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Sample records for er associeret med

  1. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  2. Inter-,co and post-seismic ground deformation of the 2012 Emilia seismic sequenceby means of InSAR (COSMO-SkyMed-ERS-ENVISAT) and GPStime series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzo, Giuseppe; Tolomei, Cristiano; Gualandi, Adriano; Serpelloni, Enrico; Atzori, Simone; Salvi, Stefano; Merryman Boncori, John Peter

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present the results of a comprehensive geodetic analysis of the 2012 Emilia (Po Plain, Italy) seismic sequence, which represents an interesting case for the study of the seismic cycle in slowly converging tectonic settings.The 2012 Emilia sequence occurred in the Apennine thrust front,buried beneath the Po Plain sediments. The seismic sequence was characterized by two mainshocks occurred on May 20, 2012, (ML 5.9) and on May 29, (ML5.8 ) 2012. The first mainshock occurred in an area where seismicity of comparable magnitude has neither been recorded nor reported in the historical record over the last 1,000 years. The second earthquake occurred 12 km WSW of the first one, starting a new seismic sequence in the western area likely interesting another fault plane. A total of seven earthquakes with ML>5 occurred in the area between May 20 and June 3, 2012. After the first mainshock, a COSMO-SkyMed acquisition plan was going to provide data over a wide area of the Emilia Region covering both the epicentral region and the adjacent areas. The acquisition was later extended up to December 31st, 2013 in order to monitor the post-seismic deformation.We measured the evolution of co- and post-seismic deformation by using the multitemporal SBAS InSAR technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed acquired from both ascending and descending orbits between 2012 and 2013. Moreover, we studied the pre-seismic (inter-seismic) phase by means of ERS1/2 and ENVISAT-ASAR data covering the 1992-2010 temporal interval.We linkedthe ERS and ENVISAT measurements to obtain a 1992-2010 long pre-event time series, which is compared and validated with available GPS data. Similarly ,InSAR and GPS post-seismic signals are also compared and validated.GPS time series have been obtained from the analysis of raw data from continuous GPS networks installed for both scientific and cadastral applications. Although GPS providescoarse details of the co- and post-seismic deformation, because of the few

  3. The MedDRA paradox.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Gary H

    2008-01-01

    MedDRA (the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Terminology) is a controlled vocabulary widely used as a medical coding scheme. However, MedDRA's characterization of its structural hierarchy exhibits some confusing and paradoxical features. The goal of this paper is to examine these features, determine whether there is a coherent view of the MedDRA hierarchy that emerges, and explore what lessons are to be learned from this for using MedDRA and similar terminologies in a broad medical informatics context that includes relations among multiple disparate terminologies, thesauri, and ontologies. PMID:18998828

  4. MSL Launches With MEDLI Sensors

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers Michelle Munk and David Way explain the MEDLI -- Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation -- package on the MSL aeroshell that will measure the heatin...

  5. The MedCLIVAR Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, Piero; Medclivar Sc, The

    2014-05-01

    MedCLIVAR serves as a scientific network to promote interaction among different scientific disciplines and to develop a multidisciplinary vision of the evolution of the Mediterranean climate through studies that integrate atmospheric, marine, and terrestrial climate components at time scales ranging from paleoreconstructions to future climate scenarios. The network deals with scientific issues including past climate variability; connections between the Mediterranean and global climate; the Mediterranean Sea circulation and sea level; feedbacks on the global climate system; and regional responses to greenhouse gas, air pollution, and aerosols. The MedCLIVAR initiative was proposed at the 2003 European Geosciences Union assembly in Nice, France. In 2005, it was endorsed by the International Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) office. Subsequently, the MedCLIVAR Research Network Project was formally approved by the European Science Foundation and launched in May 2006 for a five year duration. Now MedCLIVAR is continuing with self supporting initiatives, such as the third MedCLIVAR conference, which will be held in June 2014 in Ankara (Turkey) , the publication of a special issue of Regional Environmental Change devoted to the climate of the Mediterranean region, and a newsletter, which is published every six months. More information available in Lionello, P., Gacic, M., Gomis, D., Garcia-Herrera, R., Giorgi, F., Planton, S., Trigo, R., (...), Xoplaki, E. (2012) Program focuses on climate of the Mediterranean region, Eos Trans. AGU 93:105-106

  6. Overview of the MEDLI Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazarik, Michael J.; Little, Alan; Cheatwood, F. Neil; Wright, Michael J.; Herath, Jeff A.; Martinez, Edward R.; Munk, Michelle; Novak, Frank J.; Wright, Henry S.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI) Project s objectives are to measure aerothermal environments, sub-surface heatshield material response, vehicle orientation, and atmospheric density for the atmospheric entry and descent phases of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle. The flight science objectives of MEDLI directly address the largest uncertainties in the ability to design and validate a robust Mars entry system, including aerothermal, aerodynamic and atmosphere models, and thermal protection system (TPS) design. The instrumentation suite will be installed in the heatshield of the MSL entry vehicle. The acquired data will support future Mars entry and aerocapture missions by providing measured atmospheric data to validate Mars atmosphere models and clarify the design margins for future Mars missions. MEDLI thermocouple and recession sensor data will significantly improve the understanding of aeroheating and TPS performance uncertainties for future missions. MEDLI pressure data will permit more accurate trajectory reconstruction, as well as separation of aerodynamic and atmospheric uncertainties in the hypersonic and supersonic regimes. This paper provides an overview of the project including the instrumentation design, system architecture, and expected measurement response.

  7. Overview of the MEDLI Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazarik, Michael J.; Hwang, Helen; Little, Alan; Cheatwood, Neil; Wright, Michael; Herath, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI) Project's objectives are to measure aerothermal environments, sub-surface heatshield material response, vehicle orientation, and atmospheric density for the atmospheric entry and descent phases of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle. The flight science objectives of MEDLI directly address the largest uncertainties in the ability to design and validate a robust Mars entry system, including aerothermal, aerodynamic and atmosphere models, and thermal protection system (TPS) design. The instrumentation suite will be installed in the heatshield of the MSL entry vehicle. The acquired data will support future Mars entry and aerocapture missions by providing measured atmospheric data to validate Mars atmosphere models and clarify the design margins for future Mars missions. MEDLI thermocouple and recession sensor data will significantly improve the understanding of aeroheating and TPS performance uncertainties for future missions. MEDLI pressure data will permit more accurate trajectory reconstruction, as well as separation of aerodynamic and atmospheric uncertainties in the hypersonic and supersonic regimes. This paper provides an overview of the project including the instrumentation design, system architecture, and expected measurement response.

  8. Mini-Med School Planning Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Mini-Med Schools are public education programs now offered by more than 70 medical schools, universities, research institutions, and hospitals across the nation. There are even Mini-Med Schools in Ireland, Malta, and Canada! The program is typically a lecture series that meets once a week and provides "mini-med students" information on some of the…

  9. MED-SUV Data policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangianantoni, Agata; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    MED-SUV proposes the development and implementation of a digital infrastructure for data access and for volcanic risk management aimed at applying the rationale of Supersites GEO initiative to Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius and Mt. Etna. It's fully recognized the clear need of an open data policy in order to ensure that data will be properly and in an ethical manner managed and can be used and accessed from its community. In MED-SUV there is a multitude of different partners with varying scientific, technical, legal and economical interests and therefore data and data products produced will be wide-ranging so it's necessary to set principles and legal arrangements. Within Europe several Directives and Regulations have brought into force which provide the leading guidelines in terms of the principle of openness to knowledge and access to scientific information. So in creating a suite policy the EC Supersites (MarSite and FutureVolc, under the EPOS umbrella) projects need to strength their efforts in defining a common data management strategy. In this presentation we will show the leading principles of the data policy, as for instance Open Access, flexibility of approach in order to harmonize the different methods of data distribution among its partners, Creative Commons licensing, data preservation and unique identification through Persistent Identifiers.

  10. Redefining the MED13L syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adegbola, Abidemi; Musante, Luciana; Callewaert, Bert; Maciel, Patricia; Hu, Hao; Isidor, Bertrand; Picker-Minh, Sylvie; Le Caignec, Cedric; Delle Chiaie, Barbara; Vanakker, Olivier; Menten, Björn; Dheedene, Annelies; Bockaert, Nele; Roelens, Filip; Decaestecker, Karin; Silva, João; Soares, Gabriela; Lopes, Fátima; Najmabadi, Hossein; Kahrizi, Kimia; Cox, Gerald F; Angus, Steven P; Staropoli, John F; Fischer, Ute; Suckow, Vanessa; Bartsch, Oliver; Chess, Andrew; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Wienker, Thomas F; Hübner, Christoph; Kaindl, Angela M; Kalscheuer, Vera M

    2015-10-01

    Congenital cardiac and neurodevelopmental deficits have been recently linked to the mediator complex subunit 13-like protein MED13L, a subunit of the CDK8-associated mediator complex that functions in transcriptional regulation through DNA-binding transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. Heterozygous MED13L variants cause transposition of the great arteries and intellectual disability (ID). Here, we report eight patients with predominantly novel MED13L variants who lack such complex congenital heart malformations. Rather, they depict a syndromic form of ID characterized by facial dysmorphism, ID, speech impairment, motor developmental delay with muscular hypotonia and behavioral difficulties. We thereby define a novel syndrome and significantly broaden the clinical spectrum associated with MED13L variants. A prominent feature of the MED13L neurocognitive presentation is profound language impairment, often in combination with articulatory deficits. PMID:25758992

  11. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data

  12. [CanMEDS 2015: better doctors?].

    PubMed

    Borleffs, J C C; Mourits, M J E; Scheele, F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the CanMEDS model, which forms the basis for competency-based learning in both undergraduate and postgraduate training, has been renewed by the introduction of CanMEDS 2015. The most prominent change is the emphasis on leadership skills, which is also reflected by the name change for the role of 'manager' to 'leader'. The addition of milestones provides clearly defined targets for learning and assessment, which facilitates the monitoring of the progression in competence. Furthermore, CanMEDS 2015 strongly focusses on the overall coherence of the separate competencies. CanMEDS, designed as a model that helps to train young doctors to become good doctors, also helps us - the trainers - to become better doctors ourselves. PMID:27438391

  13. MEDLI Will Aid in Understanding of Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    The MEDLI instrument package, contained in the heat shield of the Mars Science Laboratory, will help scientists and engineers improve their computer models and simulations, and provide data to help...

  14. The MED-SUV Multidisciplinary Interoperability Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; D'Auria, Luca; Reitano, Danilo; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Roncella, Roberto; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In accordance with the international Supersite initiative concept, the MED-SUV (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes) European project (http://med-suv.eu/) aims to enable long-term monitoring experiment in two relevant geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: Mt. Vesuvio/Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna. This objective requires the integration of existing components, such as monitoring systems and data bases and novel sensors for the measurements of volcanic parameters. Moreover, MED-SUV is also a direct contribution to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) as one the volcano Supersites recognized by the Group on Earth Observation (GEO). To achieve its goal, MED-SUV set up an advanced e-infrastructure allowing the discovery of and access to heterogeneous data for multidisciplinary applications, and the integration with external systems like GEOSS. The MED-SUV overall infrastructure is conceived as a three layer architecture with the lower layer (Data level) including the identified relevant data sources, the mid-tier (Supersite level) including components for mediation and harmonization , and the upper tier (Global level) composed of the systems that MED-SUV must serve, such as GEOSS and possibly other global/community systems. The Data level is mostly composed of existing data sources, such as space agencies satellite data archives, the UNAVCO system, the INGV-Rome data service. They share data according to different specifications for metadata, data and service interfaces, and cannot be changed. Thus, the only relevant MED-SUV activity at this level was the creation of a MED-SUV local repository based on Web Accessible Folder (WAF) technology, deployed in the INGV site in Catania, and hosting in-situ data and products collected and generated during the project. The Supersite level is at the core of the MED-SUV architecture, since it must mediate between the disparate data sources in the layer below, and provide a harmonized view to

  15. The Mediator complex subunit MED25 is targeted by the N-terminal transactivation domain of the PEA3 group members

    PubMed Central

    Verger, Alexis; Baert, Jean-Luc; Verreman, Kathye; Dewitte, Frédérique; Ferreira, Elisabeth; Lens, Zoé; de Launoit, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Monté, Didier

    2013-01-01

    PEA3, ERM and ER81 belong to the PEA3 subfamily of Ets transcription factors and play important roles in a number of tissue-specific processes. Transcriptional activation by PEA3 subfamily factors requires their characteristic amino-terminal acidic transactivation domain (TAD). However, the cellular targets of this domain remain largely unknown. Using ERM as a prototype, we show that the minimal N-terminal TAD activates transcription by contacting the activator interacting domain (ACID)/Prostate tumor overexpressed protein 1 (PTOV) domain of the Mediator complex subunit MED25. We further show that depletion of MED25 disrupts the association of ERM with the Mediator in vitro. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of MED25 as well as the overexpression of MED25-ACID and MED25-VWA domains efficiently inhibit the transcriptional activity of ERM. Moreover, mutations of amino acid residues that prevent binding of MED25 to ERM strongly reduce transactivation by ERM. Finally we show that siRNA depletion of MED25 diminishes PEA3-driven expression of MMP-1 and Mediator recruitment. In conclusion, this study identifies the PEA3 group members as the first human transcriptional factors that interact with the MED25 ACID/PTOV domain and establishes MED25 as a crucial transducer of their transactivation potential. PMID:23531547

  16. Human melioidosis reported by ProMED

    PubMed Central

    Nasner-Posso, Katherinn Melissa; Cruz-Calderón, Stefania; Montúfar-Andrade, Franco E.; Dance, David A.B.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective There are limited sources describing the global burden of emerging diseases. A review of human melioidosis reported by ProMED was performed and the reliability of the data retrieved assessed in comparison to published reports. The effectiveness of ProMED was evaluated as a source of epidemiological data by focusing on melioidosis. Methods Using the keyword ‘melioidosis’ in the ProMED search engine, all of the information from the reports and collected data was reviewed using a structured form, including the year, country, gender, occupation, number of infected individuals, and number of fatal cases. Results One hundred and twenty-four entries reported between January 1995 and October 2014 were identified. A total of 4630 cases were reported, with death reported in 505 cases, suggesting a misleadingly low overall case fatality rate (CFR) of 11%. Of 20 cases for which the gender was reported, 12 (60%) were male. Most of the cases were reported from Australia, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, and Malaysia, with sporadic reports from other countries. Conclusions Internet-based reporting systems such as ProMED are useful to gather information and synthesize knowledge on emerging infections. Although certain areas need to be improved, ProMED provided good information about melioidosis. PMID:25975651

  17. BALANCE AND PIPETTE CALIBRATION AT MED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yearly, every MED analytical balance and automatic pipette inventoried is certified as working or it is repaired to working condition. - - - The QA office maintains three sets of standard weights that can be used by the staff to verify balance operation routinely after the yearly...

  18. MED-SUV Data Life Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangianantoni, Agata; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia; Tulino, Sabrina

    2015-04-01

    The MED-SUV project aims to implement a digital e-infrastructure for data access in order to promote the monitoring and study of key volcanic regions prone to volcanic hazards, and thus improve hazard assessment, according to the rationale of Supersite GEO initiative to Vesuvius- Campi Flegrei and Mt Etna, currently identified as Permanent Supersites. The present study focuses on the life cycle of MED-SUV data generated in the first period of the project and highlights the managing approach, as well as the crucial steps to be implemented for ensuring that data will be properly and ethically managed and can be used and accessed from both MED-SUV and the external community. The process is conceived outlining how research data being handled as the project progresses, describing what data are collected, processed or generated and how these data are going to be shared and made available through Open Access. Data cycle begins with their generation and ends with the deposit in the digital infrastructure, its key series of stages through which MED-SUV data passes are Collection, Data citation, Categorization of data, Approval procedure, Registration of datasets, Application of licensing models, and PID assignment. This involves a combination of procedures and practices taking into account the scientific core mission and the priorities of the project as well as the potential legal issues related to the management and protection of the Intellectual Property. We believe that the implementation of this process constitutes a significant encouragement in MED-SUV data sharing and as a consequence a better understanding on the volcanic processes, hazard assessment and a better integration with other Supersites projects.

  19. Ge Nanocluster Enhanced Er Photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Julian; Chrzan, Daryl C.; Haller, Eugene E.

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the enhancement of the Er^3+ photoluminescence (PL) at 1540 nm by the incorporation of Ge nanoclusters into Er-doped silica using ion beams. We found that the Er^3+ PL enhancement is due to the presence of Ge and not to the radiation damage from the ion-implantation process. We determined that the Er^3+ PL depends on the Ge content, postgrowth annealing, and crystallinity of the Ge nanoclusters. Furthermore, we observed that the Er^3+ PL signal is maximized after annealing at 685 C for 1 h. This is the temperature at which Ge nanoclusters begin to crystallize. Transmission electron microscopy studies were conducted to determine the size distribution of the Ge nanoclusters. Moreover, extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements performed at the Ge-K and Er-LIII edges revealed that there is negligible Ge-Er bonding. This suggests that Er is either fully oxidized or that it is not located in the Ge nanoclusters. Therefore, we believe that the energy transfer process from the Ge nanoclusters to the Er ions occurs through a non-optical resonant dipole transfer (F"orster ProcessfootnotetextT. F"orster, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 27, 7 (1959). similar to what has been proposed for the Si nanocrystal case.footnotetextM. Fujii, M. Yoshida, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4525 (1998).

  20. MED-SUV final strategic issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Letizia; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Sangianantoni, Agata

    2016-04-01

    Aside the scientific, technical and financial aspects managed by the "Project Management" Work Package (WP1), the great challenge and more time consuming task of this WP has surely been the definition and application of some strategic guidelines crucial to trace the project right path to its final success and for the project outcome sustainability after month 36. In particular, given that one of the main objectives of MED-SUV is that to be compliant with the GEO initiative, particularly concerning the data sharing, great efforts have been made by WP1 at first to define the MED-SUV Data Policy Guidelines, and currently to make it suitable for the EU Supersites. At present, WP1 is also dealing with the exploitation of the achieved foreground among the project's participant and to define a Memorandum of Understanding to sustain the monitoring systems and e-infrastructure developed in the project framework. Whilst the Data Policy guidelines document was implemented in the first year of MED-SUV, WP1 is now focused on the last deliverable 'Strategic and Legal deliverables', which includes the remaining issues. To the aim, WP1 has strategically separated the Exploitation of Foreground document preparation from the Memorandum of Understanding definition. The Exploitation of Foreground process has regarded the identification of Foreground, the exploitable results, the purpose of such Foreground, the collection of information from either the scientific community of MED-SUV or industrial participants; to this aim WP1 circulated an ad hoc questionnaire to put together information on (the) every kind of MED-SUV outcome, on their owners, on the kind of ownership (single/joint), on the outcome exploitation, and on proposals for its sustainability. While the first information will allow us to prepare the final Exploitation Agreement among the project's participant, the information on the exploitation of the outcome and likely sustainability proposals will contribute to the

  1. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Research News From NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Javascript on. Photo: Comstock LactMed, a free online database with information on drugs and lactation, is one ...

  2. Technical development of PubMed Interact: an improved interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches

    PubMed Central

    Muin, Michael; Fontelo, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Background The project aims to create an alternative search interface for MEDLINE/PubMed that may provide assistance to the novice user and added convenience to the advanced user. An earlier version of the project was the 'Slider Interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches' (SLIM) which provided JavaScript slider bars to control search parameters. In this new version, recent developments in Web-based technologies were implemented. These changes may prove to be even more valuable in enhancing user interactivity through client-side manipulation and management of results. Results PubMed Interact is a Web-based MEDLINE/PubMed search application built with HTML, JavaScript and PHP. It is implemented on a Windows Server 2003 with Apache 2.0.52, PHP 4.4.1 and MySQL 4.1.18. PHP scripts provide the backend engine that connects with E-Utilities and parses XML files. JavaScript manages client-side functionalities and converts Web pages into interactive platforms using dynamic HTML (DHTML), Document Object Model (DOM) tree manipulation and Ajax methods. With PubMed Interact, users can limit searches with JavaScript slider bars, preview result counts, delete citations from the list, display and add related articles and create relevance lists. Many interactive features occur at client-side, which allow instant feedback without reloading or refreshing the page resulting in a more efficient user experience. Conclusion PubMed Interact is a highly interactive Web-based search application for MEDLINE/PubMed that explores recent trends in Web technologies like DOM tree manipulation and Ajax. It may become a valuable technical development for online medical search applications. PMID:17083729

  3. Protein folding in the ER.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F. J.; Argon, Y.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-10-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major protein folding compartment for secreted, plasma membrane and organelle proteins. Each of these newly-synthesized polypeptides folds in a deterministic process, affected by the unique conditions that exist in the ER. An understanding of protein folding in the ER is a fundamental biomolecular challenge at two levels. The first level addresses how the amino acid sequence programs that polypeptide to efficiently arrive at a particular fold out of a multitude of alternatives, and how different sequences obtain similar folds. At the second level are the issues introduced by folding not in the cytosol, but in the ER, including the risk of aggregation in a molecularly crowded environment, accommodation of post-translational modifications and the compatibility with subsequent intracellular trafficking. This review discusses both the physicochemical and cell biological constraints of folding, which are the challenges that the ER molecular chaperones help overcome.

  4. PubMedMiner: Mining and Visualizing MeSH-based Associations in PubMed.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yucan; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Chen, Elizabeth S

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth of biomedical literature provides the opportunity to develop approaches for facilitating the identification of possible relationships between biomedical concepts. Indexing by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) represent high-quality summaries of much of this literature that can be used to support hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery tasks using techniques such as association rule mining. Based on a survey of literature mining tools, a tool implemented using Ruby and R - PubMedMiner - was developed in this study for mining and visualizing MeSH-based associations for a set of MEDLINE articles. To demonstrate PubMedMiner's functionality, a case study was conducted that focused on identifying and comparing comorbidities for asthma in children and adults. Relative to the tools surveyed, the initial results suggest that PubMedMiner provides complementary functionality for summarizing and comparing topics as well as identifying potentially new knowledge. PMID:25954472

  5. PubMedMiner: Mining and Visualizing MeSH-based Associations in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yucan; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Chen, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth of biomedical literature provides the opportunity to develop approaches for facilitating the identification of possible relationships between biomedical concepts. Indexing by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) represent high-quality summaries of much of this literature that can be used to support hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery tasks using techniques such as association rule mining. Based on a survey of literature mining tools, a tool implemented using Ruby and R – PubMedMiner – was developed in this study for mining and visualizing MeSH-based associations for a set of MEDLINE articles. To demonstrate PubMedMiner’s functionality, a case study was conducted that focused on identifying and comparing comorbidities for asthma in children and adults. Relative to the tools surveyed, the initial results suggest that PubMedMiner provides complementary functionality for summarizing and comparing topics as well as identifying potentially new knowledge. PMID:25954472

  6. Pub-Med-dot-com, here we come!

    PubMed

    Pulst, Stefan M

    2016-08-01

    As of April 8, 2016, articles in Neurology® Genetics can be searched using PubMed. Launched in 1996, PubMed is a search engine that accesses citations and abstracts of more than 26 million articles. Its primary sources include the MEDLINE database, which was started in the 1960s, and biomedical and life sciences journal articles that date back to 1946. In addition, PubMed accesses other sources, for example, citations to those life sciences journals that submit full-text articles to PubMed Central (PMC). PubMed Central was launched in 2000 as a free archive of biomedical and life science journals. PMID:27583303

  7. COSMO-SkyMed and GIS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, Pietro; Sole, Aurelia; Serio, Carmine

    2013-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing have become key technology tools for the collection, storage and analysis of spatially referenced data. Industries that utilise these spatial technologies include agriculture, forestry, mining, market research as well as the environmental analysis . Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a coherent active sensor operating in the microwave band which exploits relative motion between antenna and target in order to obtain a finer spatial resolution in the flight direction exploiting the Doppler effect. SAR have wide applications in Remote Sensing such as cartography, surface deformation detection, forest cover mapping, urban planning, disasters monitoring , surveillance etc… The utilization of satellite remote sensing and GIS technology for this applications has proven to be a powerful and effective tool for environmental monitoring. Remote sensing techniques are often less costly and time-consuming for large geographic areas compared to conventional methods, moreover GIS technology provides a flexible environment for, analyzing and displaying digital data from various sources necessary for classification, change detection and database development. The aim of this work si to illustrate the potential of COSMO-SkyMed data and SAR applications in a GIS environment, in particular a demostration of the operational use of COSMO-SkyMed SAR data and GIS in real cases will be provided for what concern DEM validation, river basin estimation, flood mapping and landslide monitoring.

  8. COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation planner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covello, Fabio; Scopa, Tiziana; Serva, Stefano; Caltagirone, Francesco; De Luca, Giuseppe Francesco; Pacaccio, Alessandro; Profili, Mario

    2014-10-01

    COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation (CSG) system has been conceived, according to Italian Space Agency (ASI) and Italian Ministry of Defence (It-MoD) requirements, at the twofold objective of ensuring operational continuity to the current constellation (COSMO-SkyMed - CSK), while improving functionality and performances. It is an "end-to-end" Italian Earth Observation Dual-Use (Civilian and Defence) Space System with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) operating in X-Band. CSG mission planning purpose is to fully employ the system resources, shared between partners with very different needs, producing a mission plan that satisfies the higher priority requests and optimizes the overall plan with the remaining requests according to the users programming rights consumption. CSG Mission Planning tool provides new performances in terms of adaptability and flexibility of the planning and scheduling algorithms conceived to select and synchronize data acquisition and downloading activities. CSG planning and scheduling problem is characterized by a large size of research space and a particular structure of technical and managerial constraints that has led to the implementation of innovative design of the planning algorithms based on both priority criteria and saturation of system resources. This approach envisages two scheduling strategies: the rank-based and the optimization-based. The former strategy is firstly applied to the most important request categories, with an associated rank value or priority level; the latter is subsequently applied to the unranked or lower priority requests. This is an iterative dynamic process of finding optimal solutions able to better answer the demanding requirements coming from the needs of heterogeneous users.

  9. PubMed Informer: Monitoring MEDLINE/PubMed through E-mail Alerts, SMS, PDA downloads and RSS feeds

    PubMed Central

    Muin, Michael; Fontelo, Paul; Ackerman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Summary PubMed Informer is a Web-based monitoring tool for topics of interest from MEDLINE/PubMed primarily designed for healthcare professionals. Five tracking methods are available: Web access, e-mail, Short Message Service (SMS), PDA downloads and RSS feeds. PubMed Informer delivers focused search updates and specific information to users with varying information-seeking practices. PMID:16779344

  10. Mars 2020 Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; Wright, Henry; White, Todd; Schoenenberger, Mark; Santos, Jose; Karlgaard, Chris; Kuhl, Chris; Oishi, TOmo; Trombetta, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    This paper will introduce Mars Entry Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2) on NASA's Mars2020 mission. Mars2020 is a flagship NASA mission with science and technology objectives to help answer questions about possibility of life on Mars as well as to demonstrate technologies for future human expedition. Mars2020 is scheduled for launch in 2020. MEDLI2 is a suite of instruments embedded in the heatshield and backshell thermal protection systems of Mars2020 entry vehicle. The objectives of MEDLI2 are to gather critical aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and TPS performance data during EDL phase of the mission. MEDLI2 builds up the success of MEDLI flight instrumentation on Mars Science Laboratory mission in 2012. MEDLI instrumentation suite measured surface pressure and TPS temperature on the heatshield during MSL entry into Mars. MEDLI data has since been used for unprecedented reconstruction of aerodynamic drag, vehicle attitude, in-situ atmospheric density, aerothermal heating, transition to turbulence, in-depth TPS performance and TPS ablation. [1,2] In addition to validating predictive models, MEDLI data has highlighted extra margin available in the MSL forebody TPS, which can potentially be used to reduce vehicle parasitic mass. MEDLI2 expands the scope of instrumentation by focusing on quantities of interest not addressed in MEDLI suite. The type the sensors are expanded and their layout on the TPS modified to meet these new objectives. The paper will provide key motivation and governing requirements that drive the choice and the implementation of the new sensor suite. The implementation considerations of sensor selection, qualification, and demonstration of minimal risk to the host mission will be described. The additional challenges associated with mechanical accommodation, electrical impact, data storage and retrieval for MEDLI2 system, which extends sensors to backshell will also be described.

  11. Using MedDRA: implications for risk management.

    PubMed

    Brown, Elliot G

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of MedDRA, the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities, as a standardised terminology may have a major impact on the performance of risk management. Thus, MedDRA is likely to have an important effect on the analysis of clinical trial safety data. Review of the most commonly used terms in clinical trial tables from the labelling of ten products indicated that each adverse event could be represented by many MedDRA preferred terms; this might theoretically lead to failure to identify differences in adverse event incidence between treatment arms. Possible solutions are proposed. The use of MedDRA in spontaneous reporting systems is a regulatory requirement in some countries. Variability in modes of implementation and use of the terminology are discussed; these may impose additional limitations on any use of spontaneous data for comparative purposes. There are important differences in the ways that safety databases interface with MedDRA and uncertainty about the most appropriate way to manage version changes. The characteristics of MedDRA must be taken into account when establishing methods for signal detection and its use will affect the retrieval of similar cases as required for signal evaluation. The use of MedDRA in the periodic safety update report is discussed. The possible use of MedDRA in pharmacoepidemiology is highly relevant to risk management, and some issues are briefly outlined. With regard to communication of risk, if MedDRA is introduced into existing product labelling, care must be taken that the change itself does not cause misunderstanding; the most appropriate use of MedDRA in this regard remains to be determined. There is a need for careful evaluation of MedDRA in fulfilling its various functions in pharmacovigilance, followed by definitive regulatory guidance on its use. PMID:15154830

  12. Bosnian and Herzegovinian medical scientists in PubMed database.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    In this paper it is shortly presented PubMed as one of the most important on-line databases of the scientific biomedical literature. Also, the author has analyzed the most cited authors, professors of the medical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, from the published papers in the biomedical journals abstracted and indexed in PubMed. PMID:24341067

  13. MedEdPORTAL: Educational Scholarship for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Robby J.; Candler, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    MedEdPORTAL is an online publication service provided at no charge by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). The intent is to promote collaboration and educational scholarship by helping educators publish and share educational resources. With MedEdPORTAL, users can quickly locate high-quality, peer-reviewed teaching materials in both…

  14. 47 CFR 95.628 - MedRadio transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false MedRadio transmitters. 95.628 Section 95.628 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.628 MedRadio transmitters. (a) Frequency...

  15. 75 FR 52304 - MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Forest Service MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Saratoga, Wyoming. The... is for an update on projects proposed for funding, and selection of some projects. DATES: The...

  16. 75 FR 39201 - MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Forest Service MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Steamboat Springs, Colorado... Act (Pub. L. 110-343) and in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of...

  17. ERS-1 SAR data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, K.; Bicknell, T.; Vines, K.

    1986-01-01

    To take full advantage of the synthetic aperature radar (SAR) to be flown on board the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) (1989) and the Canadian Radarsat (1990), the implementation of a receiving station in Alaska is being studied to gather and process SAR data pertaining in particular to regions within the station's range of reception. The current SAR data processing requirement is estimated to be on the order of 5 minutes per day. The Interim Digital Sar Processor (IDP) which was under continual development through Seasat (1978) and SIR-B (1984) can process slightly more than 2 minutes of ERS-1 data per day. On the other hand, the Advanced Digital SAR Processore (ADSP), currently under development for the Shuttle Imaging Radar C (SIR-C, 1988) and the Venus Radar Mapper, (VMR, 1988), is capable of processing ERS-1 SAR data at a real time rate. To better suit the anticipated ERS-1 SAR data processing requirement, both a modified IDP and an ADSP derivative are being examined. For the modified IDP, a pipelined architecture is proposed for the mini-computer plus array processor arrangement to improve throughout. For the ADSP derivative, a simplified version is proposed to enhance ease of implementation and maintainability while maintaing real time throughput rates. These processing systems are discussed and evaluated.

  18. Ames ER-2 ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, R., Jr.; Vedder, James F.; Starr, W. L.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study ozone (O3) in the stratosphere. Measurements of the ozone mixing ratio at 1 s intervals are obtained with an ultraviolet photometer which flies on the ER-2 aircraft. The photometer determines the amount of ozone in air by measuring the transmission of ultraviolet light through a fixed path with and without ambient O3 present.

  19. ERS Focus On: Educating Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This issue of "Focus On" examines where boys are underachieving and some possible reasons for their under-achievement, including biological and environmental factors. It also offers strategies that teachers can employ in their classrooms in order to address the educational needs of boys. Books in Brief; Web Resources; and Related ERS Resources are…

  20. Two-quasiparticle structures and isomers in {sup 168}Er, {sup 170}Er, and {sup 172}Er.

    SciTech Connect

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Kondev, F. G.; Watanabe, H.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Stefanescu, I.; Australian National Univ.; RIKEN; Univ. of Maryland

    2010-05-01

    The stable and neutron-rich isotopes 168Er, 170Er, and 172Er have been studied with Gammasphere using inelastic excitation with energetic 136Xe beams. The previously assigned structures based on the proposed K?=4- isomeric intrinsic states in both 168Er and 170Er have been re-evaluated and an equivalent band identified in 172Er. In 170Er, the identification of a K?=6- band with transitions close in energy to those of the 4- band leads to a modified interpretation, since the overlap would have compromised previous analyses. The gK-gR values for the 4- bands deduced from the in-band ?-ray intensities for the sequence of isotopes suggest a predominantly two-neutron configuration in 168Er, an equally mixed two-neutron, two-proton configuration in 170Er, and a two-proton configuration in 172Er. A comprehensive decay scheme for the previously proposed 6+ isomer in 172Er has also been established, as well as band structures built on this isomer that closely resemble the 6+ and 7- two-neutron structures known in the isotone 174Yb. The implied K hindrances are discussed. The main decay path of the 6+ isomer occurs through the newly identified 4- isomer. The measured lifetimes of the 4- and 6+ isomers in 172Er are 57(3) and 822(90) ns, respectively. Multiquasiparticle calculations support the suggested configuration changes across the isotopic chain.

  1. NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The contents include: 1) ER-2 Specifications; 2) ER-2 Basic Configuration; 3) ER-2 Payload Areas: Nose Area; 4) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Fore and Aftbody; 5) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Midbody; 6) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay; 7) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay Hatch Designs; 8) ER-2 Payload Areas: External Pods; 9) ER-2 Electrical/Control Interface; 10) ER-2 Typical Flight Profile; 11) Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling TC-4; 12) TC-4 Timeline; 13) TC4 Area of Interest; 14) ER-2 TC4 Payload; 15) A/C ready for fuel; 16) ER-2 Pilot being suited; 17) ER-2 Taxing; 18) ER-2 Pilot post flight debrief; and 19) NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing.

  2. The Arabidopsis mediator complex subunits MED16, MED14, and MED2 regulate mediator and RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A; Hurst, Charlotte H; Kaliyadasa, Ewon; Lamb, Rebecca; Knight, Marc R; De Cothi, Elizabeth A; Steele, John F; Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Mediator16 (MED16; formerly termed SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 [SFR6]) subunit of the plant Mediator transcriptional coactivator complex regulates cold-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, acting downstream of the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factors to recruit the core Mediator complex to cold-regulated genes. Here, we use loss-of-function mutants to show that RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes requires MED16, MED2, and MED14 subunits. Transcription of genes known to be regulated via CBFs binding to the C-repeat motif/drought-responsive element promoter motif requires all three Mediator subunits, as does cold acclimation-induced freezing tolerance. In addition, these three subunits are required for low temperature-induced expression of some other, but not all, cold-responsive genes, including genes that are not known targets of CBFs. Genes inducible by darkness also required MED16 but required a different combination of Mediator subunits for their expression than the genes induced by cold. Together, our data illustrate that plants control transcription of specific genes through the action of subsets of Mediator subunits; the specific combination defined by the nature of the stimulus but also by the identity of the gene induced. PMID:24415770

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F G; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER-mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  4. Many Addicts Going without Meds That Curb Opioid Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Many Addicts Going Without Meds That Curb Opioid Abuse In 2013, just 17 percent were given ... is in the grip of an epidemic of opioid abuse. However, new research suggests that drugs that ...

  5. Many Parents Ill-Informed about Kids' Asthma Meds

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159117.html Many Parents Ill-Informed About Kids' Asthma Meds Only half surveyed knew what drugs were ... News) -- Only half of parents of children with asthma fully understand the use of their youngsters' asthma ...

  6. ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157591.html ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children on medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have lower bone density than their ...

  7. Most Teens Who Abuse ADHD Meds Get Them from Others

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157662.html Most Teens Who Abuse ADHD Meds Get Them From Others Study finds 54 ... TUESDAY, March 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Abuse of ADHD stimulant drugs such Ritalin or Adderall is on ...

  8. 1 in 4 Medicare Patients Uses Blood Pressure Meds Incorrectly

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160930.html 1 in 4 Medicare Patients Uses Blood Pressure Meds ... year in the United States, accounting for about one out of every three deaths, Frieden said. Uncontrolled ...

  9. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past ... milk, infant levels in blood, potential effects in breast-feeding infants and on lactation itself. The American Academy ...

  10. Skipping Meds Greatly Ups Heart Patients' Risk of Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skipping Meds Greatly Ups Heart Patients' Risk of Stroke: Study Fatal strokes seven times more likely if drugs to control ... are much more likely to die from a stroke if they don't take cholesterol-lowering statin ...

  11. PubMed searches: overview and strategies for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Wesley T; Olin, Bernie R

    2013-04-01

    PubMed is a biomedical and life sciences database maintained by a division of the National Library of Medicine known as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). It is a large resource with more than 5600 journals indexed and greater than 22 million total citations. Searches conducted in PubMed provide references that are more specific for the intended topic compared with other popular search engines. Effective PubMed searches allow the clinician to remain current on the latest clinical trials, systematic reviews, and practice guidelines. PubMed continues to evolve by allowing users to create a customized experience through the My NCBI portal, new arrangements and options in search filters, and supporting scholarly projects through exportation of citations to reference managing software. Prepackaged search options available in the Clinical Queries feature also allow users to efficiently search for clinical literature. PubMed also provides information regarding the source journals themselves through the Journals in NCBI Databases link. This article provides an overview of the PubMed database's structure and features as well as strategies for conducting an effective search. PMID:23442731

  12. Electronic state of Er in sputtered AlN:Er films determined by magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, V.; Seehra, M. S.; Korakakis, D.

    2014-12-07

    The optoelectronic and piezoelectric properties of AlN:Er thin films have been of great recent interest for potential device applications. In this work, the focus is on the electronic state of Er in AlN:Er thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering on (001) p-type Si substrate. X-ray diffraction shows that Er doping expands the lattice and the AlN:Er film has preferential c-plane orientation. To determine whether Er in AlN:Er is present as Er metal, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or Er{sup 3+} substituting for Al{sup 3+}, detailed measurements and analysis of the temperature dependence (2 K–300 K) of the magnetization M at a fixed magnetic field H along with the M vs. H data at 2 K up to H = 90 kOe are presented. The presence of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Er metal is ruled out since their characteristic magnetic transitions are not observed in the AlN:Er sample. Instead, the observed M vs. T and M vs. H variations are consistent with Er present as Er{sup 3+} substituting for Al{sup 3+} in AlN:Er at a concentration x = 1.08% in agreement with x = 0.94% ± 0.20% determined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The larger size of Er{sup 3+} vs. Al{sup 3+}explains the observed lattice expansion of AlN:Er.

  13. UBV photometry of ER Vulpeculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R. K.; Padalia, T. D.; Srivastava, J. B.

    1991-08-01

    UBV photometry of the RS CVn-type eclipsing binary system ER Vulpeculae has been presented. The period comes out to be 0.698093d. The average depths of primary and secondary minima are, respectively, 0.21 and 0.12m. The colors at various phases have been given. A dip is seen around phase 0.73P as was seen in the observations of Arevalo et al. (1988). Large scatter is present in the observations as noticed earlier, and may be due to activity of the components.

  14. Med1 regulates meiotic progression during spermatogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Huszar, Jessica M.; Jia, Yuzhi; Reddy, Janardan K.; Payne, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly coordinated process. Signaling from nuclear hormone receptors, like those for retinoic acid, is important for normal spermatogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating these signals are poorly understood. Mediator complex subunit 1 (MED1) is a transcriptional enhancer that directly modulates transcription from nuclear hormone receptors. MED1 is present in male germ cells throughout mammalian development, but its function during spermatogenesis is unknown. To determine its role, we generated mice lacking Med1 specifically in their germ cells beginning just before birth. Conditional Med1 knockout males are fertile, exhibiting normal testis weights and siring ordinary numbers of offspring. Retinoic acid-responsive gene products Stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (STRA8) and Synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3) are first detected in knockout spermatogonia at the expected time points during the first wave of spermatogenesis and persist with normal patterns of cellular distribution in adult knockout testes. Meiotic progression, however, is altered in the absence of Med1. At postnatal day 7 (P7), zygotene-stage knockout spermatocytes are already detected, unlike in control testes, with fewer pre-leptotene-stage cells and more leptotene spermatocytes observed in the knockouts. At P9, Med1 knockout spermatocytes prematurely enter pachynema. Once formed, greater numbers of knockout spermatocytes remain in pachynema relative to the other stages of meiosis throughout testis development and its maintenance in the adult. Meiotic exit is not inhibited. We conclude that MED1 regulates the temporal progression of primary spermatocytes through meiosis, with its absence resulting in abbreviated pre-leptotene, leptotene and zygotene stages, and a prolonged pachytene stage. PMID:25778538

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER–mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  16. CoMed: a real-time collaborative medicine system.

    PubMed

    Sung, M Y; Kim, M S; Kim, E J; Yoo, J H; Sung, M W

    2000-07-01

    CoMed is a prototype of a real-time collaborative medicine system that allows medical specialists to share patient records and to communicate with each other on the Internet. CoMed consists of a multimedia medical database containing relevant information about laryngeal diseases and a real-time collaboration system including a teleconferencing system, a whiteboard and a chatting system. CoMed is web-based. We adopted the object database O2 and CORBA technologies for the multimedia medical database. Therefore, our system can provide the flexibility, extensibility and location transparency of patient databases. We developed a SeeYou Active X control for the teleconferencing system and a Java applet for the whiteboard and chatting system. CoMed improves the efficiency of the overall system by separating the servers on a UNIX machine and a Windows NT machine. CoMed can be utilized for stand-alone research, for collaborative consultations among medical specialists and for a telemedicine in participation with the patients and medical specialists. Our system can be extended easily into other types of the collaborative systems, such as collaborative distance learning, collaborative science system, etc. PMID:10961568

  17. A novel MED12 mutation: Evidence for a fourth phenotype.

    PubMed

    Prontera, Paolo; Ottaviani, Valentina; Rogaia, Daniela; Isidori, Ilenia; Mencarelli, Amedea; Malerba, Natascia; Cocciadiferro, Dario; Rolph, Pfundt; Stangoni, Gabriela; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke; Merla, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Mutations of the MED12 gene have been reported mainly in males with FG (Opitz-Kaveggia), Lujan-Fryns, or X-linked Ohdo syndromes. Recently, a different phenotype characterized by minor anomalies, severe intellectual disability (ID), and absent language was reported in female and male patients belonging to the same family and carrying a frameshift MED12 mutation (c.5898dupC). Here, we report on two brothers and their niece affected by severe and mild ID, respectively, where whole exome sequencing combined with variant analysis within a panel of ID-related genes, disclosed a novel c.2312T>C (p.Ile771Thr) MED12 mutation. This variant, which has not been reported as a polymorphism, was not present in a third unaffected brother, and was predicted to be deleterious by five bioinformatic databases. This finding together with the phenotypic analogies shared with the carriers of c.5898dupC mutation suggests the existence of a fourth MED12-related disorder, characterized by severe ID, absent or deficient language and, milder, clinical manifestation in heterozygotes. We have reviewed the literature on MED12 heterozygotes, their clinical manifestations, and discuss the possible biological causes of this condition. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27312080

  18. A Model Expert System For Machine Failure Diagnosis (MED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liqun, Yin

    1987-05-01

    MED is a model expert system for machine failure diagnosis. MED can help the repairer quickly determine milling machine electrical failure. The key points in MED are a simple method to deal with the "subsequent visit" problem in machine failure diagnosis, a weighted list to interfere in the control of AGENDA to imitate an expert's continuous thinking process and to keep away erratic questioning and problem running away caused by probabilistic reasoning, the structuralized AGENDA, the characteristics of machine failure diagnosis and people's thinking pattern in faulure diagnosis. The structuralized AGENDA gives an idea to supply a more powerful as well as flexible control strategy in best-first search by using AGENDA. The "subsequent visit" problem is a very complicated task to solve, it will be convenient to deal with it by using a simple method to keep from consuming too much time in urgent situations. Weighted list also gives a method to improve control in inference of expert system. The characteristics of machine failure diagnosis and people's thinking pattern are both important for building a machine failure diagnosis expert system. When being told failure phenomena, MED can determine failure causes through dialogue. MED is written in LISP and run in UNIVAC 1100/10 and IBM PC/XT computers. The average diagnosis time per failure is 11 seconds to CPU, 2 minites to terminal operation, and 11 minites to a skilful repairer.

  19. Luminescence and Thermal Properties of Er:GSGG and Yb,Er:GSGG Laser Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dun-Lu; Luo, Jian-Qiao; Xiao, Jing-Zhong; Zhang, Qing-Li; Chen, Jia-Kang; Liu, Wen-Peng; Kang, Hong-Xiang; Yin, Shao-Tang

    2012-05-01

    Er3+-doped and Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped Gd3Sc2Ga3O12 (abbreviated as Er:GSGG and Yb,Er:GSGG, respectively) laser crystals are investigated by using a combination of spectroscopic measurements and thermal characterizations. An absorption peak of Yb,Er:GSGG crystal shifts to 970 nm and its absorption band broadens obviously, which makes the crystal suitable for pumping by a 970 nm laser diode (LD). This crystal also exhibits a shorter lifetime of a lower laser level, a larger emission cross section and higher thermal conductivity than those of Er:GSGG. All these factors suggest that Yb3+/Er3+ co-doping has a positive effect on improving the spectroscopic and thermal performances in GSGG based laser crystals, and imply that double-doped Yb,Er:GSGG crystal is a potential candidate as an excellent LD pumped 2.79 μm laser material.

  20. MedAustron: The Austrian ion therapy facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Michael

    MedAustron is a synchrotron-based light-ion beam therapy center for cancer treatment as well as for clinical and non-clinical research in Wiener Neustadt, Austria. The center is designed for the treatment of up to 1200 patients per year and for non-clinical research in the areas of radiobiology and medical radiation physics, as well as in experimental physics. MedAustron is an interdisciplinary project, benefiting from close cooperation and knowledge transfer with medical, scientific and research institutes on the national and international level. Three medical irradiation rooms will allow quasi-permanent patient treatment during two shifts on working days. The remaining beam time will be used for non-clinical research applications in a dedicated fourth irradiation room. The expected start of operation of MedAustron is mid-2016...

  1. Gaps in affiliation indexing in Scopus and PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Cynthia M.; Cox, Roxanne; Fial, Alissa V.; Hartman, Teresa L.; Magee, Martha L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The authors sought to determine whether unexpected gaps existed in Scopus's author affiliation indexing of publications written by the University of Nebraska Medical Center or Nebraska Medicine (UNMC/NM) authors during 2014. Methods First, we compared Scopus affiliation identifier search results to PubMed affiliation keyword search results. Then, we searched Scopus using affiliation keywords (UNMC, etc.) and compared the results to PubMed affiliation keyword and Scopus affiliation identifier searches. Results We found that Scopus's records for approximately 7% of UNMC/NM authors' publications lacked appropriate UNMC/NM author affiliation identifiers, and many journals' publishers were supplying incomplete author affiliation information to PubMed. Conclusions Institutions relying on Scopus to track their impact should determine whether Scopus's affiliation identifiers will, in fact, identify all articles published by their authors and investigators. PMID:27076801

  2. Death, dying and informatics: misrepresenting religion on MedLine

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez del Pozo, Pablo; Fins, Joseph J

    2005-01-01

    Background The globalization of medical science carries for doctors worldwide a correlative duty to deepen their understanding of patients' cultural contexts and religious backgrounds, in order to satisfy each as a unique individual. To become better informed, practitioners may turn to MedLine, but it is unclear whether the information found there is an accurate representation of culture and religion. To test MedLine's representation of this field, we chose the topic of death and dying in the three major monotheistic religions. Methods We searched MedLine using PubMed in order to retrieve and thematically analyze full-length scholarly journal papers or case reports dealing with religious traditions and end-of-life care. Our search consisted of a string of words that included the most common denominations of the three religions, the standard heading terms used by the National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature (NRCBL), and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used by the National Library of Medicine. Eligible articles were limited to English-language papers with an abstract. Results We found that while a bibliographic search in MedLine on this topic produced instant results and some valuable literature, the aggregate reflected a selection bias. American writers were over-represented given the global prevalence of these religious traditions. Denominationally affiliated authors predominated in representing the Christian traditions. The Islamic tradition was under-represented. Conclusion MedLine's capability to identify the most current, reliable and accurate information about purely scientific topics should not be assumed to be the same case when considering the interface of religion, culture and end-of-life care. PMID:15992401

  3. UCSD's MedPics: implementation and impact on the curriculum.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, H. M.; Irwin, A. E.; Baird, S.; Bloor, C. M.; Miyai, K.; Savoia, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    MedPics is a computer-based image delivery system with supporting text fields and on-screen graphics to assist in key feature identification. It has been used by the University of California, San Diego as an integral part of the Human Disease course since 1992. Initially created to support pathology and histology, the program has now expanded to include hematology. MedPics has had a positive impact on the second year curriculum for which it was created. Moreover, use of this program has improved student attitudes toward computer-based resources and increased faculty interest in instructional development. Images Figure 1 PMID:8130582

  4. Decay of /sup 150/Er

    SciTech Connect

    Moltz, D.M.; Toth, K.S.; Ellis-Akovali, Y.A.; Cole, J.D.

    1982-09-01

    A new activity, T/sub 1/2/ = 20 +- 2 sec, was observed in /sup 12/C bombardments of /sup 144/Sm. Only one ..gamma.. ray, 476.0 +- 0.1 keV, was found to be associated with this nuclide. We identify the new isotope as /sup 150/Er and propose that it decays mainly to one level in /sup 150/Ho at an excitation energy of approx.476 keV by an allowed ..beta.. transition which connects states with the following configurations: O/sup +/(..pi..h/sub 11/2/, ..pi..h/sub 11/2/)..-->..1/sup +/(..pi..h/sub 11/2/,..nu..h/sub 9/2/). As part of the investigation, the decay properties of the high- and low-spin /sup 150/Ho isomers were reexamined.

  5. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  6. Are Wnts Retrogradely Transported to the ER?

    PubMed

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-11-01

    A recent report showed that Drosophila miR-307a initiates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in wingless (wg)-expressing cells by suppression of the evolutionarily conserve Wnt secretion factor Wntless (Wls). Interestingly, the authors noted that wg has a putative C-terminal dilysine motif (KKVY), which is required for its apparent retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport. Wls suppression resulted in ER stress, which was phenocopied by several other manipulations that impaired wg secretion in flies, as well as Wnt5a secretion in mammalian cells. The authors surmised that their data "reveals a previously unknown Golgi-to-ER retrograde route of wg, and elucidates a correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress." However, there are obvious caveats to this interpretation, as ER stress resulting from Wnt secretion impairment could be readily explained by its inability to leave the ER, and not resulting from Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2315-2316, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26916992

  7. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  8. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  9. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit

    PubMed Central

    Takanaga, Hitomi; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2010-01-01

    Although biochemical studies suggested a high permeability of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for small molecules, proteomics identified few specialized ER transporters. To test functionality of transporters during ER passage, we tested whether glucose transporters (GLUTs, SGLTs) destined for the plasma membrane are active during ER transit. HepG2 cells were characterized by low-affinity ER transport activity, suggesting that ER uptake is protein mediated. The much-reduced capacity of HEK293T cells to take up glucose across the plasma membrane correlated with low ER transport. Ectopic expression of GLUT1, -2, -4, or -9 induced GLUT isoform-specific ER transport activity in HEK293T cells. In contrast, the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 mediated efficient plasma membrane glucose transport but no detectable ER uptake, probably because of lack of a sufficient sodium gradient across the ER membrane. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GLUTs are sufficient for mediating ER glucose transport en route to the plasma membrane. Because of the low volume of the ER, trace amounts of these uniporters contribute to ER solute import during ER transit, while uniporters and cation-coupled transporters carry out export from the ER, together potentially explaining the low selectivity of ER transport. Expression levels and residence time of transporters in the ER, as well as their coupling mechanisms, could be key determinants of ER permeability.—Takanaga, H., Frommer, W. B. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit. PMID:20354141

  10. Student employment opportunities within ORD, with an emphasis on MED

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a talk to undergraduate Juniors and Seniors in the UW-Madison School of Pharmacy's Pharm/Tox program about student employment opportunities w/in ORD such as SSC, ORISE, etc. wtih an emphasis on MED. I would classify as this as Outreach: how to navigate EPA websites to f...

  11. 76 FR 12016 - MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...The MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Walden, Colorado. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act (Pub. L. 110- 343) and in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the meeting is to review new project proposals and update RAC members on the progress of previously approved...

  12. ADHD Meds May Pose Heart Risks for Some Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159140.html ADHD Meds May Pose Heart Risks for Some Kids ... HealthDay News) -- Ritalin, a popular drug for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), might increase the risk of an abnormal ...

  13. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  14. How Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practitioners Use PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Quint-Rapoport, Mia

    2007-01-01

    Background PubMed is the largest bibliographic index in the life sciences. It is freely available online and is used by professionals and the public to learn more about medical research. While primarily intended to serve researchers, PubMed provides an array of tools and services that can help a wider readership in the location, comprehension, evaluation, and utilization of medical research. Objective This study sought to establish the potential contributions made by a range of PubMed tools and services to the use of the database by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. Methods In this study, 10 chiropractors, 7 registered massage therapists, and a homeopath (N = 18), 11 with prior research training and 7 without, were taken through a 2-hour introductory session with PubMed. The 10 PubMed tools and services considered in this study can be divided into three functions: (1) information retrieval (Boolean Search, Limits, Related Articles, Author Links, MeSH), (2) information access (Publisher Link, LinkOut, Bookshelf ), and (3) information management (History, Send To, Email Alert). Participants were introduced to between six and 10 of these tools and services. The participants were asked to provide feedback on the value of each tool or service in terms of their information needs, which was ranked as positive, positive with emphasis, negative, or indifferent. Results The participants in this study expressed an interest in the three types of PubMed tools and services (information retrieval, access, and management), with less well-regarded tools including MeSH Database and Bookshelf. In terms of their comprehension of the research, the tools and services led the participants to reflect on their understanding as well as their critical reading and use of the research. There was universal support among the participants for greater access to complete articles, beyond the approximately 15% that are currently open access. The abstracts provided by PubMed were

  15. Edible Pot Sends Toddlers to Colorado ERs

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Edible Pot Sends Toddlers to Colorado ERs Cannabis-laced candy, baked goods look irresistible to kids, ... became the first two states to legalize recreational marijuana. Shortly after, a sharp increase occurred in the ...

  16. Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-07-01

    This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

  17. FIRE_ACE_ER2_MAS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    ... First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE) NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging ... SSFR Location:  Northern Alaska Arctic Ocean Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  18. ER Screenings Could Help Prevent Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158246.html ER Screenings Could Help Prevent Suicide: Study Checking patients for risk factors should be ... News) -- Routine screening of emergency room patients for suicide risk might be an effective way to prevent ...

  19. Characterization of the ER-Targeted Low Affinity Ca(2+) Probe D4ER.

    PubMed

    Greotti, Elisa; Wong, Andrea; Pozzan, Tullio; Pendin, Diana; Pizzo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger and changes in its concentration impact on nearly every aspect of cell life. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents the major intracellular Ca(2+) store and the free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]) within its lumen ([Ca(2+)]ER) can reach levels higher than 1 mM. Several genetically-encoded ER-targeted Ca(2+) sensors have been developed over the last years. However, most of them are non-ratiometric and, thus, their signal is difficult to calibrate in live cells and is affected by shifts in the focal plane and artifactual movements of the sample. On the other hand, existing ratiometric Ca(2+) probes are plagued by different drawbacks, such as a double dissociation constant (Kd) for Ca(2+), low dynamic range, and an affinity for the cation that is too high for the levels of [Ca(2+)] in the ER lumen. Here, we report the characterization of a recently generated ER-targeted, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based, Cameleon probe, named D4ER, characterized by suitable Ca(2+) affinity and dynamic range for monitoring [Ca(2+)] variations within the ER. As an example, resting [Ca(2+)]ER have been evaluated in a known paradigm of altered ER Ca(2+) homeostasis, i.e., in cells expressing a mutated form of the familial Alzheimer's Disease-linked protein Presenilin 2 (PS2). The lower Ca(2+) affinity of the D4ER probe, compared to that of the previously generated D1ER, allowed the detection of a conspicuous, more clear-cut, reduction in ER Ca(2+) content in cells expressing mutated PS2, compared to controls. PMID:27598166

  20. Topography over South America from ERS altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia

    1997-01-01

    The results of the surface topography mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.

  1. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. Results: ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. Conclusion: ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load. PMID:22705729

  2. Recent Advances with ER Targeted Intrabodies.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Andrea L J; Dübel, Stefan; Böldicke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ER intrabodies are recombinant antibody fragments produced and retained in the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) of a cell or an organism with the purpose to induce phenotypes generated by interfering with the intracellular processing or by changing the location of the recognized antigen. The most common application is the generation of functional knockdowns of membrane proteins, which cannot reach their natural location on the cell surface when they are retained in the ER by the intrabody. Phenotypes generated by interfering with the secretion of extracellular or plasma proteins can be analyzed in a similar way. So far, most ER intrabody studies relied on scFv fragments subcloned from hybridoma lines. Recently, several large international research consortia have started to provide antibodies, with the final goal to cover substantial parts of the human proteome. For practical reasons of throughput and effort, in these consortia the most appropriate method to generate the necessary large numbers of monoclonal antibodies is in vitro selection, typically employing phage or yeast display. These methods provide the antibody genes right from the start, thereby facilitating the application of ER antibody approaches. On the other end, the first transgenic mice expressing an ER intrabody has recently been described. This moves the ER intrabody approach finally to level with classic in vivo knockout strategies - but also offers novel capabilities to the researchers. Promising new perspectives may originate from the fact that the knockdown is restricted to the protein level, that a graded knockdown strength can be achieved, or that the targeting of individual posttranslational modifications will be possible with previously impossible specificity. Finally, the link of today's high throughput recombinant antibody generation to a knock down phenotype is now possible with a single cloning step. It can therefore be expected that we will see a much quicker growth of the number of

  3. TeleMed: A distributed virtual patient record system

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.; Phillips, R.L.; Kilman, D.G.; Cook, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    TeleMed is a distributed diagnosis and analysis system, which permits physicians who are not collocated to consult on the status of a patient. The patient`s record is dynamically constructed from data that may reside at several sites but which can be quickly assembled for viewing by pointing to the patient`s name. Then, a graphical patient record appears, through which consulting physicians can retrieve textual and radiographic data with a single mouse click. TeleMed uses modern distributed object technology and emerging telecollaboration tools. The authors describe in this paper some of the motivation for this change, what they mean by a virtual patient record, and some results of some early implementations of a virtual patient record.

  4. The medical dictionary for regulatory activities (MedDRA).

    PubMed

    Brown, E G; Wood, L; Wood, S

    1999-02-01

    The International Conference on Harmonisation has agreed upon the structure and content of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) version 2.0 which should become available in the early part of 1999. This medical terminology is intended for use in the pre- and postmarketing phases of the medicines regulatory process, covering diagnoses, symptoms and signs, adverse drug reactions and therapeutic indications, the names and qualitative results of investigations, surgical and medical procedures, and medical/social history. It can be used for recording adverse events and medical history in clinical trials, in the analysis and tabulations of data from these trials and in the expedited submission of safety data to government regulatory authorities, as well as in constructing standard product information and documentation for applications for marketing authorisation. After licensing of a medicine, it may be used in pharmacovigilance and is expected to be the preferred terminology for international electronic regulatory communication. MedDRA is a hierarchical terminology with 5 levels and is multiaxial: terms may exist in more than 1 vertical axis, providing specificity of terms for data entry and flexibility in data retrieval. Terms in MedDRA were derived from several sources including the WHO's adverse reaction terminology (WHO-ART), Coding Symbols for a Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction Terms (COSTART), International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9 and ICD9-CM. It will be maintained, further developed and distributed by a Maintenance Support Services Organisation (MSSO). It is anticipated that using MedDRA will improve the quality of data captured on databases, support effective analysis by providing clinically relevant groupings of terms and facilitate electronic communication of data, although as a new tool, users will need to invest time in gaining expertise in its use. PMID:10082069

  5. The MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project aims at gaining new insights in the knowledge of the processes on the base of the volcanic phenomena observable at the surface by using the broad inventory of multidisciplinary data available for Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. These active volcanic areas, which have been here considered as a cluster of supersites, represent test cases since they embrace the main characteristics typical of both "opened- and closed-conduit" volcanic systems. For the purpose, MED-SUV objectives focus on the (i) development of novel monitoring instrumentations and data collection methods, (ii) implementation of the current observation infrastructures, (iii) better constraint of crucial volcanic parameters by integration of in-situ and satellite data, and (iv) the development of an e-infrastructure for data sharing. In this framework, MED-SUV is a great opportunity for scientific collaboration among diverse research institutions and industrial sectors. MED-SUV aims to use the achieved results to gain robust sets of multi-parametric observations using the most advanced analytic data processing techniques and volcanic process and hazard modelling methods. These will provide new insights in the current and past eruptive activity of the three test case volcanoes that will increase our technical-scientific ability of tracking volcanic-related hazards in the targeted areas, and of communicating with the proper decision-maker bodies. The implementation of an e-infrastructure compliant with EPOS and the other two supersite projects, MARsite and FUTUREVOLC, will contribute to the GEO/GEOSS interoperability principles and to the GEO 2012-15 work plan.

  6. Mars 2020 Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation 2 (MEDLI2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Helen H.; Bose, Deepak; White, Todd R.; Wright, Henry S.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Kuhl, Christopher A.; Trombetta, Dominic; Santos, Jose A.; Oishi, Tomomi; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Mahzari, Milad; Pennington, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Entry Descent and Landing Instrumentation 2 (MEDLI2) sensor suite will measure aerodynamic, aerothermodynamic, and TPS performance during the atmospheric entry, descent, and landing phases of the Mars 2020 mission. The key objectives are to reduce design margin and prediction uncertainties for the aerothermal environments and aerodynamic database. For MEDLI2, the sensors are installed on both the heatshield and backshell, and include 7 pressure transducers, 17 thermal plugs, and 3 heat flux sensors (including a radiometer). These sensors will expand the set of measurements collected by the highly successful MEDLI suite, collecting supersonic pressure measurements on the forebody, a pressure measurement on the aftbody, direct heat flux measurements on the aftbody, a radiative heating measurement on the aftbody, and multiple near-surface thermal measurements on the thermal protection system (TPS) materials on both the forebody and aftbody. To meet the science objectives, supersonic pressure transducers and heat flux sensors are currently being developed and their qualification and calibration plans are presented. Finally, the reconstruction targets for data accuracy are presented, along with the planned methodologies for achieving the targets.

  7. Complex event extraction at PubMed scale

    PubMed Central

    Björne, Jari; Ginter, Filip; Pyysalo, Sampo; Tsujii, Jun'ichi; Salakoski, Tapio

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: There has recently been a notable shift in biomedical information extraction (IE) from relation models toward the more expressive event model, facilitated by the maturation of basic tools for biomedical text analysis and the availability of manually annotated resources. The event model allows detailed representation of complex natural language statements and can support a number of advanced text mining applications ranging from semantic search to pathway extraction. A recent collaborative evaluation demonstrated the potential of event extraction systems, yet there have so far been no studies of the generalization ability of the systems nor the feasibility of large-scale extraction. Results: This study considers event-based IE at PubMed scale. We introduce a system combining publicly available, state-of-the-art methods for domain parsing, named entity recognition and event extraction, and test the system on a representative 1% sample of all PubMed citations. We present the first evaluation of the generalization performance of event extraction systems to this scale and show that despite its computational complexity, event extraction from the entire PubMed is feasible. We further illustrate the value of the extraction approach through a number of analyses of the extracted information. Availability: The event detection system and extracted data are open source licensed and available at http://bionlp.utu.fi/. Contact: jari.bjorne@utu.fi PMID:20529932

  8. Overview of the SkyMed/COSMO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caltagirone, Francesco; Spera, Paolo; Vigliotti, R.; Manoni, Gemma

    1998-12-01

    The impact of natural and man-made disasters on the social and economic progress is going to become more significant, making necessary to consider natural disasters reduction. Therefore civil protection and resource managers need elements to make quicker and better decisions on a day-to-day basis, so giving the start to an emerging world-wide remote sensing market. A deep analysis on the potential users, mainly devoted to Mediterranean basin, highlights that existing and/or planned systems are not able to completely satisfy their requirements. To fulfill this gap, Italy decided to promote the SkyMed/COSMO system, presently financed by the Italian Space Agency. SkyMed/COSMO is a constellation of small satellites for observation, remote sensing and data exploitation for risks management and coastal zone monitoring, conceived to provide products, services and logistics to both institutional and commercial remote sensing users on global scale. Furthermore the system is able to satisfy a broad spectrum of important applications also in the field of the resource management, land use and law enforcement. The SkyMed/COSMO current system architecture foresees a constellation of small satellites in two different orbit planes composed by 4 satellite equipped with X-band SAR and 3 satellites equipped with optical sensors. The system is characterized by good spatial resolution, day and night/all-weather imaging capability and by a very good revisit time. The program, currently in phase B, is carried out by an industrial consortium lead by Alenia Aerospazio.

  9. Mitigation of Volcanic Risk: The COSMO-SkyMed Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, Patrizia; Daraio, Maria Girolamo; Battagliere, Maria Libera; Coletta, Alessandro

    2015-05-01

    The Italian Space Agency (ASI) promotes Earth Observation (EO) applications related to themes such as the prediction, monitoring, management and mitigation of natural and anthropogenic hazards. The approach generally followed is the development and demonstration of prototype services, using currently available data from space missions, in particular the COSMO-SkyMed (Constellation of Small Satellites for Mediterranean basin observation) mission, which represents the largest Italian investment in Space System for EO and thanks to which Italy plays a key role worldwide. Projects funded by ASI provide the convergence of various national industry expertise, research and institutional reference users. In this context a significant example is represented by the ASI Pilot Projects, recently concluded, dealing with various thematic, such as volcanoes. In this paper a special focus will be addressed to the volcanic risk management and the contribution provided in this field by COSMO-SkyMed satellite constellation during the last years. A comprehensive overview of the various national and international projects using COSMO-SkyMed data for the volcanic risk mitigation will be given, highlighting the Italian contribution provided worldwide in this operational framework.

  10. Mediator MED23 cooperates with RUNX2 to drive osteoblast differentiation and bone development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Yao, Xiao; Yan, Guang; Xu, YiChi; Yan, Jun; Zou, Weiguo; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    How lineage specifiers are regulated during development is an outstanding question, and the molecular regulation of osteogenic factor RUNX2 remains to be fully understood. Here we report that the Mediator subunit MED23 cooperates with RUNX2 to regulate osteoblast differentiation and bone development. Med23 deletion in mesenchymal stem cells or osteoblast precursors results in multiple bone defects similar to those observed in Runx2+/− mice. In vitro, Med23-deficient progenitor cells are refractory to osteoblast differentiation, and Med23 deficiency reduces Runx2-target gene activity without changing Runx2 expression. Mechanistically, MED23 binds to RUNX2 and modulates its transcriptional activity. Moreover, Med23 deficiency in osteoprogenitor cells exacerbates the skeletal abnormalities observed in Runx2+/− mice. Collectively, our results establish a genetic and physical interaction between RUNX2 and MED23, suggesting that MED23 constitutes a molecular node in the regulatory network of anabolic bone formation and related diseases. PMID:27033977

  11. MedlinePlus FAQ: MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed

    MedlinePlus

    ... links to preformulated searches of the MEDLINE/PubMed database, allowing you to find references to latest health ... articles on your topic. MEDLINE/PubMed: Is a database of professional biomedical literature Is a Web-based, ...

  12. 77 FR 65438 - MedLink International, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION MedLink International, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading October 24, 2012. It appears to the... securities of MedLink International, Inc. (``MedLink''). Questions have arisen concerning the accuracy...

  13. 47 CFR 95.627 - MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.627 MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band. The following provisions apply only to MedRadio transmitters operating...

  14. 47 CFR 95.627 - MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.627 MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band. The following provisions apply only to MedRadio transmitters operating...

  15. Frequency of MED12 mutations in phyllodes tumors: Inverse correlation with histologic grade.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Nara; Bae, Go Eun; Kang, So Young; Choi, Mi Sun; Hwang, Hye Won; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Gong, Gyungyub; Lee, Hee Jin; Bae, Young Kyung; Lee, Ahwon; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2016-06-01

    Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare breast biphasic tumor with a potential risk of recurrence and metastasis. In this study, the frequency of MED12 mutations in 176 PTs (49 benign, 49 borderline, and 78 malignant) was determined and the prognostic effect of these mutations in malignant type PT was evaluated. Analysis of MED12 mutations was performed by Sanger sequencing targeting the hotspot mutation region (exon 2) of MED12. Immunohistochemistry was also applied for evaluation of MED12 protein expression on tissue microarray blocks for 133 PTs including 50 benign, 50 borderline, and 33 malignant cases. A notable difference in the frequency of MED12 mutations was found according to histologic grade (71.4% of benign PTs, 51% of borderline PTs, 26.9% of malignant PTs; P < 0.001). MED12 protein expression was not correlated with MED12 mutation status. Patients with malignant PTs that harbored MED12 mutations demonstrated improved disease-free survival (DFS) compared with those without MED12 mutation (P = 0.07). MED12 mutation was a common molecular alteration in PT and the frequency of MED12 mutation decreased with increasing histologic grade. In malignant PT, MED12 exon 2 mutations showed improved DFS but without significance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856273

  16. Mechanisms of oestrogen receptor (ER) gene regulation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J S

    2016-07-01

    Most breast cancers are driven by a transcription factor called oestrogen receptor (ER). Understanding the mechanisms of ER activity in breast cancer has been a major research interest and recent genomic advances have revealed extraordinary insights into how ER mediates gene transcription and what occurs during endocrine resistance. This review discusses our current understanding on ER activity, with an emphasis on several evolving, but important areas of ER biology. PMID:26884552

  17. MED23: a new Mediator of H2B monoubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Streubel, Gundula; Bracken, Adrian P

    2015-12-01

    The Mediator multiprotein complex physically links transcription factors to RNA polymerase II and the basal transcription machinery. While the Mediator complex has been shown to be required for transcriptional initiation and elongation, the understanding of its interplay with histone modifying enzymes and post‐translational modifications remains elusive. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Yao et al (2015) report that the MED23 subunit of the Mediator complex physically associates with the heterodimeric RNF20/40 E3‐ligase complex to facilitate the monoubiquitylation of histone H2B on gene bodies of actively transcribed genes. PMID:26438725

  18. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  19. Cohort profile: Greifswald approach to individualized medicine (GANI_MED)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individualized Medicine aims at providing optimal treatment for an individual patient at a given time based on his specific genetic and molecular characteristics. This requires excellent clinical stratification of patients as well as the availability of genomic data and biomarkers as prerequisites for the development of novel diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. The University Medicine Greifswald, Germany, has launched the “Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine” (GANI_MED) project to address major challenges of Individualized Medicine. Herein, we describe the implementation of the scientific and clinical infrastructure that allows future translation of findings relevant to Individualized Medicine into clinical practice. Methods/design Clinical patient cohorts (N > 5,000) with an emphasis on metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are being established following a standardized protocol for the assessment of medical history, laboratory biomarkers, and the collection of various biosamples for bio-banking purposes. A multi-omics based biomarker assessment including genome-wide genotyping, transcriptome, metabolome, and proteome analyses complements the multi-level approach of GANI_MED. Comparisons with the general background population as characterized by our Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) are performed. A central data management structure has been implemented to capture and integrate all relevant clinical data for research purposes. Ethical research projects on informed consent procedures, reporting of incidental findings, and economic evaluations were launched in parallel. PMID:24886498

  20. Ice Charting Services And Developments With COSMO-SkyMed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelucci, Maria; Karvonen, Juha; Eriksson, Patrick B.

    2013-12-01

    The use of satellites in ice detection and monitoring applications is a very efficient way to monitor wide sea areas and relevant ice conditions, independently from the day time and weather conditions. EO SAR(Synthetic Aperture RADAR) technology is more suitable with respect to optical sensors, as SAR provides information independently on the day time and weather and allows a more accurate ice classification into different classes. SAR data provide information on the ice coverage, the size of ice floes, the shape of ice floes and the edges of ice. The COSMO-SkyMed satellite constellation in particular contributes to support Ice Services' stakeholders, as it provides worldwide SAR data with an incomparable performance in terms of revisit time, image resolution, rapid coverage of huge areas and number of acquired scenes. It provides synoptic information during day and night and at all weather conditions. e-GEOS and FMI are partnering to exploit and develop COSMO-SkyMed capabilities (X-band), for operational Ice Charting services.

  1. MedCast: a discussion support system for cooperative work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ramon A.; Lima, Vinícius; Lopes, Isidro; Gutierrez, Marco A.

    2012-02-01

    The availability of low cost Internet connections and specialized hardware, like webcams and headsets, makes possible the development of solutions for remote collaborative work. These solutions can provide advantages compared to presential meetings, such as: availability of experts on remote locations; lower price compared to presential meetings; creation of online didactic material (e.g. video-classes); richer forms of interaction between participants. These technologies are particularly interesting for continent-sized countries where typically there is a short number of skilled people in remote areas. However, the application of these technologies in medical field represents a special challenge due to the more complex requirements of this area, such as: Provide confidentiality (patient de-identification) and integrity of patient data; Guarantee availability of the system; Guarantee authenticity of data and users; Provide simple and effective user interface; Be compliant with medical standards such as DICOM and HL7. In order to satisfy those requirements a prototype called MedCast is under development whose architecture allows the integration of the Hospital Information System (HIS) with a collaborative tool in compliance with the HIPAA rules. Some of the MedCast features are: videoconferencing, chat, recording of the sessions, sharing of documents and reports and still and dynamic images presentation. Its current version allows the remote discussion of clinical cases and the remote ECG evaluation.

  2. 20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse. 228.10... component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse....

  3. 20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse. 228.10... component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse....

  4. 20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse. 228.10... component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse....

  5. 20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse. 228.10... component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse....

  6. 20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse. 228.10... component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse....

  7. Low temperature properties of some Er-rich intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. Gshneidner,jr; A.O. Pecharsky; L.Hale; V.K. Pecharsky

    2004-09-30

    The low temperature volumetric heat capacity ({approx}3.5 to 350 K) and magnetic susceptibility ({approx}4 to 320 K) of Er{sub 3}Rh, Er{sub 3}Ir, Er{sub 3}Pt, Er{sub 2}Al, and Er{sub 2}Sn have been measured. All of the compounds order antiferromagnetically (or ferrimagnetically), and most exhibit more than one magnetic ordering transition. The volumetric heat capacities in general are smaller than those of the prototype magnetic regenerator materials, except for Er{sub 3}Ir in the 12 to 14 K temperature range.

  8. The QuEChERS revolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technique of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) is only 7 years old, yet it is revolutionizing the manner in which multiresidue, multiclass pesticide analysis (and perhaps beyond) is performed. Columnist Ron Majors sits down with inventors Steve Lehotay and Michelangelo An...

  9. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  10. European Space Agency, ERS-1 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, A.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives selected for ERS-1 which are primarily intended to facilitate the exploitation of coastal oceans, including ice infested waters, and to facilitate the development of improved global weather information through the provision of information on the weather conditions over the oceans of the word are outlined. Additionally, land objectives will be addressed using the synthetic aperture radar incorporated in the payload.

  11. ER – the key to the highway

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, Giovanni; Hawes, Chris; Brandizzi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the key organelle at the start of the secretory pathway and the list of its functions is continually growing. The ER organization as a tubular/cisternal network at the cortex of plant cells has recently been shown to be governed by the membrane tubulation proteins of the reticulon family working alongside plant atlastin homologues, members of the RHD3 group of proteins. Such a network has intimate connections with other organelles such as peroxisomes via peroxules, chloroplasts, Golgi bodies and at the cell cortex to the plasma membrane with cytoskeleton at so called “anchor/contact sites”. The ER network is by no means static displaying a range of different movements and acting as a sub-cellular highway supports the motility of organelles such as peroxisomes, mitochondria and Golgi bodies plus the transport of macromolecules such as viral movement proteins, nucleocapsid proteins and RNA. Here we highlight recent and exciting discoveries on the maintenance of the ER structure and its role on movement and biology of other organelles. PMID:25259957

  12. Er3+ fluorescence in rare-earth aluminate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Richard; Hampton, Scott; Nordine, Paul C.; Key, Thomas; Scheunemann, Richard

    2005-08-01

    Er3+ ion fluorescence was excited with a 980-nm pump laser in Er-doped rare-earth aluminate (REAl) glasses with Er-dopant concentrations from 0.5-30mol% (oxides basis). The spectral and decay characteristics were measured at ˜1550nm from Er3+I13/24 and at ˜2750nm from Er3+I11/24. Red and green light emissions were also observed, from Er3+F9/24 and S3/24+H11/22, respectively. The fluorescence decay rates are described by a model that yields an accurate fit of results at Er concentrations from 0.5to7mol%. The radiative lifetime of Er3+I13/24 in Er:REAl glass is 6.12±0.26ms. Hydroxyl ion quenching occurs at a rate given by 9.88×10-20 aOHnEr Hz, where aOH is the glass absorption coefficient (in cm-1) at a wavelength of 2950nm and nEr is the total Er ion concentration. The I13/24 upconversion rate constant increases with the Er concentration to 1.35+0.05×10-18width="0.3em"/>cm3/s at and above 7-mol% Er2O3. Er3+I11/24 fluorescence decays primarily by multiphonon quenching to I13/24, at 7700±800Hz, a rate that is slightly less than in tellurite glasses. The addition of 20-mol% silica to the glass has only a small influence on the fluorescence decay rates and greatly improves glass formation from the liquid to allow melting and casting of Er-doped REAl glass from platinum crucibles. The application of these Er-doped glasses in laser and optical device applications is briefly discussed.

  13. A link between the cytoplasmic engulfment protein Elmo1 and the Mediator complex subunit Med31.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, Joshua P; Lu, Mingjian; Das, Soumita; Park, Daeho; Ernst, Peter B; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2013-01-21

    The cytoplasmic Elmo1:Dock180 complex acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase Rac and functions downstream of the phagocytic receptor BAI1 during apoptotic cell clearance, and in the entry of Salmonella and Shigella into cells. We discovered an unexpected binding between Elmo1 and the Mediator complex subunit Med31. The Mediator complex is a regulatory hub for nearly all gene transcription via RNA polymerase II, bridging the general transcription machinery with gene-specific regulatory proteins. Med31 is the smallest and the most evolutionarily conserved Mediator subunit, and knockout of Med31 results in embryonic lethality in mice; however, Med31 function in specific biological contexts is poorly understood. We observed that in primary macrophages, during Salmonella infection, Elmo1 and Med31 specifically affected expression of the cytokine genes Il10 and Il33 among the >25 genes monitored. Although endogenous Med31 is predominantly nuclear localized, Elmo1 increased the cytoplasmic localization of Med31. We identify ubiquitination as a novel posttranslational modification of Med31, with the cytoplasmic monoubiquitinated form of Med31 being enhanced by Elmo1. These data identify Elmo1 as a novel regulator of Med31, revealing a previously unrecognized link between cytoplasmic signaling proteins and the Mediator complex. PMID:23273896

  14. Lattice and magnetic properties of ErVO4 and ErPO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Y.; Skanthakumar, S.; Loong, C.-K.; Wakabayashi, N.; Boatner, L. A.

    2002-07-01

    The crystal-field energy-level structure of the Er3+ ground-state multiplet in ErVO4 was investigated by inelastic neutron scattering and magnetic susceptibility methods. The quantitative determination of the crystal-field-level energetics in conjunction with elastic-constant data was used to carry out a detailed analysis of the magnetoelastic contribution to the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters. X-ray-diffraction measurements show that the magnetoelastic effect is small, but the anisotropy with respect to the tetragonal c axis is unusual among the rare-earth orthovanadate and orthophosphate series. It was concluded that in ErVO4 the sixth-order multipole contribution is essential for explaining the observed thermal-expansion anomaly. A similar situation also occurs in the case of ErPO4. This result is contrary to the dominating role of the quadrupole effect found previously in many rare-earth orthovanadates and orthophosphates.

  15. 150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal inverted siphon #2. Longitudinal steel reinforcing rods are visible at bottom. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 702). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  16. 155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  17. The cervical malignant cells display a down regulation of ER-α but retain the ER-β expression

    PubMed Central

    López-Romero, Ricardo; Garrido-Guerrero, Efraín; Rangel-López, Angélica; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Lazos-Ochoa, Minerva; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Bandala, Cindy; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The human cervix is a tissue target of sex steroid hormones as estradiol (E2) which exerts its action through of the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER-α and ER-β). In this study we investigated the expression of ER-α and ER-β in human invasive cervical carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analyses and compared with that observed in the corresponding normal tissue. The results show nuclear expression of ER-α mainly in the first third of normal cervical epithelium, however, decreased or absent expression were present in invasive cervical carcinoma, indicating that expression of ER-α is lost in cervical cancer. Nevertheless, by RT-PCR we were able to demonstrate mRNA expression of ER-α in invasive cervical tissues. These results suggest that loss of ER-α could be due to a mechanism of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of its gene during the progression to invasive carcinoma. On the other hand, ER-β was expressed in normal cervix with an expression pattern similar to ER-α. In addition to its nuclear localization, cytoplasmic immunoreaction of ER-β was present in the epithelium of invasive cervical carcinomas, suggesting an association between cytoplasmic ER-β expression and invasive phenotype in the cervical tumors. In summary, the results show that the cervical malignant cells tend to loss the ER-α but maintain the ER-β actively expressed. Loss of expression of ER-α in neoplastic tissue suggests that the estrogenic effects could be conducted through the ER-β in human neoplastic cervical tissue. More detailed studies are needed to confirm this suggestion and to determine the role of ER-β in cervical cancer. PMID:23923078

  18. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI): Complete Flight Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Bose, Deepak; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kuhl, Christopher A.; Santos, Jose A.; Wright, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle (EV) successfully entered the Mars atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover safely on the surface of the planet in Gale crater on August 6, 2012. MSL carried the MSL Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Instrumentation (MEDLI). MEDLI delivered the first in-depth understanding of the Mars entry environments and the response of the entry vehicle to those environments. MEDLI was comprised of three major subsystems: the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS), the MEDLI Integrated Sensor Plugs (MISP), and the Sensor Support Electronics (SSE). Ultimately, the entire MEDLI sensor suite consisting of both MEADS and MISP provided measurements that were used for trajectory reconstruction and engineering validation of aerodynamic, atmospheric, and thermal protection system (TPS) models in addition to Earth-based systems testing procedures. This report contains in-depth hardware descriptions, performance evaluation, and data information of the three MEDLI subsystems.

  19. Ethylene Perception by the ERS1 Protein in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Anne E.; Findell, Jennifer L.; Schaller, G. Eric; Sisler, Edward C.; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2000-01-01

    Ethylene perception in Arabidopsis is controlled by a family of five genes, including ETR1, ERS1 (ethylene response sensor 1), ERS2, ETR2, and EIN4. ERS1, the most highly conserved gene with ETR1, encodes a protein with 67% identity to ETR1. To clarify the role of ERS1 in ethylene sensing, we biochemically characterized the ERS1 protein by heterologous expression in yeast. ERS1, like ETR1, forms a membrane-associated, disulfide-linked dimer. In addition, yeast expressing the ERS1 protein contains ethylene-binding sites, indicating ERS1 is also an ethylene-binding protein. This finding supports previous genetic evidence that isoforms of ETR1 also function in plants as ethylene receptors. Further, we used the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to characterize the ethylene-binding sites of ERS1 and ETR1. We found 1-MCP to be both a potent inhibitor of the ethylene-induced seedling triple response, as well as ethylene binding by yeast expressing ETR1 and ERS1. Yeast expressing ETR1 and ERS1 showed nearly identical sensitivity to 1-MCP, suggesting that the ethylene-binding sites of ETR1 and ERS1 have similar affinities for ethylene. PMID:10938361

  20. ER-12-1 completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.; Cole, J.C.; Drellack, S.L.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well began on July 19, 1991 and was completed on October 17, 1991. Drilling problems included hole deviation and hole instability that prevented the timely completion of this borehole. Drilling methods used include rotary tri-cone and rotary hammer drilling with conventional and reverse circulation using air/water, air/foam (Davis mix), and bentonite mud. Geologic cuttings and geophysical logs were obtained from the well. The rocks penetrated by the ER-12-1 drillhole are a complex assemblage of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian sedimentary rocks that are bounded by numerous faults that show substantial stratigraphic offset. The final 7.3 m (24 ft) of this hole penetrated an unusual intrusive rock of Cretaceous age. The geology of this borehole was substantially different from that expected, with the Tongue Wash Fault encountered at a much shallower depth, paleozoic rocks shuffled out of stratigraphic sequence, and the presence of an altered biotite-rich microporphyritic igneous rock at the bottom of the borehole. Conodont CAI analyses and rock pyrolysis analyses indicate that the carbonate rocks in ER-12-1, as well as the intervening sheets of Eleana siltstone, have been thermally overprinted following movement on the faults that separate them. The probable source of heat for this thermal disturbance is the microporphyritic intrusion encountered at the bottom of the hole, and its age establishes that the major fault activity must have occurred prior to 102.3+0.5 Ma (middle Cretaceous).

  1. Meyers Großer Sternenatlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunier, Serge; Fujii, Akira

    Unendliche Weiten mal ganz aus der Nähe betrachtet. Meyers Großer Sternenatlas ist ein außergewöhnlicher Bildband über den Sternenhimmel, der die Sternbilder erstmals im gleichen Größenverhältnis zeigt, wie sie am Himmel erscheinen. Die sensationellen Astrofotos und aktuellen Aufnahmen des Hubble-Weltraumteleskops werden Gelegenheitsbeobachter und Hobbyastronomen gleichermaßen begeistern.

  2. Optical properties of RbMnF3:Er3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, M. V.; Sibley, W. A.

    1980-03-01

    Absorption, emission, excitation, and lifetime data are presented for RbMnF3:Er3+. Evidence for Mn2+ --> Er3+ energy transfer was found from the Er3+ excitation spectra and the temperature dependence of the Mn2+ and Er3+ emissions. The presence of Er3+ in the lattice slightly changed the temperature dependence of the Mn2+ lifetime. Radiative and radiationless transitions are discussed in terms of the model of Flaherty and Di Bartolo and the quantum-mechanical single-configuration coordinate model of Struck and Fonger.

  3. MicroRNAs meet calcium: joint venture in ER proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Finger, Fabian; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2014-11-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment that has a key function in protein translation and folding. Maintaining its integrity is of fundamental importance for organism's physiology and viability. The dynamic regulation of intraluminal ER Ca(2+) concentration directly influences the activity of ER-resident chaperones and stress response pathways that balance protein load and folding capacity. We review the emerging evidence that microRNAs play important roles in adjusting these processes to frequently changing intracellular and environmental conditions to modify ER Ca(2+) handling and storage and maintain ER homeostasis. PMID:25372053

  4. ER contact sites direct late endosome transport.

    PubMed

    Wijdeven, Ruud H; Jongsma, Marlieke L M; Neefjes, Jacques; Berlin, Ilana

    2015-12-01

    Endosomes shuttle select cargoes between cellular compartments and, in doing so, maintain intracellular homeostasis and enable interactions with the extracellular space. Directionality of endosomal transport critically impinges on cargo fate, as retrograde (microtubule minus-end directed) traffic delivers vesicle contents to the lysosome for proteolysis, while the opposing anterograde (plus-end directed) movement promotes recycling and secretion. Intriguingly, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a key player in spatiotemporal control of late endosome and lysosome transport, through the establishment of physical contacts with these organelles. Earlier studies have described how minus-end-directed motor proteins become discharged from vesicles engaged at such contact sites. Now, Raiborg et al. implicate ER-mediated interactions, induced by protrudin, in loading plus-end-directed motor kinesin-1 onto endosomes, thereby stimulating their transport toward the cell's periphery. In this review, we recast the prevailing concepts on bidirectional late endosome transport and discuss the emerging paradigm of inter-compartmental regulation from the ER-endosome interface viewpoint. PMID:26440125

  5. Present statue of Japanese ERS-1 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishiwada, Yasufumi; Nemoto, Yoshiaki

    1986-01-01

    Earth Resources Satellite 1 (ERS-1) will be launched in the FY 1990 with the H-1 rocket from Tanegashima Space Center. ERS-1 will seek to firmly establish remote sensing technologies from space by using synthetic aperture radar and optical sensors, as well as primarily exploring for non-renewable resources and also monitoring for land use, agriculture, forestry, fishery, conservation of environment, prevention of disasters, and surveillance of coastal regions. ERS-1 is a joint project in which the main responsibility for the development of the mission equipment is assumed by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, MITI, and the Technology Research Association of Resources Remote Sensing System, while that for the satellite itself and launching rocket is assumed by the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA). In relation to this project, users have maintained a close working relationship with the manufacturers after submitting their requirements in 1984 on the specifications of the mission equipments. This missions parameters are outlined.

  6. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The EC FP7 MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) EC-FP7 Project, which started on June 2013, aims to improve the capacity of the scientific institutions, end users and SME forming the project consortium to assess the volcanic hazards at Italian Supersites, i.e. Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. The Project activities will focus on the optimisation and integration of ground and space monitoring systems, the breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes, and on the increase of the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities in the hazard management. The overall goal of the project is to apply the rationale of the Supersites GEO initiative to Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius, considered as cluster of Supersites. For the purpose MED-SUV will integrate long-term observations of ground-based multidisciplinary data available for these volcanoes, i.e. geophysical, geochemical, and volcanological datasets, with Earth Observation (EO) data. Merging of different parameters over a long period will provide better understanding of the volcanic processes. In particular, given the variety of styles and intensities of the volcanic activity observed at these volcanoes, and which make them sort of archetypes for 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcanic systems, the combination of different data will allow discrimination between peculiar volcano behaviours associated with pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. Indeed, recognition of specific volcano patterns will allow broadening of the spectrum of knowledge of geo-hazards, as well as better parameterisation and modelling of the eruptive phenomena and of the processes occurring in the volcano supply system; thus improving the capability of carrying out volcano surveillance activities. Important impacts on the European industrial sector, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new observation/monitoring sensors/systems, are

  7. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, G.

    2013-12-01

    The EC FP7 MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) EC-FP7 Project, which started on June 2013, aims to improve the capacity of the scientific institutions, end users and SME forming the project consortium to assess the volcanic hazards at Italian Supersites, i.e. Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. The Project activities will focus on the optimisation and integration of ground and space monitoring systems, the breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes, and on the increase of the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities in the hazard management. The overall goal of the project is to apply the rationale of the Supersites GEO initiative to Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius, considered as cluster of Supersites. For the purpose MED-SUV will integrate long-term observations of ground-based multidisciplinary data available for these volcanoes, i.e. geophysical, geochemical, and volcanological datasets, with Earth Observation (EO) data. Merging of different parameters over a long period will provide better understanding of the volcanic processes. In particular, given the variety of styles and intensities of the volcanic activity observed at these volcanoes, and which make them sort of archetypes for 'closed conduit '; and ';open conduit' volcanic systems, the combination of different data will allow discrimination between peculiar volcano behaviours associated with pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. Indeed, recognition of specific volcano patterns will allow broadening of the spectrum of knowledge of geo-hazards, as well as better parameterisation and modelling of the eruptive phenomena and of the processes occurring in the volcano supply system; thus improving the capability of carrying out volcano surveillance activities. Important impacts on the European industrial sector, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new observation/monitoring sensors

  8. Ternary system Er-Ni-In at T=870 K

    SciTech Connect

    Dzevenko, M.; Tyvanchuk, Yu.; Bratash, L.; Zaremba, V.; Havela, L.; Kalychak, Ya.

    2011-10-15

    Isothermal section of the Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed by means of X-ray powder diffraction and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds, namely ErNi{sub 9}In{sub 2} (YNi{sub 9}In{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 1-1.22}Ni{sub 4}In{sub 1-0.78} (MgCu{sub 4}Sn-type), Er{sub 10}Ni{sub 9.07}In{sub 20} (Ho{sub 10}Ni{sub 9}In{sub 20}-type), ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} (ZrNiAl-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}In (Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 1.78}In (Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4} (Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Er{sub 13.53}Ni{sub 3.14}In{sub 3.33} (Lu{sub 14}Co{sub 2}In{sub 3}-type), exist in the Er-Ni-In system at this temperature. The substitution of Ni for In was observed for ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} and In for Er in the case of related compounds ErNi{sub 2} and ErNi{sub 4}In. Er can enter NiIn (CoSn-type) leading to including-substitution type of compound Er{sub 0-0.12}NiIn{sub 1-0.89}. Basic magnetic properties of the Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97}, ErNi{sub 2}, Er{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 0.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected. Electrical-resistivity studies were performed on the ErNiIn, ErNi{sub 0.9}In{sub 1.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases. - Graphical Abstract: Phase relations in the ternary system Er-Ni-In have been established for the isothermal section at T=870 K based on X-ray phase and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds were observed. Highlights: > Isothermal section of Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed. > Nine ternary compounds were detected. > Basic magnetic properties of Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97} and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected.

  9. The role of ER stress in lipid metabolism and lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Han, Jaeseok; Kaufman, Randal J

    2016-08-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle important for regulating calcium homeostasis, lipid metabolism, protein synthesis, and posttranslational modification and trafficking. Numerous environmental, physiological, and pathological insults disturb ER homeostasis, referred to as ER stress, in which a collection of conserved intracellular signaling pathways, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), are activated to maintain ER function for cell survival. However, excessive and/or prolonged UPR activation leads to initiation of self-destruction through apoptosis. Excessive accumulation of lipids and their intermediate products causes metabolic abnormalities and cell death, called lipotoxicity, in peripheral organs, including the pancreatic islets, liver, muscle, and heart. Because accumulating evidence links chronic ER stress and defects in UPR signaling to lipotoxicity in peripheral tissues, understanding the role of ER stress in cell physiology is a topic under intense investigation. In this review, we highlight recent findings that link ER stress and UPR signaling to the pathogenesis of peripheral organs due to lipotoxicity. PMID:27146479

  10. Tamoxifen Action in ER-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Subrata; Holz, Marina K.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator and is mainly indicated for the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and postsurgery neoadjuvant therapy in ER-positive breast cancers. Interestingly, 5–10% of the ER-negative breast cancers have also shown sensitivity to tamoxifen treatment. The involvement of molecular markers and/or signaling pathways independent of ER signaling has been implicated in tamoxifen sensitivity in the ER-negative subgroup. Studies reveal that variation in the expression of estrogen-related receptor alpha, ER subtype beta, tumor microenvironment, and epigenetics affects tamoxifen sensitivity. This review discusses the background of the research on the action of tamoxifen that may inspire future studies to explore effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancers, the latter being an aggressive disease with worse clinical outcome. PMID:26989346

  11. TERENO-MED: Terrestrial Environmental Observatories in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Elisabeth; Friesen, Jan; Kallioras, Andreas; Bogena, Heye; Devaraju, Anusuriya; Vereecken, Harry; Teutsch, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Centres and jointly operated with local partners across the Mediterranean region. In a number of Mediterranean mesoscale hydrological catchments TERENO-MED will investigate the long-term effects of global change on the quality and the dynamics of water resources in human-influenced environments under water scarcity. The Helmholtz Centres UFZ (overall coordinator) and FZJ have therefore initiated the set-up of a network of global change observatories in 5-10 Mediterranean river catchments. The TERENO-MED observatories will: - investigate societally relevant water problems in the context of 'typical' Mediterranean environments, - provide long-term and quality-controlled data available to the scientific community, - be operated and maintained through local research institutes and universities, - establish common monitoring platforms and foster synergies between research organizations, - provide solutions to pressing local and regional water problems by building partnerships between scientific partners and regional authorities.

  12. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    In response to the EC call ENV.2012.6.4-2 (Long-term monitoring experiments in geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: the Supersite concept - FP7-ENV-2012-two-stage) a wide community of volcanological institutions proposed the project Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV), which is in the negotiation phase at the time of writing. The Consortium is composed by 18 European University and research institutes, four Small or Medium Enterprises (SME) and two non-European University and research institutes. MED-SUV will improve the consortium capacity of assessment of volcanic hazards in Supersites of Southern Italy by optimising and integrating existing and new observation/monitoring systems, by a breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes and by increasing the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities. More than 3 million of people are exposed to potential volcanic hazards in a large region in the Mediterranean Sea, where two among the largest European volcanic areas are located: Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. This project will fully exploit the unique detailed long-term in-situ monitoring data sets available for these volcanoes and integrate with Earth Observation (EO) data, setting the basic tools for a significant step ahead in the discrimination of pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. The wide range of styles and intensities of volcanic phenomena observed on these volcanoes, which can be assumed as archetypes of 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcano, together with the long-term multidisciplinary data sets give an exceptional opportunity to improve the understanding of a very wide spectrum of geo-hazards, as well as implementing and testing a large variety of innovative models of ground deformation and motion. Important impacts on the European industrial sector are expected, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new

  13. Exploitation of a large COSMO-SkyMed interferometric dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide O.; Bovenga, Fabio; Refice, Alberto; Chiaradia, Maria T.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we explored a dataset made by more than 100 images acquired by COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation over the Port-au-Prince (Haiti) metropolitan and surrounding areas that were severely hit by the January 12th, 2010 earthquake. The images were acquired along ascending pass by all the four sensors of the constellation with a mean rate of 1 acquisition/week. This consistent CSK dataset was fully exploited by using the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry algorithm SPINUA with the aim of: i) providing a displacement map of the area; ii) assessing the use of CSK and PSI for ground elevation measurements; iii) exploring the CSK satellite orbital tube in terms of both precision and size. In particular, significant subsidence phenomena were detected affecting river deltas and coastal areas of the Port-au-Prince and Carrefour region, as well as very slow slope movements and local ground instabilities. Ground elevation was also measured on PS targets with resolution of 3m. The density of these measurable targets depends on the ground coverage, and reaches values higher than 4000 PS/km2 over urban areas, while it drops over vegetated areas or along slopes affected by layover and shadow. Heights values were compared with LIDAR data at 1m of resolution collected soon after the 2010 earthquake. Furthermore, by using geocoding procedures and the precise LIDAR data as reference, the orbital errors affecting CSK records were investigated. The results are in line with other recent studies.

  14. Performing Environmental Change: MED Theatre and the Changing Face of Community-Based Performance Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Kerrie

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a programme of work produced by community-based theatre company, Manaton and East Dartmoor (MED) Theatre, addressing issues of climate change as they impact on life in rural Devon, UK. After some discussion of MED Theatre's constitution as a community-based company and the group's long-term engagement with the place, history,…

  15. Insertional mutation of the motor endplate disease (med) locus on mouse chromosome 15

    SciTech Connect

    Kohrman, D.C.; Plummer, N.W.; Schuster, T.

    1995-03-20

    Homozygous transgenic mice from line A4 have an early-onset progressive neuromuscular disorder characterized by paralysis of the rear limbs, muscle atrophy, and lethality by 4 weeks of age. The transgene insertion site was mapped to distal chromosome 15 close to the locus motor endplate disease (med). The sequence of mouse DNA flanking the insertion site junctions was determined. A small (<20 kb) deletion was detected at the insertion site, with no evidence of additional rearrangement of the chromosomal DNA. Noncomplementation of the transgene-induced mutation and med was demonstrated in a cross with med{sup J}/ + mice. The new allele is designated med{sup TgNA4Bs}(med{sup tg}). The homologous human locus MED was assigned to chromosome 12. Synaptotagmin 1 and contactin 1 were eliminated as candidate genes for the med mutation. The transgene-induced allele provides molecular access to the med gene, whose function is required for synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction and long-term survival of cerebellar Purkinje cells. 49 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. 47 CFR 95.627 - MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Radio programmer/control transmitters operating in the 401-406 MHz band must operate under the control... used by the programmer/control transmitter for a communications session. Before the monitoring system of a MedRadio programmer/control transmitter initiates a MedRadio communications session,...

  17. How to improve your PubMed/MEDLINE searches: 1. background and basic searching.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Farhad; Gray, Leonard C; Wootton, Richard

    2013-12-01

    PubMed provides free access via the Internet to more than 23 million records, of which over 19 million are from the MEDLINE database of journal articles. PubMed also provides access to other databases, such as the NCBI Bookshelf. To perform a basic search, you can simply enter the search terms or the concept that you are looking for in the search box. However, taking care to clarify your key concepts may save much time later on, because a non-specific search is likely to produce an overwhelming number of result hits. One way to make your search more specific is to specify which field you want to search using field tags. By default, the results of a search are sorted by the date added to PubMed and displayed in summary format with 20 result hits (records) on each page. In summary format, the title of the article, list of authors, source of information (e.g., journal name followed by date of publication, volume, issue, pages) and the unique PubMed record number called the PubMed identifier (PMID) are shown. Although information is stored about the articles, PubMed/MEDLINE does not store the full text of the papers themselves. However, PubMedCentral (PMC) stores more than 2.8 million articles (roughly 10% of the articles in PubMed) and provides access to them for free to the users. PMID:24197398

  18. Formalizing MedDRA to support semantic reasoning on adverse drug reaction terms.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Cédric; Sadou, Éric; Souvignet, Julien; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Declerck, Gunnar

    2014-06-01

    Although MedDRA has obvious advantages over previous terminologies for coding adverse drug reactions and discovering potential signals using data mining techniques, its terminological organization constrains users to search terms according to predefined categories. Adding formal definitions to MedDRA would allow retrieval of terms according to a case definition that may correspond to novel categories that are not currently available in the terminology. To achieve semantic reasoning with MedDRA, we have associated formal definitions to MedDRA terms in an OWL file named OntoADR that is the result of our first step for providing an "ontologized" version of MedDRA. MedDRA five-levels original hierarchy was converted into a subsumption tree and formal definitions of MedDRA terms were designed using several methods: mappings to SNOMED-CT, semi-automatic definition algorithms or a fully manual way. This article presents the main steps of OntoADR conception process, its structure and content, and discusses problems and limits raised by this attempt to "ontologize" MedDRA. PMID:24680984

  19. MED12 methylation by CARM1 sensitizes human breast cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Zeng, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Zibo; Boyer, Thomas G.; Bian, Xiuwu; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The RNA polymerase II mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) is frequently mutated in human cancers, and loss of MED12 has been shown to induce drug resistance through activation of transforming growth factor–β receptor (TGF-βR) signaling. We identified MED12 as a substrate for coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1). Not only are the expression levels of CARM1 and MED12 positively correlated, but their high expression also predicts better prognosis in human breast cancers after chemotherapy. MED12 was methylated at R1862 and R1912 by CARM1, and mutation of these sites in cell lines resulted in resistance to chemotherapy drugs. Furthermore, we showed that the methylation-dependent drug response mechanism is distinct from activation of TGF-βR signaling, because methylated MED12 potently suppresses p21/WAF1 transcription. Cells defective in MED12 methylation have up-regulated p21 protein, which correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Collectively, this study identifies MED12 methylation as a sensor for predicting response to commonly used chemotherapy drugs in human cancers. PMID:26601288

  20. A Study of GRATEFUL MED Use in a Graduate Health Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Marcia Klinger

    A study of "Grateful Med," an interface to Medline, was conducted at California State University/Northridge to discover how efficiently students enrolled in graduate-level research methods classes in health sciences and communicative disorders could access Medline using Grateful Med, what the average costs would be, and how frequently students…

  1. Ablation of Coactivator Med1 Switches the Cell Fate of Dental Epithelia to That Generating Hair

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thai; Sakai, Kiyoshi; He, Bing; Fong, Chak; Oda, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Cell fates are determined by specific transcriptional programs. Here we provide evidence that the transcriptional coactivator, Mediator 1 (Med1), is essential for the cell fate determination of ectodermal epithelia. Conditional deletion of Med1 in vivo converted dental epithelia into epidermal epithelia, causing defects in enamel organ development while promoting hair formation in the incisors. We identified multiple processes by which hairs are generated in Med1 deficient incisors: 1) dental epithelial stem cells lacking Med 1 fail to commit to the dental lineage, 2) Sox2-expressing stem cells extend into the differentiation zone and remain multi-potent due to reduced Notch1 signaling, and 3) epidermal fate is induced by calcium as demonstrated in dental epithelial cell cultures. These results demonstrate that Med1 is a master regulator in adult stem cells to govern epithelial cell fate. PMID:24949995

  2. The inclusion of an online journal in PubMed central - a difficult path.

    PubMed

    Grech, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The indexing of a journal in a prominent database (such as PubMed) is an important imprimatur. Journals accepted for inclusion in PubMed Central (PMC) are automatically indexed in PubMed but must provide the entire contents of their publications as XML-tagged (Extensible Markup Language) data files compliant with PubMed's document type definition (DTD). This paper describes the various attempts that the journal Images in Paediatric Cardiology made in its efforts to convert the journal contents (including all of the extant backlog) to PMC-compliant XML for archiving and indexing in PubMed after the journal was accepted for inclusion by the database. PMID:27244254

  3. Bulk Er:YAP and Er:Yb:YAP optical emission studies for eyesafe laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Efstratios; Boquillon, Jean-Pierre; Musset, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Emission and excitation spectra of Er-doped YAP crystals reveal a broad emission band in the eyesafe region with peaks around 1545-nm and 1608-nm and pump-bands suitable for common 800-nm and 970-nm diode lasers, suggesting YAP as a candidate crystalline host for diode-pumped laser in the 1.5-μm eyesafe regime. Erbium-doped YAP-crystal results are comparable with analogous measurements on Er:Yb:YAG, which has already demostrated efficient lasing action in the eyesafe region.

  4. On the Use of an ER-213 Detonator to Establish a Baseline for the ER-486

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Keith A.; Liechty, Gary H.; Jaramillo, Dennis C.; Munger, Alan C.; McHugh, Douglas C.; Kennedy, James E.

    2014-08-19

    This report documents a series of tests using a TSD-115 fireset coupled with an ER-213, a gold exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator. These tests were designed to fire this EBW with a smaller fireset to obtain current and voltage data as well as timing information at voltage levels below, above, and throughout the threshold firing region. This study could then create a database for comparison to our current ER-486 EBW development, which is designed to be a lower voltage (<500V) device.

  5. Retrieving Clinical Evidence: A Comparison of PubMed and Google Scholar for Quick Clinical Searches

    PubMed Central

    Bejaimal, Shayna AD; Sontrop, Jessica M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Weir, Matthew A; Garg, Amit X

    2013-01-01

    Background Physicians frequently search PubMed for information to guide patient care. More recently, Google Scholar has gained popularity as another freely accessible bibliographic database. Objective To compare the performance of searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. Methods We surveyed nephrologists (kidney specialists) and provided each with a unique clinical question derived from 100 renal therapy systematic reviews. Each physician provided the search terms they would type into a bibliographic database to locate evidence to answer the clinical question. We executed each of these searches in PubMed and Google Scholar and compared results for the first 40 records retrieved (equivalent to 2 default search pages in PubMed). We evaluated the recall (proportion of relevant articles found) and precision (ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles) of the searches performed in PubMed and Google Scholar. Primary studies included in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles. We further documented whether relevant articles were available as free full-texts. Results Compared with PubMed, the average search in Google Scholar retrieved twice as many relevant articles (PubMed: 11%; Google Scholar: 22%; P<.001). Precision was similar in both databases (PubMed: 6%; Google Scholar: 8%; P=.07). Google Scholar provided significantly greater access to free full-text publications (PubMed: 5%; Google Scholar: 14%; P<.001). Conclusions For quick clinical searches, Google Scholar returns twice as many relevant articles as PubMed and provides greater access to free full-text articles. PMID:23948488

  6. Towards a multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, Stefano; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Cossu, Roberto; Santoto, Mattia; Martini, Marcello; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The MED-SUV European project (http://med-suv.eu/) aims to design and implement a multidisciplinary infrastructure for the volcanic risk management life-cycle in southern Italy. The MED-SUV infrastructure will rely upon the improvements of the understanding of geophysical processes underlying the volcanic systems of Vesuvius / Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna. It will also achieve the integration of existing components, such as monitoring systems and data bases, novel sensors for the measurements of volcanic parameters, and tools for data analysis and process modelling. This effort will contribute to GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems - http://www.earthobservations.org/geoss.shtml) as one the volcano Supersite recognized by GEO (Group on Earth Observation) -see http://supersites.earthobservations.org/. To achieve its goals, MED-SUV needs an advanced e-infrastructure allowing: (a) heterogeneous data and processing systems to provide and share their resources, and (b) supersite Users to run their workflows and generate significant products. This presentation discusses the general interoperability approach and architecture characterizing the MED-SUV e-infrastructure. The MED-SUV e-infrastructure considered the concepts and solutions adopted by the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). The architecture requirements and system technologies builds on the experience done by relevant European projects in the framework of GEOSS and ESFRI (e.g. EuroGEOSS, GENESI, GEOWOW). MED-SUV e-infrastructure adopts three-tiers approach distinguishing among: (a) local and distributed Data/Information Providers; (b) the MED-SUV Brokering framework for harmonization and interoperability; (c) the MED-SUV e-collaboration environment for the generation and publication of advanced products. MED-SUV e-infrastructure development considers interoperability with the other two FP7 supersite projects: MARSITE and FUTUREVOLC, as well as EPOS.

  7. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Navigation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strub, Richard; Dominguez, Roseanne; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS Staff Science effort covered those activities that were BOREAS community-level activities or required uniform data collection procedures across sites and time. These activities included the acquisition, processing, and archiving of aircraft navigation/attitude data to complement the digital image data. The level-0 ER-2 navigation data files contain aircraft attitude and position information acquired during the digital image and photographic data collection missions. Temporally, the data were acquired from April to September 1994. Data were recorded at intervals of 5 seconds. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  8. Enhancement on spotlight COSMO-SkyMed SAR products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorusso, R.; Milillo, G.

    2015-10-01

    COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) satellites are providing images with a resolution in the meter regime using the sliding spotlight mode (SL). This is an imaging mode which can obtain better azimuth resolution at the expense of azimuth imaged area than stripmap mode .Spotlight SAR data processing is already an established topic; efficient and accurate solutions in frequency domain have been proposed over the last years. However, the assumptions of these algorithms start to be invalid when applied to high-resolution spotlight SAR data acquired in spaceborne low Earth orbit (LEO) configurations. The assumption of a hyperbolic range history is no longer accurate for sub-metric spatial resolutions due to the satellite curved orbit. Since velocity of a space-borne platform is quite uniform, a simple focusing scheme had been designed in order to handle no straight line trajectory, using both approximated and accurate ω-k focusing kernel. Moreover, when getting close to decimeter resolution (at X-band) other several effects appear; in particular the motion of the satellite during the transmission and reception of the chirp signal deteriorate the impulse response function (IRF), if not properly considered (so called stop-and-go approximation). This paper shows that also CSK SL SAR data, with a resolution close to 1 meter, are not immune to disturbance effects when the stop-and-go approximation is assumed. The ω-k algorithm with satellite curved orbit handling is used to focus CSK spotlight data, and the stop-and-go approximation correction is included in the data processing chain. Experimental results with CSK spotlight data are provided to show quality enhancement on SAR standard focused products.

  9. Connecting the Dots between PubMed Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Shahriar; Gresock, Joseph; Edmonds, Yvette; Helm, Richard; Potts, Malcolm; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2012-01-01

    Background There are now a multitude of articles published in a diversity of journals providing information about genes, proteins, pathways, and diseases. Each article investigates subsets of a biological process, but to gain insight into the functioning of a system as a whole, we must integrate information from multiple publications. Particularly, unraveling relationships between extra-cellular inputs and downstream molecular response mechanisms requires integrating conclusions from diverse publications. Methodology We present an automated approach to biological knowledge discovery from PubMed abstracts, suitable for “connecting the dots” across the literature. We describe a storytelling algorithm that, given a start and end publication, typically with little or no overlap in content, identifies a chain of intermediate publications from one to the other, such that neighboring publications have significant content similarity. The quality of discovered stories is measured using local criteria such as the size of supporting neighborhoods for each link and the strength of individual links connecting publications, as well as global metrics of dispersion. To ensure that the story stays coherent as it meanders from one publication to another, we demonstrate the design of novel coherence and overlap filters for use as post-processing steps. Conclusions We demonstrate the application of our storytelling algorithm to three case studies: i) a many-one study exploring relationships between multiple cellular inputs and a molecule responsible for cell-fate decisions, ii) a many-many study exploring the relationships between multiple cytokines and multiple downstream transcription factors, and iii) a one-to-one study to showcase the ability to recover a cancer related association, viz. the Warburg effect, from past literature. The storytelling pipeline helps narrow down a scientist's focus from several hundreds of thousands of relevant documents to only around a hundred

  10. Stability and subsidence across Rome (Italy) in 2011-2013 based on COSMO-SkyMed Persistent Scatterer Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesca, Cigna; Lasaponara, Rosa; Nicola, Masini; Pietro, Milillo; Deodato, Tapete

    2015-04-01

    Ground stability of the built environment of the city of Rome in central Italy has been extensively investigated in the last years by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), with focus on deformation of both the monuments of the historic centre (e.g., [1-2]) and the southern residential quarters (e.g., [3]). C-band ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ASAR time series deformation analyses brought evidence of overall stability across the town centre, except for localized deformation concentrated in areas geologically susceptible to instability (e.g. western slope of the Palatine Hill), whereas clear subsidence patterns were detected over the compressible alluvial deposits lying in proximity of the Tiber River. To retrieve an updated picture of stability and subsidence across the city, we analysed a time series of 32 COSMO-SkyMed StripMap HIMAGE, right-looking, ascending mode scenes with an image swath of 40 km, 3-m resolution and HH polarization, acquired between 21 March 2011 and 10 June 2013, with repeat cycle mostly equal to 16 days. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) processing was undertaken by using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) as detailed in [4], and more than 310,000 radar targets (i.e. PS) were identified, with an average target density of over 2,800 PS/km2. The performance of StaMPS to retrieve satisfactory PS coverage over the urban features of interest was assessed against their orientation and visibility to the satellite Line-Of-Sight, as well as their conservation history throughout the biennial investigated (2011-2013). In this work we discuss effects due to local land cover and land use by exploiting the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European Urban Atlas (IT001L) of Rome at 1:10,000 scale, thereby also evaluating the capability of the X-band to spatially resolve targets coinciding with man-made structures in vegetated areas. Based on this assessment, our PSI results highlight those environmental

  11. Dysfunction of Wntless triggers the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of Wingless and induces ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Lujun; Pei, Chunli; Lin, Xinhua; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Secreted Wnts play diverse roles in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. However, the cell-autonomous effect of unsecreted Wnts remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is observed in specialized secretory cells and participates in pathophysiological processes. The correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that Drosophila miR-307a initiates ER stress specifically in wingless (wg)-expressing cells through targeting wntless (wls/evi). This phenotype could be mimicked by retromer loss-of-function or porcupine (porc) depletion, and rescued by wg knockdown, arguing that unsecreted Wg triggers ER stress. Consistently, we found that disrupting the secretion of human Wnt5a also induced ER stress in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we showed that a C-terminal KKVY-motif of Wg is required for its retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport, thus inducing ER stress. Next, we investigated if COPI, the regulator of retrograde transport, is responsible for unsecreted Wg to induce ER stress. To our surprise, we found that COPI acts as a novel regulator of Wg secretion. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unknown Golgi-to-ER retrograde route of Wg, and elucidates a correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress during development. PMID:26887613

  12. TFG Promotes Organization of Transitional ER and Efficient Collagen Secretion.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, Janine; Miller, Victoria J; Stevenson, Nicola L; Brown, Anna K; Budnik, Annika; Heesom, Kate J; Alibhai, Dominic; Stephens, David J

    2016-05-24

    Collagen is the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom. It is of fundamental importance during development for cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis as well as in pathological processes such as fibrosis and cancer cell migration. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of procollagen secretion remains limited. Here, we show that TFG organizes transitional ER (tER) and ER exit sites (ERESs) into larger structures. Depletion of TFG results in dispersion of tER elements that remain associated with individual ER-Golgi intermediate compartments (ERGICs) as largely functional ERESs. We show that TFG is not required for the transport and packaging of small soluble cargoes but is necessary for the export of procollagen from the ER. Our work therefore suggests a key relationship between the structure and function of ERESs and a central role for TFG in optimizing COPII assembly for procollagen export. PMID:27184855

  13. Fluvoxamine alleviates ER stress via induction of Sigma-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Omi, T; Tanimukai, H; Kanayama, D; Sakagami, Y; Tagami, S; Okochi, M; Morihara, T; Sato, M; Yanagida, K; Kitasyoji, A; Hara, H; Imaizumi, K; Maurice, T; Chevallier, N; Marchal, S; Takeda, M; Kudo, T

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) expression through the PERK pathway, which is one of the cell's responses to ER stress. In addition, it has been demonstrated that induction of Sig-1R can repress cell death signaling. Fluvoxamine (Flv) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with a high affinity for Sig-1R. In the present study, we show that treatment of neuroblastoma cells with Flv induces Sig-1R expression by increasing ATF4 translation directly, through its own activation, without involvement of the PERK pathway. The Flv-mediated induction of Sig-1R prevents neuronal cell death resulting from ER stress. Moreover, Flv-induced ER stress resistance reduces the infarct area in mice after focal cerebral ischemia. Thus, Flv, which is used frequently in clinical practice, can alleviate ER stress. This suggests that Flv could be a feasible therapy for cerebral diseases caused by ER stress. PMID:25032855

  14. ESR study of AuEr dilute alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokter, H. D.; Davidov, D.; Hoekstra, F. R.; Nieuwenhuys, G. J.

    1981-06-01

    ESR linewidth and signal intensity measurements of AuEr (0.2%, 1%, 3%) dilute alloys have been carried out as a function of temperature in order to resolve previous discrepancies regarding the crystal field splitting. The data analysis indicates a splitting of (16 ± 4) K between the Γ 7 ground state and the Γ (1)8 first excited state. No evidence for an additional broadening mechanism associated with Er-Er exchange interactions was observed.

  15. June 1997 ER-2 Flight Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Irby W.

    2003-01-01

    Within our current understanding of the atmospheric ionizing radiation, the ER-2 flight package was designed to provide a complete characterization of the physical fields and evaluate various dosimetric techniques for routine monitoring. A flight plan was developed to sample the full dynamic range of the atmospheric environment especially at altitudes relevant to the development of the High Speed Civil Transport. The flight of the instruments occurred in June of 1997 where predictive models indicated a maximum in the high altitude radiation environment occurring approximately nine months after the minimum in the solar sunspot cycle. The flights originated at Moffett field at the Ames Research Center on ER-2 aircraft designated as 706. The equipment was shipped mid- May 1997 for unpacking and checkout, size fitting, systems functional test, and preflight testing on aircraft power with flight readiness achieved on May 30, 1997. The equipment was qualified on its first engineering flight on June 2, 1997 and the subsequent science gathering flights followed during the period of June 5-15, 1997. Herein we give an account of the flight operations.

  16. Validation of ERS-1 environmental data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodberlet, Mark A.; Swift, Calvin T.; Wilkerson, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of the launch-version algorithms used by the European Space Agency (ESA) to derive wind field and ocean wave estimates from measurements of sensors aboard the European Remote Sensing satellite, ERS-1, has been accomplished through comparison of the derived parameters with coincident measurements made by 24 open ocean buoys maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). During the period from November 1, 1991 through February 28, 1992, data bases with 577 and 485 pairs of coincident sensor/buoy wind and wave measurements were collected for the Active Microwave Instrument (AMI) and Radar Altimeter (RA) respectively. Based on these data, algorithm retrieval accuracy is estimated to be plus or minus 4 m/s for AMI wind speed, plus or minus 3 m/s for RA wind speed and plus or minus 0.6 m for RA wave height. After removing 180 degree ambiguity errors, the AMI wind direction retrieval accuracy was estimated at plus or minus 28 degrees. All of the ERS-1 wind and wave retrievals are relatively unbiased. These results should be viewed as interim since improved algorithms are under development. As final versions are implemented, additional assessments should be conducted to complete the validation.

  17. Radiation Hydrodynamics with FLOW-ER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcello, Dominic; Tohline, J. E.; Motl, P. M.

    2008-03-01

    The effects of radiative transport are an important aspect of many astrophysical fluid problems, such as binary star accretion discs and common envelope evolution. Unfortunately, the full radiative transport problem is seven dimensional and outside the realm of current computational capabilities. The gray field flux limited diffusion (FLD) approximation has been shown to provide a feasible four dimensional approximation to the full radiative transport problems in many cases. The flux is approximated through an algebraic expression which interpolates between the two extremes of diffusive and free streaming radiation. FLD allows for the exchange of energy and momentum between the fluid and radiation field. We are implementing this into our current Newtonian astrophysical fluid simulation code named FLOW-ER. Unlike other FLD codes, FLOW-ER handles shocks without the use of artificial viscosity. At this point, the code runs in 1D and 2D on a single processor. The ultimate goal is a fully 3D parallel code running on an adaptive mesh. Presented are results for test cases in 1D and 2D, compared to analytic results where available, and to ZeusMP2 when not. This research has been supported, in part, by NSF grants AST-0407070 and AST-0708551.

  18. ER Import Sites and Their Relationship to ER Exit Sites: A New Model for Bidirectional ER-Golgi Transport in Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Lerich, Alexander; Hillmer, Stefan; Langhans, Markus; Scheuring, David; van Bentum, Paulien; Robinson, David G

    2012-01-01

    Per definition, ER exit sites are COPII vesiculation events at the surface of the ER and in higher plants are only visualizable in the electron microscope through cryofixation techniques. Fluorescent COPII labeling moves with Golgi stacks and locates to the interface between the ER and the Golgi. In contrast, the domain of the ER where retrograde COPI vesicles fuse, i.e., ER import sites (ERIS), has remained unclear. To identify ERIS we have employed ER-located SNAREs and tethering factors. We screened several SNAREs (SYP81, the SYP7 family, and USE1) to find a SNARE whose overexpression did not disrupt ER-Golgi traffic and which gave rise to discrete fluorescent punctae when expressed with an XFP tag. Only the Qc-SNARE SYP72 fulfilled these criteria. When coexpressed with SYP72-YFP, both the type I-membrane protein RFP-p24δ5 and the luminal marker CFP-HDEL whose ER localization are due to an efficient COPI-mediated recycling, form nodules along the tubular ER network. SYP72-YFP colocalizes with these nodules which are not seen when RFP-p24δ5 or CFP-HDEL is expressed alone or when SYP72-YFP is coexpressed with a mutant form of RFP-p24δ5 that cannot exit the ER. SYP72-YFP does not colocalize with Golgi markers, except when the Golgi stacks are immobilized through actin depolymerization. Endogenous SYP7 SNAREs, also colocalize with immobilized COPII/Golgi. In contrast, XFP-tagged versions of plant homologs to TIP20 of the Dsl1 COPI-tethering factor complex, and the COPII-tethering factor p115 colocalize perfectly with Golgi stacks irrespective of the motile status. These data suggest that COPI vesicle fusion with the ER is restricted to periods when Golgi stacks are stationary, but that when moving both COPII and COPI vesicles are tethered and collect in the ER-Golgi interface. Thus, the Golgi stack and an associated domain of the ER thereby constitute a mobile secretory and recycling unit: a unique feature in eukaryotic cells. PMID:22876251

  19. Aspergillus fumigatus MedA governs adherence, host cell interactions and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Ejzykowicz, Daniele E.; Chiang, Lisa Y.; Chabot, Josée C.; Urb, Mirjam; Macdonald, K. Denyese; al-Bader, Nadia; Filler, Scott G.; Sheppard, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    In medically important fungi, regulatory elements that control development and asexual reproduction often govern the expression of virulence traits. We therefore cloned the Aspergillus fumigatus developmental modifier MedA and characterized its role in conidiation, host cell interactions and virulence. As in the model organism Aspergillus nidulans, disruption of medA in A. fumigatus dramatically reduced conidiation. However, the conidiophore morphology was markedly different between the two species. Further, gene expression analysis suggested that MedA governs conidiation through different pathways in A. fumigatus compared to A. nidulans. The A. fumigatus ΔmedA strain was impaired in biofilm production and adherence to plastic, as well as adherence to pulmonary epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibronectin in vitro. The ΔmedA strain also had reduced capacity to damage pulmonary epithelial cells, and stimulate pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA and protein expression. Consistent with these results, the A. fumigatus ΔmedA strain also exhibited reduced virulence in both an invertebrate and a mammalian model of invasive aspergillosis. Collectively these results suggest that the downstream targets of A. fumigatus MedA mediate virulence, and may provide novel therapeutic targets for invasive aspergillosis. PMID:19889083

  20. Ire1 supports normal ER differentiation in developing Drosophila photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zuyuan; Chikka, Madhusudana Rao; Xia, Hongai; Ready, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves virtually all aspects of cell physiology and, by pathways that are incompletely understood, is dynamically remodeled to meet changing cell needs. Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (Ire1), a conserved core protein of the unfolded protein response (UPR), participates in ER remodeling and is particularly required during the differentiation of cells devoted to intense secretory activity, so-called ‘professional’ secretory cells. Here, we characterize the role of Ire1 in ER differentiation in the developing Drosophila compound eye photoreceptors (R cells). As part of normal development, R cells take a turn as professional secretory cells with a massive secretory effort that builds the photosensitive membrane organelle, the rhabdomere. We find rough ER sheets proliferate as rhabdomere biogenesis culminates, and Ire1 is required for normal ER differentiation. Ire1 is active early in R cell development and is required in anticipation of peak biosynthesis. Without Ire1, the amount of rough ER sheets is strongly reduced and the extensive cortical ER network at the rhabdomere base, the subrhabdomere cisterna (SRC), fails. Instead, ER proliferates in persistent and ribosome-poor tubular tangles. A phase of Ire1 activity early in R cell development thus shapes dynamic ER. PMID:26787744

  1. A Functional Portrait of Med7 and the Mediator Complex in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Tebbji, Faiza; Chen, Yaolin; Richard Albert, Julien; Gunsalus, Kearney T. W.; Kumamoto, Carol A.; Nantel, André; Sellam, Adnane; Whiteway, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Mediator is a multi-subunit protein complex that regulates gene expression in eukaryotes by integrating physiological and developmental signals and transmitting them to the general RNA polymerase II machinery. We examined, in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, a set of conditional alleles of genes encoding Mediator subunits of the head, middle, and tail modules that were found to be essential in the related ascomycete Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Intriguingly, while the Med4, 8, 10, 11, 14, 17, 21 and 22 subunits were essential in both fungi, the structurally highly conserved Med7 subunit was apparently non-essential in C. albicans. While loss of CaMed7 did not lead to loss of viability under normal growth conditions, it dramatically influenced the pathogen's ability to grow in different carbon sources, to form hyphae and biofilms, and to colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of mice. We used epitope tagging and location profiling of the Med7 subunit to examine the distribution of the DNA sites bound by Mediator during growth in either the yeast or the hyphal form, two distinct morphologies characterized by different transcription profiles. We observed a core set of 200 genes bound by Med7 under both conditions; this core set is expanded moderately during yeast growth, but is expanded considerably during hyphal growth, supporting the idea that Mediator binding correlates with changes in transcriptional activity and that this binding is condition specific. Med7 bound not only in the promoter regions of active genes but also within coding regions and at the 3′ ends of genes. By combining genome-wide location profiling, expression analyses and phenotyping, we have identified different Med7p-influenced regulons including genes related to glycolysis and the Filamentous Growth Regulator family. In the absence of Med7, the ribosomal regulon is de-repressed, suggesting Med7 is involved in central aspects of growth control. PMID:25375174

  2. HubMed: a web-based biomedical literature search interface

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Alfred D.

    2006-01-01

    HubMed is an alternative search interface to the PubMed database of biomedical literature, incorporating external web services and providing functions to improve the efficiency of literature search, browsing and retrieval. Users can create and visualize clusters of related articles, export citation data in multiple formats, receive daily updates of publications in their areas of interest, navigate links to full text and other related resources, retrieve data from formatted bibliography lists, navigate citation links and store annotated metadata for articles of interest. HubMed is freely available at . PMID:16845111

  3. ER trapping reveals Golgi enzymes continually revisit the ER through a recycling pathway that controls Golgi organization

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Prabuddha; Satpute-Krishnan, Prasanna; Seo, Arnold Y.; Burnette, Dylan T.; Patterson, George H.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Whether Golgi enzymes remain localized within the Golgi or constitutively cycle through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is unclear, yet is important for understanding Golgi dependence on the ER. Here, we demonstrate that the previously reported inefficient ER trapping of Golgi enzymes in a rapamycin-based assay results from an artifact involving an endogenous ER-localized 13-kD FK506 binding protein (FKBP13) competing with the FKBP12-tagged Golgi enzyme for binding to an FKBP-rapamycin binding domain (FRB)-tagged ER trap. When we express an FKBP12-tagged ER trap and FRB-tagged Golgi enzymes, conditions precluding such competition, the Golgi enzymes completely redistribute to the ER upon rapamycin treatment. A photoactivatable FRB-Golgi enzyme, highlighted only in the Golgi, likewise redistributes to the ER. These data establish Golgi enzymes constitutively cycle through the ER. Using our trapping scheme, we identify roles of rab6a and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in Golgi enzyme recycling, and show that retrograde transport of Golgi membrane underlies Golgi dispersal during microtubule depolymerization and mitosis. PMID:26598700

  4. Multi-temporal interferometric monitoring of ground deformations in Haiti with COSMO/SkyMed HIMAGE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutricato, R.; Wasowski, J.; Chiaradia, M.; Piard, B. E.; Généa, S.

    2013-12-01

    The catastrophic Mw=7.0 shallow earthquake of 12 January 2010 that struck Haiti have led to numerous studies focused on the geodynamics of the region. In particular, the co-seismic fault mechanism of the 2010 Haiti earthquake as well as post-seismic deformations have been investigated through SAR interferometry (InSAR) techniques, thanks to the availability of satellite SAR sensors operating in different radar bands (ENVISAT ASAR, ALOS PALSAR, TerraSAR-X, COSMO/SkyMed). Moreover, advanced multitemporal SAR interferometry (MTI) based on COSMO/SkyMED (CSK) data is well suited for the detection and monitoring of post-seismic ground or structural instabilities. Indeed, with its short revisit time (up to 4 days) CSK allows building interferometric stacks much faster than previous satellite missions, like ERS/ENVISAT. Here we report the first outcomes of the MTI investigation based on high resolution (3 m) CSK data, conducted in the framework of a scientific collaboration between the Centre National de l'Information Géo-Spatiale (CNIGS) of Haiti and the Department of Physics (DIF) of the University of Bari, Italy. We rely on a stack of 89 CSK data (image mode: HIMAGE; polarization: HH; look side: right; pass direction: ascending; beam: H4-0A) acquired by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) over the Port-au-Prince (PaP) metropolitan and surrounding areas that were severely hit by the 2010 earthquake. CSK acquisitions span the period June 2011 ÷ February 2013, which is sufficient for detecting and monitoring significant ground instabilities. The MTI results were obtained through the application of the SPINUA processing chain, a Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI)-like technique. In particular, we detected significant subsidence phenomena affecting river deltas and coastal areas of the PaP and Carrefour region. The maximum rate of subsidence movements exceed few cm/yr and this implies increasing flooding (or tsunami) hazard. Furthermore, maximum subsidence rates were

  5. Untangling the web: Mechanisms underlying ER network formation

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Uma; Blackstone, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The ER is a continuous membrane system consisting of the nuclear envelope, flat sheets often studded with ribosomes, and a polygonal network of highly-curved tubules extending throughout the cell. Although protein and lipid biosynthesis, protein modification, vesicular transport, Ca2+dynamics, and protein quality control have been investigated in great detail, mechanisms that generate the distinctive architecture of the ER have been uncovered only recently. Several protein families including the reticulons and REEPs/DP1/Yop1p harbor hydrophobic hairpin domains that shape high-curvature ER tubules and mediate intramembrane protein interactions. Members of the atlastin/RHD3/Sey1p family of dynamin-related GTPases interact with the ER-shaping proteins and mediate the formation of three-way junctions responsible for the polygonal structure of the tubular ER network, with Lunapark proteins acting antagonistically. Additional classes of tubular ER proteins including some REEPs and the M1 spastin ATPase interact with the microtubule cytoskeleton. Flat ER sheets possess a different complement of proteins such as p180, CLIMP-63 and kinectin implicated in shaping, cisternal stacking and cytoskeletal interactions. The ER is also in constant motion, and numerous signaling pathways as well as interactions among cytoskeletal elements, the plasma membrane, and organelles cooperate to position and shape the ER dynamically. Finally, many proteins involved in shaping the ER network are mutated in the most common forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia, indicating a particular importance for proper ER morphology and distribution in large, highly-polarized cells such as neurons. PMID:23602970

  6. Spectroscopy of the Er-doped lithium tetraborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padlyak, B. V.; Lisiecki, R.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.

    2016-04-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), optical absorption, and luminescence (emission and excitation) spectra as well as luminescence kinetics of the Er-doped glasses with Li2B4O7 composition were investigated and analysed. The high optical quality glasses with Li2B4O7:Er composition containing 0.5 and 1.0 mol.% Er2O3 were obtained from corresponding polycrystalline compound by standard glass synthesis. The EPR spectroscopy in the 4.2-300 K temperature range and optical spectroscopy at 300 K show that the Er impurity is incorporated into the network of Li2B4O7 glass as Er3+ (4f11, 4I15/2) ions, exclusively. The local structure of the Er3+ luminescence centres in Li sites of the glass network is proposed. Based on the standard Judd-Ofelt theory the oscillator strength (Pcal) and experimental oscillator strength (Pexp) for observed absorption transitions as well as phenomenological intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) for Er3+ centres in the Li2B4O7:Er glass containing 1.0 mol.% Er2O3 were calculated. Spectroscopic parameters of relevance for laser applications, including emission probabilities of transitions (Wr), branching ratios (β), and radiative lifetime (τrad) have been calculated for main observed emission transitions of the Er3+ centres in Li2B4O7:Er glasses. Experimental and calculated lifetimes were compared and quantum efficiency (η) for green (4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transition) and infrared (4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition) emission bands has been estimated.

  7. Roles of MED1 in quiescence of hair follicle stem cells and maintenance of normal hair cycling.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takeshi; Inui, Shigeki; Fushimi, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Fumihito; Kitagawa, Yutaka; Reddy, Janardan K; Itami, Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    MED1 (mediator complex subunit 1) is expressed by human epidermal keratinocytes and functions as a coactivator of several transcription factors. To elucidate the role of MED1 in keratinocytes, we established keratinocyte-specific Med1-null (Med1(epi-/-)) mice using the K5Cre/LoxP system. Development of the epidermis and appendages of Med1(epi-/-) mice were macroscopically and microscopically normal until the second catagen of the hair cycle. However, the hair cycle of Med1(epi-/-) mice was spontaneously repeated after the second telogen, which does not occur in wild-type (WT) mice. Hair follicles of Med1(epi-/-) mice could not enter anagen after 6 months of age, resulting in sparse pelage hair in older Med1(epi-/-) mice. Interfollicular epidermis (IFE) of Med1(epi-/-) mice was acanthotic and more proliferative than that of WT mice, whereas these findings were less evident in older Med1(epi-/-) mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the numbers of hair follicle bulge stem cells were reduced in Med1(epi-/-) mice from a few months after birth. These results suggest that MED1 has roles in maintaining quiescence of keratinocytes and preventing depletion of the follicular stem cells. PMID:22931914

  8. Technology for the ERS-1 SAR antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.

    1984-09-01

    The metallization of CFRP waveguides, the Deployable Truss Structure (DTS) and verification in terrestrial environment of the 10 x 1 m SAR antenna of ERS-1 (ESA satellite) are discussed. Waveguide metallization was achieved indirectly with metallization of the mandrel prior to CFRP lay-up, and directly, by electroplating of manufactured CFRP components. Both techniques proved unsatisfactory, but a surface treatment applied to the metal layer in the indirect technique improves adhesion strength by an order of magnitude, and enables the waveguides to meet requirements. The DTS satisfies launch, deployment, and inflight specifications for a 5 panel/2 wing structure. Ground tests include analytical simulation of deployment with and without gravity effects, and a gravity compensation technique for tests.

  9. Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, William W.

    2014-10-08

    This report provides a summary of activities for Award # ER64999, a Genomes to Life Project funded by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Research. The project was entitled "Methanogenic archaea and the global carbon cycle: a systems biology approach to the study of Methanosarcina species". The long-term goal of this multi-investigator project was the creation of integrated, multiscale models that accurately and quantitatively predict the role of Methanosarcina species in the global carbon cycle under dynamic environmental conditions. To achieve these goals we pursed four specific aims: (1) genome sequencing of numerous members of the Order Methanosarcinales, (2) identification of genomic sources of phenotypic variation through in silico comparative genomics, (3) elucidation of the transcriptional networks of two Methanosarcina species, and (4) development of comprehensive metabolic network models for characterized strains to address the question of how metabolic models scale with genetic distance.

  10. Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, Stroke, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, Stroke, Study Suggests But there was a slightly ... aromatase inhibitors doesn't raise the risk of heart attacks and strokes among breast cancer survivors, a new ...

  11. Automatic annotation of ICD-to-MedDRA mappings with SKOS predicates.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Gunnar; Souvignet, Julien; Rodrigues, Jean-Marie; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Robust alignments between ICD and MedDRA are essential to enable the secondary use of clinical data for pharmacovigilance research. UMLS makes available ICD-to-MedDRA mappings, but they are only poorly specified, which introduces difficulties when exploited in an automatic way. SKOS vocabulary can help achieve quality and machine-processable mappings. We have developed an algorithm based on several simple rules which annotates automatically ICD-to-MedDRA mappings with SKOS predicates. The method was tested and evaluated on a sample of ICD-10-to MedDRA mappings extracted from UMLS. The algorithm demonstrated satisfying performances, especially for skos:exactMatch properties, which suggests that automatic methods can be used to improve the quality of terminology mappings. PMID:25160341

  12. How Safe Is Condomless Sex When Partner with HIV Takes Meds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159830.html How Safe Is Condomless Sex When Partner With HIV Takes Meds? Study suggests ... is highly unlikely among straight couples who have sex without condoms when one partner carries the virus ...

  13. EPA MED-DULUTH'S ECOTOX AND ECO-SSL WEB APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOX (ECOTOXicology Database) system developed by the USEPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Mid-Continent Ecology Division in Duluth, MN (MED-Duluth), provides a web browser search interface for locating aquatic and terrestrial toxic...

  14. MedlinePlus FAQ: MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed

    MedlinePlus

    ... topic. MEDLINE/PubMed: Is a database of professional biomedical literature Is a Web-based, searchable database of ... million article references published in more than 5600 biomedical journals. Can be searched for free Includes links ...

  15. Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, Stroke, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158441.html Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, ... the risk of heart attacks and strokes among breast cancer survivors, a new study suggests. However, the researchers ...

  16. Use and reported effectiveness of Tel-Med: a telephone health information system.

    PubMed Central

    Diseker, R A; Michielutte, R; Morrison, V

    1980-01-01

    In January 1977, a Telephone Information System (Tel-Med) was begun in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. A survey was conducted to determine how Tel-Med was meeting the community's need for health information and to see if program objectives were being met. Respondents in 3,005 randomly selected households were interviewed by telephone to determine user characteristics, user motivation, action taken, knowledge and information gained, and system improvements. A key finding indicated that larger percentages of adults with lower income and educational levels were not aware of the service than were the adults in upper income and educational levels. However, income and education are not related to use of Tel-Med among individuals who know of this service. This finding suggests that the poorer and lesser educated would use Tel-Med in a way similar to that of their more fortunate peers if efforts were made to inform them of the service. PMID:7356084

  17. [Use of PubMed to improve evidence-based medicine in routine urological practice].

    PubMed

    Rink, M; Kluth, L A; Shariat, S F; Chun, F K; Fisch, M; Dahm, P

    2013-03-01

    Applying evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice is the basis of patient-centered medicine and knowledge of accurate literature acquisition skills is necessary for informed clinical decision-making. PubMed is an easy accessible, free bibliographic database comprising over 21 million citations from the medical field, life-science journals and online books. The article summarizes the effective use of PubMed in routine urological clinical practice based on a common case scenario. This article explains the simple use of PubMed to obtain the best search results with the highest evidence. Accurate knowledge about the use of PubMed in routine clinical practice can improve evidence-based medicine and also patient treatment. PMID:23503794

  18. Reaction Diffusion Modeling of Calcium Dynamics with Realistic ER Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Means, Shawn; Smith, Alexander J.; Shepherd, Jason; Shadid, John; Fowler, John; Wojcikiewicz, Richard J. H.; Mazel, Tomas; Smith, Gregory D.; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a finite-element model of mast cell calcium dynamics that incorporates the endoplasmic reticulum's complex geometry. The model is built upon a three-dimensional reconstruction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from an electron tomographic tilt series. Tetrahedral meshes provide volumetric representations of the ER lumen, ER membrane, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane. The reaction-diffusion model simultaneously tracks changes in cytoplasmic and ER intraluminal calcium concentrations and includes luminal and cytoplasmic protein buffers. Transport fluxes via PMCA, SERCA, ER leakage, and Type II IP3 receptors are also represented. Unique features of the model include stochastic behavior of IP3 receptor calcium channels and comparisons of channel open times when diffusely distributed or aggregated in clusters on the ER surface. Simulations show that IP3R channels in close proximity modulate activity of their neighbors through local Ca2+ feedback effects. Cytoplasmic calcium levels rise higher, and ER luminal calcium concentrations drop lower, after IP3-mediated release from receptors in the diffuse configuration. Simulation results also suggest that the buffering capacity of the ER, and not restricted diffusion, is the predominant factor influencing average luminal calcium concentrations. PMID:16617072

  19. CW YVO4:Er Laser with Resonant Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachenya, K. N.; Kisel, V. E.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Matrosov, V. N.; Tolstik, N. A.; Kuleshov, N. V.

    2015-05-01

    The lasing characteristics of a YVO4:Er laser with resonant pumping in the 1.5-1.6 μm range are studied. Lasing is obtained at λ = 1603 nm with a differential efficiency of up to 61%. YVO4:Er crystals are found to offer promise for use in efficient resonantly (in-band) pumped lasers.

  20. How to Avoid the ER If You Have Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Avoid the ER if You Have Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > How to Avoid the ER if You Have Asthma Print A A A Text Size What's in ... is the last resort for someone who has asthma. If a flare-up is really out of ...

  1. High-Resolution Melting Analysis of MED12 Mutations in Uterine Leiomyomas in Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Qian, Hua; Zhou, Ruifang; Jiang, Jun; Ye, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Somatic mutations in mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) have emerged as a critical genetic change in the development of uterine leiomyomas. Studies, however, have focused largely on cohorts consisting of Caucasian patients. In this study, uterine leiomyomas from Chinese patients were examined for MED12 mutations. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) was compared with direct sequencing as a potentially more sensitive method for the detection of MED12 mutations. Methods: Tissue samples with the pathologies of uterine leiomyoma (n=181) and other endometrial diseases (n=157) were collected from Chinese patients at the Taizhou People's Hospital and Taizhou Polytechnic College (Taizhou City, China). Genomic DNA was prepared from all samples. Both PCR-based HRMA and PCR-based direct sequencing were used to detect MED12 mutations. Results: PCR-based HRMA and direct sequencing revealed MED12 mutations in 95/181 (52.5%) and 93/181 (51.4%) uterine leiomyomas, respectively. Nearly half of these mutations (46/93) were found in a single codon, codon 131. The coincidence rate between the two methods was 98.9% (179/181) so that no statistically significant difference was evident in the application of the methodologies (χ2=0.011, p=0.916). In addition, MED12 mutations were identified in 1/157 (4.17%) case of other endometrial pathologies by both methods. Conclusions: MED12 mutations were closely associated with the development of uterine leiomyomas, as opposed to other uterine pathologies in Chinese patients, and PCR-based HRMA was found to be a reliable method for the detection of MED12 mutations. PMID:25615570

  2. MED GATA factors promote robust development of the C. elegans endoderm

    PubMed Central

    Maduro, Morris F.; Broitman-Maduro, Gina; Choi, Hailey; Carranza, Francisco; Wu, Allison Chia-Yi; Rifkin, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The MED-1,2 GATA factors contribute to specification of E, the progenitor of the C. elegans endoderm, through the genes end-1 and end-3, and in parallel with the maternal factors SKN-1, POP-1 and PAL-1. END-1,3 activate elt-2 and elt-7 to initiate a program of intestinal development, which is maintained by positive autoregulation. Here, we advance the understanding of MED-1,2 in E specification. We find that expression of end-1 and end-3 is greatly reduced in med-1,2(−) embryos. We generated strains in which MED sites have been mutated in end-1 and end-3. Without MED input, gut specification relies primarily on POP-1 and PAL-1. 25% of embryos fail to make intestine, while those that do display abnormal numbers of gut cells due to a delayed and stochastic acquisition of intestine fate. Surviving adults exhibit phenotypes consistent with a primary defect in the intestine. Our results establish that MED-1,2 provide robustness to endoderm specification through end-1 and end-3, and reveal that gut differentiation may be more directly linked to specification than previously appreciated. The results argue against an “all-or-none” description of cell specification, and suggest that activation of tissue-specific master regulators, even when expression of these is maintained by positive autoregulation, does not guarantee proper function of differentiated cells. PMID:25959238

  3. MED23-associated refractory epilepsy successfully treated with the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Lionel, Anath C; Monfared, Nasim; Scherer, Stephen W; Marshall, Christian R; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

    2016-09-01

    We report a new patient with refractory epilepsy associated with a novel pathogenic homozygous MED23 variant. This 7.5-year-old boy from consanguineous parents had infantile onset global developmental delay and refractory epilepsy. He was treated with the ketogenic diet at 2.5 years of age and became seizure free on the first day. He had microcephaly and truncal hypotonia. His brain MRI showed delayed myelination and thin corpus callosum. He was enrolled in a whole exome sequencing research study, which identified a novel, homozygous, likely pathogenic (c.1937A>G; p.Gln646Arg) variant in MED23. MED23 is a regulator of energy homeostasis and glucose production. Liver-specific Med23-knockout mice showed reduced liver gluconeogenesis and lower blood glucose levels compared to control mice. This is the first patient with documented refractory epilepsy caused by a novel homozygous pathogenic variant in MED23 expanding the phenotypic spectrum. Identification of the underlying genetic defect in MED23 sheds light on the possible mechanism of complete response to the ketogenic diet in this child. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27311965

  4. Two male sibs with severe micrognathia and a missense variant in MED12.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Trine E; Kulseth, Mari Ann; Heimdal, Ketil R; Stadheim, Barbro; Hopp, Einar; Gambin, Tomasz; Coban Akdemir, Zeynep H; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg

    2016-08-01

    Missense variants in MED12 cause three partially overlapping dysmorphic X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndromes: Lujan-Fryns syndrome (also known as Lujan syndrome), FG syndrome (also known as Opitz-Kaveggia syndrome) and X-linked Ohdo syndrome. We report a family with two severely micrognathic male sibs, a 10½ year old boy and a fetus, in which hemizygosity for a previously unreported missense variant in exon 13 of MED12 (NM_005120.2), c.1862G > A, p.(Arg621Gln) was detected by whole exome sequencing. The affected sibs shared no other rare variant with relevance to the phenotype. X-chromosome inactivation in blood was completely skewed (100:0) in the unaffected heterozygous mother, most likely as a result of preferential inactivation of the X-chromosome harbouring the missense variant in MED12. Neither the unaffected brother nor the unaffected maternal grandfather carried the missense variant in MED12. In the 10½ year old boy, upper airway obstruction secondary to Pierre Robin sequence necessitated a tracheostomy for the first 10 months of life. He has mild to moderate intellectual disability and some dysmorphic features seen in MED12-related syndromes. In addition, he has a horizontal gaze paresis, anomalies of the inner ear, and a cervical block vertebra. This report contributes to the expanding phenotypic range associated with MED12-mutations. PMID:27286923

  5. Software-Enabled Distributed Network Governance: The PopMedNet Experience

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Melanie; Erickson, Kyle; Wyner, Zachary; Malenfant, Jessica; Rosen, Rob; Brown, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The expanded availability of electronic health information has led to increased interest in distributed health data research networks. Distributed Research Network Model: The distributed research network model leaves data with and under the control of the data holder. Data holders, network coordinating centers, and researchers have distinct needs and challenges within this model. Software Enabled Governance: PopMedNet: The concerns of network stakeholders are addressed in the design and governance models of the PopMedNet software platform. PopMedNet features include distributed querying, customizable workflows, and auditing and search capabilities. Its flexible role-based access control system enables the enforcement of varying governance policies. Selected Case Studies: Four case studies describe how PopMedNet is used to enforce network governance models. Issues and Challenges: Trust is an essential component of a distributed research network and must be built before data partners may be willing to participate further. The complexity of the PopMedNet system must be managed as networks grow and new data, analytic methods, and querying approaches are developed. Conclusions: The PopMedNet software platform supports a variety of network structures, governance models, and research activities through customizable features designed to meet the needs of network stakeholders. PMID:27141522

  6. Extracting and standardizing medication information in clinical text – the MedEx-UIMA system

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Wu, Yonghui; Shah, Anushi; Priyanka, Priyanka; Denny, Joshua C.; Xu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of medication information embedded in clinical text is important for research using electronic health records (EHRs). However, most of current medication information extraction systems identify drug and signature entities without mapping them to standard representation. In this study, we introduced the open source Java implementation of MedEx, an existing high-performance medication information extraction system, based on the Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) framework. In addition, we developed new encoding modules in the MedEx-UIMA system, which mapped an extracted drug name/dose/form to both generalized and specific RxNorm concepts and translated drug frequency information to ISO standard. We processed 826 documents by both systems and verified that MedEx-UIMA and MedEx (the Python version) performed similarly by comparing both results. Using two manually annotated test sets that contained 300 drug entries from medication list and 300 drug entries from narrative reports, the MedEx-UIMA system achieved F-measures of 98.5% and 97.5% respectively for encoding drug names to corresponding RxNorm generic drug ingredients, and F-measures of 85.4% and 88.1% respectively for mapping drug names/dose/form to the most specific RxNorm concepts. It also achieved an F-measure of 90.4% for normalizing frequency information to ISO standard. The open source MedEx-UIMA system is freely available online at http://code.google.com/p/medex-uima/. PMID:25954575

  7. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent And Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI): Hardware Performance and Data Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Alan; Bose, Deepak; Karlgaard, Chris; Munk, Michelle; Kuhl, Chris; Schoenenberger, Mark; Antill, Chuck; Verhappen, Ron; Kutty, Prasad; White, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI) hardware was a first-of-its-kind sensor system that gathered temperature and pressure readings on the MSL heatshield during Mars entry on August 6, 2012. MEDLI began as challenging instrumentation problem, and has been a model of collaboration across multiple NASA organizations. After the culmination of almost 6 years of effort, the sensors performed extremely well, collecting data from before atmospheric interface through parachute deploy. This paper will summarize the history of the MEDLI project and hardware development, including key lessons learned that can apply to future instrumentation efforts. MEDLI returned an unprecedented amount of high-quality engineering data from a Mars entry vehicle. We will present the performance of the 3 sensor types: pressure, temperature, and isotherm tracking, as well as the performance of the custom-built sensor support electronics. A key component throughout the MEDLI project has been the ground testing and analysis effort required to understand the returned flight data. Although data analysis is ongoing through 2013, this paper will reveal some of the early findings on the aerothermodynamic environment that MSL encountered at Mars, the response of the heatshield material to that heating environment, and the aerodynamic performance of the entry vehicle. The MEDLI data results promise to challenge our engineering assumptions and revolutionize the way we account for margins in entry vehicle design.

  8. Erbium induced magnetic properties of Er/ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayachandraiah, C.; Sivakumar, K.; Divya, A.; Krishnaiah, G.

    2016-05-01

    Pure and Er (2, 3 and 4 at. %) doped ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. EDS spectrum confirmed the presence of Zn, O and Er in the synthesized samples. The XRD measurements confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO for all samples. The crystallite size of the samples decreases with increase in concentration and are compatible with the results that obtained from TEM analysis.EPR spectra exhibitedferromagnetic signals the substitution Er The possible ferromagnetic zinc interstials signal is appeared for 2 at. % of Er dopant. The room temperature ferromagnetic is observed only for 2 at. % of Er while all other samples exhibiting weak ferromagnetic nature.

  9. 20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow..., disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. (a) If the employee died before attaining age 62 and after 1978 and the widow(er), disabled...

  10. 20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled..., disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. (a) If the employee died before attaining age 62 and after 1978 and the widow(er), disabled...

  11. 20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled..., disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. (a) If the employee died before attaining age 62 and after 1978 and the widow(er), disabled...

  12. 20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow..., disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. (a) If the employee died before attaining age 62 and after 1978 and the widow(er), disabled...

  13. 20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled..., disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. (a) If the employee died before attaining age 62 and after 1978 and the widow(er), disabled...

  14. GRP78 Interacting Partner Bag5 Responds to ER Stress and Protects Cardiomyocytes From ER Stress-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manish K; Tahrir, Farzaneh G; Knezevic, Tijana; White, Martyn K; Gordon, Jennifer; Cheung, Joseph Y; Khalili, Kamel; Feldman, Arthur M

    2016-08-01

    Bag5 is a member of the BAG family of molecular chaperone regulators and is unusual in that it consists of five BAG domains, which function as modulators of chaperone activity. Bag family proteins play a key role in cellular as well as in cardiac function and their differential expression is reported in heart failure. In this study, we examined the importance of a Bag family member protein, Bag5, in cardiomyocytes during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We found that expression of Bag5 in cardiomyocytes is significantly increased with the induction of ER stress in a time dependent manner. We have taken gain-in and loss-of functional approaches to characterize Bag5 protein function in cardiomyocytes. Adenoviral mediated expression of Bag5 significantly decreased cell death as well as improved cellular viability in ER stress. Along with this, ER stress-induced CHOP protein expression is significantly decreased in cells that overexpress Bag5. Conversely, we found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of Bag5 caused cell death, increased cytotoxicity, and decreased cellular viability in cardiomyocytes. Mechanistically, we found that Bag5 protein expression is significantly increased in the ER during ER stress and that this in turn modulates GRP78 protein stability and reduces ER stress. This study suggests that Bag5 is an important regulator of ER function and so could be exploited as a tool to improve cardiomyocyte function under stress conditions. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1813-1821, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26729625

  15. Up Conversion Measurements in Er:YAG; Comparison with 1.6 Micrometer Laser Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reichle, Donald J.; Busch, George E.; Carrion, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Up conversion significantly affects Er:YAG lasers. Measurements performed here for low Er concentration are significantly different than reported high Er concentration. The results obtained here are used to predict laser performance and are compared with experimental results.

  16. Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence of Er3+ in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Gd2O3 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kezhi; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Daisheng; Liu, Zhenyu; Qin, Weiping

    2011-11-01

    Under 980 nm excitation, room-temperature ultraviolet (UV) upconversion (UC) emissions of Er3+ from the 4G(9/2), 2K(13/2), and 2P(3/2) states were observed in Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ nanotubes, which were synthesized via a simple wet-chemical route at low temperature and ambient pressure followed by a subsequent heat treatment at 800 degrees C. The experimental results exhibited that these UV emissions came from four-photon UC processes. In the Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ nanocrystals, the energy transfers (ETs) from Yb3+ to Er3+ played important roles in populating the high-energy states of Er3+ ions. This material provides a possible candidate for building UV compact solid-state lasers or fiber lasers. PMID:22413290

  17. In Vitro Study of Er:YAG and Er, Cr:YSGG Laser Irradiation on Human Gingival Fibroblast Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Talebi-Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Torshabi, Maryam; Karami, Elahe; Arbabi, Elham; Rezaei Esfahrood, Zeinab

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate goal of the periodontal treatments is a regeneration of periodontium. Recently, laser irradiations are commonly used to improve wound repair. Because of many controversies about the effects of laser on soft tissue regeneration, more in vitro studies are still needed. The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare the effects of different doses of Er:YAG (erbium-doped:yttrium, aluminum, garnet) and Er, Cr:YSGG (erbium, chromium-doped: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet) laser treatment on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) proliferation. In this randomized single-blind controlled in vitro trial, HGF cells were irradiated using Er:YAG and Er, Cr:YSGG laser for 10 and 30 seconds or remained unexposed as a control group. After a culture period of 24 and 48 hours, HGF cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. The data were subjected to one-sided analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison tests. Our results showed Er:YAG application for 10 and 30 seconds as well as Er, Cr:YSGG irradiation for 10 and 30 seconds induced statistically significant (P<0.05) proliferation of HGF cells as compared with the control at 24 hours up to 18.39%, 26.22%, 21.21%, and 17.06% respectively. In 48 hour incubations, Er:YAG and Er, Cr:YSGG irradiation for 10 and 30 seconds significantly increased cellular proliferation up to 22.9%, 32.24%, 30.52% and 30.02% respectively (P<0.05). This study demonstrates that Er:YAG and Er, Cr:YSGG laser significantly increased HGF cell proliferation compared to the control specimens. This higher proliferation can lead to increased wound repair in clinical conditions. PMID:27309266

  18. Rapid Estimation of TPH Reduction in Oil-Contaminated Soils Using the MED Method

    SciTech Connect

    Edenborn, H.M.; Zenone, V.A.

    2007-09-01

    Oil-contaminated soil and sludge generated during federal well plugging activities in northwestern Pennsylvania are currently remediated on small landfarm sites in lieu of more expensive landfill disposal. Bioremediation success at these sites in the past has been gauged by the decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations to less than 10,000 mg/kg measured using EPA Method 418.1. We tested the “molarity of ethanol droplet” (MED) water repellency test as a rapid indicator of TPH concentration in soil at one landfarm near Bradford, PA. MED was estimated by determining the minimum ethanol concentration (0 – 6 M) required to penetrate air-dried and sieved soil samples within 10 sec. TPH in soil was analyzed by rapid fluorometric analysis of methanol soil extracts, which correlated well with EPA Method 1664. Uncontaminated landfarm site soil amended with increasing concentrations of waste oil sludge showed a high correlation between MED and TPH. MED values exceeded the upper limit of 6 M as TPH estimates exceed ca. 25,000 mg/kg. MED and TPH at the land farm were sampled monthly during summer months over two years in a grid pattern that allowed spatial comparisons of site remediation effectiveness. MED and TPH decreased at a constant rate over time and remained highly correlated. Inexpensive alternatives to reagent-grade ethanol gave comparable results. The simple MED approach served as an inexpensive alternative to the routine laboratory analysis of TPH during the monitoring of oily waste bioremediation at this landfarm site.

  19. Er3+ diffusion in LiTaO3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Long; Zhang, Qun; Wong, Wing-Han; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun

    2015-12-01

    Some Er3+-doped LiTaO3 plates were prepared by in-diffusion of Er-metal film locally coated onto congruent Z-cut substrate in air at a wide temperature range from 1000 to 1500 °C. After diffusion, Er3+-doping effect on LiTaO3 refractive index and Li2O out-diffusion arising from Er3+ in-diffusion were studied at first. Refractive indices at the doped and undoped surface parts were measured by prism coupling technique and the surface composition was estimated. The results show that Er3+ dopant has small contribution to the LiTaO3 index. Li2O out-diffusion is slight (Li2O content loss <0.3 mol%) for the temperature below 1300 °C while is moderate (Li2O content loss <0.6 mol%) for the temperature above 1400 °C. The Er3+ profile was studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The study shows that the diffused Er3+ ions follow either a complementary error function or a Gaussian profile. Characteristic parameters including diffusivity, diffusion constant, activation energy, solubility, solubility constant and heat of solution were obtained and compared with the LiNbO3 case. The comparison shows that the diffusivity and solubility in LiTaO3 are considerably smaller than in LiNbO3 because of the difference of Ta and Nb in atomic weight.

  20. Ammonia synthesis and ER-MCFC-technology - a profitable combination?

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, G.P.J.; Vervoort, J.; Daniels, R.J.E.; Luteijn, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    Similar to stand-alone ER-MCFC power systems industrial ammonia production facilities include hydrogen-rich synthesis-gas production. Therefore, integration of ER-MCFC stacks in a conventional industrial ammonia plant was investigated. By preliminary process design calculations three promising process structures were evaluated: (1) ER-MCFC is fed by the ammonia plant`s steam-reformer; anode off-gas to firing (2) similar to structure 1; in this case the anode off-gas is redirected to the ammonia process (3) ER-MCFC is fed by ammonia-synthesis purge gas The results indicate that for options 1 and 3 a return-on-investment for the ER-MCFC of around 8% is achievable at a stack cost of $250/kW and a revenue of 7c/kWh. Option 2 is not profitable, because of the associated reduction in ammonia production. The degree of hydrogen-utilization in the ER-MCFC to be selected for maximum profit varies with the process structure and indicates that there is scope for ER-MCFC stacks which operate at low hydrogen-utilization.

  1. Coupled ER to Golgi Transport Reconstituted with Purified Cytosolic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Barlowe, Charles

    1997-01-01

    A cell-free vesicle fusion assay that reproduces a subreaction in transport of pro-α-factor from the ER to the Golgi complex has been used to fractionate yeast cytosol. Purified Sec18p, Uso1p, and LMA1 in the presence of ATP and GTP satisfies the requirement for cytosol in fusion of ER-derived vesicles with Golgi membranes. Although these purified factors are sufficient for vesicle docking and fusion, overall ER to Golgi transport in yeast semi-intact cells depends on COPII proteins (components of a membrane coat that drive vesicle budding from the ER). Thus, membrane fusion is coupled to vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport even in the presence of saturating levels of purified fusion factors. Manipulation of the semi-intact cell assay is used to distinguish freely diffusible ER- derived vesicles containing pro-α-factor from docked vesicles and from fused vesicles. Uso1p mediates vesicle docking and produces a dilution resistant intermediate. Sec18p and LMA1 are not required for the docking phase, but are required for efficient fusion of ER- derived vesicles with the Golgi complex. Surprisingly, elevated levels of Sec23p complex (a subunit of the COPII coat) prevent vesicle fusion in a reversible manner, but do not interfere with vesicle docking. Ordering experiments using the dilution resistant intermediate and reversible Sec23p complex inhibition indicate Sec18p action is required before LMA1 function. PMID:9382859

  2. ER Stress-induced Aberrant Neuronal Maturation and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Koichi; Iekumo, Takaaki; Kaneko, Masayuki; Nomura, Yasuyuki; Okuma, Yasunobu

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, which include autism spectrum disorder, are congenital impairments in the growth and development of the central nervous system. They are mainly accentuated during infancy and childhood. Autism spectrum disorder may be caused by environmental factors, genomic imprinting of chromosome 15q11-q13 regions, and gene defects such as those in genes encoding neurexin and neuroligin, which are involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic signaling. However, regardless of the many reports on neurodevelopmental disorders, the pathogenic mechanism and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders remain unclear. Conversely, it has been reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. ER stress is increased by environmental factors such as alcohol consumption and smoking. Here we show the recent results on ER stress-induced neurodevelopmental disorders. ER stress led to a decrease in the mRNA levels of the proneural factors Hes1/5 and Pax6, which maintain an undifferentiated state of the neural cells. This stress also led to a decrease in nestin expression and an increase in beta-III tubulin expression. In addition, dendrite length was shortened by ER stress in microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) positive cells. However, the ubiquitin ligase HRD1 expression was increased by ER stress. By suppressing HRD1 expression, the ER stress-induced decrease in nestin and MAP-2 expression and increase in beta-III tubulin returned to control levels. Therefore, we suggest that ER stress induces abnormalities in neuronal differentiation and maturation via HRD1 expression. These results suggest that targeting ER stress may facilitate quicker approaches toward the prevention and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27252060

  3. Laser cooling of Er3+-doped solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemova, Galina; Kashyap, Raman

    2010-10-01

    We consider theoretically a mechanism for laser cooling in rare-earth-doped low-phonon materials based simultaneously on two cooling cycles: a traditional cooling cycle with an anti-Stokes fluorescence transition as well as an infrared-to-visible upconversion cycle, to overcome the self-termination effects in either anti-Stokes or upconversion cooling on its own. Our simulations, performed for erbium-doped potassium-lead chloride crystal ( Er3+:KPl 2Cl 5) known to be an extremely low phonon energy host, uses two pump wavelengths corresponding to the long wavelength tails of the absorption spectra of the 4I15/2 → 4I13/2 and 4I15/2 → 4I9/2 transitions. The contribution of each pump source to the cooling process is comprehensively investigated. We show that, although the energy gap between 4I15/2 and 4I9/2 levels exceeds the energy gap between 4I15/2 and 4I13/2 levels and cooling process is more efficient with the cycle based on the 4I15/2 → 4I13/2 transition, the second cooling cycle based on the 4I15/2 → 4I9/2 transition can be used as a supplementary one.

  4. ER to synapse trafficking of NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Horak, Martin; Petralia, Ronald S.; Kaniakova, Martina; Sans, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. There are three distinct subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) that have been identified including 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid receptors (AMPARs), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and kainate receptors. The most common GluRs in mature synapses are AMPARs that mediate the fast excitatory neurotransmission and NMDARs that mediate the slow excitatory neurotransmission. There have been large numbers of recent reports studying how a single neuron regulates synaptic numbers and types of AMPARs and NMDARs. Our current research is centered primarily on NMDARs and, therefore, we will focus in this review on recent knowledge of molecular mechanisms occurring (1) early in the biosynthetic pathway of NMDARs, (2) in the transport of NMDARs after their release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); and (3) at the plasma membrane including excitatory synapses. Because a growing body of evidence also indicates that abnormalities in NMDAR functioning are associated with a number of human psychiatric and neurological diseases, this review together with other chapters in this issue may help to enhance research and to gain further knowledge of normal synaptic physiology as well as of the etiology of many human brain diseases. PMID:25505872

  5. ER to synapse trafficking of NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Horak, Martin; Petralia, Ronald S; Kaniakova, Martina; Sans, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. There are three distinct subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) that have been identified including 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid receptors (AMPARs), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and kainate receptors. The most common GluRs in mature synapses are AMPARs that mediate the fast excitatory neurotransmission and NMDARs that mediate the slow excitatory neurotransmission. There have been large numbers of recent reports studying how a single neuron regulates synaptic numbers and types of AMPARs and NMDARs. Our current research is centered primarily on NMDARs and, therefore, we will focus in this review on recent knowledge of molecular mechanisms occurring (1) early in the biosynthetic pathway of NMDARs, (2) in the transport of NMDARs after their release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); and (3) at the plasma membrane including excitatory synapses. Because a growing body of evidence also indicates that abnormalities in NMDAR functioning are associated with a number of human psychiatric and neurological diseases, this review together with other chapters in this issue may help to enhance research and to gain further knowledge of normal synaptic physiology as well as of the etiology of many human brain diseases. PMID:25505872

  6. Characterization of the Ers Regulon of Enterococcus faecalis▿

    PubMed Central

    Riboulet-Bisson, Eliette; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Budin-Verneuil, Aurélie; Auffray, Yanick; Hartke, Axel; Giard, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Ers has been qualified as the PrfA-like transcriptional regulator of Enterococcus faecalis. In a previous study we reported that Ers is important for the survival within macrophages of this opportunist pathogenic bacterium. In the present work we have used proteomic and microarray expression profiling of E. faecalis JH2-2 and an ers-deleted mutant (Δers mutant) strains to define the Ers regulon. In addition to EF_0082 (encoding a putative facilitator family transporter), already known to be under Ers regulation, three genes or operons displayed a significant decrease (confirmed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR) in expression in the Δers mutant. The first locus corresponds to three genes: arcA, arcB, and arcC1 (arcABC). These genes are members of the ADI operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine deiminase system. The second is the EF_1459 gene, which encodes a hypothetical protein and is located within a putative phage genetic element. Lastly, Ef_3319 is annotated as the alpha subunit of the citrate lyase encoded by citF. citF is a member of a putative 12-gene operon involved in citrate catabolism. Moreover, the promoter sequence, similar to the “PrfA box” and found in the promoter regions of ers and EF_0082, has been shown to be included in the DNA segment recognized by Ers. Phenotypic analysis of the Δers mutant strain revealed a growth defect when cultured with arginine or citrate as the energy source; this was not seen for the wild type. As expected, similar results were obtained with mutants in which arcA and citF were inactivated. In addition, in the mouse peritonitis model of virulence, the Δers mutant appeared significantly less lethal than the JH2-2 wild-type strain. Taken together, these results indicate that the regulator Ers has a pleiotropic effect, especially in the cellular metabolism and virulence of E. faecalis. PMID:18426870

  7. Arctic geodynamics: Arctic science and ERS-1 satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Sandwell, David T.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed gravity field map of the mid Arctic Ocean, spreading ridge system was produced on the basis of ERS-1 satellite altimetry data. Areas of special concern, the Barents and Kara Seas, and areas surrounding the islands of Svalbard, Frans Josef Land and Novoya Zemlya are reviewed. ERS-1 altimetry covers unique Arctic and Antarctic latitudes above 72 degrees. Before ERS-1 it was not possible to study these areas with satellite altimetry. Gravity field solutions for the Barents Sea, portions of the Arctic Ocean and the Norwegian sea are shown. The largest gravity anomalies occur along the Greenland fracture zone as well as along transform faults near Svalbard.

  8. Large-scale ER-damper for seismic protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Scott; Makris, Nicos

    1997-05-01

    A large scale electrorheological (ER) damper has been designed, constructed, and tested. The damper consists of a main cylinder and a piston rod that pushes an ER-fluid through a number of stationary annular ducts. This damper is a scaled- up version of a prototype ER-damper which has been developed and extensively studied in the past. In this paper, results from comprehensive testing of the large-scale damper are presented, and the proposed theory developed for predicting the damper response is validated.

  9. Inhibitors of Protein Translocation Across the ER Membrane.

    PubMed

    Kalies, Kai-Uwe; Römisch, Karin

    2015-10-01

    Protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) constitutes the first step of protein secretion. ER protein import is essential in all eukaryotic cells and is particularly critical in fast-growing tumour cells. Thus, the process can serve as target both for potential cancer drugs and for bacterial virulence factors. Inhibitors of protein transport across the ER membrane range from broad-spectrum to highly substrate-specific and can interfere with virtually any stage of this multistep process, and even with transport of endocytosed antigens into the cytosol for cross-presentation. PMID:26122014

  10. MED13-dependent signaling from the heart confers leanness by enhancing metabolism in adipose tissue and liver

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Kedryn K; Grueter, Chad E; Kusminski, Christine M; Holland, William L; Bookout, Angie L; Satapati, Santosh; Kong, Y Megan; Burgess, Shawn C; Malloy, Craig R; Scherer, Philipp E; Newgard, Christopher B; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2014-01-01

    The heart requires a continuous supply of energy but has little capacity for energy storage and thus relies on exogenous metabolic sources. We previously showed that cardiac MED13 modulates systemic energy homeostasis in mice. Here, we sought to define the extra-cardiac tissue(s) that respond to cardiac MED13 signaling. We show that cardiac overexpression of MED13 in transgenic (MED13cTg) mice confers a lean phenotype that is associated with increased lipid uptake, beta-oxidation and mitochondrial content in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver. Cardiac expression of MED13 decreases metabolic gene expression in the heart but enhances them in WAT. Although exhibiting increased energy expenditure in the fed state, MED13cTg mice metabolically adapt to fasting. Furthermore, MED13cTg hearts oxidize fuel that is readily available, rendering them more efficient in the fed state. Parabiosis experiments in which circulations of wild-type and MED13cTg mice are joined, reveal that circulating factor(s) in MED13cTg mice promote enhanced metabolism and leanness. These findings demonstrate that MED13 acts within the heart to promote systemic energy expenditure in extra-cardiac energy depots and point to an unexplored metabolic communication system between the heart and other tissues. See also: M Nakamura & J Sadoshima (December 2014) PMID:25422356

  11. Electron spin resonance study of Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Elmasry, F.; Okubo, S.; Ohta, H.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2014-05-21

    Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers (n-type, high resistance, p-type) has been studied by X-band Electron spin resonance (ESR) at low temperature (4.7 K < T < 18 K). Observed A, B, and C types of ESR signals were identical to those observed previously in GaAs:Er,O without carrier. The local structure around Er-2O centers is not affected by carriers because similar angular dependence of g-values was observed in both cases (with/without carrier). For temperature dependence, linewidth and lineshape analysis suggested the existence of Er dimers with antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of about 7 K. Moreover, drastic decrease of ESR intensity for C signal in p-type sample was observed and it correlates with the decrease of photoluminescence (PL) intensity. Possible model for the Er-2O trap level in GaAs:Er,O is discussed from the ESR and PL experimental results.

  12. Sigma-1 Receptor Chaperone at the ER-Mitochondrion Interface Mediates the Mitochondrion-ER-Nucleus Signaling for Cellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Teruo; Hayashi, Eri; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus. PMID:24204710

  13. PosMed: ranking genes and bioresources based on Semantic Web Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Makita, Yuko; Kobayashi, Norio; Yoshida, Yuko; Doi, Koji; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Nishikata, Koro; Matsushima, Akihiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ishii, Manabu; Takatsuki, Terue; Bhatia, Rinki; Khadbaatar, Zolzaya; Watabe, Hajime; Masuya, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Positional MEDLINE (PosMed; http://biolod.org/PosMed) is a powerful Semantic Web Association Study engine that ranks biomedical resources such as genes, metabolites, diseases and drugs, based on the statistical significance of associations between user-specified phenotypic keywords and resources connected directly or inferentially through a Semantic Web of biological databases such as MEDLINE, OMIM, pathways, co-expressions, molecular interactions and ontology terms. Since 2005, PosMed has long been used for in silico positional cloning studies to infer candidate disease-responsible genes existing within chromosomal intervals. PosMed is redesigned as a workbench to discover possible functional interpretations for numerous genetic variants found from exome sequencing of human disease samples. We also show that the association search engine enhances the value of mouse bioresources because most knockout mouse resources have no phenotypic annotation, but can be associated inferentially to phenotypes via genes and biomedical documents. For this purpose, we established text-mining rules to the biomedical documents by careful human curation work, and created a huge amount of correct linking between genes and documents. PosMed associates any phenotypic keyword to mouse resources with 20 public databases and four original data sets as of May 2013. PMID:23761449

  14. PosMed: Ranking genes and bioresources based on Semantic Web Association Study.

    PubMed

    Makita, Yuko; Kobayashi, Norio; Yoshida, Yuko; Doi, Koji; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Nishikata, Koro; Matsushima, Akihiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ishii, Manabu; Takatsuki, Terue; Bhatia, Rinki; Khadbaatar, Zolzaya; Watabe, Hajime; Masuya, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    Positional MEDLINE (PosMed; http://biolod.org/PosMed) is a powerful Semantic Web Association Study engine that ranks biomedical resources such as genes, metabolites, diseases and drugs, based on the statistical significance of associations between user-specified phenotypic keywords and resources connected directly or inferentially through a Semantic Web of biological databases such as MEDLINE, OMIM, pathways, co-expressions, molecular interactions and ontology terms. Since 2005, PosMed has long been used for in silico positional cloning studies to infer candidate disease-responsible genes existing within chromosomal intervals. PosMed is redesigned as a workbench to discover possible functional interpretations for numerous genetic variants found from exome sequencing of human disease samples. We also show that the association search engine enhances the value of mouse bioresources because most knockout mouse resources have no phenotypic annotation, but can be associated inferentially to phenotypes via genes and biomedical documents. For this purpose, we established text-mining rules to the biomedical documents by careful human curation work, and created a huge amount of correct linking between genes and documents. PosMed associates any phenotypic keyword to mouse resources with 20 public databases and four original data sets as of May 2013. PMID:23761449

  15. Chemical discrimination between dC and 5MedC via their hydroxylamine adducts

    PubMed Central

    Münzel, Martin; Lercher, Lukas; Müller, Markus; Carell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The presence of the methylated nucleobase 5MedC in CpG islands is a key factor that determines gene silencing. False methylation patterns are responsible for deteriorated cellular development and are a hallmark of many cancers. Today genes can be sequenced for the content of 5MedC only with the help of the bisulfite reagent, which is based exclusively on chemical reactivity differences established by the additional methyl group. Despite intensive optimization of the bisulfite protocol, the method still has specificity problems. Most importantly ∼95% of the DNA analyte is degraded during the analysis procedure. We discovered that the reagent O-allylhydroxylamine is able to discriminate between dC and 5MedC. The reagent, in contrast to bisulfite, does not exploit reactivity differences but gives directly different reaction products. The reagent forms a stable mutagenic adduct with dC, which can exist in two states (E versus Z). In case of dC the allylhydroxylamine adduct switches into the E-isomeric form, which generates dC to dT transition mutations that can easily be detected by established methods. Significantly, the 5MedC-adduct adopts exclusively the Z-isomeric form, which causes the polymerase to stop. O-allylhydroxylamine does allow differentiation between dC and 5MedC with high accuracy, leading towards a novel and mild chemistry for methylation analysis. PMID:20813757

  16. MET network in PubMed: a text-mined network visualization and curation system

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Chu-Hsien; Lai, Po-Ting; Huang, Ming-Siang; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Rose Jue, Toni; Rao, Shruti; Chou, Hui-Jou; Milacic, Marija; Singh, Onkar; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the dissemination of a cancer/tumor from one organ to another, and it is the most dangerous stage during cancer progression, causing more than 90% of cancer deaths. Improving the understanding of the complicated cellular mechanisms underlying metastasis requires investigations of the signaling pathways. To this end, we developed a METastasis (MET) network visualization and curation tool to assist metastasis researchers retrieve network information of interest while browsing through the large volume of studies in PubMed. MET can recognize relations among genes, cancers, tissues and organs of metastasis mentioned in the literature through text-mining techniques, and then produce a visualization of all mined relations in a metastasis network. To facilitate the curation process, MET is developed as a browser extension that allows curators to review and edit concepts and relations related to metastasis directly in PubMed. PubMed users can also view the metastatic networks integrated from the large collection of research papers directly through MET. For the BioCreative 2015 interactive track (IAT), a curation task was proposed to curate metastatic networks among PubMed abstracts. Six curators participated in the proposed task and a post-IAT task, curating 963 unique metastatic relations from 174 PubMed abstracts using MET. Database URL: http://btm.tmu.edu.tw/metastasisway PMID:27242035

  17. MET network in PubMed: a text-mined network visualization and curation system.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Chu-Hsien; Lai, Po-Ting; Huang, Ming-Siang; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Rose Jue, Toni; Rao, Shruti; Chou, Hui-Jou; Milacic, Marija; Singh, Onkar; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the dissemination of a cancer/tumor from one organ to another, and it is the most dangerous stage during cancer progression, causing more than 90% of cancer deaths. Improving the understanding of the complicated cellular mechanisms underlying metastasis requires investigations of the signaling pathways. To this end, we developed a METastasis (MET) network visualization and curation tool to assist metastasis researchers retrieve network information of interest while browsing through the large volume of studies in PubMed. MET can recognize relations among genes, cancers, tissues and organs of metastasis mentioned in the literature through text-mining techniques, and then produce a visualization of all mined relations in a metastasis network. To facilitate the curation process, MET is developed as a browser extension that allows curators to review and edit concepts and relations related to metastasis directly in PubMed. PubMed users can also view the metastatic networks integrated from the large collection of research papers directly through MET. For the BioCreative 2015 interactive track (IAT), a curation task was proposed to curate metastatic networks among PubMed abstracts. Six curators participated in the proposed task and a post-IAT task, curating 963 unique metastatic relations from 174 PubMed abstracts using MET.Database URL: http://btm.tmu.edu.tw/metastasisway. PMID:27242035

  18. Return of Collective Rotation in {sup 157}Er and {sup 158}Er at Ultrahigh Spin

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E. S.; Twin, P. J.; Evans, A. O.; Choy, P. T. W.; Nolan, P. J.; Pipidis, A.; Riley, M. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Simpson, J.; Appelbe, D. E.; Joss, D. T.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Ward, D.; Ragnarsson, I.

    2007-01-05

    A new frontier of discrete-line {gamma}-ray spectroscopy at ultrahigh spin has been opened in the rare-earth nuclei {sup 157,158}Er. Four rotational structures, displaying high moments of inertia, have been identified, which extend up to spin {approx}65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) and bypass the band-terminating states in these nuclei which occur at {approx}45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations suggest that these structures arise from well-deformed triaxial configurations that lie in a valley of favored shell energy which also includes the triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 161-167}Lu.

  19. Er3+ infrared fluorescence affected by spatial distribution synchronicity of Ba2+ and Er3+ in Er3+-doped BaO-SiO2 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuno, Atsunobu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Glasses with the composition xBaO-(99.9 - x)SiO2-0.1ErO3/2 (0 ≤x ≤ 34.9) were fabricated by a levitation technique. The glasses in the immiscibility region were opaque due to chemical inhomogeneity, while the other glasses were colorless and transparent. The scanning electron microscope observations and electron probe microanalysis scan profiles revealed that more Er3+ ions were preferentially distributed in the regions where more Ba2+ ions existed in the chemically inhomogeneous glasses. The synchronicity of the spatial distributions of the two ions initially increased with increasing x and then decreased when the Ba2+ concentration exceeded a certain value. The peak shape and lifetime of the fluorescence at 1.55 μm depended on x as well as the spatial distribution of both ions. These results indicate that although ErOn polyhedra are preferentially coordinated with Ba2+ ions and their local structure is affected by the coordination of Ba2+, there is a maximum in the amount of Ba2+ ions that can coordinate ErOn polyhedra since the available space for Ba2+ ions is limited. These findings provide us with efficient ways to design the chemical composition of glasses with superior Er3+ fluorescence properties for optical communication network systems.

  20. Properties of ER Fluids Comprised of Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Akio; Ide, Yoichiroh; Maniwa, Shyunji; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Oda, Hiroji

    Side-chain liquid crystalline polysiloxanes (LCS) diluted with solvents show a large increase in viscosity and a newtonian flow under an electric field. Two types of solvent-diluted LCSs, A and B, are presented and their properties are described in this paper. Type A shows a large temperature-dependent ER effect a quick response of msec. order to an electric field and a dynamic behavior similar to that of a low molecular weight liquid crystal. Type B shows a stable ER effect throughout a wide range of temperatures up to 150°C, a two-step response of shear stress curve upon application of DC electric field and a micron-sized droplets structure which deforms with the electric field. The generation mechanisms of ER effect on the two types were discussed with the data of dynamic and morphological changes, referring those on a low molecular liquid crystal and a particle dispersion type ER fluid.

  1. ER-2 High Altitude Solar Cell Calibration Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The first flights of the ER-2 solar cell calibration demonstration were conducted during September-October of 2014. Three flights were performed that not only tested out the equipment and operational procedures, but also demonstrated the capability of this unique facility by conducting the first short-circuit measurements on a variety of test solar cells. Very preliminary results of these first flights were presented at the 2014 Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT) Conference in Cleveland, OH shortly following these first flights. At the 2015 Space Power Workshop, a more detailed description of these first ER-2 flights will be presented, along with the final flight data from some of the test cells that were flown and has now been reduced and corrected for ER-2 atmospheric flight conditions. Plans for ER-2 flights during the summer of 2015 will also be discussed.

  2. The Grand Banks ERS-1 SAR wave spectra validation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, P. W.; Dobson, F. W.; Smith, S. D.; Anderson, R. J.; Buckley, J. R.; Allingham, M.; Vandemark, D.; Walsh, E. J.; Khandekar, M.; Lalbeharry, R.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the ERS-1 validation program, the ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) wave spectra validation experiment was carried out over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada) in Nov. 1991. The principal objective of the experiment was to obtain complete sets of wind and wave data from a variety of calibrated instruments to validate SAR measurements of ocean wave spectra. The field program activities are described and the rather complex wind and wave conditions which were observed are summarized. Spectral comparisons with ERS-1 SAR image spectra are provided. The ERS-1 SAR is shown to have measured swell and range traveling wind seas, but did not measure azimuth traveling wind seas at any time during the experiment. Results of velocity bunching forward mapping and new measurements of the relationship between wind stress and sea state are also shown.

  3. ERS-1 and Almaz ocean wave monitoring experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, R. C.; Tilley, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from two ocean wave monitoring experiments conducted in 1991 using the high-altitude ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the low-altitude ex-USSR Almaz 1 SAR are presented. ERS-1 imagery of the Gulf Stream supports the idea that a future wide-swath scansar will be a valuable tool for monitoring large-scale ocean dynamics at high resolution. A direct comparison of ERS-1 and Almaz 1 ocean wave spectra shows major deficiencies in the ERS-1 high range-to-velocity ratio R/V sensor that are partially resolved with the lower-altitude Almaz platform. Optimum wave imaging from space will require both a low R/V and low off-nadir angle.

  4. Play 'Pokemon Go' without Landing in The ER

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159911.html Play 'Pokemon Go' Without Landing in the ER Distracted walking a ... in pursuit of digital monsters via the "Pokemon Go" game. But players distracted by their smartphones risk ...

  5. MedReach: building an Area Health Education Center medical information outreach system for northwest Ohio.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Victoria; Hartmann, Jonathan; Ronau, Theodore

    2002-07-01

    In collaboration with regional partners in northwest Ohio, the Area Health Education Center (AHEC) program at the Medical College of Ohio (MCO) at Toledo is reaching out to underserved areas, helping to provide educational opportunities to health care professionals in these communities. This paper describes the development of MedReach, a medical information outreach system that connects regional AHEC sites to MCO via the Internet. MedReach provides physicians and other health care professionals access and support to search computerized textbooks and databases for current information on medical diagnoses, treatments, and research. A unique aspect of the MedReach project is that users are able to receive personal help with information retrieval by calling or emailing MCO's outreach librarian. Periodically, the AHEC program and the Mulford Library at MCO also sponsor an educational program, titled "Medical Applications of Computers," for regional practitioners. Current feedback on both the medical information outreach system and the educational program has been positive. PMID:12113517

  6. Specific erythroid-lineage defect in mice conditionally deficient for Mediator subunit Med1.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Melanie; Yue, Xiaojing; Schmitz, Sandra; Luche, Hervé; Reddy, Janardan K; Borggrefe, Tilman

    2010-12-14

    The Mediator complex forms the bridge between transcriptional activators and the RNA polymerase II. Med1 (also known as PBP or TRAP220) is a key component of Mediator that interacts with nuclear hormone receptors and GATA transcription factors. Here, we show dynamic recruitment of GATA-1, TFIIB, Mediator, and RNA polymerase II to the β-globin locus in induced mouse erythroid leukemia cells and in an erythropoietin-inducible hematopoietic progenitor cell line. Using Med1 conditional knockout mice, we demonstrate a specific block in erythroid development but not in myeloid or lymphoid development, highlighted by the complete absence of β-globin gene expression. Thus, Mediator subunit Med1 plays a pivotal role in erythroid development and in β-globin gene activation. PMID:21098667

  7. [MedDRA and its applications in statistical analysis of adverse events].

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng-jie; Liu, Yu-xiu

    2015-11-01

    Safety assessment in clinical trials is dependent on an in-depth analysis of the adverse events to a great extent. However, there are difficulties in summary classification, data management and statistical analysis of the adverse events because of the different expressions on the same adverse events caused by regional, linguistic, ethnic, cultural and other differences. In order to ensure the normative expressions, it's necessary to standardize the terms in recording the adverse events. MedDRA (medical dictionary for regulatory activities) has been widely recommended and applied in the world as a powerful support for the adverse events reporting in clinical trials. In this paper, the development history, applicable scope, hierarchy structure, encoding term selection and standardized query strategies of the MedDRA is introduced. Furthermore, the practical process of adverse events encoding with MedDRA is proposed. Finally, the framework of statistical analysis about adverse events is discussed. PMID:26911031

  8. TeleMed: Wide-area, secure, collaborative object computing with Java and CORBA for healthcare

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.; George, J.E.; Gavrilov, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    Distributed computing is becoming commonplace in a variety of industries with healthcare being a particularly important one for society. The authors describe the development and deployment of TeleMed in a few healthcare domains. TeleMed is a 100% Java distributed application build on CORBA and OMG standards enabling the collaboration on the treatment of chronically ill patients in a secure manner over the Internet. These standards enable other systems to work interoperably with TeleMed and provide transparent access to high performance distributed computing to the healthcare domain. The goal of wide scale integration of electronic medical records is a grand-challenge scale problem of global proportions with far-reaching social benefits.

  9. ER stress induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death

    PubMed Central

    Lebeaupin, C; Proics, E; de Bieville, C H D; Rousseau, D; Bonnafous, S; Patouraux, S; Adam, G; Lavallard, V J; Rovere, C; Le Thuc, O; Saint-Paul, M C; Anty, R; Schneck, A S; Iannelli, A; Gugenheim, J; Tran, A; Gual, P; Bailly-Maitre, B

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of chronic liver disease is constantly increasing, owing to the obesity epidemic. However, the causes and mechanisms of inflammation-mediated liver damage remain poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an initiator of cell death and inflammatory mechanisms. Although obesity induces ER stress, the interplay between hepatic ER stress, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death signaling has not yet been explored during the etiology of chronic liver diseases. Steatosis is a common disorder affecting obese patients; moreover, 25% of these patients develop steatohepatitis with an inherent risk for progression to hepatocarcinoma. Increased plasma LPS levels have been detected in the serum of patients with steatohepatitis. We hypothesized that, as a consequence of increased plasma LPS, ER stress could be induced and lead to NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death associated with steatohepatitis progression. In livers from obese mice, administration of LPS or tunicamycin results in IRE1α and PERK activation, leading to the overexpression of CHOP. This, in turn, activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, subsequently initiating hepatocyte pyroptosis (caspase-1, -11, interleukin-1β secretion) and apoptosis (caspase-3, BH3-only proteins). In contrast, the LPS challenge is blocked by the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA, resulting in: CHOP downregulation, reduced caspase-1, caspase-11, caspase-3 activities, lowered interleukin-1β secretion and rescue from cell death. The central role of CHOP in mediating the activation of proinflammatory caspases and cell death was characterized by performing knockdown experiments in primary mouse hepatocytes. Finally, the analysis of human steatohepatitis liver biopsies showed a correlation between the upregulation of inflammasome and ER stress markers, as well as liver injury. We demonstrate here that ER stress leads to hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome pyroptotic death, thus contributing as a novel mechanism of

  10. 5 d-4 f luminescence of Er 3+ in YAG:Er 3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksanyan, Eduard; Harutunyan, Vachagan; Kostanyan, Radik; Feldbach, Eduard; Kirm, Marco; Liblik, Peeter; Makhov, Vladimir N.; Vielhauer, Sebastian

    2009-04-01

    Interconfigurational 4 f105 d ↔ 4 f11 transitions of the Er 3+ ion in the YAG host were studied under both VUV photon (synchrotron radiation) and electron beam excitation. It was found that the lowest low-spin 5 d level of the Er 3+ ion has a rather large energy gap to the next lower 4 f2D(2) 5/2 crystal-field level, which results in a relatively low rate of nonradiative transitions from this 5 d level leading to the appearance of weak spin-allowed 5 d-4 f luminescence at low temperature. The lowest high-spin 5 d level, from which spin-forbidden 5 d-4 f radiative transitions could occur potentially, is situated only at ˜500 cm -1 above the 4D1/2 level. Such close location allows fast depopulation of the 5 d level resulting in the absence of spin-forbidden 5 d-4 f luminescence and appearance of 4D1/2 4 f-4 f luminescence.

  11. Comparison of laser phacovaporization using the Er:YAG and the Er:YSGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailitis, Raymond P.; Patterson, Scott W.; Samuels, Mark A.; Hagen, Kerry B.; Ren, Qiushi; Waring, George O., III

    1992-08-01

    Future advances in cataract surgery aim to remove the crystalline lens through a small opening such that the capsular bag, once devoid of lens epithelial cells, may be refilled with a clear polymer which may exhibit the elastic properties of a young lens and restore accommodation. Several different lasers are currently being investigated for laser cataract surgery including the excimer, pulsed visible and short infrared, and mid infrared lasers. Taking advantage of the strong water absorption peak at 2.94 micrometers , we have investigated the laser tissue interaction of the Er:YAG (2.94 micrometers ) and Er:YSGG (2.79 micrometers ) which have water absorption coefficients of 13,000 cm-1 and 7,000 cm-1, respectively. We have devised a delivery system which measures the ablation time versus radiant energy through a known thickness on a lens nucleus in free air for these two wavelengths. The current presentation compares the ablation rates versus radiant exposure of these two lasers in human lens nuclei. We also show the histopathology from ablated lenses of these two different wavelengths at different radiant exposures. Integration with fiberoptics and clinical applications is discussed.

  12. Genomics of the Proteorhodopsin-Containing Marine Flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. Strain MED134▿†

    PubMed Central

    González, José M.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Fernández-Gómez, Beatriz; Coll-Lladó, Montserrat; González-Velázquez, Mónica; Puigbò, Pere; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Fernàndez-Guerra, Antoni; Goesmann, Alexander; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Proteorhodopsin phototrophy is expected to have considerable impact on the ecology and biogeochemical roles of marine bacteria. However, the genetic features contributing to the success of proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria remain largely unknown. We investigated the genome of Dokdonia sp. strain MED134 (Bacteroidetes) for features potentially explaining its ability to grow better in light than darkness. MED134 has a relatively high number of peptidases, suggesting that amino acids are the main carbon and nitrogen sources. In addition, MED134 shares with other environmental genomes a reduction in gene copies at the expense of important ones, like membrane transporters, which might be compensated by the presence of the proteorhodopsin gene. The genome analyses suggest Dokdonia sp. MED134 is able to respond to light at least partly due to the presence of a strong flavobacterial consensus promoter sequence for the proteorhodopsin gene. Moreover, Dokdonia sp. MED134 has a complete set of anaplerotic enzymes likely to play a role in the adaptation of the carbon anabolism to the different sources of energy it can use, including light or various organic matter compounds. In addition to promoting growth, proteorhodopsin phototrophy could provide energy for the degradation of complex or recalcitrant organic matter, survival during periods of low nutrients, or uptake of amino acids and peptides at low concentrations. Our analysis suggests that the ability to harness light potentially makes MED134 less dependent on the amount and quality of organic matter or other nutrients. The genomic features reported here may well be among the keys to a successful photoheterotrophic lifestyle. PMID:22003006

  13. Understanding PubMed® user search behavior through log analysis

    PubMed Central

    Islamaj Dogan, Rezarta; Murray, G. Craig; Névéol, Aurélie; Lu, Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a detailed investigation of PubMed users’ needs and behavior as a step toward improving biomedical information retrieval. PubMed is providing free service to researchers with access to more than 19 million citations for biomedical articles from MEDLINE and life science journals. It is accessed by millions of users each day. Efficient search tools are crucial for biomedical researchers to keep abreast of the biomedical literature relating to their own research. This study provides insight into PubMed users’ needs and their behavior. This investigation was conducted through the analysis of one month of log data, consisting of more than 23 million user sessions and more than 58 million user queries. Multiple aspects of users’ interactions with PubMed are characterized in detail with evidence from these logs. Despite having many features in common with general Web searches, biomedical information searches have unique characteristics that are made evident in this study. PubMed users are more persistent in seeking information and they reformulate queries often. The three most frequent types of search are search by author name, search by gene/protein, and search by disease. Use of abbreviation in queries is very frequent. Factors such as result set size influence users’ decisions. Analysis of characteristics such as these plays a critical role in identifying users’ information needs and their search habits. In turn, such an analysis also provides useful insight for improving biomedical information retrieval. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed PMID:20157491

  14. A Computational Protein Phenotype Prediction Approach to Analyze the Deleterious Mutations of Human MED12 Gene.

    PubMed

    Banaganapalli, Babajan; Mohammed, Kaleemuddin; Khan, Imran Ali; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Elango, Ramu; Shaik, Noor Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Genetic mutations in MED12, a subunit of Mediator complex are seen in a broad spectrum of human diseases. However, the underlying basis of how these pathogenic mutations elicit protein phenotype changes in terms of 3D structure, stability and protein binding sites remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the structural and functional impacts of MED12 mutations, using computational methods as an alternate to traditional in vivo and in vitro approaches. The MED12 gene mutations details and their corresponding clinical associations were collected from different databases and by text-mining. Initially, diverse computational approaches were applied to categorize the different classes of mutations based on their deleterious impact to MED12. Then, protein structures for wild and mutant types built by integrative modeling were analyzed for structural divergence, solvent accessibility, stability, and functional interaction deformities. Finally, this study was able to identify that genetic mutations mapped to exon-2 region, highly conserved LCEWAV and Catenin domains induce biochemically severe amino acid changes which alters the protein phenotype as well as the stability of MED12-CYCC interactions. To better understand the deleterious nature of FS-IDs and Indels, this study asserts the utility of computational screening based on their propensity towards non-sense mediated decay. Current study findings may help to narrow down the number of MED12 mutations to be screened for mediator complex dysfunction associated genetic diseases. This study supports computational methods as a primary filter to verify the plausible impact of pathogenic mutations based on the perspective of evolution, expression and phenotype of proteins. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2023-2035, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26813965

  15. Oceanographic results from analysis of ERS-1 altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Chambers, D. P.; Peterson, G. E.; Ries, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Large scale dynamic ocean topography and its variations were observed using ERS-1 radar altimeter measurements. The altimeter measurements analyzed are primarily from the ESA ocean product (OPR02) and from the Interim Geophysical Data Records (IGDR) generated by NOAA from the fast delivery (FD) data during the ERS-1 35 day repeat orbit phase. The precise orbits used for the dynamic topography solution are computed using dual satellite crossover measurements from ERS-1 and TOPEX (Topology Ocean Experiment)/Poseidon (T/P) as additional tracking data, and using improved models and constants which are consistent with T/P. Analysis of the ERS-1 dynamic topography solution indicates agreement with the T/P solution at the 5 cm root mean square level, with regional differences as large as 15 cm tide gauges at the 8 to 9 cm level. There are differences between the ERS-1 OPR02 and IGDR determined dynamic topography solutions on the order of 5 cm root mean square. Mesoscale oceanic variability time series obtained using collinear analysis of the ERS-1 altimeter data show good qualitative agreement when compared with the T/P results.

  16. Co- and Post-Translational Protein Folding in the ER.

    PubMed

    Ellgaard, Lars; McCaul, Nicholas; Chatsisvili, Anna; Braakman, Ineke

    2016-06-01

    The biophysical rules that govern folding of small, single-domain proteins in dilute solutions are now quite well understood. The mechanisms underlying co-translational folding of multidomain and membrane-spanning proteins in complex cellular environments are often less clear. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) produces a plethora of membrane and secretory proteins, which must fold and assemble correctly before ER exit - if these processes fail, misfolded species accumulate in the ER or are degraded. The ER differs from other cellular organelles in terms of the physicochemical environment and the variety of ER-specific protein modifications. Here, we review chaperone-assisted co- and post-translational folding and assembly in the ER and underline the influence of protein modifications on these processes. We emphasize how method development has helped advance the field by allowing researchers to monitor the progression of folding as it occurs inside living cells, while at the same time probing the intricate relationship between protein modifications during folding. PMID:26947578

  17. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  18. Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 706, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  19. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  20. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  1. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft during landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  2. Memantine ER/Donepezil: A Review in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Greig, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    A once-daily, fixed-dose combination of memantine extended-release (ER)/donepezil 28/10 mg (Namzaric™) is available in the USA for patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) on stable memantine and donepezil therapy. The fixed-dose formulation is bioequivalent to coadministration of the individual drugs. In a 24-week, phase III trial in patients with moderate to severe AD, addition of memantine ER 28 mg once daily to stable cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) therapy was more effective than add-on placebo on measures of cognition, global clinical status, dementia behaviour and semantic processing ability, although between-group differences on a measure of daily function did not significantly differ. In subgroup analyses in donepezil-treated patients, add-on memantine ER was more effective than add-on placebo on measures of cognition, dementia behaviour and semantic processing, although there were no significant between-group differences on measures of global clinical status and daily function. Memantine ER plus ChEI combination therapy was generally well tolerated in the phase III trial, with diarrhoea, dizziness and influenza occurring at least twice as often with add-on memantine ER as add-on placebo in donepezil-treated patients. Thus, memantine ER plus donepezil combination therapy is an effective and well tolerated treatment option for patients with moderate to severe AD. The fixed-dose combination is potentially more convenient than coadministration of the individual agents. PMID:26519339

  3. CDAPubMed: a browser extension to retrieve EHR-based biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few decades, the ever-increasing output of scientific publications has led to new challenges to keep up to date with the literature. In the biomedical area, this growth has introduced new requirements for professionals, e.g., physicians, who have to locate the exact papers that they need for their clinical and research work amongst a huge number of publications. Against this backdrop, novel information retrieval methods are even more necessary. While web search engines are widespread in many areas, facilitating access to all kinds of information, additional tools are required to automatically link information retrieved from these engines to specific biomedical applications. In the case of clinical environments, this also means considering aspects such as patient data security and confidentiality or structured contents, e.g., electronic health records (EHRs). In this scenario, we have developed a new tool to facilitate query building to retrieve scientific literature related to EHRs. Results We have developed CDAPubMed, an open-source web browser extension to integrate EHR features in biomedical literature retrieval approaches. Clinical users can use CDAPubMed to: (i) load patient clinical documents, i.e., EHRs based on the Health Level 7-Clinical Document Architecture Standard (HL7-CDA), (ii) identify relevant terms for scientific literature search in these documents, i.e., Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), automatically driven by the CDAPubMed configuration, which advanced users can optimize to adapt to each specific situation, and (iii) generate and launch literature search queries to a major search engine, i.e., PubMed, to retrieve citations related to the EHR under examination. Conclusions CDAPubMed is a platform-independent tool designed to facilitate literature searching using keywords contained in specific EHRs. CDAPubMed is visually integrated, as an extension of a widespread web browser, within the standard PubMed interface. It has

  4. PyMedTermino: an open-source generic API for advanced terminology services.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Venot, Alain; Duclos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The integration of terminologies is still a challenging problem in medical informatics research and software applications, due to the high number of heterogeneous terminologies. In this paper, we present a generic API (Application Programming Interface) for a multi-terminology multilingual terminology service, and PyMedTermino, its open-source implementation in Python with 5 terminological resources (ICD10, SNOMED CT, MedDRA, CDF, VCM iconic language) and the UMLS compendium. This service has been designed for research and educational purpose. It offers various advanced functionalities rarely present in terminology services. PMID:25991291

  5. Determining correspondences between high-frequency MedDRA concepts and SNOMED: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Systematic Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) is being advocated as the foundation for encoding clinical documentation. While the electronic medical record is likely to play a critical role in pharmacovigilance - the detection of adverse events due to medications - classification and reporting of Adverse Events is currently based on the Medical Dictionary of Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). Complete and high-quality MedDRA-to-SNOMED CT mappings can therefore facilitate pharmacovigilance. The existing mappings, as determined through the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), are partial, and record only one-to-one correspondences even though SNOMED CT can be used compositionally. Efforts to map previously unmapped MedDRA concepts would be most productive if focused on concepts that occur frequently in actual adverse event data. We aimed to identify aspects of MedDRA that complicate mapping to SNOMED CT, determine pattern in unmapped high-frequency MedDRA concepts, and to identify types of integration errors in the mapping of MedDRA to UMLS. Methods Using one years' data from the US Federal Drug Administrations Adverse Event Reporting System, we identified MedDRA preferred terms that collectively accounted for 95% of both Adverse Events and Therapeutic Indications records. After eliminating those already mapping to SNOMED CT, we attempted to map the remaining 645 Adverse-Event and 141 Therapeutic-Indications preferred terms with software assistance. Results All but 46 Adverse-Event and 7 Therapeutic-Indications preferred terms could be composed using SNOMED CT concepts: none of these required more than 3 SNOMED CT concepts to compose. We describe the common composition patterns in the paper. About 30% of both Adverse-Event and Therapeutic-Indications Preferred Terms corresponded to single SNOMED CT concepts: the correspondence was detectable by human inspection but had been missed during the integration process, which had created

  6. Can We CanMEDS? Intangible Learning Through Tangible Simulation Case Development.

    PubMed

    Alani, Sabrina; Black, Holly; Harty, Chris; Murphy, Justin; Whalen, Desmond; Williams, Kerry-Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The Royal College CanMEDS framework has become a guide for medical school curricula. This framework aims to improve patient care by identifying and explaining seven key roles that physicians must fulfill in order to deliver high-quality healthcare to their patients. While medical schools incorporate these roles in their teaching processes, students can also apply them outside the classroom. Here, we describe a unique model developed at Memorial University of Newfoundland's Tuckamore Simulation Research Collaborative (TSRC), where students develop simulation cases with the guidance of expert mentors and apply the Royal College CanMEDS framework to writing clinical simulations. PMID:27555983

  7. Can We CanMEDS? Intangible Learning Through Tangible Simulation Case Development

    PubMed Central

    Alani, Sabrina; Black, Holly; Harty, Chris; Murphy, Justin; Williams, Kerry-Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The Royal College CanMEDS framework has become a guide for medical school curricula. This framework aims to improve patient care by identifying and explaining seven key roles that physicians must fulfill in order to deliver high-quality healthcare to their patients. While medical schools incorporate these roles in their teaching processes, students can also apply them outside the classroom. Here, we describe a unique model developed at Memorial University of Newfoundland’s Tuckamore Simulation Research Collaborative (TSRC), where students develop simulation cases with the guidance of expert mentors and apply the Royal College CanMEDS framework to writing clinical simulations. PMID:27555983

  8. A Search Engine to Access PubMed Monolingual Subsets: Proof of Concept and Evaluation in French

    PubMed Central

    Schuers, Matthieu; Soualmia, Lina Fatima; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background PubMed contains numerous articles in languages other than English. However, existing solutions to access these articles in the language in which they were written remain unconvincing. Objective The aim of this study was to propose a practical search engine, called Multilingual PubMed, which will permit access to a PubMed subset in 1 language and to evaluate the precision and coverage for the French version (Multilingual PubMed-French). Methods To create this tool, translations of MeSH were enriched (eg, adding synonyms and translations in French) and integrated into a terminology portal. PubMed subsets in several European languages were also added to our database using a dedicated parser. The response time for the generic semantic search engine was evaluated for simple queries. BabelMeSH, Multilingual PubMed-French, and 3 different PubMed strategies were compared by searching for literature in French. Precision and coverage were measured for 20 randomly selected queries. The results were evaluated as relevant to title and abstract, the evaluator being blind to search strategy. Results More than 650,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into the Multilingual PubMed-French information system. The response times were all below the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). Two search strategies (Multilingual PubMed-French and 1 PubMed strategy) showed high precision (0.93 and 0.97, respectively), but coverage was 4 times higher for Multilingual PubMed-French. Conclusions It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature using a practical search tool in French. This tool will be of particular interest for health professionals and other end users who do not read or query sufficiently in English. The information system is theoretically well suited to expand the approach to other European languages, such as German, Spanish, Norwegian, and Portuguese. PMID:25448528

  9. MED15, encoding a subunit of the mediator complex, is overexpressed at high frequency in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaikhibrahim, Zaki; Menon, Roopika; Braun, Martin; Offermann, Anne; Queisser, Angela; Boehm, Diana; Vogel, Wenzel; Rüenauver, Kerstin; Ruiz, Christian; Zellweger, Tobias; Svensson, Maria; Andren, Ove; Kristiansen, Glen; Wernert, Nicolas; Bubendorf, Lukas; Kirfel, Jutta; Biskup, Saskia; Perner, Sven

    2014-07-01

    The mediator complex is an evolutionary conserved key regulator of transcription of protein-coding genes and an integrative hub for diverse signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated whether the mediator subunit MED15 is implicated in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). MED15 expression and copy number/rearrangement status were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), respectively on 718 prostate cancer (PCa) specimens and sequenced by Sanger on a subset. Furthermore, SMAD3 phosphorylation, androgen receptor (AR) and proliferation markers were evaluated by IHC. In PCa cells, siRNA/shRNA knockdown of MED15 was followed by proliferation assays with/without dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and treatments with recombinant TGF-β3. Our results show that MED15 is overexpressed in 76% of distant metastatic CRPC (CRPC(MET) ) and 70% of local-recurrent CRPC (CRPC(LOC) ), in contrast to low frequencies in androgen-sensitive PCa, and no expression in benign prostatic tissue. Furthermore, MED15 overexpression correlates with worse clinical outcome thus defining a highly lethal phenotype. Moreover, TGF-β signaling activation associates with MED15 overexpression in PCa tissues, and leads to increased expression of MED15 in PCa cells. MED15 knockdown effects phosphorylation and shuttling of p-SMAD3 to the nucleus as well as TGF-β-enhanced proliferation. In PCa tissues, MED15 overexpression associates with AR overexpression/amplification and correlates with high proliferative activity. MED15 knockdown decreases both androgen-dependent and -independent proliferation in PCa cells. Taken together, these findings implicate MED15 in CRPC, and as MED15 is evolutionary conserved, it is likely to emerge as a lethal phenotype in other therapeutic-resistant diseases, and not restricted to our disease model. PMID:24374838

  10. Mediator subunit MED1 is a T3-dependent and T3-independent coactivator on the thyrotropin β gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Keiji; Oda, Kasumi; Mizuta, Shumpei; Ishino, Ruri; Urahama, Norinaga; Hasegawa, Natsumi; Roeder, Robert G.; Ito, Mitsuhiro

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •MED1 is a bona fide T3-dependent coactivator on TSHB promoter. •Mice with LxxLL-mutant MED1 have attenuated TSHβ mRNA and thyroid hormone levels. •MED1 activates TSHB promoter T3-dependently in cultured cells. •T3-dependent MED1 action is enhanced when SRC1/SRC2 or HDAC2 is downregulated. •MED1 is also a T3-independent GATA2/Pit1 coactivator on TSHB promoter. -- Abstract: The MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex is a nuclear receptor-specific coactivator. A negative feedback mechanism of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, or thyrotropin) expression in the thyrotroph in the presence of triiodothyronine (T3) is employed by liganded thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) on the TSHβ gene promoter, where conventional histone-modifying coactivators act as corepressors. We now provide evidence that MED1 is a ligand-dependent positive cofactor on this promoter. TSHβ gene transcription was attenuated in MED1 mutant mice in which the nuclear receptor-binding ability of MED1 was specifically disrupted. MED1 stimulated GATA2- and Pit1-mediated TSHβ gene promoter activity in a ligand-independent manner in cultured cells. MED1 also stimulated transcription from the TSHβ gene promoter in a T3-dependent manner. The transcription was further enhanced when the T3-dependent corepressors SRC1, SRC2, and HDAC2 were downregulated. Hence, MED1 is a T3-dependent and -independent coactivator on the TSHβ gene promoter.