atlantic. The NEUC is correlated on interannual timescales with SSTs and meridional wind stress in the Gulf of Guinea and zonal equatorial wind stress. This study shows that both altimetry and XBT data can be effectively combined for near-real-time inference of the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the tropical Atlantic current system.

  13. Impacts of Indian and Atlantic oceans on ENSO in a comprehensive modeling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terray, Pascal; Masson, Sébastien; Prodhomme, Chloé; Roxy, Mathew Koll; Sooraj, K. P.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of the Indian and Atlantic oceans variability on El Niño-Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon is investigated through sensitivity experiments with the SINTEX-F2 coupled model. For each experiment, we suppressed the sea surface temperature (SST) variability in either the Indian or Atlantic oceans by applying a strong nudging of the SST toward a SST climatology computed either from a control experiment or observations. In the sensitivity experiments where the nudging is done toward a control SST climatology, the Pacific mean state and seasonal cycle are not changed. Conversely, nudging toward an observed SST climatology in the Indian or Atlantic domain significantly improves the mean state and seasonal cycle, not only in the nudged domain, but also in the whole tropics. These experiments also demonstrate that decoupling the Indian or Atlantic variability modifies the phase-locking of ENSO to the annual cycle, influences significantly the timing and processes of ENSO onset and termination stages, and, finally, shifts to lower frequencies the main ENSO periodicities. Overall, these results suggest that both the Indian and Atlantic SSTs have a significant damping effect on ENSO variability and promote a shorter ENSO cycle. The reduction of ENSO amplitude is particularly significant when the Indian Ocean is decoupled, but the shift of ENSO to lower frequencies is more pronounced in the Atlantic decoupled experiments. These changes of ENSO statistical properties are related to stronger Bjerknes and thermocline feedbacks in the nudged experiments. During the mature phase of El Niño events, warm SST anomalies are found over the Indian and Atlantic oceans in observations or the control run. Consistent with previous studies, the nudged experiments demonstrate that these warm SSTs induce easterly surface wind anomalies over the far western equatorial Pacific, which fasten the transition from El Niño to La Niña and promote a shorter ENSO cycle in the control

  14. North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells. PMID:24784218

  15. Carbon and Neodymium Isotopic Fingerprints of Atlantic Deep Ocean Circulation During the Warm Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesselman, C. R.; Scher, H.; Robinson, M. M.; Dowsett, H. J.; Bell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Earth's future climate may resemble the mid-Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene, a time when global temperatures were sustained within the range predicted for the coming century. Surface and deep water temperature reconstructions and coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model simulations by the USGS PRISM (Pliocene Research Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) Group identify a dramatic North Atlantic warm surface temperature anomaly in the mid-Piacenzian (3.264 - 3.025 Ma), accompanied by increased evaporation. The anomaly is detected in deep waters at 46°S, suggesting enhanced meridional overturning circulation and more southerly penetration of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) during the PRISM interval. However deep water temperature proxies are not diagnostic of water mass and some coupled model simulations predict transient decreases in NADW production in the 21st century, presenting a contrasting picture of future climate. We present a new multi-proxy investigation of Atlantic deep ocean circulation during the warm mid-Piacenzian, using δ13C of benthic foraminifera as a proxy for water mass age and the neodymium isotopic composition of fossil fish teeth (ɛNd) as a proxy for water mass source and mixing. This reconstruction utilizes both new and previously published data from DSDP and ODP cores along equatorial (Ceara Rise), southern mid-latitude (Walvis Ridge), and south Atlantic (Meteor Rise/Agulhas Ridge) depth transects. Additional end-member sites in the regions of modern north Atlantic and Southern Ocean deep water formation provide a Pliocene baseline for comparison. δ13C throughout the Atlantic basin is remarkably homogenous during the PRISM interval. δ13C values of Cibicidoides spp. and C. wuellerstorfi largely range between 0‰ and 1‰ at North Atlantic, shallow equatorial, southern mid-latitude, and south Atlantic sites with water depths from 2000-4700 m; both depth and latitudinal gradients are generally small (~0.3‰). However, equatorial

  16. Time-space Variability of Weekly to Monthly Period Equatorial Waves in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durland, T.; Farrar, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Data from satellite altimetry are used to characterize wavelike variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean at periods of days to two months. This period band is of interest because the space-time scales of oceanic equatorial waves at these frequencies have historically made adequate observation of the variability difficult. These waves have zonal scales that are very large (exceeding 3000 km) and meridional scales that are relatively short (~100 km), making in situ measurements difficult, and the short temporal scales pose challenges for observation with satellite altimeters because the wave periods are short compared to orbit repeat periods. As a result, there has been relatively little progress since the early 1980s in characterizing and understanding these equatorial inertia-gravity and mixed Rossby-gravity waves. In this analysis, we seek to exploit the long zonal length scales of these high-frequency equatorial waves in an analysis of satellite scatterometer and altimeter data to shed new light on the properties and dynamics of these waves. At periods of 2-14 days, there is clear evidence for the presence of several basin-scale equatorial wave modes, including mixed Rossby-gravity waves and inertia-gravity waves associated with baroclinic modes one and two. Here, we focus on equatorial Kelvin waves and mixed Rossby-gravity waves forced in the western Pacific, and examine their variability in time and space and their relation to wind.

  17. Pliocene pre-glacial North Atlantic: A coupled sea surface-deep ocean circulation climate response

    SciTech Connect

    Ishman, S.E.; Dowsett, H.J. . National Center)

    1992-01-01

    A latitudinal transect of North Atlantic Deep Sea Drilling Project Holes from the equatorial region to 56 N in the 2,300- to 3,000-meter depth range was designed for a high-resolution study of coupled sea surface and deep ocean response to climate change. Precise age control was provided using magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data from the cores to identify the 4.0 to 2.2 Ma interval, a period of warm-to-cool climatic transitions in the North Atlantic. The objective is to evaluate incremental (10 kyr) changes in sea surface temperatures (SST) and deep North Atlantic circulation patterns between 4.0 and 2.2 Ma to develop a coupled sea surface-deep ocean circulation response model. Sea surface temperature (SST) estimates are based on planktic foraminifer-based factor-analytic transfer functions. Oxygen isotopic data from paired samples provide tests of the estimated temperature gradients between localities. Benthic foraminifer assemblage data and [partial derivative]O-18 and [partial derivative]C-13 Isotopic data are used to quantitatively determine changes in deep North Atlantic circulation. These data are used to determine changes in source area (North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) or Antarctic Bottom Water) and (or) in the components of NADW that were present (Upper or Lower NADW). These paired paleoceanographic sea surface and deep circulation interpretations over a 1.8 my interval form the basis for a coupled sea surface-deep circulation response model for the Pliocene North Atlantic Ocean.

  18. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Costa, K M; McManus, J F; Anderson, R F; Ren, H; Sigman, D M; Winckler, G; Fleisher, M Q; Marcantonio, F; Ravelo, A C

    2016-01-28

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age--the Last Glacial Period (LGP)--but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the (232)Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, (231)Pa/(230)Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ(15)N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  19. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, K. M.; McManus, J. F.; Anderson, R. F.; Ren, H.; Sigman, D. M.; Winckler, G.; Fleisher, M. Q.; Marcantonio, F.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age—the Last Glacial Period (LGP)—but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the 232Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, 231Pa/230Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ15N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0–10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000–27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  20. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation slowdown cooled the subtropical ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Stuart A.; Roberts, Christopher D.; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Johns, William E.; Hobbs, Will; Palmer, Matthew D.; Rayner, Darren; Smeed, David A.; McCarthy, Gerard

    2013-12-01

    show that the upper 2 km of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean cooled throughout 2010 and remained cold until at least December 2011. We show that these cold anomalies are partly driven by anomalous air-sea exchange during the cold winters of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 and, more surprisingly, by extreme interannual variability in the ocean's northward heat transport at 26.5°N. This cooling driven by the ocean's meridional heat transport affects deeper layers isolated from the atmosphere on annual timescales and water that is entrained into the winter mixed layer thus lowering winter sea surface temperatures. Here we connect, for the first time, variability in the northward heat transport carried by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to widespread sustained cooling of the subtropical North Atlantic, challenging the prevailing view that the ocean plays a passive role in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system on monthly-to-seasonal timescales.

  1. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  2. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sardessai, S; Shetye, Suhas; Maya, M V; Mangala, K R; Prasanna Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient characteristics of four water masses in the light of their thermohaline properties are examined in the eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean during winter, spring and summer monsoon. The presence of low salinity water mass with "Surface enrichments" of inorganic nutrients was observed relative to 20 m in the mixed layer. Lowest oxygen levels of 19 microM at 3 degrees N in the euphotic zone indicate mixing of low oxygen high salinity Arabian Sea waters with the equatorial Indian Ocean. The seasonal variability of nutrients was regulated by seasonally varying physical processes like thermocline elevation, meridional and zonal transport, the equatorial undercurrent and biological processes of uptake and remineralization. Circulation of Arabian Sea high salinity waters with nitrate deficit could also be seen from low N/P ratio with a minimum of 8.9 in spring and a maximum of 13.6 in winter. This large deviation from Redfield N/P ratio indicates the presence of denitrified high salinity waters with a seasonal nitrate deficit ranging from -4.85 to 1.52 in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean. PMID:20547419

  3. The role of Equatorial Undercurrent in sustaining the Eastern Indian Ocean upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengxin; Han, Weiqing; Shu, Yeqiang; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Dongxiao; Xie, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    By combining volume transport and salinity analysis from 1958 to 2014, this paper investigates how the transient Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) sustains the summer-fall equatorial eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) upwelling. On seasonal time scales, the EIO upwelling is mainly supplied by the salty water from the western basin through a buffering process: The winter-spring EUC carries the salty water from the western basin eastward, induces downwelling in the EIO, and pushes portion of the salty water below the central thermocline, which subsequently upwells to the central thermocline during summer-fall and sustains the EIO upwelling. On interannual time scales, enhanced upwelling occurs during positive Indian Ocean Dipole (+IOD) years. The strong summer-fall EUC associated with the +IOD supplies water for the intensified upwelling. This research provides new knowledge for basin-scale mass and property exchanges associated with the EIO upwelling, contributing to our understanding of three-dimensional ocean circulation and climate variability.

  4. Cenozoic Source-to-Sink of the African margin of the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouby, Delphine; Chardon, Dominique; Huyghe, Damien; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cecile; Loparev, Artiom; Ye, Jing; Dall'Asta, Massimo; Grimaud, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the Transform Source to Sink Project (TS2P) is to link the dynamics of the erosion of the West African Craton to the offshore sedimentary basins of the African margin of the Equatorial Atlantic at geological time scales. This margin, alternating transform and oblique segments from Guinea to Nigeria, shows a strong structural variability in the margin width, continental geology and relief, drainage networks and subsidence/accumulation patterns. We analyzed this system combining onshore geology and geomorphology as well as offshore sub-surface data. Mapping and regional correlation of dated lateritic paleo-landscape remnants allows us to reconstruct two physiographic configurations of West Africa during the Cenozoic. We corrected those reconstitutions from flexural isostasy related to the subsequent erosion. These geometries show that the present-day drainage organization stabilized by at least 29 Myrs ago (probably by 34 Myr) revealing the antiquity of the Senegambia, Niger and Volta catchments toward the Atlantic as well as of the marginal upwarp currently forming a continental divide. The drainage rearrangement that lead to this drainage organization was primarily enhanced by the topographic growth of the Hoggar swell and caused a major stratigraphic turnover along the Equatorial margin of West Africa. Elevation differences between paleo-landscape remnants give access to the spatial and temporal distribution of denudation for 3 time-increments since 45 Myrs. From this, we estimate the volumes of sediments and associated lithologies exported by the West African Craton toward different segments of the margin, taking into account the type of eroded bedrock and the successive drainage reorganizations. We compare these data to Cenozoic accumulation histories in the basins and discuss their stratigraphic expression according to the type of margin segment they are preserved in.

  5. Mesozoic Source-to-Sink of the African margin of the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ye, jing; Chardon, Dominique; rouby, delphine; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cecile; Loparev, Artiom; Huyghe, damien; Dall'Asta, Massimo; Brown, Roderick; wildman, mark; webster, david

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the Transform Source to Sink Project (TS2P) is to link the dynamics of the erosion of the West African Craton to the offshore sedimentary basins of the African margin of the Equatorial Atlantic at geological time scales. This margin, alternating transform and oblique segments from Guinea to Nigeria, shows a strong structural variability in the margin width, continental geology and relief, drainage networks and subsidence/accumulation patterns. We analyzed this system combining onshore geology and geomorphology as well as offshore sub-surface data. We produced paleogeographic maps at the scale of West Africa spanning the continental domain and offshore basins since 200 Ma. Mapping spatial and temporal distribution of domains either in erosion (sources) or in accumulation (sinks) document the impact of the successive rifting of Central and Equatorial Atlantic on the physiography of the area. We use low temperature thermochronology dating along three transects perpendicular to the margin (Guinea, Ivory Coast and Benin) to determine periods and domains of denudation in that framework. We compare these data to the Mesozoic accumulation histories in passive margin basins and discuss their stratigraphic expression according to the type of margin segment they are preserved in. Syn-rift architectures (Early Cretaceous) are largely impacted by transform faults that define sub-basins with contrasted width of crustal necking zone (narrower in transform segments than in oblique/normal segments). During the Late Cretaceous post-rift, sedimentary wedges record a transgression along the all margin. Proximal parts of the sedimentary wedge are preserved in basins developing on segments with wide crustal necking zone while they were eroded away in basins developing on narrow segments. As a difference, the Cenozoic wedge is everywhere preserved across the whole width of the margin.

  6. Seasonal variation of the surface North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) in the western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Fan

    2016-03-01

    The North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) is an important zonal flow in the upper circulation of the tropical Pacific Ocean, which plays a vital role in the heat budget of the western Pacific warm pool. Using satellite-derived data of ocean surface currents and sea surface heights (SSHs) from 1992 to 2011, the seasonal variation of the surface NECC in the western tropical Pacific Ocean was investigated. It was found that the intensity (INT) and axis position (Y CM) of the surface NECC exhibit strikingly different seasonal fluctuations in the upstream (128°-136°E) and downstream (145°-160°E) regions. Of the two regions, the seasonal cycle of the upstream NECC shows the greater interannual variability. Its INT and YCM are greatly influenced by variations of the Mindanao Eddy, Mindanao Dome (MD), and equatorial Rossby waves to its south. Both INT and Y CM also show semiannual signals induced by the combined effects of equatorial Rossby waves from the Central Pacific and local wind forcing in the western Pacific Ocean. In the downstream region, the variability of the NECC is affected by SSH anomalies in the MD and the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. Those in the MD region are especially important in modulating the YCM of the downstream NECC. In addition to the SSH-related geostrophic flow, zonal Ekman flow driven by meridional wind stress also plays a role, having considerable impact on INT variability of the surface NECC. The contrasting features of the variability of the NECC in the upstream and downstream regions reflect the high complexity of regional ocean dynamics.

  7. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (<2 μmol kg-1) oxygen environments in the open waters of the tropical North Atlantic, a region where oxygen concentration does normally not fall much below 40 μmol kg-1. The low-oxygen zones are created at shallow depth, just below the mixed layer, in the euphotic zone of cyclonic eddies and anticyclonic-modewater eddies. Both types of eddies are prone to high surface productivity. Net respiration rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  8. 78 FR 34879 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Atlantic City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... amend the Table to Sec. 100.501, as revised May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29632), as follows: 0 a. Under ``(a... City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...

  9. The distribution of dissolved iron in the West Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Rijkenberg, Micha J A; Middag, Rob; Laan, Patrick; Gerringa, Loes J A; van Aken, Hendrik M; Schoemann, Véronique; de Jong, Jeroen T M; de Baar, Hein J W

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element for marine life. Extremely low Fe concentrations limit primary production and nitrogen fixation in large parts of the oceans and consequently influence ocean ecosystem functioning. The importance of Fe for ocean ecosystems makes Fe one of the core chemical trace elements in the international GEOTRACES program. Despite the recognized importance of Fe, our present knowledge of its supply and biogeochemical cycle has been limited by mostly fragmentary datasets. Here, we present highly accurate dissolved Fe (DFe) values measured at an unprecedented high intensity (1407 samples) along the longest full ocean depth transect (17,500 kilometers) covering the entire western Atlantic Ocean. DFe measurements along this transect unveiled details about the supply and cycling of Fe. External sources of Fe identified included off-shelf and river supply, hydrothermal vents and aeolian dust. Nevertheless, vertical processes such as the recycling of Fe resulting from the remineralization of sinking organic matter and the removal of Fe by scavenging still dominated the distribution of DFe. In the northern West Atlantic Ocean, Fe recycling and lateral transport from the eastern tropical North Atlantic Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) dominated the DFe-distribution. Finally, our measurements showed that the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), the major driver of the so-called ocean conveyor belt, contains excess DFe relative to phosphate after full biological utilization and is therefore an important source of Fe for biological production in the global ocean. PMID:24978190

  10. Atmospheric Blocking and Atlantic Multi-Decadal Ocean Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haekkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthlen, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the 20th century atmospheric reanalysis, winters with more frequent blocking, in a band of blocked latitudes from Greenland to Western Europe, are found to persist over several decades and correspond to a warm North Atlantic Ocean, in-phase with Atlantic multi-decadal ocean variability. Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by impacting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a warmer, more saline subpolar ocean. The correspondence between blocked westerly winds and warm ocean holds in recent decadal episodes (especially, 1996-2010). It also describes much longer-timescale Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV), including the extreme, pre-greenhouse-gas, northern warming of the 1930s-1960s. The space-time structure of the wind forcing associated with a blocked regime leads to weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat-exchange, both of which contribute to the warm phase of AMV.

  11. The Distribution of Dissolved Iron in the West Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Middag, Rob; Laan, Patrick; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; van Aken, Hendrik M.; Schoemann, Véronique; de Jong, Jeroen T. M.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element for marine life. Extremely low Fe concentrations limit primary production and nitrogen fixation in large parts of the oceans and consequently influence ocean ecosystem functioning. The importance of Fe for ocean ecosystems makes Fe one of the core chemical trace elements in the international GEOTRACES program. Despite the recognized importance of Fe, our present knowledge of its supply and biogeochemical cycle has been limited by mostly fragmentary datasets. Here, we present highly accurate dissolved Fe (DFe) values measured at an unprecedented high intensity (1407 samples) along the longest full ocean depth transect (17500 kilometers) covering the entire western Atlantic Ocean. DFe measurements along this transect unveiled details about the supply and cycling of Fe. External sources of Fe identified included off-shelf and river supply, hydrothermal vents and aeolian dust. Nevertheless, vertical processes such as the recycling of Fe resulting from the remineralization of sinking organic matter and the removal of Fe by scavenging still dominated the distribution of DFe. In the northern West Atlantic Ocean, Fe recycling and lateral transport from the eastern tropical North Atlantic Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) dominated the DFe-distribution. Finally, our measurements showed that the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), the major driver of the so-called ocean conveyor belt, contains excess DFe relative to phosphate after full biological utilization and is therefore an important source of Fe for biological production in the global ocean. PMID:24978190

  12. Contributions of the atmosphere-land and ocean-sea ice model components to the tropical Atlantic SST bias in CESM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhenya; Lee, Sang-Ki; Wang, Chunzai; Kirtman, Ben P.; Qiao, Fangli

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify and quantify intrinsic errors in the atmosphere-land and ocean-sea ice model components of the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) and their contributions to the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) bias in CESM1, we propose a new method of diagnosis and apply it to a set of CESM1 simulations. Our analyses of the model simulations indicate that both the atmosphere-land and ocean-sea ice model components of CESM1 contain large errors in the tropical Atlantic. When the two model components are fully coupled, the intrinsic errors in the two components emerge quickly within a year with strong seasonality in their growth rates. In particular, the ocean-sea ice model contributes significantly in forcing the eastern equatorial Atlantic warm SST bias in early boreal summer. Further analysis shows that the upper thermocline water underneath the eastern equatorial Atlantic surface mixed layer is too warm in a stand-alone ocean-sea ice simulation of CESM1 forced with observed surface flux fields, suggesting that the mixed layer cooling associated with the entrainment of upper thermocline water is too weak in early boreal summer. Therefore, although we acknowledge the potential importance of the westerly wind bias in the western equatorial Atlantic and the low-level stratus cloud bias in the southeastern tropical Atlantic, both of which originate from the atmosphere-land model, we emphasize here that solving those problems in the atmosphere-land model alone does not resolve the equatorial Atlantic warm bias in CESM1.

  13. The Atlantic Equatorial Thermocline as simulated by the Brazilian Earth System Model: known biases and possible causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarolla, E.; Nobre, P.; Malagutti, M.

    2013-05-01

    As a result of a coordinated effort of several institutions in Brazil, the Brazilian Earth System Model has been developed to help the investigation of global climate changes, its effects and impacts on society. The first version of this model, here named Brazilian Earth System Model - Ocean-Atmosphere version 2.3 (BESM-OA2.3), followed the criteria for participation in the Coupled Models Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) protocol, simulating the behavior of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system on decadal time scales under varying green house gases concentrations in the atmosphere. Extended runs with over 2,000 years of ensemble members showed many coherent results, such as the response of the model to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in a consistent manner. In spite of that, the model still has biases and discrepancies when compared to observations, some of them also detected in other global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. As an example of known bias, the thermocline along the Atlantic equator flattens after the second year of simulation. In other words, it anomalously deepens at the eastern region near the African coast after some months. This issue is observed in all CMIP5-based experiments made with the BESM-OA2.3. However, a newer version of the BESM-OA, with updated microphysics parameterizations and the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) included, has shown promising results, i.e., the thermocline tends to maintain its inclination in the second year better than the first version of BESM-OA. In this work we discuss the possible causes of the thermocline flattening comparing simulations of both model versions. We don't have conclusive explanations since the study is still in progress, but some results indicate that the seasonal eastward shift of the zonal wind reversion (represented as the zero zonal wind line) at the Atlantic equator, in April-May, is better represented in the newest version of the model. With more realistic winds at the equator

  14. Atmospheric Blocking and Atlantic Multi-Decadal Ocean Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthen, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5-14 days or more. From a recent 20th century atmospheric reanalysis (1,2) winters with more frequent blocking persist over several decades and correspond to a warm North Atlantic Ocean, in-phase with Atlantic multi-decadal ocean variability (AMV). Ocean circulation is forced by wind-stress curl and related air/sea heat exchange, and we find that their space-time structure is associated with dominant blocking patterns: weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange contribute to the warm phase of AMV. Increased blocking activity extending from Greenland to British Isles is evident when winter blocking days of the cold years (1900-1929) are subtracted from those of the warm years (1939-1968).

  15. Surface and subsurface oceanic variability observed in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean during three consecutive Indian Ocean dipole events: 2006 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, I.; Mardiansyah, W.; Setiabudidaya, D.; Affandi, A. K.; Syamsuddin, F.

    2014-09-01

    8-year and 4-year long velocity time series records from the equatorial Indian Ocean successfully captured, for the first time, complete evolution of subsurface currents associated with three consecutive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events in 2006 - 2008. It is found that strong eastward subsurface zonal currents in the layer between about 90 m and 150 m were observed, which were opposite to the normal conditions. Vertical structure of the zonal currents resembles that of the typical zonal currents in the equatorial Pacific with an eastward subsurface current lies beneath the surface westward currents. This vertical structure of the zonal currents was associated with anomalous easterly winds along the equatorial Indian Ocean during the maturing phase of the IOD events. In addition, subsurface temperature structures obtained from RAMA buoy network show negative temperature anomalies preceded the surface temperature evolution associated with the IOD events. The negative subsurface temperature anomaly lasted for several months before it changes into positive anomaly as the IOD terminated. The surface temperature structure indicated by the Dipole Mode Index (DMI) revealed that the 2006 IOD was a strong event, while the 2007 and 2008 events were weaker and short-lived events. The evolution of the IOD events were linked to the dynamics of oceanic equatorial wave. It is found that upwelling equatorial Kelvin waves forced by anomalous easterly wind stress play an important role in generating cooling tendency during the development and maturing phase of the IOD events. The demise of the IOD events, on the other hand, was linked to eastern-boundary-reflected Rossby waves that terminated the cooling tendency in the eastern Indian Ocean induced by the wind-forced Kelvin waves. Weakening of the zonal heat advection, then, provided a favor condition for the surface heat flux to warm the sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

  16. Biogeochemical linkage between atmosphere and ocean in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: Results from the EqPOS research cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furutani, H.; Inai, Y.; Aoki, S.; Honda, H.; Omori, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Iwata, T.; Ueda, S.; Miura, K.; Uematsu, M.

    2012-12-01

    Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean is a unique oceanic region from several biogeochemical points of view. It is a remote open ocean with relatively high marine biological activity, which would result in limited influence of human activity but enhanced effect of marine natural processes on atmospheric composition. It is also characterized as high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) ocean, in which availability of trace metals such as iron and zinc limits marine primary production and thus atmospheric deposition of these trace elements to the ocean surface is expected to play an important role in regulating marine primary production and defining unique microbial community. High sea surface temperature in the region generates strong vertical air convection which efficiently brings tropospheric atmospheric composition into stratosphere. In this unique eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, EqPOS (Equatorial Pacific Ocean and Stratospheric/Tropospheric Atmospheric Study) research cruise was organized as a part of SOLAS Japan activity to understand biogeochemical ocean-atmospheric interaction in the region. Coordinated atmospheric, oceanic, and marine biological observations including sampling/characterization of thin air-sea interfacial layer (sea surface microlayer: SML) and launching large stratospheric air sampling balloons were carried out on-board R/V Hakuho Maru starting from 29 January for 39 days. Biogeochemically important trace/long-lived gases such as CO2, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and some volatile organic carbons (VOCs) both in the atmosphere and seawater were continuously monitored and their air-sea fluxes were also observed using gradient and eddy-covariance techniques. Atmospheric gas measurement of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO, H2, Ar and isotopic composition of selected gases were further extended to stratospheric air by balloon-born sampling in addition to a vertical profiling of O3, CO2, and H2O with sounding sondes. Physical and chemical properties of marine

  17. Thermal structure of the mantle beneath the equatorial Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Inferences from the spatial variation of dredged basalt glass compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, J.-G.; Ruppel, C.; Davis, A. N.; McCully, B.; Tighe, S. A.; Kingsley, R. H.; Lin, J.

    1995-06-01

    We report on the major element composition of basaltic glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge transecting the equatorial mega-fracture zones from 7°S to 5°N (65 stations, 10-20 km sampling intervals, 3.5-5 km water depth range). Many of the basaltic glasses are Na2O, SiO2, and MgO rich, similar to other basalt glasses erupted along the deepest regions of the mid-ocean ridge system, suggesting melt generation by relatively low degrees of partial melting at rather shallow depth in the upper mantle. Along the ridge axis, the compositional variations show regular and systematic long-wavelength trends with a major discontinuity at the complex St. Paul transform fault, just south of St. Peter and Paul islets. A corresponding long-wavelength trend in upper mantle potential temperature, mean pressure, and degree of melting and crustal thickness variation is inferred using parameterized petrologic decompression melting models. A 600-km-long, nearly linear negative gradient in these parameters is apparent from the Charcot fracture zone (FZ) to the St. Paul FZ. Over the length of this gradient, the upper mantle potential temperature drops by about 70°C, the mean degree of partial melting changes from 7% to 10%, and the inferred crustal thickness varies between 3 and 6 km. The gradient along the ridge axis is unaffected by the mega-transform fault offsets, implying that a broad (approximately 2000 km wide across-axis and 600 km long along-axis) cold zone is present in the upper mantle just south of the equator. At the discontinuity across the complex St. Paul transform fault, the gradients in inferred potential temperature, mean degree of partial melting, and crustal thickness abruptly change sign, respectively increasing by 80°C, rising from 7% to 10%, and changing from 3 to 6 km. The discontinuity is clearly related to the Sierra Leone plume affecting the Mid-Atlantic Ridge around 1.7°N, as also evident from Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic variations previously reported on the

  18. The variability of the surface wind field in the equatorial Pacific Ocean: Criteria for satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.

    1984-01-01

    The natural variability of the equatorial Pacific surface wind field is described from long period surface wind measurements made at three sites along the equator (95 deg W, 109 deg 30 W, 152 deg 30 W). The data were obtained from surface buoys moored in the deep ocean far from islands or land, and provide criteria to adequately sample the tropical Pacific winds from satellites.

  19. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    SciTech Connect

    Tanhua, T.; Steinfeldt, R.; Key, Robert; Brown, P.; Gruber, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Perez, F.F.; Kortzinger, A.; Velo, A.; Schuster, U.; Van Heuven, S.; Bullister, J.L.; Stendardo, I.; Hoppema, M.; Olsen, Are; Kozyr, Alexander; Pierrot, D.; Schirnick, C.; Wallace, D.W.R.

    2010-01-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean). The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30 S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control) for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally was well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories

  20. Enhanced warming of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, Vincent S.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Anderson, Whit G.; Winton, Michael; Alexander, Michael A.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Rosati, Anthony; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fifth assessment of projected global and regional ocean temperature change is based on global climate models that have coarse (˜100 km) ocean and atmosphere resolutions. In the Northwest Atlantic, the ensemble of global climate models has a warm bias in sea surface temperature due to a misrepresentation of the Gulf Stream position; thus, existing climate change projections are based on unrealistic regional ocean circulation. Here we compare simulations and an atmospheric CO2 doubling response from four global climate models of varying ocean and atmosphere resolution. We find that the highest resolution climate model (˜10 km ocean, ˜50 km atmosphere) resolves Northwest Atlantic circulation and water mass distribution most accurately. The CO2 doubling response from this model shows that upper-ocean (0-300 m) temperature in the Northwest Atlantic Shelf warms at a rate nearly twice as fast as the coarser models and nearly three times faster than the global average. This enhanced warming is accompanied by an increase in salinity due to a change in water mass distribution that is related to a retreat of the Labrador Current and a northerly shift of the Gulf Stream. Both observations and the climate model demonstrate a robust relationship between a weakening Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and an increase in the proportion of Warm-Temperate Slope Water entering the Northwest Atlantic Shelf. Therefore, prior climate change projections for the Northwest Atlantic may be far too conservative. These results point to the need to improve simulations of basin and regional-scale ocean circulation.

  1. Toxic Trichodesmium bloom occurrence in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sacilotto Detoni, Amália Maria; Costa, Luiza Dy Fonseca; Pacheco, Lucas Abrão; Yunes, João Sarkis

    2016-02-01

    Harmful Trichodesmium blooms have been reported on the continental slope of the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean; we sampled six such blooms. The highest saxitoxin concentration was observed where the number of colonies was proportionally greater relative to the total density of trichomes. Trichodesmium blooms are harmful to shrimp larvae and may lead to plankton community mortality. This study is the first record of neurotoxic blooms in the open waters of the South Atlantic. PMID:26695000

  2. Ocean science: Vagaries of Atlantic overturning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, Thomas W. N.

    2016-07-01

    A weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation has emerged from noise after years of painstaking measurements. Three independent lines of evidence suggest that an anthropogenic influence on this overturning is not yet detectable.

  3. On the Cause of Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean T-S Variations Associated with El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ou; Fukumori, Ichiro; Lee, Tong; Cheng, Benny

    2004-01-01

    The nature of observed variations in temperature-salinity (T-S) relationship between El Nino and non-El Nino years in the pycnocline of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (NINO3 region, 5(deg)S-5(deg)N, 150(deg)W-90(deg)W) is investigated using an ocean general circulation model. The origin of the subject water mass is identified using the adjoint of a simulated passive tracer. The higher salinity during El Nino is attributed to larger convergence of saltier water from the Southern Hemisphere and smaller convergence of fresher water from the Northern Hemisphere.

  4. Radiocarbon in dissolved organic carbon of the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druffel, E. R. M.; Griffin, S.; Coppola, A. I.; Walker, B. D.

    2016-05-01

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is produced in the surface ocean though its radiocarbon (14C) age in the deep ocean is thousands of years old. Here we show that ≥10% of the DOC in the deep North Atlantic is of postbomb origin and that the 14C age of the prebomb DOC is ≥4900 14C year, ~900 14C year older than previous estimates. We report 14C ages of DOC in the deep South Atlantic that are intermediate between values in the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. Finally, we conclude that prebomb DOC 14C ages are older and a portion of deep DOC is more dynamic than previously reported.

  5. An updated anthropogenic CO2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Choi, S.-D.; Park, G.-H.; Peng, T.-H.; Key, Robert; Sabine, Chris; Feely, R. A.; Bullister, J.L.; Millero, F. J.; Kozyr, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the basin-wide inventory of anthropogenic CO2 in the Atlantic Ocean based on high-quality inorganic carbon, alkalinity, chlorofluorocarbon, and nutrient data collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program, the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) surveys of the Atlantic Ocean between 1990 and 1998. Anthropogenic CO2 was separated from the large pool of dissolved inorganic carbon using an extended version of the DC* method originally developed by Gruber et al. [1996]. The extension of the method includes the use of an optimum multiparameter analysis to determine the relative contributions from various source water types to the sample on an isopycnal surface. Total inventories of anthropogenic CO2 in the Atlantic Ocean are highest in the subtropical regions at 20 40, whereas anthropogenic CO2 penetrates the deepest in high-latitude regions (>40N). The deeper penetration at high northern latitudes is largely due to the formation of deep water that feeds the Deep Western Boundary Current, which transports anthropogenic CO2 into the interior. In contrast, waters south of 50S in the Southern Ocean contain little anthropogenic CO2. Analysis of the data collected during the 1990 1998 period yielded a total anthropogenic CO2 inventory of 28.4 4.7 Pg C in the North Atlantic (equator-70N) and of 18.5 3.9 Pg C in the South Atlantic (equator-70S). These estimated basin-wide inventories of anthropogenic CO2 are in good agreement with previous estimates obtained by Gruber [1998], after accounting for the difference in observational periods. Our calculation of the anthropogenic CO2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean, in conjunction with the inventories calculated previously for the Indian Ocean [Sabine et al., 1999] and for the Pacific Ocean [Sabine et al., 2002], yields a global anthropogenic CO2 inventory of 112 17 Pg C that has accumulated

  6. ITCZ controls on Late Cretaceous black shale sedimentation in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, P.; Wagner, T.

    2011-12-01

    This study presents high resolution organic and inorganic proxy records for Coniacian to Santonian black shale on the Demerara Rise (ODP Site 1261) in the western tropical Atlantic off South America. We integrate these records with approximately time equivalent geochemical data from the eastern tropical Atlantic off tropical Africa (ODP Site 959) to extract the underlying relationships of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) dynamics and black shale formation in the tropical Cretaceous Atlantic at orbital time scales. The geochemical records from the Demerara Rise show repetitive fluctuations in productivity, ocean redox conditions, and clastic sediment supply consistent with a dynamic paleo-upwelling regime off tropical South America. Upwelling intensity most likely was driven by shifts of the mean annual position of the ITCZ, which connects the large-scale precipitation and wind field patterns of the Hadley cells. Upwelling was strongest off South America and burial of oil-prone organic matter most pronounced when the ITCZ was in its southernmost position, which maximized the impact of NE trade winds on the inner, tropical part of the northern Hadley cell. Geochemical records from the Deep Ivorian Basin (equatorial Atlantic) suggest that source rock formation occurred in phase with regions north of the equator. Off tropical Africa, however, black shale formation was primarily driven by regional rainfall and nutrient export. The results of this study provide a conceptual framework that explains the formation, distribution and quality of petroleum source rocks below the tropical component of the Hadley cells on orbital time scales.

  7. Latitudinal changes in the standing stocks of nano- and picoeukaryotic phytoplankton in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarran, Glen A.; Heywood, Jane L.; Zubkov, Mikhail V.

    2006-07-01

    The latitudinal distributions of picoeukaryote phytoplankton (PEUK), coccolithophores (COCCO), cryptophytes (CRYPTO) and other nanoeukaryote phytoplankton (NEUK) were studied in the Atlantic Ocean between 49°N and 46°S in September-October 2003 and April-June 2004 by flow cytometry. Phytoplankton abundance and carbon (C) biomass varied considerably with latitude and down through the water column. Abundance and C biomass of all eukaryotic groups studied were highest in North and South Atlantic temperate waters and in the Mauritanian Upwelling off the west coast of Africa, where the total C biomass of eukaryotic phytoplankton smaller than 10 μm reached almost 150 mg C m -3. Phytoplankton in the Equatorial Upwelling region was concentrated well below the surface at 50-80 m, with total C biomass in this layer being approximately 4 times that in the mixed layer. The North and South Atlantic Gyres supported much lower eukaryotic phytoplankton C biomass, with total eukaryote C biomass only reaching 2-3 mg C m -3, peaking below 100 m. Of the four eukaryote groups studied, the PEUK were the most abundant, reaching densities of up to 40,000 cells cm -3. They often contributed between 25% and 60% of total C biomass, particularly in the deep chlorophyll maxima of the different oceanic regions and also in the South Atlantic temperate waters, both in austral spring and autumn. NEUK also contributed significantly to C biomass. They generally dominated in the mixed layer, where they contributed 65-85% of total C biomass in the subtropical gyres and in North Atlantic temperate waters. CRYPTO and COCCO were generally less abundant. CRYPTO attained highest abundance in the Southern Temperate waters of over 500 cells cm -3 on both cruises. COCCO were often undetectable but on the European continental shelf abundance reached up to 2600 cells cm -3 during AMT 14. The C biomass standing stock of eukaryotic phytoplankton (<10 μm) for the Atlantic Ocean as a whole was estimated to be

  8. Gas exchange and CO2 flux in the tropical Atlantic Ocean determined from Rn-222 and pCO2 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smethie, W. M., Jr.; Takahashi, T.; Chipman, D. W.; Ledwell, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The piston velocity for the tropical Atlantic Ocean has been determined from 29 radon profiles measured during the TTO Tropical Atlantic Study. By combining these data with the pCO2 data measured in the surface water and air samples, the net flux of CO2 across the sea-air interface has been calculated for the tropical Atlantic. The dependence of the piston velocity on wind speed is discussed, and possible causes for the high sea-to-air CO2 flux observed in the equatorial zone are examined.

  9. Integrated bio-magnetostratigraphy of ODP Site 709 (equatorial Indian Ocean).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Giuliana; Fioroni, Chiara; Florindo, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the lower Eocene-Oligocene sediments has shown great potential, through identification of several new nannofossil species and bioevents (e.g. Fornaciari et al., 2010; Bown and Dunkley Jones, 2012; Toffanin et al., 2013). These studies formed the basis for higher biostratigraphic resolution leading to definition of a new nannofossil biozonation (Agnini et al., 2014). In this study, we investigate the middle Eocene-lower Oligocene sediments from ODP Hole 709C (ODP Leg 115) by means of calcareous nannofossils and magnetostratigraphy. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 709 was located in the equatorial Indian Ocean and biostratigraphy has been investigated in the nineties (Okada, 1990; Fornaciari et al., 1990) while paleomagnetic data from the Initial Report provided only a poorly constrained magnetostratigraphic interpretation, thus the cored succession was dated only by means of biostratigraphy. Our goal is to test the reliability in the Indian Ocean of the biohorizons recently identified at Site 711 (Fioroni et al., in press), by means of high resolution sampling, new taxonomic updates, quantitative analyses on calcareous nannofossils allowed to increase the number of useful bioevents and to compare their reliability and synchroneity. The new magnetostratigraphic analyses and integrated stratigraphy allow also to achieve an accurate biochronology of the time interval spanning Chrons C20 (middle Eocene) and C12 (early Oligocene). In addition, this equatorial site represents an opportunity to study the carbonate accumulation history and the large fluctuations of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) during the Eocene (e.g. Pälike et al., 2012). The investigated interval encompasses the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO), and the long cooling trend that leads to the Oligocene glacial state. By means of our new bio-magnetostratigraphic data and paleoecological results we provide further insights on

  10. On the circulation of the upper waters in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toole, J. M.; Zou, E.; Millard, R. C.

    1988-09-01

    Historical hydrographic data and CTD/O 2 observations obtained on two recent cruises are used to investigate the circulation of the upper waters of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. The study area lies between 20°N and the land boundary of the Papua New Guinea-Solomon Island coasts, 170°E and the Philippine coast. Seasonal mean and annual averaged sections are constructed from the historical data set to address the strength of the major equatorial currents and the water mass budget of the far western region of the study area. We find indication of significant contribution of southern hemisphere waters to the North Equatorial Countercurrent with an inferred Pacific to Indian Ocean throughflow of Mindanao Current waters of order 1 Sv. The recent observations, acquired under the auspices of a cooperative program between the United States and People's Republic of China, were collected in January-February and November-December 1986. The thermohaline structure of the various currents and net transports estimated for the 1986 data sets are examined and compared with the historical mean data. Large differences are seen between the two modern sections obtained along 165°E. These reflect high frequency variability (as demonstrated by comparison with a third section obtained 2 weeks prior to the January-February cruise) and interannual variability (the second of the cruises occurred during the onset of the 1986-1987 El Niño event).

  11. How North Atlantic cooling alters Southern Ocean wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-07-01

    At least seven times during the last ice age, large portions of the polar glaciers crumbled, sending rafts of ice floating into the North Atlantic Ocean. When these icebergs melted, the resultant injection of cold freshwater was enough to drive down ocean temperatures by as much as 12°C. These so-called Heinrich events are associated with rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, but a mechanism to explain the connection convincingly has yet to arise. One proposed explanation sees the melting-iceberg-triggered North Atlantic cooling tied to increases in CO2 venting from the Southern Ocean, which surrounds Antarctica, through increased wind-driven upwelling. To test this hypothesis, which was initially proposed by researchers in 2009 based on paleoclimate evidence, Lee et al. ran ocean-atmosphere coupled climate simulations to determine the physical mechanism that could support this cross-hemisphere connection. (Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/ 2010PA002004, 2011)

  12. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation without a role for ocean circulation.

    PubMed

    Clement, Amy; Bellomo, Katinka; Murphy, Lisa N; Cane, Mark A; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Rädel, Gaby; Stevens, Bjorn

    2015-10-16

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a major mode of climate variability with important societal impacts. Most previous explanations identify the driver of the AMO as the ocean circulation, specifically the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Here we show that the main features of the observed AMO are reproduced in models where the ocean heat transport is prescribed and thus cannot be the driver. Allowing the ocean circulation to interact with the atmosphere does not significantly alter the characteristics of the AMO in the current generation of climate models. These results suggest that the AMO is the response to stochastic forcing from the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation, with thermal coupling playing a role in the tropics. In this view, the AMOC and other ocean circulation changes would be largely a response to, not a cause of, the AMO. PMID:26472908

  13. In situ interactions between photosynthetic picoeukaryotes and bacterioplankton in the Atlantic Ocean: evidence for mixotrophy.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Manuela; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, Dave J; Lepère, Cécile

    2013-12-01

    Heterotrophic bacterioplankton, cyanobacteria and phototrophic picoeukaryotes (< 5 μm in size) numerically dominate planktonic oceanic communities. While feeding on bacterioplankton is often attributed to aplastidic protists, recent evidence suggests that phototrophic picoeukaryotes could be important bacterivores. Here, we present direct visual evidence from the surface mixed layer of the Atlantic Ocean that bacterioplankton are internalized by phototrophic picoeukaryotes. In situ interactions of phototrophic picoeukaryotes and bacterioplankton (specifically Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria and the SAR11 clade) were investigated using a combination of flow cytometric cell sorting and dual tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization. Using this method, we observed plastidic Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae cells containing Prochlorococcus, and to a lesser extent SAR11 cells. These microscopic observations of in situ microbial trophic interactions demonstrate the frequency and likely selectivity of phototrophic picoeukaryote bacterivory in the surface mixed layer of both the North and South Atlantic subtropical gyres and adjacent equatorial region, broadening our views on the ecological role of the smallest oceanic plastidic protists. PMID:24249292

  14. Summertime phytoplankton blooms and surface cooling in the western south equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaomei; Du, Yan; Zhan, Haigang; Shi, Ping; Wang, Jia

    2014-11-01

    Chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentration derived from the Sea viewing Wide field of View sensor (SeaWiFS) data (January 1998 to December 2010) shows phytoplankton blooms in the western south equatorial Indian Ocean (WSEIO) during the summer monsoon. The mechanism that sustains the blooms is investigated with the high-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model for the Earth Simulator (OFES) products. The summer blooms in the WSEIO are separated from the coast; they occur in June, reach their maximum in August, and decay in October. With summer monsoon onset, cross-equatorial wind induces open-ocean upwelling in the WSEIO, uplifting the nutricline. The mixed layer heat budget analysis reveals that both thermal forcing and ocean processes are important for the seasonal variations of SST, especially wind-driven entrainment plays a significant role in cooling the WSEIO. These processes cause nutrient enrichment in the surface layer and trigger the phytoplankton blooms. As the summer monsoon develops, the strong wind deepens the mixed layer; the entrainment thus increases the nutrient supply and enhances the bloom. Horizontal advection associated with the Southern Gyre might also be an important process that sustains the bloom. This large clockwise gyre could advect nutrient-rich water along its route, allowing Chla to bloom in a larger area.

  15. Intraseasonal Variability of the Equatorial Indian Ocean Observed from Sea Surface Height, Wind, and Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng

    2007-01-01

    The forcing of the equatorial Indian Ocean by the highly periodic monsoon wind cycle creates many interesting intraseasonal variabilities. The frequency spectrum of the wind stress observations from the European Remote Sensing Satellite scatterometers reveals peaks at the seasonal cycle and its higher harmonics at 180, 120, 90, and 75 days. The observations of sea surface height (SSH) from the Jason and Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon radar altimeters are analyzed to study the ocean's response. The focus of the study is on the intraseasonal periods shorter than the annual period. The semiannual SSH variability is characterized by a basin mode involving Rossby waves and Kelvin waves traveling back and forth in the equatorial Indian Ocean between 10(deg)S and 10(deg)N. However, the interference of these waves with each other masks the appearance of individual Kelvin and Rossby waves, leading to a nodal point (amphidrome) of phase propagation on the equator at the center of the basin. The characteristics of the mode correspond to a resonance of the basin according to theoretical models. The theory also calls for similar modes at 90 and 60 days.

  16. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  17. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of...

  18. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of...

  19. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of...

  20. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  1. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of...

  2. 33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Atlantic Ocean within the area bounded...

  3. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  4. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of...

  5. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  6. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  7. North Atlantic Ocean drivers of the 2015 European heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchez, Aurélie; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Josey, Simon A.; Hirschi, Joël; Evans, Gwyn

    2016-04-01

    Major European heat waves have occurred on several occasions in the past two decades, including the summer of 2015, with dramatic socioeconomic impacts and in a globally warming world, heat waves are expected to become longer, more frequent and more intense. Nevertheless, our understanding of heat wave causes remains at a basic level, limiting the usefulness of event prediction. We show that 2015 was the most extreme heat wave in central Europe in the past 35 years. We find that the heat wave was preceded by cold mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean surface temperatures, which contributed to its development. In order to explain the genesis of the cold ocean anomaly, we consider surface heat loss, ocean heat content and wind driven upwelling. The anomaly is primarily due to extreme ocean heat loss in the preceding two winters and re-emergent cold ocean water masses. Further analysis indicates that this ocean anomaly was a driver for the 2015 heat wave as it favoured a stationary position of the Jet Stream, which steered Atlantic cyclones away from central Europe towards northern Europe. The cold Atlantic anomaly was also present during the most devastating European heat waves since the 1980s indicating that it is a common factor in the development of these extreme events.

  8. 33 CFR 165.T05-0494 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to comply with the general regulations governing safety zones in 33 CFR 165.33. (1) All persons or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, NJ. 165.T05-0494 Section 165.T05-0494 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  9. Seasonal predictions of equatorial Atlantic SST in a low-resolution CGCM with surface heat flux correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippe, Tina; Greatbatch, Richard; Ding, Hui

    2016-04-01

    The dominant mode of interannual variability in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is the Atlantic Niño or Zonal Mode. Akin to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the Pacific sector, it is able to impact the climate both of the adjacent equatorial African continent and remote regions. Due to heavy biases in the mean state climate of the equatorial-to-subtropical Atlantic, however, most state-of-the-art coupled global climate models (CGCMs) are unable to realistically simulate equatorial Atlantic variability. In this study, the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) is used to investigate the impact of a simple bias alleviation technique on the predictability of equatorial Atlantic SSTs. Two sets of seasonal forecasting experiments are performed: An experiment using the standard KCM (STD), and an experiment with additional surface heat flux correction (FLX) that efficiently removes the SST bias from simulations. Initial conditions for both experiments are generated by the KCM run in partially coupled mode, a simple assimilation technique that forces the KCM with observed wind stress anomalies and preserves SST as a fully prognostic variable. Seasonal predictions for both sets of experiments are run four times yearly for 1981-2012. Results: Heat flux correction substantially improves the simulated variability in the initialization runs for boreal summer and fall (June-October). In boreal spring (March-May), however, neither the initialization runs of the STD or FLX-experiments are able to capture the observed variability. FLX-predictions show no consistent enhancement of skill relative to the predictions of the STD experiment over the course of the year. The skill of persistence forecasts is hardly beat by either of the two experiments in any season, limiting the usefulness of the few forecasts that show significant skill. However, FLX-forecasts initialized in May recover skill in July and August, the peak season of the Atlantic Niño (anomaly correlation

  10. Variability of zonal currents in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean on seasonal to interannual time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyadjro, Ebenezer S.; McPhaden, Michael J.

    2014-11-01

    This study examines equatorial zonal current variations in the upper layers of eastern Indian Ocean in relation to variations in the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The analysis utilizes data from the Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts-Ocean Reanalysis System 4 (ECMWF-ORAS4). Surface currents are characterized by semiannual eastward flowing Wyrtki jets along the equator in boreal spring and fall, forced by westerly monsoon transition winds. The fall jet intensifies during negative IOD (NIOD) events when westerlies are anomalously strong but significantly weakens during positive IOD (PIOD) events when westerlies are anomalously weak. As zonal wind stress weakens during PIOD events, sea surface height becomes unusually low in the eastern basin and high in the west, setting up an anomalous pressure force that drives increased eastward transport in the thermocline. Opposite tendencies are evident during NIOD events in response to intensified equatorial westerlies. Current transport adjustments to anomalous zonal wind forcing during IOD events extend into the following year, consistent with the cycling of equatorial wave energy around the basin. A surface layer mass budget calculation for the eastern sea surface temperature (SST) pole of the IOD indicates upwelling of ˜2.9±0.7 Sv during normal periods, increasing by 40-50% during PIOD events and reducing effectively to zero during NIOD events. IOD-related variations in Wyrtki jet and thermocline transports are major influences on these upwelling rates and associated water mass transformations, which vary consistently with SST changes.

  11. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation slowdown cooled the subtropical ocean

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Stuart A; Roberts, Christopher D; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Johns, William E; Hobbs, Will; Palmer, Matthew D; Rayner, Darren; Smeed, David A; McCarthy, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    [1] Observations show that the upper 2 km of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean cooled throughout 2010 and remained cold until at least December 2011. We show that these cold anomalies are partly driven by anomalous air-sea exchange during the cold winters of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 and, more surprisingly, by extreme interannual variability in the ocean's northward heat transport at 26.5°N. This cooling driven by the ocean's meridional heat transport affects deeper layers isolated from the atmosphere on annual timescales and water that is entrained into the winter mixed layer thus lowering winter sea surface temperatures. Here we connect, for the first time, variability in the northward heat transport carried by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to widespread sustained cooling of the subtropical North Atlantic, challenging the prevailing view that the ocean plays a passive role in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system on monthly-to-seasonal timescales. PMID:26074634

  12. An Orbital Beat in the Equatorial Atlantic (~18-27 Ma): Reliable Chronometer or Wishful Thinking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, S. R.; Hinnov, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    Orbital-climate theory provides a vital framework for the fields of paleoclimatology and geochronology, having spawned advances in our understanding of climate system components, feedbacks, and thresholds, while also leading to a major revision of the geologic time scale. The numerous successes of Pleistocene cyclostratigraphy have motivated the search for orbital influence in strata spanning the Phanerozoic, culminating in the generation of both "anchored" (<50 Ma) and "floating" astrochronologies that can be used to evaluate environmental, biologic and biogeochemical change at very high resolution. Against this backdrop, a common challenge in the development of astrochronologies is the absence of sufficient independent time constraints (e.g., radioisotopic data) to directly calibrate spatial rhythms to temporal periods, and thus quantitatively test for orbital influence. As a consequence, many investigations attempt to test the orbital hypothesis using the "spectral frequency ratio" approach (e.g., the 5:2:1 ratio of short eccentricity, obliquity and precession), and/or by evaluating signal characteristics, such as amplitude modulations of the presumed precession cycle, prior to or following orbital-tuning. None of these approaches - as applied in common practice - explicitly tests the null hypothesis of no orbital influence, leading some to question the veracity of deep-time astrochronology. Here, we revisit proxy data from the equatorial Atlantic Ceara Rise (~18 to 27 Ma; Paelike et al., 2006), a site that has been instrumental in the development of astrochronologies for the Miocene and Oligocene time scale, and has also provided constraints on the theoretical astronomical solutions. Our cyclostratigraphic evaluation employs a method for astrochronologic testing applied to "un-tuned" proxy data, termed Average Spectral Misfit (Meyers and Sageman, 2007). This inverse method explicitly evaluates time scale uncertainty, and provides a formal statistical test of

  13. CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean) Data from CDIAC

    DOE Data Explorer

    The idea for CARINA developed at a workshop (CO2 in the northern North Atlantic) that was held at the HANSE-Wissenschaftskolleg (HANSE Institute for Advanced Study) in Delmenhorst, Germany from June 9 to 11, 1999. While the main scientific focus is the North Atlantic, some data from the South Atlantic have been included in the project, along with data from the Arctic Ocean. Data sets go back to 1972, and more than 100 are currently available. The data are also being used in conjunction with other projects and research groups, such as the Atlantic Ocean Carbon Synthesis Group. See the inventory of data at http://store.pangaea.de/Projects/CARBOOCEAN/carina/data_inventory.htm See a detailed table of information on the cruises at http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/CARINA/Carina_table.html and also provides access to data files. The CARBOOCEAN data portal provides a specialized interface for CARINA data, a reference list for historic carbon data, and password protected access to the "Data Underway Warehouse.".

  14. Meso-Cenozoic Source-to-Sink analysis of the African margin of the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardon, Dominique; Rouby, Delphine; Huyghe, Damien; Ye, Jing; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Dall'Asta, Massimo; Brown, Roderick; Webster, David

    2015-04-01

    The Transform Source to Sink Project (TS2P) objective is to link the evolution of the offshore sedimentary basins of the African margin of the Equatorial Atlantic and their source areas on the West African Craton. The margin consists in alternating transform and oblique margin portions from Guinea, in the West, to Nigeria, in the East. Such a longitudinal structural variability is associated with variation in the margin width, continental geology and relief, drainage networks and subsidence/accumulation patterns that we analyzed using offshore seismic data and onshore geology and geomorphology. We compare syn- to post rift offshore geometry and long-term stratigraphic history of each of the margin segments. Transform faults appear to play a major role in shaping Early Cretaceous syn-rift basin architectures. Immediate post-rift Late Cretaceous sedimentary wedges record a transgression and are affected by the reactivation of some of transform faults. We produced A new type of inland paleogeographic maps for key periods since the end of the Triassic, allowing delineation of intracratonic basins having accumulated material issued from erosion of the marginal upwarps that have grown since break-up along the margin. We use offshore and onshore basin analysis to estimate sediment accumulation and integrate it in a source-to-sink analysis where Mesozoic onshore denudation will be estimated by low-temperature thermochronology. Cenozoic erosion and drainage history of the continental domain have been reconstructed from the spatial analysis of dated and regionally correlated geomorphic markers. The stationary drainage configuration of the onshore domain since 30 Ma offers the opportunity to correlate the detailed onshore morphoclimatic record based on the sequence of lateritic paleolandsurfaces to offshore stratigraphy, eustasy and global climatic proxies since the Oligocene. Within this framework, we simulate quantitative solute / solid erosional fluxes based on the

  15. North and equatorial Pacific Ocean circulation in the CORE-II hindcast simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-heng; Lin, Hongyang; Chen, Han-ching; Thompson, Keith; Bentsen, Mats; Böning, Claus W.; Bozec, Alexandra; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Chow, Chun Hoe; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Danilov, Sergey; Farneti, Riccardo; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Ilicak, Mehmet; Jung, Thomas; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Patara, Lavinia; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Sui, Chung-Hsiung; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang; Yeager, Steve G.

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the mean circulation patterns, water mass distributions, and tropical dynamics of the North and Equatorial Pacific Ocean based on a suite of global ocean-sea ice simulations driven by the CORE-II atmospheric forcing from 1963-2007. The first three moments (mean, standard deviation and skewness) of sea surface height and surface temperature variability are assessed against observations. Large discrepancies are found in the variance and skewness of sea surface height and in the skewness of sea surface temperature. Comparing with the observation, most models underestimate the Kuroshio transport in the Asian Marginal seas due to the missing influence of the unresolved western boundary current and meso-scale eddies. In terms of the Mixed Layer Depths (MLDs) in the North Pacific, the two observed maxima associated with Subtropical Mode Water and Central Mode Water formation coalesce into a large pool of deep MLDs in all participating models, but another local maximum associated with the formation of Eastern Subtropical Mode Water can be found in all models with different magnitudes. The main model bias of deep MLDs results from excessive Subtropical Mode Water formation due to inaccurate representation of the Kuroshio separation and of the associated excessively warm and salty Kuroshio water. Further water mass analysis shows that the North Pacific Intermediate Water can penetrate southward in most models, but its distribution greatly varies among models depending not only on grid resolution and vertical coordinate but also on the model dynamics. All simulations show overall similar large scale tropical current system, but with differences in the structures of the Equatorial Undercurrent. We also confirm the key role of the meridional gradient of the wind stress curl in driving the equatorial transport, leading to a generally weak North Equatorial Counter Current in all models due to inaccurate CORE-II equatorial wind fields. Most models show a larger

  16. Diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in the deep tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan-Smith, Danielle; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Bochdansky, Alexander B.

    2013-08-01

    Employing a combination of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and fluorescein isothiocyanate (DAPI-FITC) staining and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), we distinguished a variety of taxonomic and morphological types of eukaryotic microbes in the central and deep water masses of the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Samples were taken along a transect across the tropical Atlantic, along the equatorial upwelling and into the West-African upwelling region. Samples were collected as deep as 7000 m in the Romanche Fracture Zone within the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Approximately 50-70% of FISH-identified eukaryotes in deep water masses belong to one of seven groups: kinetoplastids, labyrinthulomycetes, fungi, diplonemids, group II alveolates, MAST 4 (stramenopiles), and an unidentified organism with a peculiar nuclear morphology. A smaller percentage of total eukaryotes was identified in the Central Water, especially in the oxygen minimum zone, than in deep water masses. CARD-FISH probes designed to identify broad taxonomic groups revealed kinetoplastids and fungi were more abundant than noted in previous studies employing 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Group II alveolates, in contrast, were much less prevalent than previously reported. On a second survey, eukaryotic microbes were enumerated in the deep-sea basins below the North Atlantic subtropical gyre including the Vema Fracture Zone, which is another prominent trench in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The abundance of eukaryotes and chlorophyll concentrations were significantly different between the two cruises, which covered very different hydrographic regimes with associated high and low levels of primary production, respectively.

  17. Dilution of the northern North Atlantic Ocean in recent decades.

    PubMed

    Curry, Ruth; Mauritzen, Cecilie

    2005-06-17

    Declining salinities signify that large amounts of fresh water have been added to the northern North Atlantic Ocean since the mid-1960s. We estimate that the Nordic Seas and Subpolar Basins were diluted by an extra 19,000 +/- 5000 cubic kilometers of freshwater input between 1965 and 1995. Fully half of that additional fresh water-about 10,000 cubic kilometers-infiltrated the system in the late 1960s at an approximate rate of 2000 cubic kilometers per year. Patterns of freshwater accumulation observed in the Nordic Seas suggest a century time scale to reach freshening thresholds critical to that portion of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. PMID:15961666

  18. Mooring observations of equatorial currents in the upper 1000 m of the western Pacific Ocean during 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fan; Wang, Jianing; Guan, Cong; Ma, Qiang; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2016-06-01

    Time-depth variations of the equatorial currents over the upper 1000 m depth in the western Pacific Ocean were directly measured by acoustic Doppler current profiler moorings at 2°N, 140°E and 4.7°N, 140°E during January-August 2014. Intraseasonal variations of the equatorial currents, with periods of 37-73 days, were observed encompassing the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC), northern branch of the South Equatorial Current (SEC), Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), Equatorial Intermediate Current (EIC), North Intermediate Countercurrent (NICC), and North Equatorial Subsurface Current (NESC). Compared with previous studies based mainly on shipboard synoptic surveys, the 8-month time series of velocity profiles provided direct evidence for the existence of NESC, captured reversals of the EIC in May and the NESC in June from westward to eastward direction, and revealed larger vertical extensions of the SEC and NESC and greater depths of the EIC and NICC than previously thought. According to a global analysis product of ocean surface current, during January-April 2014, the NECC was located around its southernmost position and with its the weakest intensity over the past 20 years. Some of the anomalous characteristics of these flows may be related to the fickle El Niño of 2014.

  19. Phylogenetic identification of marine bacteria isolated from deep-sea sediments of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcus Adonai Castro; Cavalett, Angélica; Spinner, Ananda; Rosa, Daniele Cristina; Jasper, Regina Beltrame; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Bonatelli, Maria Letícia; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline; Corção, Gertrudes; Lima, André Oliveira de Souza

    2013-12-01

    The deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic Ocean are less studied in comparison to the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. With the aim of identifying the deep-sea bacteria in this less known ocean, 70 strains were isolated from eight sediment samples (depth range between 1905 to 5560 m) collected in the eastern part of the South Atlantic, from the equatorial region to the Cape Abyssal Plain, using three different culture media. The strains were classified into three phylogenetic groups, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, by the analysis of 16s rRNA gene sequences. Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most frequently identified groups, with Halomonas the most frequent genus among the strains. Microorganisms belonging to Firmicutes were the only ones observed in all samples. Sixteen of the 41 identified operational taxonomic units probably represent new species. The presence of potentially new species reinforces the need for new studies in the deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic. PMID:23565357

  20. Growth and decay of the Equatorial Atlantic SST mode by means of closed heat budget in a coupled General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, Irene; Lazar, Alban; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Mignot, Juliette

    2015-07-01

    Tropical Atlantic variability is strongly biased in coupled General Circulation Models (GCM). Most of the models present a mean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) bias pattern that resembles the leading mode of inter-annual SST variability. Thus, understanding the causes of the main mode of variability of the system is crucial. A GCM control simulation with the IPSL-CM4 model as part of the CMIP3 experiment has been analyzed. Mixed layer heat budget decomposition has revealed the processes involved in the origin and development of the leading inter-annual variability mode which is defined over the Equatorial Atlantic (hereafter EA mode). In comparison with the observations, it is found a reversal in the anomalous SST evolution of the EA mode: from west equator to southeast in the simulation, while in the observations is the opposite. Nevertheless, despite the biases over the eastern equator and the African coast in boreal summer, the seasonality of the inter-annual variability is well reproduced in the model. The triggering of the EA mode is found to be related to vertical entrainment at the equator as well as to upwelling along South African coast. The damping is related to the air-sea heat fluxes and oceanic horizontal terms. As in the observation, this EA mode exerts an impact on the West African and Brazilian rainfall variability. Therefore, the correct simulation of EA amplitude and time evolution is the key for a correct rainfall prediction over tropical Atlantic. In addition to that, identification of processes which are responsible for the tropical Atlantic biases in GCMs is an important element in order to improve the current global prediction systems.

  1. Carbon disulfide in the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huixiang; Moore, Robert M.

    1999-03-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) was determined in surface waters of the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The mean concentrations (and ranges) of CS2 in open ocean waters were 13.4 (7.8-26.1) pM S (picomol sulfur per liter) for the North Atlantic and 14.6 (7.2-27.5) pM S for the Pacific. The concentrations in the coastal waters of the North Atlantic averaged 26.4 pM S and ranged from 17.9 to 40.4 pM S. Warm waters generally contained higher levels of CS2 than did cold waters. All the study areas were found to be supersaturated in CS2 relative to the atmosphere based on calculations from published CS2 mixing ratios in the marine boundary layer and their Henry's law constants. Sea-to-air fluxes of CS2 were estimated using exchange velocities for spot and climatological wind speeds. The global oceanic flux extrapolated from this study is 0.18 Tg CS2 yr-1 and in the range 0.13-0.24 Tg CS2 yr-1. It is suggested that microbial processes, photochemical reactions, and phytoplankton activity are potential sources for oceanic CS2.

  2. Decadal acidification in the water masses of the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Aida F; Resplandy, Laure; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I; Fajar, Noelia M; Velo, Anton; Padin, Xose A; Wanninkhof, Rik; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Rosón, Gabriel; Pérez, Fiz F

    2015-08-11

    Global ocean acidification is caused primarily by the ocean's uptake of CO2 as a consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. We present observations of the oceanic decrease in pH at the basin scale (50 °S-36 °N) for the Atlantic Ocean over two decades (1993-2013). Changes in pH associated with the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 (ΔpHCant) and with variations caused by biological activity and ocean circulation (ΔpHNat) are evaluated for different water masses. Output from an Institut Pierre Simon Laplace climate model is used to place the results into a longer-term perspective and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for pH change. The largest decreases in pH (∆pH) were observed in central, mode, and intermediate waters, with a maximum ΔpH value in South Atlantic Central Waters of -0.042 ± 0.003. The ΔpH trended toward zero in deep and bottom waters. Observations and model results show that pH changes generally are dominated by the anthropogenic component, which accounts for rates between -0.0015 and -0.0020/y in the central waters. The anthropogenic and natural components are of the same order of magnitude and reinforce one another in mode and intermediate waters over the time period. Large negative ΔpHNat values observed in mode and intermediate waters are driven primarily by changes in CO2 content and are consistent with (i) a poleward shift of the formation region during the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode in the South Atlantic and (ii) an increase in the rate of the water mass formation in the North Atlantic. PMID:26216947

  3. Deglacial Atlantic Radiocarbon: A Southern Ocean Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, L. F.; Burke, A.; Adkins, J. F.; Chen, T.; Spooner, P.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the Southern Ocean is an important component of the climate system, acting as a key site for carbon and heat exchange between the atmosphere and oceans. The deglaciation with its associated millenial climate changes is a key time period for testing the mechanisms behind these exchanges. Ascertaining the precise timing of these events is a challenge given complications from variable and largely unconstrained reservoir ages, dissolution of carbonate hard parts and sediment redistribution by strong currents. Nevertheless improvements to our understanding of Southern Ocean dynamics in the past requires accurately-dated proxy records that can be embedded in GCM models. Radiocarbon measured in deep-sea corals offers just such an archive and proxy. Using the skeletons of deep-sea corals we are now able to reconstruct aspects of the history of three distinct water masses in the Drake Passage on a precise timescale, allowing direct comparison to U-series dated speleothem terrestrial records and polar ice cores. We present here a new deglacial radiocarbon record from the Drake Passage which more than doubles the resolution of published records. We focus on the deglacial, as well as providing insights from the contrasting period leading up to the LGM. Together with new data from far-field sites we interpret our results as evidence for a Southern Ocean control on atmospheric carbon dioxide and radiocarbon evolution during the deglaciation, and a northern hemisphere control during the run up to the LGM.

  4. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the equatorial Indian Ocean: Occurrence, potential sources, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Zhong, Guangcai; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2016-06-15

    Monitoring of marine polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) is crucial, as they are considered persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention. Data on PCNs in marine environment are scarce. In this study, 19 air samples were collected during a cruise in the equatorial Indian Ocean on board the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011. PCN concentration of these air samples ranged from 0.033 to 2.56pgm(-3), with an average of 0.518pgm(-3), equal to or lower than the values reported for other oceans, seas, and lakes worldwide. Tri- and tetra-CNs were the main homologues in most samples. Reemission of Halowax mixtures and incineration processes were the major sources of atmospheric PCNs in the study area. The PCN-corresponding toxic equivalency values ranged from 0 to 0.190fgm(-3) (average: 0.038fgm(-3)), falling in the low end of global range. PMID:27084202

  5. Anomalous behaviors of Wyrtki Jets in the equatorial Indian Ocean during 2013

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yongliang; Liu, Lin; Han, Guoqing; Liu, Hongwei; Yu, Weidong; Yang, Guang; Wang, Huiwu; Wang, Haiyuan; Liu, Yanliang; Zahid; Waheed, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    In-situ measurement of the upper ocean velocity discloses significant abnormal behaviors of two Wyrtki Jets (WJs) respectively in boreal spring and fall, over the tropical Indian Ocean in 2013. The two WJs both occurred within upper 130 m depth and persisted more than one month. The exceptional spring jet in May was unusually stronger than its counterpart in fall, which is clearly against the previous understanding. Furthermore, the fall WJ in 2013 unexpectedly peaked in December, one month later than its climatology. Data analysis and numerical experiments illustrate that the anomalous changes in the equatorial zonal wind, associated with the strong intra-seasonal oscillation events, are most likely the primary reason for such anomalous WJs activities. PMID:27436723

  6. Anomalous behaviors of Wyrtki Jets in the equatorial Indian Ocean during 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yongliang; Liu, Lin; Han, Guoqing; Liu, Hongwei; Yu, Weidong; Yang, Guang; Wang, Huiwu; Wang, Haiyuan; Liu, Yanliang; Zahid; Waheed, Hussain

    2016-07-01

    In-situ measurement of the upper ocean velocity discloses significant abnormal behaviors of two Wyrtki Jets (WJs) respectively in boreal spring and fall, over the tropical Indian Ocean in 2013. The two WJs both occurred within upper 130 m depth and persisted more than one month. The exceptional spring jet in May was unusually stronger than its counterpart in fall, which is clearly against the previous understanding. Furthermore, the fall WJ in 2013 unexpectedly peaked in December, one month later than its climatology. Data analysis and numerical experiments illustrate that the anomalous changes in the equatorial zonal wind, associated with the strong intra-seasonal oscillation events, are most likely the primary reason for such anomalous WJs activities.

  7. Anomalous behaviors of Wyrtki Jets in the equatorial Indian Ocean during 2013.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yongliang; Liu, Lin; Han, Guoqing; Liu, Hongwei; Yu, Weidong; Yang, Guang; Wang, Huiwu; Wang, Haiyuan; Liu, Yanliang; Zahid; Waheed, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    In-situ measurement of the upper ocean velocity discloses significant abnormal behaviors of two Wyrtki Jets (WJs) respectively in boreal spring and fall, over the tropical Indian Ocean in 2013. The two WJs both occurred within upper 130 m depth and persisted more than one month. The exceptional spring jet in May was unusually stronger than its counterpart in fall, which is clearly against the previous understanding. Furthermore, the fall WJ in 2013 unexpectedly peaked in December, one month later than its climatology. Data analysis and numerical experiments illustrate that the anomalous changes in the equatorial zonal wind, associated with the strong intra-seasonal oscillation events, are most likely the primary reason for such anomalous WJs activities. PMID:27436723

  8. Organic pollutants and ocean fronts across the Atlantic Ocean: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Belkin, Igor M.

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of ocean fronts on pollutants dynamics, particularly organic pollutants. Since fronts are associated with convergent currents and productive fishing grounds, any possible convergence of pollutants at fronts would raise concerns. The focus here is on relatively persistent organic pollutants, POPs, as non-persistent organic pollutants are rarely found in the open ocean. Results from recent cruises in the Atlantic Ocean are examined for POP distributions across ocean fronts in (i) the Canary Current; (ii) the Gulf Stream; and (iii) the Amazon and Rio de la Plata Plumes. Few studies achieved a spatial resolution of 10-20 km, while most had 100-300 km between adjacent stations. The majority of the well-resolved studies measured perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), which seem particularly well suited for frontal resolution. In the NE Atlantic, concentrations of PFCs sharply decreased between SW Europe and NW Africa upon crossing the Canary Current Front at 24-27°N. In the Western Atlantic, the PFC concentrations sharply increased upon entering the Amazon River Plume and Rio de la Plata Plume. In the NW Atlantic, concentrations of several pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are very high in Rhode Island Sound, decreasing to below detection limit in the open ocean. The more persistent and already phased-out polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) displayed elevated concentrations in the Gulf Stream and Rhode Island Sound, thereby highlighting the importance of ocean fronts, along-front currents, and cross-frontal transport for the dispersal of PCBs.

  9. Southern Ocean contributions to the Eastern Equatorial Pacific heat content during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalansky, Julie; Rosenthal, Yair; Herbert, Timothy; Bova, Samantha; Altabet, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Temperature reconstructions from a shallow core (375 m) from the Peru Margin are used to test the influence of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) on the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) thermostad and thus the effect of southern high latitude climate on interior ocean heat content (OHC). Temperature estimates, based on Mg/Ca measurements of planktonic and benthic foraminifera (Neogloboquadrina dutertrei and Uvigerina spp., respectively) show higher temperatures in the early Holocene, a cooling of ∼ 2 ° by 8 kyr B.P. and after relatively stable temperatures to the present. The temperature signal is similar in direction and timing to a rather robust Holocene climate signal from the southern high latitudes suggesting it originated there and was advected to the core site in the EEP. Based on the N. dutertrei and Uvigerina Mg/Ca temperature and δ13C records we conclude that SAMW acted as a conduit transporting the southern high latitude climate to the interior of the equatorial Pacific. We propose that the early Holocene warmth is related to a southward migration of the Subtropical Front, which enhanced the influence of warm subtropical water in the region of SAMW formation and was then transported to the EEP thermostad. The early Holocene warmth recorded in the EEP thermostad has a muted sea surface temperature expression indicating this mechanism is important for sequestering heat in the ocean interior.

  10. Deglacial pulses of deep-ocean silicate into the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Meckler, A N; Sigman, D M; Gibson, K A; François, R; Martínez-García, A; Jaccard, S L; Röhl, U; Peterson, L C; Tiedemann, R; Haug, G H

    2013-03-28

    Growing evidence suggests that the low atmospheric CO2 concentration of the ice ages resulted from enhanced storage of CO2 in the ocean interior, largely as a result of changes in the Southern Ocean. Early in the most recent deglaciation, a reduction in North Atlantic overturning circulation seems to have driven CO2 release from the Southern Ocean, but the mechanism connecting the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean remains unclear. Biogenic opal export in the low-latitude ocean relies on silicate from the underlying thermocline, the concentration of which is affected by the circulation of the ocean interior. Here we report a record of biogenic opal export from a coastal upwelling system off the coast of northwest Africa that shows pronounced opal maxima during each glacial termination over the past 550,000 years. These opal peaks are consistent with a strong deglacial reduction in the formation of silicate-poor glacial North Atlantic intermediate water (GNAIW). The loss of GNAIW allowed mixing with underlying silicate-rich deep water to increase the silicate supply to the surface ocean. An increase in westerly-wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean in response to the North Atlantic change has been proposed to drive the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2 (refs 3, 4). However, such a circulation change would have accelerated the formation of Antarctic intermediate water and sub-Antarctic mode water, which today have as little silicate as North Atlantic Deep Water and would have thus maintained low silicate concentrations in the Atlantic thermocline. The deglacial opal maxima reported here suggest an alternative mechanism for the deglacial CO2 release. Just as the reduction in GNAIW led to upward silicate transport, it should also have allowed the downward mixing of warm, low-density surface water to reach into the deep ocean. The resulting decrease in the density of the deep Atlantic relative to the Southern Ocean surface promoted Antarctic overturning

  11. 77 FR 11387 - Safety Zone; Lauderdale Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lauderdale Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Fort... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Fort Lauderdale... Lauderdale Air Show will include numerous aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic...

  12. Deep ocean early warning signals of an Atlantic MOC collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qing Yi; Viebahn, Jan P.; Dijkstra, Henk A.

    2014-08-01

    A future collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) has been identified as one of the most dangerous tipping points in the climate system. It is therefore crucial to develop early warning indicators for such a potential collapse based on relatively short time series. So far, attempts to use indicators based on critical slowdown have been marginally successful. Based on complex climate network reconstruction, we here present a promising new indicator for the MOC collapse that efficiently monitors spatial changes in deep ocean circulation. Through our analysis of the performance of this indicator, we formulate optimal locations of measurement of the MOC to provide early warning signals of a collapse. Our results imply that an increase in spatial resolution of the Atlantic MOC observations (i.e., at more sections) can improve early detection, because the spatial coherence in the deep ocean arising near the transition is better captured.

  13. Measurements of Ocean Derived Aerosol Over the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.; Frossard, A. A.; Russell, L. M.; Hakala, J. P.; Kieber, D. J.; Keene, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    Breaking waves on the ocean surface inject sea spray particles into the atmosphere which can act as CCN. Characterization of particles freshly emitted from the ocean surface requires a sampling method that is able to isolate those particles and prevent them from interacting with ambient gases and particles. Here we report measurements of particles directly emitted from the ocean using a newly developed in-situ particle generator (Sea Sweep). The Sea Sweep was deployed alongside RV Ronald H. Brown in the North Atlantic during August of 2012 in two contrasting regions; one in the eutrophic waters on Georges Bank and one in the oligotrophic waters near Bermuda. Bubbles were generated 0.75 m below the ocean surface with stainless steel frits and swept into a hood/vacuum hose to feed a suite of aerosol instrumentation on board the ship. The measured aerosol properties from the two regions will be compared.

  14. Trace metal accumulation in carbonate biominerals of the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demina, L. L.; Oskina, N. S.; Galkin, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    New data on trace metal (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb) distribution in carbonate biominerals formed in geochemically different oceanic environments are discussed. Calcite shells of shelf and deepwater hydrothermal vent mussels as well as planktic foraminifers and pteropods from the central Atlantic Ocean have been studied. The variability in concentrations of most trace elements between different groups of calcifying organisms are usually within one order of magnitude, except for Fe and Mn, the elevated contents of which in microfossils are caused by post-sedimentation interaction. Different groups of calcifying organisms demonstrate a biogeochemical uniformity in trace metal accumulation during the biomineralization processes.

  15. Decadal acidification in the water masses of the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Aida F.; Resplandy, Laure; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Fajar, Noelia M.; Velo, Anton; Padin, Xose A.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Rosón, Gabriel; Pérez, Fiz F.

    2015-01-01

    Global ocean acidification is caused primarily by the ocean’s uptake of CO2 as a consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. We present observations of the oceanic decrease in pH at the basin scale (50°S–36°N) for the Atlantic Ocean over two decades (1993–2013). Changes in pH associated with the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 (ΔpHCant) and with variations caused by biological activity and ocean circulation (ΔpHNat) are evaluated for different water masses. Output from an Institut Pierre Simon Laplace climate model is used to place the results into a longer-term perspective and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for pH change. The largest decreases in pH (∆pH) were observed in central, mode, and intermediate waters, with a maximum ΔpH value in South Atlantic Central Waters of −0.042 ± 0.003. The ΔpH trended toward zero in deep and bottom waters. Observations and model results show that pH changes generally are dominated by the anthropogenic component, which accounts for rates between −0.0015 and −0.0020/y in the central waters. The anthropogenic and natural components are of the same order of magnitude and reinforce one another in mode and intermediate waters over the time period. Large negative ΔpHNat values observed in mode and intermediate waters are driven primarily by changes in CO2 content and are consistent with (i) a poleward shift of the formation region during the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode in the South Atlantic and (ii) an increase in the rate of the water mass formation in the North Atlantic. PMID:26216947

  16. Coherent Multidecadal Atmospheric and Oceanic Variability in the North Atlantic: Blocking Corresponds with Warm Subpolar Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa M.; Rhines, P. B.; Worthen, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Winters with frequent atmospheric blocking, in a band of latitudes from Greenland to Western Europe, are found to persist over several decades and correspond to a warm North Atlantic Ocean. This is evident in atmospheric reanalysis data, both modern and for the full 20th century. Blocking is approximately in phase with Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV). Wintertime atmospheric blocking involves a highly distorted jetstream, isolating large regions of air from the westerly circulation. It influences the ocean through windstress-curl and associated air/sea heat flux. While blocking is a relatively high-frequency phenomenon, it is strongly modulated over decadal timescales. The blocked regime (weaker ocean gyres, weaker air-sea heat flux, paradoxically increased transport of warm subtropical waters poleward) contributes to the warm phase of AMV. Atmospheric blocking better describes the early 20thC warming and 1996-2010 warm period than does the NAO index. It has roots in the hemispheric circulation and jet stream dynamics. Subpolar Atlantic variability covaries with distant AMOC fields: both these connections may express the global influence of the subpolar North Atlantic ocean on the global climate system.

  17. Geographical distribution of pelagic decapod shrimp in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Judkins, David C

    2014-01-01

    Ninety-one species of pelagic decapod shrimp were identified in 938 midwater-trawl collections taken between 1963 and 1974 from the North and South Atlantic. Distributional maps are provided for the most frequently occurring species. Nighttime abundance of most species was greatest within the upper 200 m. Degree of geographical overlap was estimated using the geometric mean of the proportion of joint occurrences with a value ≥ 0.5 deemed significant. Geographical distributions tended to be unique, and only 31 species had values ≥ 0.5 with one or more other species. Species within genera and within phylogenetic subgroups of Sergia were generally parapatric or partially overlapping in distribution. Five geographical groupings of co-occurring species across genera were identified: Subpolar-Temperate, Southern Hemisphere, Central, Tropical, Eastern Tropical and Western Tropical. The two species of the Southern Hemisphere group are circumpolar at temperate latitudes. The 12 species of the Central group occurred throughout the subtropical and tropical North and South Atlantic. The eight species of the Tropical group occurred broadly across the equatorial Atlantic and Caribbean with ranges usually extending into the Gulf of Mexico and northward in the Gulf Stream. The two species of the Western Tropical group occurred most often in the western tropics, but there were scattered occurrences at subtropical latitudes. The four species of the Eastern Tropical group were endemic to the Mauritanian Upwelling and the Angola-Benguela Frontal zones off western Africa. Two of the three species in the Subpolar-Temperate group had bipolar distributions, and all three occurred in the Mediterranean and in the Mauritanian Upwelling zone. Most Central, Tropical and Western Tropical species were present in the in the Gulf of Mexico. The 10 species from the Mediterranean were a mixture of Subpolar-Temperate, Central and benthopelagic species. Patterns of distribution in Atlantic pelagic

  18. Decadal variations of Pacific North Equatorial Current bifurcation from multiple ocean products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Fangguo; Wang, Qingye; Wang, Fujun; Hu, Dunxin

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we examine the decadal variations of the Pacific North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcation latitude (NBL) averaged over upper 100 m and underlying dynamics over the past six decades using 11 ocean products, including seven kinds of ocean reanalyzes based on ocean data assimilation systems, two kinds of numerical simulations without assimilating observations and two kinds of objective analyzes based on in situ observations only. During the period of 1954-2007, the multiproduct mean of decadal NBL anomalies shows maxima around 1965/1966, 1980/1981, 1995/1996, and 2003/2004, and minima around 1958, 1971/1972, 1986/1987, and 2000/2001, respectively. The NBL decadal variations are related to the first Empirical Orthogonal Function mode of decadal anomalies of sea surface height (SSH) in the northwestern tropical Pacific Ocean, which shows spatially coherent variation over the whole region and explains most of the total variance. Further regression and composite analyzes indicate that northerly/southerly NBL corresponds to negative/positive SSH anomalies and cyclonic/anticyclonic gyre anomalies in the northwestern tropical Pacific Ocean. These decadal circulation variations and thus the decadal NBL variations are governed mostly by the first two vertical modes and attribute the most to the first baroclinic mode. The NBL decadal variation is highly positively correlated with the tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV) around the zero time lag. With a lead of about half the decadal cycle the NBL displays closer but negative relationship to TPDV in four ocean products, possibly manifesting the dynamical role of the circulation in the northwestern tropical Pacific in the phase-shifting of TPDV.

  19. Impact of atmospheric convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin waves on upper ocean variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, Dariusz B.; Flatau, Maria K.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Matthews, Adrian J.

    2016-03-01

    Convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) are atmospheric weather systems that propagate eastward along the equatorial wave guide with phase speeds between 11 and 14 m s-1. They are an important constituent of the convective envelope of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), for which ocean-atmosphere interactions play a vital role. Hence, ocean-atmosphere interactions within CCKWs may be important for MJO development and prediction and for tropical climate, in general. Although the atmospheric structure of CCKWs has been well studied, their impact on the underlying ocean is unknown. In this paper, the ocean-atmosphere interactions in CCKWs are investigated by a case study from November 2011 during the CINDY/DYNAMO field experiment, using in situ oceanographic measurements from an ocean glider. The analysis is then extended to a 15 year period using precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and surface fluxes from the TropFlux analysis. A methodology is developed to calculate trajectories of CCKWs. CCKW events are strongly controlled by the MJO, with twice as many CCKWs observed during the convectively active phase of the MJO compared to the suppressed phase. Coherent ocean-atmosphere interaction is observed during the passage of a CCKW, which lasts approximately 4 days at any given longitude. Surface wind speed and latent heat flux are enhanced, leading to a transient suppression of the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature (SST) and a sustained decrease in bulk SST of 0.1°C. Given that a typical composite mean MJO SST anomaly is of the order of 0.3°C, and more than one CCKW can occur during the active phase of a single MJO event, the oceanographic impact of CCKWs is of major importance to the MJO cycle.

  20. Differential opening of the Central and South Atlantic Oceans and the opening of the West African rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairhead, J. D.; Binks, R. M.

    1991-02-01

    Plate tectonic studies of the development of the Central and South Atlantic Oceans using Seasat and Geosat altimeter and magnetic anomaly isochron data now provide quantitative models of seafloor spreading through time. Such models enable an initial assessment of the differential opening between these two oceanic basins to be determined. The Equatorial Atlantic is an integral part of this oceanic rifting process, allowing stresses arising from the differential opening to be dissipated into both the Caribbean and Africa along its northern and southern boundaries respectively. The tectonic model for the West African rift system, based on geological and geophysical studies, shows a series of strike-slip fault zones diverging into Africa from the Gulf of Guinea and dissipating their shear movement into the development of extensional basins orientated perpendicular to these faults zones. The development of the West African rift system was contemporaneous with the early opening of the South Atlantic, continued to develop well after the final breakup of South America from Africa and did not cease until the late Cretaceous when there was a major phase of basin inversion and deformation. Santonian ( ~ 80 Ma) deformation across the Benue Trough (Nigeria) is broadly contemporaneous with dextral shear reactivation of the central African fracture system which, in turn resulted in renewed extension in the Sudan basins during the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary. This paper illustrates the close linkage in both time and space between the history of the African rift basins and the opening of the Atlantic. Both exhibit distinct phases of evolution with the rift basins developing in direct response to the differential opening between the Central and South Atlantic in order to dissipate stresses generated by this opening. The Mesozoic tectonic model proposed is therefore one of an intimate interaction between oceanic and continental tectonics.

  1. Understanding long-term (1982-2013) multi-decadal change in the equatorial and subtropical South Atlantic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution observations along with atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses are diagnosed to understand how and why southeastern Atlantic SSTs have changed over the 1982-2013 period. Multiple datasets are used to evaluate confidence. Results indicate significant SST warming trends (0.5-1.5 K per 32-years) along the Guinean and Angolan/Namibian Coasts, and a cooling trend (-0.10 to -0.60 K per 32-years) over the subtropical South Atlantic between 18°S and 28°S. SST trends are shown to vary over the annual cycle with the greatest changes occurring during November-January. Analysis of the ocean surface heat balance reveals that the austral summer SST warming trend along the Angolan/Namibian Coast is associated with an increase in the net downward atmospheric heat flux. In addition, there is a decrease in coastal upwelling due to circulation changes related to a poleward shift of the South Atlantic subtropical anticyclone and an intensification of the southwestern African thermal low. The cooling trend over the subtropical South Atlantic is also associated with the poleward shift of the South Atlantic anticyclone, as stronger surface winds enhance latent heat loss from the ocean over this region. Positive SST trends along the Guinean coast are found to be primarily associated with changes internal to the ocean, specifically, reduced coastal upwelling, diffusion, and enhanced horizontal transport of warmer water. These results highlight the need to better understand South Atlantic subtropical anticyclone and the continental thermal low interactions and their implications for present day climate variability and future climate change.

  2. Hydrographic observations in the western tropical and subtropical north atlantic ocean: Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) and western tropical atlantic experiment (WESTRAX) during 1990. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, E.; Wilburn, A.M.

    1993-03-01

    Data collected during the 1990 Atlantic Climate Change Program and the Western Tropical Atlantic Experiment were presented. The goals of the programs were to increase the understanding of the roles of the regional circulation and ocean circulation in global climate. Salinity, ocean temperature as a function of depth, and other hydrographic data were collected from shipborne platforms.

  3. Hydrographic observations in the western tropical and subtropical north atlantic ocean: Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) and western tropical atlantic experiment (WESTRAX) during 1991. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, E.; Wilburn, A.M.

    1993-03-01

    Data collected during the 1991 Atlantic Climate Change Program and the Western Tropical Atlantic Experiment were presented. The goals of the programs were to increase the understanding of the roles of regional circulation and ocean circulation in global climate. Salinity, ocean temperature as a function depth and other hydrographic data were collected from shipborne platforms.

  4. Monitoring the North Atlantic using ocean colour data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Yaco, C.; Caverhill, C.; Maass, H.; Porter, C.; White, GN, III

    2016-04-01

    The Remote Sensing Unit (RSU) at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO) has been monitoring the North Atlantic using ocean colour products for decades. Optical sensors used include CZCS, POLDER, SeaWiFS, MODIS/Aqua and MERIS. The monitoring area is defined by the Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program (AZMP) but certain products extend into Arctic waters, and all-Canadian waters which include the Pacific coast. RSU provides Level 3 images for various products in several formats and a range of temporal and spatial resolutions. Basic statistics for pre-defined areas of interest are compiled for each product. Climatologies and anomaly maps are also routinely produced, and custom products are delivered by request. RSU is involved in the generation of Level 4 products, such as characterizing the phenology of spring and fall phytoplankton blooms, computing primary production, using ocean colour to aid in EBSA (Ecologically and Biologically Significant Area) definition and developing habitat suitability maps. Upcoming operational products include maps of diatom distribution, biogeochemical province boundaries, and products from sensors such as VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite), OLCI (Ocean Land Colour Instrument), and PACE (Pre-Aerosol, Clouds and ocean Ecosystem) hyperspectral microsatellite mission.

  5. Quasi-stationary North Equatorial Undercurrent jets across the tropical North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Bo; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Chen, Shuiming; Kashino, Yuji

    2013-05-01

    Subthermocline circulation in the tropical North Pacific Ocean (2°N-30°N) is investigated using profiling float temperature-salinity data from the International Argo and the Origins of the Kuroshio and Mindanao Current (OKMC) projects. Three well-defined eastward jets are detected beneath the wind-driven, westward flowing North Equatorial Current. Dubbed the North Equatorial Undercurrent (NEUC) jets, these subthermocline jets have a typical core velocity of 2-5 cms-1 and are spatially coherent from the western boundary to about 120°W across the North Pacific basin. Centered around 9°N, 13°N, and 18°N in the western basin, the NEUC jet cores tend to migrate northward by ˜4° in the eastern basin. Vertically, the cores of the southern, central, and northern NEUC jets reside on the 26.9, 27.2, and 27.3 σθsurfaces, respectively, and they tend to shoal to lighter density surfaces, by about 0.2 σθ, as the jets progress eastward.

  6. Reduced Surface Ocean Temperature Variability in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific During the Late Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, H. L.; Ravelo, A. C.; Polissar, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the largest source of global interannual variability with far-reaching climatic effects. Climate model simulations of future warming exhibit widely divergent behavior indicating an incomplete understanding of the factors that dictate tropical climate variability. Generating records of past tropical Pacific variability during times with different climate states is one approach to deepening our understanding of tropical climate change processes and improving predictions of future change. Here we reconstruct tropical Pacific ocean variability from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and from the Holocene at ODP Sites 806 and 849, located in the western equatorial Pacific (WEP) warm pool and eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) cold tongue, respectively. We reconstruct ocean temperature variability using the intra-sample distribution of Mg/Ca values from individual foraminifera. Sea surface temperature variability is reconstructed from individual specimens of G. sacculifer analyzed for Mg/Ca values with laser ablation ICP-MS (Photon Machines Analyte.193 with HelEx sample cell coupled with a Thermo ElementXS ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS). Subsurface temperature variability is reconstructed from individual specimens of G. tumida analyzed for Mg/Ca values by ICP-OES. Our results indicate that the cooling of last glacial maximum SSTs was greater in the WEP compared to the EEP. Furthermore, we show this cooling is not an artifact of changes in seasonal or interannual foraminiferal fluxes, but rather, reflects overall cooler temperatures and thus changes in seasonal/interannual heat fluxes. At Site 806 in the WEP, variability during the Holocene and LGM was similar, suggesting the cooling was a direct response to pCO2-radiative forcing. In contrast, at Site 849, sea surface temperature variability during the LGM was greatly diminished in comparison to the Holocene suggesting reduced ENSO and seasonal variability. Therefore conditions in the EEP responded to both

  7. Oceanic δ15N biogeography: a novel top-down approach to examine nutrient dynamics in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, B. S.; Fry, B.; Popp, B. N.; Allain, V.; Olson, R.; Galvan, F.

    2010-12-01

    By mapping the δ15N and δ13C values of three top-level pelagic predators, yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), bigeye (T. obesus), and skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) tuna throughout the equatorial Pacific Ocean, we demonstrated systematic geographic isotopic variation (up to ~12‰ for the δ15N values) that reflect nutrient dynamics that occur at the base of the food web. Remarkably the variation observed in the δ15N values of the tunas is geographically similar to δ15N values previously reported in surface particulate organic matter and deep-sea sediments in the tropical Pacific. We discuss the mechanisms occurring at the base of the food web that could produce the spatial variability observed in tropical tuna δ15N values. We present a simple Rayleigh fractionation model that can explain much of the spatial structure. We also discuss the temporal stability in the isotopic compositions at the base and top of the food web. Overall, this nitrogen isotope cartography or “isoscapes” suggests nitrogen is tightly retained in the marine food web, up to the top predators, and that the uptake of nitrate from the equatorial upwelling zone, denitrification in the oxygen minimum zones, and nitrogen fixation at the base of the food web play major roles in the observed geographical variation. In addition to providing insight into the nutrient dynamics of the open ocean, these predator isoscapes can begin to be used to characterize regional residency in tropical tunas, which is important for the successful management of tuna fisheries.

  8. Global change across the Oligocene-Miocene transition: High-resolution stable isotope records from IODP Site U1334 (equatorial Pacific Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddow, Helen M.; Liebrand, Diederik; Sluijs, Appy; Wade, Bridget S.; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2016-01-01

    The Oligocene-Miocene transition (OMT) (~23 Ma) is interpreted as a transient global cooling event, associated with a large-scale Antarctic ice sheet expansion. Here we present a 2.23 Myr long high-resolution (~3 kyr) benthic foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope (δ18O and δ13C) record from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1334 (eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean), covering the interval from 21.91 to 24.14 Ma. To date, five other high-resolution benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stratigraphies across this time interval have been published, showing a ~1‰ increase in benthic foraminiferal δ18O across the OMT. However, these records are still few and spatially limited and no clear understanding exists of the global versus local imprints. We show that trends and the amplitudes of change are similar at Site U1334 as in other high-resolution stable isotope records, suggesting that these represent global deep water signals. We create a benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stack across the OMT by combining Site U1334 with records from ODP Sites 926, 929, 1090, 1264, and 1218 to best approximate the global signal. We find that isotopic gradients between sites indicate interbasinal and intrabasinal variabilities in deep water masses and, in particular, note an offset between the equatorial Atlantic and the equatorial Pacific, suggesting that a distinct temperature gradient was present during the OMT between these deep water masses at low latitudes. A convergence in the δ18O values between infaunal and epifaunal species occurs between 22.8 and 23.2 Ma, associated with the maximum δ18O excursion at the OMT, suggesting climatic changes associated with the OMT had an effect on interspecies offsets of benthic foraminifera. Our data indicate a maximum glacioeustatic sea level change of ~50 m across the OMT.

  9. Terrigenous Fe input and biogenic sedimentation in the glacial and interglacial equatorial Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.W.; Leinen, M.; Knowlton, C.W.

    1995-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the relationship of particulate iron from land erosion to the accumulation of biogenic matter in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Sediment cores representing the last six glacial-interglacial cycles and previously published mineralogic records were used as data input. Total iron, terrigenous, and biogenic components were determined for three sediment cores. The study determined that there is no relationship between terrigenous iron input and sedimentary carbon sequestering. This is based on chemical, spectral, and stratigraphic anlyses which showed: (1) no consistent pattern of terrigenous input during glacial or interglacial periods, (2) a close relationshipe between the accumulation of particulate iron and the accumulation of terrigenous matter, (3) no coherent spectral correlations between glacial periodicity and iron input, (4) an inverse correlation of iron input and calcium carbonate, and (5) no spectral or linear relationship between iron accumulation and calcium carbonate, organic carbon, or opal. 55 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Dynamic interpretation of space shuttle photographs: Deepwater internal waves in the western equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Klemas, Vic; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    1995-01-01

    Visible images of deep-ocean internal waves in the western equatorial Indian Ocean taken by the space shuttle Atlantis during mission STS 44 in 1991 are interpreted and analyzed. The internal waves occurred in the form of a multisoliton packet in which there are about a dozen solitons. The average wavelength of the solitons is 1.8 +/- 0.5 km, ranging from 1.1 to 2.6 km. The crest lines are mostly straight and reach as long as 100 km. The distance between two adjacent packets is about 66 km. Using the deepwater soliton theory, we derived that the mean amplitude of the solitons is 25 m, the nonlinear phase speed is 1.7 m/s, and the average period is 18 min. The internal semidiurnal tides are the principal generating mechanism. The oblique collision of two multisoliton packets shown on photograph STS 44-93-103 is examined. The results show that the deep-ocean internal waves obey the general properties of soliton collision. The leading solitons and a few followers exhibit some properties of inelastic collision characterized by a phase shift, and the rest of the solitons exhibits properties of elastic collision under resonance conditions.

  11. Oceanic Situational Awareness over the North Atlantic Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfield, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the oceanic domain. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the North Atlantic Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  12. Dissolved and Particulate 230Th - 232Th systematics in the Central Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, G. I.; Marcantonio, F.

    2013-12-01

    To complement our work in the eastern Equatorial Pacific, we have measured total and dissolved 230Th and 232Th in the central Equatorial Pacific at two sites, one at 8°N and the other at the equator (ML1208-03CTD; 00° 13.166' S, 155° 57.668' W and ML1208-12CTD; 8° 19.989' N, 159° 18.000' W). The two seawater casts were collected in May 2012 during an NSF-funded "Line Islands" cruise to test for the extent of advection or diffusion of dissolved 230Th from the oligotrophic North Pacific gyre (low particle flux) to the more productive equatorial region (high particle flux). Our thorium results are similar to previous data published for the western and central North Pacific Ocean. Dissolved 230Th concentrations range from 1.1 fg/kg at 100 m to 30.8 fg/kg at 4400 m, while dissolved 232Th concentrations span from 8.1 pg/kg at 900 m to 19.7 pg/kg at 4400 m. The pattern of the dissolved 230Th profile at 8°N is essentially linear from the surface to 2000 m. From 2000 m to 3000 m, the dissolved 230Th concentrations are constant, and then from 3000 m to the bottom, the profile is linear again. At the same site, the particulate fraction of the total seawater 230Th increases exponentially from about 0% at the surface to 38% at 4400 m. From 0 to 3000 m at 8°N, dissolved 232Th concentrations display a relatively constant pattern (variability of about 20%). From 3000 m to 4400 m, dissolved 232Th contents are more variable, but generally increase toward greater depths. The proportion of 232Th in the particulate fraction of the total seawater sample increases exponentially with depth to a value of 58% in the bottommost sample. We will present additional data from the equator and assess the particulate dynamics that control the distribution of thorium isotopes in central equatorial Pacific seawater.

  13. Quantification of dissolved iron sources to the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Conway, Tim M; John, Seth G

    2014-07-10

    Dissolved iron is an essential micronutrient for marine phytoplankton, and its availability controls patterns of primary productivity and carbon cycling throughout the oceans. The relative importance of different sources of iron to the oceans is not well known, however, and flux estimates from atmospheric dust, hydrothermal vents and oceanic sediments vary by orders of magnitude. Here we present a high-resolution transect of dissolved stable iron isotope ratios (δ(56)Fe) and iron concentrations ([Fe]) along a section of the North Atlantic Ocean. The different iron sources can be identified by their unique δ(56)Fe signatures, which persist throughout the water column. This allows us to calculate the relative contribution from dust, hydrothermal venting and reductive and non-reductive sedimentary release to the dissolved phase. We find that Saharan dust aerosol is the dominant source of dissolved iron along the section, contributing 71-87 per cent of dissolved iron. Additional sources of iron are non-reductive release from oxygenated sediments on the North American margin (10-19 per cent), reductive sedimentary dissolution on the African margin (1-4 per cent) and hydrothermal venting at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (2-6 per cent). Our data also indicate that hydrothermal vents in the North Atlantic are a source of isotopically light iron, which travels thousands of kilometres from vent sites, potentially influencing surface productivity. Changes in the relative importance of the different iron sources through time may affect interactions between the carbon cycle and climate. PMID:25008528

  14. Fennerosquilla heptacantha (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae) in South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lucatelli, Débora

    2015-01-01

    Fennerosquilla is a monotypic genus that belongs to the family Squillidae, which has the highest generic diversity within Stomatopoda. This genus has been recorded in the north Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, between 105 and 458 m depth. The present specimen was collected during the project "Avaliação da Biota Bentônica e Planctônica na porção offshore das Bacias Potiguar e Ceará", in 2011, from the continental slope region of Brazil. In this expedition Fennerosquilla heptacantha was found at 178-193 m depth, and represents the first record of the species in the south Atlantic Ocean (Rio Grande do Norte State, northeastern Brazil), expanding the southern limit distribution. The specimen is the largest recorded, measuring 149 mm total length. The pigmentation zone on median region of telson and all diagnostic characters are still preserved and agree with the original description. Fennerosquilla heptacantha has a disjunct deep water distribution (more than 100 m) in the tropical western Atlantic, mostly along the continental slope. PMID:26624302

  15. Suspended particulate loads and transports in the nepheloid layer of the abyssal Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biscaye, P.E.; Eittreim, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical profiles of light scattering from over 1000 L-DGO nephelometer stations in the Atlantic Ocean have been used to calculate mass concentrations of suspended particles based on a calibration from the western North American Basin. From these data are plotted the distributions of particulate concentrations at clear water and in the more turbid near-bottom water. Clear water is the broad minimum in concentration and light scattering that occurs at varying mid-depths in the water column. Concentrations at clear water are as much as one-to-two orders of magnitude lower than those in surface water but still reflect a similar geographic distribution: relatively higher concentrations at ocean margins, especially underneath upwelling areas, and the lowest concentrations underneath central gyre areas. These distributions within the clear water reflect surface-water biogenic productivity, lateral injection of particles from shelf areas and surface circulation patterns and require that the combination of downward vertical and horizontal transport processes of particles retain this pattern throughout the upper water column. Below clear water, the distribution of standing crops of suspended particulate concentrations in the lower water column are presented. The integration of mass of all particles per unit area (gross particulate standing crop) reflects a relative distribution similar to that at the surface and at clear water levels, superimposed on which is the strong imprint of boundary currents along the western margins of the Atlantic. Reducing the gross particulate standing crop by the integral of the concentration of clear water yields a net particulate standing crop. The distribution of this reflects primarily the interaction of circulating abyssal waters with the ocean bottom, i.e. a strong nepheloid layer which is coincident with western boundary currents and which diminishes in intensity equatorward. The resuspended particulate loads in the nepheloid layer of the

  16. FERROMANGANESE CRUST RESOURCES IN THE PACIFIC AND ATLANTIC OCEANS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, R.F.; Clark, A.; Johnson, Chad; Manheim, F. T.; Aruscavage, P. J.; Lane, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Ferromanganese crusts on raised areas of the ocean floor have joined abyssal manganese nodules and hydrothermal sulfides as potential marine resources. Significant volumes of cobalt-rich (about 1% Co) crusts have been identified to date within the US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the Central Pacific: in the NW Hawaiian Ridge and Seamount region and in the seamounts in the Johnston Island and Palmyra Island regions. Large volumes of lower grade crusts, slabs, and nodules are also present in shallow ( greater than 1000 m) waters on the Blake plateau, off Florida-South Carolina in the Atlantic Ocean. Data on ferromanganese crusts have been increased by recent German and USGS cruises, but are still sparse, and other regions having crust potential are under current investigation. The authors discuss economic potentials for cobalt-rich crusts in the Central Pacific and Western North Atlantic oceans, with special reference to US EEZ areas. Additional research is needed before more quantitative resource estimates can be made.

  17. Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Media and photographers get a close-up view of the Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule after its recovery from the Atlantic Ocean floor where it lay for 38 years. Launched July 21, 1961, the capsule made a successful 16-minute suborbital flight, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, and splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the ocean floor, until now. Curt Newport, an underwater salvage expert, located the capsule through modern technology, and after one abortive attempt, successfully raised it and brought it to Port Canaveral. The recovery of Liberty Bell 7 fulfilled a 14-year dream for the expedition leader. The expedition was sponsored by the Discovery Channel. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.

  18. Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Media and spectators get a close-up view of the Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule after its recovery from the Atlantic Ocean floor where it lay for 38 years. Launched July 21, 1961, the capsule made a successful 16-minute suborbital flight, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, and splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the ocean floor, until now. Curt Newport, an underwater salvage expert, located the capsule through modern technology, and after one abortive attempt, successfully raised it and brought it to Port Canaveral. The recovery of Liberty Bell 7 fulfilled a 14-year dream for the expedition leader. The expedition was sponsored by the Discovery Channel. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.

  19. Changes in the East-West contrast of the upper equatorial Pacific Ocean over the last 10 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselle, Gabrielle; Beltran, Catherine; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; de Rafélis, Marc; Schouten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents new data of the past 10 Ma climate in the Equatorial Pacific. Combining UK'37 and TEX86-derived temperatures as well as carbon and oxygen isotope of calcifying planktonic species living in surface and subsurface waters at the IODP site U1338 (Eastern Equatorial Pacific) and 806 (Western Equatorial Pacific) we investigate the temporal evolution of the zonal gradient across the equatorial Pacific. This multi-proxy approach is used to reconstruct changes in the asymmetric pattern between the Eastern and Western Equatorial Pacific surface and thermocline depth waters. Based on the cross-analysis of our data and those available in the literature we propose a schematic view of long-term La Niña- and El Niño-like alternations from the upper Miocene in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. We suggest a general shoaling of the thermocline along the equator from about 11 Ma ago demonstrate that this shoaling is linked to the equatorial upwelling and the establishment of the Eastern Pacific Cold tongue particularly discernible during three time intervals referring to La Niña-like periods (11.5 - 9 Ma, 6.8 - 6 Ma and 4.8 - 1.4 Ma). Our study also reveals intervals of weakened oceanic circulation during El Niño-like periods (9 - 6.8 Ma and 6 - 4.8 Ma). The role of global ice sheet, the Indonesian seaway restriction and the Central American seaway closure as driving factors of the observed changes are discussed.

  20. Response of the surface tropical Atlantic Ocean to wind forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Paola; Pelegrí, Josep L.; Campos, Edmo J. D.; Rosell-Fieschi, Miquel; Gasser, Marc

    2015-05-01

    We use 10 years of satellite data (sea level pressure, surface winds and absolute dynamic topography [ADT]) together with Argo-inferred monthly-mean values of near-surface velocity and water transport, to examine how the tropical system of near-surface zonal currents responds to wind forcing. The data is analyzed using complex Hilbert empirical orthogonal functions, confirming that most of the variance has annual periodicity, with maximum amplitudes in the region spanned by the seasonal displacement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The ADT mirrors the shape of the upper isopycnals, hence becoming a good indicator of the amount of water stored in the upper ocean. Within about 3° from the Equator, where the Coriolis force is small, there is year-long meridional Ekman-transport divergence that would lead to the eastward transport of the Equatorial Undercurrent and its northern and southern branches. Beyond 3° of latitude, and at least as far as 20°, the convergence of the Ekman transport generally causes a poleward positive ADT gradient, which sustains the westward South Equatorial Current (SEC). The sole exception occurs in summer, between 8°N and 12°N, when an Ekman-transport divergence develops and depletes de amount of surface water, resulting in an ADT ridge-valley system which reverses the ADT gradient and drives the eastward North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) at latitudes 4-9°N; in late fall, divergence ceases and the NECC drains the ADT ridge, so the ADT gradient again becomes positive and the SEC reappears. The seasonal evolution of a tilted ITCZ controls the surface water fluxes: the wind-induced transports set the surface divergence-convergence, which then drive the ADT and, through the ADT gradients, create the geostrophic jets that close the water balance.

  1. Heat Recharge of the Equatorial Ocean: from ENSO to Decadal Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. V.; Muir, L.; Di Nezio, P. N.

    2012-12-01

    A key element of ENSO dynamics is heat recharge of the equatorial ocean that typically occurs prior to El Niño events. This recharge is evident in the observations and is included into conceptual models of ENSO, such as the recharge oscillator (Jin 1997, Meinen and McPhaden 2000). The focus of the present study is the phase lag between ocean heat recharge (measured as variations in upper ocean heat content along the equator) and variations in the Nino3 SST. First, from a theoretical perspective using the low-frequency approximation (Fedorov 2010), we derive a simple analytical expression for the phase lag that depends on the characteristic frequency of the oscillation, the meridional structure of wind stress anomalies, and oceanic damping. In a realistic parameter range, the phase lag given by the theory approaches 60° for an oscillation with a 4-year period, which on average agrees well with the observations. We next explore the dependence of this phase lag in CMIP5 models. We show that while some of those models do reproduce a reasonable phase lag in the interannual frequency band, many models simulate a lag significantly shorter or longer than observed (±60%). Further, the theory and observations predict a longer phase lag, ~90°, for decadal timescales. Only a few coupled models are able to capture this behavior, whereas other models produce a much shorter phase lag, and some produce a phase lag close to zero. These results suggest several types of dynamical behavior of tropical decadal variability in different models - from a dynamical mode similar to ENSO to purely damped mixed-layer variability. We conclude that differences in the simulated phase lag on timescales from interannual to decadal contribute to the broad diversity of simulated ENSO and decadal variability, as well as different prediction skills of the models.

  2. The Southern Oscillation in Surface Circulation and Climate over the Tropical Atlantic, Eastern Pacific, and Indian Oceans as Captured by Cluster Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Klaus

    1987-04-01

    Clusters of sea level pressure (SLP), surface wind, cloudiness, and sea surface temperature (SST) in the domain of the tropical Atlantic, eastern Pacific, and Indian Oceans are introduced and discussed in terms of general circulation and climate. They appear to capture well the large-scale degrees of freedom of the seasonal fields. In the Atlantic and, to a lesser extent, in the eastern Pacific, most analyzed fields group into zonally oriented `trade wind' clusters. These are separated distinctly by the near-equatorial trough axis. By contrast the Indian Ocean features strong interhemispheric connections associated with the monsoon systems of boreal summer and, to a lesser degree, of boreal winter.The usefulness of clusters thus established is elucidated with respect to the Southern Oscilation (SO). General circulation changes associated with this planetary pressure seesaw are deduced from correlation maps of surface field clusters for January/February and July/August. During the positive SO phase (i.e., anomalously high pressure over the eastern Pacific and anomalously low pressure over Indonesia), both the Atlantic and eastern Pacific near-equatorial troughs are inferred to be shifted towards the north from July/August SLP, wind, and cloudiness fields. While eastern Pacific trade winds are weakened in both seasons in the positive SO phase, the Atlantic trades appear strengthened at the same time in the winter hemisphere only. Over the Indian Ocean, the monsoon circulation seems to be strengthened during the positive SO phase, with the summer monsoon displaying a more complex picture. Its SLP, cloudiness and SST fields support an enhanced southwest monsoon, while its surface winds appear largely inconclusive. SST is lowered during the positive SO phase in all three tropical oceans.Since all major tropical circulation components over the Atlantic, eastern Pacific, and Indian Ocean participate in the Southern Oscillation, as is evidenced by field significance tests

  3. Atlantic Ocean forcing of North American and European summer climate.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Rowan T; Hodson, Daniel L R

    2005-07-01

    Recent extreme events such as the devastating 2003 European summer heat wave raise important questions about the possible causes of any underlying trends, or low-frequency variations, in regional climates. Here, we present new evidence that basin-scale changes in the Atlantic Ocean, probably related to the thermohaline circulation, have been an important driver of multidecadal variations in the summertime climate of both North America and western Europe. Our findings advance understanding of past climate changes and also have implications for decadal climate predictions. PMID:15994552

  4. North Atlantic Deep Water and the World Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) by being warmer and more saline than the average abyssal water parcel introduces heat and salt into the abyssal ocean. The source of these properties is upper layer or thermocline water considered to occupy the ocean less dense than sigma-theta of 27.6. That NADW convects even though it's warmer than the abyssal ocean is obviously due to the high salinity. In this way, NADW formation may be viewed as saline convection. The counter force removing heat and salinity (or introducing fresh water) is usually considered to to take place in the Southern Ocean where upwelling deep water is converted to cold fresher Antarctic water masses. The Southern ocean convective process is driven by low temperatures and hence may be considered as thermal convection. A significant fresh water source may also occur in the North Pacific where the northward flowing of abyssal water from the Southern circumpolar belt is saltier and denser than the southward flowing, return abyssal water. The source of the low salinity input may be vertical mixing of the low salinity surface water or the low salinity intermediate water.

  5. Atmospheric deposition of methanol over the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingxi; Nightingale, Philip D.; Beale, Rachael; Liss, Peter S.; Blomquist, Byron; Fairall, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In the troposphere, methanol (CH3OH) is present ubiquitously and second in abundance among organic gases after methane. In the surface ocean, methanol represents a supply of energy and carbon for marine microbes. Here we report direct measurements of air–sea methanol transfer along a ∼10,000-km north–south transect of the Atlantic. The flux of methanol was consistently from the atmosphere to the ocean. Constrained by the aerodynamic limit and measured rate of air–sea sensible heat exchange, methanol transfer resembles a one-way depositional process, which suggests dissolved methanol concentrations near the water surface that are lower than what were measured at ∼5 m depth, for reasons currently unknown. We estimate the global oceanic uptake of methanol and examine the lifetimes of this compound in the lower atmosphere and upper ocean with respect to gas exchange. We also constrain the molecular diffusional resistance above the ocean surface—an important term for improving air–sea gas exchange models. PMID:24277830

  6. Interplay between evaporation radiation, and ocean mixing in the regulation of equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, R.

    1995-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) regulation in the tropical oceans is an important aspect of global climate change. It has been observed that SST in the equatorial zone has not exceeded 304K over, at least, the past 10,000 years, and probably longer. Furthermore, recent satellite observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) suggest that the greenhouse effect associated with mesoscale organized convection increases with increasing SST at a rate faster than this energy can be re-radiated to space. This suggests that a runaway greenhouse effect is possible in those parts of the tropical oceans where mesoscale convective systems (MCS) are prevalent. However, this is not observed. A search for mechanism(s) which can account for SST regulation is underway. Observational and theoretical evidence exists to suggest the importance of other feedback mechanisms as opposed to the cirrus shading and `super greenhouse effect` supported by the thermostat hypothesis. At least some of the time warm SSTs are associated with low wind speeds and low SSTs follow periods of high wind speed. 2 figs.

  7. Glacial deep ocean sequestration of CO2 driven by the eastern equatorial Pacific biologic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, Whitney; Marchitto, Thomas M.

    2013-09-01

    The potential influence of low latitude ocean primary productivity on glacial atmospheric carbon dioxide levels has proven challenging to deduce using mass accumulation rates (MARs) of biogenic particulates in deep sea sediment cores. Benthic foraminiferal B/Ca serves as a proxy for past seawater calcite saturation state, and thereby provides a fresh perspective on this outstanding paleoceanographic problem. Here we employ Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi B/Ca in the Panama Basin region of the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) to investigate the nature of deep tropical Pacific carbon storage over the past 50 ka BP. We present evidence for persistently lower deep Panama Basin calcite saturation state, reflecting an increase in total carbon dioxide storage, during the last ice age relative to the Holocene. These results reflect the modification of inflowing deep waters by overlying export productivity, and support the concept of an invigorated glacial EEP soft-tissue pump possibly driven by oceanic nutrient (iron and silica) redistribution. Benthic Cibicidoides spp. carbon-13 is consistent with this conclusion by exhibiting substantially lighter values during glacial time, reflecting the accumulation of metabolic carbon dioxide in the deep tropical Pacific. Counterintuitively, downcore application of the Globorotalia menardii calcite fragmentation index (MFI) reveals enhanced glacial sedimentary calcite preservation in the Panama Basin. Together these results point towards a systematic decoupling of bottom water chemistry from biogenic burial fluxes: the crux of the aforementioned traditional paleoproductivity problem.

  8. Glacial deep ocean sequestration of CO2 driven by the eastern equatorial Pacific biologic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, W. C.; Marchitto, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    The potential influence of low latitude ocean primary productivity on glacial atmospheric carbon dioxide levels has proven challenging to deduce using mass accumulation rates (MARs) of biogenic particulates in deep sea sediment cores. Benthic foraminiferal B/Ca serves as a proxy for past seawater calcite saturation state,and thereby provides a fresh perspective on this outstanding paleoceanographic problem. Here we employ Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi B/Ca in the Panama Basin region of the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) to investigate the nature of deep tropical Pacific carbon storage over the past 50 ka BP. We present evidence for persistently lower deep Panama Basin calcite saturation state, reflecting an increase in total carbon dioxide storage, during the last ice age relative to the Holocene. These results reflect the modification of inflowing deep waters by overlying export productivity, and support the concept of an invigorated glacial EEP soft-tissue pump possibly driven by oceanic nutrient (iron and silica) redistribution. Benthic Cibicidoides spp. carbon-13 is consistent with this conclusion by exhibiting substantially lighter values during glacial time, reflecting the accumulation of metabolic carbon dioxide in the deep tropical Pacific. Counterintuitively, downcore application of the Globorotalia menardii calcite fragmentation index (MFI) reveals enhanced glacial sedimentary calcite preservation in the Panama Basin. Together these results point towards a systematic decoupling of bottom water chemistry from biogenic burial fluxes: the crux of the aforementioned traditional paleoproductivity problem.

  9. The tropical Atlantic Ocean as a Source of atmospheric Nitrous Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bange, H. W.; Walter, S.; Wallace, D. W.

    2003-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) was measured as part of the first German SOLAS (Surface Ocean - Lower Atmosphere Study) cruise M55 from Willemstad (Curacao, Netherl. Antilles) to Douala (Cameroon) on board R/V Meteor from 12 Oct to 17 Nov 2002. About 950 atmospheric and dissolved N2O measurements were preformed with a continuous-working GC-ECD system equipped with a Weiss-type seawater-gas equilibrator. Surface waters along the main transect at 10°N showed no distinct longitudinal gradient. Instead, N2O saturations were highly variable ranging from 96% (e.g. at 10°N, 45°W) to 120% (e.g. in the Guinea Dome Area, 10°N, 20°W). N2O concentrations in the northernmost boundary of the Amazon outflow were close to equilibrium values. When approaching the continental shelf of West Africa, surface waters N2O saturations were continuously supersaturated (up to 15%). N2O saturations in the region of the equatorial upwelling (at 1.5 0°N, 26 23.5° W) were correlated with lower sea surface temperatures and showed saturations up to 110%. The overall mean N2O saturation was 104 ± 2 % indicating that the tropical Atlantic Ocean is only a weak source of atmospheric N2O.

  10. Polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity patterns at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Mark A.; Blanco-Perez, Raimundo

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in the North Atlantic Ocean accounts for a large proportion of available bathyal soft-sediment habitat. When comparing the MAR to the continental margins of the North Atlantic, it is apparent that very little is known about the soft-sediment macrofaunal community associated with the MAR. In the present study, as part of the ECOMAR (Ecosystems of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the Sub-Polar Front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone) project, the polychaete component of the MAR macrofaunal community was investigated. A total of 751 polychaete specimens and 133 species were identified from megacorer samples collected at four MAR sites (48-54°N, depth: 2500-2800 m) sampled during the RRS James Cook 48 cruise in the summer of 2010. Polychaetes were the most abundant member of the macrofaunal community, and there was no significant difference in polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity between any of the MAR sites. In addition, the MAR did not appear to provide a physical barrier to the distribution of bathyal polychaetes either side of the ridge.

  11. Correcting North Atlantic sea surface salinity biases in the Kiel Climate Model: influences on ocean circulation and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, T.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing problem in climate models is the large sea surface salinity (SSS) biases in the North Atlantic. In this study, we describe the influences of correcting these SSS biases on the circulation of the North Atlantic as well as on North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal to multidecadal variability. We performed integrations of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) with and without applying a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic. The quality of simulating the mean circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability is greatly enhanced in the freshwater flux-corrected integration which, by definition, depicts relatively small North Atlantic SSS biases. In particular, a large reduction in the North Atlantic cold sea surface temperature bias is observed and a more realistic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability simulated. Improvements relative to the non-flux corrected integration also comprise a more realistic representation of deep convection sites, sea ice, gyre circulation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The results suggest that simulations of North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability could strongly benefit from alleviating sea surface salinity biases in the North Atlantic, which may enhance the skill of decadal predictions in that region.

  12. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Western Atlantic Track Routing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Western Atlantic Track Routing System (WATRS). The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the WATRS corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  13. Pathways of Atlantic Waters into the Arctic Ocean: Eddy-permitting ocean and sea ice simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wekerle, Claudia; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Danilov, Sergey; Jung, Thomas; Kanzow, Torsten; Schauer, Ursula; Timmermann, Ralph; Wang, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    Fram Strait is the only deep gateway connecting the central Arctic with the North Atlantic. Boundary currents on each side are responsible for the exchange of water masses between the Arctic and North Atlantic. The East Greenland Current (EGC) carries fresh and cold Arctic waters and sea ice southward, whereas the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) carries warm Atlantic Waters (AW) into the Arctic Ocean. The complex topography in Fram Strait leads to a branching of the northward flowing WSC, with one branch recirculating between 78°N and 81°N which then joins the EGC. To date, the dynamics as well as the precise location of this recirculation are unclear. The goal of this research project is to quantify the amount and variability of AW which recirculates immediately in Fram Strait, and to investigate the role of atmospheric forcing and oceanic meso-scale eddies for the recirculation. We use simulations carried out with a global configuration of the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) at eddy-permitting scales. The advantage of this model is the finite element discretization of the governing equations, which allows us to locally refine the mesh in areas of interest and keep it coarse in other parts of the global oceans without the need for traditional nesting. Here we will show the first results of the model validation. The model has ~9 km resolution in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait and 1 deg south of 50°N. We assess the model capabilities in simulating the ocean circulation in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait by comparing with the available observational data, e.g. with data from the Fram Strait oceanographic mooring array. The ocean volume and heat transport from the Atlantic Ocean into the Nordic Seas and at the Fram Strait are analyzed. Our results show that the model can capture some of the observed key ocean properties in our region of interest, while some tuning is required to further improve the model. In the next phase of this project we will focus

  14. Physical supply of nitrogen to phytoplankton in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffey, Claire; Williams, Richard G.; Wolff, George A.; Anderson, William T.

    2004-03-01

    Mechanisms supplying nitrogen (N) to phytoplankton, and thus constraining the levels of export production, over the oligotrophic subtropical Atlantic are assessed along a meridional transect. Stable nitrogen isotope signals reveal a localized region of N2 fixation over the northern subtropical gyre. Elsewhere, particulate organic nitrogen was isotopically enriched and there was no widespread evidence of a trophic bias. Thus phytoplankton are utilizing an enriched source of N along the transect through much of the oligotrophic Atlantic, which may reflect utilization of nitrate from the deep ocean or, possibly, a supply of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from a non-N2 fixing source. While there is a significant supply of DON over the subtropical gyres, reaching 0.15 mol Nm-2 yr-1, less than 10% of the DON is semilabile and thus only implies a relatively small contribution to the nitrogen supply required for export production. Over the central part of the subtropical gyres, the supply of N to phytoplankton is probably from nitrate in the underlying thermocline, possibly from convection and diapycnic transfer, or more likely, from finescale upwelling by mesoscale eddies and frontal circulations. The lateral supply of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) appears to be a factor of 2-3 times more important than the lateral supply of semilabile DON, and thus might play a role in contributing to the phosphorus (P) supply for phytoplankton. The lateral supply of DON and DOP might also be important in closing the N and P budgets over the North Atlantic.

  15. Estimating mixed layer nitrate in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, T.; Friedrich, T.; Hartman, S. E.; Oschlies, A.; Wallace, D. W. R.; Körtzinger, A.

    2009-09-01

    Here we present an equation for the estimation of nitrate in surface waters of the North Atlantic Ocean (40° N to 52° N, 10° W to 60° W). The equation was derived by multiple linear regression (MLR) from nitrate, sea surface temperature (SST) observational data and model mixed layer depth (MLD) data. The observational data were taken from merchant vessels that have crossed the North Atlantic on a regular basis in 2002/2003 and from 2005 to present. It is important to find a robust and realistic esitmate of MLD because the deepening of the mixed layer is crucial for nitrate supply to the surface. We compared model data from two models (FOAM and Mercator) with MLD derived from float data (using various criteria). The Mercator model gives a MLD estimate that is close to the MLD derived from floats. MLR was established using SST, MLD from Mercator, time and latitude as predictors. Additionally a neural network was trained with the same dataset and the results were validated against both model data as a "ground truth" and an independent observational dataset. This validation produced RMS errors of the same order for MLR and the neural network approach. We conclude that it is possible to estimate nitrate concentrations with an uncertainty of ±1.5 μmol L-1 in the North Atlantic.

  16. Estimating mixed layer nitrate in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, T.; Friedrich, T.; Hartman, S. E.; Oschlies, A.; Wallace, D. W. R.; Körtzinger, A.

    2010-03-01

    Here we present an equation for the estimation of nitrate in surface waters of the North Atlantic Ocean (40° N to 52° N, 10° W to 60° W). The equation was derived by multiple linear regression (MLR) from nitrate, sea surface temperature (SST) observational data and model mixed layer depth (MLD) data. The observational data were taken from merchant vessels that have crossed the North Atlantic on a regular basis in 2002/2003 and from 2005 to the present. It is important to find a robust and realistic estimate of MLD because the deepening of the mixed layer is crucial for nitrate supply to the surface. We compared model data from two models (FOAM and Mercator) with MLD derived from float data (using various criteria). The Mercator model gives a MLD estimate that is close to the MLD derived from floats. MLR was established using SST, MLD from Mercator, time and latitude as predictors. Additionally a neural network was trained with the same dataset and the results were validated against both model data as a "ground truth" and an independent observational dataset. This validation produced RMS errors of the same order for MLR and the neural network approach. We conclude that it is possible to estimate nitrate concentrations with an uncertainty of ±1.4 μmol L-1 in the North Atlantic.

  17. Variability of Zonal Currents in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean on Seasonal to Interannual Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyadjro, E. S.; McPhaden, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present results on the zonal current variations along the equator in the upper layers of eastern Indian Ocean in relation to variations in the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Our study utilizes data from the Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) and model outputs from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - Ocean Reanalysis System 4 (ECMWF-ORAS4) for 1960-2011. Surface currents are characterized by strong semi-annual eastward flowing Wyrtki jets in boreal spring and fall, forced by westerly monsoon transition winds along the equator. The fall jet intensifies during negative IOD (NIOD) events when westerlies are stronger than normal but significantly weakens during positive IOD (PIOD) events when westerlies are weaker than normal. Associated with weakened PIOD zonal wind stresses, sea surface height becomes unusually low in the eastern basin and high in the west, setting up an anomalous pressure force that drives increased eastward transport in the thermocline. In contrast, during NIOD events when equatorial westerlies and the normal zonal surface height gradient intensify, the eastward zonal current in the thermocline significantly weakens. A surface layer mass budget calculation for the eastern pole of the IOD indicates upwelling at a rate of ~2.9±0.7 Sv during normal periods, increasing by 40-50% during PIOD events and reducing to zero during NIOD events. IOD-related variations in Wyrtki jet and thermocline transports are major influences on these upwelling rates, which are consistent with observed sea surface temperature changes.

  18. Atmosphere-ocean linkages in the eastern equatorial Pacific over the early Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povea, Patricia; Cacho, Isabel; Moreno, Ana; Pena, Leopoldo D.; Menéndez, Melisa; Calvo, Eva; Canals, Miquel; Robinson, Rebecca S.; Méndez, Fernando J.; Flores, Jose-Abel

    2016-05-01

    Here we present a new set of high-resolution early Pleistocene records from the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP). Sediment composition from Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1240 and 1238 is used to reconstruct past changes in the atmosphere-ocean system. Particularly remarkable is the presence of laminated diatom oozes (LDOs) during glacial periods between 1.85 and 2.25 Ma coinciding with high fluxes of opal and total organic carbon. Relatively low lithic particles (coarse and poorly sorted) and iron fluxes during these glacial periods indicate that the increased diatom productivity did not result from dust-stimulated fertilization events. We argue that glacial fertilization occurred through the advection of nutrient-rich waters from the Southern Ocean. In contrast, glacial periods after 1.85 Ma are characterized by enhanced dust transport of finer lithic particles acting as a new source of nutrients in the EEP. The benthic ecosystem shows dissimilar responses to the high productivity recorded during glacial periods before and after 1.85 Ma, which suggests that the transport processes delivering organic matter to the deep sea also changed. Different depositional processes are interpreted to be the result of two distinct glacial positions of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Before 1.85 Ma, the ITCZ was above the equator, with weak local winds and enhanced wet deposition of dust. After 1.85 Ma, the glacial ITCZ was displaced northward, thus bringing stronger winds and stimulating upwelling in the EEP. The glacial period at 1.65 Ma with the most intense LDOs supports a rapid southward migration of the ITCZ comparable to those glacial periods before 1.85 Ma.

  19. Black carbon in deep-sea sediments from the northeastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Hyeong, K.; Yoo, C.

    2011-12-01

    Deep-sea sediment core is a good archive for understanding the land-ocean interactions via atmosphere, due to it is little influenced by fluvial and continental shelf processes. This study dealt with black carbon(BC) in a 328 cm-long piston core collected from the northeastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (16°12'N, 125°59'W), covering the last 15 Ma (Hyeong at al., 2004). BC is a common name of carbon continuum formed by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and plant materials. Though it may react with ozone and produce water-soluble organic carbon, BC has commonly refractory nature. Thus BC in preindustrial sediment can be a tracer of forest-fire events. BC is purely terrestrial in origin, and is transported to marine environments by atmospheric and fluvial processes. Therefore, distribution of BC in deep-sea sediments could be used to understand atmospheric circulation. Chemical oxidation was used to determine BC in this study following Lim and Cachier (1996). Concentration of BC varies from 0.010% to 0.233% of total sediments. Mass accumulation rate (MAR) of BC ranged between 0.077 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs and 47.49 mg/cm^21000 yrs. It is noted that MAR in sediments younger than 8 Ma (av. 9.0 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs) is higher than that in sediments older than 8 Ma (av. 3.2 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs). Stable carbon isotope value of BC increases with time from the low δ13C value near 13 Ma until it reaches the highest value near 4 Ma. Change of MAR seems to be related to the meridional migration of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) at around 8 Ma in the study area (cf., Hyeong at al., 2004). Accordingly, higher BC content in sediment younger than 8 Ma seems to be accounted for by its derivation from the Northern Hemisphere compared to that from the Southern Hemisphere in older sediment. Increase of carbon isotope value with time seems to be related to expansion of C4 grassland. C4 grassland expansion might have been caused by change of atmosphreic cycle, which moved dry subtropical

  20. Phase relations between orbital forcing and terrestrial response in the equatorial Atlantic over the last 10 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeden, C.; de Jonge, J.; Hilgen, F. J.; Lourens, L.

    2012-04-01

    Recently generated high resolution d18O and d13C data of benthic foraminifera (average temporal resolution <3 kyr) from Ceara Rise in the equatorial Atlantic (ODP Leg 154, Site 926) are presented for the interval between ~9 and ~10 Ma. We determine the precession and obliquity phases of this data relative to the orbital target, and compare our data with existing younger datasets from Ceara Rise. We further explore the effect of changing the tidal dissipation parameter on the phase relations for this time interval as the effects of tidal dissipation and/or dynamical ellipticity have so far hampered the construction of a high resolution tuned timescale for the Miocene. The research leading to these results has received funding from the [European Community's] Seventh Framework Programme ([FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° [215458]. This research used data provided by IODP. Funding for this research was provided by NWO.

  1. Neodymium isotopic composition and concentration in the western North Atlantic Ocean: Results from the GEOTRACES GA02 section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambelet, Myriam; van de Flierdt, Tina; Crocket, Kirsty; Rehkämper, Mark; Kreissig, Katharina; Coles, Barry; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.; Steinfeldt, Reiner

    2016-03-01

    The neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition of seawater is commonly used as a proxy to study past changes in the thermohaline circulation. The modern database for such reconstructions is however poor and the understanding of the underlying processes is incomplete. Here we present new observational data for Nd isotopes and concentrations from twelve seawater depth profiles, which follow the flow path of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) from its formation region in the North Atlantic to the northern equatorial Atlantic. Samples were collected during two cruises constituting the northern part of the Dutch GEOTRACES transect GA02 in 2010. The results show that the different water masses in the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean, which ultimately constitute NADW, have the following Nd isotope characteristics: Upper Labrador Sea Water (ULSW), εNd = -14.2 ± 0.3; Labrador Sea Water (LSW), εNd = -13.7 ± 0.9; Northeast Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW), εNd = -12.5 ± 0.6; Northwest Atlantic Bottom Water (NWABW), εNd = -11.8 ± 1.4. In the subtropics, where these source water masses have mixed to form NADW, which is exported to the global ocean, upper-NADW is characterised by εNd values of -13.2 ± 1.0 (2sd) and lower-NADW exhibits values of εNd = -12.4 ± 0.4 (2sd). While both signatures overlap within error, the signature for lower-NADW is significantly more radiogenic than the traditionally used value for NADW (εNd = -13.5) due to the dominance of source waters from the Nordic Seas (NWABW and NEADW). Comparison between the concentration profiles and the corresponding Nd isotope profiles with other water mass properties such as salinity, silicate concentrations, neutral densities and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentration provides novel insights into the geochemical cycle of Nd and reveals that different processes are necessary to account for the observed Nd characteristics in the subpolar and subtropical gyres and throughout the vertical water column. While our data set

  2. Linear and Non-Linear Contribution in the Generation of Yanai Waves in the Western Equatorial Indian Ocean (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Shankar, D.; McCreary, J. P.; Vinayachandran, P. N.

    2013-12-01

    More than two decades ago, Kindle and Thompson (1989; JGR, volume 94, 4721-4736) showed that in the western equatorial Indian Ocean (WEIO) at periods less than a month could be generated in an ocean model, even though the monthly-mean winds used to force the model did not resolve these shorter time scales. The authors speculated that the 26-day variability consisted of Yanai waves that were excited by instabilities in Southern Gyre (SG) Current system. Just how the instabilities, which are generated north of the equator, can trigger equatorial waves has remained an unresolved question. Here, we use models to analyze the processes associated with the generation of WEIO Yanai waves, and find that both winds and eddies associated with SG contribute. We demonstrate that Yanai waves are forced by the meridional wind stress everywhere in the WEIO, most strongly during the monsoon seasons. They are forced both directly in the interior ocean and by reflection of the interior response from the western boundary; interference between the interior and boundary responses results in a complex surface pattern, that both propagates eastward and has offshore nodes. We also show that off-equatorial eddies associated with the SG current system force Yanai waves only when the eddies are advected across the equator in a region offshore from the western boundary (52-55E) during June/July. There, they generate a westward-propagating, cross-equatorial flow field, Veq , with a wave number/frequency spectrum that fits the dispersion relation of a number of Yanai waves, and it is these waves that are efficiently excited. The implications of this study are twofold. First, the major part of the Yanai wave response in the WEIO, which is the most unstable region in IO, is forced by the wind not the instabilities. Second, we provide an answer to the two-decade-old question of how off-equatorial instabilities can force equatorial waves; this connection between the nonlinear eddies and the linear

  3. Covariances and linear predictability of the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, Carl

    2013-01-01

    The problem of understanding linear predictability of elements of the ocean circulation is explored in the Atlantic Ocean for two disparate elements: (1) sea surface temperature (SST) under the storm track in a small region east of the Grand Banks and, (2) the meridional overturning circulation north of 30.5°S. To be worthwhile, any nonlinear method would need to exhibit greater skill, and so a rough baseline from which to judge more complex methods is the goal. A 16-year ocean state estimate is used, under the assumption that internal oceanic variability is dominating externally imposed changes. No evidence exists of significant nonlinearity in the bulk of the system over this time span. Linear predictability is the story of time and space correlations, and some predictive skill exists for a few months in SST, with some minor capability extending to a few years. Sixteen years is, however, far too short for an evaluation for interannual, much less decadal, variability, although orders of magnitude are likely stably estimated. The meridional structure of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), defined as the time-varying vertical integral to the maximum meridional volume transport at each latitude, shows nearly complete decorrelation in the variability across about 35°N—the Gulf Stream system. If a time-scale exists displaying coherence of the MOC between subpolar and subtropical gyres, it lies beyond the existing observation duration, and that has consequences for observing system strategies and the more general problem of detectability of change.

  4. 78 FR 39995 - Safety Zone; Margate Mother's Association Fireworks Display, Atlantic Ocean; Margate, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... Display, Atlantic Ocean; Margate, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in Margate, NJ. The...

  5. 33 CFR 334.525 - Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off John...

  6. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  7. 33 CFR 334.130 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. 334.130 Section 334.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.130 Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. (a) The...

  8. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  9. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  10. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  11. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  12. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  13. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  14. 33 CFR 334.525 - Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off John...

  15. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  16. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  17. 33 CFR 334.525 - Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off John...

  18. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  19. 78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA... zone on the navigable waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA to support the...

  20. 75 FR 34929 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean... comment at the Web site http://www.regulations.gov . These safety zones are needed pending implementation... Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA; Final Rule (USCG-2009-0589), to protect vessels from...

  1. Secular variation of Nd and Pb isotopes in ferromanganese crusts from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, H.-F.; von Blanckenburg, F.; Frank, M.; O'Nions, R. K.

    1998-02-01

    broad inter-ocean structure are changes in ɛNd of the western N. Atlantic which may relate to the Panama gateway closure and shifts in the ɛNd of equatorial Pacific deepwater from 3-5 Ma ago. The absence of any such structure in ɛNd of the southwest and central Indian Ocean suggests that Himalayan erosion products such as preserved in the Bengal Fan sediments have not contributed significantly to Indian Ocean deepwater over the last 20 Ma. There is no straightforward relationship between records of 87Sr/86Sr in the global ocean and ɛNd in ocean deepwater as would be expected if inputs of radiogenic Sr and unradiogenic Nd were coupled.

  2. Secular variation of Nd and Pb isotopes in ferromanganese crusts from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Nions, R. K.; Frank, M.; von Blanckenburg, F.; Ling, H.-F.

    1998-02-01

    . Superimposed on this broad inter-ocean structure are changes in ɛNd of the western N. Atlantic which may relate to the Panama gateway closure and shifts in the ɛNd of equatorial Pacific deepwater from 3-5 Ma ago. The absence of any such structure in ɛNd of the southwest and central Indian Ocean suggests that Himalayan erosion products such as preserved in the Bengal Fan sediments have not contributed significantly to Indian Ocean deepwater over the last 20 Ma. There is no straightforward relationship between records of 87Sr/ 86Sr in the global ocean and ɛNd in ocean deepwater as would be expected if inputs of radiogenic Sr and unradiogenic Nd were coupled.

  3. The Indian Ocean Dipole's influence on Atlantic tropical cyclone activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinaro, Alan Joseph

    Improving early tropical cyclone forecasts would assist reinsurance decision makers as they seek information that can minimize risks. Early lead forecasts are based on model variables before December 1 (Year 0) that predict Atlantic tropical cyclone activity (Year +1). The autumn Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) has an 8 to 14 month antecedent correlation with the El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO is traditionally the best non-lead and overall predictor of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. Analyses were performed over a 30-year period from 1984/85-2013/14, with some time variation depending on the test. Correlation, spatial, and wavelet analyses were utilized to find associations between the IOD, west and east components of the IOD, and four other variables related to the following season's ENSO state and tropical cyclone activity. The prior western pole of the October IOD (WIOD) was demonstrated to have statistically significant r-squared values (i.e. 99% confidence interval) to upcoming tropical storm activity (i.e. explained 25% of the variance), named storm counts (28%), and ENSO (21%). The WIOD has no connection with U.S. hurricane landfalls. Wavelet analysis between October IOD variables and following August-October ENSO data was observed to have the best time-frequency relationship. Dynamic reasoning for these relationships reside within the idealized biennial IOD-ENSO cycle, Walker circulation process, and the impact of ENSO on the state of the Atlantic Basin. The WIOD's integration into early-lead forecast models could be an advantage for those in the reinsurance industry and other decision makers impacted by Atlantic tropical cyclonesn.

  4. North Equatorial Indian Ocean Convection and Indian Summer Monsoon June Progression: a Case Study of 2013 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Bhupendra Bahadur

    2016-06-01

    The consecutive summer monsoons of 2013 and 2014 over the Indian subcontinent saw very contrasting onsets and progressions during the initial month. While the 2013 monsoon saw the timely onset and one of the fastest progressions during the recent decades, 2014 had a delayed onset and a slower progression phase. The monthly rainfall of June 2013 was +34 %, whereas in 2014 it was -43 % of its long-period average. The progress/onset of monsoon in June is influenced by large-scale circulation and local feedback processes. But, in 2013 (2014), one of the main reasons for the timely onset and fastest progression (delayed onset and slower progression) was the persistent strong (weak) convection over the north equatorial Indian Ocean during May. This resulted in a strong (weak) Hadley circulation with strong (weak) ascent and descent over the north equatorial Indian Ocean and the South Indian Ocean, respectively. The strong (weak) descent over the south Indian Ocean intensified (weakened) the Mascarene High, which in turn strengthened (weakened) the cross-equatorial flow and hence the monsoonal circulation.

  5. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.

    2014-07-01

    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  6. Are Global In-Situ Ocean Observations Fit-for-purpose? Applying the Framework for Ocean Observing in the Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbeck, M.; Fischer, A. S.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Mowlem, M. C.; Speich, S.; Larkin, K.

    2015-12-01

    There are an increasing number of global, regional and local processes that are in need of integrated ocean information. In the sciences ocean information is needed to support physical ocean and climate studies for example within the World Climate Research Programme and its CLIVAR project, biogeochemical issues as articulated by the GCP, IMBER and SOLAS projects of ICSU-SCOR and Future Earth. This knowledge gets assessed in the area of climate by the IPCC and biodiversity by the IPBES processes. The recently released first World Ocean Assessment focuses more on ecosystem services and there is an expectation that the Sustainable Development Goals and in particular Goal 14 on the Ocean and Seas will generate new demands for integrated ocean observing from Climate to Fish and from Ocean Resources to Safe Navigation and on a healthy, productive and enjoyable ocean in more general terms. In recognition of those increasing needs for integrated ocean information we have recently launched the Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project to promote the transition from a loosely-coordinated set of existing ocean observing activities to a more integrated, more efficient, more sustainable and fit-for-purpose Atlantic Ocean Observing System. AtlantOS takes advantage of the Framework for Ocean observing that provided strategic guidance for the design of the project and its outcome. AtlantOS will advance the requirements and systems design, improving the readiness of observing networks and data systems, and engaging stakeholders around the Atlantic. AtlantOS will bring Atlantic nations together to strengthen their complementary contributions to and benefits from the internationally coordinated Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and the Blue Planet Initiative of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). AtlantOS will fill gaps of the in-situ observing system networks and will ensure that their data are readily accessible and useable. AtlantOS will demonstrate the utility of

  7. Iron isotopes in the seawater of the equatorial Pacific Ocean: New constraints for the oceanic iron cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radic, Amandine; Lacan, Francois; Murray, James W.

    2011-06-01

    This study presents the isotopic compositions and concentrations of dissolved and particulate iron from two seawater profiles of the western and central equatorial Pacific Ocean, sampled during the EUCFe cruise. Most of the δ 56Fe values are positive (relative to IRMM-14), from + 0.01 to + 0.58‰ in the dissolved fraction (DFe) and from - 0.02 to + 0.46‰ in the particulate fraction (PFe). The mean measurement uncertainty of ± 0.08‰ (2SD) allows the observation of significant variations. Most of the isotope variations occur in the vertical and not in the horizontal direction, implying that each isotope signature is preserved over long distances within a water mass. The thermocline waters of the Papua New Guinea (PNG) area, mostly influenced by sedimentary inputs, display a mean δ 56DFe value of + 0.37‰ (± 0.15‰, 2SD). This isotopic signature suggests that the process releasing dissolved iron into the seawater in this area is a non reductive dissolution of sediments (discharged by local rivers and likely re-suspended by strong boundary currents), rather than Dissimilatory Iron Reduction (DIR) within the sediment (characterized by negative δ 56DFe). These positive δ 56DFe values seem to be the result of a mean isotopic fractionation of Δ 56Fe DFe-PFe = + 0.20‰ (± 0.11‰, 2SD) produced by the non reductive dissolution. At 0°N, 180°E, the Fe isotope signature of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) waters is identical to that of the PNG station within the range of the uncertainty. This suggests that the dissolved iron feeding the EUC, and ultimately the eastern Pacific high nutrient low chlorophyll area, is of PNG origin, likely released by a non reductive dissolution of terrigenous sediments. Significant Fe removals are observed within the thermocline and the intermediate waters between the PNG and the open ocean stations. The corresponding isotopic fractionations appear to be small, with Δ 56Fe removed-SW Fe values of -0.30 ± 0.31‰ to -0.18 ± 0

  8. Predicting plankton net community production in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serret, Pablo; Robinson, Carol; Fernández, Emilio; Teira, Eva; Tilstone, Gavin; Pérez, Valesca

    2009-07-01

    We present, test and implement two contrasting models to predict euphotic zone net community production (NCP), which are based on 14C primary production (PO 14CP) to NCP relationships over two latitudinal (ca. 30°S-45°N) transects traversing highly productive and oligotrophic provinces of the Atlantic Ocean (NADR, CNRY, BENG, NAST-E, ETRA and SATL, Longhurst et al., 1995 [An estimation of global primary production in the ocean from satellite radiometer data. Journal of Plankton Research 17, 1245-1271]). The two models include similar ranges of PO 14CP and community structure, but differ in the relative influence of allochthonous organic matter in the oligotrophic provinces. Both models were used to predict NCP from PO 14CP measurements obtained during 11 local and three seasonal studies in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, and from satellite-derived estimates of PO 14CP. Comparison of these NCP predictions with concurrent in situ measurements and geochemical estimates of NCP showed that geographic and annual patterns of NCP can only be predicted when the relative trophic importance of local vs. distant processes is similar in both modeled and predicted ecosystems. The system-dependent ability of our models to predict NCP seasonality suggests that trophic-level dynamics are stronger than differences in hydrodynamic regime, taxonomic composition and phytoplankton growth. The regional differences in the predictive power of both models confirm the existence of biogeographic differences in the scale of trophic dynamics, which impede the use of a single generalized equation to estimate global marine plankton NCP. This paper shows the potential of a systematic empirical approach to predict plankton NCP from local and satellite-derived P estimates.

  9. Interannual variability in the South-East Atlantic Ocean, focusing on the Benguela Upwelling System: Remote versus local forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachèlery, Marie-Lou; Illig, Serena; Dadou, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the respective roles of equatorial remote (Equatorial Kelvin Waves) and local atmospheric (wind, heat fluxes) forcing on coastal variability in the South-East Atlantic Ocean extending up to the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) over the 2000-2008 period. We carried out a set of six numerical experiments based on a regional ocean model, that differ only by the prescribed forcing (climatological or total) at surface and lateral boundaries. Results show that at subseasonal timescales (<100 days), the coastal oceanic variability (currents, thermocline, and sea level) is mainly driven by local forcing, while at interannual timescales it is dominated by remote equatorial forcing. At interannual timescales (13-20 months), remotely forced Coastal-Trapped Waves (CTW) propagate poleward along the African southwest coast up to the northern part of the BUS at 24°S, with phase speeds ranging from 0.8 to 1.1 m.s-1. We show that two triggering mechanisms limit the southward propagation of CTW: interannual variability of the equatorward Benguela Current prescribed at the model's southern boundary (30°S) and variability of local atmospheric forcing that modulates the magnitude of observed coastal interannual events. When local wind stress forcing is in (out) of phase, the magnitude of the interannual event increases (decreases). Finally, dynamical processes associated with CTW propagations are further investigated using heat budget for two intense interannual events in 2001 and 2003. Results show that significant temperature anomalies (±2°C), that are mostly found in the subsurface, are primarily driven by alongshore and vertical advection processes.

  10. Fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Wayne Wright, C.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.; Berry, Richard E.; Mitchell, Richard

    Laser-induced fluorescence profiles of chlorophyll and phycoerythrin pigments and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence acquired over an iron-enriched phytoplankton patch are compared to profiles made over adjacent, naturally occurring phytoplankton patches. A total of four airborne missions were flown during an 8 day period following the release of the iron-rich fertilizer. Analyses of the airborne laser-induced fluorescence profiles from the upper-ocean layer reveal: (1) Ship-dispersed iron enhances localized phytoplankton production in high-nutrient/low-chlorophyll regions such as found in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. (2) The chlorophyll concentration within the iron-enriched phytoplankton patch exceeded levels of chlorophyll found in naturally occurring phytoplankton patches located outside the enriched region. (3) An increase in phycoerythrin fluorescence was observed within the enriched region in correspondence with the elevated chlorophyll fluorescence. However, the phycoerythrin/chlorophyll fluorescence ratio was lower within the enriched patch than in naturally occurring phytoplankton patches outside of the enriched region. (4) No above-background chromorophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence was observed in the enriched patch. Elevated CDOM fluorescence was associated with some of the naturally occurring phytoplankton patches outside the enriched region, while other such phytoplankton patches showed no measurable increase in CDOM over background levels. (5) The surface layer manifestation of the patch was observed to be transported to the north and west in close agreement with the drogue positions. No elevated surface layer chlorophyll fluorescence was seen in the vicinity of the ship as it sampled the submerged fraction at the time of the 30 October and 1 November overflights. The phycoerythrin pigment fluorescence emission was insensitive to ambient cloud-induced downwelling irradiance variability, while at the

  11. Nitrification and its influence on biogeochemical cycles from the equatorial Pacific to the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Shiozaki, Takuhei; Ijichi, Minoru; Isobe, Kazuo; Hashihama, Fuminori; Nakamura, Ken-ichi; Ehama, Makoto; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Hamasaki, Koji; Furuya, Ken

    2016-01-01

    We examined nitrification in the euphotic zone, its impact on the nitrogen cycles, and the controlling factors along a 7500 km transect from the equatorial Pacific Ocean to the Arctic Ocean. Ammonia oxidation occurred in the euphotic zone at most of the stations. The gene and transcript abundances for ammonia oxidation indicated that the shallow clade archaea were the major ammonia oxidizers throughout the study regions. Ammonia oxidation accounted for up to 87.4% (average 55.6%) of the rate of nitrate assimilation in the subtropical oligotrophic region. However, in the shallow Bering and Chukchi sea shelves (bottom ⩽67 m), the percentage was small (0–4.74%) because ammonia oxidation and the abundance of ammonia oxidizers were low, the light environment being one possible explanation for the low activity. With the exception of the shallow bottom stations, depth-integrated ammonia oxidation was positively correlated with depth-integrated primary production. Ammonia oxidation was low in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll subarctic region and high in the Bering Sea Green Belt, and primary production in both was influenced by micronutrient supply. An ammonium kinetics experiment demonstrated that ammonia oxidation did not increase significantly with the addition of 31–1560 nm ammonium at most stations except in the Bering Sea Green Belt. Thus, the relationship between ammonia oxidation and primary production does not simply indicate that ammonia oxidation increased with ammonium supply through decomposition of organic matter produced by primary production but that ammonia oxidation might also be controlled by micronutrient availability as with primary production. PMID:26918664

  12. Interannual and interdecadal variability of ocean temperature along the equatorial Pacific in conjunction with ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Hu, Zeng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the leading modes of ocean temperature anomalies (OTA) along the equatorial Pacific Ocean are analyzed and their connection with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and interdecadal variation is investigated. The first two leading modes of OTA are connected with the different phases of the canonical ENSO and display asymmetric features of ENSO evolution. The third leading mode depicts a tripole pattern with opposite variation of OTA above the thermocline in the central Pacific to that along the thermocline in the eastern and western Pacific. This mode is found to be associated with so-called ENSO-Modoki. Insignificant correlations of this mode with the first two leading modes suggest that ENSO-Modoki may be a mode that is independent to the canonical ENSO and also has longer time scales compared with the canonical ENSO. The fourth mode reflects a warming (cooling) tendency above (below) the thermocline since 2000. Both the first and second modes have a large contribution to the interdecadal change in thermocline during 1979-2012. Also, the analysis also documents that both ENSO and OTA shifted into higher frequency since 2000 compared with that during 1979-1999. Interestingly, the ENSO-Modoki related OTA mode does not have any trend or significant interdecadal shift during 1979-2012. In addition, it is shown that first four EOF modes seem robust before and after 1999/2000, suggesting that the interdecadal shift of the climate system in the tropical Pacific is mainly a frequency shift and the changes in spatial pattern are relatively small, although the mean states over two periods experienced some significant changes.

  13. Nitrification and its influence on biogeochemical cycles from the equatorial Pacific to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Takuhei; Ijichi, Minoru; Isobe, Kazuo; Hashihama, Fuminori; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Ehama, Makoto; Hayashizaki, Ken-Ichi; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Hamasaki, Koji; Furuya, Ken

    2016-09-01

    We examined nitrification in the euphotic zone, its impact on the nitrogen cycles, and the controlling factors along a 7500 km transect from the equatorial Pacific Ocean to the Arctic Ocean. Ammonia oxidation occurred in the euphotic zone at most of the stations. The gene and transcript abundances for ammonia oxidation indicated that the shallow clade archaea were the major ammonia oxidizers throughout the study regions. Ammonia oxidation accounted for up to 87.4% (average 55.6%) of the rate of nitrate assimilation in the subtropical oligotrophic region. However, in the shallow Bering and Chukchi sea shelves (bottom ⩽67 m), the percentage was small (0-4.74%) because ammonia oxidation and the abundance of ammonia oxidizers were low, the light environment being one possible explanation for the low activity. With the exception of the shallow bottom stations, depth-integrated ammonia oxidation was positively correlated with depth-integrated primary production. Ammonia oxidation was low in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll subarctic region and high in the Bering Sea Green Belt, and primary production in both was influenced by micronutrient supply. An ammonium kinetics experiment demonstrated that ammonia oxidation did not increase significantly with the addition of 31-1560 nm ammonium at most stations except in the Bering Sea Green Belt. Thus, the relationship between ammonia oxidation and primary production does not simply indicate that ammonia oxidation increased with ammonium supply through decomposition of organic matter produced by primary production but that ammonia oxidation might also be controlled by micronutrient availability as with primary production. PMID:26918664

  14. Heterogeneous oxygenation states in the Atlantic and Tethys oceans during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westermann, Stéphane; Vance, Derek; Cameron, Vyllinniskii; Archer, Corey; Robinson, Stuart A.

    2014-10-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (ca. 93.5 Ma) is marked by an episode of profound environmental change, including a major perturbation of the carbon cycle and an Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE-2). Here, we present molybdenum (Mo) isotope variations within the OAE-2 interval for four sections from the western Tethys (Furlo and La Contessa) and the North-Atlantic (ODP site 1276 and DSDP site 367). The main target of this study is to investigate the extent of reducing conditions (truly global in extent or restricted to poorly-ventilated restricted deep basins), with particular reference to the relationship between the change in the oxygenation state of the ocean and the link to global perturbations of the carbon cycle recorded in carbon isotopes. All four sections show fluctuations in the redox sensitive trace metal (RSTE) distribution, suggesting rapid variations in local redox conditions, ranging from anoxic to euxinic. The RSTE enrichment factors (EFs) also suggest different depositional conditions and paleoceanographic processes in the western Tethys versus the North Atlantic. Whereas the North Atlantic sites show evidence of weak watermass restriction associated with the action of a particulate shuttle within the water column, the EFs of the Tethyan sections are characteristic of unrestricted marine systems. Mo isotopes show surprisingly negative values through the Tethyan sections. At the onset of OAE-2, an increasing trend in δMo98 is observed, with values ranging from -0.6 to 0.6‰. During the second half of OAE-2, the δMo98 curve shows a progressive shift towards more negative values. In the North Atlantic, δMo98 signatures from ODP site 1276 show a similar behaviour as observed in the western Tethys. At DSDP site 367, Mo isotopes are generally heavier during OAE-2, fluctuating around an average value of 1.1‰. This is consistent with fully euxinic conditions and the black shales deposited may have recorded the seawater signature during OAE-2. The Mo isotope

  15. Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Retrieved from the ocean floor three miles deep, the Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule is revealed to photographers and the media in Port Canaveral, Fla. The capsule was found and raised by Curt Newport (left), leading an expedition sponsored by the Discovery Channel. After its successful 16-minute suborbital flight on July 21, 1961, the Liberty Bell 7, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the ocean floor, until now. An underwater salvage expert, Newport located the capsule through modern technology, and after one abortive attempt, successfully raised it and brought it to Port Canaveral. The recovery of Liberty Bell 7 fulfilled a 14-year dream for the expedition leader. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.

  16. Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A close-up of the recently recovered Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule from the ocean floor shows the lettering 'United States' still clearly visible on its side. Thirty-eight years ago, the capsule made a successful 16-minute suborbital flight, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, and splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the ocean floor, until now. In an expedition sponsored by the Discovery Channel, underwater salvage expert Curt Newport fulfilled a 14-year dream in finding and, after one abortive attempt, successfully raising the capsule and bringing it to Port Canaveral. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.

  17. A description of eddy-mean flow feedbacks in equatorial and boundary current systems of the South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar-González, Borja; Ponsoni, Leandro; Maas, Leo R. M.; Ridderinkhof, Herman; van Aken, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    accelerating alongstream eddy forces and kinetic energy being transferred from the eddy field to the mean flow. This is the case for 1) the meandering Indonesian Throughflow, ITF (winter and spring); 2) the southward along-slope flow crossing the narrows of the Mozambique Channel and shedding anticyclonic eddies; 3) the southern South East Madagascar Current shedding dipoles; and, 4) the Agulhas Retroflection, shedding Agulhas rings into the Atlantic Ocean. Additionally, we observe a well-known feature of the eastward-flowing Agulhas Return Current and the ACC, also along the South Equatorial Countercurrent, the ITF and the North East Madagascar Current. In all cases (either eastward- or westward-flowing), these nearly zonal currents exhibit convergence (divergence) of the cross-stream eddy momentum forces acting over its left-hand (right-hand) side, looking downstream, pointing to a systematic drift of the mean flow towards its left-hand side by cross-stream eddy forces. Quantitative estimates and qualitative spatial patterns from this study provide a unique tool for testing the performance of eddy-resolving models on predicting realistically eddy-mean flow feedbacks in the SIO.

  18. Temporal changes in total and size-fractioned chlorophyll-a in surface waters of three provinces in the Atlantic Ocean (September to November) between 2003 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agirbas, Ertugrul; Martinez-Vicente, Victor; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Airs, Ruth L.; Llewellyn, Carole A.

    2015-10-01

    Phytoplankton total chlorophyll concentration (TCHLa) and phytoplankton size structure are two important ecological indicators in biological oceanography. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment data, collected from surface waters along the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT), we examine temporal changes in TCHLa and phytoplankton size class (PSC: micro-, nano- and pico-phytoplankton) between 2003 and 2010 (September to November cruises only), in three ecological provinces of the Atlantic Ocean. The HPLC data indicate no significant change in TCHLa in northern and equatorial provinces, and an increase in the southern province. These changes were not significantly different to changes in TCHLa derived using satellite ocean-colour data over the same study period. Despite no change in AMT TCHLa in northern and equatorial provinces, significant differences in PSC were observed, related to changes in key diagnostic pigments (fucoxanthin, peridinin, 19‧-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin and zeaxanthin), with an increase in small cells (nano- and pico-phytoplankton) and a decrease in larger cells (micro-phytoplankton). When fitting a three-component model of phytoplankton size structure - designed to quantify the relationship between PSC and TCHLa to each AMT cruise, model parameters varied over the study period. Changes in the relationship between PSC and TCHLa have wide implications in ecology and marine biogeochemistry, and provide key information for the development and use of empirical ocean-colour algorithms. Results illustrate the importance of maintaining a time-series of in-situ observations in remote regions of the ocean, such as that acquired in the AMT programme.

  19. Aerosol isotopic ammonium signatures over the remote Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. T.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Marca, A.; Johnson, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    We report aerosol ammonium 15N signatures for samples collected from research cruises on the South Atlantic and Caribbean using a new high sensitivity method. We confirm a pattern of isotopic signals from generally light (δ15N -5 to -10‰), for aerosols with very low (<2  nmol m-3) ammonium concentrations from the remote high latitude ocean, to generally heavier values (δ15N +5 to +10‰), for aerosols collected in temperate and tropical latitudes and with higher ammonium concentrations (>2  nmol m-3). We discuss whether this reflects a mixing of aerosols from two end-members (polluted continental and remote marine emissions), or isotopic fractionation during aerosol transport.

  20. GLOBEC (Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics: Northwest Atlantic program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The specific objective of the meeting was to plan an experiment in the Northwestern Atlantic to study the marine ecosystem and its role, together with that of climate and physical dynamics, in determining fisheries recruitment. The underlying focus of the GLOBEC initiative is to understand the marine ecosystem as it related to marine living resources and to understand how fluctuation in these resources are driven by climate change and exploitation. In this sense the goal is a solid scientific program to provide basic information concerning major fisheries stocks and the environment that sustains them. The plan is to attempt to reach this understanding through a multidisciplinary program that brings to bear new techniques as disparate as numerical fluid dynamic models of ocean circulation, molecular biology and modern acoustic imaging. The effort will also make use of the massive historical data sets on fisheries and the state of the climate in a coordinated manner.

  1. Chondrichthyan egg cases from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mabragaña, E; Figueroa, D E; Scenna, L B; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Colonello, J H; Delpiani, G

    2011-11-01

    Egg cases of 21 oviparous chondrichthyan species from the south-west Atlantic Ocean are described and compared. The catshark Schroederichthys bivius has a cigar-shaped egg case with curled tendrils only at the posterior end. Egg cases of the elephant fish Callorhinchus callorynchus are spindle-shaped with anterior and posterior tubular extensions and lateral flanges. The skate Amblyraja doellojuradoi presents medium-sized egg cases (71 mm in length) with a lateral keel extending to the first portion of the horns. The endemic skate species of the genus Atlantoraja have medium to large egg cases (69-104 mm in length) and present relatively large posterior horns. Egg cases of the genus Bathyraja have a medium size, 75-98 mm in length, and are characterized by a very similar morphology, a relatively smooth to rough surface case and posterior horns strongly curved inwards. Egg cases of the genera Dipturus and Zearaja are very large, 115-230 mm in length, and have a well-developed posterior apron. Despite the problematical identification of skates at species level, the egg capsules of the endemic genus Psammobatis are easily diagnosed; the capsules are small (25-53 mm in length), those of Psammobatis rutrum being the smallest known to date in the world. Egg cases of Rioraja agassizi have a medium size, 61-68 mm in length, relatively straight sides, a smooth surface and silky attachment fibres placed in the lateral keel next to each horn. Those of the genus Sympterygia are small to medium sized, 51-86 mm in length, and display the thickest lateral keel and the longest posterior horns among the skates of the world. Egg cases can be a useful tool for identifying species and egg-laying areas; therefore, a provisional key for the south-west Atlantic Ocean chondrichthyan capsules is presented. PMID:22026605

  2. THEOS-2 Orbit Design: Formation Flying in Equatorial Orbit and Damage Prevention Technique for the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimnoo, Ammarin

    2016-07-01

    Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA) has initiative THEOS-2 project after the THEOS-1 has been operated for more than 7 years which is over the lifetime already. THEOS-2 project requires not only the development of earth observation satellite(s), but also the development of the area-based decision making solution platform comprising of data, application systems, data processing and production system, IT infrastructure improvement and capacity building through development of satellites, engineering model, and infrastructures capable of supporting research in related fields. The developing satellites in THEOS-2 project are THAICHOTE-2 and THAICHOTE-3. This paper focuses the orbit design of THAICHOTE-2 & 3. It discusses the satellite orbit design for the second and third EOS of Thailand. In this paper, both THAICHOTE will be simulated in an equatorial orbit as a formation flying which will be compared the productive to THAICHOTE-1 (THEOS-1). We also consider a serious issue in equatorial orbit design, namely the issue of the geomagnetic field in the area of the eastern coast of South America, called the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). The high-energy particles of SAMA comprise a radiation environment which can travel through THAICHOTE-2 & 3 material and deposit kinetic energy. This process causes atomic displacement or leaves a stream of charged atoms in the incident particles' wake. It can cause damage to the satellite including reduction of power generated by solar arrays, failure of sensitive electronics, increased background noise in sensors, and exposure of the satellite devices to radiation. This paper demonstrates the loss of ionizing radiation damage and presents a technique to prevent damage from high-energy particles in the SAMA.

  3. On The Atlantic Water Inflow Into The Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczowski, W.; Maslowski, W.

    Water mass exchanges between the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean are analysed using results from two high-resolution models of the Arctic Ocean and sea ice, and observation obtained by the Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences. The two models used are developed at the Naval Postgraduate School and they are con- figured at (i) 1/6 and 30-level and (ii) 1/12 and 45-level grids. Model results show that more intensive inflow into the Arctic Ocean occurs via the Spitsbergen-Norway opening than through Fram Strait. The strait determines the outflow from the Arctic Ocean via the East Greenland Current. The net mean transport through Fram Strait, es- timated from the 18-km model integration forced with the 1979-1998 ECMWF daily realistic data, is 2.19 Sv southward, with 1.73 Sv flowing to the north and 3.92 to the south. The net mean transport into the Barents Sea, based on the same results is 2.5 Sv, consisting of 3.12 Sv inflow and 0.62 Sv outflow. The Barents Sea also appears to be an efficient route of Atlantic Water (AW) inflow into the Arctic Ocean. The net mean AW (S>34.92 psu) transport into the Barents Sea is 2.25 Sv (2.78 Sv inflow, 0.53 Sv outflow) compared to 0.23 Sv (1.22 Sv inflow, 0.99 Sv outflow) through Fram Strait. Preliminary results from the 9-km model show similar relations. A high seasonal and annual variability of those transports exists. A strong negative correlation between the net transport through the Barents Sea Opening and Fram Strait is determined. During periods of intensive inflow from the Nordic Seas into the Barents Sea, the southward flow of the East Greenland Current increases, representing a stronger export of wa- ter from the Arctic Ocean. Estimates from measurements support model results about the net volume transport and the inflow of AW being larger across the Spitsbergen- Norway section than through Fram Strait. The net baroclinic transport calculated from the summer data (1988-1998) into the Barents Sea is 2.32 Sv

  4. Atmospheric and ocean measurements of reactive organic species from the Tropical Atlantic ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J.; Holzinger, R.; Gros, V.; Hofmann, R.; Xu, X.; Wallace, D.

    2003-04-01

    Reactive organic species play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Large uncertainties exist in how the ocean influences the global budgets of reactive organic species. The first German SOLAS cruise M55 carried instrumentation to measure a range of organic species in the atmosphere and ocean surface layer. Between 12th October and 15th November the research vessel Meteor steamed from Curacao to Cameroon approximately along 10^o N. Approximately mid-Atlantic the ship performed two transects (N-S and S-N) reaching the equator and crossing the ITCZ twice. An assessment will be given of the organics over the Tropical Atlantic including data from 2 PTR-MS systems (air and water), canister air collection followed by GC-MS analysis, cartridge collection followed by 2D-GC-FID analysis, as well as ozone and CO instruments. The prevailing wind was easterly at all times so that air with decreasing extents of ocean contact time was encountered during the crossing. Longitudinal and interhemispheric gradients of organic species will be presented.

  5. Phytoplankton across Tropical and Subtropical Regions of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Marta; Delgado, Maximino; Blasco, Dolors; Latasa, Mikel; Cabello, Ana María; Benítez-Barrios, Verónica; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Mozetič, Patricija; Vidal, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    We examine the large-scale distribution patterns of the nano- and microphytoplankton collected from 145 oceanic stations, at 3 m depth, the 20% light level and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, during the Malaspina-2010 Expedition (December 2010-July 2011), which covered 15 biogeographical provinces across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, between 35°N and 40°S. In general, the water column was stratified, the surface layers were nutrient-poor and the nano- and microplankton (hereafter phytoplankton, for simplicity, although it included also heterotrophic protists) community was dominated by dinoflagellates, other flagellates and coccolithophores, while the contribution of diatoms was only important in zones with shallow nutriclines such as the equatorial upwelling regions. We applied a principal component analysis to the correlation matrix among the abundances (after logarithmic transform) of the 76 most frequent taxa to synthesize the information contained in the phytoplankton data set. The main trends of variability identified consisted of: 1) A contrast between the community composition of the upper and the lower parts of the euphotic zone, expressed respectively by positive or negative scores of the first principal component, which was positively correlated with taxa such as the dinoflagellates Oxytoxum minutum and Scrippsiella spp., and the coccolithophores Discosphaera tubifera and Syracosphaera pulchra (HOL and HET), and negatively correlated with taxa like Ophiaster hydroideus (coccolithophore) and several diatoms, 2) a general abundance gradient between phytoplankton-rich regions with high abundances of dinoflagellate, coccolithophore and ciliate taxa, and phytoplankton-poor regions (second principal component), 3) differences in dominant phytoplankton and ciliate taxa among the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific oceans (third principal component) and 4) the occurrence of a diatom-dominated assemblage (the fourth principal

  6. Phytoplankton across Tropical and Subtropical Regions of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Marta; Delgado, Maximino; Blasco, Dolors; Latasa, Mikel; Cabello, Ana María; Benítez-Barrios, Verónica; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Mozetič, Patricija; Vidal, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    We examine the large-scale distribution patterns of the nano- and microphytoplankton collected from 145 oceanic stations, at 3 m depth, the 20% light level and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, during the Malaspina-2010 Expedition (December 2010-July 2011), which covered 15 biogeographical provinces across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, between 35°N and 40°S. In general, the water column was stratified, the surface layers were nutrient-poor and the nano- and microplankton (hereafter phytoplankton, for simplicity, although it included also heterotrophic protists) community was dominated by dinoflagellates, other flagellates and coccolithophores, while the contribution of diatoms was only important in zones with shallow nutriclines such as the equatorial upwelling regions. We applied a principal component analysis to the correlation matrix among the abundances (after logarithmic transform) of the 76 most frequent taxa to synthesize the information contained in the phytoplankton data set. The main trends of variability identified consisted of: 1) A contrast between the community composition of the upper and the lower parts of the euphotic zone, expressed respectively by positive or negative scores of the first principal component, which was positively correlated with taxa such as the dinoflagellates Oxytoxum minutum and Scrippsiella spp., and the coccolithophores Discosphaera tubifera and Syracosphaera pulchra (HOL and HET), and negatively correlated with taxa like Ophiaster hydroideus (coccolithophore) and several diatoms, 2) a general abundance gradient between phytoplankton-rich regions with high abundances of dinoflagellate, coccolithophore and ciliate taxa, and phytoplankton-poor regions (second principal component), 3) differences in dominant phytoplankton and ciliate taxa among the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific oceans (third principal component) and 4) the occurrence of a diatom-dominated assemblage (the fourth principal

  7. Climate forcing of the Pb isotope record of terrigenous input into the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouchami, W.; Zabel, M.

    2003-08-01

    Pb isotopic compositions of bulk sediment cores from the Tropical Atlantic are used here to infer variations in the provenance of terrigenous input to the Tropical Atlantic during Pleistocene climate cycles. The 200-ka high precision (2σ∼100 ppm) Pb isotope records of the Ceará Rise (Western Atlantic) and Sierra Leone Rise (Eastern Atlantic) cores show a clear glacial-interglacial cyclicity, reflected by alternating unradiogenic Pb and radiogenic Pb in both cores. The glacial-interglacial Pb isotopic contrast is also observed in Pb-Pb space and can be explained in terms of binary mixing - variations along the mixing lines reflecting changes in the relative proportions of the glacial (unradiogenic) and interglacial (radiogenic) Pb source(s). The Pleistocene Pb isotopic variability of the terrigenous input to the Ceará Rise can be linked to changes in the weathering styles in the Amazon Basin and, as a result, in the Amazon river discharge. These changes are reflected by a greater contribution from the highlands (Andes) Pb source during glacial times, and strengthening of the lowlands (Shield) Pb source during interglacials. On the other hand, Pb isotopic variations in the Sierra Leone Rise core indicate increased Pb inputs from the Saharan dust plume during glacial times, in agreement with the wind patterns over Africa. Furthermore, this result bears some implications on the cause of the enhanced glacial terrigenous fluxes to the Tropical Atlantic, which we infer to be due to increase in winter wind transport rather than glacial hyperaridity. The cyclicity of the Ceará Rise and Sierra Leone Rise Pb isotopic records together with changes in the proportions of mixing sources throughout the last 200 ka monitor changes in the hydrological cycle over South America and the wind systems over Africa, respectively, both of which are linked to the seasonal latitudinal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The correlation found between Pb isotope cycles and

  8. Tropical climate variability: interactions across the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajtar, Jules B.; Santoso, Agus; England, Matthew H.; Cai, Wenju

    2016-06-01

    Complex interactions manifest between modes of tropical climate variability across the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans. For example, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extends its influence on modes of variability in the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans, which in turn feed back onto ENSO. Interactions between pairs of modes can alter their strength, periodicity, seasonality, and ultimately their predictability, yet little is known about the role that a third mode plays. Here we examine the interactions and relative influences between pairs of climate modes using ensembles of 100-year partially coupled experiments in an otherwise fully coupled general circulation model. In these experiments, the air-sea interaction over each tropical ocean basin, as well as pairs of ocean basins, is suppressed in turn. We find that Indian Ocean variability has a net damping effect on ENSO and Atlantic Ocean variability, and conversely they each promote Indian Ocean variability. The connection between the Pacific and the Atlantic is most clearly revealed in the absence of Indian Ocean variability. Our model runs suggest a weak damping influence by Atlantic variability on ENSO, and an enhancing influence by ENSO on Atlantic variability.

  9. Changes in ocean circulation in the South-east Atlantic Ocean during the Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, B. F.; McClymont, E.; Felder, S.; Leng, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast Atlantic Ocean is an important ocean gateway because major oceanic systems interact with each other in a relatively small geographic area. These include the Benguela Current, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and the input of warm and saline waters from the Indian Ocean via the Agulhas leakage. However, there remain questions about circulation change in this region during the Pliocene, including whether there was more or less Agulhas Leakage, which may have implications for the strength of the global thermohaline circulation. ODP Site 1087 (31°28'S, 15°19'E, 1374m water depth) is located outside the Benguela upwelling region and is affected by Agulhas leakage in the modern ocean. Sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are thus sensitive to the influence of Agulhas Leakage at this site. Our approach is to apply several organic geochemistry proxies and foraminiferal analyses to reconstruct the Pliocene history of ODP 1087, including the UK37' index (SSTs), pigments (primary productivity) and planktonic foraminifera (water mass changes). SSTs during the Pliocene range from 17 to 22.5 °C (mean SSTs at 21 °C), and show variability on orbital and suborbital time scales. Our results indicate that the Benguela upwelling system had intensified and/or shifted south during the Pliocene. We find no evidence of Agulhas leakage, meaning that either Agulhas Leakage was severely reduced or displaced during the mid-Pliocene. Potential causes of the observed signals include changes to the local wind field and/or changes in the temperature of intermediate waters which upwell in the Benguela system. Pronounced cooling is observed during cold stages in the Pliocene, aligned with the M2 and KM2 events. These results may indicate that changes to the extent of the Antarctic ice sheet had impact on circulation in the south east Atlantic during the Pliocene via displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Currents.

  10. Acoustic habitat of an oceanic archipelago in the Southwestern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittencourt, Lis; Barbosa, Mariana; Secchi, Eduardo; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Underwater soundscapes can be highly variable, and in natural conditions are often dominated by biological signals and physical features of the environment. Few studies, however, focused on oceanic islands soundscapes. Islands in the middle of ocean basins can provide a good example of how untouched marine soundscapes are. Autonomous acoustic recordings were carried out in two different seasons in Trindade-Martin Vaz Archipelago, Southwestern Atlantic, providing nearly continuous data for both periods. Sound levels varied daily and between seasons. During summer, higher frequencies were noisier than lower frequencies, with snapping shrimp being the dominating sound source. During winter, lower frequencies were noisier than higher frequencies due to humpback whale constant singing. Biological signal detection had a marked temporal pattern, playing an important role in the soundscape. Over 1000 humpback whale sounds were detected hourly during winter. Fish vocalizations were detected mostly during night time during both summer and winter. The results show an acoustic habitat dominated by biological sound sources and highlight the importance of the island to humpback whales in winter.

  11. Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This photograph shows two mercury dimes that were found inside the recently recovered Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule. Thirty-eight years ago, the capsule made a successful 16-minute suborbital flight, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, and splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the ocean floor, until now. In an expedition sponsored by the Discovery Channel, underwater salvage expert Curt Newport fulfilled a 14- year dream in finding and, after one abortive attempt, successfully raising the capsule and bringing it to Port Canaveral. The dimes had apparently been placed in the capsule before its launch July 21, 1961. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.

  12. Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Gunther Wendt takes a turn at the podium after viewing the recovered Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule, seen in the background. At right is Curt Newport who led the expedition to find and retrieve the capsule. The expedition was sponsored by the Discovery Channel. Wendt worked on the Liberty Bell 7 before its launch July 21, 1961. After its successful 16-minute suborbital flight, the Liberty Bell 7, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the ocean floor, until now. An underwater salvage expert, Newport located the capsule through modern technology, and after one abortive attempt, successfully raised it and brought it to Port Canaveral. The recovery of Liberty Bell 7 fulfilled a 14-year dream for the expedition leader. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.

  13. Simulation of Ocean-Generated Microseismic Noise Propagation in the North-East Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Y.; Bean, C. J.; Lokmer, I.; Faure, T.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean-generated microseisms are small ground oscillations associated with the occurrence of the interactions between the solid Earth and ocean water waves. Microseismic noise field is mostly composed of surface waves, where the wave energy propagate along the ocean floor predominantly in the form of Rayleigh waves, but some Love waves are also present. Microseisms will pick up some information about the medium on the propagation paths due to the interaction between the seismic waves and the structure. Recently, seismologists become more and more interested in using cross-correlations of continuously recorded microseismic noise to retrieve information about the Earth's structure. In order to use this information well, it's important to identify the rich noise source domain in the ocean and quantify the propagation process of microseism from the origins to the land-based seismic stations. In this work, we try to characterize how a microseism propagates along a fluid-solid interface through numerical simulations, in which a North-East Atlantic Ocean model is adopted and a microseism is generated on the bottom of deep ocean with the expected source mechanism. The spectral element method is used to simulate coupled acoustic/elastic wave propagation in an unstructured mesh, and the coupling between fluid and solid regions is accommodated by using a domain decomposition method. The effects of crustal structure, sediment layer, bathymetry and ocean load on the microseismic wave propagation will be examined, and a special attention will be paid to the fluid-solid coupling. We find that microseismic wave will be highly dispersive propagating in the ocean environment.

  14. Comment on "The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation without a role for ocean circulation".

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Sutton, Rowan; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Delworth, Thomas L; Kim, Who M; Robson, Jon; Yeager, Stephen G

    2016-06-24

    Clement et al (Reports, 16 October 2015, p. 320) claim that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a thermodynamic response of the ocean mixed layer to stochastic atmospheric forcing and that ocean circulation changes have no role in causing the AMO. These claims are not justified. We show that ocean dynamics play a central role in the AMO. PMID:27339976

  15. Deep Ocean Circulation and Nutrient Contents from Atlantic-Pacific Gradients of Neodymium and Carbon Isotopes During the Last 1 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, A. M.; Elderfield, H.; Howe, J. N. W.

    2014-12-01

    The last few million years saw changing boundary conditions to the Earth system which set the stage for bi-polar glaciation and Milankovich-forced glacial-interglacial cycles which dominate Quaternary climate variability. Recent studies have highlighted the relative importance of temperature, ice volume and ocean circulation changes during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition at ~900 ka (Elderfield et al., 2012, Pena and Goldstein, 2014). Reconstructing the history of global deep water mass propagation and its carbon content is important for fully understanding the ocean's role in amplifying Milankovich changes to cause glacial-interglacial transitions. A new foraminiferal-coating Nd isotope record from ODP Site 1123 on the deep Chatham Rise is interpreted as showing glacial-interglacial changes in the bottom water propagation of Atlantic-sourced waters into the Pacific via the Southern Ocean during the last 1 million years. This is compared to globally-distributed bottom water Nd isotope records; including a new deep western equatorial Atlantic Ocean record from ODP Site 929, as well as published records from ODP 1088 and Site 1090 in the South Atlantic (Pena and Goldstein, 2014), and ODP 758 in the deep Indian Ocean (Gourlan et al., 2010). Atlantic-to-Pacific gradients in deep ocean neodymium isotopes are constructed for key time intervals to elucidate changes in deep water sourcing and circulation pathways through the global ocean. Benthic carbon isotopes are used to estimate deep water nutrient contents of deep water masses and constrain locations and modes of deep water formation. References: Elderfield et al. Science 337, 704 (2012) Pena and Goldstein, Science 345, 318 (2014) Gourlan et al., Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 2484-2498 (2010)

  16. Middle Pleistocene-Holocene calcareous plankton and benthos biostratigraphy of the Markova Depression, equatorial atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovina, L. A.; Bylinskaya, M. E.; Vernigorova, Yu. V.

    2008-06-01

    The analysis of nannoplankton, planktonic and benthic foraminifer assemblages provided detailed biostratigraphic characteristics of the upper part of sedimentary cover in the Markova Depression, rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Emiliania huxleyi nannofossil zones, (LO) Helicosphaera inversa biohorizon, Emiliania huxleyi Acme Zone, and planktonic foraminiferal Globigerina calida calida, Globigerina bermudezi and Globorotalia fimbriata subzones were recognized. The compiled paleotemperature curve is correlated with the upper 10 oxygen isotope stages. The recovered deposits were accumulated during 400 ka. Changes in abundance and species composition of benthic foraminifer assemblages are suggested to be correlative with hydrothermal activity outbreaks in the rift zone.

  17. Molecular biogeochemical provinces in the Atlantic Surface Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, B. P.; Flerus, R.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Bracher, A.; Cooper, W.; Frka, S.; Gašparović, B.; Gonsior, M.; Hertkorn, N.; Jaffe, R.; Jenkins, A.; Kuss, J.; Lara, R. J.; Lucio, M.; McCallister, S. L.; Neogi, S. B.; Pohl, C.; Roettgers, R.; Rohardt, G.; Schmitt, B. B.; Stuart, A.; Theis, A.; Ying, W.; Witt, M.; Xie, Z.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Kattner, G.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most important aspects to understand marine organic carbon fluxes is to resolve the molecular mechanisms which convert fresh, labile biomolecules into semi-labile and refractory dissolved and particulate organic compounds in the ocean. In this interdisciplinary project, which was performed on a cruise with RV Polarstern, we carried out a detailed molecular characterisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on a North-South transect in the Atlantic surface ocean in order to relate the data to different biological, climatic, oceanographic, and meteorological regimes as well as to terrestrial input from riverine and atmospheric sources. Our goal was to achieve a high resolution data set for the biogeochemical characterisation of the sources and reactivity of DOM. We applied ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), nutrient, trace element, amino acid, and lipid analyses and other biogeochemical measurements for 220 samples from the upper water column (0-200m) and eight deep profiles. Various spectroscopic techniques were applied continuously in a constant sample water flow supplied by a fish system and the moon pool. Radiocarbon dating enabled assessing DOC residence time. Bacterial abundance and production provided a metabolic context for the DOM characterization work and pCO2 concentrations. Combining molecular organic techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) established an important link between organic and inorganic biogeochemical studies. Multivariate statistics, primarily based on FT-ICR-MS data for 220 samples, allowed identifying geographical clusters which matched ecological provinces proposed previously by Longhurst (2007). Our study demonstrated that marine DOM carries molecular information reflecting the “history” of ocean water masses. This information can be used to define molecular biogeochemical provinces and to improve our understanding of element fluxes in

  18. Natural variability and anthropogenic change in equatorial Pacific surface ocean pCO2 and pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Adrienne J.; Feely, Richard A.; Sabine, Christopher L.; McPhaden, Michael J.; Takahashi, Taro; Chavez, Francisco P.; Friederich, Gernot E.; Mathis, Jeremy T.

    2014-02-01

    The equatorial Pacific is a dynamic region that plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. This region is the largest oceanic source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, which varies interannually dependent on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and other climatic and oceanic drivers. We present high-resolution observations of surface ocean CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) at four fixed locations in the Niño 3.4 area with data sets encompassing 10 ENSO warm and cold events from 1997 to 2011. The mooring observations confirm that ENSO controls much of the interannual variability in surface seawater pCO2 with values ranging from 315 to 578 µatm. The mooring time series also capture the temporal variability necessary to make the first estimates of long-term pH trends in the equatorial Pacific, which suggests that the combination of ocean acidification and decadal variability creates conditions for high rates of pH change since the beginning of the mooring record. Anthropogenic CO2 increases play a dominant role in significant observed seawater pCO2 trends of +2.3 to +3.3 µatm yr-1 and pH trends of -0.0018 to -0.0026 yr-1 across the full time series in this region. However, increased upwelling driven by increased trade winds, a shallower thermocline, and increased frequency of La Niña events also contribute an average of 40% of the observed trends since 1998. These trends are higher than previous estimates based on underway observations and suggest that the equatorial Pacific is contributing a greater amount of CO2 to the atmospheric CO2 inventory over the last decade.

  19. Hafnium and Neodymium Isotopes in Atlantic Ocean Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickli, J.; Frank, M.; Halliday, A.

    2007-12-01

    Neodymium isotopic compositions (ICs) have been established as a tracer of water masses in the present and past oceans since the late 1970s. Hafnium isotopes share the capability of tracing water masses and in combination with Nd isotopes provide information on continental weathering regimes. Whereas Nd released during weathering reflects the bulk Nd IC of the weathered lithology, the released Hf is more radiogenic than the weathered lithology. This effect is due to highly variable Lu/Hf--ratios in rock--forming minerals ("zircon effect") and as a consequence physical weathering apparently leads to more congruent weathering of Hf than chemical weathering does. Our understanding of the Hf IC of seawater to date has been derived (with the exception of some as yet unpublished data from the Arctic and Pacific oceans (Zimmermann et al., in prep.)) from ferromanganese crusts and nodules, since Hf concentrations in seawater are low and have until recently hampered direct measurements of Hf IC of seawater. We present IC for the dissolved Hf and Nd in Atlantic seawater. Samples were taken mainly on a transect from the Bay of Biscay to Cape Town (RV Polarstern cruise ANT XXIII/1 in 2005). A few additional samples are from the Labrador Sea and the Drake Passage. Hafnium and Nd were pre--concentrated by iron co--precipitation from 60 to 140 liters of filtered (0.45 μm) seawater. Separation of Hf and Nd followed previously established ion chromatographic procedures. Hafnium and Nd ICs were measured by MC--ICPMS (Nu Plasma) with a 2σ external reproducibility of 0.65 and 0.3 ǎrepsilon--units, respectively. Sample sizes varied but were in most cases larger than 3ng of Hf. Surface seawater as well as deep water samples extending to ~5,000 m, plot on the "seawater array" defined previously from measurements of ferromanganese crusts and nodules. Surface seawater ICs are quite uniform for Hf ranging from ǎrepsilonHf = 0 to +2 at most sampling sites on the Atlantic transect. In the

  20. Thorium-234 as a tracer of particle dynamics and upper ocean export in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, S. A.; Pike, S.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2015-06-01

    The flux of sinking particles is an important removal mechanism of carbon and other chemical species from the surface ocean as part of the biological pump. Euphotic zone export of 234Th was measured on GEOTRACES transects of the Atlantic Ocean to evaluate basin-scale export variability. High-resolution sampling through the entire water-column allowed for the identification of unique 234Th features in intermediate and deep waters. These data will be important for describing distributions and estimating the fluxes of trace elements measured by other investigators in the GEOTRACES program. This extensive data set will also be useful when combined with other particulate and radioisotope data for improving our understanding of particle cycling and the relation of particle flux to particle composition and abundance.

  1. Knowledge of marine fish trematodes of Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Diaz, Pablo E; Cribb, Thomas H

    2016-03-01

    A brief summary of the early history of the study of Atlantic Ocean marine fish digeneans is followed by a discussion of the occurrence and distribution of these worms in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent Eastern Pacific Ocean, using the Provinces of the 'Marine Ecoregions' delimited by Spalding et al. (Bioscience 57:573-583, 2007). The discussion is based on a database of 9,880 records of 1,274 species in 430 genera and 45 families. 8,633 of these records are from the Atlantic Ocean, including 1,125 species in 384 genera and 45 families. About 1,000 species are endemic to the Atlantic Ocean Basin. The most species-rich families in the Atlantic Ocean are the Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925, Hemiuridae Looss, 1899 and Bucephalidae Poche, 1907, and the most wide-spread the Opecoelidae, Hemiuridae, Acanthocolpidae Lühe, 1906, Lepocreadiidae Odhner, 1905 and Lecithasteridae Odhner, 1905. A total of 109 species are shared by the Atlantic Ocean and the Eastern Pacific, made up of cosmopolitan, circum-boreal, trans-Panama Isthmus and Magellanic species. The lack of genetic evaluation of identifications is emphasised and the scope for much more work is stressed. PMID:26898586

  2. Seasonal influence of the sea surface temperature on the low atmospheric circulation and precipitation in the eastern equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynadier, Rémi; de Coëtlogon, Gaëlle; Leduc-Leballeur, Marion; Eymard, Laurence; Janicot, Serge

    2015-11-01

    The air-sea interaction in the Gulf of Guinea and its role in setting precipitation at the Guinean coast is investigated in the present paper. This study is based on satellite observations and WRF simulations forced by different sea surface temperature (SST) patterns. It shows that the seasonal cold tongue setup in the Gulf of Guinea, along with its very active northern front, tends to strongly constrain the low level atmospheric dynamics between the equator and the Guinean coast. Underlying mechanisms including local SST effect on the marine boundary layer stability and hydrostatically-changed meridional pressure gradient through changes in SST gradient are quantified in WRF regarding observations and CFSR reanalyses. Theses mechanisms strongly impact moisture flux convergence near the coast, leading to the installation of the first rainy season of the West African Monsoon (WAM) system. The current study details the mechanisms by which the Atlantic Equatorial cold tongue plays a major role in the pre-onset of the boreal WAM.

  3. Seasonal influence of the sea surface temperature on the low atmospheric circulation and precipitation in the eastern equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynadier, Rémi; de Coëtlogon, Gaëlle; Leduc-Leballeur, Marion; Eymard, Laurence; Janicot, Serge

    2016-08-01

    The air-sea interaction in the Gulf of Guinea and its role in setting precipitation at the Guinean coast is investigated in the present paper. This study is based on satellite observations and WRF simulations forced by different sea surface temperature (SST) patterns. It shows that the seasonal cold tongue setup in the Gulf of Guinea, along with its very active northern front, tends to strongly constrain the low level atmospheric dynamics between the equator and the Guinean coast. Underlying mechanisms including local SST effect on the marine boundary layer stability and hydrostatically-changed meridional pressure gradient through changes in SST gradient are quantified in WRF regarding observations and CFSR reanalyses. Theses mechanisms strongly impact moisture flux convergence near the coast, leading to the installation of the first rainy season of the West African Monsoon (WAM) system. The current study details the mechanisms by which the Atlantic Equatorial cold tongue plays a major role in the pre-onset of the boreal WAM.

  4. Speciation of Fe in the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuróczy, C.-E.; Gerringa, L. J. A.; Klunder, M. B.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Timmermans, K. R.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    2010-11-01

    In the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean iron (Fe) speciation was investigated in three size fractions: the dissolvable from unfiltered samples, the dissolved fraction (<0.2 μm) and the fraction smaller than 1000 kDa (<1000 kDa). Fe concentrations were measured by flow injection analysis and the organic Fe complexation by voltammetry. In the research area the water column consisted of North Atlantic Central Water (NACW), below which Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) was found with the core between 800 and 1000 m depth. Below 2000 m depth the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) proper was recognised. Dissolved Fe and Fe in the <1000 kDa fraction showed a nutrient like profile, depleted at the surface, increasing until 500-1000 m depth below which the concentration remained constant. Fe in unfiltered samples clearly showed the MOW with high concentrations (4 nM) compared to the overlying NACW and the underlying NADW, with 0.9 nM and 2 nM Fe, respectively. By using excess ligand (Excess L) concentrations as parameter we show a potential to bind Fe. The surface mixed layer had the highest excess ligand concentrations in all size fractions due to phytoplankton uptake and possible ligand production. The ratio of Excess L over Fe proved to be a complementary tool in revealing the relative saturation state of the ligands with Fe. In the whole water column, the organic ligands in the larger colloidal fraction (between 0.2 μm and 1000 kDa) were saturated with Fe, whereas those in the smallest fraction (<1000 kDa) were not saturated with Fe, confirming that this fraction was the most reactive one and regulates dissolution and colloid aggregation and scavenging processes. This regulation was remarkably stable with depth since the alpha factor (product of Excess L and K'), expressing the reactivity of the ligands, did not vary and was 10 13. Whereas, in the NACW and the MOW, the ligands in the particulate (>0.2 μm) fraction were unsaturated with Fe with respect to the dissolved

  5. Early opening of initially closed Gulf of Mexico and central North Atlantic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Van Siclen, D.C.

    1984-09-01

    This paper presents ideas on the early opening and evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the central North Atlantic ocean. It discusses rifting activity, plate tectonics, magnetic anomalies, and the geologic time elements involved.

  6. Recent Changes in Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Motion Associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.

    1999-01-01

    Examination of a new ice motion dataset of the Arctic Ocean over a recent eighteen year period (1978-1996) reveals patterns of variability that can be linked directly to the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  7. 33 CFR 334.580 - Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla. 334.580 Section 334.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.580 Atlantic...

  8. 33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic...

  9. 33 CFR 334.580 - Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla. 334.580 Section 334.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.580 Atlantic...

  10. 33 CFR 334.580 - Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla. 334.580 Section 334.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.580 Atlantic...

  11. 33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic...

  12. 33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic...

  13. 33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic...

  14. 33 CFR 334.580 - Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla. 334.580 Section 334.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.580 Atlantic...

  15. 33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic...

  16. 33 CFR 334.580 - Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean near Port Everglades, Fla. 334.580 Section 334.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.580 Atlantic...

  17. Equatorial zonal circulations: Historical perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastenrath, Stefan

    2007-04-01

    The changing perceptions on zonal circulations in the equatorial belt are traced for (a) stratospheric wind regimes, and (b) vertical-zonal circulation cells in the troposphere. (a) Observations from the Krakatoa eruption 1883 and Berson's 1908 expedition to East Africa, along with later soundings over Batavia (Jakarta) led to the notion of "Krakatoa easterlies" around 30 km (10 mb) and "Berson westerlies" around 20 km (50 mb). Prompted by contrary observations since the late 1950s, this dogma was replaced by the notion of easterlies alternating with westerlies in the equatorial stratosphere at a rhythm of about 26 months. (b) Stimulated by Bjerknes' postulate of a "Walker circulation" along the Pacific Equator, a multitude of such cells have been hypothesized at other longitudes, in part from zonal contrasts of temperature and cloudiness. Essential for the diagnosis of equatorial zonal circulation cells is the continuity following the flow between the centers of ascending and subsiding motion. Evaluation of the recent NCEP-NCAR and ECMWF Reanalysis upper-air datasets reveals equatorial zonal circulation cells over the Pacific all year round, over the Atlantic only in boreal winter, and over the Indian Ocean only in autumn, all being seasons and oceanic longitudes with strong zonal flow in the lower troposphere.

  18. Depth Profiles of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the North and Tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caoxin; Soltwedel, Thomas; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Adelman, Dave A; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-06-21

    Little is known of the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the deep ocean. Polyethylene passive samplers were used to detect the vertical distribution of truly dissolved POPs at two sites in the Atlantic Ocean. Samplers were deployed at five depths covering 26-2535 m in the northern Atlantic and Tropical Atlantic, in approximately one year deployments. Samplers of different thickness were used to determine the state of equilibrium POPs reached in the passive samplers. Concentrations of POPs detected in the North Atlantic near the surface (e.g., sum of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs: 0.84 pg L(-1)) were similar to previous measurements. At both sites, PCB concentrations showed subsurface maxima (tropical Atlantic Ocean -800 m, North Atlantic -500 m). Currents seemed more important in moving POPs to deeper water masses than the biological pump. The ratio of PCB concentrations in near surface waters (excluding PCB-28) between the two sites was inversely correlated with congeners' subcooled liquid vapor pressure, in support of the latitudinal fractionation. The results presented here implied a significant amount of HCB is stored in the Atlantic Ocean (4.8-26% of the global HCB environmental burdens), contrasting traditional beliefs that POPs do not reach the deep ocean. PMID:27174500

  19. Southern Ocean origin for the resumption of Atlantic thermohaline circulation during deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2003-07-31

    During the two most recent deglaciations, the Southern Hemisphere warmed before Greenland. At the same time, the northern Atlantic Ocean was exposed to meltwater discharge, which is generally assumed to reduce the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water. Yet during deglaciation, the Atlantic thermohaline circulation became more vigorous, in the transition from a weak glacial to a strong interglacial mode. Here we use a three-dimensional ocean circulation model to investigate the impact of Southern Ocean warming and the associated sea-ice retreat on the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. We find that a gradual warming in the Southern Ocean during deglaciation induces an abrupt resumption of the interglacial mode of the thermohaline circulation, triggered by increased mass transport into the Atlantic Ocean via the warm (Indian Ocean) and cold (Pacific Ocean) water route. This effect prevails over the influence of meltwater discharge, which would oppose a strengthening of the thermohaline circulation. A Southern Ocean trigger for the transition into an interglacial mode of circulation provides a consistent picture of Southern and Northern hemispheric climate change at times of deglaciation, in agreement with the available proxy records. PMID:12891352

  20. Influence of physical and biological processes on the seasonal cycle of biogenic flux in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidya, P. J.; Prasanna Kumar, S.; Gauns, M.; Verenkar, A.; Unger, D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2013-11-01

    Seasonal cycle of biogenic fluxes obtained from sediment trap at two locations 5°24' N, 86°46' E (southern Bay of Bengal trap; SBBT) and 3°34' N, 77°46' E (equatorial Indian Ocean trap; EIOT) within the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) were examined to understand the factors that control them. The sediment trap data at SBBT was collected for ten years from November 1987 while that at EIOT was for a one year period from January 1996. The characteristic of biogenic flux at SBBT was the strong seasonality with peak flux in August, while lack of seasonality characterised the flux at EIOT. The high chlorophyll biomass at the SBBT during the summer monsoon was supported by a combination of processes such as wind-mixing and advection, both of which supplied new nitrogen to the upper ocean. In contrast, the elevated chlorophyll at EIOT during summer monsoon was supported only by wind mixing. High cell counts of phytoplankton (> 5 μm) at SBBT dominated by diatoms suggest the operation of classical food web and high carbon export. On the contrary, dominance of pico-phytoplankton and one-and-a-half time higher magnitude of micro-zooplankton biomass along with 2-fold lesser meso-zooplankton at EIOT indicated the importance of microbial loop. The substantial decrease in the carbon export at EIOT indicated faster remineralization of photosynthetically produced organic matter.

  1. Estimation of the Atlantic sea-level response to atmospheric pressure using ERS-2 altimeter data and a global ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Enri, Jesus; Villares, Pilar; Bruno, Miguel; Benveniste, Jerome

    2002-01-01

    The ocean response to pressure variations is subtracted from altimeter records using the standard Inverse Barometer Correction (IBC), based on the hypothetical isostatic assumption. Previous analyses have demonstrated that this assumption has to be applied with care when the high frequency pressure variations are considered, as is the case of using the crossover track method. Using ERS-2 radar altimeter data, we study the response of the Atlantic Sea Level (ASL) to pressure forcings at different ranges of frequency, in order to determine the validity of the isostatic assumption. We have also determined this response when using the outputs of a Global Ocean Model (GOM) forced by pressure and wind fields. From the comparison between both results we have observed that data errors could be underestimating our estimations of the response of the ocean to pressure variations; this underestimation could represent more than 20 percent of the values obtained in equatorial and tropical zones, being insignificant out of the latitudinal band.

  2. Reduced North Atlantic Deep Water flux to the glacial Southern Ocean inferred from neodymium isotope ratios

    PubMed

    Rutberg; Hemming; Goldstein

    2000-06-22

    The global circulation of the oceans and the atmosphere transports heat around the Earth. Broecker and Denton suggested that changes in the global ocean circulation might have triggered or enhanced the glacial-interglacial cycles. But proxy data for past circulation taken from sediment cores in the South Atlantic Ocean have yielded conflicting interpretations of ocean circulation in glacial times--delta13C variations in benthic foraminifera support the idea of a glacial weakening or shutdown of North Atlantic Deep Water production, whereas other proxies, such as Cd/Ca, Ba/Ca and 231Pa/230Th ratios, show little change from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene epoch. Here we report neodymium isotope ratios from the dispersed Fe-Mn oxide component of two southeast Atlantic sediment cores. Both cores show variations that tend towards North Atlantic signatures during the warm marine isotope stages 1 and 3, whereas for the full glacial stages 2 and 4 they are closer to Pacific Ocean signatures. We conclude that the export of North Atlantic Deep Water to the Southern Ocean has resembled present-day conditions during the warm climate intervals, but was reduced during the cold stages. An increase in biological productivity may explain the various proxy data during the times of reduced North Atlantic Deep Water export. PMID:10879531

  3. Diagnosing southeast tropical Atlantic SST and ocean circulation biases in the CMIP5 ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhao; Chang, Ping; Richter, Ingo; Kim, Who; Tang, Guanglin

    2014-12-01

    Warm sea-surface temperature (SST) biases in the southeastern tropical Atlantic (SETA), which is defined by a region from 5°E to the west coast of southern Africa and from 10°S to 30°S, are a common problem in many current and previous generation climate models. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble provides a useful framework to tackle the complex issues concerning causes of the SST bias. In this study, we tested a number of previously proposed mechanisms responsible for the SETA SST bias and found the following results. First, the multi-model ensemble mean shows a positive shortwave radiation bias of ~20 W m-2, consistent with models' deficiency in simulating low-level clouds. This shortwave radiation error, however, is overwhelmed by larger errors in the simulated surface turbulent heat and longwave radiation fluxes, resulting in excessive heat loss from the ocean. The result holds for atmosphere-only model simulations from the same multi-model ensemble, where the effect of SST biases on surface heat fluxes is removed, and is not sensitive to whether the analysis region is chosen to coincide with the maximum warm SST bias along the coast or with the main SETA stratocumulus deck away from the coast. This combined with the fact that there is no statistically significant relationship between simulated SST biases and surface heat flux biases among CMIP5 models suggests that the shortwave radiation bias caused by poorly simulated low-level clouds is not the leading cause of the warm SST bias. Second, the majority of CMIP5 models underestimate upwelling strength along the Benguela coast, which is linked to the unrealistically weak alongshore wind stress simulated by the models. However, a correlation analysis between the model simulated vertical velocities and SST biases does not reveal a statistically significant relationship between the two, suggesting that the deficient coastal upwelling in the models is not simply related to the

  4. Microbial growth and macromolecular synthesis in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Cuhel, R.L.; Jannasch, H.W.; Taylor, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous time-course measurements of /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, /sup 32/PO/sup 43 -/, /sup 15/NH/sub 4//sup +/, and (/sup 14/C)acetate, glucose, and glutamate uptake were made at three stations in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, using water samples taken from well below the euphotic zone. Marked deviations from linearity were observed in 14 of the 15 cases. At the two most inshore stations uptake of /sup 15/NH/sub 4//sup +/ or incorporation of /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into protein was undetectable for 16-30 h, followed by very rapid increases in the rates of activity. The sudden burst of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/and NH/sub 4//sup +/ uptake was accompanied by a major increase in the incorporation of /sup 32/P into RNA and lipid fractions of the microbial population at a continental slope station. At a station in Sargasso Sea, all substrates were taken up without lag. Extended incubations led to a growth plateau which may be a measure of the total biologically labile organic nutrient supply. In all cases tested, chloramphenicol severely restricted uptake. One of the inshore stations was revisited a year later with similar results. The combined data demonstrate the utility of using inorganic nutrient uptake and subcellular incorporation patterns to measure microbial growth and metabolism and stress the necessity of time-course rather than end-point incubations.

  5. Macroecological study of Centropages typicus in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaugrand, G.; Lindley, J. A.; Helaouet, P.; Bonnet, D.

    2007-02-01

    Centropages typicus is a temperate neritic-coastal species of the North Atlantic Oceans, generally found between the latitudes of the Mediterranean and the Norwegian Sea. Therefore, the species experiences a large number of environments and adjusts its life cycle in response to changes in key abiotic parameters such as temperature. Using data from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey, we review the macroecology of C. typicus and factors that influence its spatial distribution, phenology and year-to-year to decadal variability. The ecological preferences are identified and quantified. Mechanisms that allow the species to occur in such different environments are discussed and hypotheses are proposed as to how the species adapts to its environment. We show that temperature and both quantity and quality of phytoplankton are important factors explaining the space and time variability of C. typicus. These results show that C. typicus will not respond only to temperature increase in the region but also to changes in phytoplankton abundance, structure and composition and timing of occurrence. Methods such as a decision tree can help to forecast expected changes in the distribution of this species with hydro-climatic forcing.

  6. Multi-phase halogen chemistry in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommariva, R.; von Glasow, R.

    2012-04-01

    We used a one-dimensional model to simulate the chemical evolution of air masses in the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean (Cape Verde region), with a focus on halogen chemistry. The model results were compared to the observations of inorganic halogen (particularly chlorine and bromine) species made in this region. The model could reproduce the measurements of chlorine species, especially under unpolluted conditions, but it overestimated sea-salt chloride and bromine species. Agrement with the measurements could be improved by taking into account the reactivity with aldehydes and the effects of DMS and Saharan dust on aerosol pH; an hypothetical HOX -> X- aqueous-phase reaction could also improve the agreement with measured Cl2 and HOCl, particularly under semi-polluted conditions. The results showed that halogen levels and speciation are very sensitive to cloud processing, although the model could not reproduce the observations under cloudy conditions. The model results were used to calculate the impact of the observed levels of halogens: Cl accounted for 5.4 - 11.6% of total methane sinks and halogens (mostly bromine and iodine) accounted for 35 - 40% of total ozone destruction.

  7. Ocean impact on decadal Atlantic climate variability revealed by sea-level observations.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Gerard D; Haigh, Ivan D; Hirschi, Joël J-M; Grist, Jeremy P; Smeed, David A

    2015-05-28

    Decadal variability is a notable feature of the Atlantic Ocean and the climate of the regions it influences. Prominently, this is manifested in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in sea surface temperatures. Positive (negative) phases of the AMO coincide with warmer (colder) North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. The AMO is linked with decadal climate fluctuations, such as Indian and Sahel rainfall, European summer precipitation, Atlantic hurricanes and variations in global temperatures. It is widely believed that ocean circulation drives the phase changes of the AMO by controlling ocean heat content. However, there are no direct observations of ocean circulation of sufficient length to support this, leading to questions about whether the AMO is controlled from another source. Here we provide observational evidence of the widely hypothesized link between ocean circulation and the AMO. We take a new approach, using sea level along the east coast of the United States to estimate ocean circulation on decadal timescales. We show that ocean circulation responds to the first mode of Atlantic atmospheric forcing, the North Atlantic Oscillation, through circulation changes between the subtropical and subpolar gyres--the intergyre region. These circulation changes affect the decadal evolution of North Atlantic heat content and, consequently, the phases of the AMO. The Atlantic overturning circulation is declining and the AMO is moving to a negative phase. This may offer a brief respite from the persistent rise of global temperatures, but in the coupled system we describe, there are compensating effects. In this case, the negative AMO is associated with a continued acceleration of sea-level rise along the northeast coast of the United States. PMID:26017453

  8. Ocean impact on decadal Atlantic climate variability revealed by sea-level observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Gerard D.; Haigh, Ivan D.; Hirschi, Joël J.-M.; Grist, Jeremy P.; Smeed, David A.

    2015-05-01

    Decadal variability is a notable feature of the Atlantic Ocean and the climate of the regions it influences. Prominently, this is manifested in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in sea surface temperatures. Positive (negative) phases of the AMO coincide with warmer (colder) North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. The AMO is linked with decadal climate fluctuations, such as Indian and Sahel rainfall, European summer precipitation, Atlantic hurricanes and variations in global temperatures. It is widely believed that ocean circulation drives the phase changes of the AMO by controlling ocean heat content. However, there are no direct observations of ocean circulation of sufficient length to support this, leading to questions about whether the AMO is controlled from another source. Here we provide observational evidence of the widely hypothesized link between ocean circulation and the AMO. We take a new approach, using sea level along the east coast of the United States to estimate ocean circulation on decadal timescales. We show that ocean circulation responds to the first mode of Atlantic atmospheric forcing, the North Atlantic Oscillation, through circulation changes between the subtropical and subpolar gyres--the intergyre region. These circulation changes affect the decadal evolution of North Atlantic heat content and, consequently, the phases of the AMO. The Atlantic overturning circulation is declining and the AMO is moving to a negative phase. This may offer a brief respite from the persistent rise of global temperatures, but in the coupled system we describe, there are compensating effects. In this case, the negative AMO is associated with a continued acceleration of sea-level rise along the northeast coast of the United States.

  9. Alkalinity distribution in the western North Atlantic Ocean margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei-Jun; Hu, Xinping; Huang, Wei-Jen; Jiang, Li-Qing; Wang, Yongchen; Peng, Tsung-Hung; Zhang, Xin

    2010-08-01

    Total alkalinity (TA) distribution and its relationship with salinity (S) along the western North Atlantic Ocean (wNAO) margins from the Labrador Sea to tropical areas are examined in this study. Based on the observed TA-S patterns, the mixing processes that control alkalinity distribution in these areas can be categorized into a spectrum of patterns that are bracketed by two extreme mixing types, i.e., alongshore current-dominated and river-dominated. Alongshore current-dominated mixing processes exhibit a segmented mixing line with a shared mid-salinity end-member. In such cases (i.e., Labrador Sea, Gulf of Maine, etc.), the y-intercept of the high salinity segment of the mixing line is generally higher than the local river alkalinity values, and it reflects the mixing history of the alongshore current. In contrast, in river-dominated mixing (Amazon River, Caribbean Sea, etc.), good linear relationships between alkalinity and salinity are generally observed, and the zero salinity intercepts of the TA-S regressions roughly match those of the regional river alkalinity values. TA-S mixing lines can be complicated by rapid changes in the river end-member value and by another river nearby with a different TA value (e.g., Mississippi-Atchafalaya/Gulf of Mexico). In the wNAO margins, regression intercepts and river end-members have a clear latitudinal distribution pattern, increasing from a low of ˜300 μmol kg-1 in the Amazon River plume to a high value between ˜500-1100 μmol kg-1 in the middle and high latitude margins. The highest value of ˜2400 μmol kg-1 is observed in the Mississippi River influenced areas. In addition to mixing control, biological processes such as calcification and benthic alkalinity production may also affect ocean margin alkalinity distribution. Therefore, deriving inorganic carbon system information in coastal oceans using alkalinity-salinity relationships, in particular, those of generic nature, may lead to significant errors.

  10. The Tides of the Atlantic Ocean, 60 degrees N to 30 degrees S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, D. E.; Spencer, R.; Vassie, J. M.; Woodworth, P. L.

    1988-04-01

    As a sequel to Cartwright et al. (Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A298, 87-139 (1980)) (C.E.S.V.) an extended series of oceanic tidal pressure measurements in the Atlantic Ocean is described and the spatial properties of their spectral components are analysed. The principal linear admittances vary widely across the ocean basins, and clearly indicate the positions of the major amphidromes. Constants for the leading harmonics M2 and S2 are defined everywhere along the parallel of 53.6 degrees N and along a section from Natal (Brazil) and west Africa by interpolation between measurements. From a unique set of seven one-year deep pressure records between 57 degrees N and the Equator, the radiational component of S2 is shown to have similar magnitude and phase anomaly to values previously known only at coastal stations, confirming its intrinsically atmospheric forcing. From the same records, nonlinear terms in the semidiurnal band are found to be irregular and indistinguishable from noise. From the full set of data, the M4 overtide is generally small and erratic, probably affected in some areas by low-stability internal waves. The long-period tides Mm and Mf are clearly identified in the equatorial zone as coherent motions with slight phase variations. Their amplitudes are significantly greater than those deduced from the `self-consistent equilibrium theory' of Agnew & Farrell (Geophys. Jl R. astr. Soc. 55, 171-181 (1978)). The M1 tide, linearly driven from the third-degree harmonic of the potential, has been extracted from multiyear records at 13 representative coastal stations in both hemispheres. It is shown to agree well with a synthesis of normal modes of oscillation computed by Platzman (J. Phys. Oceanogr. 14 (10), 1521-1550 (1984)), provided a general phase adjustment of about 60 degrees is made to the synthesized phases. The other third-degree term M3 is well extracted from most of the pelagic stations but is found to be too finely structured in space for easy

  11. Methane at Ascension Island, southern tropical Atlantic Ocean: continuous ground measurement and vertical profiling above the Trade-Wind Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, David; Brownlow, Rebecca; Fisher, Rebecca; Nisbet, Euan; Lanoisellé, Mathias; France, James; Thomas, Rick; Mackenzie, Rob; Richardson, Tom; Greatwood, Colin; Freer, Jim; Cain, Michelle; Warwick, Nicola; Pyle, John

    2015-04-01

    Methane mixing ratios have been rising rapidly worldwide since 2007. At Ascension Island (8oS in the equatorial Atlantic), a sustained rise has occurred. Prior to 2010, growth was comparable to other regions, but in 2010-11, during a strong la Nina event, the increase was 10ppb year-on-year. Reduced growth followed in 2011-12, but in 2012-13 strong growth resumed and continues. This rise has been accompanied by a shift to lighter δ13CCH4 values in 2010-11 in the equatorial tropics. The most likely cause of this shift is emissions from isotopically 'light' biological sources in the equatorial and savanna tropics. Ascension Island is in the Trade Wind belt of the tropical Atlantic, perfectly located to measure the South Atlantic marine boundary layer. The SE Trade Winds are almost invariant, derived from the deep South Atlantic and with little contact with Africa. However, above the Trade Wind Inversion (TWI) at about 1200-2000m asl, the air masses are very different, coming dominantly from tropical Africa and occasionally S. America. Depending on season, air above the TWI is sourced from the African southern savanna grasslands or the equatorial wetlands of Congo and Uganda, with inputs of air also from southern tropical S. America (Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia). African methane sources are a major contributor to the global methane budget, but although local campaign studies have been made, African emissions are not well studied in bulk. In September 2014, an octocopter was used to retrieve air samples from heights up to 2700m asl on Ascension (see Thomas, R. et al, this volume). This allowed sampling through the marine boundary layer, across the TWI cloud layer, and into the mid-troposphere. Samples were collected in part-filled 5L Tedlar bags, which were analysed for CH4 concentration using Royal Holloway's Picarro 1301 CRDS system at the Met Office, Ascension. This has high precision and accuracy, with a 6-gas calibration suite. Bags were then analysed in the UK for

  12. Heat content variability in the North Atlantic Ocean in ocean reanalyses

    PubMed Central

    Häkkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B; Worthen, Denise L

    2015-01-01

    Warming of the North Atlantic Ocean from the 1950s to 2012 is analyzed on neutral density surfaces and vertical levels in the upper 2000 m. Three reanalyses and two observational data sets are compared. The net gain of 5 × 1022 J in the upper 2000 m is roughly 30% of the global ocean warming over this period. Upper ocean heat content (OHC) is dominated in most regions by heat transport convergence without widespread changes in the potential temperature/salinity relation. The heat convergence is associated with sinking of midthermocline isopycnals, with maximum sinking occurring at potential densities σ0 = 26.4−27.3, which contain subtropical mode waters. Water masses lighter than σ0 = 27.3 accumulate heat by increasing their volume, while heavier waters lose heat by decreasing their volume. Spatially, the OHC trend is nonuniform: the low latitudes, 0–30°N are warming steadily while large multidecadal variability occurs at latitudes 30–65°N. Key Points Heat content change dominated by heat transport convergence Due to widespread sinking trend of midthermocline isopycnals over 50+ years PMID:26709321

  13. Tracking Changes in Winds and Ocean Currents in the South Atlantic Using Terrigenous Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, S. R.; Goldstein, S. L.; Franzese, A. M.; Rutberg, R. L.; Piotrowski, A. M.

    2002-12-01

    Terrigenous sediments in the ocean can provide constraints on key climate variables such as winds and surface and deep currents. Sediments are brought to the ocean via river runoff, winds and ice, and are redistributed in the ocean by currents. Thus provenance and flux variations reflect the pathways of distribution. Temporal changes in sediment provenance may result from latitudinal wind shifts and ocean current patterns due to climate changes. In the South Atlantic, the pattern of clay minerals in surface sediments tracks the pattern of modern surface currents. Provenance boundaries cross large bathymetric features, indicating that surface currents are the first order control on terrigenous sediment distributions. Surface sediment Sr isotope ratios show systematic variations reflecting the geologic age of the sources. Southward from the Equator, South American sources show a gradient from from old (Brazil Craton) to young (Andes), and this is reflected in the Sr isotopes in proximal sediments. It appears to be possible to separate contributions from wind and surface and deep currents using provenance methods. South of 20oS westerly winds dominate, and South American sources are the most likely aeolian contributions. A counterclockwise gyre composed of the Benguela Current (fed partly by the Agulhas Current from the Indian Ocean), and the Equatorial, Brazil, and Falklands currents dominate the surface currents. Convergence of currents (the Agulhas Retroflection and Malvinas Confluence) produce areas that are potentially sensitive monitors of wind-driven circulation changes. Terrigenous sediment provenance studies in strategically chosen areas are powerful tools to constrain changes in wind, wind driven and deep circulation in paleoceanographic/paleoclimate studies. The Southern Cape Basin illustrates the utility of provenance studies in paleoclimate applications. Ancient continental crust of SE Africa is the source of Mozambique Channel detritus with with very

  14. A Global Warming Event in Magnetochron C19r: New evidence from the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehl, U.; Westerhold, T.; Donner, B.; Kordesch, W.; Bohaty, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chron C19r event in the late middle Eocene was first described at ODP Site 1260 in the equatorial Atlantic. It is characterized by strong dissolution expressed in a dark, clay-rich layer and a distinct peak in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning Fe intensities as well as by a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in bulk sediment. All similar to early Paleogene hyperthermal events - the Chron C19r event could also be a hyperthermal event but in the late middle Eocene. The dissolution of carbonate at Site 1260 prevented so far to retrieve a benthic stable isotope record with a typical CIE and warming of deep water. The C19r event occurred ~1.0 myr prior to the onset of the Middle Eocene Climate Optimum (MECO, 40.5 Ma) and several million years after the Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO, 51 Ma) during a slightly cooler climate. No significant CCD changes have been observed one million years before and after the event as expressed by regular Fe cycles at Site 1260. The duration of the event estimated by orbital calibration is in the order of 40-50 kyr, similar to other transient hyperthermals in the early to middle Eocene. Here we present new high-resolution bulk and benthic stable isotope data revealing the widespread nature of the event. We investigated ODP Sites 702B (~2200m) near the crest of the Islas Orcadas Rise in the southern South Atlantic, 1263 (~1800 m) on Walvis Ridge in the SE Atlantic, and 1051 (2100 m) on Blake Nose in the NW Atlantic. The position of the event was initially narrowed by careful analysis of magnetostratigraphy and XRF scanning data. First results of stable isotope data show a ~0.7 δ13C and ~0.4‰ δ18O excursion very similar to the pattern observed at Site 1260. Although the magnitude of the bulk δ13C excursion is comparable, the bulk δ18O excursion at Site 702B is only a third of that observed at Site 1260 which might be related to diagenetic and/or latitudinal effects. 702B benthic isotope data show a ~0.75 ‰ CIE and a ~0

  15. Estimating new production in the equatorial Pacific Ocean at 150 deg W

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugdale, Richard C.; Wilkerson, Frances P.; Barber, Richard T.; Chavez, Francisco P.

    1992-01-01

    A major goal of the WEC88 cruise of the R/V Wecoma to the equatorial Pacific (made in February-March 1988) was to establish rates of new production along a meridional section at 150 deg W and to compare these measured rates with the relatively high values for the equatorial Pacific that had been reported previously using indirect methods and models. Production values were obtained from the traditional approach using N-15 labeled nitrate uptake, and by using C-14 fixation values multiplied by f (proportion of new production) from various sources: from N-15 data, from a C-14 fixation-versus-f relationship, or from a nitrate-versus-f relationship. The ratios of directly measured nitrate and carbon uptake and the ratios of nitrate to nitrate plus ammonium uptake, i.e., values of f, agree well; values of f calculated from carbon uptake or from nitrate concentration are overestimates for the equatorial upwelling region. Carbon-to-nitrogen uptake ratios measured with C-14 and N-15, respectively, approximate the Redfield molar ratio, 6.6 C:N. The overall mean value of f (0.17) helps confirm the view that the low primary production in the enriched eastern equatorial Pacific is due to failure of the nitrate-uptake system.

  16. Simultaneous observations of sea surface temperature in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean by bulk, radiative and satellite methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, P. A.; Bradley, E. F.; Barton, I. J.; Godfrey, J. S.

    The increasing reliance on satellite observations for mapping and following changes in sea surface temperature (SST) has renewed interest in the measurement of the skin temperature of the ocean surface. In this experiment, skin surface temperature was measured with a narrow-band radiometer over a 13-day period in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean and compared with bulk sea temperatures and satellite-derived estimates. A cool skin was found to be a quasi-permanent feature in this region; its temperature averaged 0.3°C less than the bulk sea temperature. Conventional models for the cool skin were found to give a reasonable fit down to wind speeds of 1 m s-1. Satellite measurements showed some deviations from the true SST values, a result not unexpected, considering the substantial corrections required as a result of the high atmospheric water vapor content in these latitudes.

  17. The structure and evolution of seasonal wind anomalies over the near-equatorial eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutzler, David S.; Harrison, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    The longitude-height-time structure and evolution of near-equatorial wind variability over the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans are studied using data obtained from a network of eight radiosonde stations extending from southern India to the central Pacific Ocean. The seasonal zonal wind anomalies observed at the cross section beween Trivandrum and Majuro stations are analyzed using an empirical orthogonal function. The Walker Circulation fluctuations are described in terms of standing oscillations in the longitude-height plane, and it is determined that Southern Oscillation propagation anomaly best represents the wind fluctuations. A complex empirical orthogonal function (CEOF) analysis and an El Nino compositing methodology are applied to the seasonal zonal wind anomalies. It is determined that the composite El Nino anomalies correspond to the spatial structure and temporal evolution of anomalies implied by the CEOF analysis.

  18. 76 FR 65697 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries; 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...; Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries; 2012 Cage Tags AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... provide fishing year 2012 cage tags. SUMMARY: NMFS informs surfclam and ocean quahog individual... (January 1, 2012-December 31, 2012) cage tags from the National Band and Tag Company. The intent of...

  19. 77 FR 64316 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ...; Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries; Notice That Vendor Will Provide Year 2013 Cage Tags AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice of vendor to provide fishing year 2013 cage tags. SUMMARY: NMFS informs surfclam and ocean... their fishing year 2013 (January 1, 2013-December 31, 2013) cage tags from the National Band and...

  20. Five new records of Luvarus imperialis (Acanthuroidei: Luvaridae) in the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Domingues, R R; Montealegre-Quijano, S; Soto, J M R; Amorim, A F

    2015-03-01

    Five new records of louvars Luvarus imperialis are documented for the south-west Atlantic Ocean, extending its distribution range in this ocean. The presence of one ripe specimen, associated with the previous records of larvae and juveniles, suggests that L. imperialis spawn in this region. The possible association of juveniles with shoals of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis is discussed. PMID:25639157

  1. Interannual variability of temperature at a depth of 125 meters in the north atlantic ocean.

    PubMed

    Levitus, S; Antonov, J I; Boyer, T P

    1994-10-01

    Analyses of historical ocean temperature data at a depth of 125 meters in the North Atlantic Ocean indicate that from 1950 to 1990 the subtropical and subarctic gyres exhibited linear trends that were opposite in phase. In addition, multivariate analyses of yearly mean temperature anomaly fields between 20 degrees N and 70 degrees N in the North Atlantic show a characteristic space-time temperature oscillation from 1947 to 1990. A quasidecadal oscillation, first identified at Ocean Weather Station C, is part of a basin-wide feature. Gyre and basin-scale variations such as these provide the observational basis for climate diagnostic and modeling studies. PMID:17814003

  2. Geomagnetic, cosmogenic and climatic changes across the last geomagnetic reversal from Equatorial Indian Ocean sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Bassinot, Franck; Bouilloux, Alexandra; Bourlès, Didier; Nomade, Sébastien; Guillou, Valéry; Lopes, Fernand; Thouveny, Nicolas; Dewilde, Fabien

    2014-07-01

    High-resolution records of beryllium (10Be) production and relative paleointensity have been obtained across the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) reversal from the equatorial Indian Ocean (Maldives area). Both magnetic and geochemical analyses were performed from the same discrete samples to avoid any artificial depth offset. The authigenic 10Be concentrations were normalized with respect to 9Be in order to correct for potential environmental effects, while the relative paleointensity was derived from the remanent magnetization intensity after accounting for changes in magnetic concentration within the sediment. The relative paleointensity and the 10Be/9Be records are both characterized by large deviations, which culminate in the middle of the reversal. In contrast to most previous studies, and despite relative high deposition rate (4.7 cm/ka), we observed a perfect synchronism between the 10Be/9Be peak, the lowest value of relative paleointensity and the switch in direction, which indicates that bioturbation and post-depositional processes did not affect the magnetic record. This leaves no ambiguity for the stratigraphic position of the reversal located within Marine Isotopic Stage 19 as revealed by the planktonic δ18O record from the same core. The magnetic data depict a two-phase process with a precursory event preceding the rapid polarity switch, while only the second phase is present in the 10Be record, similarly to other low latitude records from the Indonesian area. Using an orbitally-tuned age model, we obtain an age of 772 ka±5 ka for the middle of the transition, while the precursory event occurred almost 20 ka before. We believe that the bimodal distribution emerging from the compilations of the ages of the M-B reversal results from the succession of these two events. Microtektites from the Australasian impact were found at 0.6 m below the transition (790 ka±5 ka B.P.) and confirm that this large event occurred 12 ka prior to the polarity transition. The

  3. Zooplankton grazing in the Atlantic Ocean: A latitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbet, Albert; Atienza, Dacha; Henriksen, Casper I.; Saiz, Enric; Adey, Timothy R.

    2009-07-01

    Mesozooplankton and 63-200 μm net-collected microzooplankton grazing on phytoplankton and protozoans was evaluated by 24-h incubations on a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean, from 35°N to 38°S (AMT-15; September-October 2004). The sampling area comprised contrasting ecosystems, including upwelling zones and oligotrophic subtropical gyres. Grazing impacts of mesozooplankton and 63-200 μm microzooplankton on total chlorophyll a (Chl a), >5 μm Chl a, ciliates, and dinoflagellates were low for both zooplankton size fractions, always removing<1.5% of the standing stocks of these groups. Grazing had a slightly greater impact upon primary production (up to 10% of primary production consumed daily), although on most occasions grazing removed<1% of primary production per day. To account for the reduction of micrograzers by predators in the experimental bottles and the consequent reduction of grazing pressure, the data were corrected with knowledge on the decrease of microzooplankton during incubations and global estimates of microzooplankton grazing. The corrected grazing rates for mesozooplankton ranged from 4% to 28% of the primary production consumed daily, and from 1% to 2% of the standing stock of Chl a removed every day. The 63-200 μm microzooplankton corrected grazing impact was always<5% of the primary production and standing stock consumed per day. The corrected grazing activity of 63-200 μm microzooplankton and mesozooplankton rendered daily rations ranging from 3% to 38% of the body carbon consumed daily, not sufficient for basal metabolism in most of the areas studied. Finally, the data on mesozooplankton grazing on primary production confirm the recent hypothesis of a decline of the relative importance of mesozooplankton grazing on primary producers with increasing primary production [Calbet, A., 2001. Mesozooplankton grazing effect on primary production: a global comparative analysis in marine ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanography 46, 1824-1830].

  4. The signature of low-frequency oceanic forcing in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Christopher H.; Huber, Markus; Woollings, Tim; Zanna, Laure

    2016-03-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) significantly influences the climate of the surrounding continents and has previously been attributed to variations in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Recently, however, similar multidecadal variability was reported in climate models without ocean circulation variability. We analyze the relationship between turbulent heat fluxes and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the midlatitude North Atlantic in observations and coupled climate model simulations, both with and without ocean circulation variability. SST anomalies associated with the AMO are positively correlated with heat fluxes on decadal time scales in both observations and models with varying ocean circulation, whereas in models without ocean circulation variability the anomalies are negatively correlated when heat flux anomalies lead. These relationships are captured in a simple stochastic model and rely crucially on low-frequency forcing of SST. The fully coupled models that better capture this signature more effectively reproduce the observed impact of the AMO on European summertime temperatures.

  5. Asthenospheric percolation of alkaline melts beneath the St. Paul region (Central Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunelli, Daniele; Seyler, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Two peridotite suites collected by submersible in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean (Hekinian et al., 2000) were studied for textures, modes, and in situ major and trace element compositions in pyroxenes. Dive SP12 runs along the immersed flank of the St. Peter and Paul Rocks islets where amphibole-bearing, ultramafic mylonites enriched in alkalies and incompatible elements are exposed (Roden et al., 1984), whereas dive SP03 sampled a small intra-transform spreading centre situated about 370 km east of the St. Peter and Paul Rocks. Both suites are characterized by undeformed, coarse-grained granular textures typical of abyssal peridotites, derived from residual mantle after ˜ 15% melting of a DMM source, starting in the garnet stability field. Trace element modelling, textures and lack of mineral zoning indicate that the residual peridotites were percolated, reacted and refertilized by ˜ 2.6% partially aggregated melts in the uppermost level of the melting region. This relatively large amount of refertilization is in agreement with the cold and thick lithosphere inferred by previous studies. Freezing of trapped melts occurred as the peridotite entered the conductive layer, resulting in late-stage crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, spinel, ± plagioclase. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns in clinopyroxenes from SP03 indicate that they last equilibrated with (ultra-) depleted partial melts. In contrast, REE concentrations in clinopyroxenes from SP12 display U and S shaped LREE-enriched patterns and the calculated compositions of the impregnating melts span the compositional range of the regional basalts, which vary from normal MORB to alkali basalt sometimes modified by chromatographic fractionation with no, or very limited, mineral reaction. Thus the mylonitic band forming the St. Peter and St. Paul Rocks ridge is not a fragment of subcontinental lithospheric mantle left behind during the opening of the Central Atlantic, nor the source of the alkaline basalts

  6. Distribution of copper, nickel, and cadmium in the surface waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, E.A.; Huested, S.S.; Jones, S.P.

    1981-09-20

    Concentrations of copper, nickel, and cadmium have been determined for about 250 surface water samples. Nonupwelling open-ocean concentrations of these metals are Cu, 0.5-1.4 nmol/kg: Ni, 1-2 nmol/kg; and Cd, less than 10 pmol/kg. In the equatorial Pacific upwelling zone, concentrations of Ni (3 nmol/kg) and Cd (80 pmol/kg) are higher than in the open ocean, but Cu (0.9 nmol/kg) is not significantly enriched. Metal concentrations are higher in cool, nutrient-rich eastern boundary currents: Cu, 1.5 nmol/kg: Ni, 3.5 nmol/kg and Cd, 30-50 pmol/kg. Copper is distinctly higher in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Panama (3--4 nmol/kg) and also higher in the shelf waters north of the Gulf Stream (2.5 nmol/kg): these copper enrichments may be caused by copper remobilized from mildly reducing shelf sediments and maintained by a coastal nutrient trap. In the open ocean, events of high-Cu water (1.5--3.5 nmol/kg) are seen on scales up to 60 km; presumably, these are due to the advection of coastal water into the ocean interior. The lowest copper concentrations in the North Pacific central gyre (0.5 nmol/kg: (Bruland, 1980) are lower than in the Sargasso Sea (1.3 nmol/kg), while for nickel the lowest concentrations are 2 nmol/kg in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Nickel and cadmium, while generally correlated with the nutrients in surface waters, show distinct regional changes in their element-nutrient correlations. The residual concentrations of trace metals in the surface waters of the ocean can be explained if biological discrimination against trace metals relative to phosphorus increases as productivity decreases.

  7. Identification of Atlantic Ocean Sea Surface Temperatures Drivers of French Streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, O. A.; Tootle, G. A.; Anderson, S.

    2010-12-01

    The identification of Atlantic Ocean climatic drivers [e.g., Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability] may be valuable in long lead-time forecasting of streamflow in France. Previous research efforts have identified the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) as drivers of European hydrology. The current research applies, for the first time, the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) statistical method to Atlantic Ocean SSTs and French streamflow to identify the primary Atlantic Ocean climatic driver of French streamflow. The use of Atlantic Ocean SSTs as a whole eliminates any biased that may be associated with using a predefined region of SSTs (e.g., AMO). Approximately 60 unimpaired streamflow stations with a period of record beginning around 1960 were evaluated and 25 were usable due to missing data. These data were obtained from the hydrology website of the Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development - Ministère de l’Ecologie et du Developpment Durable (http://www.hydro.eaufrance.fr). The Atlantic Ocean SST data cover the region spanning from 20° South to 60° North and 80° West to 2° West and were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center website (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/cdc/data.noaa.erSST.html). AMO index values are available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Diagnostics Center (CDC) (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/ClimateIndices/) and NAO index values were obtained from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) website (http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/cas/jhurrell/indices.html). SVD has been used previously in similar studies, evaluating Pacific (should this be Pacific?), Atlantic, and global SSTs with various hydrologic responses including streamflow, precipitation, snowpack, and drought. Seasonal and yearly French streamflow are the hydrologic response while average Atlantic Ocean SSTs calculated for three different six month windows (January-June or JFMAMJ, April

  8. Response to Comment on "The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation without a role for ocean circulation".

    PubMed

    Clement, Amy; Cane, Mark A; Murphy, Lisa N; Bellomo, Katinka; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

    2016-06-24

    Zhang et al interpret the mixed-layer energy budget in models as showing that "ocean dynamics play a central role in the AMO." Here, we show that their diagnostics cannot reveal the causes of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and that their results can be explained with minimal ocean influence. Hence, we reaffirm our findings that the AMO in models can be understood primarily as the upper-ocean thermal response to stochastic atmospheric forcing. PMID:27339977

  9. Response to Comment on “The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation without a role for ocean circulation”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Amy; Cane, Mark A.; Murphy, Lisa N.; Bellomo, Katinka; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

    2016-06-01

    Zhang et al. interpret the mixed-layer energy budget in models as showing that “ocean dynamics play a central role in the AMO.” Here, we show that their diagnostics cannot reveal the causes of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and that their results can be explained with minimal ocean influence. Hence, we reaffirm our findings that the AMO in models can be understood primarily as the upper-ocean thermal response to stochastic atmospheric forcing.

  10. Population structure of humpback whales from their breeding grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Howard C; Pomilla, Cristina; Mendez, Martin; Leslie, Matthew S; Best, Peter B; Findlay, Ken P; Minton, Gianna; Ersts, Peter J; Collins, Timothy; Engel, Marcia H; Bonatto, Sandro L; Kotze, Deon P G H; Meÿer, Mike; Barendse, Jaco; Thornton, Meredith; Razafindrakoto, Yvette; Ngouessono, Solange; Vely, Michel; Kiszka, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively). Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all ocean basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern Atlantic and the Southwestern Indian Ocean, followed by rates within the Southeastern Atlantic, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern Atlantic, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region. PMID:19812698

  11. Population Structure of Humpback Whales from Their Breeding Grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Howard C.; Pomilla, Cristina; Mendez, Martin; Leslie, Matthew S.; Best, Peter B.; Findlay, Ken P.; Minton, Gianna; Ersts, Peter J.; Collins, Timothy; Engel, Marcia H.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Kotze, Deon P. G. H.; Meÿer, Mike; Barendse, Jaco; Thornton, Meredith; Razafindrakoto, Yvette; Ngouessono, Solange; Vely, Michel; Kiszka, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively). Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all ocean basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern Atlantic and the Southwestern Indian Ocean, followed by rates within the Southeastern Atlantic, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern Atlantic, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region. PMID:19812698

  12. The influence of Southern Ocean winds on the North Atlantic carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronselaer, Ben; Zanna, Laure; Munday, David R.; Lowe, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Observed and predicted increases in Southern Ocean winds are thought to upwell deep ocean carbon and increase atmospheric CO2. However, Southern Ocean dynamics affect biogeochemistry and circulation pathways on a global scale. Using idealized Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation Model (MITgcm) simulations, we demonstrate that an increase in Southern Ocean winds reduces the carbon sink in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. The increase in atmospheric CO2 due to the reduction of the North Atlantic carbon sink is shown to be of the same magnitude as the increase in atmospheric CO2 due to Southern Ocean outgassing. The mechanism can be described as follows: The increase in Southern Ocean winds leads to an increase in upper ocean northward nutrient transport. Biological productivity is therefore enhanced in the tropics, which alters the chemistry of the subthermocline waters that are ultimately upwelled in the subpolar gyre. The results demonstrate the influence of Southern Ocean winds on the North Atlantic carbon sink and show that the effect of Southern Ocean winds on atmospheric CO2 is likely twice as large as previously thought in past, present, and future climates.

  13. Oligocene-Miocene relative (geomagnetic) paleointensity correlated from the equatorial Pacific (IODP Site U1334 and ODP Site 1218) to the South Atlantic (ODP Site 1090)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, J. E. T.; Lanci, L.

    2014-02-01

    Late Oligocene to Early Miocene relative paleointensity (RPI) proxies can be correlated from the equatorial Pacific (IODP Site U1334 and ODP Site 1218) to the South Atlantic (ODP Site 1090). Age models are constrained by magnetic polarity stratigraphy through correlation to a common geomagnetic polarity timescale. The RPI records do not contain significant power at specific (orbital) frequencies, and hence there is no significant coherency between RPI proxies and the normalizers used to construct the proxies, although orbital power is present in some normalizers. There is no obvious control on RPI proxies from mean sedimentation rate within polarity chrons, magnetic grain size proxies or magnetic concentration parameters. The salient test is whether the equatorial Pacific records can be correlated one to another, and to the records from the South Atlantic. All records are dominated by RPI minima at polarity reversals, as expected, although the comparison within polarity chrons is compelling enough to conclude that the intensity of the Earth's axial dipole is being recorded. This is supported by the fit of RPI data from Sites U1334 and 1218 after correlation of the two sites using diverse core-scanning data, rather than polarity reversals alone. We do not see a consistent relationship between polarity-chron duration and mean RPI, and no consistent skewness (“saw-tooth” pattern) for RPI within polarity chrons. Stacks of RPI records for 17.5-26.5 Ma include long-term changes in RPI on Myr timescales that are superimposed on RPI minima associated with polarity reversals, and shorter-term variations in RPI with an apparent pacing of ∼50 kyr. The equatorial Pacific to South Atlantic correlations indicate that RPI can be used as a (global) stratigraphic tool in pre-Quaternary sediments with typical pelagic sedimentation rates of a few cm/kyr.

  14. Atmospheric transport of pollutants from North America to the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Browell, E. V.; Sebacher, D. I.; Gregory, G. L.; Hinton, R. R.; Beck, S. M.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Shipley, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based measurements strongly support the hypothesis that pollutant materials of anthropogenic origin are being transported over long distances in the midtroposphere and are a significant source of acid rain, acid snow, trace metal deposition, ozone and visibility-reducing aerosols in remote oceanic and polar regions of the Norhern Hemisphere. Atmospheric sulphur budget calculations and studies of acid rain on Bermuda indicate that a large fraction of pollutant materials emitted into the atmosphere in eastern North America are advected eastwards over the North Atlantic Ocean. The first direct airborne measurements of the vertical distribution of tropospheric aerosols over the western North Atlantic is reported here. A newly developed airborne differential adsorption lidar system was used to obtain continuous, remotely sensed aerosol distributions along its flight path. The data document two episodes of long-distance transport of pollutant materials from North America over the North Atlantic Ocean.

  15. Million year cycles in the Fe, Mg and Ni records of a ferromanganese crust from the equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, R.; Gupta, S. M.; Miura, H.

    2008-12-01

    In search of long term productivity signals, a high resolution geochemical study was undertaken by using the life sustaining iron and magnesium contents in a slowly accreting 26 mm thick hydrogenous Fe-Mn crust representing around 12 Million years (Ma) record from the equatorial Indian Ocean. We analyzed Fe, Mg, Ni, Co, and other trace metals by using electron probe micro-analyzer at 100 micron interval. The geochemical data was averaged at every 1 mm interval and subjected to statistical analyses. The crust was dated using standard cobalt-chronometry (Manheim and Lane-Bostwick, 1998). Mixed age-depth model (Heegaard et al., 2005) was applied to ascertain the error limits in the computed ages for each millimeter of the crust. Thereafter, the Red-fit (Schulz and Mudelsee, 2002) and multi-taper (Thompson, 1990) spectral analyses of Fe, Mg and Ni revealed the existence of the significant (>90%) cycles at around 3, 1.5, and 1.2 Ma. We surmise that Fe and Mg cycles represented the changes in oceanic productivity as these metals are essentially used in sustaining the oceanic phyto- and zoo-plankton productivity in the surface water. The Fe/Ni ratio, which is attributed to meteoritic dust influx (Johnson, 2001), also revealed the similar cycles suggesting a possibility of Ni input from the meteoritic dust in the past. We compared the geochemical time- series data with the Earth's orbital eccentricity and summer solar insolation (Berger, 1979) at the equator for the last 10 million years. The Redfit and multi-taper analyses of the eccentricity and the insolation also resulted similar cycles at around 1.5 and 1.2 Ma. Therefore, we surmise that the Fe, Mg, and Ni cycles at 1.5, and 1.2 Ma could be result of the geochemical response to the Earth's eccentricity related solar insolation changes. Earlier studies reported cycles due to eccentricity (0.4, 0.126, 0.95 Ma), tilt (0.041 Ma) and precession (0.023 Ma) in Indian Ocean, whereas we report here 3, 1.5 and 1.2 Ma supra

  16. Spatial and temporal evolution of lead isotope ratios in the North Atlantic Ocean between 1981 and 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Dominik; Boyle, Edward A.; Wu, Jingfeng; Chavagnac, ValéRie; Michel, Anna; Reuer, Matthew K.

    2003-10-01

    Lead concentrations and isotope ratios were measured in North Atlantic surface water samples collected in 1981 (29°-79°N, 6°E-49°W) and in 1989 (23°-39°N, 29°-68°W). In the early 1980s, 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the North African Basin averaged 1.193 ± 0.005 (1 σ). Similar radiogenic ratios within the level of analytical precision (average 0.29%) were found in the Labrador and Iceland Basins (1.198 ± 0.006) and in the Norwegian Sea (1.196 ± 0.008). These radiogenic mixed layer signatures along with atmospheric global lead emission patterns suggest that most North Atlantic lead in the early 1980s was derived from North American leaded gasoline. Samples in the East Iberian Basin near Portugal and France showed lower 206Pb/207Pb ratios, between 1.167 and 1.182, indicating a significant influence of less radiogenic atmospheric lead transported from Europe and possibly the influence of the Rio Tinto acid mine drainage very close to shore in the Gulf of Cadiz. [Pb] across the entire North Atlantic Basin ranged between 54 and 145 pmol/kg, with the lowest values (54-74 pmol/kg) found at high latitudes (>65°N). In the late 1980s, surface waters in the western subtropical North Atlantic (North American Basin/Sargasso Sea, >47°W) and in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic (North African Basin/Central Iberian Basin, <45°W) showed very similar 206Pb/207Pb signatures with little zonal variation, ranging from 1.177 to 1.192. Lead concentrations ranged between 47 and 137 pmol/kg, increasing slightly from west to east. South of 25°N in the equatorial North Atlantic, crossing the subtropical/tropical surface water boundary, the 206Pb/207Pb seawater signatures were significantly less radiogenic (1.170-1.175) and concentrations were lower (≤51 pmol/kg). This difference suggests a relative increase in the atmospheric lead supply from the western Mediterranean/North African continent via Trade Easterlies and illustrates the effective barrier between the subtropical

  17. Influence of plumes from biomass burning on atmospheric chemistry over the equatorial and tropical South Atlantic during CITE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Anderson, B. E.; Blake, D. R.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Collins, J. E.; Gregory, G. L.; Sachse, G. W.; Shipham, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    During all eight flights conducted over the equatorial and tropical South Atlantic in the course of the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) experiment, we observed haze layers with elevated concentrations of aerosols, O3, CO, and other trace gases related to biomass burning emissions. They occurred at altitudes between 1000 and 5200 m and were usually only some 100-300 m thick. These layers extended horizontally over several 100 km and were marked by the presence of visible brownish haze. Air mass trajectories indicate that these layers originate in the biomass burning regions of Africa and South America and typically have aged at least 10 days since the time of emission. In the haze layers, O3 and CO concentrations up to 90 and 210 ppb were observed, respectively. The two species were highly correlated. The ratio concentrations in plume minus background concentrations of O3/CO is typically in the range 0.2-0.7, much higher than the ratios in the less aged plumes investigated previously in Amazonia. In most cases, aerosol (0.12-3 micrometer diameter) number concentrations were also elevated by up to 400/cu cm in the layers; aerosol enrichments were also strongly correlated with elevated CO levels. Clear correlations between CO and NO(x) enrichments were not apparent due to the age of the plumes, in which most NO(x) would have already reacted away within 1-2 days. Only in some of the plumes could clear correlations between NO(y) and CO be identified; the absence of a general correlation between NO(y) and CO may be due to instrumental limitations and to variable sinks for NO(y). The average enrichment of the ratio concentrations in plume minus background concentrations of NO(y)/CO was quite high, consistent with the efficient production of ozone observed in the plumes. The chemical characteristics of the haze layers, together with remote sensing information and trajectory calculations, suggest that fire emissions (in Africa and/or South America) are

  18. Is the oceanic heat transport with Atlantic water towards the Arctic changing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østerhus, Svein

    2013-04-01

    The flow of Atlantic water (Atlantic inflow) across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is critical for conditions in the Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean by importing heat and salt. All three branches crossing the GSR have been monitored since the mid-1990ies and the transports of water and heat have been estimated. The Atlantic inflow, that forms the surface part of the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic, is affected by wind forcing and freshwater input but the most important driving appears to be the cooling of the ocean by the atmosphere in the subarctic seas and increasing of salinity in the Arctic Ocean through freezing of seawater. This results in the sinking of the surface waters that subsequently flow out of the area close to the bottom over the GSR. This removal of water from the Arctic region by the overflow generates sea level slopes that drive a northward transport of water and heat. With global climate change, the Arctic atmosphere is expected to warm and freshwater input to the Arctic to increase, both of which may act to slow the mechanism that drives these flows, and climate models predict a weakening of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. This presentation addresses the question, whether the weakening has already been initiated and what regions may have been affected. Based on observations and model results, we conclude that the volume transport of the Atlantic inflow has not weakened consistently whereas the temperature has increased.

  19. Simulated strengthening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in response to abyssal ocean warming around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patara, L.; Boning, C. W.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of repeat hydrographic observations have revealed a conspicuous multi-decadal warming, and partly, freshening, of the frigid abyssal ocean waters originating from the fringes of the Antarctic continent. The warming and contraction of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) represents one of the most prominent signals of change in Earth's climate and accounts for a substantial fraction of the present global energy and sea level budgets. Here we present a set of ocean model experiments demonstrating that the ongoing loss of AABW also has important dynamical consequences for the large-scale meridional overturning circulation in the Atlantic Ocean. In conjunction with a slowdown of the bottom cell, we find that the upper cell of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) progressively strengthens in response to changes in density gradients in the deep South Atlantic. Changes in the AMOC are tightly connected to increased meridional heat transport and therefore have a strong influence on global and regional climate patterns in the North Atlantic. The simulations suggest that the AABW-induced strengthening of the AMOC is already extending into the North Atlantic, progressing at a rate of about 0.2 Sv per decade, implying that the process may need to be taken into account in projections of future North Atlantic climate.

  20. Arctic contribution to upper-ocean variability in the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, John E.; Chapman, William L.

    1990-01-01

    The potential climatic leverage of salinity and temperature anomalies in the high-latitude North Atlantic is large. Substantial variations of sea ice have accompanied North Atlantic salinity and temperature anomalies. Atmospheric pressure data are used here to show that the local forcing of high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean fluctuations is augmented by antecedent atmospheric circulation anomalies over the central Arctic. These circulation anomalies are consistent with enhanced wind-forcing of thicker older ice into the Transpolar Drift Stream and an enhanced export of sea ice (fresh water) from the Arctic into the Greenland Sea prior to major episodes of ice severity in the Greenland and Iceland seas.

  1. Century scale climatic rhythms in the equatorial Indian Ocean during the late Quaternary: Faunal and geochemical proxies from the Maldivian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, S.; Gupta, A. K.

    2012-04-01

    The equatorial Indian Ocean is swept by the Indian Ocean equatorial westerlies (IEW) which are strong during monsoon transitions in April-May and October-November, driving Eastward Equatorial Current (EEC) in the upper ocean. This study is based on the biogenic sediments from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 716A, recovered beneath the narrow equatorial track (7 Degree North to 7 Degree South) along which the IEW prevail. We analyzed 300 Kyr record of benthic and planktic foraminifera, pteropods combined with stable isotope values measured on planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber from 451 core samples to understand paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes in the equatorial Indian Ocean during the late Quaternary (~450 - 150 Kyrs). Factor and cluster analyses of the 53 highest-ranked benthic foraminiferal species enabled to identify five biofacies, indicating varied nature of deep-sea environments during the late Quaternary, with a major shift across the middle Brunhes epoch (across Marine Isotope Stage 9 and 8). Biofacies Robulus nicobarensis - Trifarina reussi (Rn-Tr), Uvigerina porrecta - Reussella simplex (Upo-Rs) and Cymbaloporetta squammosa - Bolivinita sp. (Cs-Bsp) document high organic flux with low oxygen paleoenvironment dominating before the mid-Brunhes event, similar to Globigerina bulloides population, while benthic foraminiferal biofacies Hoeglundina elegans - Miliolinella subrotunda (He-Ms) and Uvigerina peregrina - Quinqueloculina seminulum (Upe-Qs) record high seasonality in food supply with well-oxygenated deep water after ~300 Kyr. These changes are also visible in planktic foraminifera and pteropod record. In the present day, the strength of the IEW is inversely related to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The IEW weakened across MIS 9/8 during which time the IOD strengthened, causing heavy rains and floods over the equatorial East Africa and deficient rainfall over Australasia. The proxy response changed from low to high frequency cycles

  2. Meridional Distribution of Aerosol Optical Thickness over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kishcha, P.; Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, B.; Long, C. N.; Kalashnikova, O.; Alpert, P.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that, over the global ocean, there is hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and no noticeable asymmetry in cloud fraction (CF). In the current study, we focus on the tropical Atlantic (30 Deg N 30 Deg S) which is characterized by significant amounts of Saharan dust dominating other aerosol species over the North Atlantic. We found that, by contrast to the global ocean, over a limited area such as the tropical Atlantic, strong meridional asymmetry in dust aerosols was accompanied by meridional CF asymmetry. During the 10-year study period (July 2002 June 2012), NASA Aerosol Reanalysis (aka MERRAero) showed that, when the meridional asymmetry in dust aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was the most pronounced (particularly in July), dust AOT averaged separately over the tropical North Atlantic was one order of magnitude higher than dust AOT averaged over the tropical South Atlantic. In the presence of such strong meridional asymmetry in dust AOT in July, CF averaged separately over the tropical North Atlantic exceeded CF averaged over the tropical South Atlantic by 20%. Our study showed significant cloud cover, up to 0.8 - 0.9, in July along the Saharan Air Layer which contributed to above-mentioned meridional CF asymmetry. Both Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) measurements and MERRAero data were in agreement on seasonal variations in meridional aerosol asymmetry. Meridional asymmetry in total AOT over the Atlantic was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence over the North Atlantic was maximal. In September and October, there was no noticeable meridional asymmetry in total AOT and meridional CF distribution over the tropical Atlantic was almost symmetrical.

  3. S and O Isotope Studies of Microbial S Cycling in the Deep Biosphere of Marine Sediments: Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, R. E.; Bottcher, M. E.; Surkov, A. V.; Ferdelman, T. G.; Jorgensen, B. B.

    2004-12-01

    We have determined the oxygen (18O/16O) and sulfur (34S/32S) isotope ratios of porewater sulfate to depths of over 400 mbsf in sediments from open-ocean and upwelling sites in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific ocean. Sulfate δ 18O ranges from near-normal seawater values (9.5 permil) at organic-poor open-ocean sites, to approximately 30 permil at sites with higher organic matter content and higher associated microbial activity. Depth-correlative trends of δ 18O, δ 34S, alkalinity, methane, ammonium and the presence of sulfide, indicate significant oxidation of sedimentary organic matter by sulfate-reducing microbial populations as well as anaerobic oxidation of methane. δ 18O-SO4 values at low-activity sites reveal the presence of significant microbial sulfur-cycling activity despite relatively flat sulfate concentration and δ 34S profiles. This activity may include contributions from several processes including: enzyme-catalyzed equilibration between oxygen in sulfate and water superimposed upon microbial sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation, and bacterial disproportionation of sulfur intermediates. Large isotope enrichment factors observed at low-activity sites (40-80 permil) likely reflect concurrent processes of: kinetic isotope fractionation, equilibrium fractionation between sulfate and water, and sulfide oxidation at low rates of sulfate reduction. Results of this study indicate that coupled measurements of S and O isotope ratios of porewater sulfate are a powerful tool for tracing microbial activity and sulfur cycling in marine sediments.

  4. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Engineers also has regulations dealing with this section in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

  5. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Engineers also has regulations dealing with this section in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

  6. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Engineers also has regulations dealing with this section in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1460 - Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1460 Section 334.1460 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1460 Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra...

  8. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  9. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  10. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  11. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  12. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  13. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  14. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  15. 33 CFR 334.100 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Atlantic...

  16. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1460 - Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1460 Section 334.1460 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1460 Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra...

  18. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1460 - Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1460 Section 334.1460 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1460 Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra...

  20. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, contiguous to the area offshore of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  1. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, contiguous to the area offshore of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  2. 33 CFR 334.100 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Atlantic...

  3. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1460 - Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1460 Section 334.1460 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1460 Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra...

  5. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  6. 33 CFR 334.100 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Atlantic...

  7. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  8. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  9. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  10. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1460 - Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1460 Section 334.1460 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1460 Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra...

  12. 33 CFR 207.160 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of St. Marks, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. (a... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay or with the Gulf of Mexico east and south......

  13. 33 CFR 207.160 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of St. Marks, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. (a... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay or with the Gulf of Mexico east and south of St. Marks, Florida....

  14. Troposphere-stratosphere response to large-scale North Atlantic Ocean variability in an atmosphere/ocean coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, N.-E.; Bader, Jürgen; Keenlyside, N. S.; Manzini, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    The instrumental records indicate that the basin-wide wintertime North Atlantic warm conditions are accompanied by a pattern resembling negative North Atlantic oscillation (NAO), and cold conditions with pattern resembling the positive NAO. This relation is well reproduced in a control simulation by the stratosphere resolving atmosphere-ocean coupled Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). Further analyses of the MPI-ESM model simulation shows that the large-scale warm North Atlantic conditions are associated with a stratospheric precursory signal that propagates down into the troposphere, preceding the wintertime negative NAO. Additional experiments using only the atmospheric component of MPI-ESM (ECHAM6) indicate that these stratospheric and tropospheric changes are forced by the warm North Atlantic conditions. The basin-wide warming excites a wave-induced stratospheric vortex weakening, stratosphere/troposphere coupling and a high-latitude tropospheric warming. The induced high-latitude tropospheric warming is associated with reduction of the growth rate of low-level baroclinic waves over the North Atlantic region, contributing to the negative NAO pattern. For the cold North Atlantic conditions, the strengthening of the westerlies in the coupled model is confined to the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Comparing the coupled and uncoupled model shows that in the cold phase the tropospheric changes seen in the coupled model are not well reproduced by the standalone atmospheric configuration. Our experiments provide further evidence that North Atlantic Ocean variability (NAV) impacts the coupled stratosphere/troposphere system. As NAV has been shown to be predictable on seasonal-to-decadal timescales, these results have important implications for the predictability of the extra-tropical atmospheric circulation on these time-scales.

  15. Observational Constraints on Atmospheric and Oceanic Cross-Equatorial Heat Transports: Revisiting the Precipitation Asymmetry Problem in Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Wang, H.; Cheng, A.; Kato, S.; Fasullo, J.; Xu, K. M.; Allan, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have shown strong linkages between hemispheric asymmetries in atmospheric and oceanic energy budgets, tropical precipitation and the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The energetics framework has been used to explain why the mean position of the ITCZ is in the Northern Hemisphere and to study large-scale circulation and precipitation responses to changes in the hemispheric distribution of heating. Here, we expand upon these earlier studies by also considering estimates of hemispheric asymmetry in surface and atmospheric radiation budget derived from satellite observations, which enables a decomposition of cross-equatorial heat transport in terms of radiative and non-radiative (i.e., combined latent and sensible heat) components. Satellite observations of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiation budget from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiation Budget (CERES) are combined with mass corrected vertically integrated atmospheric energy divergence from reanalysis to infer the regional distribution of the TOA, atmospheric and surface energy budget terms over the globe. Observed radiative and combined sensible and latent heat contributions to atmospheric and oceanic cross-equatorial heat transports are compared with simulations from 30 models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Results show that most CMIP5 models that overestimate tropical precipitation in the SH have too much net downward surface radiation and combined latent and sensible heat flux in the SH relative to the NH. In addition, many of the models also underestimate atmospheric radiative cooling in the SH compared to the NH. Consequently, the models have excessive heating of the SH atmosphere and anomalous SH to NH cross-equatorial heat transport. The anomalous northward heat transport occurs via the upper branch of the northern Hadley Cell, while anomalous NH to SH moisture transport occurs in the lower branch of the northern

  16. Bipolar Atlantic deepwater circulation in the middle-late Eocene: Effects of Southern Ocean gateway openings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Chiara; Cramer, Benjamin S.; Katz, Miriam E.

    2014-04-01

    We present evidence for Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC)-like effects on Atlantic deepwater circulation beginning in the late-middle Eocene. Modern ocean circulation is characterized by a thermal differentiation between Southern Ocean and North Atlantic deepwater formation regions. In order to better constrain the timing and nature of the initial thermal differentiation between Northern Component Water (NCW) and Southern Component Water (SCW), we analyze benthic foraminiferal stable isotope (δ18Obf and δ13Cbf) records from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1053 (upper deep water, western North Atlantic). Our data, compared with published records and interpreted in the context of ocean circulation models, indicate that progressive opening of Southern Ocean gateways and initiation of a circum-Antarctic current caused a transition to a modern-like deep ocean circulation characterized by thermal differentiation between SCW and NCW beginning ~38.5 Ma, in the initial stages of Drake Passage opening. In addition, the relatively low δ18Obf values recorded at Site 1053 show that the cooling trend of the middle-late Eocene was not global, because it was not recorded in the North Atlantic. The timing of thermal differentiation shows that NCW contributed to ocean circulation by the late-middle Eocene, ~1-4 Myr earlier than previously thought. We propose that early NCW originated in the Labrador Sea, based on tectonic reconstructions and changes in foraminiferal assemblages in this basin. Finally, we link further development of meridional isotopic gradients in the Atlantic and Pacific in the late Eocene with the Tasman Gateway deepening (~34 Ma) and the consequent development of a circumpolar proto-ACC.

  17. Influence of penetrating solar radiation on the heat budget of the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marlon R.; Carr, Mary-Elena; Feldman, Gene C.; Esaias, Wayne; Mcclain, Chuck

    1990-01-01

    Recent satellite observations of ocean transparency, coupled with climatological surface heat fluxes and ocean density profiles, are used here to show that solar radiation in visible frequencies, usually assumed to be absorbed at the sea surface, in fact penetrates to a significant degree to below the upper mixed layer of the ocean which interacts actively with the atmosphere. The net effect is a reduction of the heat input into the upper layer; for a 20 m-thick mixed layer this is equivalent to an annual reduction in temperature of about 5-10 K. The results provide a natural explanation for the discrepancy between the SSTs predicted by models and those observed.

  18. Tropospheric Total Ozone in the Region of the Equatorial south Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, Francis J.; Northam, E. Thomas; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; daSilva, Francisco Raimundo

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of the SHADOZ effort it is possible to examine Tropospheric Total Ozone TTO, over Ascension Island (8S,14W) and compare results with similar ozone soundings for the period July 1990 through October 1992. Because of the nearly 20-year long cooperation between NASA and INPE it is possible to also compare the Ascension Island results with the long-term ozone data set available from Natal, Brazil (6S,35W). The Natal site meets requirements of the SHADOZ program. The tropopause is determined objectively using the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) criteria and the radiosonde's temperature and altitude parameters. Once tropopause heights are determined TTO can be calculated. Time-series profiles illustrate changes in TTO over the period of record.

  19. Tertiary carbonate-dissolution cycles on the Sierra Leone Rise, eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Gardner, J.V.; Cepek, P.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the Tertiary section on Sierra Leone Rise off northwest Africa consists of chalk, marl, and limestone that show cyclic alterations of clay-rich and clay-poor beds about 20-60 cm thick. On the basis of biostratigraphic accumulation rates, the cycles in Oligocene and Miocene chalk have periods which average about 44,000 years, and those in Eocene siliceous limestone have periods of 4000-27,000 years. Several sections were sampled in detail to further define the cycles in terms of content of CaCO3, clay minerals, and relative abundances of calcareous nannofossils. Extending information gained by analyses of Pleistocene cores from the continental margin of northwest Africa to the Tertiary cycles on Sierra Leone Rise, both dilution by noncarbonate material and dissolution of CaCO3 could have contributed to the observed relative variations in clay and CaCO3. However, dissolution of CaCO3 as the main cause of the carbonate-clay cycles on the Sierra Leone Rise, rather than dilution by clay, is suggested by the large amount of change (several thousand percent) in terrigenous influx required to produce the observed variations in amount of clay and by the marked increase in abundance of dissolution-resistant discoasters relative to more easily dissolved coccoliths in low-carbonate parts of cycles. The main cause of dissolution of CaCO3 was shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) during the early Neogene and climatically induced fluctuations in the thickness of Antarctic Bottom Water. ?? 1981.

  20. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia perfusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U.S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks

  1. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, C.L.; Ross, S.W.; Nizinski, M.S.; Brooke, S.; Jarnegren, J.; Waller, R.G.; Johnson, R.L.; King, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U. S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U. S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks. ?? 2011 US Government.

  2. Using Three Global Climate Indices to Forecast Hurricane Activity in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannettone, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative relationships between global climate indices and hurricane activity in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans have not been widely studied. A few studies have explored qualitative relationships between hurricane activity and such climate indices as the North Atlantic Oscillation and sea-surface temperatures, among others. The current work presents the most comprehensive analysis of the potential relationships between 39 different climate indices and hurricane activity using regression and frequency analysis. Attempts are made to develop statistical relationships between any one of these indices and hurricane activity in the eastern and western Pacific as well as the Atlantic Oceans. There were three climate indices, one per region, showing significantly higher correlation in each region. They were the ENSO Precipitation Index (EPI) in the western Pacific, the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) in the eastern Pacific, and the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) in the Atlantic. The linear relationships between each index and hurricane numbers resulted in Pearson-R values of near 0.65 or greater. In addition, the Madden-Julian Oscillation showed some correlation with hurricane activity in each region and therefore was included in the analysis. Several important results were found during these analyses. For instance, the relationship between the AMM index and hurricane numbers in the Atlantic Ocean revealed that the average July - October AMM index was greater than -0.5 within a range of -5.0 to 5.0 for years within the last 70 years when the number of hurricanes during that same period was greater than 7. It is also shown that the number of hurricanes expected to be exceeded or not exceeded at frequencies of 50- to 100-years, for example, varies substantially depending on the range of AMM index values being analyzed. Similar results are shown for the eastern and western Pacific Ocean as well. Such relationships provide forecasters with a simple tool using only

  3. Dynamics of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and Southern Ocean in an ocean model of intermediate complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreary, Julian P.; Furue, Ryo; Schloesser, Fabian; Burkhardt, Theodore W.; Nonaka, Masami

    2016-04-01

    A steady-state, variable-density, 2-layer, ocean model (VLOM) is used to investigate basic dynamics of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and Southern Ocean. The domain consists of idealized (rectangular) representations of the Atlantic, Southern, and Pacific Oceans. The model equations represent the depth-averaged, layer-1 response (except for one solution in which they represent the depth-integrated flow over both layers). To allow for overturning, water can cross the bottom of layer 1 at the velocity we =wd +wm +wn , the three parts representing: interior diffusion wd that increases the layer-1 thickness h throughout the basin, mixed-layer entrainment wm that ensures h is never less than a minimum value hm , and diapycnal (cooling) processes external to the basin wn that adjust h to hn . For most solutions, horizontal mixing has the form of Rayleigh damping with coefficient ν , which we interpret to result from baroclinic instability through the closure, V∗ = - (ν /f2) ∇P , where ∇P = ∇(1/2 g‧h2) is the depth-integrated pressure gradient, g‧ is the reduced-gravity coefficient, and ν is a mixing coefficient; with this interpretation, the layer-1 flow corresponds to the sum of the Eulerian-mean and eddy-mean (V∗) transport/widths, that is, the "residual" circulation. Finally, layer-1 temperature cools polewards in response to a surface heat flux Q, and the cooling can be strong enough in the Southern Ocean for g‧ = 0 south of a latitude y0 , in which case layer 1 vanishes and the model reduces to a single layer 2. Solutions are obtained both numerically and analytically. The analytic approach splits fields into interior and boundary-layer parts, from which a coupled set of integral constraints can be derived. The set allows properties of the circulation (upwelling-driven transport out of the Southern Ocean M , downwelling transport in the North Atlantic, transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current) and stratification (Atlantic

  4. Reconstructing the stable isotope geochemistry and paleotemperatures of the equatorial Atlantic during the last 150,000 years: Results from individual foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billups, Katharina; Spero, Howard J.

    1996-04-01

    This study represents an attempt to extract paleoclimatic data from the deep-sea record by analyzing foraminiferal shells individually. Using the oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic composition of individual Orbulina universa and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, we present an approach to reconstruct the δ18O of seawater (δ18Ow), the δ13C of ΣCO2, and seasonal maximum sea surface temperatures (SST) in the western and eastern equatorial Atlantic. We examine the glacial and interglacial extremes of the last 150,000 years (isotope stages 1, 2, 5e, and 6). Comparison of recent water column hydrography with reconstructions from core top assemblages shows that O. universa and N. dutertrei δ18O and δ13C values accurately record hydrographic conditions in the mixed layer and upper thermocline at both sites. By analyzing shells individually, we can evaluate the effect of bioturbation on the range of δ18O and δ13C values in each interval and take it into consideration in our data interpretations. Downcore results show that N. dutertrei δ18O values in the western equatorial Atlantic reflect glacial to interglacial changes in δ18Ow due to continental ice formation (Δδ18O=1.30 ‰). We use changes in N. dutertrei δ18O values between core intervals to estimate the ice-volume effect in paleotemperature calculations for the mixed layer. To validate the use of O. universa for mixed layer reconstructions, we have added individual Globigerinoides sacculifer data for stages 1 and 2 at both sites. Paleotemperature reconstructions from O. universa δ18O values indicate that maximum seasonal mixed layer temperatures in the equatorial Atlantic decreased by at most 2.6°C between isotope stages 1 and 2 and by no more than 3.4°C between stages 1 and 6. Individual shell data from G. sacculifer yield similar results indicating that maximum O. universa δ18O values reflect the mixed layer environment. In agreement with Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction

  5. Atlantic forcing of Pacific decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharski, Fred; Ikram, Farah; Molteni, Franco; Farneti, Riccardo; Kang, In-Sik; No, Hyun-Ho; King, Martin P.; Giuliani, Graziano; Mogensen, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the Atlantic Ocean influence on equatorial Pacific decadal variability. Using an ensemble of simulations, where the ICTPAGCM ("SPEEDY") is coupled to the NEMO/OPA ocean model in the Indo-Pacific region and forced by observed sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic region, it is shown that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) has had a substantial influence on the equatorial Pacific decadal variability. According to AMO phases we have identified three periods with strong Atlantic forcing of equatorial Pacific changes, namely (1) 1931-1950 minus 1910-1929, (2) 1970-1989 minus 1931-1950 and (3) 1994-2013 minus 1970-1989. Both observations and the model show easterly surface wind anomalies in the central Pacific, cooling in the central-eastern Pacific and warming in the western Pacific/Indian Ocean region in events (1) and (3) and the opposite signals in event (2). The physical mechanism for these responses is related to a modification of the Walker circulation because a positive (negative) AMO leads to an overall warmer (cooler) tropical Atlantic. The warmer (cooler) tropical Atlantic modifies the Walker circulation, leading to rising (sinking) and upper-level divergence (convergence) motion in the Atlantic region and sinking (rising) motion and upper-level convergence (divergence) in the central Pacific region.

  6. Open oceanic productivity changes at mid-latitudes during interglacials and its relation to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Silvia; Lebreiro, S.; Kissel, C.; Guihou, A.; Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Michel, E.; Cortijo, E.; Labeyrie, L.; Voelker, A.

    2010-05-01

    Variations in the interactions between marine ecosystems, thermohaline circulation, external forcing and atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations are not yet fully represented in detailed models of the glacial-interglacial transitions. Most of the research on past productivity changes has been focused so far on high-productivity areas such as upwelling areas (i.e. equatorial or coastal upwelling areas) even though those regions appraise only a little part of the ocean. Accordingly, the importance of oceanic productivity changes over glacial/interglacial cycles should be better known, as it may also play an important role on the loss of photosynthetically generated carbon as a central mechanism in the global carbon cycle. Its understanding will help quantifying the parameters needed to run comprehensive climate models, and subsequently help to better predict climate change for the near future. A high-resolution study of oceanic productivity, bottom water flow speed, surface and deep-water mass, bottom water ventilation, and terrestrial input changes during two interglacials (Holocene and Marine Isotope Stage [MIS] 5), at an open ocean site approximately 300 km west off Portugal [IMAGES core MD01-2446: 39°03'N, 12°37'W, 3547 m water depth] was conducted within the AMOCINT project (ESF-EUROCORES programme, 06-EuroMARC-FP-008). Even though siliceous productivity is expectedly low for oceanic regions, it shows a robust and consistent pattern with increased values during cold phases of MIS 5, and during the glacial stages 4 and 6 suggesting higher nutrient availability, during these periods. The same pattern is observed for MIS2 and the last deglaciation. The opal record is fully supported by the organic carbon content and to the estimated productivity using foraminifera based FA20 and SIMMAX.28 transfer functions for a near location. The benthic δ13C record suggests less North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) coincident with periods of higher productivity. The grain

  7. Soft-walled, monothalamous benthic foraminiferans in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans: aspects of biodiversity and biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooday, Andrew J.; Hori, Saori; Todo, Yuko; Okamoto, Takuji; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Sabbatini, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Delicate foraminiferans with test walls that are either agglutinated (Order Astrorhizida, Families Saccamminidae and Psammosphaeridae) or composed of organic material (Order Allogromiida) are often an important element of deep-sea benthic assemblages. Many species have soft, flexible walls and, except for a few allogromiids, are monothalamous (single-chambered). We examined quantitative multicorer samples from abyssal (4263-5570 m) water depths in the North and western Equatorial Pacific and a qualitative sample from a hadal site (7800 m water depth) in the Atacama Trench, SE Pacific. Soft-walled foraminiferans made up 29-42% of all complete, 'live' (rose Bengal stained) foraminiferans in the >32 μm fractions (0-1 cm sediment layer) of the North Pacific samples and 63% in the western Equatorial Pacific sample. They included the following morphotypes: (i) organic-walled allogromiids with one or occasionally two apertures; (ii) Nodellum- and Resigella-like forms in which the organic wall is generally brownish in colour and the test sometimes divided into more or less well-defined chambers by constrictions or partitions; (iii) flask-like agglutinated saccamminids with one aperture; (iv) oval saccamminids with two apertures; (v) agglutinated spheres which lack obvious apertures (psammosphaerids). In addition, numerous isolated spherical chambers, believed to be fragments derived from much larger komokiacean foraminiferans, were present in some samples and easily confused with saccamminids. At each Pacific station, we recognised 26-55 morphologically distinct forms (morphospecies) in addition to numerous 'indeterminate' specimens that could not be categorised on the basis of morphological criteria. A comparison of the Pacific assemblages with existing data on monothalamous assemblages from abyssal and bathyal depths in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans (>63 μm fraction) suggests that some morphospecies have wide geographical and bathymetric distributions. These wide

  8. Temporal and spatial variability of seawifs-derived ocean color and aerosol in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean during Nauru99

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, K.; Ishida, K.; Kusakari, M.; Sasaki, M.

    Observations of aerosol optical thickness and spectral water-leaving radiance are carried out onboard R/V MIRAI in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean during the international observation project of Nauru99 (MR99-K03 cruise). In situ data are synchronized with SeaWiFS overpasses and the SeaWiFS-derived aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiance products are validated against the in situ data. Furthermore the variability of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiance are investigated in space and time. Based on the SeaWiFS-derived products it was found out that the magnitude and pattern of aerosol optical thickness at 443 and 555nm bands are almost the same in terms of space and time and the distribution of low radiance values at 443nm roughly correspond to the high chlorophyl distribution area between 2 degrees north and 3 degrees south around the equator.

  9. Initiation of Northern Hemisphere glaciation and strengthening of the northeast Indian monsoon: Ocean Drilling Program Site 758, eastern equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anil K.; Thomas, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    The Indian monsoon system, as recorded by ocean-floor biota (benthic foraminifera) at Ocean Drilling Program Site 758 in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean, has varied dramatically over the past 5.5 m.y., long after the onset of the monsoons at 10 8 Ma. Benthic foraminifera that thrive with high productivity year-round were common before the formation of Northern Hemisphere continental ice sheets ca. 3.1 2.5 Ma, indicating that the summer (southwest) monsoon had high intensity and long seasonal duration. Ca. 2.8 Ma benthic faunas became dominated by taxa that flourish with a seasonally strongly fluctuating food supply, indicating that the northeast (winter) monsoon, during which primary productivity is relatively low, increased in duration and strength to form a system similar to that of today. The change occurred coeval with the initiation of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation, documenting a close link between the development of the Indian monsoon and Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  10. Rapid freshening of the deep North Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Bob; Yashayaev, Igor; Meincke, Jens; Turrell, Bill; Dye, Stephen; Holfort, Juergen

    2002-04-25

    The overflow and descent of cold, dense water from the sills of the Denmark Strait and the Faroe Shetland channel into the North Atlantic Ocean is the principal means of ventilating the deep oceans, and is therefore a key element of the global thermohaline circulation. Most computer simulations of the ocean system in a climate with increasing atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations predict a weakening thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic as the subpolar seas become fresher and warmer, and it is assumed that this signal will be transferred to the deep ocean by the two overflows. From observations it has not been possible to detect whether the ocean's overturning circulation is changing, but recent evidence suggests that the transport over the sills may be slackening. Here we show, through the analysis of long hydrographic records, that the system of overflow and entrainment that ventilates the deep Atlantic has steadily changed over the past four decades. We find that these changes have already led to sustained and widespread freshening of the deep ocean. PMID:11976679

  11. Detection of Natural Oil Seeps in the Atlantic Ocean Using MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reahard, Ross; Jones, Jason B.; Mitchell, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Natural oil seepage is the release of crude oil into the ocean from fissures in the seabed. Oil seepage is a major contributor to the total amount of oil entering the world s oceans. According to a 2003 study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 47 percent of oil entering the world s oceans is from natural seeps, and 53 percent is from human sources (extraction, transportation, and consumption). Oil seeps cause smooth oil slicks to form on the water s surface. Oil seeps can indicate the location of stores of fossil fuel beneath the ocean floor. Knowledge of the effect of oil seepage on marine life and marine ecosystems remains limited. In the past, remote sensing has been used to detect oil seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and off of the coast of southern California. This project utilized sun glint MODIS imagery to locate oil slicks off of the Atlantic coast, an area that had not previously been surveyed for natural oil seeps using remote sensing. Since 1982, the Atlantic Ocean has been closed to any oil and gas drilling. Recently, however, the U.S. Minerals Management Services (MMS) has proposed a lease for oil and gas drilling off the coasts of Virginia and North Carolina. Determining the location of seepage sites in the Atlantic Ocean will help MMS locate potential deposits of oil and natural gas, thereby reducing the risk of leasing areas for petroleum extraction that do not contain these natural resources.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the equatorial Indian Ocean: temporal trend, continental outflow and air-water exchange.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Cheng, Zhineng; Liu, Junwen; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chongguo; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2014-03-15

    Nineteen pairs of air and seawater samples collected from the equatorial Indian Ocean onboard the Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011 were analyzed for PCBs and HCB. Gaseous concentrations of ∑(ICES)PCBs (ICES: International Council for the Exploration of the Seas) and HCB were lower than previous data over the study area. Air samples collected near the coast had higher levels of PCBs relative to those collected in the open ocean, which may be influenced by proximity to source regions and air mass origins. Dissolved concentrations of ∑(ICES)PCBs and HCB were 1.4-14 pg L⁻¹ and 0.94-13 pg L⁻¹, with the highest concentrations in the sample collected from Strait of Malacca. Fugacity fractions suggest volatilization of PCBs and HCB from the seawater to air during the cruise, with fluxes of 0.45-34 ng m⁻² d⁻¹ and 0.36-18 ng m⁻² d⁻¹, respectively. PMID:24462236

  13. Interannual variations of North Equatorial Current transport in the Pacific Ocean during two types of El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guoli; Zhai, Fangguo; Hu, Dunxin

    2016-05-01

    Interannual variations of Pacific North Equatorial Current (NEC) transport during eastern-Pacific El Niños (EP-El Niños) and central-Pacific El Niños (CP-El Niños) are investigated by composite analysis with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast Ocean Analysis/Reanalysis System 3. During EP-El Niño, NEC transport shows significant positive anomalies from the developing to decay phases, with the largest anomalies around the mature phase. During CP-El Niño, however, the NEC transport only shows positive anomalies before the mature phase, with much weaker anomalies than those during EP-El Niño. The NEC transport variations are strongly associated with variations of the tropical gyre and wind forcing in the tropical North Pacific. During EP-El Niño, strong westerly wind anomalies and positive wind stress curl anomalies in the tropical North Pacific induce local upward Ekman pumping and westward-propagating upwelling Rossby waves in the ocean, lowering the sea surface height and generating a cyclonic gyre anomaly in the western tropical Pacific. During CP-El Niño, however, strength of the wind and associated Ekman pumping velocity are very weak. Negative sea surface height and cyclonic flow anomalies are slightly north of those during EP El Niño.

  14. Abundance of thraustochytrids and bacteria in the equatorial Indian Ocean, in relation to transparent exopolymeric particles (TEPs).

    PubMed

    Damare, Varada; Raghukumar, Seshagiri

    2008-07-01

    Thraustochytrid protists are often abundant in coastal waters. However, their population dynamics and substrate preferences in the oceanic water column are poorly understood. We studied the abundance and distribution of thraustochytrids, bacteria and TEPs in the equatorial Indian Ocean waters during September 2003, October 2004 and September 2006. Thraustochytrids and bacteria were abundant, suggesting high biological productivity of the region. Thraustochytrids were positively related to bacteria during October 2004 but not at other times, suggesting overlapping or varying substrate preferences at different times. Thraustochytrid and bacteria were positively related to TEPs only in a few stations during October 2004, but were mostly positively related to TEPs generated from in situ water in a roller table experiment. TEPs from natural samples during October 2004 had a much greater affinity to the lectin Concanavalin A than to Limulin compared with those in September 2006 and from the roller tank experiments. The chemical composition of TEPs might explain their relationship with thraustochytrids. Thraustochytrids averaged a higher biomass than bacteria in two of the three cruises, but were less frequent and more patchily distributed compared with bacteria. PMID:18510715

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in the equatorial atmosphere over the open Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wurl, Oliver; Potter, John Robert; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip; Durville, Caroline

    2006-03-01

    Twelve air samples collected over the Indian Ocean by a high volume air sampler between August 2004 and August 2005 were analyzed for selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides. The region of the Indian Ocean and adjacent countries is likely to be acting as a source of selected POPs to the global environment. Data were compared with those reported for the last 30 years to examine historical trends of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Indian Ocean. Compound concentrations were influenced by the proximity to land and air mass origins. Higher concentrations of atmospheric sigmaPCBs (50-114 pg m(-3)) were found on the remote islands of Chagos Archipelago and Gan, Maldives, and in the proximity of Jakarta, Indonesia, and Singapore. Military activities and unregulated waste combustion were identified as possible sources for atmospheric PCB contaminations at the more remote areas. The highest concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were found adjacent to the coastline of Sumatra and Singapore, where sigmaDDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and sigmaHCHs (hexacyclohexanes) were as high as 30 and 100 pg m(-3), respectively. A comparison study for the last 30 years over six regions of the Indian Ocean showed that the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides have declined significantly, by a magnitude of two, since the mid 1970s, but were highest at the beginning of the 1990s. The time trend of PCB contamination in the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean is less apparent. The decline of atmospheric POPs over the Indian Ocean may be due to international regulation of the use of these compounds. PMID:16568756

  16. 78 FR 57796 - Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean... Hydro- X Tour. The Pro Hydro-X Tour is a series of Jet Ski races. The race course is in an...

  17. Mercury-Atlas 6 spacecraft retrieved from Atlantic Ocean following mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The Mercury-Atlas 6 'Friendship 7' spacecraft is retrieved from the Atlantic Ocean following Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr.'s three-orbit space mission. In this view, the capsule is still in the water, with retrieval cable connected to it.

  18. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone'' in the Federal Register (77 FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed...

  19. Ecological Condition of Coastal Ocean Waters Along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Bight: 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of an assessment of ecological condition in coastal-ocean waters of the U.S. mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB), along the U.S. continental shelf from Cape Cod, MA and Nantucket Shoals to the northeast to Cape Hatteras to the south, based on sampling conduc...

  20. Satellite-derived coastal ocean and estuarine salinity in the Mid-Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Erick F.; Grossi, Matthew D.; Trembanis, Arthur C.; Kohut, Josh T.; Oliver, Matthew J.

    2013-07-01

    Coastal salinity is a basic oceanographic property that is not routinely estimated by satellites. Efforts to measure ocean salinity from space are designed for large scale open ocean environments, not coastal regions. In the Mid-Atlantic coastal ocean, salinity is critical for understanding circulation patterns, river plumes, and transport, which in turn impact the status of the ecosystem. However, the spatial and temporal coverage of in situ salinity measurements in this region are sparse and do not synoptically capture salinity in the coastal ocean. We compiled ˜2 million salinity records from four regional research vessels between the years 2003-2008 and found ˜9 thousand salinity records that could be adequately matched to MODIS-Aqua data. We show that the spectral shape of water-leaving radiance and sea surface temperature are most correlated with in situ salinity. Four neural network models designed to predict salinity were developed for the Mid-Atlantic coastal region and three of its major estuaries (Hudson, Delaware, and Chesapeake). Our models predict salinity with RMS errors between 1.40psu and 2.29psu, which are much less than the null model ranges (4.87-10.08psu) and the natural range of the system (0-32psu). Seasonal climatologies for the Chesapeake, Delaware, and Mid-Atlantic regions based on these models are fresher than the existing NODC climatologies. We also found significant freshening trends in the Mid-Atlantic over a 6 year period.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel Culturable Marine Chroococcalean Cyanobacterium from the South Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, Danillo O.; Branco, Luis H. Z.; Varani, Alessandro M.; Brandini, Frederico P.; Fiore, Marli F.

    2015-01-01

    The novel chroococcalean cyanobacterium strain CENA595 was isolated from the deep chlorophyll maximum layer of the continental shelf of the South Atlantic Ocean. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, consisting of 60 contigs containing a total of 5,265,703 bp and 3,276 putative protein-coding genes. PMID:25908150

  2. 77 FR 75853 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Key West, Florida, during the Bone Island Triathlon on Saturday, January 12, 2013. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the event. Persons and vessels are prohibited from entering, transiting through, anchoring in, or remaining within the safety......

  3. 77 FR 42651 - Disestablishment of Restricted Area, Rhode Island Sound, Atlantic Ocean, Approximately 4 Nautical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... RA. The proposed rule was published in the April 4, 2012, edition of the Federal Register (77 FR... Sound, Atlantic Ocean, Approximately 4 Nautical Miles Due South of Lands End in Newport, RI AGENCY: U.S... the site, the USN has determined that disestablishment of the area will not pose any hazard or...

  4. 78 FR 25008 - Safety Zone; Fairfield Estates Fireworks Display, Atlantic Ocean, Sagaponack, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public Participation and Request for... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We..., Atlantic Ocean, Sagaponack, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking....

  5. 78 FR 41844 - Safety Zone; Fairfield Estates Fireworks Display, Atlantic Ocean, Sagaponack, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History... FR 25008). No public comments were received. There were no requests received for a public meeting and..., Atlantic Ocean, Sagaponack, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  6. 78 FR 70901 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean;...

  7. 78 FR 18235 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Lauderdale Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a special local regulation on the Atlantic Ocean and the entrance of Port Everglades in the vicinity of Fort Lauderdale, Florida during the 2013 Lauderdale Air Show. The event is scheduled to take place from Thursday April 18, 2013, until Sunday, April 21, 2013. The regulation is necessary to ensure the safety of the participants, spectators, and the general......

  8. Streamflow from the United States into the Atlantic Ocean during 1931-1960

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bue, Conrad D.

    1970-01-01

    Streamflow from the United States into the Atlantic Ocean, between the international stream St. Croix River, inclusive, and Cape Sable, Fla., averaged about 355,000 cfs (cubic feet per second) during the 30-year period 1931-60, or roughly 20 percent of the water that, on the average flows out of the conterminous United States. The area drained by streams flowing into the Atlantic Ocean is about 288,000 square miles, including the Canadian part of the St. Croix and Connecticut River basins, or a little less than 10 percent of the area of the conterminous United States. Hence, the average streamflow into the Atlantic Ocean, in terms of cubic feet per second per square mile, is about twice the national average of the flow that leaves the conterminous United States. Flow from about three-fourths of the area draining into the Atlantic Ocean is gaged at streamflow measuring stations of the U.S. Geological Survey. The remaining one-fourth of the drainage area consists mostly of low-lying coastal areas from which the flow was estimated, largely on the basis of nearby gaging stations. Streamflow, in terms of cubic feet per second per square mile, decreases rather progressively from north to south. It averages nearly 2 cfs along the Maine coast, about 1 cfs along the North Carolina coast, and about 0.9 cfs along the Florida coast.

  9. Micropaleontological evidence for increased meridional heat transport in the North Atlantic Ocean during the pliocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.J.; Cronin, T. M.; Poore, R.Z.; Thompson, R.S.; Whatley, R.C.; Wood, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Middle Pliocene (???3 million years ago) has been identified as the last time the Earth was significantly warmer than it was during the Last Interglacial and Holocene. A quantitative micropaleontological paleotemperature transect from equator to high latitudes in the North Atlantic indicates that Middle Pliocene warmth involved increased meridional oceanic heat transport.

  10. 33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. 165.535 Section 165.535 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  11. The diversity of cyanomyovirus populations along a North–South Atlantic Ocean transect

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Eleanor; Mann, Nicholas H; Joint, Ian; Sambles, Christine; Mühling, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Viruses that infect the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus have the potential to impact the growth, productivity, diversity and abundance of their hosts. In this study, changes in the microdiversity of cyanomyoviruses were investigated in 10 environmental samples taken along a North–South Atlantic Ocean transect using a myoviral-specific PCR-sequencing approach. Phylogenetic analyses of 630 viral g20 clones from this study, with 786 published g20 sequences, revealed that myoviral populations in the Atlantic Ocean had higher diversity than previously reported, with several novel putative g20 clades. Some of these clades were detected throughout the Atlantic Ocean. Multivariate statistical analyses did not reveal any significant correlations between myoviral diversity and environmental parameters, although myoviral diversity appeared to be lowest in samples collected from the north and south of the transect where Prochlorococcus diversity was also lowest. The results were correlated to the abundance and diversity of the co-occurring Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations, but revealed no significant correlations to either of the two potential host genera. This study provides evidence that cyanophages have extremely high and variable diversity and are distributed over large areas of the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:21633395

  12. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  13. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking....

  14. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  15. 33 CFR 334.525 - Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329.... Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. 334.525 Section 334.525 Navigation and Navigable Waters...

  16. 33 CFR 334.525 - Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329.... Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. 334.525 Section 334.525 Navigation and Navigable Waters...

  17. Draft genome sequence of a novel culturable marine chroococcalean cyanobacterium from the South atlantic ocean.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Alvarenga, Danillo O; Branco, Luis H Z; Varani, Alessandro M; Brandini, Frederico P; Fiore, Marli F

    2015-01-01

    The novel chroococcalean cyanobacterium strain CENA595 was isolated from the deep chlorophyll maximum layer of the continental shelf of the South Atlantic Ocean. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, consisting of 60 contigs containing a total of 5,265,703 bp and 3,276 putative protein-coding genes. PMID:25908150

  18. Pacific and Atlantic Ocean influences on multidecadal drought frequency in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Palecki, M.A.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    More than half (52%) of the spatial and temporal variance in multidecadal drought frequency over the conterminous United States is attributable to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). An additional 22% of the variance in drought frequency is related to a complex spatial pattern of positive and negative trends in drought occurrence possibly related to increasing Northern Hemisphere temperatures or some other unidirectional climate trend. Recent droughts with broad impacts over the conterminous U.S. (1996, 1999-2002) were associated with North Atlantic warming (positive AMO) and north-eastern and tropical Pacific cooling (negative PDO). Much of the long-term predictability of drought frequency may reside in the multidecadal behavior of the North Atlantic Ocean. Should the current positive AMO (warm North Atlantic) conditions persist into the upcoming decade, we suggest two possible drought scenarios that resemble the continental-scale patterns of the 1930s (positive PDO) and 1950s (negative PDO) drought.

  19. Arctic and N Atlantic Crustal Thickness and Oceanic Lithosphere Distribution from Gravity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusznir, Nick; Alvey, Andy

    2014-05-01

    The ocean basins of the Arctic and N. Atlantic formed during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic as a series of distinct ocean basins, both small and large, leading to a complex distribution of oceanic crust, thinned continental crust and rifted continental margins. The plate tectonic framework of this region was demonstrated by the pioneering work of Peter Ziegler in AAPG Memoir 43 " Evolution of the Arctic-North Atlantic and the Western Tethys" published in 1988. The spatial evolution of Arctic Ocean and N Atlantic ocean basin geometry and bathymetry are critical not only for hydrocarbon exploration but also for understanding regional palaeo-oceanography and ocean gateway connectivity, and its influence on global climate. Mapping crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution represents a substantial challenge for the Polar Regions. Using gravity anomaly inversion we have produced comprehensive maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for the Arctic and N Atlantic region, We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Chappell & Kusznir 2008). Gravity anomaly and bathymetry data used in the gravity inversion are from the NGA (U) Arctic Gravity Project and IBCAO respectively; sediment thickness is from a new regional compilation. The resulting maps of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor are used to determine continent-ocean boundary location and the distribution of oceanic lithosphere. Crustal cross-sections using Moho depth from the gravity inversion allow continent-ocean transition structure to be determined and magmatic type (magma poor, "normal" or magma rich). Our gravity inversion predicts thin crust and high continental lithosphere thinning factors in the Eurasia, Canada, Makarov, Podvodnikov and Baffin Basins

  20. Future change in ocean productivity: Is the Arctic the new Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yool, A.; Popova, E. E.; Coward, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most characteristic features in ocean productivity is the North Atlantic spring bloom. Responding to seasonal increases in irradiance and stratification, surface phytopopulations rise significantly, a pattern that visibly tracks poleward into summer. While blooms also occur in the Arctic Ocean, they are constrained by the sea-ice and strong vertical stratification that characterize this region. However, Arctic sea-ice is currently declining, and forecasts suggest this may lead to completely ice-free summers by the mid-21st century. Such change may open the Arctic up to Atlantic-style spring blooms, and do so at the same time as Atlantic productivity is threatened by climate change-driven ocean stratification. Here we use low and high-resolution instances of a coupled ocean-biogeochemistry model, NEMO-MEDUSA, to investigate productivity. Drivers of present-day patterns are identified, and changes in these across a climate change scenario (IPCC RCP 8.5) are analyzed. We find a globally significant decline in North Atlantic productivity (> -20%) by 2100, and a correspondingly significant rise in the Arctic (> +50%). However, rather than the future Arctic coming to resemble the current Atlantic, both regions are instead transitioning to a common, low nutrient regime. The North Pacific provides a counterexample where nutrients remain high and productivity increases with elevated temperature. These responses to climate change in the Atlantic and Arctic are common between model resolutions, suggesting an independence from resolution for key impacts. However, some responses, such as those in the North Pacific, differ between the simulations, suggesting the reverse and supporting the drive to more fine-scale resolutions. This article was corrected on 5 JAN 2016. See the end of the full text for details.

  1. ENSO Related Variations in the Flux and Labile Composition of Settling Particles in the Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, L. P.; Kawahata, H.; Kawahata, H.

    2001-12-01

    Sediment trap moorings deployed in three distinct oceanographic zones along the equator in the western Pacific Ocean during 1991-93, 1994-95 and 1999 provided time series data on total mass and amino acid fluxes and composition of settling particulate organic matter (POM). The traps were deployed at shallow (970-1769 m) and deep (2060-4574 m) water depths, where seafloor depth ranged from 3181 to 4888 m, to collect settling particles over an interval of about 12-16 days. An intercomparison of annual averages of various parameters revealed discrete patterns in flux and composition of POM under the El Nino (1991-93, 1994-95) and La Nina (1999) conditions which prevailed over the equatorial Pacific during this experiment. In the hemipelagic zone of the far western equatorial Pacific, average total mass and amino acid fluxes were relatively higher during El Nino than during La Nina. However, in the oligotrophic warm pool and upwelling sites, total mass and amino acid fluxes were higher during La Nina. Influence of ENSO-related changes in the settling particle flux was much clearer in the hemipelagic zone compared to that in the warm pool. Average values of biogeochemical parameters such as mole ratios of Glucosamine/Galactosamine and amino acid/hexosamine, and bulk parameters like amino acid carbon and nitrogen contents relative to organic carbon and total nitrogen (THAA-C% and THAA-N%, respectively), and organic carbon normalized amino acid concentrations indicated that settling POM was more labile during La Nina at all the sites. The mole ratios Aspartic acid/beta-Alanine, Glutamic acid/gama-Aminobutyric acid, and relative mole concentration of non-protein amino acids (beta-Alanine + gama-Aminobutyric acid) suggested that POM degradation was enhanced during La Nina than during El Nino conditions at all sites.

  2. A novel clade of Prochlorococcus found in high nutrient low chlorophyll waters in the South and Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    West, Nyree J; Lebaron, Philippe; Strutton, Pete G; Suzuki, Marcelino T

    2011-01-01

    A novel high-light (HL)-adapted Prochlorococcus clade was discovered in high nutrient and low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters in the South Pacific Ocean by phylogenetic analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. This clade, named HNLC fell within the HL-adapted Prochlorococcus clade with sequences above 99% similarity to one another, and was divided into two subclades, HNLC1 and HNLC2. The distribution of the whole HNLC clade in a northwest to southeast transect in the South Pacific (HNLC-to-gyre) and two 8°N to 8°S transects in the Equatorial Pacific was determined by quantitative PCR using specific primers targeting ITS regions. HNLC was the dominant HL Prochlorococcus clade (2–9% of bacterial 16S rRNA genes) at the three westernmost stations in the South Pacific but decreased to less than 0.1% at the other stations being replaced by the eMIT9312 ecotype in the hyperoligotrophic gyre. The highest contributions of HNLC Prochlorococcus in both Equatorial Pacific transects along the latitudinal lines of 170°W and 155°W were observed at the southernmost stations, reaching 16 and 6% of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, respectively, whereas eMIT9312 dominated near the Equator. Spearman Rank Order correlation analysis indicated that although both the HNLC clade and eMIT9312 were correlated with temperature, they showed different correlations with regard to nutrients. HNLC only showed significant correlations to ammonium uptake and regeneration rates, whereas eMIT9312 was negatively correlated with inorganic nutrients. PMID:21124492

  3. North Atlantic Interannual Variability in a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delworth, Thomas L.

    1996-10-01

    The primary mode of sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic on interannual timescales during winter is examined in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The model, developed at die Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, is global in domain with realistic geography and a seasonal cycle of insulation. Analyses performed on a 1000-year integration of this model show that this mode is characterized by zonal bands of SST anomalies in the North Atlantic and bears a distinct resemblance to observational results. The largest anomalies in the model are to the southeast of Newfoundland.The model SST variations appear to be related to a north-south dipole in the atmospheric 500-mb geopotential height field, which resembles the North Atlantic oscillation and the Western Atlantic pattern. Analyses are presented that show that this mode of SST variability is primarily driven by perturbations to the surface heat fluxes, which are largely governed by atmospheric variability. Changes in model ocean circulation also contribute to this mode of variability but appear to be of secondary importance.Additional integrations are analyzed to examine the above conclusion. The same atmospheric model used in the above integration was coupled to a 50-m slab ocean and integrated for 500 years. The primary mode of SST variability in this model, in which there were no effects of ocean dynamics, resembles the primary mode from the coupled model, strengthening the conclusion that the surface fluxes are the primary mechanism generating this oceanic variability. One notable difference between the two models is related to the presence of deep vertical mixing at high latitudes in the model with a fully dynamic ocean. An additional 500-year integration of the atmospheric model with a prescribed seasonal cycle of SSTs lends further support to this conclusion, as do additional diagnostic calculations in which a 50-m slab ocean was forced by the time series of surface fluxes from both the

  4. Southern Ocean Evidence for Reduced Export of North Atlantic Water During Heinrich Event 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Flierdt, T.; Robinson, L. F.

    2008-12-01

    Deep-sea corals form unique, high-resolution archives of ocean circulation that can be dated using the decay of uranium to thorium. They are abundant in the Southern Ocean, and can provide unprecedented insights into ocean circulation and ocean chemistry on sub-millennial time-scales in areas where traditional paleoceanographic proxies are fraught with difficulties. Here we present the first coupled neodymium (Nd) isotope and radiocarbon data from deep-sea corals in the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean) adding new constraints on ocean circulation during the last Heinrich event (H-1; 16,700 years ago). The modern day Drake Passage water column is homogeneous with respect to Nd isotopes (expressed in epsilon units; ɛNd). The seawater value of close to -9.0 is largely controlled by the mixture of North Atlantic Deep Water and Pacific waters. The aragonite of modern Drake Passage corals reflects this water-column value. In contrast, a fossil coral from H-1 is significantly higher at -6.4 ±0.4. We interpret this ~2.5 epsilon unit shift as a reduction in the influence of North Atlantic-sourced Nd in the Southern Ocean during H1. This interpretation is supported by a series of radiocarbon analyses on the same sample, and is consistent with a two-fold or greater slow down in export of North Atlantic waters from the Atlantic Basin. This shift has important implications for the evaluation of lower latitude paleo-ɛNd reconstructions that have been used to assess the mixing ratio of northern to southern waters in the past.

  5. Evolutionary Diversification of Banded Tube-Dwelling Anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Stampar, Sergio N.; Maronna, Maximiliano M.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Silveira, Fabio L. d.; Morandini, André C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial) commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three Atlantic species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of Atlantic Ocean, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers) confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the Atlantic Ocean. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the Atlantic Ocean. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific Ocean as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed. PMID:22815928

  6. Anatexis at the roof of an oceanic magma chamber at IODP Site 1256 (equatorial Pacific): an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Lennart A.; France, Lydéric; Zhang, Chao; Godard, Marguerite; Koepke, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Replenished axial melt lenses at fast-spreading mid-oceanic ridges may move upward and intrude into the overlying hydrothermally altered sheeted dikes, resulting in high-grade contact metamorphism with the potential to trigger anatexis in the roof rocks. Assumed products of this process are anatectic melts of felsic composition and granoblastic, two-pyroxene hornfels, representing the residue after partial melting. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 309, 312, and 335 at Site 1256 (eastern equatorial Pacific) sampled such a fossilized oceanic magma chamber. In this study, we simulated magma chamber roof rock anatectic processes by performing partial melting experiments using six different protoliths from the Site 1256 sheeted dike complex, spanning a lithological range from poorly to strongly altered basalts to partially or fully recrystallized granoblastic hornfels. Results show that extensively altered starting material lacking primary magmatic minerals cannot reproduce the chemistry of natural felsic rocks recovered in ridge environments, especially elements sensitive to hydrothermal alteration (e.g., K, Cl). Natural geochemical trends are reproduced through partial melting of moderately altered basalts from the lower sheeted dikes. Two-pyroxene hornfels, the assumed residue, were reproduced only at low melting degrees (<20 vol%). The overall amphibole absence in the experiments confirms the natural observation that amphibole is not produced during peak metamorphism. Comparing experimental products with the natural equivalents reveals that water activity ( aH2O) was significantly reduced during anatectic processes, mainly based on lower melt aluminum oxide and lower plagioclase anorthite content at lower aH2O. High silica melt at the expected temperature (1000-1050 °C; peak thermal overprint of two-pyroxene hornfels) could only be reproduced in the experimental series performed at aH2O = 0.1.

  7. Biogenic flux of Al to sediment in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean: Evidence for increased productivity during glacial periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, R. W.; Leinen, M.; Isern, A. R.

    1993-10-01

    We examined the flux of Al to sediment accumulating beneath the zone of elevated productivity in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean, along a surface sediment transect at 135°W as well as downcore for a 650 kyr record at 1.3°N, 133.6°W. Across the surface transect, a pronounced, broadly equatorially symmetric increase in Al accumulation is observed, relative to Ti, with Al/Ti ratios reaching values 3-4 times that of potential detrital sources. The profile parallels biogenic accumulation and the modeled flux of particulate 234Th, suggesting rapid and preferential adsorptive removal of Al from seawater by settling biogenic particles. Normative calculations confirm that most Al is unsupported by the terrigenous fraction. The observed distributions are consistent with previous observations of the relative and absolute behavior of Al and Ti in seawater, and we can construct a reasonable mass balance between the amount of seawater-sourced Al retained in the sediment and the amount of seawater Al available in the overlying column. The close tie between Al/Ti and biogenic accumulation (as opposed to concentration) emphasizes that biogenic sedimentary Al/Ti responds to removal-transport phenomena and not bulk sediment composition. Thus, in these sediments dominated by the biogenic component, the bulk Al/Ti ratio reflects biogenic particle flux, and by extension, productivity of the overlying seawater. The downcore profile of Al/Ti at 1.3°N displays marked increases during glacial episodes, similar to that observed across the surface transect, from a background value near Al/Ti of average upper crust. The excursions in Al/Ti are stratigraphically coincident with maxima in both bulk and CaCO3 accumulation and the excess Al appears to not be preferentially affiliated with opaline or organic phases. Consistent with the similar behavioral removal of Al and 234Th, the latter of which responds to the total particle flux, the Al flux reflects carbonate accumulation only

  8. North Atlantic ocean circulation and abrupt climate change during the last glaciation.

    PubMed

    Henry, L G; McManus, J F; Curry, W B; Roberts, N L; Piotrowski, A M; Keigwin, L D

    2016-07-29

    The most recent ice age was characterized by rapid and hemispherically asynchronous climate oscillations, whose origin remains unresolved. Variations in oceanic meridional heat transport may contribute to these repeated climate changes, which were most pronounced during marine isotope stage 3, the glacial interval 25 thousand to 60 thousand years ago. We examined climate and ocean circulation proxies throughout this interval at high resolution in a deep North Atlantic sediment core, combining the kinematic tracer protactinium/thorium (Pa/Th) with the deep water-mass tracer, epibenthic δ(13)C. These indicators suggest reduced Atlantic overturning circulation during every cool northern stadial, with the greatest reductions during episodic Hudson Strait iceberg discharges, while sharp northern warming followed reinvigorated overturning. These results provide direct evidence for the ocean's persistent, central role in abrupt glacial climate change. PMID:27365315

  9. Metabolism of Centropages species in the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudy, Raymond; Thibault-Botha, Delphine

    2007-02-01

    Information on the metabolism rates of Centropages typicus and congeneric species ( C. hamatus, C. furcatus, C. brachiatus and C. abdominalis) in neritic areas of the Mediterranean Sea, the North Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean are reported here. Respiration rates and excretion rates are strongly influenced by abiotic (i.e. temperature, salinity) and biotic factors (i.e. food availability and composition). Differences in the response of respiratory rates to temperature of acclimated, acclimatized and adapted individuals are clearly observed among regions of the Mediterranean Sea and the West and East shores of the Atlantic Ocean. Food supply also strongly affects respiration and excretion rates, as well as the size, sex and stage development of the individuals. The co-measurement of these two rates allows confirmation of the omnivory or carnivory oriented feeding habits of these species. The role of this neritic genus in coastal environment is also discussed.

  10. Impacts of Sea Surface Salinity Bias Correction on North Atlantic Ocean Circulation and Climate Variability in the Kiel Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Taewook; Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib

    2016-04-01

    We investigated impacts of correcting North Atlantic sea surface salinity (SSS) biases on the ocean circulation of the North Atlantic and on North Atlantic sector mean climate and climate variability in the Kiel Climate Model (KCM). Bias reduction was achieved by applying a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic to the model. The quality of simulating the mean circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability is greatly enhanced in the freshwater flux-corrected integration which, by definition, depicts relatively small North Atlantic SSS biases. In particular, a large reduction in the North Atlantic cold sea surface temperature (SST) bias is observed and a more realistic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) simulated. Improvements relative to the non-flux corrected integration also comprise a more realistic representation of deep convection sites, sea ice, gyre circulation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The results suggest that simulations of North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability could strongly benefit from alleviating sea surface salinity biases in the North Atlantic, which may enhance the skill of decadal predictions in that region.

  11. Impacts of regional mixing on the temperature structure of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Part 2: Depth-dependent vertical diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yanli; Furue, Ryo; McCreary, Julian P.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we use an ocean model to explore how vertical mixing influences temperature in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Our approach is to change the background diffusion coefficient from a constant value κb to κb + δκ(z) in various subregions of the tropical Pacific, and then to determine the resulting temperature changes in the near-equilibrium response. In a companion paper (Furue et al., 2015), we consider the impacts of depth-independent κb anomalies. Here, we examine the impacts of depth-dependent anomalies that are confined above, or centered on, the mid-depth of the pycnocline. During the first year of adjustment, solutions develop a local temperature response that results largely from the one-dimensional balance δTt =(δκTz)z = δκzTz + δκTzz, with a similar equation for salinity. At this stage, δκ generates temperature and salinity anomalies that are either associated with a density change (dynamical anomalies) or without one (spiciness anomalies). Subsequently, dynamical and spiciness anomalies spread to remote regions by wave radiation and advection, respectively. For positive δκ anomalies confined above the mid-pycnocline, δκzTz tends to produce positive temperature anomalies, which spread to the equator dynamically (by wave radiation) and are still apparent in near-equilibrium solutions. For δκ anomalies confined within the pycnocline (with monopole, dipole, and tripole profiles), the response is dominated by δκzTz, owing to δκ having a smaller vertical scale than T and to the depth range where δκ is large not overlapping well with that where ∣Tzz∣ is; the resulting temperature anomalies tend to shift the pycnocline vertically (dipole profile) or to alter its thickness (monopole and tripole profiles). Positive anomalies from all subregions contribute to an increase of near-surface(upper 50 m) temperature in the eastern equatorial Pacific, the amplitude and location of the warming depending on the depth range of

  12. North Atlantic interannual variability in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    SciTech Connect

    Delworth, T.L.

    1996-10-01

    The primary mode of sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic on interannual timescales during winter is examined in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The model, developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, is global in domain with realistic geography and a seasonal cycle of insolation. Analyses performed on a 1000-year integration of this model show that this mode is characterized by zonal bands of SST anomalies in the North Atlantic and bears a distinct resemblance to observational results. The largest anomalies in the model are to the southeast of Newfoundland. The model SST variations appear to be related to a north-south dipole in the atmopsheric 500-mb geopotential height field, which resembles the North Atlantic oscillation and the Western Atlantic pattern. Analyses are presented that show that this mode of SST variability is primarily driven by perturbations to the surface heat fluxes, which are largely governed by atmospheric variability. Changes in model ocean circulation also contribute to this mode of variability but appear to be of secondary importance. Additional integrations are analyzed to examine the above conclusion. The same atmospheric model used in the above integration was coupled to a 50-m slab ocean and integrated for 500 years. The primary mode of SST variability in this model, in which there were no effects of ocean dynamics, resembles the primary mode from the coupled model, strengthening the conclusion that the surface fluxes are the primary mechanism generating this oceanic variability. One notable difference between the two models is related to the presence of deep vertical mixing at high latitudes in the model with a fully dynamic ocean. An additional 500-year integration of the atmospheric model with a prescribed seasonal cycle of SSTs lends further support to this conclusion. 46 refs., 14 figs.

  13. Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Kristina D A; Huisman, Jef; Wilhelm, Steven W; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2016-02-01

    Viral lysis of phytoplankton constrains marine primary production, food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. Yet, little is known about the biogeographical distribution of viral lysis rates across the global ocean. To address this, we investigated phytoplankton group-specific viral lysis rates along a latitudinal gradient within the North Atlantic Ocean. The data show large-scale distribution patterns of different virus groups across the North Atlantic that are associated with the biogeographical distributions of their potential microbial hosts. Average virus-mediated lysis rates of the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were lower than those of the picoeukaryotic and nanoeukaryotic phytoplankton (that is, 0.14 per day compared with 0.19 and 0.23 per day, respectively). Total phytoplankton mortality (virus plus grazer-mediated) was comparable to the gross growth rate, demonstrating high turnover rates of phytoplankton populations. Virus-induced mortality was an important loss process at low and mid latitudes, whereas phytoplankton mortality was dominated by microzooplankton grazing at higher latitudes (>56°N). This shift from a viral-lysis-dominated to a grazing-dominated phytoplankton community was associated with a decrease in temperature and salinity, and the decrease in viral lysis rates was also associated with increased vertical mixing at higher latitudes. Ocean-climate models predict that surface warming will lead to an expansion of the stratified and oligotrophic regions of the world's oceans. Our findings suggest that these future shifts in the regional climate of the ocean surface layer are likely to increase the contribution of viral lysis to phytoplankton mortality in the higher-latitude waters of the North Atlantic, which may potentially reduce transfer of matter and energy up the food chain and thus affect the capacity of the northern North Atlantic to act as a long-term sink for CO2. PMID:26262815

  14. Reevaluation of plate motion models based on hotspot tracks in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Baksi, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    Plate motion models based on hotspot tracks in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans predict minimal movement (less than a few millimeters per year) between these hotspots and their counterparts in the Pacific Ocean for the past {approximately}100 m.yr., whereas plate circuit exercises indicate relative motions of {approximately}20 mm/yr. Hotspot-based models also suggest that the Rajmahal Traps, India, were located {approximately}1,000 km away from the Kerguelen hotspot at {approximately}115 Ma, and the Deccan Traps, India, were located a similar distance from the Reunion hotspot at {approximately}65 Ma; this is at odds with conclusions derived from paleomagnetism, plate circuits, and geochemical parameters that suggest a genetic link between flood basalt provinces in India and hotspots in the Indian Ocean. These divergent views may be explained by plume action {approximately}1,000 km from its center or errors in the hotspot motion models. The latter hypothesis is scrutinized in this article by examination of the radiometric ages for hotspot tracks in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The {sup 40}/{sup 39}Ar step-heating data for rocks defining the tracks of the Reunion and Kerguelen hotspots in the Indian Ocean and the Great Metero and Tristan da Cunha hotspots in the Atlantic Ocean are critically reexamined. Of {approximately}35 such ages utilized for deriving plate motion models for the past 130 m.yr., at best, only three ({approximately}32, {approximately}50, and {approximately}52 Ma) in the Indian Ocean and one ({approximately}65 Ma) for the Atlantic Ocean may be treated as crystallization ages. Conclusions based on hotspot track modeling for Late Cretaceous to Eocene time are suspect, and those for the Early to Late Cretaceous period are untenable. In the absence of precise age data for the tracks of hotspots in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and inconsistent age progressions noted within a single volcanic chain, plate circuit models serve as the superior technique

  15. Higher Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets strengthen the North Atlantic ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xun; Zhang, Xiangdong; Lohmann, Gerrit; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Pfeiffer, Madlene

    2015-07-01

    During the last glacial-interglacial cycle, changes in the large-scale North Atlantic ocean circulation occurred, and at the same time topography of the Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets also varied. In this study, we focus on detecting the changes of the North Atlantic gyres, western boundary current, and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) corresponding to different Laurentide and Greenland ice sheet topographies. Using an Earth System Model, we conducted simulations for five climate states with different ice sheet topographies: Pre-industrial, Mid Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum, 32 kilo years before present and Eemian interglacial. Our simulation results indicate that higher topographies of the Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets strengthen surface wind stress curl over the North Atlantic ocean, intensifying the subtropical and subpolar gyres and the western boundary currents. The corresponding decrease in sea surface height from subtropical to subpolar favors a stronger AMOC. An offshore shift of the Gulf Stream is also identified during the glacial periods relative to that during the Pre-industrial due to lower sea levels, explaining a weaker glacial Gulf Stream detected in proxy data. Meanwhile, the North Atlantic gyres and AMOC demonstrate a positively correlated relation under each of the climate conditions with higher ice sheets.

  16. Cenozoic History of the Equatorial Indian Ocean Recorded by Nd Isotopes: The Closure of the Indonesian Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourlan, A. T.; Meynadier, L.; Allegre, C. J.

    2005-12-01

    The northward tectonic motion of the Australian plate and the evolution of the Indonesian Island Arcs through the last 20 Ma, generate changes in the flow and the origin of the circulation between the Pacific and the Southern Indian Oceans. Indeed, the emergence of the Indonesian Archipelago and probably the rapid uplift of the island of Halmahera have dramatically reduced the Indonesian Gateway. However, the precise dating of this event is still a matter of debate. The Neodymium isotopic composition of marine sediments is an extremely good proxy to reconstruct the major changes in the past ocean circulation. The residence time of Nd is shorter than the circulation time of the global ocean. Therefore, the Nd isotopic composition varies between the different ocean basins and is function of changes in source provenances, paleocirculation, orogenic processes, and intensity of weathering on the continents as well as on the volcanic arcs. To reconstruct the evolution of the oceanic flow from the Pacific to the equatorial Indian Ocean since the Miocene, we have applied on high carbonates content sediments a leaching technique using acetic acid. The reliability of our technique has been assessed by comparison with the Hydroxylamine hydrochloride technique developed by Bayon et al (1). The Nd isotopic composition is determinated in the past seawater from the record in Fe-Mn oxides. The sedimentary sequences are accurately dated using bio and chimiostratigraphy. Three ODP Sites were chosen in the Indian Ocean with a water depth ranging from 1600 to 2800 m and mutually distant by about 3000 km. From West to East: Site 761 which is at the western edge of the Indonesian Gateway on the central northeastern part of the Wombat Plateau off NW Australia, Site 757 is located on the south of the Ninetyeast ridge and Site 707 is located in the western tropical Indian Ocean near the Seychelles Islands. Our data are compared with the first results from Site 807 located in the Pacific

  17. Environmental controls on the biogeography of diazotrophy and Trichodesmium in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, J. T.; Schlosser, C.; Woodward, E. M. S.; Mills, M. M.; Achterberg, E. P.; Mahaffey, C.; Bibby, T. S.; Moore, C. M.

    2015-06-01

    The cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is responsible for a significant proportion of the annual "new" nitrogen introduced into the global ocean. Despite being arguably the best studied marine diazotroph, the factors controlling the distribution and growth of Trichodesmium remain a subject of debate, with sea surface temperature, the partial pressure of CO2, and nutrients including iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P), all suggested to be important. Synthesizing data from seven cruises collectively spanning large temporal and spatial scales across the Atlantic Ocean, including two previously unreported studies crossing the largely undersampled South Atlantic gyre, we assessed the relationship between proposed environmental drivers and both community N2 fixation rates and the distribution of Trichodesmium. Simple linear regression analysis would suggest no relationship between any of the sampled environmental variables and N2 fixation rates. However, considering the concentrations of iron and phosphorus together within a simplified resource-ratio framework, illustrated using an idealized numerical model, indicates the combined effects these nutrients have on Trichodesmium and broader diazotroph biogeography, alongside the reciprocal maintenance of different biogeographic provinces of the (sub)tropical Atlantic in states of Fe or P oligotrophy by diazotrophy. The qualitative principles of the resource-ratio framework are argued to be consistent with both the previously described North-South Atlantic contrast in Trichodesmium abundance and the presence and consequence of a substantial non-Trichodesmium diazotrophic community in the western South Atlantic subtropical gyre. A comprehensive, observation-based explanation of the interactions between Trichodesmium and the wider diazotrophic community with iron and phosphorus in the Atlantic Ocean is thus revealed.

  18. Downward lee wave radiation from tropical instability waves in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean: A possible energy pathway to turbulent mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yuki; Hibiya, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Hideharu

    2015-11-01

    Turbulent mixing in the equatorial Pacific Ocean is an important process that controls diapycnal heat transport and hence affects the air-sea interactions and global climate. It is recently shown that, in the eastern equatorial Pacific, strong mixing is induced in the thermocline by enhanced vertical shear associated with tropical instability waves (TIWs), which propagate westward along the equator at a speed of ˜0.5 m s-1 with a wavelength of ˜1000 km. In this study, using a high-resolution ocean general circulation model, we show that the TIWs can play an important role in inducing turbulent mixing in the thermocline also in the central equatorial Pacific, although the thermocline is too deep to be directly affected by the vertical shear of the TIWs. The front of the TIW is clearly manifested as a narrow strip of strong convergence of horizontal surface flow, from which area downward and westward propagating internal waves are intermittently emanated. These internal waves can be interpreted as lee waves generated by the surface-flow convergence zone, which acts like an inverted obstacle moving along the stratified ocean surface by inducing downward flow. The associated downward energy flux below the surface mixed layer increases as the TIW structure becomes deeper toward the central equatorial Pacific, so that the energy pathway to turbulent mixing in the thermocline can be created. The downward energy flux integrated over the entire equatorial Pacific and averaged during January 2011 amounts to ˜8.1 GW, occupying a significant fraction of the energy input to the TIWs.

  19. Phase locking of convectively coupled equatorial atmospheric Kelvin waves over Indian Ocean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, Dariusz; Flatau, Maria; Flatau, Piotr; Matthews, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The properties of convectively coupled Kelvin waves in the Indian Ocean and their propagation over the Maritime Continent are studied. It is shown that Kelvin waves are longitude - diurnal cycle phase locked over the Maritime Continent, Africa and the Indian Ocean. Thus, it is shown that they tend to propagate over definite areas during specific times of the day. Over the Maritime Continent, longitude-diurnal cycle phase locking is such that it agrees with mean, local diurnal cycle of convection. The strength of the longitude-diurnal cycle phase locking differs between 'non-blocked' Kelvin waves, which make successful transition over the Maritime Continent, and 'blocked' waves that terminated within it. It is shown that a specific combination of Kelvin wave phase speed and time of the day at which a wave approaches the Maritime Continent influence the chance of successful transition into the Western Pacific. Kelvin waves that maintain phase speed of 10 to 11 degrees per day over the central-eastern Indian Ocean and arrive at 90E between 9UTC and 18UTC have the highest chance of being 'non-blocked' by the Maritime Continent. The distance between the islands of Sumatra and Borneo agrees with the distance travelled by an average convectively coupled Kelvin wave in one day. This suggests that the Maritime Continent may act as a 'filter' for Kelvin waves favoring successful propagation of those waves for which propagation is in phase with the local diurnal cycle of precipitation. The AmPm index, a simple measure of local diurnal cycle for propagating disturbances, is introduced and shown to be useful metric depicting key characteristics of the convection associated with propagating Kelvin waves.

  20. Direct Radiometric Observations of the Water Vapor Greenhouse Effect Over the Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    PubMed

    Valero; Collins; Pilewskie; Bucholtz; Flatau

    1997-03-21

    Airborne radiometric measurements were used to determine tropospheric profiles of the clear sky greenhouse effect. At sea surface temperatures (SSTs) larger than 300 kelvin, the clear sky water vapor greenhouse effect was found to increase with SST at a rate of 13 to 15 watts per square meter per kelvin. Satellite measurements of infrared radiances and SSTs indicate that almost 52 percent of the tropical oceans between 20°N and 20°S are affected during all seasons. Current general circulation models suggest that the increase in the clear sky water vapor greenhouse effect with SST may have climatic effects on a planetary scale. PMID:9065397

  1. The pathways and properties of the Amazon River Plume in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Victoria J.; Brooks, Maureen T.; Hopkins, Julia; Stukel, Michael R.; Yager, Patricia L.; Hood, Raleigh R.

    2013-12-01

    The Amazon River Plume spreads across the tropical North Atlantic creating a barrier to vertical mixing. Here using a 1/6° HYCOM model and data from three research cruises in May-June 2010, September-October 2011, and July 2012, we investigate the pathways and properties of the plume. Four plume pathways for export of freshwater from the western tropical North Atlantic are identified. These consist of direct and indirect pathways to the northwest, and eastward pathways toward the subtropical gyre and toward Africa in the North Equatorial Counter Current. Because of the seasonality and cooccurrence of these pathways, plume characteristics are highly variable. Two pathways export water to the Caribbean, however the time scales associated with those direct and indirect pathways (3 versus 6+ months) differ, leading to different salinity characteristics of the plume water. Models results show that the Amazon river and tropical precipitation have similar magnitude impact on the observed seasonal cycle of freshwater within the western tropical Atlantic and at the 8°N, 38°W PIRATA mooring. Freshwater associated with the Amazon also influences surface salinity in winter as far as 20W in the model. The mean plume salinity minimum leads maximum discharge, highlighting the importance of currents and advection rather than discharge in maintaining plume properties. Plume pathways are tied to the underlying current structure, with the North Equatorial Counter Current jet preventing direct freshwater transport into the southern hemisphere. The plume influences underlying currents as well, generating vertical current shear that leads to enhanced eddy stirring and mixing in the model simulations.

  2. Development of passive volcanic margins of the Central Atlantic and initial opening of ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melankholina, E. N.; Sushchevskaya, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Geological and geophysical data on the Central Atlantic are discussed in order to elucidate the tectonic setting of the initial magmatic activity, rifting, and breakup resulting in the origination of Mesozoic ocean. The structural, magmatic, and historical aspects of the problem are considered. It has been established that the initial dispersed rifting and low-capacity magmatism at proximal margins was followed by the migration of the process toward the central part of region with the formation of distal zones and the development of vigorous magmmatism, further breakup of the lithosphere and ocean opening. Magmatism, its sources, and the features of newly formed magmatic crust at both the rifting and breakup stages of margin development are discussed and compared with subsequent spreading magmatism. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions show that the magmatic evolution of the Central Atlantic proximal margins bears the features of two enriched components, one of which is related to the EM-1 source, developing only at the North American margin. Another enriched component typical of the province as a whole is related to the EM-2 source. To a lesser extent, this component is expressed in igneous rocks of Guyana, which also bear the signature of the MORB-type depleted source typical of spreading tholeiites in the Atlantic Ocean. Similar conditions are assumed for subsequent magmatism at the distal margins and for the early spreading basalts in the adjacent Atlantic belt, which also contain a small admixture of enriched material. A comparison of the magmatism at the margins of Central and North Atlantic reveals their specificity distinctly expressed in isotopic compositions of igneous rocks. In contrast to the typical region of the North Atlantic, the immediate melting of the enriched lithospheric source without the participation of plume-related melts is reconstructed for the proximal margins of the Central Atlantic. At the same time, decompression and melting in the

  3. Exploring Globorotalia truncatulinoides coiling ratios as a proxy for subtropical gyre dynamics in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean during late Pleistocene Ice Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billups, K.; Hudson, C.; Kunz, H.; Rew, I.

    2016-05-01

    We explore the use of the coiling direction of planktic foraminifer Globorotalia truncatulinoides in sediment cores from the northwestern subtropical Atlantic Ocean as a proxy for variations in the intensity of the western boundary of the subtropical gyre over the past 280 kyr. Core-top sediments from the study region are dominated by the left coiling variety consistent with the deep permanent thermocline at the study sites (KNR140-37PC and Ocean Drilling Program Site 1059). Downcore G. truncatulinoides (sinistral) maxima occur in conjunction with 14 out of the 25 (Northern and Southern Hemisphere) precession maxima contained in the study interval. The agreement between the dominance of left coiling tests and the precession index of the Southern Hemisphere, in particular, supports a link between a deep thermocline in the northwestern subtropical Atlantic and northward flow of equatorially sourced warm surface currents, a situation analogous to the Late Holocene. Interglacial marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 5 lacks G. truncatulinoides (s) minima attesting to the relative stability of the western boundary during an interval of prolonged global warmth. G. truncatulinoides (s) disappear during the glacial extremes of MIS 2, 6, and 8 implying a weaker western boundary current at these times. Our results support that the coiling direction of this species is sensitive to variations in hydrography of the western boundary of the subtropical gyre. Because of the association between G. truncatulinoides (s) and precession maxima in both hemispheres, results support the importance of oceanic heat transport in half-precession climate variability in the North Atlantic.

  4. Nitrous oxide in the tropical Atlantic Ocean: first results from the german SOLAS cruise M55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S.; Bange, H.; Wallace, D.

    2003-04-01

    NITROUS OXIDE IN THE TROPICAL ATLANTIC: FIRST RESULTS FROM THE GERMAN SOLAS CRUISE M55 S. Walter, H.W. Bange, D.W.R. Wallace Marine Biogeochemistry Division, Institute for Marine Research, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany swalter@ifm.uni-kiel.de Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an atmospheric trace gas which received increased attention in recent years because of its relevance for the Earth's climate and stratospheric chemistry. N2O is formed during microbial processes such as nitrification and denitrification in considerable amounts in the subsurface layer of the ocean. Thus, oceanic emissions of N2O play a major role for its atmospheric budget. However, measurements of N2O in the tropical Atlantic are sparse. The spatial distribution of N2O in the tropical Atlantic Ocean was determined during the first German SOLAS (Surface Ocean - Lower Atmosphere Study) cruise Meteor 55 from Willemstad (Curacao, Netherlands Antilles) to Douala (Cameroon) from 12 October to 17 November 2002. At 21 selected stations about 1200 N2O concentrations measurements were performed with a GC/ECD headspace technique. The mean relative error of the measurements was about 2%. Four general features are visible from the N2O depth profiles: (i) N2O is supersaturated throughout the water column. (ii) There is a considerable accumulation of N2O below the euphotic zone with maximum values at 250-400m water depth associated with lower oxygen concentrations. (iii) An increasing trend in the maximum N2O concentrations from the western to the eastern Atlantic which is inversely correlated with dissolved oxygen values in the oxygen minimum zone. (iv) An increasing trend in the N2O concentrations from the western to the eastern Atlantic basin in depths below 2000m which seems to be correlated with the age of the water masses. The inverse correlation with oxygen suggests that N2O in the tropical Atlantic is formed mainly by nitrification. Our results will be discussed in view of global-change induced

  5. Enhanced Oceanic Situational Awareness for the North Atlantic Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfield, Israel

    2004-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans, impose a limitation of traffic capacity for a given corridor. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. Traffic loading from a specific day are used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from aircraft to the satellites.

  6. Hemispheric asymmetry in aerosol optical thickness and cloud fraction over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Starobinets, Boris; da Silva, Arlindo; Long, Charles; Kalashnikova, Olga; Alpert, Pinhas

    2015-04-01

    Hemispheric asymmetry in cloud fraction and aerosols could lead to hemispheric imbalance in solar radiation reaching the surface and, consequently, could affect the Earth radiation budget. Previous studies showed that, over the global ocean, there is no noticeable hemispheric asymmetry in cloud fraction (CF). This contributes to the balance in solar radiation reaching the sea surface in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. In the current study, we focus on the tropical Atlantic (30oN - 30oS) which is characterized by significant amounts of Saharan dust dominating other aerosol species over the North Atlantic. Our main point is that, over the tropical Atlantic, not only is Saharan dust responsible for the pronounced hemispheric aerosol asymmetry, but it also contributes to significant cloud cover along the Saharan Air Layer. This could lead to the hemispheric imbalance in strong solar radiation reaching the sea surface in the tropical Atlantic. During the 10-year study period (July 2002 - June 2012), NASA Aerosol Reanalysis (aka MERRAero) showed that, when the hemispheric asymmetry in dust aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was the most pronounced (particularly in July), dust AOT averaged separately over the tropical North Atlantic was one order of magnitude higher than that averaged over the tropical South Atlantic. In the presence of such strong hemispheric asymmetry in dust AOT in July, CF averaged separately over the tropical North Atlantic exceeded that over the tropical South Atlantic by 20%. In July, along the Saharan Air Layer, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) CF data showed significant cloud cover (up to 0.8 - 0.9). This significant cloud fraction along SAL together with clouds over the Atlantic Inter-tropical Convergence Zone contributes to the above-mentioned hemispheric CF asymmetry. Both Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) measurements and MERRAero data were in agreement on seasonal variations in hemispheric aerosol

  7. Socially segregated, sympatric sperm whale clans in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gero, Shane; Bøttcher, Anne; Whitehead, Hal; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2016-06-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are unusual in that there is good evidence for sympatric populations with distinct culturally determined behaviour, including potential acoustic markers of the population division. In the Pacific, socially segregated, vocal clans with distinct dialects coexist; by contrast, geographical variation in vocal repertoire in the Atlantic has been attributed to drift. We examine networks of acoustic repertoire similarity and social interactions for 11 social units in the Eastern Caribbean. We find the presence of two socially segregated, sympatric vocal clans whose dialects differ significantly both in terms of categorical coda types produced by each clan (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.256; p ≤ 0.001) and when using classification-free similarity which ignores defined types (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.180; p ≤ 0.001). The more common of the two clans makes a characteristic 1 + 1 + 3 coda, while the other less often sighted clan makes predominantly regular codas. Units were only observed associating with other units within their vocal clan. This study demonstrates that sympatric vocal clans do exist in the Atlantic, that they define a higher order level of social organization as they do in the Pacific, and suggests that cultural identity at the clan level is probably important in this species worldwide. PMID:27429766

  8. Socially segregated, sympatric sperm whale clans in the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Bøttcher, Anne; Whitehead, Hal

    2016-01-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are unusual in that there is good evidence for sympatric populations with distinct culturally determined behaviour, including potential acoustic markers of the population division. In the Pacific, socially segregated, vocal clans with distinct dialects coexist; by contrast, geographical variation in vocal repertoire in the Atlantic has been attributed to drift. We examine networks of acoustic repertoire similarity and social interactions for 11 social units in the Eastern Caribbean. We find the presence of two socially segregated, sympatric vocal clans whose dialects differ significantly both in terms of categorical coda types produced by each clan (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.256; p ≤ 0.001) and when using classification-free similarity which ignores defined types (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.180; p ≤ 0.001). The more common of the two clans makes a characteristic 1 + 1 + 3 coda, while the other less often sighted clan makes predominantly regular codas. Units were only observed associating with other units within their vocal clan. This study demonstrates that sympatric vocal clans do exist in the Atlantic, that they define a higher order level of social organization as they do in the Pacific, and suggests that cultural identity at the clan level is probably important in this species worldwide. PMID:27429766

  9. Biogeochemical cycling of cadmium isotopes along a high-resolution section through the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Tim M.; John, Seth G.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a bioactive trace element in the oceans, with a nutrient-like distribution that closely matches dissolved phosphate. Seawater-dissolved stable Cd isotope ratios (δ114Cd) are a relatively new parameter, which show much promise for furthering our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of Cd in the oceans. Here we present a high-resolution paired section of dissolved Cd concentrations and dissolved δ114Cd from 21 open-ocean stations along the US GEOTRACES GA03 transect through the North Atlantic Ocean. Dissolved Cd concentrations along the section are strongly influenced by water-mass distribution and the cycling of Cd. The highest dissolved Cd concentrations (400-540 pmol kg-1) are associated with Antarctic-sourced water masses, whilst biological uptake in the surface ocean results in a strong vertical gradient in dissolved Cd towards the surface, reaching as low as 0.03 pmol kg-1 in western surface waters. Dissolved δ114Cd is also characterized by a vertical gradient from ∼+0.2‰ in the deep ocean to +2‰ to +5‰ in the Cd-depleted surface ocean (relative to NIST SRM 3108). This variability in δ114Cd can be ascribed to mixing of Antarctic and North Atlantic water masses, together with fractionation due to in situ biological uptake of light Cd in the very surface ocean. Subtle deviations from this overall pattern of dissolved Cd concentration and dissolved δ114Cd are observed within low-oxygen waters off North Africa, where a dissolved Cd deficit relative to phosphate is associated with higher dissolved δ114Cd values. Together with elevated particulate Cd and Ba, this suggests that Cd sulfide precipitation is occurring within the water column of the North Atlantic, constituting a potentially important sink for isotopically light Cd. Additionally, the first measurements of dissolved δ114Cd within a hydrothermal plume at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge show that Cd is scavenged from the dissolved phase, leaving the remnant dissolved Cd

  10. Observational constraints on atmospheric and oceanic cross-equatorial heat transports: revisiting the precipitation asymmetry problem in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Wang, Hailan; Cheng, Anning; Kato, Seiji; Fasullo, John T.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Allan, Richard P.

    2016-05-01

    Satellite based top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiation budget observations are combined with mass corrected vertically integrated atmospheric energy divergence and tendency from reanalysis to infer the regional distribution of the TOA, atmospheric and surface energy budget terms over the globe. Hemispheric contrasts in the energy budget terms are used to determine the radiative and combined sensible and latent heat contributions to the cross-equatorial heat transports in the atmosphere (AHTEQ) and ocean (OHTEQ). The contrast in net atmospheric radiation implies an AHTEQ from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) (0.75 PW), while the hemispheric difference in sensible and latent heat implies an AHTEQ in the opposite direction (0.51 PW), resulting in a net NH to SH AHTEQ (0.24 PW). At the surface, the hemispheric contrast in the radiative component (0.95 PW) dominates, implying a 0.44 PW SH to NH OHTEQ. Coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) models with excessive net downward surface radiation and surface-to-atmosphere sensible and latent heat transport in the SH relative to the NH exhibit anomalous northward AHTEQ and overestimate SH tropical precipitation. The hemispheric bias in net surface radiative flux is due to too much longwave surface radiative cooling in the NH tropics in both clear and all-sky conditions and excessive shortwave surface radiation in the SH subtropics and extratropics due to an underestimation in reflection by clouds.

  11. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A

    2012-09-01

    The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population. PMID:21875447

  12. Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount, equatorial Indian Ocean: Sources and fractionation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.; Rajani, R.P.; Chodankar, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The major element relationships in ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount (ANS), eastern equatorial Indian Ocean, appear to be atypical. High positive correlations (r = 0.99) between Mn/Co and Fe/Co ratios, and lack of correlation of those ratios with Co, Ce, and Ce/Co, indicate that the ANS Fe-Mn crusts are distinct from Pacific seamount Fe-Mn crusts, and reflect region-specific chemical characteristics. The platinum group elements (PGE: Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) and Au in ANS Fe-Mn crusts are derived from seawater and are mainly of terrestrial origin, with a minor cosmogenic component. The Ru/Rh (0.5-2) and Pt/Ru ratios (7-28) are closely comparable to ratios in continental basalts, whereas Pd/Ir ratios exhibit values ( 0.75) correlations between water depth and Mn/Co, Fe/Co, Ce/Co, Co, and the PGEs. Fractionation of the PGE-Au from seawater during colloidal precipitation of the major-oxide phases is indicated by well-defined linear positive correlations (r > 0.8) of Co and Ce with Ir, Ru, Rh, and Pt; Au/Co with Mn/Co; and by weak or no correlations of Pd with water depth, Co-normalized major-element ratios, and with the other PGE (r < 0.5). The strong enrichment of Pt (up to 1 ppm) relative to the other PGE and its positive correlations with Ce and Co demonstrate a common link for the high concentrations of all three elements, which likely involves an oxidation reaction on the Mn-oxide and Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces. The documented fractionation of PGE-Au and their positive association with redox sensitive Co and Ce may have applications in reconstructing past-ocean redox conditions and water masses.

  13. From the subtropics to the central equatorial Pacific Ocean: Neodymium isotopic composition and rare earth element concentration variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, MéLanie; Jeandel, Catherine; Lacan, FrançOis; Vance, Derek; Venchiarutti, CéLia; Cros, Alexandre; Cravatte, Sophie

    2013-02-01

    Neodymium isotopic compositions (ɛNd) and rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured for filtered surface to deep waters (112 samples) in the Southern Tropical Pacific. The relatively detailed picture of these tracer distributions allowed us to refine the areas where oceanic ɛNd variations occur. ɛNd values increase for most of the water masses flowing from Samoa to the Solomon Sea and in the Papua New Guinea (PNG) area, as already observed. Furthermore, water masses arriving from the eastern equatorial Pacific (200-550 m depth) also revealed radiogenic values, possibly acquired in the vicinity of the South American coasts and Galapagos Islands. These ɛNd variations affect the whole water column. The most likely process causing such variations is "boundary exchange" between the numerous radiogenic slopes/margins located in this area and seawater flowing past. Dissolution of atmospheric deposition and/or diffuse streaming of volcanic ash are also suggested to explain the radiogenic ɛNd observed at the surface in the PNG area. Interestingly, a positive europium (Eu) anomaly characterizes the normalized REE patterns of most of the studied water masses. This anomaly is consistent with the REE patterns of sediment and rock samples that are potential sources for the local waters. Such consistency reinforces the hypothesis that lithogenic sources play a major role in the oceanic REE budget, thanks to "boundary exchange." The data set presented here is a good basis for further sampling that will be realized in the framework of the ongoing GEOTRACES program (www.geotraces.org).

  14. High connectivity of the crocodile shark between the Atlantic and Southwest Indian Oceans: highlights for conservation.

    PubMed

    da Silva Ferrette, Bruno Lopes; Mendonça, Fernando Fernandes; Coelho, Rui; de Oliveira, Paulo Guilherme Vasconcelos; Hazin, Fábio Hissa Vieira; Romanov, Evgeny V; Oliveira, Claudio; Santos, Miguel Neves; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Among the various shark species that are captured as bycatch in commercial fishing operations, the group of pelagic sharks is still one of the least studied and known. Within those, the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, a small-sized lamnid shark, is occasionally caught by longline vessels in certain regions of the tropical oceans worldwide. However, the population dynamics of this species, as well as the impact of fishing mortality on its stocks, are still unknown, with the crocodile shark currently one of the least studied of all pelagic sharks. Given this, the present study aimed to assess the population structure of P. kamoharai in several regions of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans using genetic molecular markers. The nucleotide composition of the mitochondrial DNA control region of 255 individuals was analyzed, and 31 haplotypes were found, with an estimated diversity Hd = 0.627, and a nucleotide diversity π = 0.00167. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a fixation index ΦST = -0.01118, representing an absence of population structure among the sampled regions of the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. These results show a high degree of gene flow between the studied areas, with a single genetic stock and reduced population variability. In panmictic populations, conservation efforts can be concentrated in more restricted areas, being these representative of the total biodiversity of the species. When necessary, this strategy could be applied to the genetic maintenance of P. kamoharai. PMID:25689742

  15. High Connectivity of the Crocodile Shark between the Atlantic and Southwest Indian Oceans: Highlights for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Ferrette, Bruno Lopes; Mendonça, Fernando Fernandes; Coelho, Rui; de Oliveira, Paulo Guilherme Vasconcelos; Hazin, Fábio Hissa Vieira; Romanov, Evgeny V.; Oliveira, Claudio; Santos, Miguel Neves; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Among the various shark species that are captured as bycatch in commercial fishing operations, the group of pelagic sharks is still one of the least studied and known. Within those, the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, a small-sized lamnid shark, is occasionally caught by longline vessels in certain regions of the tropical oceans worldwide. However, the population dynamics of this species, as well as the impact of fishing mortality on its stocks, are still unknown, with the crocodile shark currently one of the least studied of all pelagic sharks. Given this, the present study aimed to assess the population structure of P. kamoharai in several regions of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans using genetic molecular markers. The nucleotide composition of the mitochondrial DNA control region of 255 individuals was analyzed, and 31 haplotypes were found, with an estimated diversity Hd = 0.627, and a nucleotide diversity π = 0.00167. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a fixation index ΦST = -0.01118, representing an absence of population structure among the sampled regions of the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. These results show a high degree of gene flow between the studied areas, with a single genetic stock and reduced population variability. In panmictic populations, conservation efforts can be concentrated in more restricted areas, being these representative of the total biodiversity of the species. When necessary, this strategy could be applied to the genetic maintenance of P. kamoharai. PMID:25689742

  16. Wintertime atmospheric response to Atlantic multidecadal variability: effect of stratospheric representation and ocean-atmosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peings, Yannick; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2016-08-01

    The impact of the Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) on the wintertime atmosphere circulation is investigated using three different configurations of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). Realistic SST and sea ice anomalies associated with the AMV in observations are prescribed in CAM5 (low-top model) and WACCM5 (high-top model) to assess the dependence of the results on the representation of the stratosphere. In a third experiment, the role of ocean-atmosphere feedback is investigated by coupling CAM5 to a slab-ocean model in which the AMV forcing is prescribed through oceanic heat flux anomalies. The three experiments give consistent results concerning the response of the NAO in winter, with a negative NAO signal in response to a warming of the North Atlantic ocean. This response is found in early winter when the high-top model is used, and in late winter with the low-top model. With the slab-ocean, the negative NAO response is more persistent in winter and shifted eastward over the continent due to the damping of the atmospheric response over the North Atlantic ocean. Additional experiments suggest that both tropical and extratropical SST anomalies are needed to obtain a significant modulation of the NAO, with small influence of sea ice anomalies. Warm tropical SST anomalies induce a northward shift of the ITCZ and a Rossby-wave response that is reinforced in the mid-latitudes by the extratropical SST anomalies through eddy-mean flow interactions. This modeling study supports that the positive phase of the AMV promotes the negative NAO in winter, while illustrating the impacts of the stratosphere and of the ocean-atmosphere feedbacks in the spatial pattern and timing of this response.

  17. Wintertime atmospheric response to Atlantic multidecadal variability: effect of stratospheric representation and ocean-atmosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peings, Yannick; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2015-10-01

    The impact of the Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) on the wintertime atmosphere circulation is investigated using three different configurations of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). Realistic SST and sea ice anomalies associated with the AMV in observations are prescribed in CAM5 (low-top model) and WACCM5 (high-top model) to assess the dependence of the results on the representation of the stratosphere. In a third experiment, the role of ocean-atmosphere feedback is investigated by coupling CAM5 to a slab-ocean model in which the AMV forcing is prescribed through oceanic heat flux anomalies. The three experiments give consistent results concerning the response of the NAO in winter, with a negative NAO signal in response to a warming of the North Atlantic ocean. This response is found in early winter when the high-top model is used, and in late winter with the low-top model. With the slab-ocean, the negative NAO response is more persistent in winter and shifted eastward over the continent due to the damping of the atmospheric response over the North Atlantic ocean. Additional experiments suggest that both tropical and extratropical SST anomalies are needed to obtain a significant modulation of the NAO, with small influence of sea ice anomalies. Warm tropical SST anomalies induce a northward shift of the ITCZ and a Rossby-wave response that is reinforced in the mid-latitudes by the extratropical SST anomalies through eddy-mean flow interactions. This modeling study supports that the positive phase of the AMV promotes the negative NAO in winter, while illustrating the impacts of the stratosphere and of the ocean-atmosphere feedbacks in the spatial pattern and timing of this response.

  18. Observations of net heat flux into the surface mixed layer of the Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, E. F.; Godfrey, J. S.; Coppin, P. A.; Butt, J. A.

    1993-12-01

    For a 10-day period during September 1990 the R/V Franklin worked around a drifting buoy drogued at 20-m depth in the Bismarck Sea near 4°S, 149°E. Continuous measurements were made of the air-sea fluxes of radiation and sensible and latent heat, and a conductivity/temperature/depth cast to 400 m was made about every 6 hours. The aim was to close the heat budget of a sample volume of the surface mixed layer to within 10 W m-2, in preparation for our participation in the 1992-1993 Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere-Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE). Temperature and salinity between the surface and 30-m depth were quite uniform, but below 30 m, variability was observed which suggested the possible intrusion of horizontal and vertical advection of heat. Heat content was analyzed for depths of 40 m and 20 m; bulk Richardson numbers generally greater than 0.8 and 0.4, respectively, in the two cases indicated that diapycnal mixing through the bottom of the 40-m volume could be neglected at 40 m and possibly at 20 m (Peters et al., 1988; Godfrey and Lindstrom, 1989). An eddy diffusivity for salt at 20 m was obtained to account for the steady decrease of observed freshwater content in the top 20 m over that expected from the surface flux. Using this diffusivity, the turbulent heat flux through 20 m was of order 6 W m-2, supporting the view that vertical mixing of heat was small even at this depth. Then, neglecting advection and vertical mixing, the heat budget closure to 40-m depth was satisfied to about 25 W m-2 on average over the period, but both integrated heat and freshwater time series were "noisy" because of variability below 30 m. Limited to 20-m depth, the average difference between incident energy and heat content was reduced to about 12 W m-2, with close agreement over the diurnal cycle. The model for air-sea exchange of sensible and latent heat by Liu et al. (1979) is verified at low wind speeds, although it may overestimate slightly

  19. High bacterivory by the smallest phytoplankton in the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zubkov, Mikhail V; Tarran, Glen A

    2008-09-11

    Planktonic algae <5 m in size are major fixers of inorganic carbon in the ocean. They dominate phytoplankton biomass in post-bloom, stratified oceanic temperate waters. Traditionally, large and small algae are viewed as having a critical growth dependence on inorganic nutrients, which the latter can better acquire at lower ambient concentrations owing to their higher surface area to volume ratios. Nonetheless, recent phosphate tracer experiments in the oligotrophic ocean have suggested that small algae obtain inorganic phosphate indirectly, possibly through feeding on bacterioplankton. There have been numerous microscopy-based studies of algae feeding mixotrophically in the laboratory and field as well as mathematical modelling of the ecological importance of mixotrophy. However, because of methodological limitations there has not been a direct comparison of obligate heterotrophic and mixotrophic bacterivory. Here we present direct evidence that small algae carry out 40-95% of the bacterivory in the euphotic layer of the temperate North Atlantic Ocean in summer. A similar range of 37-70% was determined in the surface waters of the tropical North-East Atlantic Ocean, suggesting the global significance of mixotrophy. This finding reveals that even the smallest algae have less dependence on dissolved inorganic nutrients than previously thought, obtaining a quarter of their biomass from bacterivory. This has important implications for how we perceive nutrient acquisition and limitation of carbon-fixing protists as well as control of bacterioplankton in the ocean. PMID:18690208

  20. Resolving the abundance and air-sea fluxes of airborne microorganisms in the North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Mayol, Eva; Jiménez, María A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Arrieta, Jesús M.

    2014-01-01

    Airborne transport of microbes may play a central role in microbial dispersal, the maintenance of diversity in aquatic systems and in meteorological processes such as cloud formation. Yet, there is almost no information about the abundance and fate of microbes over the oceans, which cover >70% of the Earth's surface and are the likely source and final destination of a large fraction of airborne microbes. We measured the abundance of microbes in the lower atmosphere over a transect covering 17° of latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean and derived estimates of air-sea exchange of microorganisms from meteorological data. The estimated load of microorganisms in the atmospheric boundary layer ranged between 6 × 104 and 1.6 × 107 microbes per m2 of ocean, indicating a very dynamic air-sea exchange with millions of microbes leaving and entering the ocean per m2 every day. Our results show that about 10% of the microbes detected in the boundary layer were still airborne 4 days later and that they could travel up to 11,000 km before they entered the ocean again. The size of the microbial pool hovering over the North Atlantic indicates that it could play a central role in the maintenance of microbial diversity in the surface ocean and contribute significantly to atmospheric processes. PMID:25400625

  1. Resolving the abundance and air-sea fluxes of airborne microorganisms in the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mayol, Eva; Jiménez, María A; Herndl, Gerhard J; Duarte, Carlos M; Arrieta, Jesús M

    2014-01-01

    Airborne transport of microbes may play a central role in microbial dispersal, the maintenance of diversity in aquatic systems and in meteorological processes such as cloud formation. Yet, there is almost no information about the abundance and fate of microbes over the oceans, which cover >70% of the Earth's surface and are the likely source and final destination of a large fraction of airborne microbes. We measured the abundance of microbes in the lower atmosphere over a transect covering 17° of latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean and derived estimates of air-sea exchange of microorganisms from meteorological data. The estimated load of microorganisms in the atmospheric boundary layer ranged between 6 × 10(4) and 1.6 × 10(7) microbes per m(2) of ocean, indicating a very dynamic air-sea exchange with millions of microbes leaving and entering the ocean per m(2) every day. Our results show that about 10% of the microbes detected in the boundary layer were still airborne 4 days later and that they could travel up to 11,000 km before they entered the ocean again. The size of the microbial pool hovering over the North Atlantic indicates that it could play a central role in the maintenance of microbial diversity in the surface ocean and contribute significantly to atmospheric processes. PMID:25400625

  2. Decadal variability of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Surface Temperature in shipboard measurements and in a Global Ocean-Atmosphere model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Vikram M.; Delworth, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) variability was investigated in a 200-yr integration of a global model of the coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulations developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The second 100 yr of SST in the coupled model's tropical Atlantic region were analyzed with a variety of techniques. Analyses of SST time series, averaged over approximately the same subregions as the Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas (GOSTA) time series, showed that the GFDL SST anomalies also undergo pronounced quasi-oscillatory decadal and multidecadal variability but at somewhat shorter timescales than the GOSTA SST anomalies. Further analyses of th