Sample records for equivalent trap tasks

  1. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  2. Economic decision-making compared with an equivalent motor task

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shih-Wei; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that human economic decision-making deviates from the predictions of expected utility theory (EUT) and that human performance conforms to EUT in many perceptual and motor decision tasks. It is possible that these results reflect a real difference in decision-making in the 2 domains but it is also possible that the observed discrepancy simply reflects typical differences in experimental design. We developed a motor task that is mathematically equivalent to choosing between lotteries and used it to compare how the same subject chose between classical economic lotteries and the same lotteries presented in equivalent motor form. In experiment 1, we found that subjects are more risk seeking in deciding between motor lotteries. In experiment 2, we used cumulative prospect theory to model choice and separately estimated the probability weighting functions and the value functions for each subject carrying out each task. We found no patterned differences in how subjects represented outcome value in the motor and the classical tasks. However, the probability weighting functions for motor and classical tasks were markedly and significantly different. Those for the classical task showed a typical tendency to overweight small probabilities and underweight large probabilities, and those for the motor task showed the opposite pattern of probability distortion. This outcome also accounts for the increased risk-seeking observed in the motor tasks of experiment 1. We conclude that the same subject distorts probability, but not value, differently in making identical decisions in motor and classical form. PMID:19332799

  3. Economic decision-making compared with an equivalent motor task

    E-print Network

    Maloney, Laurence T.

    decision- making deviates from the predictions of expected utility theory (EUT) and that human performanceEconomic decision-making compared with an equivalent motor task Shih-Wei Wua,b,1 , Mauricio R a real difference in decision-making in the 2 domains but it is also possible that the observed

  4. Fourier spectrum based extraction of an equivalent trap state density in indium gallium zinc oxide transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Bikash; Sambandan, Sanjiv, E-mail: sanjiv@iap.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560075 (India); Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia, E-mail: an299@cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Ahnood, Arman [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 VIC (Australia); Jeon, Sanghun, E-mail: jeonsh@korea.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics, Korea University, 2511 Sejong-ro, Sejong-si 339-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-19

    Segregating the dynamics of gate bias induced threshold voltage shift, and in particular, charge trapping in thin film transistors (TFTs) based on time constants provides insight into the different mechanisms underlying TFTs instability. In this Letter we develop a representation of the time constants and model the magnitude of charge trapped in the form of an equivalent density of created trap states. This representation is extracted from the Fourier spectrum of the dynamics of charge trapping. Using amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O TFTs as an example, the charge trapping was modeled within an energy range of ?E{sub t}? 0.3?eV and with a density of state distribution as D{sub t}(E{sub t?j})=D{sub t0}exp(??E{sub t}/kT)with D{sub t0}?=?5.02 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?2}?eV{sup ?1}. Such a model is useful for developing simulation tools for circuit design.

  5. Assessing planning and set-shifting abilities in autism: are experimenter-administered and computerised versions of tasks equivalent?

    PubMed

    Williams, David; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    Across studies, analysis of performance on classic measures of executive functioning (EF) among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that people with this disorder may be impaired only when tasks are experimenter-administered, but not when the same tasks are computer-administered. This would imply that the underlying cause of apparent executive dysfunction in ASD is a diminished ability to engage with another person/comprehend what another person expects, rather than a diminution of the control processes that typically underpin EF task performance. However, this suggestion is limited because, to our knowledge, no study has directly compared the equivalence of computer-administered and standard experimenter-administered versions of EF tasks that have been presented in counterbalanced order among a common sample of individuals with ASD. In the current study, 21 children with ASD and 22 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched comparison participants completed, in counterbalanced order, computerised and manual versions of both a planning task and a cognitive flexibility/set-shifting task. Contrary to expectation, results indicated that participants with ASD were equally impaired in terms of the key dependent variable on standard and computerised versions of both tasks. Practically, these results suggest that computer-administered and experimenter-administered versions of planning and set-shifting tasks are equivalent among individuals with ASD and can be used interchangeably in studies of EF among this population. Theoretically, these results challenge the notion that poor performance on EF tasks among school-aged children with ASD is only the result of a limited ability to engage with a human experimenter/comprehend socially presented rules. PMID:23893967

  6. Physical cognition and tool-use: performance of Darwin's finches in the two-trap tube task.

    PubMed

    Teschke, I; Tebbich, S

    2011-07-01

    The trap tube is a classic test of causal reasoning abilities in animals in the physical domain. Recently, a modified version of this task improved its diagnostic capacity and allowed testing of non-tool-using animals. We used this modified two-trap tube task to compare the cognition of two Darwin's finch species: the woodpecker finch, Cactospiza pallida, a tool-using species, and the small tree finch, Camarhynchus parvulus, a closely related non-tool-using species. Not all woodpecker finches use tools in nature, and we therefore also tested non-tool-using individuals to assess the effect of experience on trap tube performance. No small tree finches and only two non-tool-using woodpecker finches solved the initial task which was operated using a pre-inserted piston. One tool-using woodpecker finch solved the task when allowed to use its own tool instead of the pre-inserted piston. The fact that none of these subjects transferred their knowledge when the features of the task changed, suggests that in this species, neither experience using tools nor the genetic composition of a tool-user are associated with the general physical cognitive skills required to solve the trap tube task. PMID:21360118

  7. Unintentional Activation of Translation Equivalents in Bilinguals Leads to Attention Capture in a Cross-Modal Visual Task

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Using a variant of the visual world eye tracking paradigm, we examined if language non- selective activation of translation equivalents leads to attention capture and distraction in a visual task in bilinguals. High and low proficient Hindi-English speaking bilinguals were instructed to programme a saccade towards a line drawing which changed colour among other distractor objects. A spoken word, irrelevant to the main task, was presented before the colour change. On critical trials, one of the line drawings was a phonologically related word of the translation equivalent of the spoken word. Results showed that saccade latency was significantly higher towards the target in the presence of this cross-linguistic translation competitor compared to when the display contained completely unrelated objects. Participants were also slower when the display contained the referent of the spoken word among the distractors. However, the bilingual groups did not differ with regard to the interference effect observed. These findings suggest that spoken words activates translation equivalent which bias attention leading to interference in goal directed action in the visual domain. PMID:25775184

  8. The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC): A Psychometric and Equivalence Study of an Alternate Form.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, Jason K; Lurie, Jessica B; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Bell, Morris D

    2013-01-01

    The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) uses a 64-second video of geometric shapes set in motion to portray themes of social relatedness and intentions. Considered a test of "Theory of Mind," the SAT-MC assesses implicit social attribution formation while reducing verbal and basic cognitive demands required of other common measures. We present a comparability analysis of the SAT-MC and the new SAT-MC-II, an alternate form created for repeat testing, in a university sample (n = 92). Score distributions and patterns of association with external validation measures were nearly identical between the two forms, with convergent and discriminant validity supported by association with affect recognition ability and lack of association with basic visual reasoning. Internal consistency of the SAT-MC-II was superior (alpha = .81) to the SAT-MC (alpha = .56). Results support the use of SAT-MC and new SAT-MC-II as equivalent test forms. Demonstrating relatively higher association to social cognitive than basic cognitive abilities, the SAT-MC may provide enhanced sensitivity as an outcome measure of social cognitive intervention trials. PMID:23864984

  9. Depth dependence of absorbed dose, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer spectra of galactic and trapped particles in polyethylene and comparison with calculations of models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A matched set of five tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), embedded at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 5, 8 and 12-inch-diameter polyethylene spheres, were flown on the Shuttle flight STS-81 (inclination 51.65 degrees, altitude approximately 400 km). The data obtained were separated into contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). From the measured linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, the absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates were calculated. The results were compared to calculations made with the radiation transport model HZETRN/NUCFRG2, using the GCR free-space spectra, orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission function and Shuttle shielding distributions. The comparison shows that the model fits the dose rates to a root mean square (rms) error of 5%, and dose-equivalent rates to an rms error of 10%. Fairly good agreement between the LET spectra was found; however, differences are seen at both low and high LET. These differences can be understood as due to the combined effects of chord-length variation and detector response function. These results rule out a number of radiation transport/nuclear fragmentation models. Similar comparisons of trapped-proton dose rates were made between calculations made with the proton transport model BRYNTRN using the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model and Shuttle shielding distributions. The predictions of absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates are fairly good. However, the prediction of the LET spectra below approximately 30 keV/microm shows the need to improve the AP-8 model. These results have strong implications for shielding requirements for an interplanetary manned mission.

  10. The reliability and validity of a lift simulator and its functional equivalence with free weight lifting tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Sparto; Mohamad Parnianpour; Kinda A. Khalaf; Sheldon R. Simon

    1995-01-01

    The combination of Workers' Compensation legal claims and the enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) has created a need for more objective and realistic trunk muscle testing. The LIDOLift (Loredan, Inc.) is a computerized dynamometer which has the capabilities to test multijoint coordinated lifting tasks in isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial modes of operation. The calibration of the electromechanical

  11. Storm- and tide-dominated shorelines in Cretaceous Moosebar-lower Gates interval-outcrop equivalents of Deep basin gas trap in western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Leckie, D.A., Walker, R.G.

    1982-02-01

    The Moosebar and Gates Formations crop out in the deformed Foothills belt south of Fort St. John, British Columbia. They permit examination of the depositional environments of sandstones and conglomerates that are gas-bearing in the equivalent Wilrich-Falher interval of the Deep basin of Alberta and British Columbia. The Moosebar-Gates interval consists of several upward-coarsening and marine to nonmarine sequences. Moosebar bioturbated shales pass upward into turbidites and offshore storm deposits. Flow directions indicate a north-dipping paleoslope. A second coarsening-upward sequence at the top of the Moosebar and base of the Gates terminates in a lenticular fluvial conglomerate up to 30 m thick, which is overlain by coals, carbonaceous mudstones, and sandstones. Above the carbonaceous zone, fluvial conglomerates in the south grade into beach conglomerates northward. The upper part of the beach conglomerate consists of exposed three-dimensional storm berms, at least 500 m long, up to 1.5 m high, with wavelengths of 12 to 24 m. The berms trend east-west. Seaward of the conglomerate beach are herringbone cross-bedded (tidal) sandstones with a marine trace fauna. Graded sharp-based conglomerates also are present. Farther north, at the same stratigraphic level, is a series of partly overlapping conglomerate bars up to 5 m thick and 40 to 50 m across. The tops of these bars are covered with storm-formed symmetric conglomeratic dunes. Data suggest that four major environments (fluvial, beach, offshore conglomerate bars, and offshore graded storm conglomerates) should be identifiable and predictable in the subsurface. (JMT)

  12. Equivalent Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    In this interactive activity a user identifies two pairs of equivalent fractions for a given random fraction or one of the player's own and the user creates their representations by dividing and shading either a square or circular region. The fractions are shown as locations on the number line and their equivalency is demonstrated when they are at the same point. The user has the ability to construct a table of equivalent fractions. Instructions and exploration questions are given.

  13. Equivalent Fractions!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Pearce

    2011-11-06

    How good at determining equivalent fractions are you? Test your skills with these various fraction games to find out! You have recently been learning about fractions and their equivalency. Try this game to test your knowledge of Equivalent Fractions!! Be sure to notice the "hints" under some of the questions to help you get the correct answer. Good Luck! Continue to master your skills by playing the Dirt Bike Proportions! game. How quickly you ...

  14. Equivalent Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-10

    In this NCTM iOS app a user identifies equivalent fractions for a given random fraction or one of the player's own. The user creates their representations by dividing and shading either a square or circular region. The fractions are shown as locations on the number line and their equivalency is demonstrated when they are at the same point. The user has the ability to construct a table of equivalent fractions. This app is related to an Illuminations activity and an Android app that are cataloged separately.

  15. Equivalent Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-31

    In this NCTM Android app a user identifies equivalent fractions for a given random fraction or one of the player's own. The user creates their representations by dividing and shading either a square or circular region. The fractions are shown as locations on the number line and their equivalency is demonstrated when they are at the same point. The user has the ability to construct a table of equivalent fractions. This app is related to an Illuminations activity and an iOS app that are cataloged separately.

  16. HfO2/GeOxNy/Ge gate stacks with sub-nanometer capacitance equivalent thickness and low interface trap density by in situ NH3 plasma pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yan-Qiang; Chen, Jun; Liu, Xiao-Jie; Li, Xin; Cao, Zheng-Yi; Ma, Yuan-Jie; Wu, Di; Li, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The native oxides on Ge substrates can be transformed into GeOxNy by in situ NH3 plasma pretreatment. The interfacial and electrical properties of HfO2 caps gate stacks on Ge with and without ultrathin GeOxNy barrier layers have been investigated thoroughly. HfO2/GeOxNy/Ge stacking structure shows a sharp and flat interface between HfO2 and Ge substrates without recognized interfacial layer. In situ NH3 plasma pretreatment effectively improves the electrical properties such as higher accumulation capacitance, smaller frequency dispersion, and lower interface trap density (Dit) than without NH3 plasma pretreatment. It is ascribed to that fact that the GeOxNy barrier layer between HfO2 and Ge substrates shows better thermal stability and suppresses the Ge outdiffusion. The 3-nm-thick HfO2 gate stacks on Ge with 60 s NH3 plasma pretreatment exhibit a capacitance equivalent thickness of 0.96 nm and a leakage current density of 1.12 mA/cm2 at +1 V gate bias with acceptable Dit value of 3.42 × 1012 eV-1 cm-2. These results indicate that the surface nitridation by in situ NH3 plasma pretreatment may be a promising approach for the realization of high quality Ge-based transistor devices.

  17. Equivalent Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This interactive Java applet presents an array of common fractions sometimes referred to as a wall. Fractions less than one with denominators from 2 through 16 are placed to scale horizontally. The learner then moves a mouse to highlight equivalent sets of fractions vertically. Links to related topics are included.

  18. Equivalence-Equivalence: Matching Stimuli with Same Discriminative Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that after being trained on A-B and A-C match-to-sample tasks, adults match not only same-class B and C stimuli (equivalence) but also BC compounds with same-class elements and with different-class elements (BC-BC). The assumption was that the BC-BC performances are based on matching equivalence and nonequivalence…

  19. Trapping Coyotes

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2008-04-15

    Coyotes cause millions of dollars of damage yearly to livestock and crops in Texas. The leaflet explains coyote habits and the types of trap set, such as scent posts, dirt holes, and trail and carcass sets. The variety of traps available and how...

  20. Antihydrogen Trapped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowe, Paul D.

    2011-06-01

    In 2010 the ALPHA collaboration succeeded in trapping antihydrogen atoms for the first time.ootnotetext``Trapped antihydrogen,'' G.B. Andresen et al., Nature 468, 673 (2010) Stored antihydrogen promises to be a unique tool for making high precision measurements of the structure of this first anti-atom. Achieving this milestone presented several substantial experimental challenges and this talk will describe how they were overcome. The unique design features of the ALPHA apparatus will be explained.ootnotetext``A Magnetic Trap for Antihydrogen Confinement,'' W. Bertsche et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 566, 746 (2006) These allow a high intensity positron source and an antiproton imaging detector similar to the one used in the ATHENAootnotetext``Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms,'' M.Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). experiment to be combined with an innovative magnet design of the anti-atom trap. This seeks to minimise the perturbations to trapped charged particles which may cause particle loss and heating.ootnotetext``Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap.'' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Lett. B 685, 141 (2010) The diagnostic techniques used to measure the diameter, number, density, and temperatures of both plasmas will be presented as will the methods developed to actively compress and cool of both plasma species to sizes and temperaturesootnotetext``Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures,'' G.B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 105, 013003 (2010)^,ootnotetext``Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping,'' G. B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 100, 203401 (2008)^,ootnotetext``Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas,'' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 025002 (2011) where trapping attempts with a reasonable chance of success can be tried. The results of the successful trapping experiments will be outlined as well as some subsequent experiments to improve the trapping rate and storage time.

  1. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE UPDATE: PFRP EQUIVALENCY DETERMINATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will: Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee Review the PEC's current membership of 10 Discuss how a typical application is evaluated Note where information can be found List present deliberations/applications and describe t...

  2. Equivalent Fractions Pointer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visually represent two unique fractions that are equivalent to a given fraction. The fractional value is shown on a number line as you color in the fraction. Equivalent Fraction Pointer is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

  3. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  4. Hot Ideas. Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobis, Janette

    2005-01-01

    Three activities are presented that are designed to develop an understanding of equivalence. Equivalent fractions have the same value, but may be expressed with a different denominator or different notation. "Decimal Fraction Dominoes" focuses on the equivalence of commonly occurring fractions, decimal fractions, percentages and their pictorial…

  5. Identifying Equivalent Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    J.C. Banfill

    2007-12-12

    This site helps students understand how to identify equivalent fractions by explaining what equivalent fractions are and how to compare two fractions to see if they are equivalent. There is also a list of fractions equivalent to 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, and 2/5 so students can begin to see the pattern that emerges. Finally, the site presents an interactive game in which students can practice by naming the equivalent fraction to a given fraction.

  6. INSECT TRAP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FLYBRELLA describes a lightweight inexpensive trap that can be hung like an upside-down umbrella in prominent locations where the house flies rest. It consists of a perforated transparent tube that house flies were found to enter readily, containing a strip of rapid-acting sugar-based toxicant. An i...

  7. Salisbury hospital's steam trap success.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    With the Carbon Reduction Commitment now fully in force, and the NHS tasked with achieving tough carbon emission reduction targets in line with both UK and EU mandates, healthcare estates teams across the country are seeking cost-effective ways to reduce energy consumption. Against this backdrop, Salisbury District Hospital has implemented a concerted energy-saving programme, key elements of which include replacing existing bucket steam traps with higher performing, lower maintenance, and more effective GEM venturi steam traps from Thermal Energy International (TEI), installing a new gas CHP engine, and looking into fitting a TEI condensate economiser system. PMID:21485315

  8. Equivalent Fractions Finder

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visually represent two unique fractions that are equivalent to a given fraction. The fractional value is shown on a number line after you check to see if your fraction is correct. Equivalent Fraction Finder is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

  9. Task breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlich, Jane

    1990-01-01

    The topics concerning the Center for Space Construction (CSC) space construction breakdown structure are presented in viewgraph form. It is concluded that four components describe a task -- effecting, information gathering, analysis, and regulation; uncertainties effect the relative amount of information gathering and analysis that occurs; and that task timing requirements drive the 'location in time' of cognition.

  10. Enclosed bark as a pollen trap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Ferguson, C.W.; Lamarch, V.C., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Counts were made of pollen in traps formed by enclosed bark in two remnants of bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., from the White Mountains of east-central California. The traps, dated by tree-rings at A.D. 350 and 1300 B.C., contained a major complex of pine-sagebrush pollen and traces of other species, representing the equivalent of the present vegetation.

  11. Enclosed bark as a pollen trap.

    PubMed

    Adam, D P; Ferguson, C W; Lamarch, V C

    1967-09-01

    Counts were made of pollen in traps formed by enclosed bark in two remnants of bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., from the White Mountains of east-central California. The traps, dated by tree-rings at A.D. 350 and 1300 B.C., contained a major complex of pine-sagebrush pollen and traces of other species, representing the equivalent of the present vegetation. PMID:17770429

  12. Interaction of trapped ions with trapped atoms

    E-print Network

    Grier, Andrew T. (Andrew Todd)

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I present results from two Paul-trap based ion traps carried out in the Vuleti? laboratory: the Atom-Ion trap for collision studies between cold atoms and cold ions, and the Cavity-Array trap for studying ...

  13. Multiple paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.

  14. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  15. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsu, Hsiao-Hua (Los Alamos, NM); Casson, William H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kleck, Jeffrey H. (Menlo Park, CA); Beverding, Anthony (Foster City, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  16. Fractions--Equivalent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    Students use this virtual manipulative to visualize and name equivalent fractions. The applet presents a shape divided into equal parts, with some parts shaded. Students change the number of divisions of the shape to visualize equivalent fractions, name the fractions, and check their answers. Instructions for using the applet and teaching ideas for parents/teachers are available through the links at the top of the page.

  17. Equivalent Fraction Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark Weddell

    2003-01-01

    This web page contains four Flash applets that help students develop fraction concepts. In the three demonstrations, users can adjust the numerators and denominators of two fractions to compare them or to create two equivalent fractions, represented visually by either fraction bars or circles or by both. A game applet challenges the student to create a fraction equivalent to a given fraction and provides a check. The applets lend themselves well to classroom discussions with interactive white boards.

  18. Derived equivalences and stable equivalences of Morita type, I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Hu; Changchang Xi

    2010-01-01

    For self-injective algebras, Rickard proved that each derived equivalence induces a stable equivalence of Morita type. For general algebras, it is unknown when a derived equivalence implies a stable equivalence of Morita type. In this article, we first show that each derived equivalence $F$ between the derived categories of Artin algebras $A$ and $B$ arises naturally as a functor $\\\\bar{F}$

  19. Derived equivalences and stable equivalences of Morita type, I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Hu; Changchang Xi

    2008-01-01

    For self-injective algebras, Rickard proved that each derived equivalence induces a stable equivalence of Morita type. For general algebras, it is unknown when a derived equivalence implies a stable equivalence of Morita type. In this paper, we first show that each derived equivalence $F$ between the derived categories of Artin algebras $A$ and $B$ arises naturally a functor $\\\\bar{F}$ between

  20. Charges trapped throughout the oxide and their impact on the Fowler-Nordheim current in MOS devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pon S. Ku; Dieter K. Schroder

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the discrepancy ratio of gate voltage shift between charge trapped throughout the oxide and its equivalent charge density and centroid. The trapped charge density is underestimated if we extract trapped charge and its centroid from the measured lateral gate voltage shift without considering the transmission coefficient change due to charge trapped within a tunneling distance. For the thin

  1. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  2. Micromachined Dust Traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H.; Bradley, James G.

    1993-01-01

    Micromachined traps devised to capture dust particles for analysis without contaminating them. Based on micromachined structures retaining particles, rather than adhesives or greases interfering with scanning-electron-microscope analysis or x-ray imaging. Unlike maze traps and traps enmeshing particles in steel wool or similar materials, micromachined traps do not obscure trapped particles. Internal geometries of traps range from simple cones to U-shapes, all formed by etching silicon.

  3. Spatial Distribution of Charge Traps in a SONOS-Type Flash Memory Using a High k Trapping Layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Zhang; Xin-Peng Wang; Won Jong Yoo; Ming-Fu Li

    2007-01-01

    A time-dependent analytical method based on effective traps in a modified equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) model has been proposed for Flash memory studies, which reflects the effective vertical trap location. The effects of effective trap location and potential on memory properties have also been investigated using Si3N4, HfO2, and ZrO2 devices with the same physical structure as well as with

  4. Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Government budget constraints had forced the Emergency Dispatch Center (EDC) at a military installation to work with less than the normal number of staff. A Program Proposal was developed previously that had determined that a learning gap existed in the researcher's work environment at a military installation. To counter this gap, Learning Tasks

  5. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  6. Everyday Mathematics Equivalent Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-02-03

    This iOS app ($) provides students with practice and reinforcement of fraction concepts in a solitaire context. Users try to clear a board by matching cards displaying equivalent visual and numeric representations of fractions, while getting feedback and scoring points for accuracy. A tutorial with voice explains how to play.

  7. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE (PEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the PEC in 1985 to make recommendations to EPA and State managers on the equivalency of unproven sewage sludge disinfection technologies/processes to either a Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) or a Process to Further...

  8. Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity Aur´elien Alvarez and Damien Gaboriau February 18, 2009 Abstract We study the analogue in orbit equivalence of free product decomposition and free indecomposability for countable groups. We introduce the (orbit equivalence invariant

  9. Stable equivalences of adjoint type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changchang Xi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we deflne a class of stable equivalences, namely, the stable equivalences of adjoint type, and study the Hochschild cohomology groups of algebras that are linked by a stable equivalence of adjoint type. This notion of adjoint type is a special case of Morita type, covers the stable equivalence of Morita type for self-injective algebras, and thus includes

  10. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  11. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  12. Representations of Decision-Theoretic Planning Tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Koenig; Yaxin Liu

    2000-01-01

    Goal-directed Markov Decision Process models (GDMDPs) are good models for many decision-theoretic planning tasks. They have been used in conjunction with two different re- ward structures, namely the goal-reward representation and the action-penalty representation. We apply GDMDPs to planning tasks in the presence of traps such as steep slopes for outdoor robots or staircases for indoor robots, and study the

  13. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance

    E-print Network

    Fuller, N. Y.

    EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data... computer to evaluate overall steam trap economics. This program calculates the EUAC for any steam trap based on 12 input variables including capital, maintenance and steam costs, interest rate and trap life. After determinIng the EUAC, the program...

  14. Micromotion in trapped atom-ion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyên, Lê Huy; Kalev, Amir; Barrett, Murray D.; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2012-05-01

    We examine the validity of the harmonic approximation, where the radio-frequency ion trap is treated as a harmonic trap, in the problem regarding the controlled collision of a trapped atom and a single trapped ion. This is equivalent to studying the effect of the micromotion since this motion must be neglected for the trapped ion to be considered as a harmonic oscillator. By applying the transformation of Cook and Shankland we find that the micromotion can be represented by two periodically oscillating operators. In order to investigate the effect of the micromotion on the dynamics of a trapped atom-ion system, we calculate (i) the coupling strengths of the micromotion operators by numerical integration and (ii) the quasienergies of the system by applying the Floquet formalism, a useful framework for studying periodic systems. It turns out that the micromotion is not negligible when the distance between the atom and the ion traps is shorter than a characteristic distance. Within this range the energy diagram of the system changes remarkably when the micromotion is taken into account, which leads to undesirable consequences for applications that are based on an adiabatic process of the trapped atom-ion system. We suggest a simple scheme for bypassing the micromotion effect in order to successfully implement a quantum controlled phase gate proposed previously and create an atom-ion macromolecule. The methods presented here are not restricted to trapped atom-ion systems and can be readily applied to studying the micromotion effect in any system involving a single trapped ion.

  15. Trapping polar molecules in an ac trap

    SciTech Connect

    Bethlem, Hendrick L. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Laser Centre Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1081, NL-1081HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Veldhoven, Jacqueline van [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); FOM-Institute for Plasmaphysics Rijnhuizen, P.O. Box 1207, NL-3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Polar molecules in high-field seeking states cannot be trapped in static traps as Maxwell's equations do not allow a maximum of the electric field in free space. It is possible to generate an electric field that has a saddle point by superposing an inhomogeneous electric field to an homogeneous electric field. In such a field, molecules are focused along one direction, while being defocused along the other. By reversing the direction of the inhomogeneous electric field the focusing and defocusing directions are reversed. When the fields are being switched back and forth at the appropriate rate, this leads to a net focusing force in all directions. We describe possible electrode geometries for creating the desired fields and discuss their merits. Trapping of {sup 15}ND{sub 3} ammonia molecules in a cylindrically symmetric ac trap is demonstrated. We present measurements of the spatial distribution of the trapped cloud as a function of the settings of the trap and compare these to both a simple model assuming a linear force and to full three-dimensional simulations of the experiment. With the optimal settings, molecules within a phase-space volume of 270 mm{sup 3} (m/s){sup 3} remain trapped. This corresponds to a trap depth of about 5 mK and a trap volume of about 20 mm{sup 3}.

  16. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  17. Microfabricated Ion Traps

    E-print Network

    Marcus D. Hughes; Bjoern Lekitsch; Jiddu A. Broersma; Winfried K. Hensinger

    2011-06-28

    Ion traps offer the opportunity to study fundamental quantum systems with high level of accuracy highly decoupled from the environment. Individual atomic ions can be controlled and manipulated with electric fields, cooled to the ground state of motion with laser cooling and coherently manipulated using optical and microwave radiation. Microfabricated ion traps hold the advantage of allowing for smaller trap dimensions and better scalability towards large ion trap arrays also making them a vital ingredient for next generation quantum technologies. Here we provide an introduction into the principles and operation of microfabricated ion traps. We show an overview of material and electrical considerations which are vital for the design of such trap structures. We provide guidance in how to choose the appropriate fabrication design, consider different methods for the fabrication of microfabricated ion traps and discuss previously realized structures. We also discuss the phenomenon of anomalous heating of ions within ion traps, which becomes an important factor in the miniaturization of ion traps.

  18. Comments on TNT Equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.W.

    1994-07-01

    The term ``TNT Equivalence`` is used throughout the explosives and related industries to compare the effects of the output of a given explosive to that of TNT. This is done for technical design reasons in scaling calculation such as for the prediction of blast waves, craters, and structural response, and is also used as a basis for government regulations controlling the shipping, handling and storage of explosive materials, as well as for the siting and design of explosive facilities. TNT equivalence is determined experimentally by several different types of tests, the most common of which include: plate dent, ballistic mortar, trauzl, sand crush, and air blast. All of these tests do not necessarily measure the same output property of the sample explosive. As examples of this, some tests depend simply upon the CJ pressure, some depend upon the PV work in the CJ zone and in the Taylor wave behind the CJ plane, some are functions of the total work which includes that from secondary combustion in the air mixing region of the fireball and are acutely effected by the shape of the pressure-time profile of the wave. Some of the tests incorporate systematic errors which are not readily apparent, and which have a profound effect upon skewing the resultant data. Further, some of the tests produce different TNT Equivalents for the same explosive which are a function of the conditions at which the test is run. This paper describes the various tests used, discusses the results of each test and makes detailed commentary on what the test is actually measuring, how the results may be interpreted, and if and how these results can be predicted by first principals based calculations. Extensive data bases are referred to throughout the paper and used in examples for each point in the commentaries.

  19. Strong shift equivalence theory and the shift equivalence problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. WAGONER

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses strong shift equivalence and counterexamples to the long standing Shift Equivalence Problem in symbolic dynamics. We also discuss how strong shift equivalence theory is closely related to areas of mathematics outside dynamics such as algebraic K-theory, cyclic homology, and topological quantum eld theory.

  20. No differences in dual-task costs between forced- and free-choice tasks.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Markus; Nolden, Sophie; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Humans appear to act in response to environmental demands or to pursue self-chosen goals. In the laboratory, these situations are often investigated with forced- and free-choice tasks: in forced-choice tasks, a stimulus determines the one correct response, while in free-choice tasks the participants choose between response alternatives. We compared these two tasks regarding their susceptibility to dual-task interference when the concurrent task was always forced-choice. If, as was suggested in the literature, both tasks require different "action control systems," larger dual-task costs for free-choice tasks than for forced-choice tasks should emerge in our experiments, due to a time-costly switch between the systems. In addition, forced-choice tasks have been conceived as "prepared reflexes" for which all intentional processing is said to take place already prior to stimulus onset giving rise to automatic response initiation upon stimulus onset. We report three experiments with different implementations of the forced- vs. free-choice manipulation. In all experiments we replicated slower responses in the free- than in the forced-choice task and the typical dual-task costs. These latter costs, however, were equivalent for forced- and free-choice tasks. These results are easier to reconcile with the assumption of one unitary "action control system." PMID:24947757

  1. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility encompassing approximately 800 square kilometers near Aiken, South Carolina which began operations in the 1950's with the mission to produce nuclear materials. The SRS contains fifty-one tanks (2 stabilized, 49 yet to be closed) distributed between two liquid radioactive waste storage facilities at SRS containing carbon steel underground tanks with storage capacities ranging from 2,800,000 to 4,900,000 liters. Treatment of the liquid waste from these tanks is essential both to closing older tanks and to maintaining space needed to treat the waste that is eventually vitrified or disposed of onsite. Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) provides the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), a methodology to determine that certain waste resulting from prior reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are not high-level radioactive waste if it can be demonstrated that the waste meets the criteria set forth in Section 3116(a) of the NDAA. The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the NRC, signed a determination in January 2006, pursuant to Section 3116(a) of the NDAA, for salt waste disposal at the SRS Saltstone Disposal Facility. This determination is based, in part, on the Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site and supporting references, a document that describes the planned methods of liquid waste treatment and the resulting waste streams. The document provides descriptions of the proposed methods for processing salt waste, dividing them into 'Interim Salt Processing' and later processing through the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Interim Salt Processing is separated into Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) and Actinide Removal Process/Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU). The Waste Determination was signed by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  2. Observation of Cold Collisions between Trapped Ions and Trapped Atoms

    E-print Network

    Orucevic, Fedja

    We study cold collisions between trapped ions and trapped atoms in the semiclassical (Langevin) regime. Using Yb(+) ions confined in a Paul trap and Yb atoms in a magneto-optical trap, we investigate charge-exchange ...

  3. HP Steam Trap Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Pascone, S.

    2011-01-01

    Steam Trap Monitoring ? Real-time monitoring for high-pressure critical traps (>15 PSIG) ? Average total system cost $25K - $50K ? Web-Based or Modbus/BMS Integration Basic Installation Wireless Signal Transmitter Receiver Repeater...

  4. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  5. A Better Fly Trap

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1979-01-01

    In this activity, learners observe fly behavior and then build a flytrap. They make more observations, compare the effectiveness of different traps, and modify their traps to increase their effectiveness. In doing so, learners consider what variables make for an effective trap as well as learning how to study the behavior of an animal. Even pesky flies provide an interesting challenge.

  6. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-print Network

    Shannon X. Wang; Yufei Ge; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Eric Dauler; Karl Berggren; Isaac L. Chuang

    2010-12-14

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  7. Derived equivalences and stable equivalences of Morita type, I

    E-print Network

    Hu, Wei

    2008-01-01

    We consider the relationship between a derived equivalence and a stable equivalence of Morita type for Artin algebras. We first show that each derived equivalence $F$ between the derived categories of Artin algebras $A$ and $B$ arises naturally a functor $\\bar{F}$ between their stable module categories, which can be used to compare the finitistic and representation dimensions of $A$ with that of $B$; and then we give a sufficient condition for the functor $\\bar{F}$ to be an equivalence. Moreover, if we work with finite-dimensional algebras over a field, then the sufficient condition guarantees the existence of a stable equivalence of Morita type. This extends a classic result of Rickard, which says that a derived equivalence between finite-dimensional self-injective algebras over a field induces a stable equivalence of Morita type. Furthermore, we provide several inductive methods for constructing those derived equivalences that induce stable equivalences of Morita type. In this way, we may produce a lot of (...

  8. Motor equivalence during multi-finger accurate force production.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Daniela; Schöner, Gregor; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2015-02-01

    We explored stability of multi-finger cyclical accurate force production action by analysis of responses to small perturbations applied to one of the fingers and inter-cycle analysis of variance. Healthy subjects performed two versions of the cyclical task, with and without an explicit target. The "inverse piano" apparatus was used to lift/lower a finger by 1 cm over 0.5 s; the subjects were always instructed to perform the task as accurate as they could at all times. Deviations in the spaces of finger forces and modes (hypothetical commands to individual fingers) were quantified in directions that did not change total force (motor equivalent) and in directions that changed the total force (non-motor equivalent). Motor equivalent deviations started immediately with the perturbation and increased progressively with time. After a sequence of lifting-lowering perturbations leading to the initial conditions, motor equivalent deviations were dominating. These phenomena were less pronounced for analysis performed with respect to the total moment of force with respect to an axis parallel to the forearm/hand. Analysis of inter-cycle variance showed consistently higher variance in a subspace that did not change the total force as compared to the variance that affected total force. We interpret the results as reflections of task-specific stability of the redundant multi-finger system. Large motor equivalent deviations suggest that reactions of the neuromotor system to a perturbation involve large changes in neural commands that do not affect salient performance variables, even during actions with the purpose to correct those salient variables. Consistency of the analyses of motor equivalence and variance analysis provides additional support for the idea of task-specific stability ensured at a neural level. PMID:25344311

  9. Trap style influences wild pig behavior and trapping success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.L.; Holtfreter, R.W.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the efforts of many natural resource professionals, wild pig (Sus scrofa) populations are expanding in many areas of the world. Although many creative techniques for controlling pig populations are being explored, trapping has been and still is themost commonly usedmethod of population control formany public and private land managers. We conducted an observational study to examine the efficiency of 2 frequently used trap styles: a small, portable box-style trap and a larger, semi-permanent, corral-style trap.We used game cameras to examine patterns of trap entry by wild pigs around each style of trap, and we conducted a trapping session to compare trapping success between trap styles. Adult female and juvenile wild pigs entered both styles of trap more readily than did adult males, and adult males seemed particularly averse to entering box traps. Less than 10% of adult male visits to box traps resulted in entries, easily the least percentage of any class at any style of trap. Adult females entered corral traps approximately 2.2 times more often per visit than box traps and re-entered corral traps >2 times more frequently. Juveniles entered and reentered both box and corral traps at similar rates. Overall (all-class) entry-per-visit rates at corral traps (0.71) were nearly double that of box traps (0.37). Subsequent trapping data supported these preliminary entry data; the capture rate for corral traps was >4 times that of box traps. Our data suggest that corral traps are temporally and economically superior to box traps with respect to efficiency; that is, corral traps effectively trap more pigs per trap night at a lower cost per pig than do box traps. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  10. Noncommutative fermions and Morita equivalence

    E-print Network

    D. H. Correa; E. F. Moreno

    2002-04-15

    We study the Morita equivalence for fermion theories on noncommutative two-tori. For rational values of the $\\theta$ parameter (in appropriate units) we show the equivalence between an abelian noncommutative fermion theory and a nonabelian theory of twisted fermions on ordinary space. We study the chiral anomaly and compute the determinant of the Dirac operator in the dual theories showing that the Morita equivalence also holds at this level.

  11. Estimating equivalence with quantile regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence testing and corresponding confidence interval estimates are used to provide more enlightened statistical statements about parameter estimates by relating them to intervals of effect sizes deemed to be of scientific or practical importance rather than just to an effect size of zero. Equivalence tests and confidence interval estimates are based on a null hypothesis that a parameter estimate is either outside (inequivalence hypothesis) or inside (equivalence hypothesis) an equivalence region, depending on the question of interest and assignment of risk. The former approach, often referred to as bioequivalence testing, is often used in regulatory settings because it reverses the burden of proof compared to a standard test of significance, following a precautionary principle for environmental protection. Unfortunately, many applications of equivalence testing focus on establishing average equivalence by estimating differences in means of distributions that do not have homogeneous variances. I discuss how to compare equivalence across quantiles of distributions using confidence intervals on quantile regression estimates that detect differences in heterogeneous distributions missed by focusing on means. I used one-tailed confidence intervals based on inequivalence hypotheses in a two-group treatment-control design for estimating bioequivalence of arsenic concentrations in soils at an old ammunition testing site and bioequivalence of vegetation biomass at a reclaimed mining site. Two-tailed confidence intervals based both on inequivalence and equivalence hypotheses were used to examine quantile equivalence for negligible trends over time for a continuous exponential model of amphibian abundance. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. MARTIN'S CONJECTURE, ARITHMETIC EQUIVALENCE, AND COUNTABLE BOREL EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS

    E-print Network

    Marks, Andrew

    MARTIN'S CONJECTURE, ARITHMETIC EQUIVALENCE, AND COUNTABLE BOREL EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS ANDREW MARKS theory and descriptive set theory. A particularly beautiful source of such in- teraction has been Martin relations. In this paper, we shall give an overview of some work that has been done on Martin's conjecture

  13. Equivalent Turing Machine Models Many variations on TMs are equivalent.

    E-print Network

    Bylander, Tom

    1 Equivalent Turing Machine Models Many variations on TMs are equivalent. 1. Stay option. Read. Off-line TM. Two tapes, one for input, and the other for working storage. 4. Multitape TMs. TM has a finite number of tapes. 5. Multidimensional TMs. Tape is two-dimensional like a matrix. Nondeterministic

  14. USING STIMULUS EQUIVALENCE TECHNOLOGY TO TEACH RESEARCH DESIGN CONDITIONAL RELATIONS FOR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

    E-print Network

    Sella, Ana Carolina

    2011-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a stimulus equivalence instructional package on undergraduates' performance in conditional discrimination tasks that involved research design names, definitions, ...

  15. Microfabricated ion trap array

    DOEpatents

    Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  16. Negative Results for Equivalence Queries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Angluin

    1990-01-01

    We consider the problem of exact identification of classes of concepts using only equivalence queries. We define a combinatorial property,approximate fingerprints, of classes of concepts and show that no class with this property can be exactly identified in polynomial time using only equivalence queries. As applications of this general theorem, we show that there is no polynomial time algorithm using

  17. Bisimulation Equivalences for Graph Grammars ?

    E-print Network

    Baldan, Paolo

    - ing the equivalence of #12;nite causal automata. 1 Introduction Graph grammars have been shownBisimulation Equivalences for Graph Grammars ? Paolo Baldan, Andrea Corradini, Ugo Montanari Dipartimento di Informatica Universit#18;a di Pisa Abstract. Along the years the concurrent behaviour of graph

  18. Testing Model Nesting and Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, Peter M.; Satorra, Albert

    2010-01-01

    When using existing technology, it can be hard or impossible to determine whether two structural equation models that are being considered may be nested. There is also no routine technology for evaluating whether two very different structural models may be equivalent. A simple nesting and equivalence testing (NET) procedure is proposed that uses…

  19. 29 CFR 825.215 - Equivalent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalent position. 825.215 Section 825.215 Labor ...Medical Leave Act § 825.215 Equivalent position. (a) Equivalent position . An equivalent position is one that is...

  20. 29 CFR 825.215 - Equivalent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent position. 825.215 Section 825.215 Labor ...Medical Leave Act § 825.215 Equivalent position. (a) Equivalent position . An equivalent position is one that is...

  1. 29 CFR 825.215 - Equivalent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent position. 825.215 Section 825.215 Labor ...Medical Leave Act § 825.215 Equivalent position. (a) Equivalent position . An equivalent position is one that is...

  2. Large Nc Equivalence and Baryons

    E-print Network

    Mike Blake; Aleksey Cherman

    2012-12-14

    In the large Nc limit, gauge theories with different gauge groups and matter content sometimes turn out to be `large Nc equivalent', in the sense of having a set of coincident correlation functions. Large Nc equivalence has mainly been explored in the glueball and meson sectors. However, a recent proposal to dodge the fermion sign problem of QCD with a quark-number chemical potential using large Nc equivalence motivates investigating the applicability of large Nc equivalence to correlation functions involving baryon operators. Here we present evidence that large Nc equivalence extends to the baryon sector, under the same type of symmetry-realization assumptions as in the meson sector, by adapting the classic Witten analysis of large Nc baryons.

  3. Johnson Origins of Equivalent Circuits Origins of the Equivalent Circuit Concept: The Voltage-Source Equivalent

    E-print Network

    theory rests on the key concepts of Kirchoff's Laws, impedance, Ohm's Law (in its most general sense of equivalent circuits are Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Laws, and the Principle of Superposition. Georg Simon Ohm (1789. Because priority will be an issue, I use the terms "voltage-source" and "current-source" equivalents

  4. Steam Trap Management

    E-print Network

    Murphy, J. J.; Hirtner, H. H.

    A medium-sized plant of a high technology company is reaping the benefits of a Pro-active Steam Trap Program provided by Yarway's TECH/SERV Division. Initial work began March '84 and the most recent steam trap feasibility study conducted in March...

  5. Optical trapping of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Jarrah; Zehtabi-Oskuie, Ana; Ghaffari, Saeedeh; Pang, Yuanjie; Gordon, Reuven

    2013-01-01

    Optical trapping is a technique for immobilizing and manipulating small objects in a gentle way using light, and it has been widely applied in trapping and manipulating small biological particles. Ashkin and co-workers first demonstrated optical tweezers using a single focused beam. The single beam trap can be described accurately using the perturbative gradient force formulation in the case of small Rayleigh regime particles. In the perturbative regime, the optical power required for trapping a particle scales as the inverse fourth power of the particle size. High optical powers can damage dielectric particles and cause heating. For instance, trapped latex spheres of 109 nm in diameter were destroyed by a 15 mW beam in 25 sec, which has serious implications for biological matter. A self-induced back-action (SIBA) optical trapping was proposed to trap 50 nm polystyrene spheres in the non-perturbative regime. In a non-perturbative regime, even a small particle with little permittivity contrast to the background can influence significantly the ambient electromagnetic field and induce a large optical force. As a particle enters an illuminated aperture, light transmission increases dramatically because of dielectric loading. If the particle attempts to leave the aperture, decreased transmission causes a change in momentum outwards from the hole and, by Newton's Third Law, results in a force on the particle inwards into the hole, trapping the particle. The light transmission can be monitored; hence, the trap can become a sensor. The SIBA trapping technique can be further improved by using a double-nanohole structure. The double-nanohole structure has been shown to give a strong local field enhancement. Between the two sharp tips of the double-nanohole, a small particle can cause a large change in optical transmission, thereby inducing a large optical force. As a result, smaller nanoparticles can be trapped, such as 12 nm silicate spheres and 3.4 nm hydrodynamic radius bovine serum albumin proteins. In this work, the experimental configuration used for nanoparticle trapping is outlined. First, we detail the assembly of the trapping setup which is based on a Thorlabs Optical Tweezer Kit. Next, we explain the nanofabrication procedure of the double-nanohole in a metal film, the fabrication of the microfluidic chamber and the sample preparation. Finally, we detail the data acquisition procedure and provide typical results for trapping 20 nm polystyrene nanospheres. PMID:23354173

  6. Optical Trapping of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Jarrah; Zehtabi-Oskuie, Ana; Ghaffari, Saeedeh; Pang, Yuanjie; Gordon, Reuven

    2013-01-01

    Optical trapping is a technique for immobilizing and manipulating small objects in a gentle way using light, and it has been widely applied in trapping and manipulating small biological particles. Ashkin and co-workers first demonstrated optical tweezers using a single focused beam1. The single beam trap can be described accurately using the perturbative gradient force formulation in the case of small Rayleigh regime particles1. In the perturbative regime, the optical power required for trapping a particle scales as the inverse fourth power of the particle size. High optical powers can damage dielectric particles and cause heating. For instance, trapped latex spheres of 109 nm in diameter were destroyed by a 15 mW beam in 25 sec1, which has serious implications for biological matter2,3. A self-induced back-action (SIBA) optical trapping was proposed to trap 50 nm polystyrene spheres in the non-perturbative regime4. In a non-perturbative regime, even a small particle with little permittivity contrast to the background can influence significantly the ambient electromagnetic field and induce a large optical force. As a particle enters an illuminated aperture, light transmission increases dramatically because of dielectric loading. If the particle attempts to leave the aperture, decreased transmission causes a change in momentum outwards from the hole and, by Newton's Third Law, results in a force on the particle inwards into the hole, trapping the particle. The light transmission can be monitored; hence, the trap can become a sensor. The SIBA trapping technique can be further improved by using a double-nanohole structure. The double-nanohole structure has been shown to give a strong local field enhancement5,6. Between the two sharp tips of the double-nanohole, a small particle can cause a large change in optical transmission, thereby inducing a large optical force. As a result, smaller nanoparticles can be trapped, such as 12 nm silicate spheres7 and 3.4 nm hydrodynamic radius bovine serum albumin proteins8. In this work, the experimental configuration used for nanoparticle trapping is outlined. First, we detail the assembly of the trapping setup which is based on a Thorlabs Optical Tweezer Kit. Next, we explain the nanofabrication procedure of the double-nanohole in a metal film, the fabrication of the microfluidic chamber and the sample preparation. Finally, we detail the data acquisition procedure and provide typical results for trapping 20 nm polystyrene nanospheres. PMID:23354173

  7. Morita equivalence of noncommutative supertori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kim, Hoil; Nakajima, Hiroaki

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we study the extension of Morita equivalence of noncommutative tori to the supersymmetric case. The structure of the symmetry group yielding Morita equivalence appears to be intact but its parameter field becomes supersymmetrized having both body and soul parts. Our result is mainly in the two dimensional case in which noncommutative supertori have been constructed recently: The group SO(2,2,VZ0), where VZ0 denotes Grassmann even number whose body part belongs to Z, yields Morita equivalent noncommutative supertori in two dimensions.

  8. Morita equivalence of noncommutative supertori

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Young, Ee [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoil [Department of Mathematics, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nakajima, Hiroaki [Department of Physics and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    In this paper we study the extension of Morita equivalence of noncommutative tori to the supersymmetric case. The structure of the symmetry group yielding Morita equivalence appears to be intact but its parameter field becomes supersymmetrized having both body and soul parts. Our result is mainly in the two dimensional case in which noncommutative supertori have been constructed recently: The group SO(2,2,V{sub Z}{sup 0}), where V{sub Z}{sup 0} denotes Grassmann even number whose body part belongs to Z, yields Morita equivalent noncommutative supertori in two dimensions.

  9. Unitary equivalence of quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Sandeep K.; Konrad, Thomas; Diósi, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a SU (2) operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator.

  10. Optically programmable excitonic traps

    PubMed Central

    Alloing, Mathieu; Lemaître, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Dubin, François

    2013-01-01

    With atomic systems, optically programmed trapping potentials have led to remarkable progress in quantum optics and quantum information science. Programmable trapping potentials could have a similar impact on studies of semiconductor quasi-particles, particularly excitons. However, engineering such potentials inside a semiconductor heterostructure remains an outstanding challenge and optical techniques have not yet achieved a high degree of control. Here, we synthesize optically programmable trapping potentials for indirect excitons of bilayer heterostructures. Our approach relies on the injection and spatial patterning of charges trapped in a field-effect device. We thereby imprint in-situ and on-demand electrostatic traps into which we optically inject cold and dense ensembles of excitons. This technique creates new opportunities to improve state-of-the-art technologies for the study of collective quantum behavior of excitons and also for the functionalisation of emerging exciton-based opto-electronic circuits. PMID:23546532

  11. Nonlinear integrable ion traps

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab; Danilov, V.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge

    2011-10-01

    Quadrupole ion traps can be transformed into nonlinear traps with integrable motion by adding special electrostatic potentials. This can be done with both stationary potentials (electrostatic plus a uniform magnetic field) and with time-dependent electric potentials. These potentials are chosen such that the single particle Hamilton-Jacobi equations of motion are separable in some coordinate systems. The electrostatic potentials have several free adjustable parameters allowing for a quadrupole trap to be transformed into, for example, a double-well or a toroidal-well system. The particle motion remains regular, non-chaotic, integrable in quadratures, and stable for a wide range of parameters. We present two examples of how to realize such a system in case of a time-independent (the Penning trap) as well as a time-dependent (the Paul trap) configuration.

  12. Surface trap for ytterbium ions

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Jonathan A. (Jonathan Alan)

    2006-01-01

    We conducted an experiment to load a shallow planar ion trap from a cold atom source of Ytterbium using photoionization. The surface trap consisted of a three-rod radio frequency Paul trap fabricated using standard printed ...

  13. Equivalency Detectives: Fractions and Decimals!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maribel Magdaleno

    2012-07-17

    This is a lesson intended to reinforce students' ability to find equivalent fractions and decimals. The lesson requires prior essential vocabulary knowledge, and a basic understanding of converting fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions (specifically tenths and hundredths).

  14. Optical metrics and projective equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Stephen; Dunajski, Maciej; Gibbons, Gary; Warnick, Claude [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Trajectories of light rays in a static spacetime are described by unparametrized geodesics of the Riemannian optical metric associated with the Lorentzian spacetime metric. We investigate the uniqueness of this structure and demonstrate that two different observers, moving relative to one another, who both see the Universe as static may determine the geometry of the light rays differently. More specifically, we classify Lorentzian metrics admitting more than one hyper-surface orthogonal timelike Killing vector and analyze the projective equivalence of the resulting optical metrics. These metrics are shown to be projectively equivalent up to diffeomorphism if the static Killing vectors generate a group SL(2,R), but not projectively equivalent in general. We also consider the cosmological C metrics in Einstein-Maxwell theory and demonstrate that optical metrics corresponding to different values of the cosmological constant are projectively equivalent.

  15. Sortal Equivalence of Bare Grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, Thomas

    We discuss a concept of structural equivalence between grammars in the framework of Keenan and Stabler's bare grammars. The definition of syntactic sorts for a grammar L permits the introduction of a sort structure group Aut ? (L). The automorphism group Aut(L) of L is found to be a group extension by Aut ? (L). We develop then a concept of equivalence of grammars based on isomorphisms between the syntactic sort algebras. We study the implications of this equivalence with techniques from category theory: we invert the class of grammar homomorphisms that induce isomorphisms of sort algebras. The resulting category of fractions is found to be equivalent to a category of sortally reduced grammars.

  16. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish in any...

  17. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish in any...

  18. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish in any...

  19. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish in any...

  20. Atom trapping in an interferometrically generated bottle beam trap

    E-print Network

    Saffman, Mark

    Atom trapping in an interferometrically generated bottle beam trap L. Isenhower, W. Williams, A bottle beam trap created by interfering two fundamental Gaussian beams with different waists. The beams detuned bottle beam trap. © 2009 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 140.7010, 020.7010, 350

  1. COGNITIVE LEVELS OF TASKS MEMORIZATION TASKS

    E-print Network

    Lee, Carl

    COGNITIVE LEVELS OF TASKS MEMORIZATION TASKS · Involve either reproducing previously learned facts. · Require limited cognitive demand for successful completion. · There is little ambiguity about what needs degree of cognitive effort. Although general procedures may be followed, they cannot be followed

  2. Versatile electrostatic trap

    SciTech Connect

    Veldhoven, Jacqueline van [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); FOM-Institute for Plasmaphysics Rijnhuizen, P.O. Box 1207, NL-3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bethlem, Hendrick L. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Laser Centre Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1081, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    A four electrode electrostatic trap geometry is demonstrated that can be used to combine a dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole field. A cold packet of {sup 15}ND{sub 3} molecules is confined in both a purely quadrupolar and hexapolar trapping field and additionally, a dipole field is added to a hexapole field to create either a double-well or a donut-shaped trapping field. The profile of the {sup 15}ND{sub 3} packet in each of these four trapping potentials is measured, and the dependence of the well-separation and barrier height of the double-well and donut potential on the hexapole and dipole term are discussed.

  3. Venus fly trap

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Lenz (None; )

    2006-01-26

    Time-lapse photos or video show progressions from the start of an event to the end of the event. These time-lapse photos illustrate the growth of a single Venus fly trap. Biological processes require time.

  4. Steam trap monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  5. Equivalent damage: A critical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflen, J. R.; Cook, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts in equivalent damage were evaluated to determine their applicability to the life prediction of hot path components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Equivalent damage was defined as being those effects which influence the crack initiation life-time beyond the damage that is measured in uniaxial, fully-reversed sinusoidal and isothermal experiments at low homologous temperatures. Three areas of equivalent damage were examined: mean stress, cumulative damage, and multiaxiality. For each area, a literature survey was conducted to aid in selecting the most appropriate theories. Where possible, data correlations were also used in the evaluation process. A set of criteria was developed for ranking the theories in each equivalent damage regime. These criteria considered aspects of engine utilization as well as the theoretical basis and correlative ability of each theory. In addition, consideration was given to the complex nature of the loading cycle at fatigue critical locations of hot path components; this loading includes non-proportional multiaxial stressing, combined temperature and strain fluctuations, and general creep-fatigue interactions. Through applications of selected equivalent damage theories to some suitable data sets it was found that there is insufficient data to allow specific recommendations of preferred theories for general applications. A series of experiments and areas of further investigations were identified.

  6. Structural traps 5

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, N.H.; Beaumont, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains studies of oil and gas fields that are mainly structural in nature. Stratigraphy controls the extend of the reservoir in the traps of several fields, but overall, the main trapping features within the group of fields in this volume are structural. Fields covered in this volume include: Endicott Field, Point Arguello Field, West Puerto Chiquito Field, Dukhan Field, Sendji Field, Ruston Field, Raudhatain Field, Hassi Messaoud Field, Snapper Field, Tirrawarra Field, and Sacha Field.

  7. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    DOEpatents

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  8. Barium Ion Trapping Rebecca Schutzengel

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

    Barium Ion Trapping Rebecca Schutzengel Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering University of Washington INT REU August 20, 2012 Rebecca Schutzengel Barium Ion Trapping August 20, 2012 1 / 12 #12;Uses for Ion Trapping Bell's Inequality tests Quantum Computing Rebecca Schutzengel Barium Ion Trapping August

  9. Equivalence principle for scalar forces.

    PubMed

    Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    The equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses is a defining feature of general relativity. Here, we clarify the status of the equivalence principle for interactions mediated by a universally coupled scalar, motivated partly by recent attempts to modify gravity at cosmological distances. Although a universal scalar-matter coupling is not mandatory, once postulated, it is stable against classical and quantum renormalizations in the matter sector. The coupling strength itself is subject to renormalization, of course. The scalar equivalence principle is violated only for objects for which either the graviton self-interaction or the scalar self-interaction is important--the first applies to black holes, while the second type of violation is avoided if the scalar is Galilean symmetric. PMID:21231444

  10. Quantum computation and simulation with trapped ions using dissipation

    E-print Network

    Blatt, Rainer

    Quantum computation and simulation with trapped ions using dissipation Dissertation zur Erlangung and computer science. A quantum computer promises to solve certain problems more efficient than classical computers. But building such a quantum computer is a cumbersome task as the quantum system needs

  11. Non-equivalent cooperation between the two nucleotide-binding folds of P-glycoprotein

    E-print Network

    Tucker, Stephen J.

    Non-equivalent cooperation between the two nucleotide-binding folds of P-glycoprotein Yuko Takada P-glycoprotein, a multidrug transporter, we mutated the key lysine residues to methionines cysteine in either of the NBFs blocked vanadate-induced nucleotide trapping of P-glycoprotein

  12. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  13. The task force process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Applegate

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way

  14. Launching Complex Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  15. Representational Implications for Understanding Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Mary Margaret; Ding, Meixia; Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Robert M.; Li, Xiaobao

    2007-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have long recognized that students tend to misunderstand the equal sign as an operator; that is, a signal for "doing something" rather than a relational symbol of equivalence or quantity sameness. Students' equal sign misconception has been researched for more than thirty years (Weaver, 1971, 1973) with little refinement…

  16. TUFTS IN LONDON PSYCHOLOGY EQUIVALENCIES

    E-print Network

    Patel, Aniruddh D.

    & Language PSY 028 PSYC2209: Developmental Psychology PSY 011 PSYC2301: Computing for Psychologists PSY 110TUFTS IN LONDON PSYCHOLOGY EQUIVALENCIES Tufts in London Tufts Medford PSYC6001: Intro to Social to the ... PSY 001 PSYC1102: Methods and Approaches ... not recommended for Psychology majors PSYC1103

  17. USEPA PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE RETREAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pathogen Equivalency Committee held its retreat from September 20-21, 2005 at Hueston Woods State Park in College Corner, Ohio. This presentation will update the PEC’s membership on emerging pathogens, analytical methods, disinfection techniques, risk analysis, preparat...

  18. Children's Equivalence Judgments: Crossmapping Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mix, Kelly S.

    2008-01-01

    Preschoolers made numerical comparisons between sets with varying degrees of shared surface similarity. When surface similarity was pitted against numerical equivalence (i.e., crossmapping), children made fewer number matches than when surface similarity was neutral (i.e, all sets contained the same objects). Only children who understood the…

  19. Switching Oxide Traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.

    2003-01-01

    We consider radiation-induced charge trapping in SiO2 dielectric layers, primarily from the point of view of CMOS devices. However, SiO2 insulators are used in many other ways, and the same defects occur in other contexts. The key studies, which determined the nature of the oxide charge traps, were done primarily on gate oxides in CMOS devices, because that was the main radiation problem in CMOS at one time. There are two major reviews of radiation-induced oxide charge trapping already in the literature, which discuss the subject in far greater detail than is possible here. The first of these was by McLean et al. in 1989, and the second, ten years later, was intended as an update, because of additional, new work that had been reported. Basically, the picture that has emerged is that ionizing radiation creates electron-hole pairs in the oxide, and the electrons have much higher mobility than the holes. Therefore, the electrons are swept out of the oxide very rapidly by any field that is present, leaving behind any holes that escape the initial recombination process. These holes then undergo a polaron hopping transport toward the Si/SiO2 interface (under positive bias). Near the interface, some fraction of them fall into deep, relatively stable, long-lived hole traps. The nature and annealing behavior of these hole traps is the main focus of this paper.

  20. The Reusable Astronomy Portal (TRAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, T.; Rogers, A.; Wallace, G.

    2012-09-01

    The Reusable Astronomy Portal (TRAP) aims to provide a common platform for rapidly deploying Astronomy Archives to the web. TRAP is currently under development for both the VAO Data Discovery Portal and the MAST Multi-Mission Portal (Figure 1). TRAP consists of 2 major software packages: the TRAP Client and the TRAP Server. The TRAP framework allows developers to deploy the Server, connect to data resources, then focus on building custom tools for the Client. TRAP is built upon proven industry technologies including the Ext/JS JavaScript Component Library, Mono.NET Web Services, and JSON message based APIs. The multi-layered architecture of TRAP decouples each layer: Client, Service and Data Access, enabling each to evolve independently over time. Although currently deployed to provide astronomy science data access, the TRAP architecture is flexible enough to thrive in any distributed data environment.

  1. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOEpatents

    Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  2. Coherence in Microchip Traps

    E-print Network

    Philipp Treutlein; Peter Hommelhoff; Tilo Steinmetz; Theodor W. Hänsch; Jakob Reichel

    2004-04-22

    We report the coherent manipulation of internal states of neutral atoms in a magnetic microchip trap. Coherence lifetimes exceeding 1 s are observed with atoms at distances of $5-130 \\mu$m from the microchip surface. The coherence lifetime in the chip trap is independent of atom-surface distance within our measurement accuracy, and agrees well with the results of similar measurements in macroscopic magnetic traps. Due to the absence of surface-induced decoherence, a miniaturized atomic clock with a relative stability in the $10^{-13}$ range can be realized. For applications in quantum information processing, we propose to use microwave near-fields in the proximity of chip wires to create potentials that depend on the internal state of the atoms.

  3. Charge trapping and detrapping in polymeric materials: Trapping parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tian-chun; Chen, George; Liao, Rui-jin; Xu, Zhiqiang

    2011-08-01

    Space charge formation in polymeric materials can cause some serious concern for design engineers as the electric field may severely be distorted, leading to part of the material being overstressed. This may result in material degradation and possibly premature failure at the worst. It is therefore important to understand charge generation, trapping, and detrapping processes in the material. Trap depths and density of trapping states in materials are important as they are potentially related to microstructure of the material. Changes in these parameters may reflect the aging taken place in the material. In the present paper, characteristics of charge trapping and detrapping in low density polyethylene (LDPE) under dc electric field have been investigated using the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) technique. A simple trapping and detrapping model based on two trapping levels has been used to qualitatively explain the observation. Numerical simulation based on the above model has been carried out to extract parameters related to trapping characteristics in the material. It has been found that the space charge decaying during the first few hundred seconds corresponding to the fast changing part of the slope was trapped with the shallow trap depth 0.88 eV, with trap density 1.47 × 1020 m-3 in the sample volume measured. At the same time, the space charge that decays at longer time corresponding to the slower part of the slope was trapped with the deep trap depth 1.01 eV, with its trap density 3.54 × 1018 m-3. The results also indicate that trap depths and density of both shallow and deep traps may be used as aging markers as changes in the material will certainly affect trapping characteristics in terms of trap depth and density.

  4. Measurement of Trap Length for an Optical Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2009-01-01

    The trap length along the beam axis for an optical trap formed with an upright, oil-immersion microscope was measured. The goals for this effort were twofold. It was deemed useful to understand the depth to which an optical trap can reach for purposes of developing a tool to assist in the fabrication of miniature devices. Additionally, it was desired to know whether the measured trap length favored one or the other of two competing theories to model an optical trap. The approach was to trap a microsphere of known size and mass and raise it from its initial trap position. The microsphere was then dropped by blocking the laser beam for a pre-determined amount of time. Dropping the microsphere in a free-fall mode from various heights relative to the coverslip provides an estimate of how the trapping length changes with depth in water in a sample chamber on a microscope slide. While it was not possible to measure the trap length with sufficient precision to support any particular theory of optical trap formation, it was possible to find regions where the presence of physical boundaries influenced optical traps, and determine that the trap length, for the apparatus studied, is between 6 and 7 m. These results allow more precise control using optical micromanipulation to assemble miniature devices by providing information about the distance over which an optical trap is effective.

  5. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOEpatents

    Barlow, Stephan E. (Richland, WA); Alexander, Michael L. (Richland, WA); Follansbee, James C. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  6. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOEpatents

    Barlow, S.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Follansbee, J.C.

    1997-12-02

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs.

  7. HWVP Iodine Trap Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Leland L.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2004-09-24

    This report details our assessment of the chemistry of the planned Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) off-gas system and its impact on the applicability of known iodine removal and control methods. To predict the gaseous species in the off-gas system, we completed thermodynamic calculations to determine theoretical equilibrium concentrations of the various potential chemical species. In addition, we found that HWVP pilot-plant experiments were generally consistent with the known chemistry of the individual elements present in the off gas. Of the known trapping techniques for radioiodine, caustic scrubbing and silver-containing sorbents are, in our opinion, the most attractive methods to reduce the iodine concentration in the HWVP melter off gas (MOG) after it has passed through the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. These two methods were selected because they (1) have demonstrated retention factors (RFs), ratio of amount in and amount out, of 10 to 1000, which would be sufficient to reduce the iodine concentration in the MOG to below regulatory limits; (2) are simple to apply; (3) are resistant to oxidizing gases such as NOx; (4) do not employ highly hazardous or highly corrosive agents; (5) require containment vessels constructed or common materials; (6) have received extensive laboratory development; (7) and the radioactive wastes produced should be easy to handle. On the basis of iodine trapping efficiency, simplicity of operation, and waste management, silver sorbents are superior to caustic scrubbing, and, or these sorbents, we prefer the silver zeolites. No method has been fully demonstrated, from laboratory-scale through pilot-plant testing, to be an effective iodine trap at the low iodine concentration (2 x 10-11 mol I/L) expected in the MOG of the HWVP in the presence of the other gaseous off gas components. In terms of compatibility of the trapping technology with the components in the MOG, there is some question about the resistance of the silver zeolite's aluminosilicate matrix to the fluoride component in the off gas. The caustic scrubber has no compatibility problems with the MOG off gas; however, the acidic components such as CO2 will increase the volume of waste produced and could affect the efficiency of the iodine trapping. To apply these gaseous iodine trapping technologies to the HWVP, further development work would be required. Neither method has been demonstrated at the very low iodine concentrations that exist in the off gas, which are 0.01% to 1% of the found in nuclear fuel dissolver off gases for which these technologies were developed. Furthermore, the large excess of other reactive and trappable gases in the HWVP off gas imposes a heavy load on the trapping medium, could impede iodine trapping, and could have deleterious effects on the trapping medium itself. For silver zeolites, other trappable gases such as chlorine, which are in gross excess of the iodine in the off gas, will compete for the active sites in the silver zeolite. In applying a silver zeolite to the HWVP, 99-9% of the silver would be used to trap chlorine with less than 0.1% of the silver employed in the zeolite bed used for iodine trapping. It is also difficult to predict what will happen when the aluminosilicate framework of the zeolite is exposed to the reactive gas, HF, which is also present in the off gas and is known to attack silicates. In the case of caustic scrubbing, because of the low iodine concentration in the off gas, essentially all of the caustic will be used for CO2 removal, a small fraction for chlorine and fluorine removal, and a trace amount for iodine removal. NO2, which should exist largely as NO, will not be removed.

  8. The Stanford equivalence principle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Paul W., Jr.; Everitt, C. W. Francis; Bye, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Stanford Equivalence Principle Program (Worden, Jr. 1983) is intended to test the uniqueness of free fall to the ultimate possible accuracy. The program is being conducted in two phases: first, a ground-based version of the experiment, which should have a sensitivity to differences in rate of fall of one part in 10(exp 12); followed by an orbital experiment with a sensitivity of one part in 10(exp 17) or better. The ground-based experiment, although a sensitive equivalence principle test in its own right, is being used for technology development for the orbital experiment. A secondary goal of the experiment is a search for exotic forces. The instrument is very well suited for this search, which would be conducted mostly with the ground-based apparatus. The short range predicted for these forces means that forces originating in the Earth would not be detectable in orbit. But detection of Yukawa-type exotic forces from a nearby large satellite (such as Space Station) is feasible, and gives a very sensitive and controllable test for little more effort than the orbiting equivalence principle test itself.

  9. Functional classes and equivalence relations

    PubMed Central

    Sidman, Murray; Wynne, Constance K.; Maguire, Russell W.; Barnes, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Three adult subjects were taught a set of two-choice simultaneous discriminations, with three positive and three negative stimuli; all possible combinations of positive and negative stimuli yielded nine different pairs. The discriminations were repeatedly reversed and rereversed, the former positive stimuli becoming negative and the former negative stimuli becoming positive. With all subjects, a reversal of the contingencies for one pair of stimuli became sufficient to change their responses to all of the other pairs. The reversals had produced functional stimulus classes. Then, all subjects showed conditional discriminations emerging between members of a functional class; given a sample from one class and comparisons from both classes, they selected the comparison that was in the same class as the sample. Next, 2 of the subjects showed that the within-class conditional relations possessed the symmetric and transitive properties of equivalence relations; after having been taught to relate new stimuli to existing class members, the subjects then matched other class members to the new stimuli. Subsequent tests of two-choice discriminations showed that the conditional discriminations had transferred functional class membership to the new stimuli. The 3rd subject, who did not show equivalence relations among functional class members, was also found to have lost the within-class conditional relations after the equivalence tests. PMID:16812597

  10. Use of a Linear Paul Trap to Study Random Noise-Induced Beam Degradation in High-Intensity Accelerators

    E-print Network

    Gilson, Erik

    equivalence between an alternating-gradient (AG) focusing system and a linear Paul trap systemUse of a Linear Paul Trap to Study Random Noise-Induced Beam Degradation in High, and increases the transverse emittance almost linearly with the duration of the noise. DOI: 10.1103/Phys

  11. Paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy of the traps from Western Taimyr (northern Siberia) and the Permo-Triassic crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gurevitch; M. Westphal; J. Daragan-Suchov; H. Feinberg; J. P. Pozzi; A. N. Khramov

    1995-01-01

    The Siberian traps were emplaced near the Permo-Triassic boundary and are among the largest continental igneous provinces. A 1750 m thick section of traps from the western Taimyr (72.9°N, 84°E) has been sampled. This section is equivalent to the lower and middle part of the total Siberian traps section. Thirty-one oriented hand samples were studied and demagnetised by alternating fields

  12. Oil Formation and Trapping

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Marshak

    This animation shows the successive stages in the formation of an oil reserve. In View 1, organic material settles, is buried, and is transformed by heat and pressure into oil. In View 2 an oil trap is formed: the area folds into an anticline, and oil migrates and accumulates in the anticline crest.

  13. Prairie Dog in Trap

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A prairie dog trapped outside its burrow in Wind Cave National Park waits for a crew of scientists to arrive. The animal is part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). This prairie dog will either be brought to a research van for blood ...

  14. Trapped Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A prairie dog trapped outside its burrow in Wind Cave National Park waits for a crew of scientists to arrive. The animal is part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). This prairie dog will either be brought to a research van for blood ...

  15. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  16. Rotating Saddle Paul Trap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueckner, Wolfgang; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which a ball is placed in an unstable position on a saddle shape. The ball becomes stable when it is rotated above some threshold angular velocity. The demonstration is a mechanical analog of confining a particle in a "Paul Trap". (DDR)

  17. Electric Insect Traps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles F. Dalziel

    1951-01-01

    The electric insect trap, consisting of a filament or luminous tube light surrounded by an exposed high-voltage elecrocuting grid posseses shock and fire hazards. Although little is known regarding the phenomena of insect electrocution, efficient electrocution of small insects with a reduction of these hazards to an acceptable degree may be accomplished by proper design, construction, and installation. The limited

  18. Buffer strips trap contaminants

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    benefits, such as increasing habitat for wildlife and decreasing flood damage. Three researchater Buffer strips trap contaminants Three research and demonstration projects seek to determine last summer. The strips are 250 feet long and 50 feet wide and consist of grass; grass and shrubs

  19. Steam trap monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  20. Build Your Own Insect Trap

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students design and construct devices to trap insects that are present in the area around the school. The objective is to ask the right design questions and conduct the right tests to determine if the traps work .

  1. TaskBadges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-07

    This application is quite simple and is designed to keep life's tasks in order. Billed as "plain-text todo list kung fu," Task Badges adds the number of open tasks in your plain-text todo list to the file's icon so that it shows up in Finder and on the desktop. It's easy to use and it is compatible with Macs running Snow Leopard or Lion.

  2. AN AUTOMATED MOSQUITO COUNTING TRAP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated mosquito counting trap has been designed and tested in laboratory cages. It employs a custom designed infrared beam sensor head retrofit into a commercial counter-flow technology trap (MM-X, American Biophysics Corp.). The trap provides time-stamped insect counts that can be downloaded...

  3. Smolt Trapping Understanding the Threats

    E-print Network

    , they provide a unique opportunity to learn about the total production of the river system and to measure marine Traps Work The smolt traps used on the Sheepscot River go into the water in early April, when the ice are protected under the Endangered Species Act, the scientists operating the smolt traps have research permits

  4. The JPL trapped mercury ion frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, J. D.; Dick, G. J.; Maleki, L.

    1988-01-01

    In order to provide frequency standards for the Deep Space Network (DSN) which are more stable than present-day hydrogen masers, a research task was established under the Advanced Systems Program of the TDA to develop a Hg-199(+) trapped ion frequency standard. The first closed-loop operation of this kind is described. Mercury-199 ions are confined in an RF trap and are state-selected through the use of optical pumping with 194 nm UV light from a Hg-202 discharge lamp. Absorption of microwave radiation at the hyperfine frequency (40.5 GHz) is signaled by atomic fluorescence of the UV light. The frequency of a 40.5 GHz oscillator is locked to a 1.6 Hz wide atomic absorption line of the trapped ions. The measured Allan variance of this locked oscillator is currently gamma sub y (pi) = 4.4 x 10 to the minus 12th/square root of pi for 20 is less than pi is less than 320 seconds, which is better stability than the best commercial cesium standards by almost a factor of 2. This initial result was achieved without magnetic shielding and without regulation of ion number.

  5. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Area 1 trap...800 traps. Federally permitted lobster fishing vessels shall not fish with,...

  6. Approximating the minimum equivalent digraph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir Khuller; Balaji Raghavachari; Neal E. Young

    1994-01-01

    Abstract. The minimum equivalent graph (MEG) problem is as follows: given a directed graph, find a smallest subset,of the,edges,that,maintains,all,teachability,relations,between,nodes.,This problem,is NP-hard; this paper,gives an approximation,algorithm achieving a performance,guarantee of about 1.64 in polynomial time. The algorithm achieves,a performance,guarantee,of,1.75 in the,time,required,for,transitive,closure. The heart of the MEG problem,is the minimum,strongly,connected,spanning subgraph,(SCSS) problem--the MEG problem restricted to strongly connected digraphs. For the minimum

  7. Persistence of Motor-Equivalent Postural Fluctuations during Bipedal Quiet Standing

    PubMed Central

    Verrel, Julius; Pradon, Didier; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical work indicates that the central nervous system is able to stabilize motor performance by selectively suppressing task-relevant variability (TRV), while allowing task-equivalent variability (TEV) to occur. During unperturbed bipedal standing, it has previously been observed that, for task variables such as the whole-body center of mass (CoM), TEV exceeds TRV in amplitude. However, selective control (and correction) of TRV should also lead to different temporal characteristics, with TEV exhibiting higher temporal persistence compared to TRV. The present study was specifically designed to test this prediction. Kinematics of prolonged quiet standing (5 minutes) was measured in fourteen healthy young participants, with eyes closed. Using the uncontrolled manifold analysis, postural variability in six sagittal joint angles was decomposed into TEV and TRV with respect to four task variables: (1) center of mass (CoM) position, (2) head position, (3) trunk orientation and (4) head orientation. Persistence of fluctuations within the two variability components was quantified by the time-lagged auto-correlation, with eight time lags between 1 and 128 seconds. The pattern of results differed between task variables. For three of the four task variables (CoM position, head position, trunk orientation), TEV significantly exceeded TRV over the entire 300 s-period.The autocorrelation analysis confirmed our main hypothesis for CoM position and head position: at intermediate and longer time delays, TEV exhibited higher persistence than TRV. Trunk orientation showed a similar trend, while head orientation did not show a systematic difference between TEV and TRV persistence. The combination of temporal and task-equivalent analyses in the present study allow a refined characterization of the dynamic control processes underlying the stabilization of upright standing. The results confirm the prediction, derived from computational motor control, that task-equivalent fluctuations for specific task variables show higher temporal persistence compared to task-relevant fluctuations. PMID:23110228

  8. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  9. Ronchi test with equivalent wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-A., Anmi; Granados-A., Fermín Solomon; Cornejo-R., Alejandro

    2010-02-01

    The Ronchi test has been consolidated as one of the most successful and powerful techniques applied to determine the quality of optical surfaces.5 In recent years, the development and availability of LCD's (Liquid Crystal Displays) have allowed the incorporation of LCD's instead of the traditional static ruling. The easy change of the characteristics of the fringes in the ruling, such as frequency, position, and geometrical form, transformed this technique into a dynamic test.1, 8 Its physical interpretation fully connected with a lateral sheared interferometer 5, 6 and some concepts and results associated with the interferometric concept of equivalent wavelenght have been applied in this proposal for the evaluation of optical surfaces. The procedure described here to evaluate an optical surface uses the Ronchi test with the equivalent wavelenght.6, 10 This is achieved by registering and computing Ronchigrams obtained by employing, separately, two distinct wavelengths. For a particular mirror, some results are shown in order to demonstrate the enhancement of the test with this proposal.

  10. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  11. Energy Trapping in Low Phase Noise Bulk Acoustic Wave Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian-He; Wang, Yan; Tang, Xiao-Yu; Fu, Wei

    2012-10-01

    In the design of resonators in low phase noise bulk acoustic wave (BAW) oscillators, maximization of quality factor is the primary target while energy trapping is not typically of concern. Analysis shows that although energy-trapping mode energy outside the electroded region decreases exponentially with distance away from the electrode edge of the wafer, the decaying wave will reflect at the wafer edge to the electroded region and generate a wave with same frequency but different phase which generates mutual modulation with resonant frequency. It is a source of phase noise and mainly affects the near-carrier-frequency phase noise. Two 120 MHz SC-cut 5th overtone UM-1 crystals with similar dynamic equivalent parameters and different shunt capacitances are compared using the same circuit. Experimental results show that energy trapping also needs to be considered in the design of resonators in low phase noise BAW oscillators.

  12. Radial cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Grundy, Brian R. (Greensburg, PA)

    1981-01-01

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume.

  13. Radial cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Grundy, B.R.

    1981-09-29

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume. 2 figs.

  14. Ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, R.G. (Purdue Univ. (US)); Glish, G.L.; Mc Luckey, S.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab. (US)); Kaiser, R.E. (Eli Lilly and Co. (US))

    1991-03-25

    This paper reports on the quadrupole ion trap which is a mass spectrometer whose essential components can be held in one hand. But is has a mass range of about 10{sup 5} daltons per charge, provides molecular weight and structural information on biopolymers, and has the greatest sensitivity of all mass spectrometers. These features, however, has become available only within the past few years. They stem from an almost neglected 1958 invention, one in which interest was maintained by only a few research groups, notably those of John Todd at the University of Kent in England and Ray March at Trent University in Canada. Development of a new scanning method by George Stafford and his coworkers of Finnigan Corp. provided the impetus that led Finnigan to introduce a commercial ion trap in 1983. Since then, the device has been transformed from a simple gas chromatography detector to a high-performance mass spectrometer.

  15. Acoustic rainbow trapping

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Chen, Yongyao; Zhu, Xuefeng; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J.; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Weili; Zhang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Spatial modulation of sound velocity below the wavelength scale can introduce strong frequency-dependent acoustic responses in tailored composite materials, regardless the fact that most natural bulk materials have negligible acoustic dispersions. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate a metamaterial that traps broadband acoustic waves and spatially separates different frequency components, as the result of dispersion and wave velocity control by designed gradient subwavelength structures. The trapping positions can be predicted by the microscopic picture of balanced interplay between the acoustic resonance inside individual apertures and the mutual coupling among them. With the enhanced wave-structure interactions and the tailored frequency responses, such metamaterial allows precise spatial-spectral control of acoustic waves and opens new venue for high performance acoustic wave sensing, filtering, and nondestructive metrology.

  16. Trapping ions with lasers

    E-print Network

    Cecilia Cormick; Tobias Schaetz; Giovanna Morigi

    2011-04-19

    This work theoretically addresses the trapping an ionized atom with a single valence electron by means of lasers, analyzing qualitatively and quantitatively the consequences of the net charge of the particle. In our model, the coupling between the ion and the electromagnetic field includes the charge monopole and the internal dipole, within a multipolar expansion of the interaction Hamiltonian. Specifically, we perform a Power-Zienau-Woolley transformation, taking into account the motion of the center of mass. The net charge produces a correction in the atomic dipole which is of order $m_e/M$ with $m_e$ the electron mass and $M$ the total mass of the ion. With respect to neutral atoms, there is also an extra coupling to the laser field which can be approximated by that of the monopole located at the position of the center of mass. These additional effects, however, are shown to be very small compared to the dominant dipolar trapping term.

  17. Coherence in Microchip Traps

    E-print Network

    Treutlein, P; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J; Treutlein, Philipp; Hommelhoff, Peter; Steinmetz, Tilo; H\\"ansch, Theodor W.; Reichel, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    We report the coherent manipulation of internal states of neutral atoms in a magnetic microchip trap. Coherence lifetimes exceeding 1 s are observed with atoms at distances of $4-130 \\mu$m from the microchip surface. The coherence lifetime in the microtrap is independent of atom-surface distance and agrees well with the results of similar measurements in macroscopic magnetic traps. Due to the absence of surface-induced decoherence, a miniaturized atomic clock with a relative stability in the $10^{-13}$ range can be realized. For applications in quantum information processing, we propose to use microwave near-fields in the proximity of chip wires to create potentials that depend on the internal state of the atoms.

  18. Learning one task by interleaving practice with another task.

    PubMed

    Szpiro, Sarit F A; Wright, Beverly A; Carrasco, Marisa

    2014-08-01

    Perceptual learning is a sustainable improvement in performance on a perceptual task following training. A hallmark of perceptual learning is task specificity - after participants have trained on and learned a particular task, learning rarely transfers to another task, even with identical stimuli. Accordingly, it is assumed that performing a task throughout training is a requirement for learning to occur on that specific task. Thus, interleaving training trials of a target task, with those of another task, should not improve performance on the target task. However, recent findings in audition show that interleaving two tasks during training can facilitate perceptual learning, even when the training on neither task yields learning on its own. Here we examined the role of cross-task training in the visual domain by training 4 groups of human observers for 3 consecutive days on an orientation comparison task (target task) and/or spatial-frequency comparison task (interleaving task). Interleaving small amounts of training on each task, which were ineffective alone, not only enabled learning on the target orientation task, as in audition, but also surpassed the learning attained by training on that task alone for the same total number of trials. This study illustrates that cross-task training in visual perceptual learning can be more effective than single-task training. The results reveal a comparable learning principle across modalities and demonstrate how to optimize training regimens to maximize perceptual learning. PMID:24959653

  19. Magnetic trap for thulium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Sukachev, D D; Sokolov, A V; Chebakov, K A; Akimov, A V; Kolachevskii, N N; Sorokin, Vadim N [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-31

    For the first time ultra-cold thulium atoms were trapped in a magnetic quadrupole trap with a small field gradient (20 Gs cm{sup -1}). The atoms were loaded from a cloud containing 4x10{sup 5} atoms that were preliminarily cooled in a magneto-optical trap to the sub-Doppler temperature of 80 {mu}K. As many as 4x10{sup 4} atoms were trapped in the magnetic trap at the temperature of 40 {mu}K. By the character of trap population decay the lifetime of atoms was determined (0.5 s) and an upper estimate was obtained for the rate constant of inelastic binary collisions for spin-polarised thulium atoms in the ground state (g{sub in} < 10{sup -11}cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}). (magnetic traps)

  20. Water-Trapped Worlds

    E-print Network

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Although tidally-locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO2 as dayside ocean basins dry-up. Water-tr...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526 Medical equivalence. (a) What is medical equivalence? Your...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526 Medical equivalence. (a) What is medical equivalence? Your...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526 Medical equivalence. (a) What is medical equivalence? Your...

  4. Computational equivalence between quantum Turing machines

    E-print Network

    Møller, Jesper Michael

    Computational equivalence between quantum Turing machines and quantum circuit families Christian by quantum circuit families . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3 Computational equivalence 19 3.1 Encoding with my master's study was to obtain a knowledge about the theoretical foundation of quantum computing

  5. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  6. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  7. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  8. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  9. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  11. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  12. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  13. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  14. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  15. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  16. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  17. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  18. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  19. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  1. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  2. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  3. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  4. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  5. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  6. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  7. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  9. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture...MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price...

  10. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120 Equivalents. (a) For ships...

  11. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  12. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  13. Tests of the weak equivalence principle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C C Speake; C M Will

    2012-01-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle is the foundation for general relativity and all metric theories of gravity. Of its three tenets—the equality of acceleration of test bodies, or weak equivalence principle; the validity of Lorentz invariance in local freely falling frames; and the position invariance of local physical laws—the weak equivalence principle has played the most important role historically, and continues

  14. Equivalent networks for SAW gratings.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, M; Mitobe, S

    1988-01-01

    An equivalent-network approach is described for the analysis of surface-acoustic-wave gratings. Circuit parameters can be theoretically determined by applying the finite-element method to an infinite array. In this approach, all of the effects of piezoelectric perturbation, mechanical perturbation, and energy storage are taken into account. To show the validity and usefulness of this approach, examples are computed for groove and metallic gratings. Both short and open circuited metallic gratings are treated. For grooves on isotropic and Y-Z LiNbO(3) substrates, the dependence of reflection characteristics on groove depth is investigated. For aluminum strips on X-112 degrees Y LiTaO(3) 34 degrees Y-X quartz, Y-Z LiNbO(3), and 128 degrees Y -X LiNbO(3) substrates, the dependence on metallization ratio is investigated in detail. PMID:18290184

  15. Timeline Resource Analysis Program (TRAP): User's manual and program document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sessler, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The Timeline Resource Analysis Program (TRAP), developed for scheduling and timelining problems, is described. Given an activity network, TRAP generates timeline plots, resource histograms, and tabular summaries of the network, schedules, and resource levels. It is written in ANSI FORTRAN for the Honeywell SIGMA 5 computer and operates in the interactive mode using the TEKTRONIX 4014-1 graphics terminal. The input network file may be a standard SIGMA 5 file or one generated using the Interactive Graphics Design System. The timeline plots can be displayed in two orderings: according to the sequence in which the tasks were read on input, and a waterfall sequence in which the tasks are ordered by start time. The input order is especially meaningful when the network consists of several interacting subnetworks. The waterfall sequence is helpful in assessing the project status at any point in time.

  16. Architecture for electronic control unit tasks in automotive engine control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Glielmo; F. Vasca; C. Rossi

    2000-01-01

    A hierarchical structure for the tasks of the electronic control units devoted to automotive engine control is proposed. The architecture, at its highest level of abstraction, is divided into three parts: the driver interpreter, the engine controller, and the actuator controller. The lower hierarchical structure of the actuator controller block is detailed and applied to the case of an equivalent

  17. Trapping of dust particles in a Kingdom trap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Robertson

    1995-01-01

    Experimental techniques for charging, trapping, and observing macroscopic particles (dust) are described. Particles with a sufficiently large charge-to-mass ratio (4×10-3 C\\/kg) are created by using hollow glass microspheres about 50 mum in diameter charged to a potential of -30 volts by electrons from a filament. The charge spheres drop by gravity into a Kingdom trap and are trapped in near-circular

  18. Atom trapping in an interferometrically generated bottle beam trap.

    PubMed

    Isenhower, L; Williams, W; Dally, A; Saffman, M

    2009-04-15

    We demonstrate an optical bottle beam trap created by interfering two fundamental Gaussian beams with different waists. The beams are derived from a single laser source using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer whose arms have unequal magnifications. Destructive interference of the two beams from the Mach-Zehnder leads to a three-dimensional intensity null at the mutual focus of the beams. We demonstrate trapping of cold cesium atoms in a blue detuned bottle beam trap. PMID:19370103

  19. Task Force on Information

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    impact the University's goals and day-to-day operations. Our technological infrastructure must provide Task Force on Information Technology Recommendations September 16 2013 ITS will be a dynamic, agile organization, committed to reliable service, clear communication

  20. Trapping of dust particles in a Kingdom trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Scott

    1995-04-01

    Experimental techniques for charging, trapping, and observing macroscopic particles (dust) are described. Particles with a sufficiently large charge-to-mass ratio (4×10-3 C/kg) are created by using hollow glass microspheres about 50 ?m in diameter charged to a potential of -30 volts by electrons from a filament. The charge spheres drop by gravity into a Kingdom trap and are trapped in near-circular orbits by a rising potential. A spherical version of the trap with a Keplerian potential is also used. Illumination from a halogen lamp is sufficient for videotapes to be made of particle dynamics. Phenomena observed in the Kingdom trap include libration due to a resonant perturbation and the resonant coupling of two adjacent orbiters. Precession due to gravity is observed in the spherical trap. Confinement times in the Kingdom trap approach an hour. Briefly discussed are the use of charged liquid droplets, a planar trap based upon the ponderomotive force and the collective phenomena of a non-neutral plasma in a Kingdom trap.

  1. TecTask

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Task Group on Tectonics and Structural Geology (TecTask)

    The Task Group on Tectonics and Structural Geology (TecTask) is a committee of the IUGS that represents an initiative of earth scientists dedicated to stimulating communication and coordination within the international science community and to providing information to the public. The site features links to conferences, data, and downloadable software, as well as journals, organizations and societies dedicated to various aspects of structural geology.

  2. Steam Trap Application

    E-print Network

    Murphy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    , air dryer, pipe coil, process air heater, unit heater Category 3: Gravity draine~, e.g. , chest- Steam Heats a type ironer, belt press, Solid or Slurry chamber dryer, hot plate,platen Indirectly Syphon drained, e.g. , cylinder ironer, cylinder...) 2-Steam heats a gas indirectly (e.g. Air Heater, Dryer~ 3-Steam heats a solid or slurry indirectly. (e.g. Cylinder dryer,Platen) 4-Steam heats a solid directly (e.g. - Autoclave) Steam Pres Generally variable or fluctuating sures at trap due...

  3. Atom trap trace analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  4. Coastally Trapped Wind Reversals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2002-08-06

    This module starts with a forecast scenario that occurs along the California coast. The module then proceeds to describe the structure and climatology of these disturbances, as well as their synoptic and mesoscale evolution. The instruction concludes with a section on forecasting coastally trapped wind reversals. The module also includes a concise summary for quick reference and a final exam to test your knowledge. Like other modules in the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer, this module comes with audio narration, rich graphics, and a companion print version.

  5. Nano trap for polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümel, R.

    2012-07-01

    A new ac/dc monopole trap for neutral polar particles, introduced and explored by Blümel (2011 Phys. Rev. A 83 045402 and 2011 Eur. Phys. J. D 64 85-101), is significantly advanced in several directions. (1) Previously shown to work only for polar classical particles and polar macro-molecules, the trap is shown to work for polar diatomic molecules. (2) A homogeneous electric field, optionally switched on for improved stability in the angular direction, leads to stable trapping in higher order stability regions of the Mathieu equation. (3) Based on the Floquet formalism, analytical and numerical calculations are presented that show that the trap is quantum mechanically stable. (4) Definition and derivation of a quantum pseudo-potential allow a qualitative understanding of the quantum trapping mechanism. (5) It is shown that the proposed ac/dc trap may be realized experimentally using currently available scanning tunnelling microscopy technology.

  6. Revisiting Evidence for Modularity and Functional Equivalence across Verbal and Spatial Domains in Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerard, Katherine; Tremblay, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    The authors revisited evidence in favor of modularity and of functional equivalence between the processing of verbal and spatial information in short-term memory. This was done by investigating the patterns of intrusions, omissions, transpositions, and fill-ins in verbal and spatial serial recall and order reconstruction tasks under control,…

  7. Charge trapping in polymer diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alasdair J. Campbell; Donal D. C. Bradley; David G. Lidzey

    1998-01-01

    We report studies focusing on the nature of trap states present in single layer ITO\\/poly(phenylene vinylene)\\/Al light emitting diodes. At high applied bias the IV characteristics from 11 to 290 K can be successfully modelled by space charge limited current (SCLC) theory with an exponential trap distribution, giving a trap density Ht of 4(±2) × 1017 cm?3, ?p, between 10?6

  8. Build a Fruit Fly Trap

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Universitiy of Wisconsin-Madison

    2007-01-01

    In this construction activity, students use a 2-liter bottle to build a fly trap. There is not much supporting information besides the directions, but the trap can be used to examine fly behavior, and it might also be redesigned by students. In the construction part of the activity, younger learners will need help and supervision from an older learner or adult, but any age learner can do independent observation of fly behavior once insects are inside the trap.

  9. Task Switching in a Hierarchical Task Structure: Evidence for the Fragility of the Task Repetition Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms.…

  10. Equivalence of thermodynamical fundamental equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, C.; Fiolhais, M.

    2000-09-01

    The Gibbs function, which depends on the intensive variables T and P, is easier to obtain experimentally than any other thermodynamical potential. However, textbooks usually first introduce the internal energy, as a function of the extensive variables V and S, and then proceed, by Legendre transformations, to obtain the Gibbs function. Here, taking liquid water as an example, we show how to obtain the internal energy from the Gibbs function. The two fundamental equations (Gibbs function and internal energy) are examined and their output compared. In both cases complete thermodynamical information is obtained and shown to be practically the same, emphasizing the equivalence of the two equations. The formalism of the Gibbs function is entirely analytical, while that based on the internal energy is, in this case, numerical. Although it is well known that all thermodynamic potentials contain the same information, usually only the ideal gas is given as an example. The study of real systems, such as liquid water, using numerical methods, may help students to obtain a deeper insight into thermodynamics.

  11. On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H. Jr. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The coupling of the ionosphere and magnetosphere can be understood by examining the field-aligned currents passing between the two. In his treatment of the shielding of the inner magnetosphere, Vasyliunas [1972] developed a mathematical formalism for representing this coupling by a pseudo Ohm's law. All the effects of the magnetospheric plasma are comprised in an equivalent Hall conductivity that is determined by the assumed ion density distribution. In this paper, an alternate derivation of this formalism is presented in which, unlike the original derivation, the kinematics of the ions do not enter at all. This underscores the importance of a strong assumption upon which the method rests; that is, the ion distribution is assumed to be time stationary. However, there is nothing in the model to insure that the physical drifts of the ions do indeed satisfy that requirement. This places severe restrictions on the proper use of the formalism and implies that its results cannot be assumed to be correct in the absence of extensive a posteriori analysis.

  12. DNA Separation Using Photoelectrophoretic Traps

    SciTech Connect

    Braiman, Avital [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL; Rudakov, Fedor M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In our recent publications we presented a design that allows formation of highly localized and optically controlled electrophoretic traps. 1,2 We demonstrated that electrophoretic traps can be utilized for biomolecule photoconcentration, optically directed transport, and separation by size. 1,2 In the current publication we suggest a hybrid design for biomolecule separation which implements electrophoretic traps in tandem with well-established electrophoretic techniques. We perform Monte Carlo simulations that demonstrate that the resolution of well-established electrophoretic techniques can be greatly enhanced by introducing photoelectrophoretic traps.

  13. Hydrocarbon traps along Louisiana offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrie, A.; Sullivan, N.

    1989-03-01

    A compilation of potential hydrocarbon trap types has been assembled for the Louisiana offshore, from coastal plain to abyssal plain. These potential traps are listed according to paleophysiographic provinces: coastal plain, shelf, shelf break, upper slope, middle slope, lower slope, and abyssal plain. Characteristics of each trap type are tabulated. The characteristics include tectonics, regional and local sedimentation rates and types, position within an evolving sequence as determined by sequence stratigraphy, duration of reservoir and/or trap creation, and sea level position. Regional geologic processes, such as salt tectonics, and approximate rates at which they operate are also listed.

  14. Optical traps with geometric aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Roichman, Yael; Waldron, Alex; Gardel, Emily; Grier, David G

    2006-05-20

    We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on the in-plane performance of optical traps by studying the dynamics of trapped colloidal spheres in deliberately distorted holographic optical tweezers. The lateral stiffness of the traps turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts of coma, astigmatism, and spherical aberration. Moreover holographic aberration correction enables us to compensate inherent shortcomings in the optical train, thereby adaptively improving its performance. We also demonstrate the effects of geometric aberrations on the intensity profiles of optical vortices, whose readily measured deformations suggest a method for rapidly estimating and correcting geometric aberrations in holographic trapping systems.

  15. Optical traps with geometric aberrations.

    PubMed

    Roichman, Yael; Waldron, Alex; Gardel, Emily; Grier, David G

    2006-05-20

    We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on the in-plane performance of optical traps by studying the dynamics of trapped colloidal spheres in deliberately distorted holographic optical tweezers. The lateral stiffness of the traps turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts of coma, astigmatism, and spherical aberration. Moreover holographic aberration correction enables us to compensate inherent shortcomings in the optical train, thereby adaptively improving its performance. We also demonstrate the effects of geometric aberrations on the intensity profiles of optical vortices, whose readily measured deformations suggest a method for rapidly estimating and correcting geometric aberrations in holographic trapping systems. PMID:16708086

  16. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  17. TGFF: task graphs for free

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Dick; David L. Rhodes; Wayne Wolf

    1998-01-01

    We present a user-controllable, general-purpose,pseudorandom task graph generator called TaskGraphs For Free (TGFF). TGFF creates probleminstances for use in allocation and scheduling research.It has the ability to generate independenttasks as well as task sets which are composed of partiallyordered task graphs. A complete description ofa scheduling problem instance is created, includingattributes for processors, communication resources,tasks, and inter-task communication. The user...

  18. Impact of Static Graphics, Animated Graphics and Mental Imagery on a Complex Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Feng-Qi; Newby, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of different categories of graphics used within a complex learning task. One hundred eighty five native English speaking undergraduates participated in a task that required learning 18 Chinese radicals and their English equivalent translations. A post-test only control group design compared performance…

  19. Quantum information processing with trapped ions

    E-print Network

    Hensinger, Winfried

    /magnetic fields Wolfgang Paul Paul trap 1956 AC/DC electric fields #12;Pseudopotential approximation assume field and laser cooled 9Be+ ions in a Paul-trap at NIST 1980/1981 single trapped and laser cooled atomic ions surface electrode trap x y #12;time dependent potential (Mathieu equation) The linear Paul trap radial

  20. Einstein's equivalence principle in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei

    We study physical consequences of the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) for a Hubble observer in FLRW universe. We introduce the local inertial coordinates with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski-flat and materialized by a congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers. The static observers are equipped with the ideal clocks measuring the proper time that is synchronized with the clocks of the Hubble observer. The local inertial metric is used for physical measurements of spacetime intervals with the ideal clocks and rulers. The special conformal transformation preserves null geodesics but does not keep invariant time-like geodesics. Moreover, it makes the rate of the local time coordinate dependent on velocity of the particle which makes impossible to rich the uniform parameterization of the world lines of static observers and light geodesics with a single parameter - they differ by the conformal factor of FLRW metric. It tells us that the metric on the light cone is not Minkowski-flat but depends on the scale factor of FLRW universe and it can be interpreted as a weak violation of EEP for photons. The importance of this violation for gravitational physics is that some of local experiments conducted with freely-propagating electromagnetic waves may be sensitive to the Hubble expansion. We show that the Hubble constant H can be measured within the solar system by means of high-precision spacecraft Doppler tracking as a blue shift of frequency of radio waves circulating in the Earth-spacecraft radio link. We also analyze the behavior of the standing wave in a microwave resonator and show that the standing wave is insensitive to the Hubble expansion.

  1. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents § 110.20-1...necessary, the Marine Safety Center may require engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the...

  2. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents § 110.20-1...necessary, the Marine Safety Center may require engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the...

  3. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents § 110.20-1...necessary, the Marine Safety Center may require engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the...

  4. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents § 110.20-1...necessary, the Marine Safety Center may require engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the...

  5. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents § 110.20-1...necessary, the Marine Safety Center may require engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the...

  6. TRAPPING SABLEFISH William L. High

    E-print Network

    experimental fishing for sablefish (Anaplopoma fimbria) with various trap designs. A c ollapsible steel by 34 inches by 8 feet long . Steel m esh is 2 inches square to allow small fish to escape. The trap experimental fishing. groundlines up to 600 fathoms long are coiled into a large wooden barrel (tierce

  7. Trapped surfaces in spherical stars

    SciTech Connect

    Bizon, P.; Malec, E.; O'Murchadha, N.

    1988-09-05

    We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of trapped surfaces in spherically symmetric spacetimes. These conditions show that the formation of trapped surfaces depends on both the degree of concentration and the average flow of the matter. The result can be considered as a partial validation of the cosmic-censorship hypothesis.

  8. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  9. Optical vortex trapping of particles.

    PubMed

    Gahagan, K T; Swartzlander, G A

    1996-06-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional trapping of low-index particles (20-microm-diameter hollow glass spheres in water) by using a single, strongly focused, stationary dark optical vortex laser beam. The holographically generated vortex, which is similar to a TEM(01)* mode beam, was also used to trap and form ring patterns of high-index particles. PMID:19876172

  10. Electrical traps in microwave materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Holway Jr.; M. Adlerstein

    1978-01-01

    This program was the final year of a three-year program to identify the sources of trapping centers in gallium arsenide semiconductor devices, to correlate this evidence with device effects and to eliminate or minimize these effects. During the first year of the program we assembled measurement apparatus and established a technique, based on drain current transients, in determining trap activation

  11. Electric Trapping of Neutral Atoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fujio Shimizu; Makoto Morinaga

    1992-01-01

    Two- and three-dimensional trappings of neutral atoms by an electric field are discussed. It is shown that a harmonic potential produced by the second-order Stark effect around a saddle point of the electric field intensity can be used to trap laser-cooled neutral atoms.

  12. Lobster Trap at Reed Point

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A lobster trap buoy rides in the waves of Seal Cove at Reed Point, along the southwestern coast of Mount Desert Island. Lobster traps rest at the bottom of the sea and are tethered to a buoy that marks their location....

  13. Balkans Task Force

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    UNEP, the United Nations Environment Programme, launched the Balkans Task Force (BTF) Website on May 5, 1999 to provide information and updates on "the environmental and human settlements impacts of the ongoing Balkans conflict." Experts from the Balkans Task Force visit war-damaged (industrial) sites and post their results in a series of online Situation Reports; currently, fourteen reports (in HTML or .pdf) are available on-site. Also provided are regional maps, general information, related news and documents, and a series of links to other Websites featuring aspects of the Kosovo conflict.

  14. Studies of Collective Dynamics and Excitations in Intense Charged Particle Beams and Barium Ion Source Optimization Using the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Wang; E. P. Gilson; R. C. Davidson; P. C. Efthimion; R. Majeski; L. D'Imperio

    2010-01-01

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a cylindrical Paul trap that simulates the nonlinear transverse dynamics of intense charged particle beam propagation through an equivalent kilometers- long magnetic alternating-gradient (AG) focusing system. Understanding the collective dynamics and excitations of intense charged particle beam propagation is of great importance for a wide variety of accelerator applications. Envelope equations which describe

  15. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  16. Optimal traps in graphene

    E-print Network

    C. A. Downing; A. R. Pearce; R. J. Churchill; M. E. Portnoi

    2015-03-27

    We transform the two-dimensional Dirac-Weyl equation, which governs the charge carriers in graphene, into a non-linear first-order differential equation for scattering phase shift, using the so-called variable phase method. This allows us to utilize the Levinson Theorem to find zero-energy bound states created electrostatically in realistic structures. These confined states are formed at critical potential strengths, which leads to us posit the use of `optimal traps' to combat the chiral tunneling found in graphene, which could be explored experimentally with an artificial network of point charges held above the graphene layer. We also discuss scattering on these states and find the zero angular momentum states create a dominant peak in scattering cross-section as energy tends towards the Dirac point energy, suggesting a dominant contribution to resistivity.

  17. Thermal Replication Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    The hallmark of living matter is the replication of genetic molecules and their active storage against diffusion. We have argued in the past that thermal convection can host the million-fold accumulation even of single nucleotides and at the same time trigger exponential replication [1]. Accumulation is driven by thermophoresis and convection in elongated chambers, replication by the inherent temperature cycling in convection. Optothermal pumping [2,3] allows to implement the thermal trap efficiently in a toroidal [4] or linear [5] geometry. Based on this method, we were in a position to combine accumulation and replication of DNA in the same chamber [5]. As we are missing a solid chemistry of prebiotic replication, we used as a proxy reaction for to replication the polymerase chain reaction. Convective flow both drives the DNA replicating polymerase chain reaction (PCR) while concurrent thermophoresis accumulates the replicated 143 base pair DNA in bulk solution. The time constant for accumulation is 92 s while DNA is doubled every 50 s. The length of the amplified DNA is checked with thermophoresis. Finite element simulations confirm the findings. The experiments explore conditions in pores of hydrothermal rock which can serve as a model environment for the origin of life and has prospects towards the first autonomous evolution, hosting the Darwin process by molecular selection using the thermophoretic trap. On the other side, the implemented continuous evolution will be able to breed well specified DNA or RNA molecules in the future. [4pt] [1] Baaske, Weinert, Duhr, Lemke, Russell and Braun, PNAS 104, 9346 (2007) [0pt] [2] Weinert, Kraus, Franosch and Braun, PRL 100, 164501 (2008) [0pt] [3] Weinert and Braun, Journal of Applied Physics 104, 104701 (2008) [0pt] [4] Weinert and Braun, Nano Letters 9, 4264 (2009) [0pt] [5] Mast and Braun, PRL 104, 188102 (2010)

  18. Nanocarpets for Trapping Microscopic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noca, Flavio; Chen, Fei; Hunt, Brian; Bronikowski, Michael; Hoenk, Michael; Kowalczyk, Robert; Choi, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Nanocarpets that is, carpets of carbon nanotubes are undergoing development as means of trapping microscopic particles for scientific analysis. Examples of such particles include inorganic particles, pollen, bacteria, and spores. Nanocarpets can be characterized as scaled-down versions of ordinary macroscopic floor carpets, which trap dust and other particulate matter, albeit not purposefully. Nanocarpets can also be characterized as mimicking both the structure and the particle-trapping behavior of ciliated lung epithelia, the carbon nanotubes being analogous to cilia. Carbon nanotubes can easily be chemically functionalized for selective trapping of specific particles of interest. One could, alternatively, use such other three-dimensionally-structured materials as aerogels and activated carbon for the purposeful trapping of microscopic particles. However, nanocarpets offer important advantages over these alternative materials: (1) Nanocarpets are amenable to nonintrusive probing by optical means; and (2) Nanocarpets offer greater surface-to-volume ratios.

  19. 50 CFR 31.16 - Trapping program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...wildlife refuge areas where trapping has been authorized shall...the terms and conditions of trapping activity and the rates of charge or division of pelts, hides...shall be open to public trapping without Federal permit...

  20. 50 CFR 31.16 - Trapping program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...wildlife refuge areas where trapping has been authorized shall...the terms and conditions of trapping activity and the rates of charge or division of pelts, hides...shall be open to public trapping without Federal permit...

  1. 50 CFR 31.16 - Trapping program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...wildlife refuge areas where trapping has been authorized shall...the terms and conditions of trapping activity and the rates of charge or division of pelts, hides...shall be open to public trapping without Federal permit...

  2. 50 CFR 31.16 - Trapping program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...wildlife refuge areas where trapping has been authorized shall...the terms and conditions of trapping activity and the rates of charge or division of pelts, hides...shall be open to public trapping without Federal permit...

  3. 50 CFR 31.16 - Trapping program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...wildlife refuge areas where trapping has been authorized shall...the terms and conditions of trapping activity and the rates of charge or division of pelts, hides...shall be open to public trapping without Federal permit...

  4. Theory and application of planar ion traps

    E-print Network

    Pearson, Christopher Elliott

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate a new geometry of Paul trap with electrodes in a plane. These planar ion traps are compatible with modern silicon microfabrication, and can be scaled up to large arrays with multiple trapping ...

  5. Skill Components of Task Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anne E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

    2013-01-01

    Some task analysis methods break down a task into a hierarchy of subgoals. Although an important tool of many fields of study, learning to create such a hierarchy (redescription) is not trivial. To further the understanding of what makes task analysis a skill, the present research examined novices' problems with learning Hierarchical Task

  6. Embodied Task Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simko, Juraj; Cummins, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Movement science faces the challenge of reconciling parallel sequences of discrete behavioral goals with observed fluid, context-sensitive motion. This challenge arises with a vengeance in the speech domain, in which gestural primitives play the role of discrete goals. The task dynamic framework has proved effective in modeling the manner in which…

  7. Data Center Tasking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temares, M. Lewis; Lutheran, Joseph A.

    Operations tasking for data center management is discussed. The original and revised organizational structures of the data center at the University of Miami are also described. The organizational strategy addresses the functions that should be performed by the data center, anticipates the specialized skills required, and addresses personnel…

  8. Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC.

    This publication consists of job task analyses for jobs in textile manufacturing. Information provided for each job in the greige and finishing plants includes job title, job purpose, and job duties with related educational objectives, curriculum, assessment, and outcome. These job titles are included: yarn manufacturing head overhauler, yarn…

  9. Scenarios and task analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Diaper

    2002-01-01

    A Critical Review of Carroll's book on scenario-based design is offered [Making Use: Scenario-Based Design of Human–Computer Interactions (2000)]. Carroll characterises scenarios as ‘stories about use’. The paper demonstrates that Carroll's proposals about scenarios and their use in software engineering can be fitted into the broader framework of task analysis in Human–Computer Interaction.

  10. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  11. AC electric trapping of neutral atoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Schlunk; Wieland Schoellkopf; Gerard Meijer

    2008-01-01

    We have demonstrated trapping of ultracold ground-state ^87Rb atoms in a macroscopic ac electric trap [1]. Trapping by ac electric fields has been previously achieved for polar molecules [2], as well as Sr atoms on a chip [3], and recently for Rb atoms in a three-phase electric trap [4]. Similar to trapping of ions in a Paul trap, three-dimensional confinement

  12. Brownian motion of a trapped microsphere ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, M. J.; Skowronski, A. D.

    2014-10-01

    We developed a finite difference simulation for a charged microsphere trapped in a Paul trap at atmospheric pressure undergoing Brownian motion. We demonstrate a theory that shows the variance of the motion of the particle increases both for weak traps and as the trap approaches its instability points. Measurements of the variance for a micron-sized dust particle in an ion trap confirm an increase in the variance as the trap is weakened.

  13. Method for the prediction of the effective dose equivalent to the crew of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Jaby, Samy; Tomi, Leena; Sihver, Lembit; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Richardson, Richard B.; Lewis, Brent J.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a methodology for assessing the pre-mission exposure of space crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in terms of an effective dose equivalent. In this approach, the PHITS Monte Carlo code was used to assess the particle transport of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and trapped radiation for solar maximum and minimum conditions through an aluminum shield thickness. From these predicted spectra, and using fluence-to-dose conversion factors, a scaling ratio of the effective dose equivalent rate to the ICRU ambient dose equivalent rate at a 10 mm depth was determined. Only contributions from secondary neutrons, protons, and alpha particles were considered in this analysis. Measurements made with a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) located at Service Module panel 327, as captured through a semi-empirical correlation in the ISSCREM code, where then scaled using this conversion factor for prediction of the effective dose equivalent. This analysis shows that at this location within the service module, the total effective dose equivalent is 10-30% less than the total TEPC dose equivalent. Approximately 75-85% of the effective dose equivalent is derived from the GCR. This methodology provides an opportunity for pre-flight predictions of the effective dose equivalent and therefore offers a means to assess the health risks of radiation exposure on ISS flight crew.

  14. When are origin and destination regimes equivalent?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Lockwood; DAVID DE MEZA; Gareth D. Myles

    1994-01-01

    A series of equivalence results are established which show that a switch from a destination regime of commodity taxation to an origin regime has no real effects. These significantly generalize those in the existing literature. Assuming uniformity of taxes within each country, equivalence applies (1) in a general competitive economy with an arbitrary (finite) number of goods and factors of

  15. The Equivalence Principle: True or False?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site discusses the equivalence principle, which states that an acceleration effect (inertia) and a gravitational one (attraction between two gravitational masses) are equivalent. The site demonstrates an experiment that demonstrates its validity. Galileo and Einstein's contributions to the principle are also discussed.

  16. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture...PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing...

  17. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture...PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing...

  18. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture...PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing...

  19. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture...PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing...

  20. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture...PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing...

  1. Barnacle Equivalence Structure in Relativistic Wave Equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. K. Khalil

    1978-01-01

    Relativistic wave equations for spin s particles (-i beta \\\\cdot partial + m) psi = 0 transforming under a representation Lambda mapsto T(Lambda) of SL(2, C), can have structural properties that make them physically equivalent to similar wave equations. This equivalence extends to all the standard external field interactions. There are T(Lambda)'s which cannot lead to theories different from simpler

  2. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  3. Combined acoustic and optical trapping

    PubMed Central

    Thalhammer, G.; Steiger, R.; Meinschad, M.; Hill, M.; Bernet, S.; Ritsch-Marte, M.

    2011-01-01

    Combining several methods for contact free micro-manipulation of small particles such as cells or micro-organisms provides the advantages of each method in a single setup. Optical tweezers, which employ focused laser beams, offer very precise and selective handling of single particles. On the other hand, acoustic trapping with wavelengths of about 1 mm allows the simultaneous trapping of many, comparatively large particles. With conventional approaches it is difficult to fully employ the strengths of each method due to the different experimental requirements. Here we present the combined optical and acoustic trapping of motile micro-organisms in a microfluidic environment, utilizing optical macro-tweezers, which offer a large field of view and working distance of several millimeters and therefore match the typical range of acoustic trapping. We characterize the acoustic trapping forces with the help of optically trapped particles and present several applications of the combined optical and acoustic trapping, such as manipulation of large (75 ?m) particles and active particle sorting. PMID:22025990

  4. Accommodation in Astigmatic Children During Visual Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Apple, Howard P.; Parashar, Pavan; Twelker, J. Daniel; Crescioni, Mabel; Davis, Amy L.; Leonard-Green, Tina K.; Campus, Irene; Sherrill, Duane L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the accuracy and stability of accommodation in uncorrected children during visual task performance. Methods. Subjects were second- to seventh-grade children from a highly astigmatic population. Measurements of noncycloplegic right eye spherical equivalent (Mnc) were obtained while uncorrected subjects performed three visual tasks at near (40 cm) and distance (2 m). Tasks included reading sentences with stimulus letter size near acuity threshold and an age-appropriate letter size (high task demands) and viewing a video (low task demand). Repeated measures ANOVA assessed the influence of astigmatism, task demand, and accommodative demand on accuracy (mean Mnc) and variability (mean SD of Mnc) of accommodation. Results. For near and distance analyses, respectively, sample size was 321 and 247, mean age was 10.37 (SD 1.77) and 10.30 (SD 1.74) years, mean cycloplegic M was 0.48 (SD 1.10) and 0.79 diopters (D) (SD 1.00), and mean astigmatism was 0.99 (SD 1.15) and 0.75 D (SD 0.96). Poor accommodative accuracy was associated with high astigmatism, low task demand (video viewing), and high accommodative demand. The negative effect of accommodative demand on accuracy increased with increasing astigmatism, with the poorest accommodative accuracy observed in high astigmats (?3.00 D) with high accommodative demand/high hyperopia (1.53 D and 2.05 D of underaccommodation for near and distant stimuli, respectively). Accommodative variability was greatest in high astigmats and was uniformly high across task condition. No/low and moderate astigmats showed higher variability for the video task than the reading tasks. Conclusions. Accuracy of accommodation is reduced in uncorrected children with high astigmatism and high accommodative demand/high hyperopia, but improves with increased visual task demand (reading). High astigmats showed the greatest variability in accommodation. PMID:25103265

  5. Task switching in a hierarchical task structure: evidence for the fragility of the task repetition benefit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms. In Experiments 2-5, adjacent task elements were grouped temporally and/or spatially (forming an ensemble) to create a hierarchical task organization. Results indicate that the effect of switching at the ensemble level dominated the effect of switching at the element level. Experiments 6 and 7, using an ensemble of 3 task elements, revealed that the element-level switch cost was virtually absent between ensembles but was large within an ensemble. The authors conclude that the element-level task repetition benefit is fragile and can be eliminated in a hierarchical task organization.

  6. Backward Blocking and Interference between Cues Are Empirically Equivalent in Non-Causally Framed Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luque, David; Moris, Joaquin; Orgaz, Cristina; Cobos, Pedro L.; Matute, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Backward blocking (BB) and interference between cues (IbC) are cue competition effects produced by very similar manipulations. In a standard BB design, both effects might occur simultaneously, which implies a potential problem for studying BB. In the present study with humans, the magnitude of both effects was compared using a non-causal scenario…

  7. Thymic Selection of T Cells as Diffusion with Intermittent Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Košmrlj, Andrej

    2011-04-01

    T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses by recognizing short peptides derived from pathogens, and by distinguishing them from self-peptides. To ensure the latter, immature T cells (thymocytes) diffuse within the thymus gland, where they encounter an ensemble of self-peptides presented on (immobile) antigen presenting cells. Potentially autoimmune T cells are eliminated if the thymocyte binds sufficiently strongly with any such antigen presenting cell. We model thymic selection of T cells as a random walker diffusing in a field of immobile traps that intermittently turn "on" and "off". The escape probability of potentially autoimmune T cells is equivalent to the survival probability of such a random walker. In this paper we describe the survival probability of a random walker on a d-dimensional cubic lattice with randomly placed immobile intermittent traps, and relate it to the result of a well-studied problem where traps are always "on". Additionally, when switching between the trap states is slow, we find a peculiar caging effect for the survival probability.

  8. Unconscious task application.

    PubMed

    Van Opstal, Filip; Gevers, Wim; Osman, Magda; Verguts, Tom

    2010-12-01

    The nature of unconscious information processing is a heavily debated issue in cognitive science (e.g., Kouider & Dehaene, 2007), and neuroscience (e.g., Crick & Koch, 1998). Traditionally, it has been thought that unconscious cognitive processing is restricted to knowledge that is strongly prepared by conscious processes (e.g., Dehaene et al., 1998). In three experiments, we show that the task that is performed consciously can also be applied unconsciously to items outside the current task set. We found that a same-different judgment of two target stimuli was also performed on two subliminally presented prime stimuli. This was true for target and prime stimuli from entirely different categories, as well as for prime and target stimuli at different levels of abstraction. These results reveal that unconscious processing can generalize more widely than previously accepted. PMID:20537925

  9. RF SQUID detector for single-ion trapping experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskoff, R. M.; Lafyatis, G. P.; Boyce, K. R.; Cornell, E. A.; Flanagan, R. W., Jr.

    1988-05-01

    A novel superconducting detector sensitive enough to detect the axial motion of a single, trapped ion was designed and constructed. This detector employs a tuned, superconducting transformer matched to an RF SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) to yield an effective current sensitivity of 2.7 x 10 to the -15th A/sq rt Hz at 160 kHz. To optimize the detection system, existing small-signal equivalent circuit models were used, and, thus, these models were tested in a new regime. The paper includes details of the superconducting circuitry and of the modifications required to stabilize the commercial SQUID controls at 160 kHz. Finally, typical detected signals from trapped ions are presented.

  10. Small Wind Task Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has compiled this document which lists objectives and task analysis for small wind energy system installers. The document is divided into areas including of competencies such as conducting a wind energy site assessment, working safely with small wind energy systems and performing system checkouts and inspection. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  11. Bushmeat Crisis Task Force

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site is the homepage of the Bushmeat Crisis Task Force (BCTF), a nonprofit organization that works toward "identifying and implementing effective and appropriate solutions to the commercial exploitation of endangered and threatened species." In addition to providing information on BCTF projects and upcoming events, the Web site offers a comprehensive collection of articles meant to raise awareness of the bushmeat crisis, as well as a number of fact sheets, each covering a specific aspect of the bushmeat trade.

  12. Solar Thermal Task Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this document which includes an overview of objectives and task analysis for individuals installing solar water and pool heating systems. Areas of expertise include working safely with solar hot water and pool heating systems, identifying systems and their components and installing equipment. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  13. The task force process

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-01-31

    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several {open_quotes}big picture{close_quotes} issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald.

  14. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  15. Vortex dynamics in anisotropic traps

    SciTech Connect

    McEndoo, S.; Busch, Th. [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the dynamics of linear vortex lattices in anisotropic traps in two dimensions and show that the interplay between the rotation and the anisotropy leads to a rich but highly regular dynamics.

  16. Managing the Steam Trap Population

    E-print Network

    Atlas, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    hundred steam traps installed only 58 were working effectively -- 42% needed attention! These programs had associated cost benefits of at least 100% return on investment, a maximum six month breakeven on cash flow, and an energy cost reduction amounting...

  17. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  18. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  19. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W.H.

    1999-03-09

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector. 5 figs.

  20. Thévenin equivalence in disorderless quantum networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, C. A.; Wu, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    We outline the procedure of extending the Thévenin equivalence principle for classical electric circuits to reducing Aharonov-Bohm-based quantum networks into equivalent models. With examples, we show from first principles how the requirements are related to the electron band structure's Fermi level and the lattice spacing of the network. Quantum networks of varying degrees of coupling strength from four basic classifications of single and double entangled loops sharing symmetry and highly correlated band structures are used to demonstrate the concept. We show the limitations of how the principle may be applied. Several classes of examples are given and their equivalent forms are shown.

  1. Low-dimensional trapped gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Petrov D. M. Gangardt G. V. Shlyapnikov; D. M. Gangardt; G. V. Shlyapnikov

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in the physics of ultracold gases provide wide possibilities for reducing the dimensionality of space for magnetically or optically trapped atoms. The goal of these lectures is to show that regimes of quantum degeneracy in two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) trapped gases are drastically different from those in three dimensions and to stimulate an interest in low-dimensional systems.

  2. Charge trapping in photorefractive polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George G. Malliaras; Victor V. Krasnikov; Henk J. Bolink; Georges Hadziioannou

    1995-01-01

    Modification of the trap density of the photorefractive polymer composite poly(N-vinyl carbazole), 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, and N,N-diethyl-para-nitrozniline is achieved with the addition of 4-(diethylamino)bensaldehyde diphenylhydrazone (DEH). Measurements of the response time and the phase shift of the photorefractive gratings indicate that at low concentrations DEH acts as a trap, while at higher concentrations a new charge transport pathway through hopping between DEH

  3. Learner Mining of Pre-Task and Task Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jeremy Scott

    2008-01-01

    The findings reported in this article suggest that learners inevitably "mine" wordings contained in pre-task and task materials when performing tasks, even when the teacher did not explicitly draw learner attention to these features. However, this was found to be true only with written materials, and learners did not appear to mine specific…

  4. 5. TASK DESCRIPTIONS 1. Task Name: Develop Security Policy

    E-print Network

    Blustein, J.

    that define this task are: 1.1.1. Analyze Assets, Risks and Vulnerabilities. 1.1.2. Consult Management to reduce any forms of possible risks or liability caused to its IT infrastructure. 1.1. Task Name to the company's IT infrastructure. #12;18 1.1.1. Task Name: Analyze Assets, Risks and Vulnerabilities. The Goal

  5. Task-Oriented Grasping using Hand Preshapes and Task Frames

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Prats; Pedro J. Sanz; Angel P. Del Pobil

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a robot that is able to perform daily manipulation tasks in a home environment, such as opening doors and drawers. Taking as input a simplified object model and the task to perform, the robot automatically finds a grasp suitable for the task and performs it. For this, we identify a set of hand preshapes and

  6. Continuous regeneration of an electrically heated diesel particulate trap: Mechanism of particulate matter trapping and improvement of trapping efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Saito; H Hoshino; T Furuhata; M Arai

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of trapping and continuous regeneration of soot particles in a newly developed diesel particulate trap based on static-electric trapping (electrical diesel particulate trap, E-DPT) are investigated. It is found from a visualization experiment that soot particles trapped on the electro-plates form soot bridges over the 1.5 mm narrow space between the electro-plates and burn out by Joule's heating,

  7. Determination of effective trapping times for electrons and holes in irradiated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramberger, G.; Cindro, V.; Mandi?, I.; Mikuž, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2002-01-01

    A set of standard and oxygenated silicon diodes with different resistivities (1 and 15 k? cm ) was irradiated with neutrons to fluences up to 2×10 14 cm-2, 1 MeV neutron NIEL equivalent. After beneficial annealing the signal response from the diodes was studied using transient current technique. Red laser (?=670 nm) illumination was used for creation of electrons and holes. Assuming exponential decrease of the drifting charge in time, the effective trapping probability of electrons and holes was deduced from the evolution of the induced current at voltages above the full depletion voltage. The effective trapping probabilities of holes were found to be larger than of electrons. The trapping probability is shown to scale linearly with fluence. No significant difference between effective trapping probabilities for different materials was measured.

  8. Charge trapping in molecularly doped polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang-Bih Lin; Paul M. Borsenberger; Edward H. Magin; Susan A. Visser; William T. Gruenbaum

    1998-01-01

    Hole trapping has been investigated in a series of donor doped polymers containing different concentrations of traps with different depths. The mobilities decrease with increasing trap concentration and trap depth while the general features of the field and temperature dependencies remain unchanged. The results are discussed within the framework of the recent simulations of Wolf et al. and Borsenberger et

  9. Field evaluation of a valved sediment trap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. PETERSON; P. J. HERNES; D. S. THORESON; J. I. HEDGES; C. LEE; S. G. WAKEHAM

    1993-01-01

    An internally valved sediment trap designed to isolate sinking particulate matter from free-swimming animals, temporally subsample particle flux, and minimize washout of solid and dissolved material is described. The trap is controlled by a single microprocessor capable of supporting multiple traps as well as other instrumentation on a single array. Test deployments of valved and nonvalved control traps, along with

  10. General covariance, artificial gauge freedom and empirical equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, James Brian

    This dissertation updates the debate over the nontriviality of general covariance for Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GTR) and considers particle physics in the debate over underdetermination and empirical equivalence. Both tasks are tied to the unexplored issue of artificial gauge freedom, a valuable form of descriptive redundancy. Whereas Einstein took general covariance to characterize GTR, Kretschmann thought it merely a formal feature that any theory could have. Anderson and Friedman analyzed substantive general covariance as the lack of absolute objects, fields the same in all models. Some extant counterexamples and a new one involving the electron spinor field are resolved. However, Geroch and Giulini diagnose an absolute object in GTR itself in the metric's volume element. One might instead analyze substantive general covariance as formal general covariance achieved without hiding preferred coordinates as scalar "clock fields," recalling Einstein's early views. Theories with no metric or multiple metrics make the age of the universe meaningless or ambiguous, respectively, so the ancient and medieval debate over the eternity of the world should be recast. Particle physics provides case studies for empirical equivalence. Proca's electromagnetism with some nonzero photon mass constitutes a family of rivals to Maxwell's theory. Whereas any Proca theory can be distinguished empirically from Maxwell's, the Proca family approaches Maxwell's for small masses, yielding permanent underdetermination with only approximate empirical equivalence. The weak nuclear force also displays a smooth massless limit classically, but not after quantization, recalling the instability of empirical equivalence under change of auxiliary hypotheses. The standard electroweak theory apparently permits a photon mass term and hence underdetermination, but possible further unification might not. The question of underdetermination regarding massive gravity is unresolved. Physicists often reformulate a theory to install additional fields and new gauge symmetries preserving empirical content. Post-positivist philosophers might judge the result a distinct and inferior theory, but physicists consider it a perhaps superior formulation of the same theory. Evidently a step back from naive realism towards mathematical-empirical equivalence is appropriate for physical ontology and theory individuation. Artificial gauge freedom licenses a generalized Kretschmann objection, but the clock field case suggests a resolution.

  11. Collisional trap losses of cold magnetically trapped Br atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, J.; Rennick, C. J.; Softley, T. P.

    2014-12-01

    Near-threshold photodissociation of Br2 from a supersonic beam produces slow bromine atoms that are trapped in the magnetic-field minimum formed between two opposing permanent magnets. Here we quantify the dominant trap-loss rate due to collisions with two sources of residual gas: the background limited by the vacuum chamber base pressure and the carrier gas during the supersonic gas pulse. The loss rate due to collisions with residual Ar in the background follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and the bimolecular rate coefficient for collisional loss from the trap is determined by measurement of this rate as a function of the background Ar pressure. This rate coefficient is smaller than the total elastic collision rate coefficient, as it only samples those collisions that lead to trap loss, and is determined to be =(1.12 ±0.09 ) ×10-9cm3s-1 . The calculated differential cross section can be used with this value to estimate a trap depth of 293 ±24 mK . Carrier-gas collisions occur only during the tail of the supersonic beam pulse. Using the differential cross section verified by the background-gas collision measurements provides an estimate of the peak molecular-beam density of (3.0 ±0.3 ) ×1013cm-3 , in good agreement with the prediction of a simple supersonic expansion model. Finally, we estimate the trap-loss rate due to Majorana transitions to be negligible, owing to the relatively large trapped-atom phase-space volume.

  12. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK General § 157.07 Equivalents. The Coast Guard...

  13. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL...equivalence of the respective regulatory systems in terms of quality assurance...purpose of assessing regulatory systems and the authorities'...

  14. Equivalent Conditions of Generalized Convex Fuzzy Mappings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue Wen; He, Dou

    2014-01-01

    We obtain some equivalent conditions of (strictly) pseudoconvex and quasiconvex fuzzy mappings. These results will be useful to present some characterizations of solutions for fuzzy mathematical programming. PMID:24511284

  15. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE...THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  16. The Economist Interactive: Equivalent Country Comparisons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive tools allows the user to learn which countries parallel the states, provinces or territories of the United States, China, India and Brazil and  presents country equivalent data for both GDP and population.

  17. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...permitted where the alternative designs and technologies used will provide substantially equivalent or greater access to and usability of the vehicle. Departures are to be considered on a case-by-case basis by the Department of Transportation under the...

  18. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...permitted where the alternative designs and technologies used will provide substantially equivalent or greater access to and usability of the vehicle. Departures are to be considered on a case-by-case basis by the Department of Transportation under the...

  19. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goeringer, Douglas E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Glish, Gary L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  20. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Glish, G.L.

    1993-04-27

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  1. Cognitive Task Analysis: Current Research

    E-print Network

    Goldwasser, Shafi

    & Hutton (1998): Adapts CTA to be more usable to industry practitioners and tests reliability to transform this data into design recommendations Militello & Hutton #12;Applied Cognitive Task Analysis (ACTA) · Task diagram interview · Knowledge audit · Simulation interview · Cognitive demands table Militello

  2. Cluster analysis based on fuzzy equivalence relation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gin-shuh Liang; Tsung-yu Chou; Tzeu-chen Han

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, a cluster analysis method based on fuzzy equivalence relation is proposed. At first, the distance formula,between,two,trapezoidal fuzzy numbers,is used to aggregate,subjects’ linguistic assessments,about attributes ratings to obtain the compatibility relation. Then a fuzzy equivalence,relation based on the fuzzy compatibility relation can be constructed. Finally, using a cluster validity index to determine the best number of clusters

  3. The Physical Mirror Equivalence for the Local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciatori, Sergio Luigi; Compagnoni, Marco; Guerra, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the total space of the canonical bundle of and we use a proposal by Hosono, together with results of Seidel and Auroux-Katzarkov-Orlov, to deduce the physical mirror equivalence between and the derived Fukaya category of its mirror which assigns the expected central charge to BPS states. By construction, our equivalence is compatible with the mirror map relating the complex and the Kähler moduli spaces and with the computation of Gromov-Witten invariants.

  4. On Damage Effective Stress and Equivalence Hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. S. Zheng; J. Betten

    1996-01-01

    The concepts of damage effective stress and damage equivalence hypothesis play an important role in the development of continuum damage mechanics. Based on a generalization of the damage equivalence hypothesis, the so-called damage isotropy principle, it is found that the effective stress as a second-order tensor-valued function of the usual stress tensor and the damage tensor(s) has to be isotropic.

  5. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  6. Acquired equivalence and generalized suppression in a virtual reality environment.

    PubMed

    Greville, W James; Dymond, Simon; Newton, Philip M; Roche, Bryan

    2014-06-01

    Acquired equivalence was investigated using a virtual reality conditioned suppression task administered in a first-person-shooter game. Two visual cues, A1 and B1, were followed by a tone (O1), and another two cues, A2 and B2, were followed by another tone (O2). During differential Pavlovian conditioning, A1 was paired with an instructed unconditioned stimulus (US) consisting of a flashing white screen, whereas A2 was not. All cues and outcomes were then presented at test, in the absence of the US, and suppression ratios were calculated for multiple response topographies (shots, hits, and breaks). Clear evidence of the suppression of shots was seen for A1 and B1, with no suppression being seen for either A2 or B2. Presentations of O1 and O2 resulted in significant suppression of shots and hits, whereas only O1 led to the suppression of breaks. The US expectancy ratings were consistent with these behavioral results. The findings are discussed in the light of differing accounts of acquired equivalence. PMID:24366672

  7. Transfer of stable equivalences of Morita type

    E-print Network

    Pan, Shengyong

    2009-01-01

    Let $A$ and $B$ be finite-dimensional $k$-algebras over a field $k$ such that $A/\\rad(A)$ and $B/\\rad(B)$ are separable. In this note, we consider how to transfer a stable equivalence of Morita type between $A$ and $B$ to that between $eAe$ and $fBf$, where $e$ and $f$ are idempotent elements in $A$ and in $B$, respectively. In particular, if the Auslander algebras of two representation-finite algebras $A$ and $B$ are stably equivalent of Morita type, then $A$ and $B$ themselves are stably equivalent of Morita type. Thus, combining a result with Liu and Xi, we see that two representation-finite algebras $A$ and $B$ over a perfect field are stably equivalent of Morita type if and only if their Auslander algebras are stably equivalent of Morita type. Moreover, since stable equivalence of Morita type preserves $n$-cluster tilting modules, we extend this result to $n$-representation-finite algebras and $n$-Auslander algebras studied by Iyama.

  8. Maximally Expressive Task Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.

  9. Task-oriented rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Choi, Younggeun; Winstein, Carolee; Gordon, James

    2012-11-01

    Task-oriented training is emerging as the dominant and most effective approach to motor rehabilitation of upper extremity function after stroke. Here, the authors propose that the task-oriented training framework provides an evidence-based blueprint for the design of task-oriented robots for the rehabilitation of upper extremity function in the form of three design principles: skill acquisition of functional tasks, active participation training, and individualized adaptive training. The previous robotic systems that incorporate elements of task-oriented trainings are then reviewed. Finally, the authors critically analyze their own attempt to design and test the feasibility of a TOR robot, ADAPT (Adaptive and Automatic Presentation of Tasks), which incorporates the three design principles. Because of its task-oriented training-based design, ADAPT departs from most other current rehabilitation robotic systems: it presents realistic functional tasks in which the task goal is constantly adapted, so that the individual actively performs doable but challenging tasks without physical assistance. To maximize efficacy for a large clinical population, the authors propose that future task-oriented robots need to incorporate yet-to-be developed adaptive task presentation algorithms that emphasize acquisition of fine motor coordination skills while minimizing compensatory movements. PMID:23080042

  10. Information Processing in Memory Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William A.

    The intensity of information processing engendered in different phases of standard memory tasks was examined in six experiments. Processing intensity was conceptualized as system capacity consumed, and was measured via a divided-attention procedure in which subjects performed a memory task and a simple reaction-time (RT) task concurrently. The…

  11. TASK: Let's Have a Party!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, James

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…

  12. Electrodynamic Trapping of Aerocolloidal Particles: Experimental and Theoretical Trapping Limits

    PubMed

    Aardahl; Vehring; Weber; Schweiger; Davis; Wiedensohler

    1997-08-01

    Aerocolloidal particles have been trapped from an uncharged source aerosol using an electrodynamic balance. Graphite and soot particles were charged photoelectrically using a Xe2 (172 nm) excimer lamp, while particles of titanium dioxide, sodium nitrate, and diethylhexyl sebacate (DEHS) were charged using a unipolar corona charger prior to injection into the chamber. It was found that the Stokesian drag force produced by convection in the balance chamber can destabilize the levitated microparticle when it exceeds the electrostatic force required to center the particle. Although the electrostatic restoring force can be increased by increasing either the particle charge or the ac field strength, charging of the particles is more difficult as the particle diameter is decreased, which gives rise to a trapping limit. Monodisperse DEHS particles were used to determine the experimental trapping limit for unipolar charging. For the experimental apparatus used in this study, a diameter of about 1 ?m was found to be the trapping limit for DEHS. Results are compared to the theoretical trapping limit calculated by a force balance on a particle exposed to motion of the surrounding gas. PMID:9268562

  13. Progress at the Penning Trap Mass Spectrometer ``THe-Trap''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoecker, Martin; Eronen, Tommi; Ketter, Jochen; Streubel, Sebastian; Blaum, Klaus; van Dyck, Robert S.

    2012-03-01

    In 2008, the ``University of Washington Penning-Trap Mass Spectrometer'' (UW-PTMS), originally designed and built by the Van Dyck group, was moved to the Max-Planck-Insitute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. It was set up in a dedicated laboratory that meets both the radiation-safety requirements, and the environment-stabilization demands for a high-precision measurement of the tritium/helium-3 mass ratio. Our goal is to measure this mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of 10-11, which would be more than an order of magnitude better than the previous best measurement. It would decrease the uncertainty in the tritium beta decay Q-value (an important parameter in the ongoing search for the neutrino mass by experiments such as KATRIN) by the same factor. In order to emphasize the specialization of our experiment with regard to Tritium and ^3Helium, it was renamed to ``THe-Trap''. THe-Trap features a double Penning-trap for rapid ion exchange, an external ion source to minimize trap contamination, a novel Zener-based voltage source, and active as well as passive stabilization of temperature, pressure and the magnetic field of the superconducting magnet. An overview of the project and a report on the recent progress will be given.

  14. Silicon material task review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project Silicon Material Task are to evaluate technologies, new and old; to develop the most promising technologies; to establish practicality of the processes to meet production, energy use, and economic criteria; and to develop an information base on impurities in polysilicon and to determine their effects on solar cell performance. The approach involves determining process feasibility, setting milestones for the forced selection of the processes, and establishing the technical readiness of the integrated process.

  15. Stem Cell Task Force

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides an overview of the activities of an NIH task force established to move the stem cell research agenda forward. The section titled Scientific Research may be of particular interest to researchers in this area. It provides links to the Web sites of stem cell-related research at a number of NIH institutes, as well as an extensive information index, a FAQs page about stem cell research, information on funding opportunities, and much more.

  16. Prospects for measuring the electric dipole moment of the electron using electrically trapped polar molecules.

    PubMed

    Tarbutt, M R; Hudson, J J; Sauer, B E; Hinds, E A

    2009-01-01

    Heavy polar molecules can be used to measure the electric dipole moment of the electron, which is a sensitive probe of physics beyond the Standard Model. The value is determined by measuring the precession of the molecule's spin in a plane perpendicular to an applied electric field. The longer this precession evolves coherently, the higher the precision of the measurement. For molecules in a trap, this coherence time could be very long indeed. We evaluate the sensitivity of an experiment where neutral molecules are trapped electrically, and compare this to an equivalent measurement in a molecular beam. We consider the use of a Stark decelerator to load the trap from a supersonic source, and calculate the deceleration efficiency for YbF molecules in both strong-field seeking and weak-field seeking states. With a 1 s holding time in the trap, the statistical sensitivity could be ten times higher than it is in the beam experiment, and this could improve by a further factor of five if the trap can be loaded from a source of larger emittance. We study some effects due to field inhomogeneity in the trap and find that rotation of the electric field direction, leading to an inhomogeneous geometric phase shift, is the primary obstacle to a sensitive trap-based measurement. PMID:20151537

  17. Atomic Oxygen Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.

    1997-01-01

    This report details work performed by the Center for Applied Optics (CAO) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) on the contract entitled 'Atomic Oxygen Task' for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order 109, modification number 1). Atomic oxygen effects on exposed materials remain a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The basic objective of atomic oxygen research in NASA's Materials & Processes (M&P) Laboratory is to provide the solutions to material problems facing present and future space missions. The objective of this work was to provide the necessary research for the design of specialized experimental test configurations and development of techniques for evaluating in-situ space environmental effects, including the effects of atomic oxygen and electromagnetic radiation on candidate materials. Specific tasks were performed to address materials issues concerning accelerated environmental testing as well as specifically addressing materials issues of particular concern for LDEF analysis and Space Station materials selection.

  18. Task-specific image partitioning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungwoong; Nowozin, Sebastian; Kohli, Pushmeet; Yoo, Chang D

    2013-02-01

    Image partitioning is an important preprocessing step for many of the state-of-the-art algorithms used for performing high-level computer vision tasks. Typically, partitioning is conducted without regard to the task in hand. We propose a task-specific image partitioning framework to produce a region-based image representation that will lead to a higher task performance than that reached using any task-oblivious partitioning framework and existing supervised partitioning framework, albeit few in number. The proposed method partitions the image by means of correlation clustering, maximizing a linear discriminant function defined over a superpixel graph. The parameters of the discriminant function that define task-specific similarity/dissimilarity among superpixels are estimated based on structured support vector machine (S-SVM) using task-specific training data. The S-SVM learning leads to a better generalization ability while the construction of the superpixel graph used to define the discriminant function allows a rich set of features to be incorporated to improve discriminability and robustness. We evaluate the learned task-aware partitioning algorithms on three benchmark datasets. Results show that task-aware partitioning leads to better labeling performance than the partitioning computed by the state-of-the-art general-purpose and supervised partitioning algorithms. We believe that the task-specific image partitioning paradigm is widely applicable to improving performance in high-level image understanding tasks. PMID:23008253

  19. Trapping of Neutral Rubidium with a Macroscopic Three-Phase Electric Trap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Rieger; P. Windpassinger; S. A. Rangwala; G. Rempe; P. W. H. Pinkse

    2007-01-01

    We trap neutral ground-state rubidium atoms in a macroscopic trap based on purely electric fields. For this, three electrostatic field configurations are alternated in a periodic manner. The rubidium is precooled in a magneto-optical trap, transferred into a magnetic trap, and then translated into the electric trap. The electric trap consists of six rod-shaped electrodes in cubic arrangement, giving ample

  20. Novel designs for Penning ion traps

    E-print Network

    Authors J. R. Castrejon-Pita; H. Ohadi; D. R. Crick; D. F. A. Winters; D. M. Segal; R. C. Thompson

    2006-03-22

    We present a number of alternative designs for Penning ion traps suitable for quantum information processing (QIP) applications with atomic ions. The first trap design is a simple array of long straight wires which allows easy optical access. A prototype of this trap has been built to trap Ca+ and a simple electronic detection scheme has been employed to demonstrate the operation of the trap. Another trap design consists of a conducting plate with a hole in it situated above a continuous conducting plane. The final trap design is based on an array of pad electrodes. Although this trap design lacks the open geometry of the traps described above, the pad design may prove useful in a hybrid scheme in which information processing and qubit storage take place in different types of trap. The behaviour of the pad traps is simulated numerically and techniques for moving ions rapidly between traps are discussed. Future experiments with these various designs are discussed. All of the designs lend themselves to the construction of multiple trap arrays, as required for scalable ion trap QIP.

  1. Scenario-Based Tasks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page from The Experiential Learning Center provides a number of scenario-based tasks for use in the classroom or for professional development training. The materials are freely available for download and use and would be applicable to learners in a variety of subjects including software development, faculty professional development, office system applications/ICT, biology/bioinformatics, environmental studies, Python programming, engineering, network security/MIS, computational thinking and English writing. Instructor guides and other classroom instructional materials are provided. The project requests that educators let them know when these materials are used in order to track dissemination of the work and in order to inform the community about upcoming workshops and presentations.

  2. Financial Action Task Force

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created in 1989, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an inter-governmental body whose purpose is "the development and promotion of national and international policies to combat money laundering and terrorist financing." Users who are new to the site can get started quickly by looking over the "Quick Links" section on the right-hand side of the homepage. Here they will find a handbook that details how the FATF creates its profiles, information on the methodology, and primary recommendations for creating a coherent set of counter-measures against money laundering. Also, the site includes a "Publications" area, which contains short summaries of reports, along with annual reports dating from 1990 and newsletters from 2007. Finally, the site also contains a listing of recent news items and upcoming events and conferences sponsored by the FATF.

  3. AMU NEXRAD Exploitation Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's NEXRAD Exploitation Task. The objectives of this task are to determine what radar signatures are present prior to and at the time of convection initiation, and to determine radar signatures which will help distinguish whether the ensuing convection will become severe. Radar data from the WSR-88D radar located at NWS Melbourne (WSR-88D/KMLB) were collected between June and September 1995, and 16 convective case studies were analyzed for which the radar was operating during the entire period of interest. All WSR-88D/KMLB products were scrutinized for their utility in detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures. Through process of elimination, it was found that the 0.5 deg reflectivity product with the lowest reflectivity values displayed is the best product to monitor for convection initiation signatures. Seven meteorological features associated with the initiation of deep convection were identified: the Merritt Island and Indian River convergence zones, interlake convergence, horizontal convective rolls, the sea breeze, storm outflow boundaries, and fires. Their reflectivity values ranged from -5 to 20 dBZ. Of the three severe weather phenomena (winds greater than or equal to 50 kts, tornado, 3/4 inch hail), high wind events due to microbursts were most common in the data set. It was found that the values and trends of composite reflectivity, vertically integrated liquid, and core aspect ratio were key indicators of the potential of a cell to produce a microburst. The data were not analyzed for the other two severe weather phenomena because they rarely occurred during the data collection period. This report also includes suggestions for new WSR-88D products, summaries of ongoing research aimed at creating new products, and explicit recommended procedures for detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures in the radar data using the currently available technology.

  4. On the equivalence of nonadiabatic fluids

    E-print Network

    W. Barreto

    2010-11-17

    Here we show how an anisotropic fluid in the diffusion limit can be equivalent to an isotropic fluid in the streaming out limit, in spherical symmetry. For a particular equation of state this equivalence is total, from one fluid we can obtain the other and vice versa. A numerical master model is presented, based on a generic equation of state, in which only quantitative differences are displayed between both nonadiabatic fluids. From a deeper view, other difference between fluids is shown as an asymmetry that can be overcome if we consider the appropriate initial-boundary conditions. Equivalence in this context can be considered as a first order method of approximation to study dissipative fluids.

  5. Accelerating classical charges and the equivalence principle

    E-print Network

    Viktor T. Toth

    2014-04-10

    We compare the behavior of a charged particle in a gravitational field and empty space. We resolve the apparent conflict between the Lorentz-Dirac equation and Larmor's formula of radiation by noting that the former describes an electron that is itself accelerated by an electromagnetic field. If instead, a hypothetical particle is considered that is accelerated by a non-electromagnetic force, Larmor's formula is found to be consistent with the accelerating particle's equation of motion. We consider the consequences concerning the equivalence principle and find that it is indeed violated if one demands that the same electromagnetic field be present in both the gravitational and accelerating cases; however, if one allows for the external electromagnetic fields to be different, the validity of the equivalence principle is restored. In either case, the basic idea behind the equivalence principle, which leads to a geometrized theory of gravity, remains unaffected.

  6. Teaching coin equivalence to the mentally retarded.

    PubMed Central

    Trace, M W; Cuvo, A J; Criswell, J L

    1977-01-01

    A program was designed to teach coin equivalence to mentally retarded adolescents. Coin equivalence was defined as choosing several different combinations of coins to equal specified target values. A pretest-posttest matched-groups design was employed with an experimental group receiving the monetary training, and a no-training control group. A multiple baseline across coin-counting responses was also incorporated in the experimental group. Training was divided into six stages, each teaching one specific method of combining coins to equal 10 target values from 5 cents through 50 cents. A three-component response chain was used, requiring (a) naming, (b) selecting and counting, and (c) depositing target monetary values into a coin machine. Experimental subjects improved significantly in coin equivalence performance and maintained their skill on follow up tests; control subjects did not. PMID:845100

  7. The therapeutic equivalence of complex drugs.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Huub; Klinger, Ety; Mühlebach, Stefan; Brin, Jean-Francois; Storm, Gert; Crommelin, Daan J A

    2011-02-01

    When the patent of a small molecule drug expires generics may be introduced. They are considered therapeutically equivalent once pharmaceutical equivalence (i.e. identical active substances) and bioequivalence (i.e. comparable pharmacokinetics) have been established in a cross-over volunteer study. However this generic paradigm cannot be applied to complex drugs as biologics and a number of other therapeutic modalities. For copies of biologics the European Medicine Agency and other regulatory agencies have introduced a new regulatory biosimilar pathway which mandates clinical trials to show therapeutic equivalence. However for other complex drugs such as the iron-carbohydrate drugs, low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), liposomal drugs and the glatiramoids regulatory guidance is still mostly lacking. In this paper we will discuss (therapeutic) experience obtained so far with these different classes of 'complex drugs' and their specifics to provide scientific arguments and criteria for consideration for a regulatory framework for the market authorization for these type of drugs. PMID:20951177

  8. Quantum formulation of the Einstein Equivalence Principle

    E-print Network

    Zych, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Validity of just a few physical conditions comprising the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP) suffices to ensure that gravity can be understood as space-time geometry. EEP is therefore subject to an ongoing experimental verification, with present day tests reaching the regime where quantum mechanics becomes relevant. Here we show that the classical formulation of the EEP does not apply in such a regime. The EEP requires equivalence between the total rest mass-energy of a system, the mass-energy that constitutes its inertia, and the mass-energy that constitutes its weight. In quantum mechanics internal energy is given by a Hamiltonian operator describing dynamics of internal degrees of freedom. We therefore introduce a quantum formulation of the EEP -- equivalence between the rest, inertial and gravitational internal energy operators. We show that the validity of the classical EEP does not imply the validity of its quantum formulation, which thus requires an independent experimental verification. We reanalyse...

  9. Equivalent magnetization over the World Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Hamoudi, M.; Choi, Y.; Thebault, E.; Quesnel, Y.; Roest, W. R.; Lesur, V.

    2012-12-01

    In another presentation (Hamoudi et al., this meeting), we present the construction of a new candidate for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM) over oceanic areas. This map is based on: (a) a more realistic forward modeling of the marine magnetic anomalies which includes remanent magnetization vectors taking into account the age and motion of the oceanic lithosphere; (b) evaluation of the equivalent magnetization by comparison of the synthetic and observed anomalies along ship tracks; and (c) adjustment of the synthetic anomaly maps using this equivalent magnetization prior to merging with the observed anomalies. A by-product of this approach is a global distribution of equivalent magnetization over the World's Ocean. Note that, because no global basement map exists for the oceanic areas, we assume a uniform, 5 km-deep and 1 km-thick magnetized layer for the forward model. The resulting equivalent magnetization is therefore relative to this over-simplistic magnetic source. A first observation is that, within the hypotheses of the forward model, the average equivalent magnetization is about 3 A/m, a value which compares well with the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) measured on ancient basalt samples. As expected, the mid-ocean ridges are marked by stronger equivalent magnetizations, an observation which reflects both the stronger NRM measured at ridge axes and their shallower bathymetry (not taken into account in our forward model). More interesting is the observation of significant along-axis variations. In the North Atlantic Ocean, the Kolbeinsey and Reykjanes ridges around Iceland are marked by a very strong equivalent magnetization and the Azores Plateau by a strong one as well.. Again this may reflect the combined effect of shallower seafloor, thicker and/or more magnetized basaltic layer at hotspots. In contrast, the areas between 45 and 55°N and between 0 and 10°N (Equatorial FZ) correspond to a weak equivalent magnetization. Further south, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge displays a more uniform signature, although off-axis variations seem associated to the Tristan and St Helena hotspots. In the Indian Ocean, a strong equivalent magnetization characterizes areas of hotspot-ridge interaction such as the Gulf of Aden, the Central Indian Ridge near Rodrigues Island, the Southwest Indian Ridge near Marion Island, and the Southeast Indian Ridge near St Paul and Amsterdam Islands. A weaker one is observed in colder area, at the Australian-Antarctic Discordance and around the Rodrigues Triple Junction. The Pacific Ocean is characterized by a generally stronger equivalent magnetization, both near ridges and in abyssal plains. Time variations, i.e. along seafloor spreading flowlines, are apparent across the Mid-Atlantic and Pacific-Antarctic ridges, with highs near the ridge axis (younger than 10 Ma) and between ~83 and 60 Ma, just after the Cretaceous Normal Superchron and lows between ~60 and 10 Ma. The Mesozoic basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans show a weaker equivalent magnetization before ~155 Ma and a stronger one after. Basins covered by thick sediments such as the Bengal Bay, Great Australian Bight, Nova Scotia Basin, and Western Somali Basin show a very weak equivalent magnetization, reflecting both a deeper basement and a possible thermal demagnetization. Some of these variations coincide with satellite magnetic anomalies.

  10. Ability and task constraint determinants of complex task performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip L. Ackerman; Anna T. Cianciolo

    2002-01-01

    Previous research on basic information-processing tasks has suggested that there may be a dissociation between the underlying process determinants of task performance and associations with ability measures. This study investigates this dissociation in the context of a complex skill-learning task—an air traffic control simulation called TRACON. A battery of spatial, numerical, and perceptual speed ability tests were administered, along with

  11. Task Specific Ionic Liquids and Task Specific Onium Salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu Pucheault; Michel Vaultier

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Task specific ionic liquids (TSILs), or more generally task specific onium salts (TSOSs), can be defined as an association\\u000a of a cation and anion, one at least being organic, to which has covalently been attached through a linker a function that\\u000a confers the assembly a specific task. After presentation of the general concept of TSILs and TSOSs, the different methods

  12. An evaluation of nursing tasks.

    PubMed

    Baptiste, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Functional capacity evaluations have been criticized as being too general in theory and not being accurate enough to determine what tasks an employee can perform. This paper will describe results of a descriptive study that was conducted in a laboratory setting to objectively determine the physical demands of patient transfer tasks performed by nurses. Fifty three tasks were analyzed and broken down into sub-tasks to quantify the peak force required to perform each sub-task in order to determine which tasks pose healthcare workers at highest risk of injury. Dissecting the transfer task into segments allows us to see which part of the task requires high forces on the part of the caregiver. The task can then be modified to eliminate the risk of injury to the caregiver. This modification can be accomplished by using healthcare technology, such as floor based or overhead lifts, friction reducing devices, sit to stand lifts, properly designed slings, and motorized beds/trolleys. Technological solutions are available for some of these high risk tasks and should be implemented where applicable to reduce the force demand and eliminate or reduce the risk of injury to healthcare workers in nursing. PMID:21876267

  13. Gap Thinking in Fraction Pair Comparisons Is Not Whole Number Thinking: Is This What Early Equivalence Thinking Sounds Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Annie; Horne, Marj

    2010-01-01

    Gap thinking has been categorised as one of several whole number strategies that interfere with early fraction understanding. This study showed that this claim is not supported by interview data of Grade 6 students' gap thinking explanations during a fraction pair comparison task. A correlation with equivalence performance was uncovered, leading…

  14. Whatever Gave You That Idea? False Memories Following Equivalence Training: A Behavioral Account of the Misinformation Effect

    PubMed Central

    Challies, Danna M; Hunt, Maree; Garry, Maryanne; Harper, David N

    2011-01-01

    The misinformation effect is a term used in the cognitive psychological literature to describe both experimental and real-world instances in which misleading information is incorporated into an account of an historical event. In many real-world situations, it is not possible to identify a distinct source of misinformation, and it appears that the witness may have inferred a false memory by integrating information from a variety of sources. In a stimulus equivalence task, a small number of trained relations between some members of a class of arbitrary stimuli result in a large number of untrained, or emergent relations, between all members of the class. Misleading information was introduced into a simple memory task between a learning phase and a recognition test by means of a match-to-sample stimulus equivalence task that included both stimuli from the original learning task and novel stimuli. At the recognition test, participants given equivalence training were more likely to misidentify patterns than those who were not given such training. The misinformation effect was distinct from the effects of prior stimulus exposure, or partial stimulus control. In summary, stimulus equivalence processes may underlie some real-world manifestations of the misinformation effect. PMID:22084495

  15. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Quantum communication between trapped ions through a dissipative environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, H. T.; Bose, S.

    2009-05-01

    We study two trapped ions coupled to the axial phonon modes of a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. This system is formally equivalent to the 'two spin-boson' model with position-dependent couplings. We propose a scheme to dynamically generate a maximally entangled state of two ions within a decoherence-free subspace. Here the phononic environment of the trapped ions, whatever its temperature and number of modes, serves as the entangling bus. The production of the pure singlet state can be exploited to perform short-ranged quantum communication which is essential in building up a large-scale quantum computer.

  16. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    DOEpatents

    Mangan, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM); Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Tigges, Chris P. (Albuquerque, NM); Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  17. Surface-electrode point Paul trap

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tony Hyun; Herskind, Peter F.; Chuang, Isaac L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kim, Taehyun; Kim, Jungsang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We present a model as well as experimental results for a surface electrode radiofrequency Paul trap that has a circular electrode geometry well suited for trapping single ions and two-dimensional planar ion crystals. The trap design is compatible with microfabrication and offers a simple method by which the height of the trapped ions above the surface may be changed in situ. We demonstrate trapping of single {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ions over an ion height range of 200-1000 {mu}m for several hours under Doppler laser cooling and use these to characterize the trap, finding good agreement with our model.

  18. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

  19. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

  20. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

  1. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

  2. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

  3. 30 CFR 71.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 71.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  4. 30 CFR 90.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 90.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  5. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 70.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  6. 30 CFR 90.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 90.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  7. 30 CFR 90.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 90.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  8. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 70.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  9. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 70.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  10. 30 CFR 90.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 90.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  11. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

  12. 30 CFR 71.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 71.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  13. 30 CFR 71.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 71.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  14. 30 CFR 71.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 71.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  15. 30 CFR 90.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 90.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  16. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 70.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  17. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 71.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 71.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  19. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

  20. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. 70.206...Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration...determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected...converting that concentration to an equivalent concentration as...

  1. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

  2. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

  3. D -split sequences and derived equivalences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Hu; Changchang Xi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the so-called D-split sequences and show that each D-split sequence gives rise to a derived equivalence via a tilting module. In particular, we obtain derived equivalences from Auslander–Reiten sequences via BB-tilting modules (or from n-almost split sequences via n-BB-tilting modules), and Auslander–Reiten triangles. Further, we recover n-almost split sequences from n-BB-tilting modules over n-Auslander algebras.

  4. Equivalence between XY and dimerized models

    SciTech Connect

    Campos Venuti, Lorenzo [Institute for Scientific Interchange, ISI Foundation, Viale S. Severo 65, I-10133 Torino (Italy); Roncaglia, Marco [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Institute for Scientific Interchange, ISI Foundation, Viale S. Severo 65, I-10133 Torino (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The spin-1/2 chain with XY anisotropic coupling in the plane and the XX isotropic dimerized chain are shown to be equivalent in the bulk. For finite systems, we prove that the equivalence is exact in given parity sectors, after taking care of the precise boundary conditions. The proof is given constructively by finding unitary transformations that map the models onto each other. Moreover, we considerably generalized our mapping and showed that even in the case of fully site-dependent couplings the XY chain can be mapped onto an XX model. This result has potential application in the study of disordered systems.

  5. Homological versus algebraic equivalence in a jacobian.

    PubMed

    Harris, B

    1983-02-01

    Let Z be an algebraic p cycle homologous to zero in an algebraic complex manifold V. Associated to Z is a linear function nu on holomorphic (2p + 1)-forms on V, modulo periods, that vanishes if Z is algebraically equivalent to zero in V. I give a formula for nu for the case of V the jacobian of an algebraic curve C and Z=C - C' (C' = "inverse" of C') in terms of iterated integrals of holomorphic 1-forms on C. If C is the degree 4 Fermat curve, I use this formula to show that C - C' is not algebraically equivalent to zero. PMID:16593281

  6. Homological versus algebraic equivalence in a jacobian

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Bruno

    1983-01-01

    Let Z be an algebraic p cycle homologous to zero in an algebraic complex manifold V. Associated to Z is a linear function ? on holomorphic (2p + 1)-forms on V, modulo periods, that vanishes if Z is algebraically equivalent to zero in V. I give a formula for ? for the case of V the jacobian of an algebraic curve C and Z=C - C? (C? = “inverse” of C?) in terms of iterated integrals of holomorphic 1-forms on C. If C is the degree 4 Fermat curve, I use this formula to show that C - C? is not algebraically equivalent to zero. PMID:16593281

  7. Grammatical equivalents of Palaeolithic tools: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Antonio B

    2010-09-01

    In this article, language is considered as a behavioural trait evolving by means of natural selection, in co-evolution with the Palaeolithic tool industries. This perspective enables an analysis of the grammatical and syntactic equivalents of the multiple abilities and effects of lithic tools across the successive modes of their development and consider their influence in intra-group communication and the social biology of the hominine species concerned. The hypothesis is that grammatical equivalents inherent to stone tool work guide the evolution of language. PMID:20502979

  8. All Quantum Adversary Methods are Equivalent

    E-print Network

    Robert Spalek; Mario Szegedy

    2006-02-01

    The quantum adversary method is one of the most versatile lower-bound methods for quantum algorithms. We show that all known variants of this method are equivalent: spectral adversary (Barnum, Saks, and Szegedy, 2003), weighted adversary (Ambainis, 2003), strong weighted adversary (Zhang, 2005), and the Kolmogorov complexity adversary (Laplante and Magniez, 2004). We also pa few new equivalent formulations of the method. This shows that there is essentially _one_ quantum adversary method. From our approach, all known limitations of these versions of the quantum adversary method easily follow.

  9. Homotropic Cooperativity from the Activation Pathway of the Allosteric Ligand-Responsive Regulatory Protein TRAP

    PubMed Central

    Kleckner, Ian R.; McElroy, Craig A.; Kuzmic, Petr; Gollnick, Paul; Foster, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    The trp RNA-binding Attenuation Protein (TRAP) assembles into an 11-fold symmetric ring that regulates transcription and translation of trp-mRNA in bacilli via heterotropic allosteric activation by the amino acid tryptophan (Trp). Whereas nuclear magnetic resonance studies have revealed that Trp-induced activation coincides with both ?s-ms rigidification and local structural changes in TRAP, the pathway of binding of the 11 Trp ligands to the TRAP ring remains unclear. Moreover, because each of eleven bound Trp molecules is completely surrounded by protein, its release requires flexibility of Trp-bound (holo) TRAP. Here, we used stopped-flow fluorescence to study the kinetics of Trp binding by Bacillus stearothermophilus TRAP over a range of temperatures and we observed well-separated kinetic steps. These data were analyzed using non-linear least-squares fitting of several two- and three-step models. We found that a model with two binding steps best describes the data, although the structural equivalence of the binding sites in TRAP implies a fundamental change in the time-dependent structure of the TRAP rings upon Trp binding. Application of the two binding step model reveals that Trp binding is much slower than the diffusion limit, suggesting a gating mechanism that depends on the dynamics of apo TRAP. These data also reveal that Trp dissociation from the second binding mode is much slower than after the first Trp binding mode, revealing insight into the mechanism for positive homotropic allostery, or cooperativity. Temperature dependent analyses reveal that both binding modes imbue increases in bondedness and order toward a more compressed active state. These results provide insight into mechanisms of cooperative TRAP activation, and underscore the importance of protein dynamics for ligand binding, ligand release, protein activation, and allostery. PMID:24224873

  10. Harrison's criterion, Witt equivalence and reciprocity equivalence N. Grenier-Boley*

    E-print Network

    Harrison's criterion, Witt equivalence and reciprocity equivalence's criterion characterizes the isomorphy of the Witt rings o* *f two fields in terms of properties for the isomorphism of Witt groups of hermitian forms over certai* *n algebras with involution. In the cases where

  11. Harrison's criterion, Witt equivalence and reciprocity equivalence N. GrenierBoley #

    E-print Network

    Harrison's criterion, Witt equivalence and reciprocity equivalence N. Grenier­Boley # February 5, 2006 Abstract. Harrison's criterion characterizes the isomorphy of the Witt rings of two fields­ acterizations for the isomorphism of Witt groups of hermitian forms over certain algebras with involution

  12. Harrison's criterion, Witt equivalence and reciprocity equivalence N. Grenier-Boley

    E-print Network

    Harrison's criterion, Witt equivalence and reciprocity equivalence N. Grenier-Boley February 5, 2006 Abstract. Harrison's criterion characterizes the isomorphy of the Witt rings of two fields- acterizations for the isomorphism of Witt groups of hermitian forms over certain algebras with involution

  13. Collisional activation with random noise in ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Glish, G.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Random noise applied to the end caps of a quadrupole ion trap is shown to be an effective means for the collisional activation of trapped ions independent of mass/charge ratio and number of ions. This technique is compared and contrasted with conventional single-frequency collisional activation for the molecular ion of N,N-dimethylaniline, protonated cocaine, the molecular anion of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, and doubly protonated neuromedin U-8. Collisional activation with noise tends to produce more extensive fragmentation than the conventional approach due to the fact that product ions are also kinetically excited in the noise experiment. The efficiency of the noise experiment in producing detectable product ions relative to the conventional approach ranges from being equivalent to being a factor of 3 less efficient. Furthermore, discrimination against low mass/charge product ions is apparent in the data from multiply charged biomolecules. Nevertheless, collisional activation with random noise provides a very simple means for overcoming problems associated with the dependence of single-frequency collisional activation on mass/charge ratio and the number of ions in the ion trap. 45 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Prairie Dog Released from Trap

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A prairie dog returns to its burrow in Wind Cave National Park after scientists free it from a trap. The animal is part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). This prairie dog was previously tagged, and its blood, hair, and whisker samp...

  15. Charge Trapping in Ferroelectric Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Butenko

    2009-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on anomalous behavior of absorption currents in PVDF during the stepwise increase of the voltage applied through a corona. These results, supplemented with the dynamics of the time constant of the electret potential decay are consistent with a hypothesis assuming deep trapping of the charge carriers during the polarization buildup in ferroelectric polymers. Model calculations are

  16. Trapped xenon in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavielle, Bernard; Marti, Kurt

    1992-12-01

    A trapped component of heavy noble gates representing a distinct solar system (presumably asteroid belt) reservoir is known to be concentrated in carbonaceous carriers of chondritic meteorites. The isotopic signature of trapped Xe in separates of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale (FV) was determined by combusting its carrier phases at 600 C in oxygen, discriminating against in situ produced nucleogenic components which are released above 600 C. The isotopic abundances of FV combustion-Xe (FVC-Xe) are compared to signatures of bulk trapped Xe in chondritic meteorites. We conclude that FVC-Xe represents the predominant trapped component in ordinary chondrites (OC) for which we adopt the term OC-Xe. Its isotopic signature differs from Xe in ureilites, in 'average carbonaceous chondrites', in earth's atmosphere, and in the solar wind. Additional minor Xe components were identified in type 3 chondrites and in the metal phase of chondrites. We discuss relationships among solar system Xe reservoirs and show that OC-Xe signature is consistent with a mixture of HL-Xe with slightly mass fractionated solar-type Xe.

  17. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  18. Cellular Algebras: Inflations and Morita Equivalences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEFFEN KO; CHANGCHANG XI

    1999-01-01

    this paper is as follows: In section two we recall twoequivalent definitions of cellular. In section three we define inflations, and in section fourwe explain how to produce cellular algebras by inflations. Section five illustrates thisconstruction by examples from [6]. In section six we look at Morita equivalences whichare compatible with given involutory anti--automorphisms, and we prove some technicalresults about

  19. An operationalistic reformulation of Einstein's equivalence principle

    E-print Network

    Vladik Kreinovich; R. R. Zapatrin

    1997-05-30

    The Einstein's equivalence principle is formulated in terms of the accuracy of measurements and its dependence of the size of the area of measurement. It is shown that different refinements of the statement 'the spacetime is locally flat' lead to different conculsions about the spacetime geometry.

  20. SUPPORT FOR USEPA'S PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss recommended and new resources for the USEPA's Pathogen Equivalency Committee including: 1) Committee's creation in 1985 and its purpose 2) Drexel University Professor Chuck Haas' 2001 report (Assessment of the PEC Process) and its findings 3) NAS/NR...

  1. Restricted Frequency Inequality is equivalent to

    E-print Network

    in the system analysis and synthesis. In this paper it is shown that validity of a general FDI within". The equivalence between restricted FDI and restricted dissipativity is established for both continuous- time-Yakubovich-Popov- Zames FDI-LMI-passivity results to FDIs specified within restricted frequency ranges. I. INTRODUCTION

  2. Equivalence Postulate and Quantum Origin of Gravitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Matone; G. Galilei

    2000-01-01

    We suggest that quantum mechanics and gravity are intimately related. In particular, we investigate the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the case of two free particles and show that the quantum potential, which is attractive, may generate the gravitational potential. The investigation, related to the formulation of quantum mechanics based on the equivalence postulate, is based on the analysis of the

  3. Identifiability and Equivalence of GLLIRM Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revuelta, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM) is a linearly constrained nominal categories model (NCM) that computes the scale and intercept parameters for categories as a weighted sum of basic parameters. This paper addresses the problems of the identifiability of the basic parameters and the equivalence between different GLLIRM…

  4. Equivalence of energy methods in stability theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petre Birtea; Mircea Puta

    2007-01-01

    We will prove the equivalence of three methods, the so called energy methods, in order to establish the stability of an equilibrium point for a dynamical system. We will illustrate by examples that this result simplifies enormously the amount of computations especially when the stability cannot be decided with one of the three methods.

  5. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  6. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Virtual Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-04-03

    This virtual lab simulates the lab in which students repeatedly drop metal shot through a cardboard tube, but without the inaccuracies that often plague the traditional lab. Students first verify the principle of the mechanical equivalence of heat, then use it to calculate the specific heat of different metals. A printable lab guide is included.

  7. Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)

  8. AN UPDATE ON TECHNOLOGIES SEEKING PFRP EQUIVALENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will: 1) Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC), 2) Review the PEC's current membership (of 10), 3) Discuss how a typical application is evaluated, 4) Note where information can be found by those interested in applying to the PEC, 5) List...

  9. Learning a Mahalanobis Metric from Equivalence Constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aharon Bar-Hillel; Tomer Hertz; Noam Shental; Daphna Weinshall

    2005-01-01

    Many learning algorithms use a metric defined over the input space as a principal tool, and their performance critically depends on the quality of this metric. We address the problem of learning metrics using side-information in the form of equivalence constraints. Unlike labels, we demonstrate that this type of side-information can sometimes be automatically obtained without the need of human

  10. TRANSFER EQUIVALENCY WORKSHEET UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN COLLEGES

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    OF WISCONSIN-MILWAUKEE PECK SCHOOL OF THE ARTS (PSOA): FILM Major Options: Film BFA: Film, Video, Animation & New Genres http://www4.uwm.edu/psoa/film/ General Education Requirements UWM Equivalent Required not offer film courses that transfer into UWM's Film program. Due to the specificity of courses, students

  11. Containment and equivalence for an XPath fragment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerome Miklau; Dan Suciu

    2002-01-01

    XPath is a simple language for navigating an XML document and selecting a set of element nodes. XPath expressions are used to query XML data, describe key constraints, express transformations, and reference elements in remote documents. This paper studies the containment and equivalence problems for a fragment of the XPath query language, with applications in all these contexts.In particular, we

  12. Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups. ?? 1960.

  13. Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Pommer; I. A. Breger

    1960-01-01

    By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups.

  14. Hematogenous Osteomyelitis of Metaphyseal-equivalent Locations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE W. NIXON

    1978-01-01

    Flat and irregular bones have anatomic subdivisions com- parable to long bones. This concept is useful in the radio- graphic evaluation of solitary bone lesions. Areas adjacent to cartilage are metaphyseal-equivalent locations. Prior to skel- etal maturation, metaphyseal-type vascular anatomy predis- poses these sites to Involvement by hematogenous osteo- myelltis. Approximately 30% of cases of hematogenous osteo- myelltls affect these

  15. I. INTRODUCTION Processor Equivalence for Daisy

    E-print Network

    Robertazzi, Thomas G.

    I. INTRODUCTION Processor Equivalence for Daisy Chain Load Sharing Processors THOMAS G. ROBERTAZZI, Senior Member, IEEE SUNY at Stony Brook A linear daisy chain of processors where processor load of the minimal time solution, a simple method to determine when to distribute load for linear daisy chain

  16. Equivalent Linear Models to Reduce Computations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Henderson

    1985-01-01

    Any linear model can be expressed as many different linear models, all of which yield identical first and second moments of the data vector. The models of such a set are defined as linearly equivalent. As a consequence, best linear unbiased estimators and best linear unbiased pre- dictors derived from one model can be converted by simple linear transforma- tions

  17. The Common Denominator: Equivalent Residential Units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Woodcock

    1984-01-01

    The Prince William County (Va.) Service Authority is basing both variable and fixed revenues for water and sewer services on a factor derived from the historical average daily water usage of single-family residences. A schedule of equivalent water units relates types of commercial and public facilities to the average usage of a single-family residence. The schedule is applied to initial

  18. TRANSFER EQUIVALENCY WORKSHEET UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN COLLEGES

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    manner. For more information on course equivalencies, visit the UW System Transfer Information System OF WISCONSIN-MILWAUKEE PECK SCHOOL OF THE ARTS (PSOA): INTER-ARTS Tracks: Dual Degree (choose two focus areas Diversity Satisfied? Yes No // Foreign Language Satisfied? Yes No SUBTOTAL 30 Additional Information

  19. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M.; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g.,…

  20. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...permitted where the alternative designs and technologies used will provide substantially equivalent or greater access to and usability of the vehicle. Departures are to be considered on a case-by-case basis under procedures set forth in § 37.7 of...

  1. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...permitted where the alternative designs and technologies used will provide substantially equivalent or greater access to and usability of the vehicle. Departures are to be considered on a case-by-case basis under procedures set forth in § 37.7 of...

  2. Testing of the Modal Dynamic Equivalents Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Price; E. M. Gulachenski; P. Kundur; F. J. Lange; G. C. Loehr; B. A. Roth; R. F. Silva

    1978-01-01

    Several techniques have been proposed in the literature for constructing dynamic equivalents of power systems for use in stability studies. These techniques exist primarily as research tools and their applicability for use in large scale production studies has not been clearly established. One of the techniques that appears to be promising is the 'modal analysis' approach developed by the General

  3. Fiber optic integration in planar ion traps

    E-print Network

    George, Elizabeth Marie

    2008-01-01

    Atomic ion traps are are excellent tools in atomic physics for studying single ions. Accurate measurement of the ion's electronic state in these ion traps is required by both atomic clocks and quantum computation. Quantum ...

  4. Inertial measurement via dynamics of trapped particles

    E-print Network

    Post, E. Rehmi, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    We describe theoretical and practical aspects of the particle trap as an inertial sensor. The insight motivating this approach is that a trapped particle acts like a mass on a spring, but the restoring forces are provided ...

  5. Surface-electrode point Paul trap

    E-print Network

    Chuang, Isaac L.

    We present a model as well as experimental results for a surface electrode radiofrequency Paul trap that has a circular electrode geometry well suited for trapping single ions and two-dimensional planar ion crystals. The ...

  6. 50 CFR 697.27 - Trap transferability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...granted access into multiple management areas, the recipient may elect any and all management areas for which the traps...in the involved lobster management area. No participant...Commission's Trap Tag Database. NMFS will analyze...

  7. Task Performance & Eye Activity 1 Task Performance and Eye Activity

    E-print Network

    Makeig, Scott

    Text word count: 6167 Number of references: 32 Number of tables: 1 Number of figures: 6 Key words of this study was to examine oculomotor behavioral changes while subjects performed auditory and driving tasks. Methods: Thirteen participants completed three 10-minute tasks consisting of driving only, the Paced

  8. Independent vs. Integrated Writing Tasks: A Comparison of Task Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia

    2010-01-01

    As the field of second language writing embraces the authenticity and meaningfulness of connecting writing with other skills, language teachers and testers require greater understanding of how writers respond to as well as compose for integrated tasks. Research on integrated tasks is critical in highlighting how integration impacts students and…

  9. TaskArchitect: taking the work out of task analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Stuart; Richard Penn

    2004-01-01

    This paper takes a pragmatic approach to the design of a task analysis support tool. Instead of proposing a new approach to analysis, it looks at the common requirements for providing support to a wide range of task analysis practitioners, each applying their own style of analysis. The paper describes the range of activities undertaken when practicing what is commonly

  10. 77 FR 56845 - Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ...Prevention Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...next meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force is independent and...

  11. Hypercube matrix computation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calalo, Ruel H.; Imbriale, William A.; Jacobi, Nathan; Liewer, Paulett C.; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Lyons, James R.; Manshadi, Farzin; Patterson, Jean E.

    1988-01-01

    A major objective of the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to investigate the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large-scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Three scattering analysis codes are being implemented and assessed on a JPL/California Institute of Technology (Caltech) Mark 3 Hypercube. The codes, which utilize different underlying algorithms, give a means of evaluating the general applicability of this parallel architecture. The three analysis codes being implemented are a frequency domain method of moments code, a time domain finite difference code, and a frequency domain finite elements code. These analysis capabilities are being integrated into an electromagnetics interactive analysis workstation which can serve as a design tool for the construction of antennas and other radiating or scattering structures. The first two years of work on the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort is summarized. It includes both new developments and results as well as work previously reported in the Hypercube Matrix Computation Task: Final Report for 1986 to 1987 (JPL Publication 87-18).

  12. Task Models in the Digital Ocean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Task Model is a description of each task in a workflow. It defines attributes associated with that task. The creation of task models becomes increasingly important as the assessment tasks become more complex. Explicitly delineating the impact of task variables on the ability to collect evidence and make inferences demands thoughtfulness from…

  13. instructions HisTrap FF crude,

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    · p1 instructions HisTrap FF crude, 1 ml and 5 ml i 11-0012-38 Edition AA HisTrapTM FF crude, such as degradation and oxidation of sensitive target proteins, and is therefore of great importance. HisTrap FF crude properties HisTrap FF crude 1-ml and 5-ml columns are prepacked with the affinity medium Ni Sepharose 6 Fast

  14. Note: Toward multiple addressable optical trapping

    PubMed Central

    Faustov, Alexei R.; Webb, Michael R.; Walt, David R.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a setup for addressable optical trapping in which a laser source is focused on a digital micromirror device and generates an optical trap in a microfluidic cell. In this paper, we report a proof-of-principle single beam?single micromirror?single three-dimensional trap arrangement that should serve as the basis for a multiple-trap instrument. PMID:20192526

  15. Multiple trapping model: Approximate and exact solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, V. I.; Iovu, M. S.; Rudenko, A. I.; Shutov, S. D.

    1987-05-01

    Approximate methods of analysis of the multiple trapping model for amorphous semiconductors, which is based on the concept of demarcation energy between the two fractions of shallow and deep traps, are comparatively considered. The necessity is shown to take into account the real trap energy distribution function to obtain the results adequate to exact analytical solution of the problem.

  16. Planar ion trap geometry for microfabrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Madsen; W. K. Hensinger; D. Stick; J. A. Rabchuk; C. Monroe

    2004-01-01

    We describe a novel high aspect ratio radiofrequency linear ion trap geometry that is amenable to modern microfabrication techniques. The ion trap electrode structure consists of a pair of stacked conducting cantilevers resulting in confining fields that take the form of fringe fields from parallel plate capacitors. The confining potentials are modeled both analytically and numerically. This ion trap geometry

  17. The Microeconomics of Poverty Traps in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Chavas; Hector J. Villarreal

    2005-01-01

    Macroeconomists, development scholars, and policy makers have long recognized the importance of poverty traps as a mayor cause of persistent inequality and a serious limitation to growth. A poverty trap may be defined as a threshold level below which individuals or households will not increase their well-being despite the conditions of the economy. While the importance of poverty traps is

  18. Laser cooling of trapped ions Jurgen Eschner

    E-print Network

    Blatt, Rainer

    Laser cooling of trapped ions Ju¨rgen Eschner Institut fu¨ r Experimentalphysik, Universita Received November 12, 2002; revised manuscript received December 4, 2002 Trapped and laser-cooled ions, and for quantum information processing. Therefore laser cooling of trapped ions is reviewed, the current state

  19. Microchip-Based Trapped-Atom Clocks

    E-print Network

    Vladan Vuletic; Ian D. Leroux; Monika H. Schleier-Smith

    2011-04-20

    This is a chapter of a recently published book entitled Atom Chips, edited by Jakob Reichel and Vladan Vuletic. The contents of this chapter include: Basic Principles; Atomic-Fountain versus Trapped-Atom Clocks; Optical-Transition Clocks versus Microwave Clocks; Clocks with Magnetically Trapped Atoms--Fundamental Limits and Experimental Demonstrations; Readout in Trapped-Atom Clocks; and Spin Squeezing.

  20. Electron EDM Search with Trapped Molecular Ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell Stutz; Huanqian Loh; Laura Sinclair; Eric Cornell

    2008-01-01

    A sample of trapped molecular ions offers unique possibilities to search for a permanent electron electric dipole moment (EDM). Specifically, we plan to perform this search using the unpaired electron spins in the ^3delta1 state of trapped HfF^+ molecular ions. The ions will be confined in a linear RF Paul trap, allowing for long electron spin coherence times for increased

  1. Infrared frequency standard using electrically trapped molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masatoshi Kajita

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of developing a frequency standard using molecular vibrational transition frequencies, which are useful in optical communications. Cold molecules (<300muK) are trapped by microwave or infrared laser light, whose frequency is chosen so that the Stark shift on the transition frequency is significantly reduced. Microwave trapping is much more advantageous than infrared trapping for measuring the

  2. Planar Electric Trap for Neutral Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Morinaga; Tetsuo Kishimoto

    2009-01-01

    A new geometry to trap neutral particles with an ac electric field using a simple electrode structure is described. In this geometry, all electrodes are placed on a single chip plane, while particles are levitated above the chip. This enables easy construction of the trap and good optical access to the trap.

  3. Modelling of Charge Trapping/De-trapping Induced Voltage Instability in High-k Gate Dielectrics

    E-print Network

    1 Modelling of Charge Trapping/De-trapping Induced Voltage Instability in High-k Gate Dielectrics the applicability of the introduced methodology by profiling the initially present and stress-induced defects in a 1 nm SiO2/3 nm HfSiO dielectric stack. Index Terms--trapping and de-trapping induced voltage

  4. Performance of low pressure tissue equivalent chambers and a new method for parameterizing the dose equivalent

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, Y.; Vasilik, D.G.; Brake, R.J.; Erkkila, B.H.; Littlejohn, G.J.

    1986-09-01

    The performance of spherical tissue equivalent chambers with equivalent diameters between 0.5 and 2..mu.. was tested experimentally using monoenergetic and polyenergetic neutron sources in the energy region of 10 keV to 14.5 MeV. Theoretical calculations were performed in order to obtain a simple algorithm for deriving the dose equivalent from the measured data. The algorithm relates the number of recoil particles to the dose equivalent, rather than having a one-to-one correspondence between the lineal energy and the linear energy transfer of the recoil particles. The calculations took into account neutron interactions with hydrogen atoms in the chamber wall as well as in the gas, and also the finite energy resolution determined by both the detector and the electronic system. Qualitatively, the calculations well dscribe the experimental results. The algorithm that was developed determines the neutron dose equivalent, from the data of the 0.5..mu.. chamber, to better than +-20% over the energy range of 30 keV to 14.5 MeV. The same algorithm also determines the dose equivalent from the data of the 2..mu.. chamber to better than +-20% over the energy of 70 keV to 14.5 MeV. The efficiency of the chambers is low and has an average value of 330 counts per mrem, or equivalently about 0.2 c/s per mrem/h. This efficiency enables the measurement of dose equivalent rates only above 100 mrem/h for an integration period of 3 seconds. However, integrated dose equivalents can be mesured as low as 0.1 mrem.

  5. Solar energy trapping with modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demésy, Guillaume; John, Sajeev

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate the efficacy of nanostructured thin film silicon solar cells to trap and absorb approximately 75% of all sunlight incident (400 nm-1200 nm) with an equivalent bulk thickness of only 1 micron of silicon. This is achieved by sculpting the collection zone into a three-dimensional, simple-cubic-symmetry, photonic crystal consisting of modulated silicon nanowires embedded in SiO2 and sitting on a quartz substrate with no metallic mirrors. A specific modulation of the radius of nanowires provides antireflection, strong light trapping, and back-reflection mechanisms in targeted spectral regions. This modulation is linear at the top of the nano-rods leading to nanocones at the solar cell to air boundary. These silicon nanocones are very good absorbers at short wavelengths and act as broadband coupler to a light-trapping region below at longer wavelengths. In the light trapping region the modulation is periodic to form a simple cubic photonic crystal exhibiting a broad spectrum of strong parallel interface refraction resonances. Here, light incident from most angles is deflected into slow group velocity modes with energy flow nearly parallel to the interface, long dwell times, and strong light intensity enhancement (up to 150 times the incident intensity) in specific regions. Finally, a stronger and chirped modulation of the nanowire underneath provides back-reflection by means of a one-dimensional depth-dependent photonic stop-gap. The possibility of absorbing light at energies below the electronic band gap of silicon is illustrated using a graded index SixGe1-x alloy in the bottom section of each nanowire. Each nanowire is amenable to a radial P-N junction for proximal charge carrier separation and efficient collection of photo-generated current.

  6. TASK: Anarchy in the Artroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Cynthia; Van Patten, Kelda

    2012-01-01

    Most teenagers do not really like to be told what to do. For that matter, most adults don't either. This article discusses contemporary artist Oliver Herring's TASK, which is an opportunity for participants to bend or define the rules on their own terms. It is about choice, and, for many, it is a dream come true. TASK is controlled chaos that can…

  7. Typist: Task List Competency Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Instructional Materials Center, White Bear Lake.

    One of 12 in the secretarial/clerical area, this booklet for the vocational instructor contains a job description for the typist, a task list of areas of competency, an occupational tasks competency record (suggested as replacement for the traditional report card), a list of industry representatives and educators involved in developing the…

  8. Receptionist: Task List Competency Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Instructional Materials Center, White Bear Lake.

    One of a series of 12 in the secretarial/clerical area, this booklet for the vocational instructor contains a job description for the receptionist, a task list of areas of competency, an occupational tasks competency record (suggested as replacement for the traditional report card), a list of industry representatives and educators involved in…

  9. Decision paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  10. Electricity Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in electricity. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 10 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential electrician apprentice, material handler/supply clerk, maintenance electrician apprentice,…

  11. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  12. What Makes a Rich Task?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Pete

    2009-01-01

    A common view seems to be emerging in the mathematics education world at the moment that the development and use of "rich tasks" is a good thing; a "right thing" to do. There are many examples of these "rich tasks" and teachers are encouraged to use them whenever they can. Professional learners don't just accept this uncritically, but question…

  13. Representations in Distributed Cognitive Tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiajie Zhang; Donald A. Norman

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we propose a theoretical frame- work of distributed representations and a methodology of representational analysis for the study of distributed cognitive tasksÑtasks that require the processing of information distributed across the internal mind and the external envi- ronment. The basic principle of distributed rep- resentations is that the representational system of a distributed cognitive task is a

  14. Internet Engineering Task Force INTERNETDRAFT

    E-print Network

    Schulzrinne, Henning

    ] Internet New York ITG L.A. ITG Figure 1: Internet Telephony Gateway In this application, the InternetInternet Engineering Task Force INTERNET­DRAFT Audio­Video Transport Working Group J. Rosenberg is an Internet­Draft. Internet­Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its

  15. Printing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 10 occupations in the printing series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  16. Conjugacy and equivalence of weighted automata and functional transducers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Conjugacy and equivalence of weighted automata and functional transducers Marie-Pierre B´eal1 equivalent K-automata are conjugate to a third one, when K is equal to B, N, Z, or any (skew) field In a recent paper ([1]), we have studied the equivalence of Z-automata. This equivalence is known

  17. Study on charge trap distribution in LLDPE by photo-stimulated discharge current

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhien Zhu; Yewen Zhang; Zhenlian An; Feihu Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The method of the photo-stimulated discharge current (PSDC) for measuring trap energy levels in dielectrics has received considerable attention in the recent past. It is the optical equivalent of TSDC but much more powerful than TSDC. In this paper, the films of LLDPE are charged either with DC high voltage or in a point-to-plane corona discharge. The experimental results show

  18. Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kirste, Moritz; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Sartakov, Boris G. [General Physics Institute, RAS, Vavilov Street 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    Nonadiabatic transitions are known to be major loss channels for atoms in magnetic traps but have thus far not been experimentally reported upon for trapped molecules. We have observed and quantified losses due to nonadiabatic transitions for three isotopologues of ammonia in electrostatic traps by comparing the trapping times in traps with a zero and a nonzero electric field at the center. Nonadiabatic transitions are seen to dominate the overall loss rate even for the present samples that are at relatively high temperatures of 30 mK. It is anticipated that losses due to nonadiabatic transitions in electric fields are omnipresent in ongoing experiments on cold molecules.

  19. Simple analytic potentials for linear ion traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, G. R.; Prestage, J. D.; Maleki, L.

    1989-01-01

    A simple analytical model was developed for the electric and ponderomotive (trapping) potentials in linear ion traps. This model was used to calculate the required voltage drive to a mercury trap, and the result compares well with experiments. The model gives a detailed picture of the geometric shape of the trapping potenital and allows an accurate calculation of the well depth. The simplicity of the model allowed an investigation of related, more exotic trap designs which may have advantages in light-collection efficiency.

  20. A collapsible trap for capturing ruffe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Andrew J.; Czypinski, Gary D.; Selgeby, James H.

    1998-01-01

    A modified version of the Windermere trap was designed, constructed, and tested for its effectiveness in capturing ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus. The inexpensive, lightweight, collapsible trap was easily deployed and retrieved from a small boat. Field tests conducted at the St. Louis River estuary in western Lake Superior in spring 1995 and 1996 indicated that the trap was effective in capturing ruffe. Proportions of the ruffe in trap and bottom trawl catches were similar in 1995 and 1996. This trap could be a useful tool in surveillance, monitoring, or control programs for ruffe or similar species, either to augment existing sampling programs or especially in situations where gillnetting or bottom trawling are not feasible.

  1. Electrodynamic trap for neutral polar particles

    SciTech Connect

    Bluemel, R. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459-0155 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    A superposition of inhomogeneous static and rapidly oscillating electric fields is capable of trapping neutral particles with a permanent electric dipole moment. Detailed numerical simulations prove the validity and stability of our trapping scheme. Thin rods of barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) are presented as an example for trapping on the macroscale. HC{sub 17}N, a polar molecule of astrophysical significance, is presented as an example for trapping on the microscale. For HC{sub 17}N and the parameters chosen, the depth of the trap is 40 mK.

  2. Fucoidan Promotes the Reconstruction of Skin Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu Seok; Li, Hailan; Balcos, Marie Carmel; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of fucoidan on the proliferation of fibroblasts and the reconstruction of a skin equivalent (SE). Fucoidan significantly stimulated the proliferation of CCD-25Sk human fibroblasts and Western blot analysis demonstrated that fucoidan markedly increased the expression of cyclin D1 and decreased the expression of p27. Fucoidan was used to reconstruct SE. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the addition of fucoidan to dermal equivalents increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p63. In addition, expression of ?6-integrin was significantly increased by fucoidan, whereas expression of ?1-integrin, type 1 collagen, elastin, fibronectin did not markedly change. These results suggest that fucoidan has positive effects on epidermal reconstruction and will therefore be beneficial in the reconstruction of SE. PMID:25177165

  3. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equivalent resistance of nontrivial electrical circuits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of the electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. We then derive a closed-form expression for the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. Additional proofs and technical details are provided in appendices.

  4. Fucoidan promotes the reconstruction of skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu Seok; Li, Hailan; Balcos, Marie Carmel; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Park, Kyoung-Chan; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2014-08-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of fucoidan on the proliferation of fibroblasts and the reconstruction of a skin equivalent (SE). Fucoidan significantly stimulated the proliferation of CCD-25Sk human fibroblasts and Western blot analysis demonstrated that fucoidan markedly increased the expression of cyclin D1 and decreased the expression of p27. Fucoidan was used to reconstruct SE. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the addition of fucoidan to dermal equivalents increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p63. In addition, expression of ?6-integrin was significantly increased by fucoidan, whereas expression of ?1-integrin, type 1 collagen, elastin, fibronectin did not markedly change. These results suggest that fucoidan has positive effects on epidermal reconstruction and will therefore be beneficial in the reconstruction of SE. PMID:25177165

  5. Hybrid light trapping structures in thin-film silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yanpeng; Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Wen; Yang, Tianshu; Yang, Fuhua

    2014-07-01

    Enhancing light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells is important for improving efficiency and reducing cost. We introduce a hybrid light trapping structure, where front grating and backside Ag nanoparticles are optimized for antireflection and light trapping. The solar cell with this optimized structure yields a photocurrent of 29.7 mA cm-2 within an active layer equivalent thickness of 1 ?m, close to the theoretical limit. This approach is robust to various incident angles and is applicable to different thicknesses in the range of a few micrometers. Two other similar hybrid structures are also proved to be effective light trapping schemes. Moreover, we illustrate that the device implementation could be realized in low-cost technologies.

  6. Performance Enhancements Under Dual-task Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, A. F.; Wickens, C. D.; Donchin, E.

    1984-01-01

    Research on dual-task performance has been concerned with delineating the antecedent conditions which lead to dual-task decrements. Capacity models of attention, which propose that a hypothetical resource structure underlies performance, have been employed as predictive devices. These models predict that tasks which require different processing resources can be more successfully time shared than tasks which require common resources. The conditions under which such dual-task integrality can be fostered were assessed in a study in which three factors likely to influence the integrality between tasks were manipulated: inter-task redundancy, the physical proximity of tasks and the task relevant objects. Twelve subjects participated in three experimental sessions in which they performed both single and dual-tasks. The primary task was a pursuit step tracking task. The secondary tasks required the discrimination between different intensities or different spatial positions of a stimulus. The results are discussed in terms of a model of dual-task integrality.

  7. Capacitors with low equivalent series resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, Patrick Franz (Inventor); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (Inventor); Fuge, Mark (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) in a coin or button cell configuration having low equivalent series resistance (ESR). The capacitor comprises mesh or other porous metal that is attached via conducting adhesive to one or both the current collectors. The mesh is embedded into the surface of the adjacent electrode, thereby reducing the interfacial resistance between the electrode and the current collector, thus reducing the ESR of the capacitor.

  8. Transfer of stable equivalences of Morita type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengyong Pan; Changchang Xi

    2009-01-01

    Let $A$ and $B$ be finite-dimensional $k$-algebras over a field $k$ such that $A\\/\\\\rad(A)$ and $B\\/\\\\rad(B)$ are separable. In this note, we consider how to transfer a stable equivalence of Morita type between $A$ and $B$ to that between $eAe$ and $fBf$, where $e$ and $f$ are idempotent elements in $A$ and in $B$, respectively. In particular, if the Auslander

  9. Fuel equivalence ratio imaging for methane jets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Q. Ni; L. A. Melton

    1993-01-01

    A 2-D fuel\\/oxygen equivalence ratio imaging system has been developed. The technique exploits the efficient quenching of the fluorescence of organic molecules by molecular oxygen in order to determine the fuel and oxygen partial pressures simultaneously. Following pulsed planar laser excitation of fluoranthene-a specially selected fluorescent dopant-two images of the fluorescence were recorded, with the second image being delayed by

  10. Grammatical equivalents of Palaeolithic tools: a hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio B. Vieira

    2010-01-01

    In this article, language is considered as a behavioural trait evolving by means of natural selection, in co-evolution with\\u000a the Palaeolithic tool industries. This perspective enables an analysis of the grammatical and syntactic equivalents of the\\u000a multiple abilities and effects of lithic tools across the successive modes of their development and consider their influence\\u000a in intra-group communication and the social

  11. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)

    1997-05-15

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

  12. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  13. Clustering in artificial categories: An equivalence analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Galizio; Katherine L. Stewart; Carol hPilgrim

    2001-01-01

    Category clustering is a robust finding in the free recall of familiar category members, but has rarely been studied with\\u000a artificial categories. In the present study, college students learned artificial categories via stimulus-equivalence methodology.\\u000a Arbitrary match-to-sample training with nonsense syllables established three interrelated conditional discriminations, and,\\u000a for most subjects, unreinforced test trials revealed the emergent stimulus-control relations considered to be

  14. On the equivalence theorem for integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikyan, A.; Pereira, E.; Rivelles, V. O.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the equivalence theorem for integrable systems using two formulations of the Alday–Arutyunov–Frolov model. We show that the S-matrix is invariant under the field transformation which reduces the nonlinear Dirac brackets of one formulation into the standard commutation relations in the second formulation. We also explain how to perform the direct diagonalization of the transformed Hamiltonian by constructing the states corresponding to self-adjoint extensions.

  15. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  16. Einstein's Apple: His First Principle of Equivalence

    E-print Network

    Engelbert L. Schucking; Eugene J. Surowitz

    2012-08-09

    After a historical discussion of Einstein's 1907 principle of equivalence, a homogeneous gravitational field in Minkowski spacetime is constructed. It is pointed out that the reference frames in gravitational theory can be understood as spaces with a flat connection and torsion defined through teleparallelism. This kind of torsion was introduced by Einstein in 1928. The concept of torsion is discussed through simple examples and some historical observations.

  17. Kinetic Energy and the Equivalence Principle

    E-print Network

    S. Carlip

    1999-09-03

    According to the general theory of relativity, kinetic energy contributes to gravitational mass. Surprisingly, the observational evidence for this prediction does not seem to be discussed in the literature. I reanalyze existing experimental data to test the equivalence principle for the kinetic energy of atomic electrons, and show that fairly strong limits on possible violations can be obtained. I discuss the relationship of this result to the occasional claim that ``light falls with twice the acceleration of ordinary matter.''

  18. High School Equivalency (TASCTM) Test Preparation

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    issues while preparing for your TASCTM exam. All of your TASCTM exam subject materials will be healthcare on the essay portion of the exam. HSE 00H Contextualized Healthcare/ High School Equivalency (T) $175 MonWed 6:30-10pm Jan 21-Apr 1 OR TueThur 6:30-10pm Jan 20-Mar 31 You will learn basic knowledge of healthcare

  19. Tachyon Physics with Trapped Ions

    E-print Network

    Lee, Tony E; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    It has been predicted that particles with imaginary mass, called tachyons, would be able to travel faster than the speed of light. So far, there has not been any experimental evidence for tachyons in either natural or engineered systems. Here, we propose how to experimentally simulate Dirac tachyons with trapped ions. Quantum measurement on a Dirac particle simulated by a trapped ion causes it to have an imaginary mass so that it may travel faster than the effective speed of light. We show that a Dirac tachyon must have spinor-motion entanglement in order to be superluminal. We also show that it exhibits significantly more Klein tunneling than a normal Dirac particle. We provide numerical simulations with realistic ion systems and show that our scheme is feasible with current technology.

  20. Tachyon Physics with Trapped Ions

    E-print Network

    Tony E. Lee; Unai Alvarez-Rodriguez; Xiao-Hang Cheng; Lucas Lamata; Enrique Solano

    2015-03-23

    It has been predicted that particles with imaginary mass, called tachyons, would be able to travel faster than the speed of light. So far, there has not been any experimental evidence for tachyons in either natural or engineered systems. Here, we propose how to experimentally simulate Dirac tachyons with trapped ions. Quantum measurement on a Dirac particle simulated by a trapped ion causes it to have an imaginary mass so that it may travel faster than the effective speed of light. We show that a Dirac tachyon must have spinor-motion entanglement in order to be superluminal. We also show that it exhibits significantly more Klein tunneling than a normal Dirac particle. We provide numerical simulations with realistic ion systems and show that our scheme is feasible with current technology.

  1. Sympathetic Crystallization of Trapped Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowe, P.; Hornekaer, L.; Brodersen, C.; Drewsen, M.; Hangst, J.S. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)] [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Schiffer, J.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    1999-03-01

    We have created multispecies Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap containing up to a few hundred ions of which more than 50{percent} were cooled only sympathetically through the Coulomb interaction with laser-cooled Mg{sup +} ions. In an extreme case, one laser-cooled ion maintained order in a 15thinspthinspion string. Ion species segregation was obtained by radiation pressure. Previous experiments and molecular dynamics simulations suggest the temperature is 10thinspthinspmK or lower. These results indicate that a wide range of atomic and molecular ions can be cooled and localized in linear Paul traps which is important for improvements in spectroscopic studies of such ions. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Trapping of radiation in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.E.; Alford, W.J.

    1995-06-01

    The authors analyze the problem of radiation trapping (imprisonment) by the method of Holstein. The process is described by an integrodifferential equation which shows that the effective radiative decay rate of the system depends on the size and the shape of the active medium. Holstein obtains a global decay rate for a particular geometry by assuming that the radiating excited species evolves into a steady state spatial mode. The authors derive a new approximation for the trapped decay which has a space dependent decay rate and is easy to implement in a detailed computer simulation of a plasma confined within an arbitrary geometry. They analyze the line shapes that are relevant to a near-atmospheric-pressure mixture of He and Xe. This line-shape analysis can be utilized in either the Holstein formulae or the space-dependent decay approximation.

  3. Dioxin equivalency: Challenge to dose extrapolation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.F. Jr.; Silkworth, J.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Extensive research has shown that all biological effects of dioxin-like agents are mediated via a single biochemical target, the Ah receptor (AhR), and that the relative biologic potencies of such agents in any given system, coupled with their exposure levels, may be described in terms of toxic equivalents (TEQ). It has also shown that the TEQ sources include not only chlorinated species such as the dioxins (PCDDs), PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs, but also non-chlorinated substances such as the PAHs of wood smoke, the AhR agonists of cooked meat, and the indolocarbazol (ICZ) derived from cruciferous vegetables. Humans have probably had elevated exposures to these non-chlorinated TEQ sources ever since the discoveries of fire, cooking, and the culinary use of Brassica spp. Recent assays of CYP1A2 induction show that these ``natural`` or ``traditional`` AhR agonists are contributing 50--100 times as much to average human TEQ exposures as do the chlorinated xenobiotics. Currently, the safe doses of the xenobiotic TEQ sources are estimated from their NOAELs and large extrapolation factors, derived from arbitrary mathematical models, whereas the NOAELs themselves are regarded as the safe doses for the TEQs of traditional dietary components. Available scientific data can neither support nor refute either approach to assessing the health risk of an individual chemical substance. However, if two substances be toxicologically equivalent, then their TEQ-adjusted health risks must also be equivalent, and the same dose extrapolation procedure should be used for both.

  4. Semantic relatedness for evaluation of course equivalencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Beibei

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the Brown corpus, or more recently, Wikipedia. This dissertation proposes two approaches to applying semantic relatedness to the problem of suggesting transfer course equivalencies. Two course descriptions are given as input to feed the proposed algorithms, which output a value that can be used to help determine if the courses are equivalent. The first proposed approach uses traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet and corpora for courses from multiple fields of study. The second approach uses Wikipedia, the openly-editable encyclopedia, and it focuses on courses from a technical field such as Computer Science. This work shows that it is promising to adapt semantic relatedness to the education field for matching equivalencies between transfer courses. A semantic relatedness measure using traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet performs relatively well on non-technical courses. However, due to the "knowledge acquisition bottleneck," such a resource is not ideal for technical courses, which use an extensive and growing set of technical terms. To address the problem, this work proposes a Wikipedia-based approach which is later shown to be more correlated to human judgment compared to previous work.

  5. TNT equivalency of M10 propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, F. L.; Price, P.

    1978-01-01

    Peak, side-on blast overpressure and scaled, positive impulse have been measured for M10 single-perforated propellant, web size 0.018 inches, using configurations that simulate the handling of bulk material during processing and shipment. Quantities of 11.34, 22.7, 45.4, and 65.8 kg were tested in orthorhombic shipping containers and fiberboard boxes. High explosive equivalency values for each test series were obtained as a function of scaled distance by comparison to known pressure, arrival time and impulse characteristics for hemispherical TNT surface bursts. The equivalencies were found to depend significantly on scaled distance, with higher values of 150-100 percent (pressure) and 350-125 percent (positive impulse) for the extremes within the range from 1.19 to 3.57 m/cube root of kg. Equivalencies as low as 60-140 percent (pressure) and 30-75 percent (positive impulse) were obtained in the range of 7.14 to 15.8 m/cube root of kg. Within experimental error, both peak pressure and positive impulse scaled as a function of charge weight for all quantities tested in the orthorhombic configuration.

  6. Measurement equivalence in mixed mode surveys

    PubMed Central

    Hox, Joop J.; De Leeuw, Edith D.; Zijlmans, Eva A. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys increasingly use mixed mode data collection (e.g., combining face-to-face and web) because this controls costs and helps to maintain good response rates. However, a combination of different survey modes in one study, be it cross-sectional or longitudinal, can lead to different kinds of measurement errors. For example, respondents in a face-to-face survey or a web survey may interpret the same question differently, and might give a different answer, just because of the way the question is presented. This effect of survey mode on the question-answer process is called measurement mode effect. This study develops methodological and statistical tools to identify the existence and size of mode effects in a mixed mode survey. In addition, it assesses the size and importance of mode effects in measurement instruments using a specific mixed mode panel survey (Netherlands Kinship Panel Study). Most measurement instruments in the NKPS are multi-item scales, therefore confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) will be used as the main analysis tool, using propensity score methods to correct for selection effects. The results show that the NKPS scales by and large have measurement equivalence, but in most cases only partial measurement equivalence. Controlling for respondent differences on demographic variables, and on scale scores from the previous uni-mode measurement occasion, tends to improve measurement equivalence, but not for all scales. The discussion ends with a review of the implications of our results for analyses employing these scales. PMID:25699002

  7. Measurement equivalence in mixed mode surveys.

    PubMed

    Hox, Joop J; De Leeuw, Edith D; Zijlmans, Eva A O

    2015-01-01

    Surveys increasingly use mixed mode data collection (e.g., combining face-to-face and web) because this controls costs and helps to maintain good response rates. However, a combination of different survey modes in one study, be it cross-sectional or longitudinal, can lead to different kinds of measurement errors. For example, respondents in a face-to-face survey or a web survey may interpret the same question differently, and might give a different answer, just because of the way the question is presented. This effect of survey mode on the question-answer process is called measurement mode effect. This study develops methodological and statistical tools to identify the existence and size of mode effects in a mixed mode survey. In addition, it assesses the size and importance of mode effects in measurement instruments using a specific mixed mode panel survey (Netherlands Kinship Panel Study). Most measurement instruments in the NKPS are multi-item scales, therefore confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) will be used as the main analysis tool, using propensity score methods to correct for selection effects. The results show that the NKPS scales by and large have measurement equivalence, but in most cases only partial measurement equivalence. Controlling for respondent differences on demographic variables, and on scale scores from the previous uni-mode measurement occasion, tends to improve measurement equivalence, but not for all scales. The discussion ends with a review of the implications of our results for analyses employing these scales. PMID:25699002

  8. Quantum formulation of the Einstein Equivalence Principle

    E-print Network

    Magdalena Zych; Caslav Brukner

    2015-02-03

    Validity of just a few physical conditions comprising the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP) suffices to ensure that gravity can be understood as space-time geometry. EEP is therefore subject to an ongoing experimental verification, with present day tests reaching the regime where quantum mechanics becomes relevant. Here we show that the classical formulation of the EEP does not apply in such a regime. The EEP requires equivalence between the total rest mass-energy of a system, the mass-energy that constitutes its inertia, and the mass-energy that constitutes its weight. In quantum mechanics internal energy is given by a Hamiltonian operator describing dynamics of internal degrees of freedom. We therefore introduce a quantum formulation of the EEP -- equivalence between the rest, inertial and gravitational internal energy operators. We show that the validity of the classical EEP does not imply the validity of its quantum formulation, which thus requires an independent experimental verification. We reanalyse some already completed experiments with respect to the quantum EEP and discuss to which extent they allow testing its various aspects.

  9. Equivalent gravity modes - An interim evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindzen, R. S.; Hong, S.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of the main solar semidiurnal tidal mode in a dissipative atmosphere is studied both in a rotating spherical atmosphere and by means of the equivalent gravity mode approximation. Coefficients are chosen to crudely simulate the effects of molecular viscosity and conductivity. Major findings are: (1) Below 130 km, where friction is unimportant, equivalent gravity mode results are, for all practical purposes, identical to those at the equator obtained from a spherical calculation. (2) Above 130 km amplitudes over the equator obtained from the spherical calculation are about 30 percent smaller than those obtained from the equivalent gravity mode calculations. Also, there is a 15 deg (1/2 hour) difference in phase. (3) The amplitude reduction over the equator, is associated with a broadening of the latitude distribution of amplitude for the oscillatory pressure and temperature fields within the thermosphere. There is also significant variation of phase with latitude within the thermosphere. Associated with the above variations are significant changes in the latitude distribution of horizontal velocity within the thermosphere.

  10. Trapper readies trap for lizard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    State-licensed animal trapper James Dean sets the open door of an animal trap on KSC. He hopes to catch a large monitor lizard spotted recently near S.R. 3, a route into the Center, by several area residents. The lizard is not a native of the area, and possibly a released pet. Dean is working with the cooperation of KSC and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

  11. Trapping waves in Earth's plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Eric O.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's magnetic field traps donut-shaped bands of radiation in a belt around the planet that react to solar eruptions by growing and shrinking. The Van Allen belts consist of two rings filled with particles from the solar wind and cosmic rays. Within the outer ring of the Van Allen belt sits the plasmasphere, which is the innermost part of the planet's magnetic field and home to low-energy charged particles.

  12. Deuteron-equivalent and phase-equivalent interactions within light nuclei

    E-print Network

    Shirokov, A M; Mazur, A I; Vary, J P; Maris, P

    2012-01-01

    We propose a particular case of phase-equivalent transformation (PET), a deuteron-equivalent transformation (DET-PET) which leaves unchanged not only scattering phase shifts and deuteron binding energy but also the deuteron wave function. We apply DET-PET to the $NN$ interaction JISP16 and discuss modifications of the scattering wave functions. We study the manifestation of DET-PET in the binding energies of $^3$H and $^4$He nuclei and their correlation (Tjon line).

  13. Origins of the equivalent circuit concept: the current-source equivalent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    The voltage-source equivalent was first derived by Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) in an 1853 paper. Exactly thirty years later in 1883, Leon Charles Thevenin (1857-1926) published the same result, apparently unaware of Helmholtz's work. The generality of the equivalent source network was not appreciated until forty-three years later. Then, in 1926, Edward Lawry Norton (1898-1983) wrote an internal Bell Laboratory

  14. Age and task difficulty differences in dual tasking using circle tracing and serial subtraction tasks.

    PubMed

    Vaportzis, Eleftheria; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Stout, Julie C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate age-related differences in dual task performance by using an upper limb proprioceptive task. Twenty-eight younger (18-30 years) and 28 older (>60 years) healthy adults performed circle tracing and serial subtraction tasks separately and concurrently. The tasks had two levels of difficulty: easy and hard. The circle tracing task included direct (easy) and indirect (hard) visual feedback conditions, and it was paired with serial subtraction by twos (easy) or threes (hard). We found that older adults were significantly slower than younger adults across all conditions and had significantly greater dual task costs when they performed circle tracing with easy serial subtraction. Higher levels of task difficulty were associated with slower speed in both groups. We found no age differences in accuracy. Participants either traded speed for accuracy or accuracy for speed regardless of age group. Overall, the findings suggest that speed and accuracy may be affected differently during dual tasking. In addition, older adults may rely more extensively on proprioceptive feedback to guide upper limb movement compared with younger adults. PMID:24136448

  15. Optical trapping of isolated mammalian chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibzadeh, Nima; Stilgoe, Alexander B.; Bui, Ann A. M.; Rocha, Yesenia; Cruz, Gladys; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Berns, Michael W.

    2014-09-01

    We have estimated the mitotic forces exerted on individual isolated mammalian chromosomes using optical trapping. The chromosomes were trapped by an optical tweezers system created by a continuous wave ytterbium laser at 1064 nm. Individual chromosomes were trapped at different in situ powers in the range of ?20-50 mW. The corresponding trapping forces were determined by a viscous drag method. In the range of laser powers used, the preliminary data show a linear relationship between the chromosome trapping forces and in situ powers. We have calculated the dimensionless trapping efficiency coefficient (Q) of the chromosomes at 1064 nm and the corresponding effects of trapping power on Q. The value of Q in our experiments was determined to be ?0.01. The results of this study validate optical tweezers as a non-invasive and precise technique to determine intracellular forces in general, and specifically, the spindle forces exerted on the chromosomes during cell division.

  16. Electrostatic trapping of metastable NH molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, Steven; Metsaelae, Markus; Zieger, Peter C.; Scharfenberg, Ludwig; Gilijamse, Joop J.; Meijer, Gerard; Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y. T. van de [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    We report on the Stark deceleration and electrostatic trapping of {sup 14}NH (a{sup 1}{delta}) radicals. In the trap, the molecules are excited on the spin-forbidden A{sup 3}{pi}<-a{sup 1}{delta} transition and detected via their subsequent fluorescence to the X{sup 3}{sigma}{sup -} ground state. The 1/e trapping time is 1.4{+-}0.1 s, from which a lower limit of 2.7 s for the radiative lifetime of the a{sup 1}{delta}, v=0, J=2 state is deduced. The spectral profile of the molecules in the trapping field is measured to probe their spatial distribution. Electrostatic trapping of metastable NH followed by optical pumping of the trapped molecules to the electronic ground state is an important step toward accumulation of these radicals in a magnetic trap.

  17. Hydrogen trapping in neutron-irradiated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atsumi, H.; Muhaimin, A.; Tanabe, T.; Shikama, T.

    2009-04-01

    Bulk hydrogen retention and the analysis of absorption kinetics have been studied on three brands of graphite irradiated with neutrons at various fluences. Two kinds of hydrogen trapping sites may exist and be additionally produced during irradiation: interstitial cluster loop edge sites (trap 1) and carbon dangling bonds at edge surfaces of crystallites (trap 2). Neutron irradiation preferably creates trap 2 sites at lower fluences and trap 1 sites at a higher fluence above 0.017 dpa. Trap 2 tends to be annealed out at high temperatures, although trap 1 is hardly decreased even at 1873 K. Diffusion coefficients of hydrogen are reduced for 1-2 orders of magnitude after neutron irradiation at 0.047 dpa, although the activation energy of hydrogen diffusion is kept nearly the same level to unirradiated samples.

  18. Plasma confinement with an RF trap

    SciTech Connect

    Nebel, R.A.; Finn, J.M.; Glasser, A.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A fusion device based on an RF trap is described. An RF trap combines the axial field of a Penning Trap with the pondermotive confinement of a Paul Trap. The pondermotive confinement is provided by standing electromagnetic waves in a resonant cavity, although driven electrostatic fields may also be employed if one wishes to operate at lower frequencies. The major advantage of this device is that the electrostatic breakdown problem for high energy Penning traps can be alleviated allowing one to utilize larger sizes and potentially higher fusion power densities than a standard Penning Trap. Also, multiple species can be confined and focused in this device permitting the utilization of advanced fuels in pure ion plasmas. The major disadvantage is that the device requires large standing wave energies which may lead to unacceptable wall dissipation. The equations describing the trap, spatial and temporal focusing criteria, and reactor embodiments of the device will be presented.

  19. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    E-print Network

    Mehta, K K; Bruzewicz, C D; Chuang, I L; Ram, R J; Sage, J M; Chiaverini, J

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This is the first demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware, in any modality, utilizing a commercial CMOS process, and it opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  20. Evaluation of trapping-web designs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukacs, P.M.; Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    The trapping web is a method for estimating the density and abundance of animal populations. A Monte Carlo simulation study is performed to explore performance of the trapping web for estimating animal density under a variety of web designs and animal behaviours. The trapping performs well when animals have home ranges, even if the home ranges are large relative to trap spacing. Webs should contain at least 90 traps. Trapping should continue for 5-7 occasions. Movement rates have little impact on density estimates when animals are confined to home ranges. Estimation is poor when animals do not have home ranges and movement rates are rapid. The trapping web is useful for estimating the density of animals that are hard to detect and occur at potentially low densities. ?? CSIRO 2005.

  1. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, K. K.; Eltony, A. M.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Chuang, I. L.; Ram, R. J.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  2. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Research Laboratory of Electronics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M., E-mail: jsage@ll.mit.edu; Chiaverini, J., E-mail: john.chiaverini@ll.mit.edu [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  3. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    E-print Network

    K. K. Mehta; A. M. Eltony; C. D. Bruzewicz; I. L. Chuang; R. J. Ram; J. M. Sage; J. Chiaverini

    2014-06-13

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This is the first demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware, in any modality, utilizing a commercial CMOS process, and it opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  4. ``Tack'' ion trap for efficient photon collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Gang; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Kurz, Nathan; Noel, Thomas; Wright, John; Blinov, Boris

    2011-06-01

    Efficient photon collection is essential for state detection and entanglement generation in trapped ion quantum computation. Compared with other popular approaches such as refractive optics and optical cavity, reflective optics provides simple solutions with broad optical band but no adverse effect to trapping. Here we present the design and operation of a novel ion trap that incorporates a high numerical aperture metallic spherical mirror as its RF trapping electrode, which enables up to 35% solid angle collection of trapped ion fluorescence. Its movable central needle-shaped electrode allows precise placement of the ion along the optical axis. We show a possible scheme to compensate the spherical mirror's large aberration. Owing to its simple design, the trap structure can be easily adapted for micro-fabrication and integrated into more complex ion trap architectures.

  5. Expectancy and Repetition in Task Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthruff, E.; Remington, R. W.; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We studied the mechanisms of task preparation using a design that pitted task expectancy against task repetition. In one experiment, two simple cognitive tasks were presented in a predictable sequence containing both repetitions and non-repetitions. The typical task sequence was AABBAABB. Occasional violations of this sequence allowed us to measure the effects of valid versus invalid expectancy. With this design, we were able to study the effects of task expectancy, task repetition, and interaction.

  6. Microscopic entropy of trapping horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iofa, Mikhail Z.

    2015-01-01

    In the Carlip-Majhi-Padmanabhan approach, we calculate the microscopic entropy of the trapping (apparent) horizon of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. We solve Killing equations for the t ,r part of the metric without fixing a priori the form of the scaling factor a (t ) which is determined from the requirement of consistency of the Killing equations. Further restrictions on the form of the Killing vector follow from the requirement that the Killing vector is null at the trapping horizon at all t . The r ,t part of the Killing vector extended by zero ? and ? components forms an approximate Killing vector in the vicinity of the horizon and satisfies the Killing equations at the horizon. Applying the technique used to calculate the microscopic entropy of the Killing horizons, we calculate the microscopic entropy of the trapping horizon. Using the explicit form of the Killing vector, we verify that the identities used in the calculation of the central term of the Virasoro algebra for the Killing horizons of black holes are valid in the present case.

  7. Resolving Task Rule Incongruence during Task Switching by Competitor Rule Suppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Dimov, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an…

  8. Materials processing in space programs tasks. [NASA research tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E.

    1981-01-01

    Active research tasks as of the end of fiscal year 1981 of the materials processing in space program, NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications are summarized to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program, its history, strategy, and overall goal are described the organizational structures and people involved are identified and a list of recent publications is given for each research task. Four categories: Crystal Growth; Solidification of Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluids, Transports, and Chemical Processes, and Ultrahigh Vacuum and Containerless Processing Technologies are used to group the tasks. Some tasks are placed in more than one category to insure complete coverage of each category.

  9. The Composite Insect Trap: An Innovative Combination Trap for Biologically Diverse Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Laura; Stehouwer, Rachel; Heberling, Jacob Mason; Shea, Katriona

    2011-01-01

    Documentation of insect diversity is an important component of the study of biodiversity, community dynamics, and global change. Accurate identification of insects usually requires catching individuals for close inspection. However, because insects are so diverse, most trapping methods are specifically tailored to a particular taxonomic group. For scientists interested in the broadest possible spectrum of insect taxa, whether for long term monitoring of an ecosystem or for a species inventory, the use of several different trapping methods is usually necessary. We describe a novel composite method for capturing a diverse spectrum of insect taxa. The Composite Insect Trap incorporates elements from four different existing trapping methods: the cone trap, malaise trap, pan trap, and flight intercept trap. It is affordable, resistant, easy to assemble and disassemble, and collects a wide variety of insect taxa. Here we describe the design, construction, and effectiveness of the Composite Insect Trap tested during a study of insect diversity. The trap catches a broad array of insects and can eliminate the need to use multiple trap types in biodiversity studies. We propose that the Composite Insect Trap is a useful addition to the trapping methods currently available to ecologists and will be extremely effective for monitoring community level dynamics, biodiversity assessment, and conservation and restoration work. In addition, the Composite Insect Trap will be of use to other insect specialists, such as taxonomists, that are interested in describing the insect taxa in a given area. PMID:21698160

  10. GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF PERFORMANCE OF A 2PRR PARALLEL MANIPULATOR FOR COOPERATIVE TASKS *

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    kinematic chain is considered as being equivalent to a redundant three degree-of-freedom manipulator. Then problem is solved for a 2PRR parallel manipulator which works in cooperation with a 1 degree-of-freedomGLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF PERFORMANCE OF A 2PRR PARALLEL MANIPULATOR FOR COOPERATIVE TASKS * Héctor A

  11. A Study of the Concurrent Validity of a Group Reasoning Test Built from Piaget's Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanich, Greg; And Others

    Researchers have attempted to develop paper and pencil Piagetian tests that yield results equivalent to manipulative Piagetian tasks and that can be administered in significantly less time. This study is an attempt to partially replicate and extend the findings of research by Paul Ankeny and Lyle Joyce who found significant positive correlations…

  12. How Cross-Language Similarity and Task Demands Affect Cognate Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Ton; Miwa, Koji; Brummelhuis, Bianca; Sappelli, Maya; Baayen, Harald

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how the cross-linguistic similarity of translation equivalents affects bilingual word recognition. Performing one of three tasks, Dutch-English bilinguals processed cognates with varying degrees of form overlap between their English and Dutch counterparts (e.g., "lamp-lamp" vs. "flood-vloed" vs. "song-lied"). In lexical…

  13. arXiv:0809.4368v1[quant-ph]25Sep2008 Quantum computing with trapped ions

    E-print Network

    Blatt, Rainer

    arXiv:0809.4368v1[quant-ph]25Sep2008 Quantum computing with trapped ions H. H¨affner a,b,c,d C. F 94720, USA Abstract Quantum computers hold the promise to solve certain computational task much more efficiently than classical computers. We review the recent experimental ad- vancements towards a quantum

  14. Nonspecificity and theory of mind: new evidence from a nonverbal false-sign task and children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Leekam, Susan R

    2014-06-01

    Understanding of false belief has long been considered to be a crucial aspect of "theory of mind" that can be explained by a domain-specific mechanism. We argue against this claim using new evidence from a nonverbal false representation task (false-sign task) with typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Experiments 1 and 2 showed that typically developing children (mean age=62.67months) were equivalent in their performance across nonverbal and verbal forms of both the false-belief and false-sign tasks. Results for these two misrepresentation tasks differed from the results of an outdated representation task ("false"-photograph task). Experiment 3 showed that children with ASD had difficulties with the false representation tasks, and this could not be explained by executive functioning or language impairments. These findings support the view that children with ASD might not have a specific theory-of-mind deficit. PMID:24508666

  15. Voluntary Task Switching: Chasing the Elusive Homunculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Catherine M.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2005-01-01

    In the voluntary task switching procedure, subjects choose the task to perform on a series of bivalent stimuli, requiring top-down control of task switching. Experiments 1-3 contrasted voluntary task switching and explicit task cuing. Choice behavior showed small, inconsistent effects of external stimulus characteristics, supporting the assumption…

  16. Communication Constrained Task Allocation For Robotic Networks

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Nancy

    Communication Constrained Task Allocation For Robotic Networks Stephen L. Smith Distibuted Robotics Lab CSAIL MIT 2010 TDS Talk March 19, 2010 Joint work with Francesco Bullo Stephen L. Smith Task: robots divide tasks among themselves Stephen L. Smith Task Allocation 2 #12;Task allocation Given

  17. Sample Items and Performance Tasks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This webpage contains sample items and performance tasks from the Smarter Balanced assessment system in mathematics as well as English LA/Literacy. They are intended to help teachers, administrators, and policymakers implementing the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) prepare for next-generation assessments and plan the required shifts in instruction. Sample items and tasks can be viewed by grade band (grades 3-5, 6-8, and high school) or content focus. They showcase the variety of item types, including technology-enhanced items and performance tasks, that will be included in the assessment system. A drop-down tab provides information on each item, including grade level, CCSS alignment, and a scoring rubric for performance tasks.

  18. IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). Software User Manual (SUM). [network flow diagrams for coal gasification studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferys, S.; Johnson, W.; Lewis, R.; Rich, R.

    1981-01-01

    This specification establishes the requirements, concepts, and preliminary design for a set of software known as the IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). This software provides the capability to develop at an Interactive Graphics Design System (IGDS) design station process flow diagrams for use by the NASA Coal Gasification Task Team. In addition, ITIP will use the Data Management and Retrieval System (DMRS) to maintain a data base from which a properly formatted input file to the Time-Line and Resources Analysis Program (TRAP) can be extracted. This set of software will reside on the PDP-11/70 and will become the primary interface between the Coal Gasification Task Team and IGDS, DMRS, and TRAP. The user manual for the computer program is presented.

  19. Dynamic trapping and two-dimensional transport of swimming microorganisms using a rotating magnetic microrobot.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhou; Sitti, Metin

    2014-07-01

    Manipulation of microorganisms with intrinsic motility is a challenging yet important task for many biological and biomedical applications. Currently, such a task has only been accomplished using optical tweezers, while at the risk of averse heating and photodamage of the biological samples. Here, we proposed a new micro-robotic approach for fluidic trapping and two-dimensional transportation of motile microorganisms near a solid surface in fluids. We demonstrated selective trapping and transportation of individual freely swimming multi-flagellated bacteria over a distance of 30 ?m (7.5 body length of the carrier) on a surface, using the rotational flows locally induced by a rotating magnetic microparticle. Only a weak uniform magnetic field (<3 mT) was applied to actuate the microparticle. The microparticle can translate on a glass substrate by rotating at a speed of up to 100 ?m s(-1), while providing a fluidic force of a few to tens of pico-Newtons. PMID:24663401

  20. Memory Representations in Natural Tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana H. Ballard; Mary M. Hayhoe; Jeff B. Pelz

    1995-01-01

    The very limited capacity of short-term or working memory is one of the most prominent features of human cognition. Most studies have stressed delimiting the upper bounds of this memory in memorization tasks rather than the performance of everyday tasks. We designed a series of experiments to test the use of short-term memory in the course of a natural hand-eye